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Sample records for animal sars viruses

  1. When animal viruses attack: SARS and avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul J; Krilov, Leonard R

    2005-01-01

    SARS and avian influenza have many common features. They both arose in Asia and originated from animal viruses. They both have the potential to become pandemics because human beings lack antibodies to the animal-derived antigens present on the viral surface and rapid dissemination can occur from the relative ease and availability of high speed and far-reaching transportation methods. Pediatricians, in particular, should remain alert about the possibility of pandemic illnesses in their patients. Annual rates of influenza in children may be 1.5 to 3 times those in the adult population, and infection rates during a community epidemic may exceed 40% in preschool-aged children and 30% in school-aged children. Infected children also play a central role in disseminating influenza, as they are the major point of entry for the virus into the household, from which adults spread disease into the community. Of course, children younger than 24 months also are at high risk for complications from influenza. A 1999 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention projection of an influenza pandemic in the US paints a grim picture: 89,000 to 207,000 deaths, 314,000 to 734,000 hospitalizations, 18 million to 42 million outpatient visits, and 20 million to 47 million additional illnesses, at a cost to society of at least dollars 71.3 billion to dollars 166.5 billion. High-risk patients (15% of the population) would account for approximately 84% of all deaths. Although SARS has been kind to the pediatric population so far, there are no guarantees that future outbreaks would be as sparing. To aid readers in remaining up-to-date with SARS and avian influenza, some useful websites are listed in the Sidebar. Two masters of suspense, Alfred Hitchcock and Stephen King, may have been closer to the truth than they ever would have believed. Both birds and a super flu could bring about the end of civilization as we know it. But all is not lost--to paraphrase Thomas Jefferson, the price of health is

  2. Anti-SARS virus antibody responses against human SARS-associated coronavirus and animal SARS-associated coronavirus-like virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸣; 徐慧芳; 莫自耀; 郑伯健; 高阳; 顾菁; 秦鹏哲; 张周斌; 邹晓忠; 梁彩云; 赵宇腾; 高凯

    2004-01-01

    @@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious disease first recognized in November 2002 in Guangdong province, China. It was spread to many countries all over the world within a few months.1,2 By April 2003, SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was found to be the etiological agent.

  3. Establishment of animal model for potency evaluation of inactivated SARS virus experimental vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANMUDONG; QIAN; YANKONG; WENXUELIU; LIHINGYANG; JUNZHIWANG; YONGXINYU; YAOLONGSHU; ZHENGWANG; WEIDONGYIN; QINGYUZHU; HAIFAZHENG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of source virus strain for the manufacture of the inactivated SARS virus vaccine, and establish an experimental method and preliminary standard for potency evaluation. Mice were divided into groups for being immunized with corresponding serially diluted experimental SARS virus inactivated vaccine. And the rabbits were immunized with undiluted vaccine. Challenge assay was conducted with a heterologous SARS virus. And the neutralization antibody was determined with plaque reduction neutralization test(PRNT), to which the neutralization antibody in the convalescent serum of SARS patients was compared. The experimental vaccine viral strains were proved to be suitable for manufacturing the vaccine. Mice immunized by vaccines of serial dilutions were able to elicit neutralizing antibody. The antibody titer from mice immunized with the undiluted vaccine could reach up to 1:495.2, while those of rabbits immunized with the undiluted vaccine could reach a GMT of 55.0-79.9. The capability of the antibody to neutralize the virus from Guangdong is more efficient than that from Beijing. The GMT of neutralizing antibody in SARS convalescents living in south and north China ranged from 50.12 to 54.95, and the titers of convalescents from north China were higher than those from south China. Mice and rabbits used as the model for evaluation of potency are of sensitivity, and the test is of reproducibility. The candidate challenge viral strains showed a relatively consistent effect on evaluating antibodies produced by various batches and different vaccine-source strains,hence they can be used to evaluate potency of the vaccine. The method for testing the vaccine potency and the evaluation standard was established preliminarily.

  4. The inhibitory effect of Chinese herb on SARS virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rika; Furuta; Jyunichi; Fujisawa; Toshio; Hattori

    2005-01-01

    [Subject]Severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS)is a contagious atypical pneumonia with a high mortality rate.SARS coronavirus(SARS-CoV)is the pathogenof SARS.We established SARS-CoVS/HIVpseudotyped(SHP)virussystemandthe cell fusion assay systemto screeninhibitors for entry of SARS-CoV.[Materials and methods]SHPor VSV-Gpseudotype(VHP)virus was made bytransfecting pCMVΔR8·2,pHR’CMV-Luc and pCMV/R-SARS-S or pMDGplasmids into293Tcells.5ng p24of SHPor VHPvirus was addedfor eachinfec-tion.Twelve Chinese herbs,wh...

  5. Bats Found to Carry SARS-like Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ An international consortium headed by CAS researchers has identified that the Chinese horseshoe bat is healthy carriers of a virus that is very closely related to those causing SARS(severe acute respiratory syndrome). Their work was reported online on Sept. 29 by the Science magazine. The finding supports an independent study with similar results by Hong Kong scientists,which is reported by the Sept. 27issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  6. Distinct Patterns of IFITM-Mediated Restriction of Filoviruses, SARS Coronavirus, and Influenza A Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    West Nile viruses . In contrast, they do not inhibit replication of murine leukemia virus (MLV), or the entry processes of amphotropic MLV, Machupo virus ...MACV), Lassa virus (LASV), or lympho- cytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Although IFITM proteins are induced by type I and II interferons, most...processes of several highly pathogenic viruses – Marburg virus , Ebola virus , and SARS coronavirus – are similarly disrupted by IFITM proteins. We

  7. RNA recombination in animal and plant viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    An increasing number of animal and plant viruses have been shown to undergo RNA-RNA recombination, which is defined as the exchange of genetic information between nonsegmented RNAs. Only some of these viruses have been shown to undergo recombination in experimental infection of tissue culture, animals, and plants. However, a survey of viral RNA structure and sequences suggests that many RNA viruses were derived form homologous or nonhomologous recombination between viruses or between viruses ...

  8. Reverse genetics of SARS-related coronavirus using vaccinia virus-based recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd H E van den Worm

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV that emerged in 2002 to become a global health concern. Although the original outbreak was controlled by classical public health measures, there is a real risk that another SARS-CoV could re-emerge from its natural reservoir, either in its original form or as a more virulent or pathogenic strain; in which case, the virus would be difficult to control in the absence of any effective antiviral drugs or vaccines. Using the well-studied SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849, we developed a vaccinia virus-based SARS-CoV reverse genetic system that is both robust and biosafe. The SARS-CoV genome was cloned in separate vaccinia virus vectors, (vSARS-CoV-5prime and vSARS-CoV-3prime as two cDNAs that were subsequently ligated to create a genome-length SARS-CoV cDNA template for in vitro transcription of SARS-CoV infectious RNA transcripts. Transfection of the RNA transcripts into permissive cells led to the recovery of infectious virus (recSARS-CoV. Characterization of the plaques produced by recSARS-CoV showed that they were similar in size to the parental SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849 but smaller than the SARS-CoV isolate Frankfurt-1. Comparative analysis of replication kinetics showed that the kinetics of recSARS-CoV replication are similar to those of SARS-CoV Frankfurt-1, although the titers of virus released into the culture supernatant are approximately 10-fold less. The reverse genetic system was finally used to generate a recSARS-CoV reporter virus expressing Renilla luciferase in order to facilitate the analysis of SARS-CoV gene expression in human dendritic cells (hDCs. In parallel, a Renilla luciferase gene was also inserted into the genome of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. Using this approach, we demonstrate that, in contrast to HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV is not able to mediate efficient heterologous gene expression in hDCs.

  9. Transmission of SARS and MERS coronaviruses and influenza virus in healthcare settings: the possible role of dry surface contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, J A; Donskey, C; Yezli, S; Douthwaite, S; Goldenberg, S D; Weber, D J

    2016-03-01

    Viruses with pandemic potential including H1N1, H5N1, and H5N7 influenza viruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)/Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses (CoV) have emerged in recent years. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and influenza virus can survive on surfaces for extended periods, sometimes up to months. Factors influencing the survival of these viruses on surfaces include: strain variation, titre, surface type, suspending medium, mode of deposition, temperature and relative humidity, and the method used to determine the viability of the virus. Environmental sampling has identified contamination in field-settings with SARS-CoV and influenza virus, although the frequent use of molecular detection methods may not necessarily represent the presence of viable virus. The importance of indirect contact transmission (involving contamination of inanimate surfaces) is uncertain compared with other transmission routes, principally direct contact transmission (independent of surface contamination), droplet, and airborne routes. However, influenza virus and SARS-CoV may be shed into the environment and be transferred from environmental surfaces to hands of patients and healthcare providers. Emerging data suggest that MERS-CoV also shares these properties. Once contaminated from the environment, hands can then initiate self-inoculation of mucous membranes of the nose, eyes or mouth. Mathematical and animal models, and intervention studies suggest that contact transmission is the most important route in some scenarios. Infection prevention and control implications include the need for hand hygiene and personal protective equipment to minimize self-contamination and to protect against inoculation of mucosal surfaces and the respiratory tract, and enhanced surface cleaning and disinfection in healthcare settings.

  10. A Multicomponent Animal Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Jason T; Wiley, Michael R; Beitzel, Brett; Auguste, Albert J; Dupuis, Alan P; Lindquist, Michael E; Sibley, Samuel D; Kota, Krishna P; Fetterer, David; Eastwood, Gillian; Kimmel, David; Prieto, Karla; Guzman, Hilda; Aliota, Matthew T; Reyes, Daniel; Brueggemann, Ernst E; St John, Lena; Hyeroba, David; Lauck, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas C; O'Connor, David H; Gestole, Marie C; Cazares, Lisa H; Popov, Vsevolod L; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Kenny, Tara; White, Bailey; Ward, Michael D; Loaiza, Jose R; Goldberg, Tony L; Weaver, Scott C; Kramer, Laura D; Tesh, Robert B; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-09-14

    RNA viruses exhibit a variety of genome organization strategies, including multicomponent genomes in which each segment is packaged separately. Although multicomponent genomes are common among viruses infecting plants and fungi, their prevalence among those infecting animals remains unclear. We characterize a multicomponent RNA virus isolated from mosquitoes, designated Guaico Culex virus (GCXV). GCXV belongs to a diverse clade of segmented viruses (Jingmenvirus) related to the prototypically unsegmented Flaviviridae. The GCXV genome comprises five segments, each of which appears to be separately packaged. The smallest segment is not required for replication, and its presence is variable in natural infections. We also describe a variant of Jingmen tick virus, another Jingmenvirus, sequenced from a Ugandan red colobus monkey, thus expanding the host range of this segmented and likely multicomponent virus group. Collectively, this study provides evidence for the existence of multicomponent animal viruses and their potential relevance for animal and human health.

  11. The animal origin of SARS-CoV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS)in Guangdong province was reported on2Jan2003,whileretrospective survey has datedthe first index case on16Nov2002.In months that followed,pandemic of SARS widelyspread over the world until July2003,infecting8454people and claiming908deathsin39countries andregions global-ly.On16Dec2003,a32years old photographerlivinginsuburban Guangzhou presented withsymptoms of SARSinfec-tion.There were3other ensuing cases betweenthe end of2003and Jan2004.On23March200...

  12. How change of public transportation usage reveals fear of the SARS virus in a city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available The outbreaks of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic in 2003 resulted in unprecedented impacts on people's daily life. One of the most significant impacts to people is the fear of contacting the SARS virus while engaging daily routine activity. Here we use data from daily underground ridership in Taipei City and daily reported new SARS cases in Taiwan to model the dynamics of the public fear of the SARS virus during the wax and wane of the SARS period. We found that for each reported new SARS case there is an immediate loss of about 1200 underground ridership (the fresh fear. These daily loss rates dissipate to the following days with an e-folding time of about 28 days, reflecting the public perception on the risk of contacting SARS virus when traveling with the underground system (the residual fear. About 50% of daily ridership was lost during the peak of the 2003 SARS period, compared with the loss of 80% daily ridership during the closure of the underground system after Typhoon Nari, the loss of 50-70% ridership due to the closure of the governmental offices and schools during typhoon periods, and the loss of 60% daily ridership during Chinese New Year holidays.

  13. [Susceptibility of immunocompetent cells to animal viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Guerrero, J A

    1990-06-01

    The infection of several cell lines of the immune system by animal viruses has been studied. In general, those cell lines derived either from the myeloid or from the lymphoid differentiation pathways were poorly affected by these viruses. Only Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) and poliovirus were able to replicate in most of the cell lines assayed, inhibiting the cellular protein synthesis. However, this inhibition was not accompanied by a significant expression of viral proteins. These effects were not observed with UV irradiated virus suggesting that intact viral particles were required to interfere with the host macromolecular synthesis.

  14. A complete sequence and comparative analysis of a SARS-associated virus (Isolate BJ01)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The genome sequence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-associated virus provides essential information for the identification of pathogen(s), exploration of etiology and evolution, interpretation of transmission and pathogenesis, development of diagnostics, prevention by future vaccination, and treatment by developing new drugs. We report the complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of an isolate (BJ01) of the coronavirus that has been recognized as a pathogen for SARS. The genome is 29725 nt in size and has 11 ORFs (Open Reading Frames). It is composed of a stable region encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (composed of 2 ORFs) and a variable region representing 4 CDSs (coding sequences) for viral structural genes (the S, E, M, N proteins) and 5 PUPs (putative uncharacterized proteins). Its gene order is identical to that of other known coronaviruses. The sequence alignment with all known RNA viruses places this virus as a member in the family of Coronaviridae. Thirty putative substitutions have been identified by comparative analysis of the 5 SARS- associated virus genome sequences in GenBank. Fifteen of them lead to possible amino acid changes (non-synonymousmutations) in the proteins. Three amino acid changes, with predicted alteration of physical and chemical features, have been detected in the S protein that is postulated to be involved in the immunoreactions between the virus and its host. Two amino acid changes have been detected in the M protein, which could be related to viral envelope formation. Phylogenetic analysis suggests the possibility of non-human origin of the SARS-associated viruses but provides no evidence that they are man-made. Further efforts should focus on identifying the etiology of the SARS-associated virus and ruling out conclusively the existence of other possible SARS-related pathogen(s).

  15. Hepatitis E Virus and Related Viruses in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, D; Mauroy, A; Pavio, N; Purdy, M A; Rose, N; Thiry, E; de Oliveira-Filho, E F

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human liver disease in healthy individuals which may eventually become chronic. It is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) and can have a zoonotic origin. Nearly 57,000 people die yearly from hepatitis E-related conditions. The disease is endemic in both developing and developed countries with distinct epidemiologic profiles. In developing countries, the disease is associated with inadequate water treatment, while in developed countries, transmission is associated with animal contact and the ingestion of raw or uncooked meat, especially liver. All human HEV are grouped into at least four genotypes, while HEV or HEV-related viruses have been identified in an increasing number of domestic and wild animal species. Despite a high genetic diversity, only one single HEV serotype has been described to date for HEV genotypes 1-4. The discovery of new HEV or HEV-related viruses leads to a continuing increase in the number of genotypes. In addition, the genome organization of all these viruses is variable with overlapping open reading frames (ORF) and differences in the location of ORF3. In spite of the role of some domestic and wild animals as reservoir, the origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in humans and animals is still unclear. This review discusses aspects of the detection, molecular virology, zoonotic transmission and origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in the context of 'One Health' and establishes a link between the previous and the new taxonomy of this growing virus family.

  16. Relationship of SARS-CoV to other pathogenic RNA viruses explored by tetranucleotide usage profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danchin Antoine

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exact origin of the cause of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS is still an open question. The genomic sequence relationship of SARS-CoV with 30 different single-stranded RNA (ssRNA viruses of various families was studied using two non-standard approaches. Both approaches began with the vectorial profiling of the tetra-nucleotide usage pattern V for each virus. In approach one, a distance measure of a vector V, based on correlation coefficient was devised to construct a relationship tree by the neighbor-joining algorithm. In approach two, a multivariate factor analysis was performed to derive the embedded tetra-nucleotide usage patterns. These patterns were subsequently used to classify the selected viruses. Results Both approaches yielded relationship outcomes that are consistent with the known virus classification. They also indicated that the genome of RNA viruses from the same family conform to a specific pattern of word usage. Based on the correlation of the overall tetra-nucleotide usage patterns, the Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGV and the Feline CoronaVirus (FCoV are closest to SARS-CoV. Surprisingly also, the RNA viruses that do not go through a DNA stage displayed a remarkable discrimination against the CpG and UpA di-nucleotide (z = -77.31, -52.48 respectively and selection for UpG and CpA (z = 65.79,49.99 respectively. Potential factors influencing these biases are discussed. Conclusion The study of genomic word usage is a powerful method to classify RNA viruses. The congruence of the relationship outcomes with the known classification indicates that there exist phylogenetic signals in the tetra-nucleotide usage patterns, that is most prominent in the replicase open reading frames.

  17. Animal Models of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Messaoudi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV results in varicella (chickenpox followed by the establishment of latency in sensory ganglia. Declining T cell immunity due to aging or immune suppressive treatments can lead to VZV reactivation and the development of herpes zoster (HZ, shingles. HZ is often associated with significant morbidity and occasionally mortality in elderly and immune compromised patients. There are currently two FDA-approved vaccines for the prevention of VZV: Varivax® (for varicella and Zostavax® (for HZ. Both vaccines contain the live-attenuated Oka strain of VZV. Although highly immunogenic, a two-dose regimen is required to achieve a 99% seroconversion rate. Zostavax vaccination reduces the incidence of HZ by 51% within a 3-year period, but a significant reduction in vaccine-induced immunity is observed within the first year after vaccination. Developing more efficacious vaccines and therapeutics requires a better understanding of the host response to VZV. These studies have been hampered by the scarcity of animal models that recapitulate all aspects of VZV infections in humans. In this review, we describe different animal models of VZV infection as well as an alternative animal model that leverages the infection of Old World macaques with the highly related simian varicella virus (SVV and discuss their contributions to our understanding of pathogenesis and immunity during VZV infection.

  18. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in virus infected cells: SARS corona virus, Yellow fever virus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus and Cytomegalovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Marcel A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten potential reference genes were compared for their use in experiments investigating cellular mRNA expression of virus infected cells. Human cell lines were infected with Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpesvirus-6, Camelpox virus, SARS coronavirus or Yellow fever virus. The expression levels of these genes and the viral replication were determined by real-time PCR. Genes were ranked by the BestKeeper tool, the GeNorm tool and by criteria we reported previously. Ranking lists of the genes tested were tool dependent. However, over all, β-actin is an unsuitable as reference gene, whereas TATA-Box binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase A are stable reference genes for expression studies in virus infected cells.

  19. Distinct patterns of IFITM-mediated restriction of filoviruses, SARS coronavirus, and influenza A virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chueh Huang

    Full Text Available Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins 1, 2, and 3 (IFITM1, 2, and 3 are recently identified viral restriction factors that inhibit infection mediated by the influenza A virus (IAV hemagglutinin (HA protein. Here we show that IFITM proteins restricted infection mediated by the entry glycoproteins (GP(1,2 of Marburg and Ebola filoviruses (MARV, EBOV. Consistent with these observations, interferon-β specifically restricted filovirus and IAV entry processes. IFITM proteins also inhibited replication of infectious MARV and EBOV. We observed distinct patterns of IFITM-mediated restriction: compared with IAV, the entry processes of MARV and EBOV were less restricted by IFITM3, but more restricted by IFITM1. Moreover, murine Ifitm5 and 6 did not restrict IAV, but efficiently inhibited filovirus entry. We further demonstrate that replication of infectious SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV and entry mediated by the SARS-CoV spike (S protein are restricted by IFITM proteins. The profile of IFITM-mediated restriction of SARS-CoV was more similar to that of filoviruses than to IAV. Trypsin treatment of receptor-associated SARS-CoV pseudovirions, which bypasses their dependence on lysosomal cathepsin L, also bypassed IFITM-mediated restriction. However, IFITM proteins did not reduce cellular cathepsin activity or limit access of virions to acidic intracellular compartments. Our data indicate that IFITM-mediated restriction is localized to a late stage in the endocytic pathway. They further show that IFITM proteins differentially restrict the entry of a broad range of enveloped viruses, and modulate cellular tropism independently of viral receptor expression.

  20. Spike protein homology between the SARS-associated virus and murine hepatitis virus implies existence of a putative receptor-binding region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Coronavirus has been determined to be the cause of the recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Human coronavirus 229E had been studied well and its receptor-binding domain was restricted to aa417-547 of S protein. However, this region has no homology with the newly separated SARS-associated virus (Hong Kong isolate CUHK-W1). Then we analyzed the phylogenesis of S1 subunit of the coronavirus spike protein (SARS-associated virus, Hong Kong isolate CUHK-W1). Interestingly, the highest homology between murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and SARS-associated coronavirus was found. And the important sites (aa62-65 and aa214-216) on the spike protein of MHV with receptor-binding capacity were highly conservative in comparison with the newly separated SARS-asso- ciated virus (the corresponding sites are aa51-54 and aa195-197). These results from bioinformatics analysis might help us to study the receptor-binding sites of SARS-associ- ated virus and the mechanism of the virus entry into the target cell, and design antiviral drugs and potent vaccines.

  1. The structure of a rigorously conserved RNA element within the SARS virus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Robertson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have solved the three-dimensional crystal structure of the stem-loop II motif (s2m RNA element of the SARS virus genome to 2.7-A resolution. SARS and related coronaviruses and astroviruses all possess a motif at the 3' end of their RNA genomes, called the s2m, whose pathogenic importance is inferred from its rigorous sequence conservation in an otherwise rapidly mutable RNA genome. We find that this extreme conservation is clearly explained by the requirement to form a highly structured RNA whose unique tertiary structure includes a sharp 90 degrees kink of the helix axis and several novel longer-range tertiary interactions. The tertiary base interactions create a tunnel that runs perpendicular to the main helical axis whose interior is negatively charged and binds two magnesium ions. These unusual features likely form interaction surfaces with conserved host cell components or other reactive sites required for virus function. Based on its conservation in viral pathogen genomes and its absence in the human genome, we suggest that these unusual structural features in the s2m RNA element are attractive targets for the design of anti-viral therapeutic agents. Structural genomics has sought to deduce protein function based on three-dimensional homology. Here we have extended this approach to RNA by proposing potential functions for a rigorously conserved set of RNA tertiary structural interactions that occur within the SARS RNA genome itself. Based on tertiary structural comparisons, we propose the s2m RNA binds one or more proteins possessing an oligomer-binding-like fold, and we suggest a possible mechanism for SARS viral RNA hijacking of host protein synthesis, both based upon observed s2m RNA macromolecular mimicry of a relevant ribosomal RNA fold.

  2. Viral hemorrhagic fevers of animals caused by DNA viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we outline serious diseases of food and fiber animals that cause damaging economic effect on products all over the world. The only vector-borne DNA virus is included here, such as African swine fever virus, and the herpes viruses discussed have a complex epidemiology characterized by outbreak...

  3. Coronavirus 3CLpro proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blom Nikolaj

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the passing of more than a year since the first outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, efficient counter-measures are still few and many believe that reappearance of SARS, or a similar disease caused by a coronavirus, is not unlikely. For other virus families like the picornaviruses it is known that pathology is related to proteolytic cleavage of host proteins by viral proteinases. Furthermore, several studies indicate that virus proliferation can be arrested using specific proteinase inhibitors supporting the belief that proteinases are indeed important during infection. Prompted by this, we set out to analyse and predict cleavage by the coronavirus main proteinase using computational methods. Results We retrieved sequence data on seven fully sequenced coronaviruses and identified the main 3CL proteinase cleavage sites in polyproteins using alignments. A neural network was trained to recognise the cleavage sites in the genomes obtaining a sensitivity of 87.0% and a specificity of 99.0%. Several proteins known to be cleaved by other viruses were submitted to prediction as well as proteins suspected relevant in coronavirus pathology. Cleavage sites were predicted in proteins such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, transcription factors CREB-RP and OCT-1, and components of the ubiquitin pathway. Conclusions Our prediction method NetCorona predicts coronavirus cleavage sites with high specificity and several potential cleavage candidates were identified which might be important to elucidate coronavirus pathology. Furthermore, the method might assist in design of proteinase inhibitors for treatment of SARS and possible future diseases caused by coronaviruses. It is made available for public use at our website: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetCorona/.

  4. Building on a solid foundation: SAR and QSAR as a fundamental strategy to reduce animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K M; Manuppello, J R; Willett, C E

    2014-01-01

    The development of more efficient, ethical, and effective means of assessing the effects of chemicals on human health and the environment was a lifetime goal of Gilman Veith. His work has provided the foundation for the use of chemical structure for informing toxicological assessment by regulatory agencies the world over. Veith's scientific work influenced the early development of the SAR models in use today at the US Environmental Protection Agency. He was the driving force behind the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development QSAR Toolbox. Veith was one of a few early pioneers whose vision led to the linkage of chemical structure and biological activity as a means of predicting adverse apical outcomes (known as a mode of action, or an adverse outcome pathway approach), and he understood at an early stage the power that could be harnessed when combining computational and mechanistic biological approaches as a means of avoiding animal testing. Through the International QSAR Foundation he organized like-minded experts to develop non-animal methods and frameworks for the assessment of chemical hazard and risk for the benefit of public and environmental health. Avoiding animal testing was Gil's passion, and his work helped to initiate the paradigm shift in toxicology that is now rendering this feasible.

  5. In vitro antiviral activity of some novel isatin derivatives against HCV and SARS-CoV viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvam P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-[(1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-3H-indol-3-ylideneamino]-N(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinybenzene sulphonamide and its derivatives were evaluated for antiviral activity against Pathogenic viruses such as Hepatitis C Virus and SARS-CoV in Vero and Huh 5-2 cells, respectively. The 5-fluoro derivative inhibited the HCV RNA synthesis at 6 µg/ml, without toxicity at a concentration up to 42 µg/ml in Huh 5-2 cells. Among the compounds tested SPIII-5F exhibits the 45% maximum protection against replication of SARS-CoV in Vero cells.

  6. Infection of SARS-CoV on juvenile and adult Brandt's vole Microtus brandtii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong; PENG Jingpian; DENG Wei; SHI Dazhao; BAO Linlin; WANG Dehua; ZHANG Binglin; QIN Chuan; ZHANG Zhibin

    2005-01-01

    We studied the infectious effect of SARS-CoV virus on juvenile and adult Brandt's Vole (Microtus brandtii) by nasal cavity spraying method (CCID50 is 105.7). SARS virus caused serious deaths in adults. The death adults demonstrated hemorrhage from mouth, nasal cavity and intestine, hemorrhageious interstitial pneumonia and gore in liver, spleen and kidney. The survival adults demonstrated local hemorrhagic spot in lung and emphysema, but the other organs showed no pathological abnormality. SARS virus caused no deaths in juveniles, but locomotion of infected juveniles became slower. In the early stage, there was local pneumonia in lung and SARS viruses were isolated from the pathological tissue. Only one control juvenile lived and the infected juvenile showed local pneumonia in lung. The results demonstrated that SARS-CoV infected Brandt's vole seriously and adults were more susceptive to SARS-CoV than juveniles. The Brandt's vole may be a potential animal model for SARS research.

  7. Challenges and Strategies of Laboratory Diagnosis for Newly Emerging Influenza Viruses in Taiwan: A Decade after SARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Hui Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in Taiwan was identified in March 2003, viral respiratory infections, in particular the influenza virus, have become a national public health concern. Taiwan would face a serious threat of public health problems if another SARS epidemic overlapped with a flu outbreak. After SARS, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control accelerated and strengthened domestic research on influenza and expanded the exchange of information with international counterparts. The capacity of influenza A to cross species barriers presents a potential threat to human health. Given the mutations of avian flu viruses such as H7N9, H6N1, and H10N8, all countries, including Taiwan, must equip themselves to face a possible epidemic or pandemic. Such preparedness requires global collaboration.

  8. A network integration approach to predict conserved regulators related to pathogenicity of influenza and SARS-CoV respiratory viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh D Mitchell

    Full Text Available Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel "crowd-based" approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse 'omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models.

  9. A Network Integration Approach to Predict Conserved Regulators Related to Pathogenicity of Influenza and SARS-CoV Respiratory Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Sims, Amy; McDermott, Jason E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Tchitchek, Nicholas; Josset, Laurence; Li, Chengjun; Ellis, Amy L.; Chang, Jean H.; Heegel, Robert A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Neumann, Gabriele; Benecke, Arndt; Smith, Richard D.; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2013-07-25

    Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel “crowd-based” approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse ‘omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models.

  10. Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Classification, Animal Reservoirs and Transmission Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doceul, Virginie; Bagdassarian, Eugénie; Demange, Antonin; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    During the past ten years, several new hepatitis E viruses (HEVs) have been identified in various animal species. In parallel, the number of reports of autochthonous hepatitis E in Western countries has increased as well, raising the question of what role these possible animal reservoirs play in human infections. The aim of this review is to present the recent discoveries of animal HEVs and their classification within the Hepeviridae family, their zoonotic and species barrier crossing potential, and possible use as models to study hepatitis E pathogenesis. Lastly, this review describes the transmission pathways identified from animal sources. PMID:27706110

  11. Animal Viruses Probe dataset (AVPDS) for microarray-based diagnosis and identification of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Brijesh S; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Vasishtha, Dinesh P; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2014-03-01

    AVPDS (Animal Viruses Probe dataset) is a dataset of virus-specific and conserve oligonucleotides for identification and diagnosis of viruses infecting animals. The current dataset contain 20,619 virus specific probes for 833 viruses and their subtypes and 3,988 conserved probes for 146 viral genera. Dataset of virus specific probe has been divided into two fields namely virus name and probe sequence. Similarly conserved probes for virus genera table have genus, and subgroup within genus name and probe sequence. The subgroup within genus is artificially divided subgroups with no taxonomic significance and contains probes which identifies viruses in that specific subgroup of the genus. Using this dataset we have successfully diagnosed the first case of Newcastle disease virus in sheep and reported a mixed infection of Bovine viral diarrhea and Bovine herpesvirus in cattle. These dataset also contains probes which cross reacts across species experimentally though computationally they meet specifications. These probes have been marked. We hope that this dataset will be useful in microarray-based detection of viruses. The dataset can be accessed through the link https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/94060831/avpds/HOME.html.

  12. Dinucleotide composition in animal RNA viruses is shaped more by virus family than host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Schlub, Timothy E; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-02-01

    Viruses use the cellular machinery of their hosts for replication. It has therefore been proposed that the nucleotide and dinucleotide composition of viruses should match that of their host species. If upheld, it may then be possible to use dinucleotide composition to predict the true host species of viruses sampled in metagenomic surveys. However, it is also clear that different taxonomic groups of viruses tend to have distinctive patterns of dinucleotide composition that may be independent of host species. To determine the relative strength of the effect of host versus virus family in shaping dinucleotide composition we performed a comparative analysis of 20 RNA virus families from 15 host groupings, spanning two animal phyla and more than 900 virus species. In particular, we determined the odds ratios for the 16 possible dinucleotides and performed a discriminant analysis to evaluate the capability of virus dinucleotide composition to predict the correct virus family or host taxon from which it was isolated. Notably, while 81% of the data analyzed here were predicted to the correct virus family, only 62% of these data were predicted to their correct subphylum/class host, and a mere 32% to their correct mammalian order. Similarly, dinucleotide composition has a weak predictive power for different hosts within individual virus families. We therefore conclude that dinucleotide composition is generally uniform within a virus family but less well reflects that of its host species. This has obvious implications for attempts to accurately predict host species from virus genome sequences alone.

  13. Emerging animal viruses: real threats or simple bystanders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Furtado Flores

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The list of animal viruses has been frequently added of new members raising permanent concerns to virologists and veterinarians. The pathogenic potential and association with disease have been clearly demonstrated for some, but not for all of these emerging viruses. This review describes recent discoveries of animal viruses and their potential relevance for veterinary practice. Dogs were considered refractory to influenza viruses until 2004, when an influenza A virus subtype H3N8 was transmitted from horses and produced severe respiratory disease in racing greyhounds in Florida/USA. The novel virus, named canine influenza virus (CIV, is considered now a separate virus lineage and has spread among urban canine population in the USA. A new pestivirus (Flaviviridae, tentatively called HoBi-like pestivirus, was identified in 2004 in commercial fetal bovine serum from Brazil. Hobi-like viruses are genetically and antigenically related to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and induce similar clinical manifestations. These novel viruses seem to be widespread in Brazilian herds and have also been detected in Southeast Asia and Europe. In 2011, a novel mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV, was associated with fever, drop in milk production, abortion and newborn malformation in cattle and sheep in Germany. Subsequently, the virus disseminated over several European countries and currently represents a real treat for animal health. The origin of SBV is still a matter of debate but it may be a reassortant from previous known bunyaviruses Shamonda and Satuperi. Hepatitis E virus (HEV, family Hepeviridae is a long known agent of human acute hepatitis and in 1997 was first identified in pigs. Current data indicates that swine HEV is spread worldwide, mainly associated with subclinical infection. Two of the four HEV genotypes are zoonotic and may be transmitted between swine and human by contaminated water and undercooked pork meat. The

  14. SARS Vaccine: Progress and Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhi; James M. Wilson; Hao Shen

    2005-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in 2002 as a severe and highly contagious infectious disease that rapidly spread to a number of different countries. The collaborative efforts of the global scientific community have provided, within a short period of time, substantial insights into the molecular biology and immunology of SARS-CoV. Although the outbreak has been contained, there is continuous concern that the virus may resurface into the human population through seasonal changes, animal reservoirs or laboratory accidents. The severe morbidity and mortality associated with SARS make it imperative that an effective vaccine be developed to prevent reemergence and epidemics in the future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(2):101-105.

  15. Understanding SARS with Wolfram Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-WeiLI; Yu-XiPAN; YunDUAN; Zhen-DeHUNG; Ming-QingXU; LinHE

    2004-01-01

    Stepping acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as another type of disease has been threatening mankind since late last year. Many scientists worldwide are making great efforts to study the etiology of this disease with different approaches. 13 species of SARS virus have been sequenced. However, most people still largely rely on the traditional methods with some disadvantages. In this work, we used Wolfram approach to study the relationship among SARS viruses and between SARS viruses and other types of viruses, the effect of variations on the whole genome and the advantages in the analysis of SARS based on this novel approach. As a result, the similarities between SARS viruses and other coronaviruses are not really higher than those between SARS viruses and non-coronaviruses.

  16. Animal Models for Influenza Virus Pathogenesis and Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anice C. Lowen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus infection of humans results in a respiratory disease that ranges in severity from sub-clinical infection to primary viral pneumonia that can result in death. The clinical effects of infection vary with the exposure history, age and immune status of the host, and also the virulence of the influenza strain. In humans, the virus is transmitted through either aerosol or contact-based transfer of infectious respiratory secretions. As is evidenced by most zoonotic influenza virus infections, not all strains that can infect humans are able to transmit from person-to-person. Animal models of influenza are essential to research efforts aimed at understanding the viral and host factors that contribute to the disease and transmission outcomes of influenza virus infection in humans. These models furthermore allow the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in the population through amelioration of the virulence or transmissibility of influenza viruses. Mice, ferrets, guinea pigs, cotton rats, hamsters and macaques have all been used to study influenza viruses and therapeutics targeting them. Each model presents unique advantages and disadvantages, which will be discussed herein.

  17. Cross talk between animal and human influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Although outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild and domestic birds have been posing the threat of a new influenza pandemic for the past decade, the first pandemic of the twenty-first century came from swine viruses. This fact emphasizes the complexity of influenza viral ecology and the difficulty of predicting influenza viral dynamics. Complete control of influenza viruses seems impossible. However, we must minimize the impact of animal and human influenza outbreaks by learning lessons from past experiences and recognizing the current status. Here, we review the most recent influenza virology data in the veterinary field, including aspects of zoonotic agents and recent studies that assess the pandemic potential of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

  18. NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by Viroporins of Animal Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Chen; Jin, Ye; Zhi, Xiao-Yin; Yan, Dan; Sun, Shi-Qi

    2015-06-24

    Viroporins are a group of low-molecular-weight proteins containing about 50-120 amino acid residues, which are encoded by animal viruses. Viroporins are involved in several stages of the viral life cycle, including viral gene replication and assembly, as well as viral particle entry and release. Viroporins also play an important role in the regulation of antiviral innate immune responses, especially in inflammasome formation and activation, to ensure the completion of the viral life cycle. By reviewing the research progress made in recent years on the regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by viroporins of animal viruses, we aim to understand the importance of viroporins in viral infection and to provide a reference for further research and development of novel antiviral drugs.

  19. Identifying SARS-CoV membrane protein amino acid residues linked to virus-like particle assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Tzu Tseng

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV membrane (M proteins are capable of self-assembly and release in the form of membrane-enveloped vesicles, and of forming virus-like particles (VLPs when coexpressed with SARS-CoV nucleocapsid (N protein. According to previous deletion analyses, M self-assembly involves multiple M sequence regions. To identify important M amino acid residues for VLP assembly, we coexpressed N with multiple M mutants containing substitution mutations at the amino-terminal ectodomain, carboxyl-terminal endodomain, or transmembrane segments. Our results indicate that a dileucine motif in the endodomain tail (218LL219 is required for efficient N packaging into VLPs. Results from cross-linking VLP analyses suggest that the cysteine residues 63, 85 and 158 are not in close proximity to the M dimer interface. We noted a significant reduction in M secretion due to serine replacement for C158, but not for C63 or C85. Further analysis suggests that C158 is involved in M-N interaction. In addition to mutations of the highly conserved 107-SWWSFNPE-114 motif, substitutions at codons W19, W57, P58, W91, Y94 or F95 all resulted in significantly reduced VLP yields, largely due to defective M secretion. VLP production was not significantly affected by a tryptophan replacement of Y94 or F95 or a phenylalanine replacement of W19, W57 or W91. Combined, these results indicate the involvement of specific M amino acids during SARS-CoV virus assembly, and suggest that aromatic residue retention at specific positions is critical for M function in terms of directing virus assembly.

  20. Animal models for Ebola and Marburg virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri eNakayama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers (EHF and MHF are caused by the Filoviridae family, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (ebolavirus and marburgvirus, respectively. These severe diseases have high mortality rates in humans. Although EHF and MHF are endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. A novel filovirus, Lloviu virus, which is genetically distinct from ebolavirus and marburgvirus, was recently discovered in Spain where filoviral hemorrhagic fever had never been reported. The virulence of this virus has not been determined. Ebolavirus and marburgvirus are classified as biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 pathogens and Category A agents, for which the US government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism. Therefore, preventive measures against these viral hemorrhagic fevers should be prepared, not only in disease-endemic regions, but also in disease-free countries. Diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics need to be developed, and therefore the establishment of animal models for EHF and MHF is invaluable. Several animal models have been developed for EHF and MHF using nonhuman primates (NHPs and rodents, which are crucial to understand pathophysiology and to develop diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are representative models of filovirus infection as they exhibit remarkably similar symptoms to those observed in humans. However, the NHP models have practical and ethical problems that limit their experimental use. Furthermore, there are no inbred and genetically manipulated strains of NHP. Rodent models such as mouse, guinea pig, and hamster, have also been developed. However, these rodent models require adaptation of the virus to produce lethal disease and do not mirror all symptoms of human filovirus infection. This review article provides an outline of the clinical features of EHF and MHF in animals, including humans, and discusses how the animal models have been developed to study pathophysiology, vaccines, and therapeutics.

  1. Animal models for Ebola and Marburg virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Eri; Saijo, Masayuki

    2013-09-05

    Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers (EHF and MHF) are caused by the Filoviridae family, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (ebolavirus and marburgvirus), respectively. These severe diseases have high mortality rates in humans. Although EHF and MHF are endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. A novel filovirus, Lloviu virus, which is genetically distinct from ebolavirus and marburgvirus, was recently discovered in Spain where filoviral hemorrhagic fever had never been reported. The virulence of this virus has not been determined. Ebolavirus and marburgvirus are classified as biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) pathogens and Category A agents, for which the US government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism. Therefore, preventive measures against these viral hemorrhagic fevers should be prepared, not only in disease-endemic regions, but also in disease-free countries. Diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics need to be developed, and therefore the establishment of animal models for EHF and MHF is invaluable. Several animal models have been developed for EHF and MHF using non-human primates (NHPs) and rodents, which are crucial to understand pathophysiology and to develop diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are representative models of filovirus infection as they exhibit remarkably similar symptoms to those observed in humans. However, the NHP models have practical and ethical problems that limit their experimental use. Furthermore, there are no inbred and genetically manipulated strains of NHP. Rodent models such as mouse, guinea pig, and hamster, have also been developed. However, these rodent models require adaptation of the virus to produce lethal disease and do not mirror all symptoms of human filovirus infection. This review article provides an outline of the clinical features of EHF and MHF in animals, including humans, and discusses how the animal models have been developed to study pathophysiology, vaccines, and therapeutics.

  2. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus.

  3. Development of animal model for Chandipura virus in laboratory mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raut; CG; Jadi; RS; Chinchwale; AS; Daware; MM

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there was a outbreak of Chandipura virus(CHPV)in Sothern part of India causing encephalitis and acutedeathin children of age group of2.5months to15years withthe mortality rate of55.6%.As this disease is of acutedeath nature in humans no data available on pathogenesis.To understandthe pathogenesis of the disease caused by CHPV,experimental infection in laboratory swiss albino micewas conducted.Animals of age upto one weekfound highlysusceptible to all the routes of inoculation.For further stu...

  4. Accidental introduction of viruses into companion animals by commercial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evermann, James F

    2008-07-01

    The use of biologics in veterinary medicine has been of tremendous value in safeguarding our animal populations from debilitating and oftentimes fatal disease. This article reviews the principles of vaccination and the extensive quality control efforts that are incorporated into preparing the vaccines. Examples of adverse events that have occurred in the past and how enhanced vigilance at the level of the veterinarian and the veterinary diagnostic laboratory help to curtail these events are discussed. Emphasis on understanding the ecology of viral infections in dogs and cats is introduced, together with the concepts of the potential role of vaccines in interspecies spread of viruses.

  5. A noncovalent class of papain-like protease/deubiquitinase inhibitors blocks SARS virus replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratia, Kiira; Pegan, Scott; Takayama, Jun; Sleeman, Katrina; Coughlin, Melissa; Baliji, Surendranath; Chaudhuri, Rima; Fu, Wentao; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Johnson, Michael E.; Baker, Susan C.; Ghosh, Arun K.; Mesecar, Andrew D. (Loyola); (Purdue); (UIC)

    2008-10-27

    We report the discovery and optimization of a potent inhibitor against the papain-like protease (PLpro) from the coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). This unique protease is not only responsible for processing the viral polyprotein into its functional units but is also capable of cleaving ubiquitin and ISG15 conjugates and plays a significant role in helping SARS-CoV evade the human immune system. We screened a structurally diverse library of 50,080 compounds for inhibitors of PLpro and discovered a noncovalent lead inhibitor with an IC{sub 50} value of 20 {mu}M, which was improved to 600 nM via synthetic optimization. The resulting compound, GRL0617, inhibited SARS-CoV viral replication in Vero E6 cells with an EC{sub 50} of 15 {mu}M and had no associated cytotoxicity. The X-ray structure of PLpro in complex with GRL0617 indicates that the compound has a unique mode of inhibition whereby it binds within the S4-S3 subsites of the enzyme and induces a loop closure that shuts down catalysis at the active site. These findings provide proof-of-principle that PLpro is a viable target for development of antivirals directed against SARS-CoV, and that potent noncovalent cysteine protease inhibitors can be developed with specificity directed toward pathogenic deubiquitinating enzymes without inhibiting host DUBs.

  6. Adaptation and Study of AIDS Viruses in Animal and Cell Culture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-30

    category one, e.g , Friend Murine -6- Leukemia Virus (FMuLV), Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV), and the Macaque Type D SAIDS retrovirus (SRV) have been...10). One other animal lentivirus, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), has had some utility in the study of protective immunity and in screening...et al. (58) transplanted RNA mumps virus infected human HeLa cells, or RNA vesicular stomatitis virus-infected hamster BHK cells into nude mice

  7. Large Animal Models for Foamy Virus Vector Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Horn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Foamy virus (FV vectors have shown great promise for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy. Their ability to efficiently deliver transgenes to multi-lineage long-term repopulating cells in large animal models suggests they will be effective for several human hematopoietic diseases. Here, we review FV vector studies in large animal models, including the use of FV vectors with the mutant O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, MGMTP140K to increase the number of genetically modified cells after transplantation. In these studies, FV vectors have mediated efficient gene transfer to polyclonal repopulating cells using short ex vivo transduction protocols designed to minimize the negative effects of ex vivo culture on stem cell engraftment. In this regard, FV vectors appear superior to gammaretroviral vectors, which require longer ex vivo culture to effect efficient transduction. FV vectors have also compared favorably with lentiviral vectors when directly compared in the dog model. FV vectors have corrected leukocyte adhesion deficiency and pyruvate kinase deficiency in the dog large animal model. FV vectors also appear safer than gammaretroviral vectors based on a reduced frequency of integrants near promoters and also near proto-oncogenes in canine repopulating cells. Together, these studies suggest that FV vectors should be highly effective for several human hematopoietic diseases, including those that will require relatively high percentages of gene-modified cells to achieve clinical benefit.

  8. Involvement of the plant nucleolus in virus and viroid infections: parallels with animal pathosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliansky, M E; Brown, J W S; Rajamäki, M L; Valkonen, J P T; Kalinina, N O

    2010-01-01

    The nucleolus is a dynamic subnuclear body with roles in ribosome subunit biogenesis, mediation of cell-stress responses, and regulation of cell growth. An increasing number of reports reveal that similar to the proteins of animal viruses, many plant virus proteins localize in the nucleolus to divert host nucleolar proteins from their natural functions in order to exert novel role(s) in the virus infection cycle. This chapter will highlight studies showing how plant viruses recruit nucleolar functions to facilitate virus translation and replication, virus movement and assembly of virus-specific ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles, and to counteract plant host defense responses. Plant viruses also provide a valuable tool to gain new insights into novel nucleolar functions and processes. Investigating the interactions between plant viruses and the nucleolus will facilitate the design of novel strategies to control plant virus infections.

  9. Sublingual immunization with recombinant adenovirus encoding SARS-CoV spike protein induces systemic and mucosal immunity without redirection of the virus to the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim Byoung-Shik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sublingual (s.l. administration of soluble protein antigens, inactivated viruses, or virus-like particles has been shown to induce broad immune responses in mucosal and extra-mucosal tissues. Recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vectors (rADVs infect mucosa surface and therefore can serve as a mucosal antigen delivery vehicle. In this study we examined whether s.l. immunization with rADV encoding spike protein (S (rADV-S of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV induces protective immunity against SARS-CoV and could serve as a safe mucosal route for delivery of rADV. Results Here, we show that s.l. administration of rADV-S induced serum SARS-CoV neutralizing and airway IgA antibodies in mice. These antibody responses are comparable to those induced by intranasal (i.n. administration. In addition, s.l. immunization induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the lungs that are superior to those induced by intramuscular immunization. Importantly, unlike i.n. administration, s.l. immunization with rADV did not redirect the rADV vector to the olfactory bulb. Conclusion Our study indicates that s.l. immunization with rADV-S is safe and effective in induction of a broad spectrum of immune responses and presumably protection against infection with SARS-CoV.

  10. Bats and SARS

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-08

    Bats are a natural reservoir for emerging viruses, among them henipaviruses and rabies virus variants. Dr. Nina Marano, Chief, Geographic Medicine and Health Promotion Branch, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, CDC, explains connection between horseshoe bats and SARS coronavirus transmission.  Created: 11/8/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/17/2006.

  11. Host entry by gamma-herpesviruses--lessons from animal viruses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Laurent; Frederico, Bruno; Stevenson, Philip G

    2015-12-01

    The oncogenicity of gamma-herpesviruses (γHVs) motivates efforts to control them and their persistence makes early events key targets for intervention. Human γHVs are often assumed to enter naive hosts orally and infect B cells directly. However, neither assumption is supported by direct evidence, and vaccination with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gp350, to block virion binding to B cells, failed to reduce infection rates. Thus, there is a need to re-evaluate assumptions about γHV host entry. Given the difficulty of analysing early human infections, potentially much can be learned from animal models. Genomic comparisons argue that γHVs colonized mammals long before humans speciation, and so that human γHVs are unlikely to differ dramatically in behaviour from those of other mammals. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), which like EBV and the Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) persists in memory B cells, enters new hosts via olfactory neurons and exploits myeloid cells to spread. Integrating these data with existing knowledge of human and veterinary γHVs suggests a new model of host entry, with potentially important implications for infection control.

  12. African swine fever virus excretion patterns in persistently infected animals: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Ferreira, H C; Weesendorp, E; Elbers, A R W; Bouma, A; Quak, S; Stegeman, J A; Loeffen, W L A

    2012-12-07

    The continuing circulation of African swine fever (ASF) in Russia and in the Trans-Caucasian countries has led to increased efforts in characterizing the epidemiology of ASF. For a better insight in epidemiology, quantitative data on virus excretion is required. Until now, excretion data has mainly focused on the initial stages of the disease. In our study we have studied ASF virus (ASFV) excretion dynamics in persistently infected animals. For this purpose, virus excretion through different routes was quantified over 70 days after infection. Three virus isolates of moderate virulence were used: the Brazil'78, the Malta'78 (a low and a high inoculation dose) and the Netherlands'86 isolate. For each isolate or dose, 10 animals were used. All (Brazil'78 group), or three animals per group were inoculated and the other animals served as contact animals. It was shown that dose (Malta'78 low or high) or infection route (inoculated or naturally infected) did not influence the ASFV excretion (p>0.05). Nasal, ocular and vaginal excretions showed the lowest ASFV titres. Virus was consistently present in the oropharyngeal swabs, showing two peaks, for up to 70 days. Virus was occasionally present in the faeces, occasionally with very high titres. Viral DNA persisted in blood for up to 70 days. The results presented in this study show that a high proportion of persistently infected animals shed virus into the environment for at least 70 days, representing a possible risk for transmission and that should be considered in future epidemiological analysis of ASF.

  13. Trade and food safety aspects for animal influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The World Organization for Animal Health provides sanitary standards for international trade and emphasizes science-based risk assessment for safe trade of animals and animal products. The goal is to prevent unacceptable risks to animal and human health while avoiding unjustified or politically mot...

  14. Viral hemorrhagic fevers of animals caused by positive-stranded RNA viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we outline serious diseases of wildlife, food and fiber animals, and non-human primates that cause damaging economic effects on producers all over the world. While some zoonotic viruses that occasionally cause serious disease and death in humans are mentioned, the positive sense RNA viruses ge...

  15. Hendra and Nipah viruses: pathogenesis, animal models and recent breakthroughs in vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingartl HM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hana M Weingartl National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Abstract: Hendra and Nipah viruses are two highly pathogenic zoonotic members of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, requiring work under biosafety level 4 conditions due to a lack of effective therapy and human vaccines. Several vaccine candidates were protective in animal models: recombinant vaccinia virus expressing Nipah virus (NiV F and G proteins in hamsters against NiV; recombinant ALVAC–NiV F and G in swine against NiV; recombinant Hendra virus (HeV soluble G protein (sGHeV against HeV and NiV in cats, ferrets, horses, and African green monkeys (AGM; recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vectors expressing NiV F or G against NiV in hamsters and ferrets; measles virus-based NiV G vaccine candidate in hamsters and AGMs against NiV; and adenoassociated virus expressing NiG protein, which protected hamsters against NiV. The sGHeV was licensed for use in horses (Equivac HeV® in 2012. It is the first vaccine candidate licensed against a biosafety level 4 agent. With the development of suitable animal models (ferret, hamster and, importantly, AGM, progress can be made toward development of a human vaccine.Keywords: henipavirus, equine, swine, human infection, animal models, vaccine candidates

  16. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Populations of Wild Animals in Comparison with Animals Bred in Game Enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubankova, Monika; Kralik, Petr; Lamka, Jiri; Zakovcik, Vladimir; Dolanský, Marek; Vasickova, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is now accepted as a zoonotic virus, and domestic pigs, wild boars and deer are recognised as natural reservoirs of the pathogen. In this study, 762 animals (wild boars, fallow deer, red deer, sika deer, roe deer and mouflons) originating from the wild and from game enclosures were tested for the presence of HEV RNA by qRT-PCR. HEV RNA was detected in wild boars (96/450), red deer (2/169), roe deer (1/30) and mouflons (5/39). The sequence relationship between HEV isolates from wild boars and domestic pigs or humans indicate a circulation of HEV in the Czech Republic.

  17. Glycopeptide Antibiotics Potently Inhibit Cathepsin L in the Late Endosome/Lysosome and Block the Entry of Ebola Virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Pan, Ting; Zhang, Junsong; Li, Qianwen; Zhang, Xue; Bai, Chuan; Huang, Feng; Peng, Tao; Zhang, Jianhua; Liu, Chao; Tao, Liang; Zhang, Hui

    2016-04-22

    Ebola virus infection can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality in humans. The outbreaks of Ebola viruses in 2014 represented the most serious Ebola epidemics in history and greatly threatened public health worldwide. The development of additional effective anti-Ebola therapeutic agents is therefore quite urgent. In this study, via high throughput screening of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, we identified that teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, potently prevents the entry of Ebola envelope pseudotyped viruses into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, teicoplanin also has an inhibitory effect on transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particles, with an IC50 as low as 330 nm Comparative analysis further demonstrated that teicoplanin is able to block the entry of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) envelope pseudotyped viruses as well. Teicoplanin derivatives such as dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin can also inhibit the entry of Ebola, MERS, and SARS viruses. Mechanistic studies showed that teicoplanin blocks Ebola virus entry by specifically inhibiting the activity of cathepsin L, opening a novel avenue for the development of additional glycopeptides as potential inhibitors of cathepsin L-dependent viruses. Notably, given that teicoplanin has routinely been used in the clinic with low toxicity, our work provides a promising prospect for the prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola, MERS, and SARS virus infection.

  18. Antibodies to Berne virus in horses and other animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Weiss, Marianne; Steck, F.; Kaderli, R.

    1984-01-01

    After inoculation into 2 foals, Berne virus induced neutralizing antibody, but did not cause clinical symptoms. In a horizontal study of seropositive mares and their offspring, a decline of maternal antibodies and a sudden synchronous seroconversion in all foals were observed, again without clinical

  19. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); I.H. Brown (Ian); Haenen, O.L.; M.D. de Jong (Menno); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Papa (Anna); Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCompanion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, litt

  20. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L.A.; Brown, I.H.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Jong, de M.D.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  1. Bats and Viruses: a Brief Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Fa Wang

    2009-01-01

    Bats, probably the most abundant, diverse and geographically dispersed vertebrates on earth, have recently been shown to be the reservoir hosts of a number of emerging viruses responsible for severe human and livestock disease outbreaks. Flying foxes have been demonstrated to be the natural reservoir for Hendra and Nipah viruses. Evidence supporting the possibility of bats as potential reservoirs for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Ebola virus has also been reported. The recent discovery of these viruses and other viruses occurring naturally in the bat population provides a unique insight into a diverse pool of potentially emergent and pathogenic viruses. The factors which influence the ability of zoonotic viruses to effectively cross the species barrier from bats to other animal populations are poorly understood. A brief review is provided here on the recently emerged bat viruses and on current and future strategies for research in this area.

  2. Metagenomic analysis of viruses associated with field-grown and retail lettuce identifies human and animal viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Tiong Gim; Wengert, Samantha; Rose, Joan B

    2016-04-16

    The emergence of culture- and sequence-independent metagenomic methods has not only provided great insight into the microbial community structure in a wide range of clinical and environmental samples but has also proven to be powerful tools for pathogen detection. Recent studies of the food microbiome have revealed the vast genetic diversity of bacteria associated with fresh produce. However, no work has been done to apply metagenomic methods to tackle viruses associated with fresh produce for addressing food safety. Thus, there is a little knowledge about the presence and diversity of viruses associated with fresh produce from farm-to-fork. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed viruses on commercial romaine and iceberg lettuces in fields and a produce distribution center using a shotgun metagenomic sequencing targeting both RNA and DNA viruses. Commercial lettuce harbors an immense assemblage of viruses that infect a wide range of hosts. As expected, plant pathogenic viruses dominated these communities. Sequences of rotaviruses and picobirnaviruses were also identified in both field-harvest and retail lettuce samples, suggesting an emerging foodborne transmission threat that has yet to be fully recognized. The identification of human and animal viruses in lettuce samples in the field emphasizes the importance of preventing viral contamination on leafy greens starting at the field. Although there are still some inherent experimental and bioinformatics challenges in applying viral metagenomic approaches for food safety testing, this work will facilitate further application of this unprecedented deep sequencing method to food samples.

  3. Enhanced immunosurveillance for animal morbilliviruses using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Nicola; Dundon, William G; Diallo, Adama; Baron, Michael D; James Nyarobi, M; Cleaveland, Sarah; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hosie, Margaret J; Willett, Brian J

    2016-11-11

    The measurement of virus-specific neutralising antibodies represents the "gold-standard" for diagnostic serology. For animal morbilliviruses, such as peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) or rinderpest virus (RPV), live virus-based neutralisation tests require high-level biocontainment to prevent the accidental escape of the infectious agents. In this study, we describe the adaptation of a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG) based pseudotyping system for the measurement of neutralising antibodies against animal morbilliviruses. By expressing the haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of PPRV on VSVΔG pseudotypes bearing a luciferase marker gene, neutralising antibody titres could be measured rapidly and with high sensitivity. Serological responses against the four distinct lineages of PPRV could be measured simultaneously and cross-neutralising responses against other morbilliviruses compared. Using this approach, we observed that titres of neutralising antibodies induced by vaccination with live attenuated PPRV were lower than those induced by wild type virus infection and the level of cross-lineage neutralisation varied between vaccinates. By comparing neutralising responses from animals infected with either PPRV or RPV, we found that responses were highest against the homologous virus, indicating that retrospective analyses of serum samples could be used to confirm the nature of the original pathogen to which an animal had been exposed. Accordingly, when screening sera from domestic livestock and wild ruminants in Tanzania, we detected evidence of cross-species infection with PPRV, canine distemper virus (CDV) and a RPV-related bovine morbillivirus, suggesting that exposure to animal morbilliviruses may be more widespread than indicated previously using existing diagnostic techniques.

  4. An immunosuppressed Syrian golden hamster model for SARS-CoV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaecher, Scott R; Stabenow, Jennifer; Oberle, Christina; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R Mark; Sagartz, John E; Pekosz, Andrew

    2008-10-25

    Several small animal models have been developed for the study of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication and pathogenesis. Syrian golden hamsters are among the best small animal models, though little clinical illness and no mortality are observed after virus infection. Cyclophosphamide was used to immunosuppress hamsters leading to a prolonged disease course and higher mortality after SARS-CoV infection. In addition, there was a significant weight loss, expanded tissue tropism, and increased viral pathology in the lung, heart, kidney, and nasal turbinate tissues. Infection with recombinant SARS-CoV viruses bearing disruptions in the gene 7 coding region showed no significant change in replication kinetics, tissue tropism, morbidity, or mortality suggesting that the ORF7a (7a) and ORF7b (7b) proteins are not required for virus replication in immunosuppressed hamsters. This modified hamster model may provide a useful tool for SARS-CoV pathogenesis studies, evaluation of antiviral therapy, and analysis of additional SARS-CoV mutants.

  5. Vaccination of Non-Domestic Animals against Emerging Virus Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.W. Philippa (Joost)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Since the 1980's, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have made an enormous impact on public and animal health, food supply, economies, and the environment. An estimated 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans are zoonotic (pathogens of non-human vertebra

  6. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-11-03

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America.

  7. Understanding Emerging Zoonotic Respiratory Viruses : Animal models for human influenza and coronavirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.M. Wiersma (Lidewij)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe objective of the work presented in this thesis was to improve understanding of, and response to, emerging zoonotic respiratory viruses. To this end, various animal models were employed to represent respiratory viral infections in humans. The introduction serves to provide a backg

  8. Nanomechanical mapping of first binding steps of a virus to animal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsteens, David; Newton, Richard; Schubert, Rajib; Martinez-Martin, David; Delguste, Martin; Roska, Botond; Müller, Daniel J.

    2016-10-01

    Viral infection is initiated when a virus binds to cell surface receptors. Because the cell membrane is dynamic and heterogeneous, imaging living cells and simultaneously quantifying the first viral binding events is difficult. Here, we show an atomic force and confocal microscopy set-up that allows the surface receptor landscape of cells to be imaged and the virus binding events within the first millisecond of contact with the cell to be mapped at high resolution (virus and cell surface receptors. We find that the first bond formed between the viral glycoprotein and its cognate cell surface receptor has relatively low lifetime and free energy, but this increases as additional bonds form rapidly (≤1 ms). The formation of additional bonds occurs with positive allosteric modulation and the three binding sites of the viral glycoprotein are quickly occupied. Our quantitative approach can be readily applied to study the binding of other viruses to animal cells.

  9. Antiviral Activity of Resveratrol against Human and Animal Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Abba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a potent polyphenolic compound that is being extensively studied in the amelioration of viral infections both in vitro and in vivo. Its antioxidant effect is mainly elicited through inhibition of important gene pathways like the NF-κβ pathway, while its antiviral effects are associated with inhibitions of viral replication, protein synthesis, gene expression, and nucleic acid synthesis. Although the beneficial roles of resveratrol in several viral diseases have been well documented, a few adverse effects have been reported as well. This review highlights the antiviral mechanisms of resveratrol in human and animal viral infections and how some of these effects are associated with the antioxidant properties of the compound.

  10. An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species.

  11. Transfection of RNA from organ samples of infected animals represents a highly sensitive method for virus detection and recovery of classical swine fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Meyer

    Full Text Available Translation and replication of positive stranded RNA viruses are directly initiated in the cellular cytoplasm after uncoating of the viral genome. Accordingly, infectious virus can be generated by transfection of RNA genomes into susceptible cells. In the present study, efficiency of conventional virus isolation after inoculation of cells with infectious sample material was compared to virus recovery after transfection of total RNA derived from organ samples of pigs infected with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Compared to the conventional method of virus isolation applied in three different porcine cell lines used in routine diagnosis of CSF, RNA transfection showed a similar efficiency for virus rescue. For two samples, recovery of infectious virus was only possible by RNA transfection, but not by the classical approach of virus isolation. Therefore, RNA transfection represents a valuable alternative to conventional virus isolation in particular when virus isolation is not possible, sample material is not suitable for virus isolation or when infectious material is not available. To estimate the potential risk of RNA prepared from sample material for infection of pigs, five domestic pigs were oronasally inoculated with RNA that was tested positive for virus rescue after RNA transfection. This exposure did not result in viral infection or clinical disease of the animals. In consequence, shipment of CSFV RNA can be regarded as a safe alternative to transportation of infectious virus and thereby facilitates the exchange of virus isolates among authorized laboratories with appropriate containment facilities.

  12. Animal Models for the Study of Rodent-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Arenaviruses and Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs.

  13. Animal Models for the Study of Rodent-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Arenaviruses and Hantaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Joseph W; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Mucker, Eric M; Brocato, Rebecca L

    2015-01-01

    Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF) and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs.

  14. The spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is cleaved in virus infected Vero-E6 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Spike protein is one of the major structural proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus. It is essential for the interaction of the virons with host cell receptors and subsequent fusion of the viral envelop with host cell membrane to allow infection. Some spike proteins of coronavirus, such as MHV, HCoV-OC43, AIBV and BcoV, are proteolytically cleaved into two subunits, S1 and S2. In contrast, TGV, FIPV and HCoV-229E are not. Many studies have shown that the cleavage of spike protein seriously affects its function. In order to investigate the maturation and proteolytic processing of the S protein of SARS CoV, we generated S1 and S2 subunit specific antibodies (Abs) as well as N, E and 3CL protein-specific Abs. Our results showed that the antibodies could efficiently and specifically bind to their corresponding proteins from E. coli expressed or lysate of SARS-CoV infected Vero-E6 cells by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the anti-S 1 and S2 Abs were proved to be capable of binding to SARS CoV under electron microscope observation. When S2 Ab was used to perform immune precipitation with lysate of SARS-CoV infected cells, a cleaved S2 fragment was detected with S2-specific mAb by Western blot analysis. The data demonstrated that the cleavage of S protein was observed in the lysate, indicating that proteolytic processing of S protein is present in host cells.

  15. Avian H11 influenza virus isolated from domestic poultry in a Colombian live animal market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bluhm, Pedro; Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl A; Cortez, Valerie; Marvin, Shauna A; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Osorio, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Live animal markets (LAMs) are an essential source of food and trade in Latin American countries; however, they can also serve as ‘hotbeds' for the emergence and potential spillover of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Despite extensive knowledge of AIV in Asian LAMs, little is known about the prevalence South American LAMs. To fill this gap in knowledge, active surveillance was carried out at the major LAM in Medellin, Colombia between February and September 2015. During this period, overall prevalence in the market was 2.67% and a North American origin H11N2 AIV most similar to a virus isolated from Chilean shorebirds asymptomatically spread through multiple bird species in the market resulting in 17.0% positivity at peak of infection. Phenotypically, the H11 viruses displayed no known molecular markers associated with increased virulence in birds or mammals, had α2,3-sialic acid binding preference, and caused minimal replication in vitro and little morbidity in vivo. However, the Colombian H11N2 virus replicated and transmitted effectively in chickens explaining the spread throughout the market. Genetic similarity to H11 viruses isolated from North and South American shorebirds suggest that the LAM occurrence may have resulted from a wild bird to domestic poultry spillover event. The ability to spread in domestic poultry as well as potential for human infection by H11 viruses highlight the need for enhanced AIV surveillance in South America in both avian species and humans. PMID:27924808

  16. Mission critical: mobilization of essential animal models for Ebola, Nipah, and Machupo virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbrun, E E

    2015-01-01

    The reports for Ebola virus Zaire (EBOV), Nipah virus, and Machupo virus (MACV) pathogenesis, in this issue of Veterinary Pathology, are timely considering recent events, both nationally and internationally. EBOV, Nipah virus, and MACV cause highly lethal infections for which no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed vaccines or therapies exist. Not only are there concerns that these agents could be used by those with malicious intent, but shifts in ecological distribution of viral reservoirs due to climate change or globalization could lead to more frequent infections within remote regions than previously seen as well as outbreaks in more populous areas. The current EBOV epidemic shows no sign of abating across 3 West African nations (as of October 2014), including densely populated areas, far outpacing infection rates of previous outbreaks. A limited number of cases have also arisen in the United States and Europe. With few treatment options for these deadly viruses, development of animal models reflective of human disease is paramount to combat these diseases. As an example of this potential, a new treatment compound, ZMapp, that had demonstrated efficacy against EBOV infection in nonhuman primates (NHPs) received an emergency compassionate use exception from the FDA for the treatment of 2 American medical workers infected with EBOV, and they are currently virus free and recovering.

  17. Avian H11 influenza virus isolated from domestic poultry in a Colombian live animal market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bluhm, Pedro; Karlsson, Erik A; Ciuoderis, Karl A; Cortez, Valerie; Marvin, Shauna A; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Osorio, Jorge E

    2016-12-07

    Live animal markets (LAMs) are an essential source of food and trade in Latin American countries; however, they can also serve as 'hotbeds' for the emergence and potential spillover of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Despite extensive knowledge of AIV in Asian LAMs, little is known about the prevalence South American LAMs. To fill this gap in knowledge, active surveillance was carried out at the major LAM in Medellin, Colombia between February and September 2015. During this period, overall prevalence in the market was 2.67% and a North American origin H11N2 AIV most similar to a virus isolated from Chilean shorebirds asymptomatically spread through multiple bird species in the market resulting in 17.0% positivity at peak of infection. Phenotypically, the H11 viruses displayed no known molecular markers associated with increased virulence in birds or mammals, had α2,3-sialic acid binding preference, and caused minimal replication in vitro and little morbidity in vivo. However, the Colombian H11N2 virus replicated and transmitted effectively in chickens explaining the spread throughout the market. Genetic similarity to H11 viruses isolated from North and South American shorebirds suggest that the LAM occurrence may have resulted from a wild bird to domestic poultry spillover event. The ability to spread in domestic poultry as well as potential for human infection by H11 viruses highlight the need for enhanced AIV surveillance in South America in both avian species and humans.

  18. Reovirus, isolated from SARS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Qing; SONG Lihua; GAN Yonghua; TAN Hua; JIN Baofeng; LI Huiyan; ZUO Tingting; CHEN Dehui; ZHANG Xuemin; ZHU Hong; YANG Yi; LI Weihua; ZHOU Yusen; HE Jun; HE Kun; ZHANG Haojie; ZHOU Tao

    2003-01-01

    Beijing has been severely affected by SARS, and SARS-associated coronavirus has been confirmed as its cause. However, clinical and experimental evidence implicates the possibility of co-infection. In this report, reovirus was isolated from throat swabs of SARS patients, including the first case in Beijing andher mother. Identification with the electron microscopy revealed the characteristic features of reovirus. 24 of 38 samples from other SARS cases were found to have serologic responses to the reovirus. Primers designed for reovirus have amplified several fragments of DNA, one of which was sequenced (S2 gene fragment), which indicates it as a unique reovirus (orthoreovirus). Preliminary animal experiment showed that inoculation of the reovirus in mice caused death with atypical pneumonia. Nevertheless, the association of reovirus with SARS outbreak requires to be further investigated.

  19. Morbillivirus Experimental Animal Models: Measles Virus Pathogenesis Insights from Canine Distemper Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Fontoura Budaszewski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Morbilliviruses share considerable structural and functional similarities. Even though disease severity varies among the respective host species, the underlying pathogenesis and the clinical signs are comparable. Thus, insights gained with one morbillivirus often apply to the other members of the genus. Since the Canine distemper virus (CDV causes severe and often lethal disease in dogs and ferrets, it is an attractive model to characterize morbillivirus pathogenesis mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. This review compares the cellular tropism, pathogenesis, mechanisms of persistence and immunosuppression of the Measles virus (MeV and CDV. It then summarizes the contributions made by studies on the CDV in dogs and ferrets to our understanding of MeV pathogenesis and to vaccine and drugs development.

  20. Morbillivirus Experimental Animal Models: Measles Virus Pathogenesis Insights from Canine Distemper Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fontoura Budaszewski, Renata; von Messling, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Morbilliviruses share considerable structural and functional similarities. Even though disease severity varies among the respective host species, the underlying pathogenesis and the clinical signs are comparable. Thus, insights gained with one morbillivirus often apply to the other members of the genus. Since the Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes severe and often lethal disease in dogs and ferrets, it is an attractive model to characterize morbillivirus pathogenesis mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. This review compares the cellular tropism, pathogenesis, mechanisms of persistence and immunosuppression of the Measles virus (MeV) and CDV. It then summarizes the contributions made by studies on the CDV in dogs and ferrets to our understanding of MeV pathogenesis and to vaccine and drugs development. PMID:27727184

  1. Animal models for the study of hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver-related death in more than 300,000 people annually. Treatments for patients with chronic HCV are suboptimal, despite the introduction of directly acting antiviral agents. There is no vaccine that prevents HCV infection. Relevant animal models are important...... for HCV research and development of drugs and vaccines. Chimpanzees are the best model for studies of HCV infection and related innate and adaptive host immune responses. They can be used in immunogenicity and efficacy studies of HCV vaccines. The only small animal models of robust HCV infection are T......- and B- cell deficient mice with human chimeric livers. Although these mice cannot be used in studies of adaptive immunity, they have provided new insights into HCV neutralization, interactions between virus and receptors, innate host responses, and therapeutic approaches. Recent progress in developing...

  2. The pig as a large animal model for influenza a virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Brogaard, Louise; Larsen, Lars Erik

    It is increasingly realized that large animal models like the pig are exceptionally human like and serve as an excellent model for disease and inflammation. Pigs are fully susceptible to human influenza, share many similarities with humans regarding lung physiology and innate immune cell infiltra......It is increasingly realized that large animal models like the pig are exceptionally human like and serve as an excellent model for disease and inflammation. Pigs are fully susceptible to human influenza, share many similarities with humans regarding lung physiology and innate immune cell...... infiltration of the respiratory system. This study aimed at providing a better understanding of the involvement of innate immune factors and non-coding RNA in blood leukocytes during influenza A virus infection. By using the pig as a model we were able to perform highly controlled experimental infections...... consolidate the pig as a valuable model for influenza A virus infection....

  3. Animal models for the study of hepatitis C virus infection and replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kristin L MacArthur; Catherine H Wu; George Y Wu

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) hepatitis,initially termed non-A,non-B hepatitis,has become one of the leading causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide.With the help of animal models,our understanding of the virus has grown substantially from the time of initial discovery.There is a paucity of available animal models for the study of HCV,mainly because of the selective susceptibility limited to humans and primates.Recent work has focused modification of animals to permit HCV entry,replication and transmission.In this review,we highlight the currently available models for the study of HCV including chimpanzees,tupaia,mouse and rat models.Discussion will include methods of model design as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each model.Particular focus is dedicated to knowledge of pathophysiologic mechanisms of HCV infection that have been elucidated through animal studies.Research within animal models is critically important to establish a complete understanding of HCV infection,which will ultimately form the basis for future treatments and prevention of disease.

  4. Illumination of parainfluenza virus infection and transmission in living animals reveals a tissue-specific dichotomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal W Burke

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The parainfluenza viruses (PIVs are highly contagious respiratory paramyxoviruses and a leading cause of lower respiratory tract (LRT disease. Since no vaccines or antivirals exist, non-pharmaceutical interventions are the only means of control for these pathogens. Here we used bioluminescence imaging to visualize the spatial and temporal progression of murine PIV1 (Sendai virus infection in living mice after intranasal inoculation or exposure by contact. A non-attenuated luciferase reporter virus (rSeV-luc(M-F* that expressed high levels of luciferase yet was phenotypically similar to wild-type Sendai virus in vitro and in vivo was generated to allow visualization. After direct intranasal inoculation, we unexpectedly observed that the upper respiratory tract (URT and trachea supported robust infection under conditions that result in little infection or pathology in the lungs including a low inoculum of virus, an attenuated virus, and strains of mice genetically resistant to lung infection. The high permissivity of the URT and trachea to infection resulted in 100% transmission to naïve contact recipients, even after low-dose (70 PFU inoculation of genetically resistant BALB/c donor mice. The timing of transmission was consistent with the timing of high viral titers in the URT and trachea of donor animals but was independent of the levels of infection in the lungs of donors. The data therefore reveals a disconnect between transmissibility, which is associated with infection in the URT, and pathogenesis, which arises from infection in the lungs and the immune response. Natural infection after transmission was universally robust in the URT and trachea yet limited in the lungs, inducing protective immunity without weight loss even in genetically susceptible 129/SvJ mice. Overall, these results reveal a dichotomy between PIV infection in the URT and trachea versus the lungs and define a new model for studies of pathogenesis, development of live

  5. Seroepidemiological Studies of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Domestic and Wild Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Jessica R; Bergeron, Éric; Rollin, Pierre E

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed, tick-borne viral disease. Humans are the only species known to develop illness after CCHF virus (CCHFV) infection, characterized by a nonspecific febrile illness that can progress to severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic disease. A variety of animals may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of CCHFV in an endemic cycle of transmission. Seroepidemiological studies have been instrumental in elucidating CCHFV reservoirs and in determining endemic foci of viral transmission. Herein, we review over 50 years of CCHFV seroepidemiological studies in domestic and wild animals. This review highlights the role of livestock in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV, and provides a detailed summary of seroepidemiological studies of wild animal species, reflecting their relative roles in CCHFV ecology.

  6. Animal Models of Virus-Induced Neurobehavioral Sequelae: Recent Advances, Methodological Issues, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Converging lines of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that viral infections in early developmental stages may be a causal factor in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders. This etiological link, however, remains controversial in view of the lack of consistent and reproducible associations between viruses and mental illness. Animal models of virus-induced neurobehavioral disturbances afford powerful tools to test etiological hypotheses and explore pathophysiological mechanisms. Prenatal or neonatal inoculations of neurotropic agents (such as herpes-, influenza-, and retroviruses in rodents result in a broad spectrum of long-term alterations reminiscent of psychiatric abnormalities. Nevertheless, the complexity of these sequelae often poses methodological and interpretational challenges and thwarts their characterization. The recent conceptual advancements in psychiatric nosology and behavioral science may help determine new heuristic criteria to enhance the translational value of these models. A particularly critical issue is the identification of intermediate phenotypes, defined as quantifiable factors representing single neurochemical, neuropsychological, or neuroanatomical aspects of a diagnostic category. In this paper, we examine how the employment of these novel concepts may lead to new methodological refinements in the study of virus-induced neurobehavioral sequelae through animal models.

  7. Feline Foamy Virus-Based Vectors: Advantages of an Authentic Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Löchelt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New-generation retroviral vectors have potential applications in vaccination and gene therapy. Foamy viruses are particularly interesting as vectors, because they are not associated to any disease. Vector research is mainly based on primate foamy viruses (PFV, but cats are an alternative animal model, due to their smaller size and the existence of a cognate feline foamy virus (FFV. The potential of replication-competent (RC FFV vectors for vaccination and replication-deficient (RD FFV-based vectors for gene delivery purposes has been studied over the past years. In this review, the key achievements and functional evaluation of the existing vectors from in vitro cell culture systems to out-bred cats will be described. The data presented here demonstrate the broad application spectrum of FFV-based vectors, especially in pathogen-specific prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using RD vectors in cats and in classical gene delivery. In the cat-based system, FFV-based vectors provide an advantageous platform to evaluate and optimize the applicability, efficacy and safety of foamy virus (FV vectors, especially the understudied aspect of FV cell and organ tropism.

  8. Vaccine efficacy in senescent mice challenged with recombinant SARS-CoV bearing epidemic and zoonotic spike variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Deming

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV was identified as the etiological agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome, a disease characterized by severe pneumonia that sometimes results in death. SARS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that crossed the species barrier, most likely originating from bats or from other species including civets, raccoon dogs, domestic cats, swine, and rodents. A SARS-CoV vaccine should confer long-term protection, especially in vulnerable senescent populations, against both the 2003 epidemic strains and zoonotic strains that may yet emerge from animal reservoirs. We report the comprehensive investigation of SARS vaccine efficacy in young and senescent mice following homologous and heterologous challenge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP expressing the 2003 epidemic Urbani SARS-CoV strain spike (S glycoprotein (VRP-S or the nucleocapsid (N protein from the same strain (VRP-N, we demonstrate that VRP-S, but not VRP-N vaccines provide complete short- and long-term protection against homologous strain challenge in young and senescent mice. To test VRP vaccine efficacy against a heterologous SARS-CoV, we used phylogenetic analyses, synthetic biology, and reverse genetics to construct a chimeric virus (icGDO3-S encoding a synthetic S glycoprotein gene of the most genetically divergent human strain, GDO3, which clusters among the zoonotic SARS-CoV. icGD03-S replicated efficiently in human airway epithelial cells and in the lungs of young and senescent mice, and was highly resistant to neutralization with antisera directed against the Urbani strain. Although VRP-S vaccines provided complete short-term protection against heterologous icGD03-S challenge in young mice, only limited protection was seen in vaccinated senescent animals. VRP-N vaccines not only failed to protect from homologous or heterologous challenge, but resulted in enhanced

  9. Yeast based small molecule screen for inhibitors of SARS-CoV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Frieman

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV emerged in 2002, resulting in roughly 8000 cases worldwide and 10% mortality. The animal reservoirs for SARS-CoV precursors still exist and the likelihood of future outbreaks in the human population is high. The SARS-CoV papain-like protease (PLP is an attractive target for pharmaceutical development because it is essential for virus replication and is conserved among human coronaviruses. A yeast-based assay was established for PLP activity that relies on the ability of PLP to induce a pronounced slow-growth phenotype when expressed in S. cerevisiae. Induction of the slow-growth phenotype was shown to take place over a 60-hour time course, providing the basis for conducting a screen for small molecules that restore growth by inhibiting the function of PLP. Five chemical suppressors of the slow-growth phenotype were identified from the 2000 member NIH Diversity Set library. One of these, NSC158362, potently inhibited SARS-CoV replication in cell culture without toxic effects on cells, and it specifically inhibited SARS-CoV replication but not influenza virus replication. The effect of NSC158362 on PLP protease, deubiquitinase and anti-interferon activities was investigated but the compound did not alter these activities. Another suppressor, NSC158011, demonstrated the ability to inhibit PLP protease activity in a cell-based assay. The identification of these inhibitors demonstrated a strong functional connection between the PLP-based yeast assay, the inhibitory compounds, and SARS-CoV biology. Furthermore the data with NSC158362 suggest a novel mechanism for inhibition of SARS-CoV replication that may involve an unknown activity of PLP, or alternatively a direct effect on a cellular target that modifies or bypasses PLP function in yeast and mammalian cells.

  10. Antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAVORETTO Silvana Regina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. The panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the Americas. Samples were isolated in the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in Brazil. In addition to the fixed virus samples CVS-31/96-IP, preserved in mouse brain, and PV-BHK/97, preserved in cell culture, a total of 330 rabies virus samples were isolated from dogs, cats, cattle, horses, bats, sheep, goat, swine, foxes, marmosets, coati and humans. Six antigenic variants that were compatible with the pre-established monoclonal antibodies panel were defined: numbers 2 (dog, 3 (Desmodus rotundus, 4 (Tadarida brasiliensis, 5 (vampire bat from Venezuela, 6 (Lasiurus cinereus and Lab (reacted to all used antibodies. Six unknown profiles, not compatible with the panel, were also found. Samples isolated from insectivore bats showed the greatest variability and the most commonly isolated variant was variant-3 (Desmodus rotundus. These findings may be related to the existence of multiple independent transmission cycles, involving different bat species.

  11. SARS Patients-derived Human Recombinant Antibodies to S and M Proteins Efficiently Neutralize SARS-Coronavirus Infectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI-FANG LIANG; KONG-XING WU; ZHAO-HUI XIONG; QI JIN; DE-XIN LI; RUN-LEI DU; JING-ZHI LIU; CHUAN LI; QUAN-FU ZHANG; LU-LU HAN; JIAN-SHI YU; SHU-MIN DUAN; XIAO-FANG WANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To develop a specific SARS virus-targeted antibody preparation for emergent prophylaxis and treatment of SARS virus infection. Methods By using phage display technology, we constructed a naive antibody library from convalescent SARS patient lymphocytes. To obtain the neutralizing antibody to SARS virus surface proteins, the library panning procedure was performed on purified SARS virions and the specific Fab antibody clones were enriched by four rounds of repeated panning procedure and screened by highthroughput selection. The selected Fab antibodies expressed in the periplasma of E. Coli were soluble and further purified and tested for their binding properties and antiviral function to SARS virus. The functional Fab antibodies were converted to full human IgG antibodies with recombinant baculovirus/insect cell systems and their neutralizing activities were further determined. Results After four rounds of the panning, a number of SARS-CoV virus-targeted human recombinant Fab antibodies were isolated from the SARS patient antibody library. Most of these were identified to recognize both natural and recombinant SARS spike (S) proteins, two Fab antibodies were specific for the virus membrane (M) protein, only one bound to SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein. The SARS-CoV S and M protein-targeted Fab or IgG antibodies showed significant neutralizing activities in cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition neutralization test, these antibodies were able to completely neutralize the SARS virus and protect the Vero cells from CPE after virus infection. However, the N protein-targeted Fab or IgG antibodies failed to neutralize the virus. In addition, the SARS N protein-targeted human Fab antibody reacted with the denatured N proteins, whereas none of the S and M protein specific neutralizing antibodies did. These results suggested that the S and M protein-specific neutralizing antibodies could recognize conformational epitopes which might be involved in the binding of virions

  12. Metagenomic detection of viruses in aerosol samples from workers in animal slaughterhouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Hall

    Full Text Available Published studies have shown that workers in animal slaughterhouses are at a higher risk of lung cancers as compared to the general population. No specific causal agents have been identified, and exposures to several chemicals have been examined and found to be unrelated. Evidence suggests a biological aetiology as the risk is highest for workers who are exposed to live animals or to biological material containing animal faeces, urine or blood. To investigate possible biological exposures in animal slaughterhouses, we used a metagenomic approach to characterise the profile of organisms present within an aerosol sample. An assessment of aerosol exposures for individual workers was achieved by the collection of personal samples that represent the inhalable fraction of dust/bioaerosol in workplace air in both cattle and sheep slaughterhouses. Two sets of nine personal aerosol samples were pooled for the cattle processing and sheep processing areas respectively, with a total of 332,677,346 sequence reads and 250,144,492 sequence reads of 85 bp in length produced for each. Eukaryotic genome sequence was found in both sampling locations, and bovine, ovine and human sequences were common. Sequences from WU polyomavirus and human papillomavirus 120 were detected in the metagenomic dataset from the cattle processing area, and these sequences were confirmed as being present in the original personal aerosol samples. This study presents the first metagenomic description of personal aerosol exposure and this methodology could be applied to a variety of environments. Also, the detection of two candidate viruses warrants further investigation in the setting of occupational exposures in animal slaughterhouses.

  13. Seroepizootiological investigations of animals from Obedska bara locality for presence of Avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Bosiljka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The disease caused by Influenza viruses has been well known for a very long time. In the recent period there has been noted an occurrence of pandemics caused by Influenza viruses type A with a high rate of mortality. The ongoing pandemic caused by avian influenza virus serotype H9N9 began in Hong Kong in 1992, and another pandemic caused by serotype H5N1 began in China (Hong Kong in 1999. The world wide spreading of these viruses occurred due to migratory birds. Avian influenza was confirmed in Serbia in 2007. The goal of this study was to examine whether the avian influenza viruses type A circulate in the region of the Obedska bara marsh, which is a famous resort for many birds in Serbia, as well as many birds migrating from Europe to Africa and vice versa. The samples of blood sera of many animal species (123 samples from fowl, 64 samples from donkeys, 40 samples from horses were tested by serologic reaction of inhibition of haemmaglutination (IHA for the presence of antibodies to influenza A subtypes H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H7N1 and H7N2. Also, the samples of blood sera of experimental chicken exposed to wild life in Obedska bara (sentinel species were tested. Antibodies to subtypes H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H7N1 and H7N2 were found in chicken from Dec, Boljevci, Petrovcic and Kupinovo villages but no antibodies were found in blood sera from hams from Dobanovci, Jakovo, Becmen and Surcin villages. From 23 samples from ducks antibodies were detected in 3 samples, and from 22 geese blood sera antibodies were found in 4 samples. From a total of 40 horse blood sera tested one was tested positive, and from 64 donkey sera 17 were positive for the presence of antibodies for avian influenza type A. In blood sera of experimental chicken antibodies were found by subtype H5N1 with corrections with H5N2 and H7N1.

  14. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  15. Weather, host and vector--their interplay in the spread of insect-borne animal virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R F

    1980-08-01

    The spread of insect-borne animal virus diseases is influenced by a number of factors. Hosts migrate, move or are conveyed over long distances: vectors are carried on the wind for varying distances in search of hosts and breeding sites; weather and climate affect hosts and vectors through temperature, moisture and wind. As parasites of host and vector, viruses are carried by animals, birds and insects, and their spread can be correlated with the migration of hosts and the carriage of vectors on winds associated with the movements of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and warm winds to the north and south of the limits of the ITCZ. The virus is often transmitted from a local cycle to a migratory cycle and back again.Examples of insect-borne virus diseases and their spread are analysed. Japanese, Murray Valley, Western equine, Eastern equine and St Louis encephalitis represent viruses transmitted by mosquito-bird or pig cycles.THE AREAS EXPERIENCING INFECTION WITH THESE VIRUSES CAN BE DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF ZONES: A, B, C, D, E and F. In zone A there is a continuous cycle of virus in host and vector throughout the year; in zone B, there is an upsurge in the cycle during the wet season, but the cycle continues during the dry season; there is movement of infected vectors between and within zones A and B on the ITCZ and the virus is introduced to zone C by infected vectors on warm winds; persistence may occur in zone C if conditions are right. In zone D, virus is introduced each year by infected vectors on warm winds and the arrival of the virus coincides with the presence of susceptible nestling birds and susceptible piglets. The disappearance of virus occurs at the time when migrating mosquitoes and birds are returning to warmer climates. The virus is introduced to zone E only on occasions every 5-10 years when conditions are suitable. Infected hosts introduced to zone F do not lead to circulation of virus, since the climate is unsuitable for vectors. Zones A

  16. "ISA-Lation" of Single-Stranded Positive-Sense RNA Viruses from Non-Infectious Clinical/Animal Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Aubry

    Full Text Available Isolation of viral pathogens from clinical and/or animal samples has traditionally relied on either cell cultures or laboratory animal model systems. However, virus viability is notoriously susceptible to adverse conditions that may include inappropriate procedures for sample collection, storage temperature, support media and transportation. Using our recently described ISA method, we have developed a novel procedure to isolate infectious single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses from clinical or animal samples. This approach, that we have now called "ISA-lation", exploits the capacity of viral cDNA subgenomic fragments to re-assemble and produce infectious viral RNA in susceptible cells. Here, it was successfully used to rescue enterovirus, Chikungunya and Tick-borne encephalitis viruses from a variety of inactivated animal and human samples. ISA-lation represents an effective option to rescue infectious virus from clinical and/or animal samples that may have deteriorated during the collection and storage period, but also potentially overcomes logistic and administrative difficulties generated when complying with current health and safety and biosecurity guidelines associated with shipment of infectious viral material.

  17. Animals Models of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type I Leukemogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiesk, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Infection with human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in a minority of infected individuals after long periods of viral persistence. The various stages of HTLV-I infection and leukemia development are studied by using several different animal models: (1) the rabbit (and mouse) model of persistent HTLV-I infection, (2) transgenic mice to model tumorigenesis by HTLV-I specific protein expression, (3) ATL cell transfers into immune-deficient mice, and (4) infection of humanized mice with HTLV-I. After infection, virus replicates without clinical disease in rabbits and to a lesser extent in mice. Transgenic expression of both the transactivator protein (Tax) and the HTLV-I bZIP factor (HBZ) protein have provided insight into factors important in leukemia/lymphoma development. To investigate factors relating to tumor spread and tissue invasion, a number of immune-deficient mice based on the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or non-obese diabetic/SCID background have been used. Inoculation of adult T cell leukemia cell (lines) leads to lymphoma with osteolytic bone lesions and to a lesser degree to leukemia development. These mice have been used extensively for the testing of anticancer drugs and virotherapy. A recent development is the use of so-called humanized mice, which, upon transfer of CD34(+)human umbilical cord stem cells, generate human lymphocytes. Infection with HTLV-I leads to leukemia/lymphoma development, thus providing an opportunity to investigate disease development with the aid of molecularly cloned viruses. However, further improvements of this mouse model, particularly in respect to the development of adaptive immune responses, are necessary.

  18. Development of an Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis skin cell line displaying differential cytopathic effects to three aquatic animal viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Tong; Lei, Xiao-Ying; He, Li-Bo; Zhou, Feng-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2014-08-30

    An Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis skin (UCS) cell line was developed and subcultured for more than 60 passages. UCS cells consisted of mostly epithelial-like cells and multiplied well in TC199 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 25°C. Chromosome analysis revealed that most UCS cells had a normal diploid karyotype with 2n=52. UCS cells showed differential cytopathic effects (CPEs) after inoculation of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV, a negative-strand RNA virus), grass carp reovirus (GCRV, a multi-segmented double-stranded RNA virus) and Rana grylio virus (RGV, a large double-stranded DNA virus), and were indicative of high sensitivities to these three aquatic animal viruses by a virus titration study. The CPE caused by SVCV appeared as rounded and granular cells, grape-like clusters and small lytic plaques. Characteristic CPE containing plaque-like syncytia was induced by GCRV. RGV-infected cells produced typical CPE characterized by cells shrinkage and aggregation, formation of clear plaques and cell sheet detachment. Furthermore, significant fluorescent signals were observed after UCS cells were transfected with green fluorescent protein reporter plasmids, and the development of CPE induced by a recombinant RGV, ΔTK-RGV, in UCS cells was illustrated using a combination of light and fluorescence microscopy. The data from this study suggested that UCS cell line can potentially serve as a useful tool for the comparison study of different aquatic animal viruses and the isolation of some newly emerging viruses in Ussuri catfish farming.

  19. Terrain Measurement with SAR/InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deren; Liao, Mingsheng; Balz, Timo; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Tianliang

    2016-08-01

    Terrain measurement and surface motion estimation are the most important applications for commercial and scientific SAR missions. In Dragon-3, we worked on these applications, especially regarding DEM generation, surface motion estimation with SAR time- series for urban subsidence monitoring and landslide motion estimation, as well as developing tomographic SAR processing methods in urban areas.

  20. Antiviral activity of the Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano essential oil and its main compound carvacrol against human and animal viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciele Ribas Pilau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens is a plant found in Mexico and Central America that is traditionally used as a medicinal herb. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of the essential oil of Mexican oregano and its major component, carvacrol, against different human and animal viruses. The MTT test (3-4,5-dimethythiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide was conducted to determine the selectivity index (SI of the essential oil, which was equal to 13.1, 7.4, 10.8, 9.7, and 7.2 for acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVR-HHV-1, acyclovir-sensitive HHV-1, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, bovine herpesvirus type 2 (BoHV-2, and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, respectively. The human rotavirus (RV and BoHV-1 and 5 were not inhibited by the essential oil. Carvacrol alone exhibited high antiviral activity against RV with a SI of 33, but it was less efficient than the oil for the other viruses. Thus, Mexican oregano oil and its main component, carvacrol, are able to inhibit different human and animal viruses in vitro. Specifically, the antiviral effects of Mexican oregano oil on ACVR-HHV-1 and HRSV and of carvacrol on RV justify more detailed studies.

  1. Evaluation of classical swine fever virus antibody detection assays with an emphasis on the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, S.; von Rosen, Tanya; Blome, S.

    2012-01-01

    vaccinated animals (DIVA). The Chekit* CSF-Sero and the HerdChek* CSFV Ab, both of which detect antibodies against the E2 protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), had the highest sensitivity. Both tests were practicable and showed good reproducibility. Comparable sensitivity was shown by the Chekit...

  2. Molecular phylogeny of coronaviruses including human SARS-CoV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Phylogenetic tree of coronaviruses (CoVs) including the human SARS-associated virus is reconstructed from complete genomes by using our newly developed K- string composition approach. The relation of the human SARS-CoV to other coronaviruses, i.e. the rooting of the tree is suggested by choosing an appropriate outgroup. SARS-CoV makes a separate group closer but still distant from G2 (CoVs in mammalian host). The relation between different isolates of the human SARS virus is inferred by first constructing an ultrametric distance matrix from counting sequence variations in the genomes. The resulting tree is consistent with clinic relations between the SARS-CoV isolates. In addition to a larger variety of coronavirus genomes these results provide phylogenetic knowledge based on independent novel methodology as compared to recent phylogenetic studies on SARS-CoV.

  3. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  4. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  5. The woodchuck as an animal model for pathogenesis and therapy of chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This review describes the woodchuck and the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) as an animal model for pathogenesis and therapy of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and disease in humans. The establishment of woodchuck breeding colonies, and use of laboratory-reared woodchucks infected with defined WHV inocula, have enhanced our understanding of the virology and immunology of HBV infection and disease pathogenesis, including major sequelae like chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The role of persistent WHV infection and of viral load on the natural history of infection and disease progression has been firmly established along the way. More recently, the model has shed new light on the role of host immune responses in these natural processes,and on how the immune system of the chronic carrier can be manipulated therapeutically to reduce or delay serious disease sequelae through induction of the recovery phenotype. The woodchuck is an outbred species and is not well defined immunologically due to a limitation of available host markers. However, the recent development of several key host response assays for woodchucks provides experimental opportunities for further mechanistic studies of outcome predictors in neonatal- and adult-acquired infections. Understanding the virological and immunological mechanisms responsible for resolution of self-limited infection, and for the onset and maintenance of chronic infection, will greatly facilitate the development of successful strategies for the therapeutic eradication of established chronic HBV infection. Likewise, the results of drug efficacy and toxicity studies in the chronic carrier woodchucks are predictive for responses of patients chronically infected with HBV. Therefore, chronic WHV carrier woodchucks provide a well-characterized mammalian model for preclinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of drug candidates, experimental therapeutic vaccines, and immunomodulators for the treatment and

  6. Stability of SARS Coronavirus in Human Specimens and Environment and Its Sensitivity to Heating and UV Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU-MING DUAN; XIAO-PING DONG; SARS RESEARCH TEAM; XIN-SHENG ZHAO; RUI-FU WEN; JING-JING HUANG; GUO-HUA PI; SU-XIANG ZHANG; JUN HAN; SHENG-LI BI; LI RUAN

    2003-01-01

    The causal agent for SARS is considered as a novel coronavirus that has never been described both in human and animals previously. The stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments was studied. Methods Using a SARS coronavirus strain CoV-P9,which was isolated from pharyngeal swab of a probable SARS case in Beijing, its stability in mimic human specimens and in mimic environment including surfaces of commonly used materials or in household conditions, as well as its resistances to temperature and UV irradiation were analyzed. A total of 106 TCID50 viruses were placed in each tested condition, and changes of the viral infectivity in samples after treatments were measured by evaluating cytopathic effect (CPE) in cell line Vero-E6 at 48 h after infectionn. Results The results showed that SARS coronavirus in the testing condition could survive in serum, 1:20 diluted sputum and feces for at least 96 h, whereas it could remain alive in urine for at least 72 h with a low level of infectivity. The survival abilities on the surfaces of eight different materials and in water were quite comparable, revealing reduction of infectivity after 72 to 96 h exposure. Viruses stayed stable at 4℃, at room temperature (20℃) and at 37℃ for at least 2 h without remarkable change in the infectious ability in cells, but were convened to be non-infectious after 90-, 60- and 30-min exposure at 56℃, at 67℃ and at 75℃, respectively. Irradiation of UV for 60 min on the virus in culture medium resulted in the destruction of viral infectivity at an undetectable level. Conclusion The survival ability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments seems to be relatively strong. Heating and UV irradiation can efficiently eliminate the viral infectivity.

  7. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  8. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus in imported amphibians reveals an unanticipated foreign animal disease threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Blehert, David S

    2016-09-07

    Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders. All animals tested negative for the fungus. However, a virus was cultured from internal organs from 7 of the 11 individual dead salamanders and from two pools of tissues from four additional dead animals. Sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein gene from all viral isolates indicated 100% identity and that they were most closely related to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Subsequently, SVCV-specific PCR testing indicated the presence of virus in internal organs from each of the four animals previously pooled, and whole-genome sequencing of one of the viral isolates confirmed genomic arrangement characteristic of SVCV. SVCV is a rhabdovirus pathogen of cyprinid fish that is listed as notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties. This discovery reveals a novel route for potential spillover of this economically important pathogen as rhabdovirus has not previously been documented in amphibians.

  9. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus in imported amphibians reveals an unanticipated foreign animal disease threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders. All animals tested negative for the fungus. However, a virus was cultured from internal organs from 7 of the 11 individual dead salamanders and from two pools of tissues from four additional dead animals. Sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein gene from all viral isolates indicated 100% identity and that they were most closely related to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Subsequently, SVCV-specific PCR testing indicated the presence of virus in internal organs from each of the four animals previously pooled, and whole-genome sequencing of one of the viral isolates confirmed genomic arrangement characteristic of SVCV. SVCV is a rhabdovirus pathogen of cyprinid fish that is listed as notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties. This discovery reveals a novel route for potential spillover of this economically important pathogen as rhabdovirus has not previously been documented in amphibians.

  10. The outbreak pattern of the SARS cases in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhibin; SHENG Chengfa; MA Zufei; LI Dianmo

    2004-01-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused tremendous damage to many Asia countries, especially China. The transmission process and outbreak pattern of SARS is still not well understood. This study aims to find a simple model to describe the outbreak pattern of SARS cases by using SARS case data commonly released by governments. The outbreak pattern of cumulative SARS cases is expected to be a logistic type because the infection will be slowed down due to the increasing control effort by people and/or due to depletion of susceptible individuals. The increase rate of SARS cases is expected to decrease with the cumulative SARS cases, as described by the traditional logistical model, which is widely used in population dynamic studies. The instantaneous rate of increases were significantly and negatively correlated with the cumulative SARS cases in mainland of China (including Beijing, Hebei, Tianjin, Shanxi, the Autonomous Region of Inner Mongolia) and Singapore. The basic reproduction number R0 in Asia ranged from 2.0 to 5.6 (except for Taiwan, China). The R0 of Hebei and Tianjinwere much higher than that of Singapore, Hongkong, Beijing, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, indicating SARS virus might have originated differently or new mutations occurred during transmission. We demonstrated that the outbreaks of SARS in many regions of Asia were well described by the logistic model, and the control measures implemented by governments are effective. The maximum instantaneous rate of increase, basic reproductive number, and maximum cumulative SARS cases were also calculated by using the logistic model.

  11. Serological evidence for hepatitis e virus infection in laboratory monkeys and pigs in animal facilities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Li, Tian-Cheng; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Ito, Kaori; Kita, Masakazu; Miyashita, Nobumoto; Arikawa, Jiro; Yagami, Kenichi; Asano, Masahide; Tezuka, Hideo; Suzuki, Noboru; Kurosawa, Tsutomu; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Furuya, Masato; Mohri, Shirou; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohsawa, Kazutaka; Ibuki, Kentaro; Takeda, Naokazu

    2008-07-01

    In laboratory animal facilities, monkeys and pigs are used for animal experiments, but the details of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in these animals are unknown. The risk of infection from laboratory animals to humans has become a concern; therefore, much attention should be paid to the handling of these animals during their care and use, including surgical procedures performed on infected animals. In this connection, serum samples collected from 916 monkeys and 77 pigs kept in 23 animal facilities belonging to the Japanese Association of Laboratory Animal Facilities of National University Corporations (JALAN) and the Japanese Association of Laboratory Animal Facilities of Public and Private Universities (JALAP) in Japan were examined for the purpose of detecting antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA by using ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. One hundred and seven serum samples of 916 (11.7%) monkeys were positive for anti-HEV IgG, and 7 and 17 serum samples of 916 (0.8% and 5.3%) monkeys were positive for anti-HEV IgM and IgA, respectively. Thirty-six samples from 62 (58.1%) farm pigs were positive for anti-HEV IgG, whereas all samples tested from miniature pigs were negative (0/15, 0%). Seven samples from 62 (9.1%) farm pigs and 7 samples from 916 (0.8%) monkeys were positive for IgM antibody, but these HEV-IgM antibody positive serum samples were HEV-RNA negative by RT-PCR. The IgM antibody positive rate (9.1%) of farm pigs was much higher than that of monkeys (0.8%). These results suggest the relative levels of risk of HEV infection from these animals to animal handlers and researchers who work with them in laboratory animal facilities.

  12. Contact variables for exposure to avian influenza H5N1 virus at the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, P; Perdue, M; Mumford, E

    2010-06-01

    Although the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus continues to cause infections in both avian and human populations, the specific zoonotic risk factors remain poorly understood. This review summarizes available evidence regarding types of contact associated with transmission of H5N1 virus at the human-animal interface. A systematic search of the published literature revealed five analytical studies and 15 case reports describing avian influenza transmission from animals to humans for further review. Risk factors identified in analytical studies were compared, and World Health Organization-confirmed cases, identified in case reports, were classified according to type of contact reported using a standardized algorithm. Although cases were primarily associated with direct contact with sick/unexpectedly dead birds, some cases reported only indirect contact with birds or contaminated environments or contact with apparently healthy birds. Specific types of contacts or activities leading to exposure could not be determined from data available in the publications reviewed. These results support previous reports that direct contact with sick birds is not the only means of human exposure to avian influenza H5N1 virus. To target public health measures and disease awareness messaging for reducing the risk of zoonotic infection with avian influenza H5N1 virus, the specific types of contacts and activities leading to transmission need to be further understood. The role of environmental virus persistence, shedding of virus by asymptomatic poultry and disease pathophysiology in different avian species relative to human zoonotic risk, as well as specific modes of zoonotic transmission, should be determined.

  13. Receptor specificity of influenza A viruses from sea mammals correlates with lung sialyloligosaccharides in these animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T; Kawaoka, Y; Nomura, A; Otsuki, K

    1999-08-01

    The distribution of specific receptors on target organs is a major factor in the host range restriction of influenza A viruses. To assess the correlation between host receptors and the receptor specificity of influenza A viruses from sea mammals, we examined the receptors for influenza A virus in seal and whale lungs. A binding assay using two sialyloligosaccharide (SAalpha2,3Gal and SAalpha2,6Gal)-specific lectins showed that SAalpha2,3Gal, but not SAalpha2,6Gal, was found in both seal and whale lungs. Correspondingly, seal and whale influenza viruses preferentially recognized SAalpha2,3Gal, but not SAalpha2,6Gal. These results indicate that sialyloligosaccharides present at the replication site of influenza A viruses correlate with the receptor recognition of the viruses isolated from sea mammals.

  14. Nonreplicative RNA Recombination of an Animal Plus-Strand RNA Virus in the Absence of Efficient Translation of Viral Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine Büning, Maximiliane; Meyer, Denise; Austermann-Busch, Sophia; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Tillmann

    2017-01-01

    RNA recombination is a major driving force for the evolution of RNA viruses and is significantly implicated in the adaptation of viruses to new hosts, changes of virulence, as well as in the emergence of new viruses including drug-resistant and escape mutants. However, the molecular details of recombination in animal RNA viruses are only poorly understood. In order to determine whether viral RNA recombination depends on translation of viral proteins, a nonreplicative recombination system was established which is based on cotransfection of cells with synthetic bovine viral diarrhea virus (family Flaviviridae) RNA genome fragments either lacking the internal ribosome entry site required for cap-independent translation or lacking almost the complete polyprotein coding region. The emergence of a number of recombinant viruses demonstrated that IRES-mediated translation of viral proteins is dispensable for efficient recombination and suggests that RNA recombination can occur in the absence of viral proteins. Analyses of 58 independently emerged viruses led to the detection of recombinant genomes with duplications, deletions and insertions in the 5′ terminal region of the open reading frame, leading to enlarged core fusion proteins detectable by Western blot analysis. This demonstrates a remarkable flexibility of the pestivirus core protein. Further experiments with capped and uncapped genome fragments containing a luciferase gene for monitoring the level of protein translation revealed that even a ∼1,000-fold enhancement of translation of viral proteins did not increase the frequency of RNA recombination. Taken together, this study highlights that nonreplicative RNA recombination does not require translation of viral proteins. PMID:28338950

  15. sar Ades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Angélica Zoqui Paulovic Sabadini

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma homenagem ao ilustre professor César Ades (1943-2012. Etólogo, Especialista em comportamento animal, Ades foi professor titular do Instituto de Psicologia da Universidade de São Paulo (IPUSP, atuando como docente do Departamento de Psicologia Experimental. O artigo descreve parte de sua rica vida acadêmica e profissional e apresenta, de forma resumida, sua trajetória na Universidade de São Paulo, como aluno, professor, pesquisador e orientador e sua atuação como administrador no Instituto de Psicologia e no Instituto de Estudos Avançados, além de sua atuação na Academia Paulista de Psicologia e em sociedades científicas. São destacados a importância de suas contribuições para a área de Psicologia e seu respeito pela vida, pelas pessoas e pelos animais.

  16. 焦磷酸测序技术在确认北京严重急性呼吸综合征(SARS)病毒株并检测基因突变中的应用%Confirming SARS Virus Isolates in Beijing with Pyrosequencing Technology and Assaying SARS Virus DNA Mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程绍辉; 梁明华; 李泽琳; 张霆; 张珑; 马洪涛; 刘哲伟; 曾毅

    2005-01-01

    结合严重急性呼吸综合征(SARS)病毒株序列信息分析和高通量测序技术,建立一种快速、简单地确定SARS病毒株并筛查SARS病毒突变位点和突变频率的方法.从感染人SARS病毒的Vero-6细胞中提取病毒RNA,反转录为cDNA后,PCR扩增目的基因片段,采用焦磷酸测序技术(Pyrosequencing Technology,PSQ)进行第2 601、7 919、9 479、19 838多个碱基突变位点测序和突变频率分析.通过测序分析多个可能出现突变的位点,确定了该病毒为北京流行株,同时发现第7 919位碱基发生了A/G突变.PSQ技术对于高通量筛选研究病毒基因的突变和确定病毒株型别有着简单、快速、灵敏的特点.利用生物信息学分析核酸多态性,结合实验验证,可以确定SARS病毒流行株的特征,有利于对突发事件及早确定传染来源.

  17. Antiviral drug discovery against SARS-CoV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Shan; Lin, Wen-Hsing; Hsu, John T-A; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang

    2006-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV. In the 2003 outbreak, it infected more than 8,000 people worldwide and claimed the lives of more than 900 victims. The high mortality rate resulted, at least in part, from the absence of definitive treatment protocols or therapeutic agents. Although the virus spreading has been contained, due preparedness and planning, including the successful development of antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV, is necessary for possible reappearance of SARS. In this review, we have discussed currently available strategies for antiviral drug discovery and how these technologies have been utilized to identify potential antiviral agents for the inhibition of SARS-CoV replication. Moreover, progress in the drug development based on different molecular targets is also summarized, including 1) Compounds that block the S protein-ACE2-mediated viral entry; 2) Compounds targeting SARS-CoV M(pro); 3) Compounds targeting papain-like protease 2 (PLP2); 4) Compounds targeting SARS-CoV RdRp; 5) Compounds targeting SARS-CoV helicase; 6) Active compounds with unspecified targets; and 7) Research on siRNA. This review aims to provide a comprehensive account of drug discovery on SARS. The experiences with the SARS outbreak and drug discovery would certainly be an important lesson for the drug development for any new viral outbreaks that may emerge in the future.

  18. Unraveling the complexities of the interferon response during SARS-CoV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Lang (Anna); T. Baas (Tracey); S.L. Smits (Saskia); M.G. Katze (Michael); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractViruses employ different strategies to circumvent the antiviral actions of the innate immune response. SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a virus that causes severe lung damage encodes an array of proteins able to inhibit induction and signaling of type-I interferons. However, recent studies h

  19. Differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected animals from vaccinated animals using a blocking ELISA based on baculovirus expressed FMDV 3ABC antigen and a 3ABC monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.J.; de Stricker, K.; Dyrting, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    A blocking ELISA that differentiated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected animals from vaccinated animals was developed which uses baculovirus expressed FMDV 3ABC non-structural protein as antigen and monoclonal antibody against FMDV 3ABC non-structural protein as capture and detector...

  20. Human and animal infections by vaccinia-like viruses in the state of Rio de Janeiro: a novel expanding zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzmayr, H G; Costa, R V C; Gonçalves, M C R; D'Andréa, P S; Barth, O M

    2011-12-30

    Since 1999, vesicular infections caused by Orthopoxvirus in humans and animals, mainly in dairy cattle, have been identified in 20 municipalities in the Rio de Janeiro state of Brazil. This paper describes studies conducted in counties of the northwestern, middle-Paraíba Valley and southern regions of the Rio de Janeiro state where 77 human, 346 bovine and 78 rodent samples were collected over the past ten years. Laboratory investigations using virus isolation, electron microscopy, molecular biology (PCR) and serological analysis confirmed Orthopoxvirus infections in 77.9% of human, 49.2% of dairy cattle and 17.9% of rodent samples. The characterisation of the Cantagalo/IOC strain reconfirmed that this virus was a vaccinia-like virus. In other regions of the Rio de Janeiro state, vesicular/pustular infections in animals and humans are suspected but these have not yet been confirmed. A continuous surveillance system has been established to monitor these regions in addition to several other states of the Brazilian Federation.

  1. Quantification of Human and Animal Viruses to Differentiate the Origin of the Fecal Contamination Present in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Bofill-Mas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking. In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples.

  2. Characterization of avian influenza virus isolates submitted to the National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease between 1997 and 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, J; Weingartl, H; Clavijo, A; Riva, J; Kehler, H; Handel, K; Watkins, E; Hills, K

    2003-01-01

    The National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease (NCFAD) in Winnipeg, Manitoba, is the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA) newest high biocontainment laboratory. One of the functions of the NCFAD is to serve as a national reference laboratory for avian influenza. Between 1997 and 2001, 15 avian influenza virus isolates were characterized. These isolates originated from domestic poultry, imported caged birds held in quarantine, and wild birds. Diagnostic specimens were submitted to the NCFAD by CFIA field veterinarians, provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and veterinary colleges. Characterization of isolates included the determination of H and N subtypes: H1, H6, H7, and H10 subtypes were isolated from domestic poultry; H3, H4, and three H13 viruses were isolated from water fowl, and six H3 viruses were isolated from caged birds being held in import quarantine. Selected isolates were characterized with respect to their pathogenic potential by intravenous inoculation of 4-to-6-wk-old chickens. A molecular-based protocol was used to assess the pathogenicity of one H7 isolate. During this period, work was also carried out toward validating our molecular pathotyping protocol for avian influenza viruses with H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes.

  3. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmarová, Jana; Tichá, Lucie; Golovchenko, Marina; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia; Nowotny, Norbert; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia bugdorferi (Bb) s.l. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in zoo animals in the Czech Republic. We collected 133 serum samples from 69 animal species from 5 zoos located in different parts of the country. The samples were obtained from even-toed ungulates (n=78; 42 species), odd-toed ungulates (n=32; 11 species), carnivores (n=13; 9 species), primates (n=2, 2 species), birds (n=3; 2 species), and reptiles (n=5; 3 species). A high antibody prevalence (60%) was observed for Bb s.l. On the other hand, only two animals had TBEV-specific antibodies: a markhor (Capra falconeri) and a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), both from the same zoo, located in an area endemic for TBEV. Both of these animals were also positive for Bb s.l. antibodies. Our results indicate that a high number of animal species in the Czech zoos were exposed to Bb s.l. and that TBEV infection occurred at least in one of the investigated zoos. Considering the pathogenic potential of these two tick-borne pathogens, clinical and serological monitoring should be continued, and therapeutic and preventive measures should be taken when necessary.

  4. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2).

  5. Is the discovery of the novel human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC) the beginning of another SARS-like pandemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper F W; Li, Kenneth S M; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-12-01

    Fouchier et al. reported the isolation and genome sequencing of a novel coronavirus tentatively named "human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC)" from a Saudi patient presenting with pneumonia and renal failure in June 2012. Genome sequencing showed that this virus belongs to the group C species of the genus betacoronavirus and phylogenetically related to the bat coronaviruses HKU4 and HKU5 previously found in lesser bamboo bat and Japanese Pipistrelle bat of Hong Kong respectively. Another patient from Qatar with similar clinical presentation and positive RT-PCR test was reported in September 2012. We compare and contrast the clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis and management of infection due to this novel coronavirus and that of SARS coronavirus despite the paucity of published information on the former. Since 70% of all emerging infectious pathogens came from animals, the emergence of this novel virus may represent another instance of interspecies jumping of betacoronavirus from animals to human similar to the group A coronavirus OC43 possibly from a bovine source in the 1890s and the group B SARS coronavirus in 2003 from bat to civet and human. Despite the apparently low transmissibility of the virus at this stage, research preparedness against another SARS-like pandemic is an important precautionary strategy.

  6. African swine fever virus excretion patterns in persistently infected animals: A quantitative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Weesendorp, E.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Bouma, A.; Quak, S.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    The continuing circulation of African swine fever (ASF) in Russia and in the Trans-Caucasian countries has led to increased efforts in characterizing the epidemiology of ASF. For a better insight in epidemiology, quantitative data on virus excretion is required. Until now, excretion data has mainly

  7. Efficacy of various disinfectants against SARS coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenau, H F; Kampf, G; Cinatl, J; Doerr, H W

    2005-10-01

    The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Asia and Northern America led to broad use of various types of disinfectant in order to control the public spread of the highly contagious virus. However, only limited data were available to demonstrate their efficacy against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We therefore investigated eight disinfectants for their activity against SARS-CoV according to prEN 14476. Four hand rubs were tested at 30s (Sterillium, based on 45% iso-propanol, 30% n-propanol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulphate; Sterillium Rub, based on 80% ethanol; Sterillium Gel, based on 85% ethanol; Sterillium Virugard, based on 95% ethanol). Three surface disinfectants were investigated at 0.5% for 30 min and 60 min (Mikrobac forte, based on benzalkonium chloride and laurylamine; Kohrsolin FF, based on benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde and didecyldimonium chloride; Dismozon pur, based on magnesium monoperphthalate), and one instrument disinfectant was investigated at 4% for 15 min, 3% for 30 min and 2% for 60 min [Korsolex basic, based on glutaraldehyde and (ethylenedioxy)dimethanol]. Three types of organic load were used: 0.3% albumin, 10% fetal calf serum, and 0.3% albumin with 0.3% sheep erythrocytes. Virus titres were determined by a quantitative test (endpoint titration) in 96-well microtitre plates. With all tested preparations, SARS-CoV was inactivated to below the limit of detection (reduction factor mostly > or =4), regardless of the type of organic load. In summary, SARS-CoV can be inactivated quite easily with many commonly used disinfectants.

  8. Zika virus: An update on epidemiology, pathology, molecular biology, and animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos da Silva, Suzane; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was first described in 1947, and became a health emergency problem in 2016 when its association with fetal microcephaly cases was confirmed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. To date, ZIKV infection has been documented in 66 countries. ZIKV is recognized as a neurotropic virus and numerous diseases manifested in multiple neurological disorders have been described, mainly in countries that have been exposed to ZIKV after the 2007 outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia. The most dramatic consequence of ZIKV infection documented is the abrupt increase in fetal microcephaly cases in Brazil. Here, we present an update of the published research progress in the past few months. J. Med. Virol. 88:1291-1296, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Peptide Mimicrying Between SARS Coronavirus Spike Protein and Human Proteins Reacts with SARS Patient Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-Y. Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mimicry, defined as similar structures shared by molecules from dissimilar genes or proteins, is a general strategy used by pathogens to infect host cells. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is a new human respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV. The spike (S protein of SARS-CoV plays an important role in the virus entry into a cell. In this study, eleven synthetic peptides from the S protein were selected based on its sequence homology with human proteins. Two of the peptides D07 (residues 927–937 and D08 (residues 942–951 were recognized by the sera of SARS patients. Murine hyperimmune sera against these peptides bound to proteins of human lung epithelial cells A549. Another peptide D10 (residues 490–502 stimulated A549 to proliferate and secrete IL-8. The present results suggest that the selected S protein regions, which share sequence homology with human proteins, may play important roles in SARS-CoV infection.

  10. Subtyping Animal Influenza Virus with General Multiplex RT-PCR and Liquichip High Throughput (GMPLex)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-feng Qin; Bing Cheng; Zhou-xi Ruan; Ying-zuo Bi; Joseph J Giambrone; Hong-zhuan Wu; Jie Sun; Ti-kang Lu; Shao-ling Zeng; Qun-yi Hua; Qing-yan Ling; Shu-kun Chen; Jian-qiang Lv; Cai-hong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a multiplex RT-PCR integrated with luminex technology to rapidly subtype simultaneously multiple influenza viruses.Primers and probes were designed to amplify NS and M genes of influenza A viruses HA gene of H1,H3,H5,H7,H9 subtypes,and NA gene of the N1 and N2 subtypes.Universal super primers were introduced to establish a multiplex RT-PCR (GM RT-PCR).It included three stages of RT-PCR amplification,and then the RT-PCR products were further tested by LiquiChip probe,combined to give an influenza virus (Ⅳ) rapid high throughput subtyping test,designated as GMPLex.The IV GMPLex rapid high throughput subtyping test presents the following features:high throughput,able to determine the subtypes of 9 target genes in H1,H3,H5,H7,H9,N1,and N2 subtypes of the influenza A virus at one time; rapid,completing the influenza subtyping within 6 hours; high specificity,ensured the specificity of the different subtypes by using two nested degenerate primers and one probe,no cross reaction occurring between the subtypes,no non-specific reactions with other pathogens and high sensitivity.When used separately to detect the product of single GM RT-PCR for single H5 or N1 gene,the GMPLex test showed a sensitivity of 105(=280ELD50) forboth tests and the Luminex qualitative ratio results were 3.08 and 3.12,respectively.When used to detect the product of GM RT-PCR for HSN1 strain at the same time,both showed a sensitivity of 10-4(=2800 ELD50).The GMPLex rapid high throughput subtyping test can satisfy the needs of influenza rapid testing.

  11. Antiviral activity of a Bacillus sp. P34 peptide against pathogenic viruses of domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Débora Scopel e; de Castro, Clarissa Caetano; Silva, Fábio da Silva e; Sant’anna, Voltaire; Vargas, Gilberto D’Avila; de Lima, Marcelo; Fischer, Geferson; Brandelli, Adriano; da Motta, Amanda de Souza; Hübner, Silvia de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    P34 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by a Bacillus sp. strain isolated from the intestinal contents of a fish in the Brazilian Amazon basin with reported antibacterial activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the peptide P34 for its in vitro antiviral properties against canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), equine arteritis virus (EAV), equine influenza virus (EIV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1). The results showed that the peptide P34 exhibited antiviral activity against EAV and FHV-1. The peptide P34 inhibited the replication of EAV by 99.9% and FHV-1 by 94.4%. Virucidal activity was detected only against EAV. When P34 and EAV were incubated for 6 h at 37 °C the viral titer reduced from 104.5 TCID50 to 102.75 TCID50, showing a percent of inhibition of 98.6%. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that P34 inhibited EAV and FHV-1 replication in infected cell cultures and it showed virucidal activity against EAV. Since there is documented resistance to the current drugs used against herpesviruses and there is no treatment for equine viral arteritis, it is advisable to search for new antiviral compounds to overcome these infections. PMID:25477947

  12. Antiviral activity of a Bacillus sp: P34 peptide against pathogenic viruses of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Scopel e Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available P34 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by a Bacillus sp. strain isolated from the intestinal contents of a fish in the Brazilian Amazon basin with reported antibacterial activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the peptide P34 for its in vitro antiviral properties against canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2, canine coronavirus (CCoV, canine distemper virus (CDV, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2, equine arteritis virus (EAV, equine influenza virus (EIV, feline calicivirus (FCV and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1. The results showed that the peptide P34 exhibited antiviral activity against EAV and FHV-1. The peptide P34 inhibited the replication of EAV by 99.9% and FHV-1 by 94.4%. Virucidal activity was detected only against EAV. When P34 and EAV were incubated for 6 h at 37 °C the viral titer reduced from 10(4.5 TCID50 to 10(2.75 TCID50, showing a percent of inhibition of 98.6%. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that P34 inhibited EAV and FHV-1 replication in infected cell cultures and it showed virucidal activity against EAV. Since there is documented resistance to the current drugs used against herpesviruses and there is no treatment for equine viral arteritis, it is advisable to search for new antiviral compounds to overcome these infections.

  13. SAR: Stroke Authorship Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2015-10-15

    Are simple strokes unique to the artist or designer who renders them? If so, can this idea be used to identify authorship or to classify artistic drawings? Also, could training methods be devised to develop particular styles? To answer these questions, we propose the Stroke Authorship Recognition (SAR) approach, a novel method that distinguishes the authorship of 2D digitized drawings. SAR converts a drawing into a histogram of stroke attributes that is discriminative of authorship. We provide extensive classification experiments on a large variety of data sets, which validate SAR\\'s ability to distinguish unique authorship of artists and designers. We also demonstrate the usefulness of SAR in several applications including the detection of fraudulent sketches, the training and monitoring of artists in learning a particular new style and the first quantitative way to measure the quality of automatic sketch synthesis tools. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Coronaviruses: emerging and re-emerging pathogens in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Chan, Jasper F W

    2015-12-22

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemics have proven the ability of coronaviruses to cross species barrier and emerge rapidly in humans. Other coronaviruses such as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are also known to cause major disease epidemics in animals with huge economic loss. This special issue in Virology Journal aims to highlight the advances and key discoveries in the animal origin, viral evolution, epidemiology, diagnostics and pathogenesis of the emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses in both humans and animals.

  15. Influenza A virus infection of healthy piglets in an abattoir in Brazil: animal-human interface and risk for interspecies transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Ribeiro Amorim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330 were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9% influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs.

  16. Receptor binding properties of human and animal H1 influenza virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, G N; D'Souza, B L

    1989-11-01

    It has been previously reported that several human H1 influenza viruses isolated prior to 1956, in contrast to human H3 isolates which are quite specific for SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences, apparently recognize both SA alpha 2,3Gal and SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences (Rogers, G.N., and Paulson, J.C., Virology 127, 361-373, 1983). In this report human H1 isolates representative of two epidemic periods, from 1934 to 1957 and from 1977 to 1986, and H1 influenza isolated from pigs, ducks, and turkeys were compared for their ability to utilize sialyloligosaccharide structures containing terminal SA alpha 2,3Gal or SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences as receptor determinants. Five of the eight human isolates from the first epidemic period recognize both SA alpha 2,3Gal and SA alpha 2,6Gal linkages, in agreement with our previous results. Of the remaining three strains, all isolated towards the end of the first epidemic, two appear to prefer SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences while the third preferentially binds SA alpha 2,3Gal sequences. In contrast to the early isolates, 11 of 13 human strains isolated during the second epidemic period preferentially bind SA alpha 2,6Gal containing oligosaccharides. On the basis of changes in receptor binding associated with continued passage in the laboratory for some of these later strains, it seems likely that human H1 isolates preferentially bind SA alpha 2,6Gal sequences in nature, and that acquisition of SA alpha 2,3Gal-binding is associated with laboratory passage. Influenza H1 viruses isolated from pigs were predominantly SA alpha 2,6Gal-specific while those isolated from ducks were primarily SA alpha 2,3Gal-specific. Thus, as has been previously reported for H3 influenza isolates, receptor specificity for influenza H1 viruses appears to be influenced by the species from which they were isolated, human isolates binding preferentially to SA alpha 2,6Gal-containing oligosaccharides while those isolated from ducks prefer SA alpha 2,3Gal

  17. Retrospective epidemiological evaluation of molecular and animal husbandry data within the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria during 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Karl; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Steinrigl, Adolf; Fuchs, Reinhard; Sailer, Andreas; Weikel, Joachim; Schmoll, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiological investigation of molecular and animal husbandry data collected over an observation period of five years (2009-2014) within the compulsory bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria, covering the federal provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg is presented in this study. Samples collected from 232 infected calves were phylogenetically classified based on the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). All but 13 samples, which were typed as border disease virus subtype 3 (BDV-3), belonged to the bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1) and clustered within six different subtypes (1b, 1e, 1f, 1h, 1d and 1k). Movement data and survival times from infected individual animals were analysed because of their potential of passing on infection to naive herds. From the moment of submission of the laboratory results, 180 animals were culled within the first month, 13 lived longer than two but not longer than six months and seven infected animals lived longer than one year. 13 of the infected animals were born on alpine pastures and eleven infected animals were grazed on mountain pastures during summer. The movement of infected animals and the role of trade in alpine areas are a possible source for spreading the infection, thus hampering the progress of eradication.

  18. 42 CFR 71.56 - African rodents and other animals that may carry the monkeypox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false African rodents and other animals that may carry... HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.56 African rodents... import or attempt to import any rodents, whether dead or alive, that were obtained, directly...

  19. Efficacy and safety/toxicity study of recombinant vaccinia virus JX-594 in two immunocompetent animal models of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, XueQing; Chan, Jennifer; Zhou, Hongyuan; Sun, Beichen; Kelly, John J P; Stechishin, Owen Owen; Bell, John C; Parato, Kelley; Hu, Kang; Vaillant, Dominique; Wang, Jiahu; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Breitbach, Caroline; Kirn, David; Senger, Donna L; Forsyth, Peter A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the oncolytic potential of the recombinant, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-expressing vaccinia virus (VV) JX-594 in experimental malignant glioma (MGs) in vitro and in immunocompetent rodent models. We have found that JX-594 killed all MG cell lines tested in vitro. Intratumoral (i.t.) administration of JX-594 significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in rats-bearing RG2 intracranial (i.c.) tumors and mice-bearing GL261 brain tumors. Combination therapy with JX-594 and rapamycin significantly increased viral replication and further prolonged survival in both immunocompetent i.c. MG models with several animals considered "cured" (three out of seven rats >120 days, terminated experiment). JX-594 infected and killed brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) from patient samples grown ex vivo, and did so more efficiently than other oncolytic viruses MYXV, Reovirus type-3, and VSV(ΔM51). Additional safety/toxicity studies in nontumor-bearing rodents treated with a supratherapeutic dose of JX-594 demonstrated GM-CSF-dependent inflammation and necrosis. These results suggest that i.c. administered JX-594 triggers a predictable GM-CSF-mediated inflammation in murine models. Before proceeding to clinical trials, JX-594 should be evaluated in the brains of nonhuman primates and optimized for the viral doses, delivery routes as well as the combination agents (e.g., mTOR inhibitors).

  20. A Genome-Wide Analysis of RNA Pseudoknots That Stimulate Efficient −1 Ribosomal Frameshifting or Readthrough in Animal Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting (PRF and stop codon readthrough are two translational recoding mechanisms utilized by some RNA viruses to express their structural and enzymatic proteins at a defined ratio. Efficient recoding usually requires an RNA pseudoknot located several nucleotides downstream from the recoding site. To assess the strategic importance of the recoding pseudoknots, we have carried out a large scale genome-wide analysis in which we used an in-house developed program to detect all possible H-type pseudoknots within the genomic mRNAs of 81 animal viruses. Pseudoknots are detected downstream from ~85% of the recoding sites, including many previously unknown pseudoknots. ~78% of the recoding pseudoknots are the most stable pseudoknot within the viral genomes. However, they are not as strong as some designed pseudoknots that exhibit roadblocking effect on the translating ribosome. Strong roadblocking pseudoknots are not detected within the viral genomes. These results indicate that the decoding pseudoknots have evolved to possess optimal stability for efficient recoding. We also found that the sequence at the gag-pol frameshift junction of HIV1 harbors potential elaborated pseudoknots encompassing the frameshift site. A novel mechanism is proposed for possible involvement of the elaborated pseudoknots in the HIV1 PRF event.

  1. ONERA airborne SAR facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutry, J.M. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Chatillon (France)

    1996-11-01

    ONERA has developed and operates the RAMSES experimental SAR on board a TRANSALL C160 aircraft. This system has been designed in order to analyze the effect of various parameters, such as frequency, polarization, incidence, resolution,... in the field of air-to-ground radar applications. These applications include SAR imaging for ground radar applications. These applications include SAR imaging for various purposes such as map-matching for navigation update, battlefield surveillance, reconnaissance, treaty applications... It consists of several radar sections operating over a wide range of frequency bands (L, S, C, X, Ku, Ka, W). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Metabolic effects of influenza virus infection in cultured animal cells: Intra- and extracellular metabolite profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genzel Yvonne

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many details in cell culture-derived influenza vaccine production are still poorly understood and approaches for process optimization mainly remain empirical. More insights on mammalian cell metabolism after a viral infection could give hints on limitations and cell-specific virus production capacities. A detailed metabolic characterization of an influenza infected adherent cell line (MDCK was carried out based on extracellular and intracellular measurements of metabolite concentrations. Results For most metabolites the comparison of infected (human influenza A/PR/8/34 and mock-infected cells showed a very similar behavior during the first 10-12 h post infection (pi. Significant changes were observed after about 12 h pi: (1 uptake of extracellular glucose and lactate release into the cell culture supernatant were clearly increased in infected cells compared to mock-infected cells. At the same time (12 h pi intracellular metabolite concentrations of the upper part of glycolysis were significantly increased. On the contrary, nucleoside triphosphate concentrations of infected cells dropped clearly after 12 h pi. This behaviour was observed for two different human influenza A/PR/8/34 strains at slightly different time points. Conclusions Comparing these results with literature values for the time course of infection with same influenza strains, underline the hypothesis that influenza infection only represents a minor additional burden for host cell metabolism. The metabolic changes observed after12 h pi are most probably caused by the onset of apoptosis in infected cells. The comparison of experimental data from two variants of the A/PR/8/34 virus strain (RKI versus NIBSC with different productivities and infection dynamics showed comparable metabolic patterns but a clearly different timely behavior. Thus, infection dynamics are obviously reflected in host cell metabolism.

  3. ESTUDIO TEÓRICO DEL VIRUS DEL SÍNDROME RESPIRATORIO AGUDO SEVERO (SARS A TRAVÉS DEL USO DE MÉTODOS DE ACOPLAMIENTO MOLECULAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vivas Reyes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se ha evaluado por medio de la metodología de acoplamiento molecular una serie de 5 ligandos borados, que son variantes de la molécula FL-078. Estas moléculas tienen actividad inhibitoria frente a la proteasa Mpro responsable de la replicación del SARS-CoV. Haciendo uso del programa SYBYL7.0 se optimizó el homodímero de la Mpro (código 1Q2W, y a través del software FlexX se hizo el acople molecular con el fin de escoger el confórmero más estable de los ligandos aril borados frente a la macromolécula Mpro, encontrándose que la estructura FL-166 fue la de mejor conformación. Los 5 ligandos aril borados tienen la propiedad de interaccionar con el grupo hidroxilo (OH presente en los residuos tales como serinas, treoninas y tirosinas. Los resultados acople molecular muestran que el mejor acercamiento sobre la cavidad se da sobre el conjunto de treoninas 21, 24, 25 y 26, y no como se afirma en la literatura: que se da sobre el conjunto de serinas 139, 144 y 147.

  4. Suppression of RNAi by dsRNA-degrading RNaseIII enzymes of viruses in animals and plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Weinheimer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain RNA and DNA viruses that infect plants, insects, fish or poikilothermic animals encode Class 1 RNaseIII endoribonuclease-like proteins. dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease activity of the RNaseIII of rock bream iridovirus infecting fish and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt crinivirus (SPCSV infecting plants has been shown. Suppression of the host antiviral RNA interference (RNAi pathway has been documented with the RNaseIII of SPCSV and Heliothis virescens ascovirus infecting insects. Suppression of RNAi by the viral RNaseIIIs in non-host organisms of different kingdoms is not known. Here we expressed PPR3, the RNaseIII of Pike-perch iridovirus, in the non-hosts Nicotiana benthamiana (plant and Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode and found that it cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNA (ds-siRNA molecules that are pivotal in the host RNA interference (RNAi pathway and thereby suppresses RNAi in non-host tissues. In N. benthamiana, PPR3 enhanced accumulation of Tobacco rattle tobravirus RNA1 replicon lacking the 16K RNAi suppressor. Furthermore, PPR3 suppressed single-stranded RNA (ssRNA--mediated RNAi and rescued replication of Flock House virus RNA1 replicon lacking the B2 RNAi suppressor in C. elegans. Suppression of RNAi was debilitated with the catalytically compromised mutant PPR3-Ala. However, the RNaseIII (CSR3 produced by SPCSV, which cleaves ds-siRNA and counteracts antiviral RNAi in plants, failed to suppress ssRNA-mediated RNAi in C. elegans. In leaves of N. benthamiana, PPR3 suppressed RNAi induced by ssRNA and dsRNA and reversed silencing; CSR3, however, suppressed only RNAi induced by ssRNA and was unable to reverse silencing. Neither PPR3 nor CSR3 suppressed antisense-mediated RNAi in Drosophila melanogaster. These results show that the RNaseIII enzymes of RNA and DNA viruses suppress RNAi, which requires catalytic activities of RNaseIII. In contrast to other viral silencing suppression proteins, the RNaseIII enzymes are

  5. Experimental infections using the foot-and-mouth disease virus O/JPN/2010 in animals administered a vaccine preserved for emergency use in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUKAI, Katsuhiko; NISHI, Tatsuya; SHIMADA, Nobuaki; MORIOKA, Kazuki; YAMADA, Manabu; YOSHIDA, Kazuo; SAKAMOTO, Kenichi; KITANO, Rie; YAMAZOE, Reiko; YAMAKAWA, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a vaccine preserved for emergency use in Japan was analyzed under experimental conditions using cows and pigs in order to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of the emergency vaccination performed in the 2010 epidemic in Japan. Cows and pigs were administered a vaccine preserved for emergency use in Japan at 3 or 30 days before virus infection (dbv) and were subsequently infected with the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/JPN/2010, which was isolated in the 2010 epidemic in Japan. All animals vaccinated at 30 dbv and one of three pigs vaccinated at 3 dbv showed no vesicular lesions during the experimental period. The virus titers and viral RNA loads obtained from clinical samples were lower in the vaccinated cows than in the non-vaccinated cows. The viral excretion periods were shorter in the vaccinated cows than in the non-vaccinated cows. In contrast, in the vaccinated pigs, the virus titers and viral RNA loads obtained from the samples, except for those obtained from sera, were not decreased significantly, and the viral excretion periods were not sufficiently shortened. These results suggest that the vaccine can protect against clinical signs of infection by the FMDV O/JPN/2010 in animals; however, it should be noted that in vaccinated and infected animals, especially pigs, clinical samples, such as saliva and nasal swabs, may contain excreted viruses, even if no clinical signs were exhibited. PMID:27773883

  6. Elicitation of strong immune responses by a DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 in murine and porcine animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Kang, H.N.; Babiuk, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the immunogenicity of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 DNA vaccine alone or with a protein vaccine boost in murine and porcine animal models. METHODS: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein was constructed and used to vaccinate mice and piglets with or without...

  7. Feline foamy virus adversely affects feline mesenchymal stem cell culture and expansion: implications for animal model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzi, Boaz; Kol, Amir; Murphy, Brian; Walker, Naomi J; Wood, Joshua A; Clark, Kaitlin; Verstraete, Frank J M; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic option for various immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders due to their potent immunomodulatory and trophic properties. Naturally occurring diseases in large animal species may serve as surrogate animal models of human disease, as they may better reflect the complex genetic, environmental, and physiologic variation present in outbred populations. We work with naturally occurring diseases in large animal species to better understand how MSCs work and to facilitate optimal translation of MSC-based therapies. We are investigating the use of MSC therapy for a chronic oral inflammatory disease in cats. During our efforts to expand fat-derived feline MSCs (fMSCs), we observed that∼50% of the cell lines developed giant foamy multinucleated cells in later passages. These morphologic alterations were associated with proliferation arrest. We hypothesized that the cytopathic effects were caused by infection with a retrovirus, feline foamy virus (FFV). Using transmission electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro assays, we determined that syncytial cell formation and proliferation arrest in fMSCs were caused by FFV strains that were highly homologous to previously reported FFV strains. We determined that the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir, may be used to support ex vivo expansion and salvage of FFV-infected fMSC lines. MSC lines derived from specific pathogen-free cats do not appear to be infected with FFV and may be a source of allogeneic fMSCs for clinical application. FFV infection of fMSC lines may hinder large-scale expansion of autologous MSC for therapeutic use in feline patients.

  8. Myxoma virus virotherapy for glioma in immunocompetent animal models: optimizing administration routes and synergy with rapamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, XueQing; Alain, Tommy; Zemp, Franz J; Zhou, Hongyuan; Rahman, Masmudur M; Hamilton, Mark G; McFadden, Grant; Bell, John; Senger, Donna L; Forsyth, Peter A

    2010-01-15

    Oncolytic myxoma virus (MYXV) is being developed as a novel virotherapeutic against human brain cancer and has promising activity against human brain tumor models in immunocompromised hosts. Because an intact immune system could reduce its efficacy, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncolytic potential of MYXV in immunocompetent racine glioma models. Here, we report that MYXV infects and kills all racine cell glioma lines and that its effects are enhanced by rapamycin. Intratumoral administration of MYXV with rapamycin improved viral replication in the tumor and significantly prolonged host survival. Similarly, coadministration via a method of convection-enhanced delivery (CED) enhanced viral replication and efficacy in vivo. Mechanisms by which rapamycin improved MYXV oncolysis included an inhibition of type I IFN production in vitro and a reduction of intratumoral infiltration of CD68(+) microglia/macrophages and CD163(+) macrophages in vivo. Our findings define a method to improve MYXV efficacy against gliomas by rapamycin coadministration, which acts to promote immune responses engaged by viral delivery.

  9. Association of Hepatitis C Virus With Insulin Resistance: Evidences From Animal Studies and Clinical Studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Badar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: HCV infection is strongly associated with development of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes, however molecular mechanism of these associations is not known. The aim of this review was to conduct a comprehensive literature search to understand the nature of the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and insulin resistance (IR. We also explored the role of HCV core protein and NS5a in modulating the course of the insulin-signaling pathway.Evidence Acquisitions: We searched Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM, LISTA (EBSCO, Web of Science (TS and PakMediNet.Results: Emerging evidence suggests an association between HCV infection and carotid/coronary vascular disease. IR appears to be a dominant underlying cause of accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. HCV can induce IR directly through the stimulation of SOCS3 and PPA2, and both of these molecules have been shown to inhibit interferon-α signaling. Improvement of insulin sensitivity may increase the response rate to antiviral treatment and prevent IR complications, including vascular diseases. The results of several clinical trials that have used insulin sensitizers (metformin and PPAR-γ agonists have been inconclusive.Conclusions: Beside the association between HCV and IR, the published data also have showed the possible association of HCV core and NS5A protein with IR.

  10. Detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus Interepidemic Activity in Some Hotspot Areas of Kenya by Sentinel Animal Surveillance, 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichoti, Jacqueline Kasiiti; Oriko, Abuu A.; Okutoyi, Leonard Ateya; Wauna, James Ogaa; Tchouassi, David P.; Tigoi, Caroline C.; Kemp, Steve; Sang, Rosemary; Mbabu, Rees Murithi

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus causes an important zoonotic disease of humans and small ruminants in Eastern Africa and is spread primarily by a mosquito vector. In this region, it occurs as epizootics that typically occur at 5–15-year intervals associated with unusual rainfall events. It has hitherto been known that the virus is maintained between outbreaks in dormant eggs of the mosquito vector and this has formed the basis of understanding of the epidemiology and control strategies of the disease. We show here that seroconversion and sporadic acute disease do occur during the interepidemic periods (IEPs) in the absence of reported cases in livestock or humans. The finding indicates that previously undetected low-level virus transmission during the IEPs does occur and that epizootics may also be due to periodic expansion of mosquito vectors in the presence of both circulating virus and naïve animals. PMID:25202470

  11. Detection of rift valley Fever virus interepidemic activity in some hotspot areas of kenya by sentinel animal surveillance, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichoti, Jacqueline Kasiiti; Kihara, Absolomon; Oriko, Abuu A; Okutoyi, Leonard Ateya; Wauna, James Ogaa; Tchouassi, David P; Tigoi, Caroline C; Kemp, Steve; Sang, Rosemary; Mbabu, Rees Murithi

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus causes an important zoonotic disease of humans and small ruminants in Eastern Africa and is spread primarily by a mosquito vector. In this region, it occurs as epizootics that typically occur at 5-15-year intervals associated with unusual rainfall events. It has hitherto been known that the virus is maintained between outbreaks in dormant eggs of the mosquito vector and this has formed the basis of understanding of the epidemiology and control strategies of the disease. We show here that seroconversion and sporadic acute disease do occur during the interepidemic periods (IEPs) in the absence of reported cases in livestock or humans. The finding indicates that previously undetected low-level virus transmission during the IEPs does occur and that epizootics may also be due to periodic expansion of mosquito vectors in the presence of both circulating virus and naïve animals.

  12. Detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus Interepidemic Activity in Some Hotspot Areas of Kenya by Sentinel Animal Surveillance, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus causes an important zoonotic disease of humans and small ruminants in Eastern Africa and is spread primarily by a mosquito vector. In this region, it occurs as epizootics that typically occur at 5–15-year intervals associated with unusual rainfall events. It has hitherto been known that the virus is maintained between outbreaks in dormant eggs of the mosquito vector and this has formed the basis of understanding of the epidemiology and control strategies of the disease. We show here that seroconversion and sporadic acute disease do occur during the interepidemic periods (IEPs in the absence of reported cases in livestock or humans. The finding indicates that previously undetected low-level virus transmission during the IEPs does occur and that epizootics may also be due to periodic expansion of mosquito vectors in the presence of both circulating virus and naïve animals.

  13. SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronavirus pose threat for human emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Yount, Boyd L.; Debbink, Kari; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Plante, Jessica A.; Graham, Rachel L.; Scobey, Trevor; Ge, Xing-Yi; Donaldson, Eric F.; Randell, Scott H.; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Marasco, Wayne A.; Shi, Zhengli-Li; Baric, Ralph S.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV underscores the threat of cross-species transmission events leading to outbreaks in humans. In this study, we examine the disease potential for SARS-like CoVs currently circulating in Chinese horseshoe bat populations. Utilizing the SARS-CoV infectious clone, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouse adapted SARS-CoV backbone. The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild type backbone can efficiently utilize multiple ACE2 receptor orthologs, replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells, and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrate replication of the chimeric virus in mouse lung with notable pathogenesis. Evaluation of available SARS-based immune-therapeutic and prophylactic modalities revealed poor efficacy; both monoclonal antibody and vaccine approaches failed to neutralize and protect from CoVs utilizing the novel spike protein. Importantly, based on these findings, we synthetically rederived an infectious full length SHC014 recombinant virus and demonstrate robust viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Together, the work highlights a continued risk of SARS-CoV reemergence from viruses currently circulating in bat populations. PMID:26552008

  14. Evolution and Variation of the SARS-CoV Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfei Hu; Zizhang Zhang; Wei Wei; Songgang Li; Jun Wang; Jian Wang; Jun Yu; Huanming Yang; Jing Wang; Jing Xu; Wei Li; Yujun Han; Yan Li; Jia Ji; Jia Ye; Zhao Xu

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the evolution of pathogens is of great medical and biological significance to the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of infectious diseases. In order to understand the origin and evolution of the SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus), we collected complete genome sequences of all viruses available in GenBank, and made comparative analyses with the SARSCoV. Genomic signature analysis demonstrates that the coronaviruses all take the TGTT as their richest tetranucleotide except the SARS-CoV. A detailed analysis of the forty-two complete SARS-CoV genome sequences revealed the existence of two distinct genotypes, and showed that these isolates could be classified into four groups. Our manual analysis of the BLASTN results demonstrates that the HE (hemagglutinin-esterase) gene exists in the SARS-CoV, and many mutations made it unfamiliar to us.

  15. 动物病毒细胞增殖的研究进展%Overview of Animal Viruses Propagation on Cell Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊晓旭; 车艳杰; 王栋

    2011-01-01

    从宿主细胞的选择、连续传代、培养条件、添加病毒保护剂、改变细胞基因结构等方面对促进病毒感染细胞的方法进行概述,为病毒在细胞上的增殖研究提供参考。%In order to provide reference for animal virus reproduction on cells,some methods were summarized,such as selecting host cells,continuous passages,culture conditions,adding virus protectant,changing cell genes and so on.

  16. Self-assembly of a nine-residue amyloid-forming peptide fragment of SARS corona virus E-protein: mechanism of self aggregation and amyloid-inhibition of hIAPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Pithadia, Amit S; Bhat, Jyotsna; Bera, Supriyo; Midya, Anupam; Fierke, Carol A; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Bhunia, Anirban

    2015-04-01

    Molecular self-assembly, a phenomenon widely observed in nature, has been exploited through organic molecules, proteins, DNA, and peptides to study complex biological systems. These self-assembly systems may also be used in understanding the molecular and structural biology which can inspire the design and synthesis of increasingly complex biomaterials. Specifically, use of these building blocks to investigate protein folding and misfolding has been of particular value since it can provide tremendous insights into peptide aggregation related to a variety of protein misfolding diseases, or amyloid diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type-II diabetes). Herein, the self-assembly of TK9, a nine-residue peptide of the extra membrane C-terminal tail of the SARS corona virus envelope, and its variants were characterized through biophysical, spectroscopic, and simulated studies, and it was confirmed that the structure of these peptides influences their aggregation propensity, hence, mimicking amyloid proteins. TK9, which forms a beta-sheet rich fibril, contains a key sequence motif that may be critical for beta-sheet formation, thus making it an interesting system to study amyloid fibrillation. TK9 aggregates were further examined through simulations to evaluate the possible intra- and interpeptide interactions at the molecular level. These self-assembly peptides can also serve as amyloid inhibitors through hydrophobic and electrophilic recognition interactions. Our results show that TK9 inhibits the fibrillation of hIAPP, a 37 amino acid peptide implicated in the pathology of type-II diabetes. Thus, biophysical and NMR experimental results have revealed a molecular level understanding of peptide folding events, as well as the inhibition of amyloid-protein aggregation are reported.

  17. Phylogeny of SARS-CoV as inferred from complete genome comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    SARS-CoV, as the pathogeny of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), is a mystery that the origin of the virus is still unknown even a few isolates of the virus were completely sequenced. To explore the genesis of SARS-CoV, the FDOD method previously developed by us was applied to comparing complete genomes from 12 SARS-CoV isolates to those from 12 previously identified coronaviruses and an unrooted phylogenetic tree was constructed. Our results show that all SARS-CoV isolates were clustered into a clique and previously identified coronaviruses formed the other clique. Meanwhile, the three groups of coronaviruses depart from each other clearly in our tree that is consistent with the results of prevenient papers. Differently, from the topology of the phylogenetic tree we found that SARS-CoV is more close to group 1 within genus coronavirus. The topology map also shows that the 12 SARS-CoV isolates may be divided into two groups determined by the association with the SARS-CoV from the Hotel M in Hong Kong that may give some information about the infectious relationship of the SARS.

  18. Varicella zoster virus-induced pain and post-herpetic neuralgia in the human host and in rodent animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchington, Paul R; Goins, William F

    2011-12-01

    Pain and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) are common and highly distressing complications of herpes zoster that remain a significant public health concern and in need of improved therapies. Zoster results from reactivation of the herpesvirus varicella zoster virus (VZV) from a neuronal latent state established at the primary infection (varicella). PHN occurs in some one fifth to one third of zoster cases with severity, incidence, and duration of pain increasing with rising patient age. While VZV reactivation and the ensuing ganglionic damage trigger the pain response, the mechanisms underlying protracted PHN are not understood, and the lack of an animal model of herpes zoster (reactivation) makes this issue more challenging. A recent preclinical rodent model has developed that opens up the potential to allow the exploration of the underlying mechanisms and treatments for VZV-induced pain. Rats inoculated with live cell-associated human VZV into the hind paw reliably demonstrate thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia for extended periods and then spontaneously recover. Dorsal root ganglia express a limited VZV gene subset, including the IE62 regulatory protein, and upregulate expression of markers suggesting a neuropathic pain state. The model has been used to investigate treatment modalities and aspects of pain signaling and is under investigation by the authors to delineate VZV genetics involved in the induction of pain. This article compares human zoster-associated pain and PHN to the pain indicators in the rat and poses important questions that, if answered, could be the basis for new treatments.

  19. Crop Classification by Polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Svendsen, Morten Thougaard; Nielsen, Flemming;

    1999-01-01

    Polarimetric SAR-data of agricultural fields have been acquired by the Danish polarimetric L- and C-band SAR (EMISAR) during a number of missions at the Danish agricultural test site Foulum during 1995. The data are used to study the classification potential of polarimetric SAR data using...

  20. Molecular characterization of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinda, S N; Belsham, G J; Masembe, C; Sangula, A K; Siegismund, H R; Muwanika, V B

    2010-08-01

    In Uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread during outbreaks involves short-term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions of the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. In this study, the presence of FMD virus RNA was investigated in cattle samples 3 months after FMD quarantine measures had been lifted following an outbreak in 2004. Oropharyngeal tissue samples were obtained from 12 cattle slaughtered in a small town abattoir in Kiboga. FMD virus RNA was detected by diagnostic RT-PCR in nine of the 12 tissue samples. Part of the coding region for the capsid protein VP1 was amplified and sequenced. All samples were identified as belonging to the SAT 2 serotype. The implications for FMD control of both virus introduction into Uganda and the presence of carrier animals following outbreaks are discussed.

  1. Molecular characterization of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus from post-outbreak slaughtered animals: implications for disease control in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila N; Belsham, Graham; Masembe, Charles

    2010-01-01

    . Part of the coding region for the capsid protein VP1 was amplified and sequenced. All samples were identified as belonging to the SAT 2 serotype. The implications for FMD control of both virus introductions into Uganda and the presence of carrier animals following outbreaks are discussed.......In Uganda, limiting the extent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread during outbreaks involves short term measures such as ring vaccination and restrictions to the movement of livestock and their products to and from the affected areas. In this study, the presence of FMD virus RNA was investigated...... in cattle samples, three months after FMD quarantine measures had been lifted in the area in 2004 following an outbreak. Oropharyngeal tissue samples were obtained from 12 cattle slaughtered in a small town abattoir of Kiboga. FMD virus RNA was detected by diagnostic RT- PCR in 9 of the 12 tissue samples...

  2. A Comparison of the Pathogenesis of Marburg Virus Disease in Humans and Nonhuman Primates and Evaluation of the Suitability of These Animal Models for Predicting Clinical Efficacy under the 'Animal Rule'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Elizabeth R; Roy, Michael J; Dalrymple, Lonnie W; Lanning, Lynda L

    2015-06-01

    Marburg virus outbreaks are sporadic, infrequent, brief, and relatively small in terms of numbers of subjects affected. In addition, outbreaks most likely will occur in remote regions where clinical trials are not feasible; therefore, definitive, well-controlled human efficacy studies to test the effectiveness of a drug or biologic product are not feasible. Healthy human volunteers cannot ethically be deliberately exposed to a lethal agent such as Marburg virus in order to test the efficacy of a therapy or preventive prior to licensure. When human efficacy studies are neither ethical nor feasible, the US Food and Drug Administration may grant marketing approval of a drug or biologic product under the 'Animal Rule,' through which demonstration of the efficacy of a product can be 'based on adequate and well-controlled animal efficacy studies when the results of those studies establish that the drug is reasonably likely to produce clinical benefit in humans.' This process requires that the pathogenic determinants of the disease in the animal model are similar to those that have been identified in humans. After reviewing primarily English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles, we here summarize the clinical manifestations of Marburg virus disease and the results of studies in NHP showing the characteristics and progression of the disease. We also include a detailed comparison of the characteristics of the human disease relative to those for NHP. This review reveals that the disease characteristics of Marburg virus disease are generally similar for humans and 3 NHP species: cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

  3. Phylogeographic Reconstructions of a Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain Reveals Transboundary Animal Movements from Eastern Continental Africa to the Union of the Comoros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquart, M; Pascalis, H; Abdouroihamane, S; Roger, M; Abdourahime, F; Cardinale, E; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2016-04-01

    Major explosive outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF), an arthropod borne zoonotic disease, occur in humans and animals with significant mortality and economic impact across continental Africa and the Indian Ocean region (Madagascar, the Comoros archipelago). Recently, sporadic human cases have been reported in Mayotte and Grande Comore, two islands belonging to the Comoros archipelago. To identify the hypothetical source of virus introduction in an inter-epidemic or a post-epidemic period, a longitudinal survey of livestock was set up in Comorian ruminant populations, known to be susceptible hosts. The phylogeographic genomic analysis has shown that RVF virus (RVFV) detected in a zebu collected in Anjouan in August 2011 seems to be related to the last known epidemic of RVF which occurred in East Africa and Madagascar (2007-2009). This result highlights the fact that RVFV is maintained within local livestock populations and transboundary animal movements from eastern continental Africa to Indian Ocean islands likely result in RVFV crossover.

  4. Rapid inactivation of SARS-like coronaviruses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapil, Sanjay (Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS); Oberst, R. D. (Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS); Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David; Souza, Caroline Ann; Williams, Cecelia Victoria

    2004-03-01

    Chemical disinfection and inactivation of viruses is largely understudied, but is very important especially in the case of highly infectious viruses. The purpose of this LDRD was to determine the efficacy of the Sandia National Laboratories developed decontamination formulations against Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) as a surrogate for the coronavirus that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in humans. The outbreak of SARS in late 2002 resulted from a highly infectious virus that was able to survive and remain infectious for extended periods. For this study, preliminary testing with Escherichia coli MS-2 (MS-2) and Escherichia coli T4 (T4) bacteriophages was conducted to develop virucidal methodology for verifying the inactivation after treatment with the test formulations following AOAC germicidal methodologies. After the determination of various experimental parameters (i.e. exposure, concentration) of the formulations, final testing was conducted on BCV. All experiments were conducted with various organic challenges (horse serum, bovine feces, compost) for results that more accurately represent field use condition. The MS-2 and T4 were slightly more resistant than BCV and required a 2 minute exposure while BCV was completely inactivated after a 1 minute exposure. These results were also consistent for the testing conducted in the presence of the various organic challenges indicating that the test formulations are highly effective for real world application.

  5. Bistatic SAR: Proof of Concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yocky, David A.; Doren, Neall E.; Bacon, Terry A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Charles V,; Delaplain, Gilbert G.; Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.; White, Kyle R.

    2014-10-01

    Typical synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) imaging employs a co-located RADAR transmitter and receiver. Bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. A bistatic SAR configuration allows for the transmitter and receiver(s) to be in a variety of geometric alignments. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) / New Mexico proposed the deployment of a ground-based RADAR receiver. This RADAR receiver was coupled with the capability of digitizing and recording the signal collected. SNL proposed the possibility of creating an image of targets the illuminating SAR observes. This document describes the developed hardware, software, bistatic SAR configuration, and its deployment to test the concept of a ground-based bistatic SAR. In the proof-of-concept experiments herein, the RADAR transmitter will be a commercial SAR satellite and the RADAR receiver will be deployed at ground level, observing and capturing RADAR ground/targets illuminated by the satellite system.

  6. Protection and differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals by an inactivated recombinant Newcastle disease virus/avian influenza H5 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Soto-Priante, Ernesto; Sarfati-Mizrahi, David; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Flores-Castro, Ricardo; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Gay-Gutiérrez, Manuel

    2010-03-01

    Specific-pathogen-free chickens immunized at 14 days of age with either an inactivated recombinant Newcastle disease virus-LaSota/avian influenza H5 (K-rNDV-LS/AI-H5) vaccine or a killed Newcastle disease/avian influenza whole-virus vaccine (K-ND/AI) were protected from disease when challenged with either A/chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2), a high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain isolated in Mexico in 1995, or with a Mexican velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus (VVNDV) strain 21 days postvaccination. All nonvaccinated chickens challenged with HPAIV or VVNDV succumbed to disease, while those vaccinated with K-rNDV-LS/AI-H5 or K-ND/AI were protected from severe clinical signs and death. Both vaccines induced hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody responses against NDV and AIV. Antibodies against AIV nucleoprotein were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in birds vaccinated with the inactivated rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine. These chickens became positive for AIV antibodies by ELISA only after challenge with HPAIV. The data clearly indicate that the inactivated rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine confers protection comparable to that of the conventional killed whole-virus vaccine against both NDV and AIV, while still allowing differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals by HI and ELISA tests.

  7. Successful vaccination strategies that protect aged mice from lethal challenge from influenza virus and heterologous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Timothy; Whitmore, Alan; Long, Kristin; Ferris, Martin; Rockx, Barry; Funkhouser, William; Donaldson, Eric; Gralinski, Lisa; Collier, Martha; Heise, Mark; Davis, Nancy; Johnston, Robert; Baric, Ralph S

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging viruses often circulate as a heterogeneous swarm in wild animal reservoirs prior to their emergence in humans, and their antigenic identities are often unknown until an outbreak situation. The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and reemerging influenza virus cause disproportionate disease in the aged, who are also notoriously difficult to successfully vaccinate, likely due to immunosenescence. To protect against future emerging strains, vaccine platforms should induce broad cross-reactive immunity that is sufficient to protect from homologous and heterologous challenge in all ages. From initial studies, we hypothesized that attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particle (VRP) vaccine glycoproteins mediated vaccine failure in the aged. We then compared the efficacies of vaccines bearing attenuated (VRP(3014)) or wild-type VEE glycoproteins (VRP(3000)) in young and aged mice within novel models of severe SARS-CoV pathogenesis. Aged animals receiving VRP(3000)-based vaccines were protected from SARS-CoV disease, while animals receiving the VRP(3014)-based vaccines were not. The superior protection for the aged observed with VRP(3000)-based vaccines was confirmed in a lethal influenza virus challenge model. While the VRP(3000) vaccine's immune responses in the aged were sufficient to protect against lethal homologous and heterologous challenge, our data suggest that innate defects within the VRP(3014) platform mediate vaccine failure. Exploration into the mechanism(s) of successful vaccination in the immunosenescent should aid in the development of successful vaccine strategies for other viral diseases disproportionately affecting the elderly, like West Nile virus, influenza virus, norovirus, or other emerging viruses of the future.

  8. Induction and Characterization of Immune Responses in Small Animals Using a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEE) Replicon System, Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Envelope Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    59 6. Baldinotti, F., D. Matteucci, P. Mazzetti, C. Giannelli, P. Bandecchi, F. Tozzini, and M. Bendinelli. 1994. Serum neutralization of feline ...immunodeficiency virus type 1 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Methods 12:337-42. 9. Beaumont, T., A. van Nuenen, S. Broersen, W...Maggi, A. Leonildi, S. Giannecchini, C. Bergamini, and D. Matteucci. 2001. During readaptation in vivo, a tissue culture-adapted strain of feline

  9. Detection, isolation and confirmation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in human, ticks and animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra T Mourya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF virus by qRT-PCR of which samples of two medical professionals (case C and E and the husband of the index case (case D were positive for CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of indigenous developed IgM ELISA to screen CCHFV specific antibodies in human serum was 75.0% and 97.5% respectively as compared to commercial kit. About 17.0% domestic animals from Kolat, Ahmadabad were positive for IgG antibodies while only two cattle and a goat showed positivity by qRT-PCR. Surprisingly, 43.0% domestic animals (Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat showed IgG antibodies in the adjoining village Jivanpara but only one of the buffalo was positive for CCHFV. The Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were positive in PCR and virus isolation. CCHFV was isolated from the blood sample of case C, E in Vero E-6 cells and Swiss albino mice. In partial nucleocapsid gene phylogeny from CCHFV positive human samples of the years 2010 and 2011, livestock and ticks showed this virus was similar to Tajikistan (strain TAJ/H08966, which belongs in the Asian/middle east genetic lineage IV. CONCLUSIONS: The likely source of CCHFV was identified as virus infected Hyalomma ticks and livestock at the rural village residence of the primary case (case A. In addition, retrospective sample analysis revealed the existence of CCHFV in Gujarat and Rajasthan states before this outbreak. An indigenous developed IgM ELISA kit will be of great use for screening this virus in India.

  10. SARS coronavirus entry into host cells through a novel clathrin- and caveolae-independent endocytic pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongliang Wang; Peng Yang; Kangtai Liu; Feng Guo; Yanli Zhang; Gongyi Zhang; Chengyu Jiang

    2008-01-01

    While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)fwas initially thought to enter cells through direct fusion with the plasma membrane, more recent evidence suggests that virus entry may also involve endocytosis. We have found that SARS-CoV enters cells via pH- and receptor-dependent endocytosis. Treatment of cells with either SARS-CoV spike protein or spike-bearing pseudoviruses resulted in the translocation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor of SARS-CoV, from the cell surface to endosomes. In addition, the spike-bearing pseudoviruses and early endosome antigen 1 were found to colocalize in endosomes. Further analyses using specific endocytic pathway inhibitors and dominant-negative Eps15 as well as caveolin-1 colocalization study suggested that virus entry was mediated by a clathrin- and caveolae-independent mechanism. Moreover, cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich lipid raft microdomains in the plasma membrane, which have been shown to act as platforms for many physiological signaling pathways, were shown to be involved in virus entry. Endocytic entry of SARS-CoV may expand the cellular range of SARS-CoV infection, and our findings here contribute to the understanding of SARS-CoV pathogenesis, providing new information for anti-viral drug research.

  11. Bistatic sAR data processing algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Xiaolan; Hu, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is critical for remote sensing. It works day and night, in good weather or bad. Bistatic SAR is a new kind of SAR system, where the transmitter and receiver are placed on two separate platforms. Bistatic SAR is one of the most important trends in SAR development, as the technology renders SAR more flexible and safer when used in military environments. Imaging is one of the most difficult and important aspects of bistatic SAR data processing. Although traditional SAR signal processing is fully developed, bistatic SAR has a more complex system structure, so sign

  12. Functional genomics highlights differential induction of antiviral pathways in the lungs of SARS-CoV-infected macaques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Lang (Anna); T. Baas (Tracey); T.H. Teal (Thomas); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); B. Rain (Brandon); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); M.G. Katze (Michael)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is likely mediated by disproportional immune responses and the ability of the virus to circumvent innate immunity. Using functional genomics, we analyzed early host responses to SARS-CoV infection in the lungs o

  13. SARS-CoV Genome Polymorphism: A Bioinformatics Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordana M. Pavlovi(c)-Lazeti(c); Nenad S. Miti(c); Andrija M. Tomovi(c); Mirjana D. Pavlovi(c); Milo(s) V.Beljanski

    2005-01-01

    A dataset of 103 SARS-CoV isolates (101 human patients and 2 palm civets) was investigated on different aspects of genome polymorphism and isolate classification.The number and the distribution of single nucleotide variations (SNVs) and insertions and deletions, with respect to a "profile", were determined and discussed ("profile" being a sequence containing the most represented letter per position).Distribution of substitution categories per codon positions, as well as synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions in coding regions of annotated isolates, was determined, along with amino acid (a.a.) property changes. Similar analysis was performed for the spike (S) protein in all the isolates (55 of them being predicted for the first time). The ratio Ka/Ks confirmed that the S gene was subjected to the Darwinian selection during virus transmission from animals to humans. Isolates from the dataset were classified according to genome polymorphism and genotypes. Genome polymorphism yields to two groups, one with a small number of SNVs and another with a large number of SNVs, with up to four subgroups with respect to insertions and deletions. We identified three basic nine-locus genotypes:TTTT/TTCGG, CGCC/TTCAT, and TGCC/TTCGT, with four subgenotypes.Both classifications proposed are in accordance with the new insights into possible epidemiological spread, both in space and time.

  14. SARS疫苗研究进展%The progress in research of SARS vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增峰

    2011-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious infectious disease caused by SARSassociated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). There are no approved antiviral drugs that effectively target SARS-CoV,and vaccination is the most effective mode for preventing SARS in people. At present, SARS vaccines,including inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines, subunit vaccines and DNA vaccines, etc., are being developed. Progress has been made in animal models, and some of the vaccines have entered clinical trials. In this article, the current state of SARS vaccine development is reviewed.%严重急性呼吸综合征(severe acute respiratory syndrome,SARS)是由SARS相关冠状病毒(SARS-associated coronavirus,SARS-CoV)引起的一类严重的急性呼吸系统传染病.目前尚未研制出治疗SARS的有效药物,防范SARS-CoV感染最有效的方法是使用疫苗.正在研制的SARS疫苗有灭活疫苗、减毒活疫苗、亚单位疫苗和DNA疫苗等,这些疫苗在动物模型中取得一些进展,有的已进入人体试验.此文就近几年有关SARS疫苗的研发现状做一综述.

  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein ion channel activity promotes virus fitness and pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L Nieto-Torres

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV envelope (E gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1β were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1β was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS

  16. Identification of Immunogenic Determinants of the Spike Protein of SARS-like Coronavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Zhou; Zhenggang Han; Lin-Fa Wang; Zhengli Shi

    2013-01-01

    Bat SARS-like coronavirus (SL-CoV) has a genome organization almost identical to that of SARS-CoV,but the N-terminus of the Spike (S) proteins,which interacts with host receptor and is a major target of neutralizing antibodies against CoVs,of the two viruses has only 63-64% sequence identity.Although there have been reports studying the overall immunogenicity of SSL,knowledge on the precise location of immunodominant determinants for SSL is still lacking.In this study,using a series of truncated expressed SSL fragments and SsL specific mouse sera,we identified two immunogenic determinants for SSL.Importantly,one of the two regions seems to be located in a region not shared by known immunogenic determinants of the SSARS.This finding will be of potential use in future monitoring of SL-CoV infection in bats and spillover animals and in development of more effective vaccine to cover broad protection against this new group of coronaviruses.

  17. Expression and Purification of SARS Coronavirus Membrane Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴五星; 雷明军; 吴少庭; 陈智浩; 梁靓; 潘晖榕; 秦莉; 高士同; 袁仕善; 张仁利

    2004-01-01

    To construct a recombinant plasmid Pet23a-M, the gene encoding severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus membrane protein was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the expression plasmid Pet23a. Results of restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR detection and DNA sequencing analysis revealed that the cloned DNA sequence was the same as that reported. The re combinants were transformed into Escherichia coli (E. Coli) BL21 (DE3) and induced by Isopropylβ-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The expression of 27 kD (1 kD=0. 992 1 ku) protein was detected by SDS-PAGE and pured by metal chelated chromatography. Results of Western-blot showed that this expressed protein could react with antibodies in sera of SARS patients during convalescence. This provided the basis for the further study on SARS virus vaccine and diagnostic agents.

  18. Novel Polarimetric SAR Interferometry Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polarimetric SAR interferometry (PolInSAR) is a recently developed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging mode that combines the capabilities of radar polarimetry...

  19. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Bowen, Richard A; Root, J Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Emergent H7N9 influenza A virus has caused multiple public health and financial hardships. While some epidemiological studies have recognized infected chickens as an important bridge for human infections, the generality of this observation, the minimum infectious dose, and the shedding potential of chickens have received conflicting results. We experimentally tested the ability of domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) to transmit H7N9 to co-housed chickens and to several other animal species in an experimental live animal market. Results indicated that an infected chicken failed to initiate viral shedding of H7N9 to naïve co-housed chickens. The infected chicken did, however, successfully transmit the virus to quail (Coturnix sp.) located directly below the infected chicken cage. Oral shedding by indirectly infected quail was, on average, greater than ten-fold that of directly inoculated chickens. Best management practices in live animal market systems should consider the position of quail in stacked-cage settings.

  20. Humans, Other Animals and Disease: a comparative approach towards the development of a standardised recording protocol for animal palaeopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Vann

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the impact of animal disease on human societies has had an extremely high profile, with the spread of diseases such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE and foot and mouth among animal populations, as well as the transmission of diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Ebola and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS from animal to human populations. The social and economic impact of such illnesses has been profound. However, studies on the effect of animal disease in past human populations have been widely neglected. This is partly due to the inconsistent manner in which instances of animal disease (palaeopathology are recorded, diagnosed and interpreted which, together with the typically low incidence of specimens per site, has precluded detailed studies of regional or temporal trends. This article outlines the archaeological rationale behind developing a generic methodology to enable the consistent recognition, recording and description of animal palaeopathological data. Furthermore, the experience of palaeopathologists concerned with human populations has been drawn upon to develop a downloadable, stand-alone recording system to facilitate the recording of animal palaeopathological data and enable questions concerning past animal health and disease to be better explored in future.

  1. Bioinformatic Analysis of Putative Gene Products Encoded in SARS-HCoV Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵心刚; 韩敬东; 宁元亨; 孟安明; 陈晔光

    2003-01-01

    The cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been identified as a new coronavirus named as SARS-HCoV.Using bioinformatic methods, we have performed a detailed domain search.In addition to the viral structure proteins, we have found that several putative polypeptides share sequence similarity to known domains or proteins.This study may provide a basis for future studies on the infection and replication process of this notorious virus.

  2. Recovering Seasat SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. A.; Arko, S. A.; Rosen, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of orbital remote sensing for global ocean observations, NASA launched Seasat on June 27th, 1978. Being the first space borne SAR mission, Seasat produced the most detailed SAR images of Earth from space ever seen to that point in time. While much of the data collected in the USA was processed optically, a mere 150 scenes had been digitally processed by March 1980. In fact, only an estimated 3% of Seasat data was ever digitally processed. Thus, for over three decades, the majority of the SAR data from this historic mission has been dormant, virtually unavailable to scientists in the 21st century. Over the last year, researchers at the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) have processed the Seasat SAR archives into imagery products. A telemetry decoding system was created and the data were filtered into readily processable signal files. Due to nearly 35 years of bit rot, the bit error rate (BER) for the ASF DAAC Seasat archives was on the order of 1 out of 100 to 1 out of 100,000. This extremely high BER initially seemed to make much of the data undecodable - because the minor frame numbers are just 7 bits and no range line numbers exist in the telemetry even the 'simple' tasks of tracking the minor frame number or locating the start of each range line proved difficult. Eventually, using 5 frame numbers in sequence and a handful of heuristics, the data were successfully decoded into full range lines. Concurrently, all metadata were stored into external files. Recovery of this metadata was also problematic, the BER making the information highly suspect and, initially at least, unusable in any sort of automated fashion. Because of the BER, all of the single bit metadata fields proved unreliable. Even fields that should be constant for a data take (e.g. receiving station, day of the year) showed high variability, each requiring a median filter to be usable. The most challenging, however, were the

  3. Analytical SAR-GMTI principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Majumder, Uttam K.; Barnes, Christopher; Sobota, David; Minardi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides analytical principles to relate the signature of a moving target to parameters in a SAR system. Our objective is to establish analytical tools that could predict the shift and smearing of a moving target in a subaperture SAR image. Hence, a user could identify the system parameters such as the coherent processing interval for a subaperture that is suitable to localize the signature of a moving target for detection, tracking and geolocating the moving target. The paper begins by outlining two well-known SAR data collection methods to detect moving targets. One uses a scanning beam in the azimuth domain with a relatively high PRF to separate the moving targets and the stationary background (clutter); this is also known as Doppler Beam Sharpening. The other scheme uses two receivers along the track to null the clutter and, thus, provide GMTI. We also present results on implementing our SAR-GMTI analytical principles for the anticipated shift and smearing of a moving target in a simulated code. The code would provide a tool for the user to change the SAR system and moving target parameters, and predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image for a scene that is composed of both stationary and moving targets. Hence, the SAR simulation and imaging code could be used to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the above analytical principles to predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image.

  4. A STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL TISSUE CULTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tick-borne encephalitis virus is successfully reproduced in tissue cultures of the human embryo, HeLa cells , monkey and dog kidney tissue, skin...tissue and the HeLa cells . A cytopathogenic effect is registered regularly in the cultures of human skin-muscle and kidney tissued on the 2nd-4th day...the embryonic skin-muscle tissue of the white rat. The virus’s cytopathogenic effect is not developed in cultures of human lung tissue, HeLa cells , monkey

  5. SAR Altimetry Applications over Water

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Puig, C; Ruffini, G; Raney, R K; Benveniste, J

    2008-01-01

    The application of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques to classical radar altimetry offers the potential for greatly improved Earth surface mapping. This paper provides an overview of the progress of SAMOSA, Development of SAR Altimetry Studies and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters, an on-going ESA-funded project. The main objective of SAMOSA is to better quantify the improvement of SAR altimetry over conventional altimetry on water surfaces. More specifically, one of the tasks focuses on the reduction of SAR mode data to pulse-limited altimeter data, and a theoretical modelling to characterize the expected gain between high Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) reduced SAR mode data and low PRF classical Low-Resolution Mode (LRM) data. To this end, theoretical modelling using the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) will be used and the results will be compared to previous theoretical estimates [7], using an analysis akin to that in [8].

  6. Bistatic SAR: Imagery & Image Products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yocky, David A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Jakowatz, Charles V,

    2014-10-01

    While typical SAR imaging employs a co-located (monostatic) RADAR transmitter and receiver, bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. The transmitter and receiver geometry determines if the scattered signal is back scatter, forward scatter, or side scatter. The monostatic SAR image is backscatter. Therefore, depending on the transmitter/receiver collection geometry, the captured imagery may be quite different that that sensed at the monostatic SAR. This document presents imagery and image products formed from captured signals during the validation stage of the bistatic SAR research. Image quality and image characteristics are discussed first. Then image products such as two-color multi-view (2CMV) and coherent change detection (CCD) are presented.

  7. Generation of a recombinant chimeric Newcastle disease virus vaccine that allows serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, B.P.; Leeuw, de O.S.; Verstegen, I.; Koch, G.; Gielkens, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Using a recently developed reverse genetics system, we have generated a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine in which the gene encoding the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) has been replaced by a hybrid HN gene consisting of the cytoplasmic domain, transmembrane region, and stalk region

  8. Genome sequence variation analysis of two SARS coronavirus isolates after passage in Vero cell culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Weiwu; LI Ning; HU Liangxiang; DU Zhenglin; GAO Qiang; GAO Hong; NING Ye; FENG Jidong; ZHANG Jiansan; YIN Weidong

    2004-01-01

    SARS coronavirus is an RNA virus whose replication is error-prone, which provides possibility for escape of host defenses, and even leads to evolution of new viral strains during the passage or the transmission. Lots of variations have been detected among different SARS-CoV strains. And a study on these variations is helpful for development of efficient vaccine. Moreover, the test of nucleic acid characterization and genetic stability of SARS-CoV is important in the research of inactivated vaccine. The whole genome sequences of two SARS coronavirus strains after passage in Vero cell culture were determined and were compared with those of early passages, respectively. Results showed that both SARS coronavirus strains have high genetic stability, although nearly 10 generations were passed. Four nucleotide variations were observed between the second passage and the 11th passage of Sino1 strain for identification of SARS inactivated vaccine. Moreover, only one nucleotide was different between the third passage and the 10th passage of Sino3 strain for SARS inactivated vaccine. Therefore, this study suggested it was possible to develop inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV in the future.

  9. Excretion and detection of SARS coronavirus and its nucleic acid from digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Wei Wang; Xiao-Ming Wu; Wen-Jun Xiao; Xiu-Mei Zhu; Chang-Qing Gu; Jing Yin; Wei Wei; Wei Yao; Chao Liu; Jian-Feng Li; Guo-Rong Ou; Jin-Song Li; Min-Nian Wang; Tong-Yu Fang; Gui-Jie Wang; Yao-Hui Qiu; Huai-Huan Wu; Fu-Huan Chao; Jun-Wen Li; Ting-Kai Guo; Bei Zhen; Qing-Xin Kong; Bin Yi; Zhong Li; Nong Song; Min Jin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) could be excreted from digestive system.METHODS: Cell culture and semi-nested RT-PCR were used to detect SARS-CoV and its RNA from 21 stool and urine samples, and a kind of electropositive filter media particles was used to concentrate the virus in 10 sewage samples from two hospitals receiving SAPS patients in Beijing in China.RESULTS: It was demonstrated that there was no live SARS-CoV in all samples collected, but the RNA of SARS-CoV could be detected in seven stool samples from SARS patients with any one of the symptoms of fever, malaise,cough, or dyspnea, in 10 sewage samples before disinfection and 3 samples after disinfection from the two hospitals.The RNA could not be detected in urine and stool samples from patients recovered from SARS.CONCLUSION: Nucleic acid of SARS-CoV can be excreted through the stool of patients into sewage system, and the possibility of SARS-CoV transmitting through digestive system cannot be excluded.

  10. Establishment of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection and differentiation of canine distemper virus infected and vaccinated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-Fei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Tian, Jin; Jiang, Yi-Tong; Zhang, Xiao-Zhan; Chai, Hong-Liang; Yang, Tian-Kuo; Yin, Xiu-Chen; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Liu, Ming; Hua, Yu-Ping; Qu, Lian-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Although widespread vaccination against canine distemper virus (CDV) has been conducted for many decades, several canine distemper outbreaks in vaccinated animals have been reported frequently. In order to detect and differentiate the wild-type and vaccine strains of the CDV from the vaccinated animals, a novel reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method was developed. A set of four primers-two internal and two external-were designed to target the H gene for the specific detection of wild-type CDV variants. The CDV-H RT-LAMP assay rapidly amplified the target gene, within 60 min, using a water bath held at a constant temperature of 65°C. The assay was 100-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, with a detection limit of 10(-1)TCID50ml(-1). The system showed a preference for wild-type CDV, and exhibited less sensitivity to canine parvovirus, canine adenovirus type 1 and type 2, canine coronavirus, and canine parainfluenza virus. The assay was validated using 102 clinical samples obtained from vaccinated dog farms, and the results were comparable to a multiplex nested RT-PCR assay. The specific CDV-H RT-LAMP assay provides a simple, rapid, and sensitive tool for the detection of canines infected with wild-type CDV from canines vaccinated with attenuated vaccine.

  11. State-of-art of Geosynchronous SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Er-ke; LONG Teng; ZENG Tao; HU Cheng; TIAN Ye

    2012-01-01

    Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Synthetic Aperture Radar (GEO SAR) runs in the height of 360000Km geosynchronous earth orbit,compared with traditional Low Earth Orbit (LEO) SAR (orbit height under 1000Km),GEO SAR has advantages of shorter repeat period,wider swath and so on.Firstly,the basic principle and state-of-art of GEO SAR in domestic and overseas are introduced.Secondly,coverage characteristic of GEO SAR is analyzed.Thirdly,the key problems of yaw steering and imaging on curved trajectory in GEO SAR are discussed in detail,and the corresponding primary solutions are presented in order to promote future research on GEO SAR.

  12. Novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus attachment to the respiratory tract of five animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.Y. Siegers (Jurre); K.R. Short (Kirsty); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); M.I. Spronken (Monique); E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); N. Marshall (Nicolle); A.C. Lowen (Anice); G. Gabriel (Gülsah); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs); D.A.J. van Riel (Debby)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe determined the pattern of attachment of the avian-origin H7N9 influenza viruses A/Anhui/1/2013 and A/Shanghai/1/2013 to the respiratory tract in ferrets, macaques, mice, pigs, and guinea pigs and compared it to that in humans. The H7N9 attachment pattern in macaques, mice, and to a le

  13. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV. PMID:27553173

  14. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-08-24

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV.

  15. A biotechnological product and its potential as a new immunomodulator for treatment of animal phlebovirus infection: Punta Toro virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Gowen, Brian B; Costa, Fabio T M; Justo, Giselle Z; Brocchi, Marcelo; Nunes, Odilon S; Nunes, Iseu S

    2009-08-01

    Intracellular pathogens with widespread drug-resistance contribute substantially to the increasing rates in morbidity and mortality due to emerging and reemerging diseases. Thus, the development of new drugs, including those that can enhance the immune response, is urgently needed. The immunomodulator, P-MAPA, a proteinaceous aggregate of ammonium and magnesium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride derived from Aspergillus oryzae, have been shown to induce antitumor activities. The ability of this compound to elicit protective immunity against viral infections has not been fully explored. Here, we report findings on the use of P-MAPA as an antiviral agent in a mouse model of acute phleboviral (Punta Toro virus) disease. A dose administered i.p. 24h post-infectious challenge (100mg/kg dose of P-MAPA) was remarkably effective at preventing death due to Punta Toro virus infection. This dose also reduced systemic viral burden and liver discoloration assayed on day 3 of infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that non-specific immunotherapy with P-MAPA appears to be an effective treatment for blocking Punta Toro virus-induced disease and suggest that further exploration with other viral disease models is warranted.

  16. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  17. DEM FROM SAR:PRINCIPLE AND APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Deren; Yang Jie

    2003-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the principle and application of generating DEM from SAR, including the principle and processing flow of generating DEM from single SAR and SAR interferometry. Afterwards, the application fields of InSAR for terrain surveying, volcanic terrain surveying and D-InSAR for monitoring ground subsiding are listed and described as well.The problem and prospect of application are also pointed out in the last part of this paper.

  18. Swine and rabbits are the main reservoirs of hepatitis E virus in China: detection of HEV RNA in feces of farmed and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junke; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Geng, Jiabao; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of HEV is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate HEV infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of HEV. Eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR. The products of PCR were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. The positive rates of HEV RNA isolated from pigs in Beijing, Shandong, and Henan were 33%, 30%, and 92%, respectively, and that from rabbits in Beijing was 5%. HEV RNA was not detectable in farmed foxes, sheep or sika deer, or in wild animals in zoos, including wild boars, yaks, camels, Asiatic black bears, African lions, red pandas, civets, wolves, jackals and primates. Sequence analysis revealed that swine isolates had 97.8%-98.4% nucleotide sequence identity to genotype 4d isolates from patients in Shandong and Jiangsu of China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that swine HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, including subgenotype 4h in Henan and 4d in Beijing and Shandong. The rabbit HEV strains shared 93%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with rabbit strains isolated from Inner Mongolia. In conclusion, swine and rabbits have been confirmed to be the main reservoirs of HEV in China.

  19. Detection and genetic characterization of foot‐and‐mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, G.; Hussain, M.

    2012-01-01

    in Pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in Afghanistan (n = 61) and both the live animal markets in Tajikistan (n = 120) all tested negative. However, 2 of 129 (∼2%) samples from Gondal and 11 of 123 (9%) from Chichawatni markets in Pakistan were positive for FMDV RNA. Similarly, 12 of 81 (15......%) samples from Kabul and 10 of 20 (50%) from Badakhshan in Afghanistan were found to be positive. Serotypes A and O of FMDV were identified within these samples. Oral swab samples were also collected from dairy colonies in Harbanspura, Lahore (n = 232) and Nagori, Karachi (n = 136), but all tested negative...

  20. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arterial blood tests Blood clotting tests Blood chemistry tests Chest x-ray or chest CT scan ... The death rate from SARS was 9 to 12% of those diagnosed. In people over age 65, the death ...

  1. TerraSAR-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werninghaus, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the

  2. Focusing of bistatic SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bia, Pietro; Ricci, Nicola; Zonno, Mariantonietta; Nico, Giovanni; Catalao, Joao; Tesauro, Manlio

    2014-10-01

    The problems of simulation of bistatic SAR raw data and focusing are studied. A discrete target simulator is described. The simulator introduces the scene topography and compute the integration time of general bistatic configurations providing a means to derived maps of the range and azimuth spatial resolutions. The problem of focusing of bistatic SAR data acquired in a translational-invariant bistatic configuration is studied by deriving the bistatic Point Target Reference spectrum and presenting an analytical solution for its stationary points.

  3. Influenza Virus Serology at the Human-Animal Interface : From black and white to shades of grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Freidl (Gudrun)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractZoonoses, i.e. diseases that are transmissible from animals to humans, have received increasing scientific and public attention in recent years. A comprehensive literature review identified 60% of human pathogens as zoonotic, of which 12% constitute so-called ‘emerging infectious dis

  4. Viremia and antibody response of small African and laboratory animals to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A J; Leman, P A; Swanepoel, R

    1989-05-01

    Eleven species of small African wild mammals, laboratory rabbits, guinea pigs, and Syrian hamsters were infected with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus. Low-titered viremia followed by development of antibody was observed in scrub hares (Lepus saxatilis), Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris), red veld rats (Aethomys chrysophilus), white tailed rats (Mystromys albicaudatus), bushveld gerbils (Tatera leucogaster), striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio), and guinea pigs. The maximum viremic titer in 4 scrub hares was 10(1.7-4.2) 50% mouse lethal doses/ml. Viremia was detected in 1/17 infected laboratory rabbits. Antibody response was only detected in South African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis), highveld gerbils (T. brantsii), Namaqua gerbils (Desmodillus auricularis), 2 species of multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis and M. coucha), and Syrian hamsters. The results of the study indicate that a proportion of infected scrub hares develop CCHF viremia of an intensity shown in the Soviet Union to be sufficient for infection of feeding immature ixodid ticks, but that South African hedgehogs and wild rodents are unlikely to be of importance as maintenance hosts of the virus in southern Africa.

  5. Influence of laboratory animal hosts on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum and implications for an in vivo transmission model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargili, Aysen; Thangamani, Saravanan; Bente, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most geographically widespread arboviruses and causes a severe hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. The virus circulates in nature in a vertebrate-tick cycle and ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs. Although the tick vector plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV in nature, comparatively little is known of CCHFV-tick interactions. This is mostly due to the fact that establishing tick colonies is laborious, and working with CCHFV requires a biosafety level 4 laboratory (BSL4) in many countries. Nonetheless, an in vivo transmission model is essential to understand the epidemiology of the transmission cycle of CCHFV. In addition, important parameters such as vectorial capacity of tick species, levels of infection in the host necessary to infect the tick, and aspects of virus transmission by tick bite including the influence of tick saliva, cannot be investigated any other way. Here, we evaluate the influence of different laboratory animal species as hosts supporting the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum, a two-host tick. Rabbits were considered the host of choice for the maintenance of the uninfected colonies due to high larval attachment rates, shorter larval-nymphal feeding times, higher nymphal molting rates, high egg hatching rates, and higher conversion efficiency index (CEI). Furthermore, we describe the successful establishment of an in vivo transmission model for CCHFV in a BSL4 biocontainment setting using interferon knockout mice. This will give us a new tool to study the transmission and interaction of CCHFV with its tick vector.

  6. Influence of laboratory animal hosts on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum and implications for an in vivo transmission model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen eGargili

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is one of the most geographically widespread arboviruses and causes a severe hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. The virus circulates in nature in a vertebrate-tick cycle and ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs. Although the tick vector plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV in nature, comparatively little is known of CCHFV-tick interactions. This is mostly due to the fact that establishing tick colonies is laborious, and working with CCHFV requires a biosafety level 4 laboratory (BSL4 in many countries. Nonetheless, an in vivo transmission model is essential to understand the epidemiology of the transmission cycle of CCHFV. In addition, important parameters such as vectorial capacity of tick species, levels of infection in the host necessary to infect the tick, and aspects of virus transmission by tick bite including the influence of tick saliva, cannot be investigated any other way. Here, we evaluate the influence of different laboratory animal species as hosts supporting the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum, a two-host tick. Rabbits were considered the host of choice for the maintenance of the uninfected colonies due to high larval attachment rates, shorter larval-nymphal feeding times, higher nymphal molting rates, high egg hatching rates and higher conversion efficiency index. Furthermore, we describe the successful establishment of an in vivo transmission model CCHFV in a BSL4 biocontainment setting using interferon knockout mice. This will give us a new tool to study the transmission and interaction of CCHFV with its tick vector.

  7. Antigen Production in Plant to Tackle Infectious Diseases Flare Up: the Case of SARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia C eDemurtas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS is a dangerous infection with pandemic potential. It emerged in 2002 and its aetiological agent, the SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV, crossed the species barrier to infect humans, showing high morbidity and mortality rates. No vaccines are currently licensed for SARS-CoV and important efforts have been performed during the first outbreak to develop diagnostic tools. Here we demonstrate the transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana of two important antigenic determinants of the SARS-CoV, the nucleocapsid protein (N and the membrane protein (M using a virus-derived vector or agro-infiltration, respectively. For the M protein, this is the first description of production in plants, while for plant-derived N protein we demonstrate that it is recognized by sera of patients from the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong in 2003. The availability of recombinant N and M proteins from plants opens the way to further evaluation of their potential utility for the development of diagnostic and protection/therapy tools to be quickly manufactured, at low cost and with minimal risk, to face potential new highly infectious SARS-CoV outbreaks.

  8. Bioinformatics analysis of SARS-Cov M protein provides information for vaccine development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wanli; LU Yun; CHEN Yinghua

    2003-01-01

    The pathogen causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is identified to be SARS-Cov. It is urgent to know more about SARS-Cov for developing an efficient SARS vaccine to prevent this epidemic disease. In this report, the homology of SARS-Cov M protein to other members of coronavirus is illustrated, and all amino acid changes in both S and M proteins among all available SARS-Cov isolates in GenBank are described. Furthermore, one topological trans-membrane secondary structure model of M protein is proposed, which is corresponded well with the accepted topology model of M proteins of other members of coronavirus. Hydrophilic profile analysis indicated that one region (aa150~210) on the cytoplasmic domain is fairly hydrophilic, suggesting its property of antigenicity. Based on the fact that cytoplasmic domain of the M protein of some other coronavirus could induce protective activities against virus infection, this region might be one potential target for SARS vaccine development.

  9. Development of a SARS Coronavirus Vaccine from Recombinant Spike Protein Plus Delta Inulin Adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Clifton; Chubet, Richard; Holtz, Kathy; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Barnard, Dale; Cox, Manon; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Given periodic outbreaks of fatal human infections caused by coronaviruses, development of an optimal coronavirus vaccine platform capable of rapid production is an ongoing priority. This chapter describes the use of an insect cell expression system for rapid production of a recombinant vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS). Detailed methods are presented for expression, purification, and release testing of SARS recombinant spike protein antigen, followed by adjuvant formulation and animal testing. The methods herein described for rapid development of a highly protective SARS vaccine are equally suited to rapid development of vaccines against other fatal human coronavirus infections, e.g., the MERS coronavirus.

  10. The effect of inhibition of PP1 and TNFα signaling on pathogenesis of SARS coronavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, Jason E.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Josset, Laurence; Bankhead, Armand; Neumann, Gabriele; Tilton, Susan C.; Schäfer, Alexandra; Li, Chengjun; Fan, Shufang; McWeeney, Shannon; Baric, Ralph S.; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2016-09-23

    The complex interplay between viral replication and host immune response during infection remains poorly understood. While many viruses are known to employ antiimmune strategies to facilitate their replication, highly pathogenic virus infections can also cause an excessive immune response that exacerbates, rather than reduces pathogenicity. To investigate this dichotomy in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), we developed a transcriptional network model of SARS-CoV infection in mice and used the model to prioritize candidate regulatory targets for further investigation. We validated our predictions in 18 different knockout (KO) mouse strains, showing that network topology provides significant predictive power to identify genes that are important for viral infection. We identified a novel player in the immune response to virus infection, Kepi, an inhibitory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complex, which protects against SARS-CoV pathogenesis. We also found that receptors for the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), promote pathogenesis through a parallel feed-forward circuit that promotes inflammation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing the role of over-stimulation of the inflammatory response to SARS-CoV in pathogenesis. We conclude that the critical balance between immune response and inflammation can be manipulated to improve the outcome of the infection. Further, our study provides two potential therapeutic strategies for mitigating the effects of SARS-CoV infection, and may provide insight into treatment strategies for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

  11. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of Dobrava-Belgrade virus L and S genetic segments isolated from an animal reservoir in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV is a member of the Bunyaviridae family, genus Hantavirus, possessing a single-stranded RNA genome consisting of three segments, designated L (large, M (medium and S (small. In this study, we present phylogenetic analysis of a newly detected DOBV strain isolated from Apodemus agrarius. Analysis was based on partial L and S segment sequences, in comparison to previously published DOBV sequences from Serbia and elsewhere. A phylogenetic tree based on partial S segment revealed local geographical clustering of DOBV sequences from Serbia, unrelated to host (rodent or human. The topology of the phylogenetic tree was confirmed with a high percent of completely or partially resolved quartets in likelihood-mapping analysis, whereas no evidence of possible recombination in the examined S segment data set was found.

  12. Oncogenic viruses and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangxiang; George; Luo; Jing-hsiung; James; Ou

    2015-01-01

    <正>This special issue of the journal is dedicated to the important topic of oncogenic viruses and cancer.It contains seven review articles covering all known oncogenic viruses except for human T-lymphotropic virus type1(HTLV-1).These review articles are contributed by experts on specific viruses and their associated human cancers.Viruses account for about 20%of total human cancer cases.Although many viruses can cause various tumors in animals,only seven of them

  13. Influenza at the animal-human interface: a review of the literature for virological evidence of human infection with swine or avian influenza viruses other than A(H5N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, G S; Meijer, A; de Bruin, E; de Nardi, M; Munoz, O; Capua, I; Breed, A C; Harris, K; Hill, A; Kosmider, R; Banks, J; von Dobschuetz, S; Stark, K; Wieland, B; Stevens, K; van der Werf, S; Enouf, V; van der Meulen, K; Van Reeth, K; Dauphin, G; Koopmans, M

    2014-05-08

    Factors that trigger human infection with animal influenza virus progressing into a pandemic are poorly understood. Within a project developing an evidence-based risk assessment framework for influenza viruses in animals, we conducted a review of the literature for evidence of human infection with animal influenza viruses by diagnostic methods used. The review covering Medline, Embase, SciSearch and CabAbstracts yielded 6,955 articles, of which we retained 89; for influenza A(H5N1) and A(H7N9), the official case counts of t he World Health Organization were used. An additional 30 studies were included by scanning the reference lists. Here, we present the findings for confirmed infections with virological evidence. We found reports of 1,419 naturally infected human cases, of which 648 were associated with avian influenza virus (AIV) A(H5N1), 375 with other AIV subtypes, and 396 with swine influenza virus (SIV). Human cases naturally infected with AIV spanned haemagglutinin subtypes H5, H6, H7, H9 and H10. SIV cases were associated with endemic SIV of H1 and H3 subtype descending from North American and Eurasian SIV lineages and various reassortants thereof. Direct exposure to birds or swine was the most likely source of infection for the cases with available information on exposure.

  14. Questionnaire survey about the motives of commercial livestock farmers and hobby holders to vaccinate their animals against Bluetongue virus serotype 8 in 2008-2009 in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, A R W; de Koeijer, A A; Scolamacchia, F; van Rijn, P A

    2010-03-16

    After a massive epidemic of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) among ruminants in 2006-2007 in the European Union (EU), the Netherlands started a voluntary emergency vaccination campaign in May 2008, subsidized by the EU. At the start of a new campaign in 2009, without subsidized vaccination, we investigated by mail survey the motives of farmers and hobby holders to vaccinate against BTV-8 in 2008 and 2009. Mean vaccine uptake in 2008 was: 73% in sheep, 71% in cattle, 43% in goat farms and 67% in hobby holdings. Top-5 motives pro-vaccination were: prevention of production loss; subsidized vaccination; recommendation by practitioner; welfare reasons; contribution to the eradication campaign. Top-5 motives against vaccination were: vaccination costs; absence of clinical BT-problems; presumed low infection risk; balance between vaccination costs and loss without vaccination; bad experience with earlier vaccination campaigns. Willingness to vaccinate was significantly lower in 2009: 42% in sheep, 58% in cattle, 19% in goat farms and 49% in hobby holdings. Measures to stimulate vaccination among those that did not want to vaccinate in 2009 were: subsidized vaccination; possibility to vaccinate their own animals; more information on efficacy/safety of vaccine and why animals had to be vaccinated again; availability of a BT vaccine combined with vaccine(s) against other diseases.

  15. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus sarA regulates inflammation and colonization during central nervous system biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica N Snowden

    Full Text Available Infection is a frequent and serious complication following the treatment of hydrocephalus with CSF shunts, with limited therapeutic options because of biofilm formation along the catheter surface. Here we evaluated the possibility that the sarA regulatory locus engenders S. aureus more resistant to immune recognition in the central nervous system (CNS based on its reported ability to regulate biofilm formation. We utilized our established model of CNS catheter-associated infection, similar to CSF shunt infections seen in humans, to compare the kinetics of bacterial titers, cytokine production and inflammatory cell influx elicited by wild type S. aureus versus an isogenic sarA mutant. The sarA mutant was more rapidly cleared from infected catheters compared to its isogenic wild type strain. Consistent with this finding, several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-17, CXCL1, and IL-1β were significantly increased in the brain following infection with the sarA mutant versus wild type S. aureus, in agreement with the fact that the sarA mutant displayed impaired biofilm growth and favored a planktonic state. Neutrophil influx into the infected hemisphere was also increased in the animals infected with the sarA mutant compared to wild type bacteria. These changes were not attributable to extracellular protease activity, which is increased in the context of SarA mutation, since similar responses were observed between sarA and a sarA/protease mutant. Overall, these results demonstrate that sarA plays an important role in attenuating the inflammatory response during staphylococcal biofilm infection in the CNS via a mechanism that remains to be determined.

  17. Comparison of Three ELISA Kits for the Differentiation of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus-infected from Vaccinated Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-mei CAO; Zeng-jun LU; Zai-xin LIU; Qing-ge XIE

    2007-01-01

    A study was performed to validate 3 FMDV 3ABC-I-ELISA kits developed in China for the differentiation of FMDV infected and vaccinated animals.Sets of sera from naive and vaccinated cattle as well as from cattle that had been infected were tested for antibodies against nonstructural proteins (NSPs) of FMDV by commercial diagnosis kits,Ceditest(R)FMDV-NS (Ceditest(R) kit),UBI(R) FMDV NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEIN ELISA DIRECTION INSERT (UBI(R) kit) and a FMDV 3ABC-I-ELISA kitdeveloped at the Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute.The test parameters (sensitivity and specificity) of the three kits were determined,and the result obtained from FMD 3ABC-I-ELISA kit was compared with that obtained from two foreign kits.The results indicated that the coincidence rate between the FMDV 3ABC-I-ELISA and Ceditest(R) kits was 98.05%,and the coincidence rate between the FMDV 3ABC-I-ELISA and UBI(R) kits was 94.4%; the sensitivity of both Ceditest(R) and FMDV 3ABC-I-ELISA kit was 100%.However,the sensitivity of the UBI(R) kit was only 81.8%.With sera from naive or vaccinated non-infected animals,the specificity of all tests exceeded 90%.

  18. Inhibition of cytokine gene expression and induction of chemokine genes in non-lymphatic cells infected with SARS coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Friedemann

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV is the etiologic agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome. SARS-CoV mainly infects tissues of non-lymphatic origin, and the cytokine profile of those cells can determine the course of disease. Here, we investigated the cytokine response of two human non-lymphatic cell lines, Caco-2 and HEK 293, which are fully permissive for SARS-CoV. Results A comparison with established cytokine-inducing viruses revealed that SARS-CoV only weakly triggered a cytokine response. In particular, SARS-CoV did not activate significant transcription of the interferons IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2/3, as well as of the interferon-induced antiviral genes ISG56 and MxA, the chemokine RANTES and the interleukine IL-6. Interestingly, however, SARS-CoV strongly induced the chemokines IP-10 and IL-8 in the colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2, but not in the embryonic kidney cell line 293. Conclusion Our data indicate that SARS-CoV suppresses the antiviral cytokine system of non-immune cells to a large extent, thus buying time for dissemination in the host. However, synthesis of IP-10 and IL-8, which are established markers for acute-stage SARS, escapes the virus-induced silencing at least in some cell types. Therefore, the progressive infiltration of immune cells into the infected lungs observed in SARS patients could be due to the production of these chemokines by the infected tissue cells.

  19. Accelerated Scientific InSAR Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Neva Ridge Technologies proposes to develop a suite of software tools for the analysis of SAR and InSAR data, focused on having a robust and adopted capability well...

  20. SAR Image Enhancement using Particle Filters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper, we propose a novel approach to reduce the noise in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images using particle filters. Interpretation of SAR images is a...

  1. Novel Polarimetric SAR Interferometry Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polarimetric radar interferometry (PolInSAR) is a new SAR imaging mode that is rapidly becoming an important technique for bare earth topographic mapping, tree...

  2. Combination effect of oncolytic adenovirus therapy and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir in hepatic carcinoma animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-qun ZHENG; Yin XU; Ren-jie YANG; Bin WU; Xiao-hua TAN; Yi-de QIN; Qun-wei ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Oncolytic adenovirus, also called conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAD), can selectively propagate in tumor cells and cause cell lysis. The released viral progeny can infect neighboring cancer cells, initiating a cascade that can lead to the ultimate destruction of the tumor. Suicide gene therapy using herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and ganciclovir (GCV) offers a potential treatment strategy for cancer and is undergoing preclinical trials for a variety of tumors.We hypothesized that HSV-TK gene therapy combined with oncolytic adenoviral therapy would have an enhanced effect compared with the individual effects of the therapies and is a potential novel therapeutic strategy to treat liver cancer. Methods: To address our hypothesis, a novel CRAD was created, which consisted of a telomerase-dependent oncolytic adenovirus engineered to express E1A and HSV-TK genes (Ad-ETK). The combined effect of Ad-ETK and GCV was assessed both in vitro and in vivo in nude mice bearing HepG2 cell-derived tumors. Expression of the therapeutic genes by the transduced tumor cells was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting.Results: We confirmed that Ad-ETK had antitumorigenic effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) both in vitro and in vivo, and the TK/GCV system enhanced oncolytic adenoviral therapy. We confirmed that both E1A and HSV-TK genes were expressed in vivo.Conclusion: The Ad-ETK construct should provide a relatively safe and selective approach to killing cancer cells and should be investigated as an adjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  4. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  5. SAR Systems and Related Signal Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is today a valuable source of remote sensing information. SAR is a side-looking imaging radar and operates from airborne and spacebome platforms. Coverage, resolution and image quality are strongly influenced by the platform. SAR processing can be performed on standard

  6. Precision Rectification of Airborne SAR Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Liao, M.; Zhang, Zhe

    1997-01-01

    A simple and direct procedure for the rectification of a certain class of airborne SAR data is presented. The relief displacements of SAR data are effectively removed by means of a digital elevation model and the image is transformed to the ground coordinate system. SAR data from the Danish EMISAR...

  7. Convolutional Neural Networks for SAR Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren-Hansen, David; Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images has several uses, but it is a difficult task due to a number of properties related to SAR images. In this article we show how Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can easily be trained for SAR image segmentation with good results. Besides...

  8. SIMULATION STUDY ON AIRBORNE SAR ECHO SIGNAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Houbing; Liu Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Through analyzing the influence on echo signal by factors of kinematical parameters of airborne SAR platform and radar antenna direction, this letter, on the basis of classical SAR echo signal analogue algorithm, puts forward certain airborne SAR echo signal analogue algorithm of distance directional frequency domain pulse coherent accumulation, and goes through simulation. The simulation results have proved the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  9. End-organ protection in hypertension by the novel and selective Rho-kinase inhibitor, SAR407899

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias; L?hn; Oliver; Plettenburg; Aimo; Kannt; Markus; Kohlmann; Armin; Hofmeister; Dieter; Kadereit; Peter; Monecke; Alexander; Schiffer; Anke; Schulte; Hartmut; Ruetten; Yuri; Ivashchenko

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the therapeutic efficacy of SAR407899 with the current standard treatment for hypertension [an angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE)-inhibitor and a calcium channel blocker] and compare the frequency and severity of the hypertension-related end-organ damage. METHODS: Long-term pharmacological characterization of SAR407899 has been performed in two animal models of hypertension, of which one is sensitive to ACE-inhibition and the other is insensitive [deoxycorticosterone acetate(DOCA)]. SAR407899 efficiently lowered high blood pressure and significantly reduced late-stage end organ damage as indicated by improved heart, kidney and endothelial function and reduced heart and kidney fibrosis in both models of chronic hypertension. RESULTS: Long term treatment with SAR407899 has been well tolerated and dose-dependently reduced elevated blood pressure in both models with no signs of tachyphylaxia. Blood pressure lowering effects and protective effects on hypertension related end organ damage of SAR407899 were superior to ramipril and amlodipine in the DOCA rat. Typical end-organ damage was significantly reduced in the SAR407899-treated animals. Chronic administration of SAR407899 significantly reduced albuminuria in both models. The beneficial effect of SAR407899 was associated with a reduction in leukocyte/macrophage tissue infiltration. The overall protective effect of SAR407899 was superior or comparable to that of ACE-inhibition or calciumchannel blockade. Chronic application of SAR407899 protects against hypertension and hypertension-induced end organ damage, regardless of the pathophysiological mechanism of hypertension. CONCLUSION: Rho-kinases-inhibition by the SAR407899 represents a new therapeutic option for the treatment of hypertension and its complications.

  10. Polarization Filtering of SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of polarization filtering of synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) returns provide hybrid method applied to either (1) maximize signal-to-noise ratio of return from given target or (2) enhance contrast between targets of two different types (that have different polarization properties). Method valid for both point and extended targets and for both monostatic and bistatic radars as well as SAR. Polarization information in return signals provides more complete description of radar-scattering properties of targets and used to obtain additional information about targets for use in classifying them, discriminating between them, or enhancing features of radar images.

  11. PIKA Provides an Adjuvant Effect to Induce Strong Mucosal and Systemic Humoral Immunity Against SARS-CoV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-wei Gai; Yan Zhang; Di-han Zhou; Yao-qing Chen; Jing-yi Yang; Hui-min Yan

    2011-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome(SARS)is a deadly infectious disease caused by SARS Coronavirus(SARS-CoV).Inactivated SARS-CoV has been explored as a vaccine against SARS-CoV.However,safe and potent adjuvants,especially with more efficient and economical needle-free vaccination are always needed more urgently in a pandemic.The development of a safe and effective mucosal adjuvant and vaccine for prevention of emergent infectious diseases such as SARS will be an important advancement.PIKA,a stabilized derivative of Poly(I:C),was previously reported to be safe and potent as adjuvant in mouse models.In the present study,we demonstrated that the intraperitoneal and intranasal co-administration of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine together with this improved Poly(I:C)derivative induced strong anti-SARS-CoV mucosal and systemic humoral immune responses with neutralizing activity against pseudotyped virus.Although intraperitoneal immunization of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine alone could induce a certain level of neutralizing activity in serum as well as in mucosal sites,co-administration of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine with PIKA as adjuvant could induce a much higher neutralizing activity.When intranasal immunization was used,PIKA was obligatorily for inducing neutralizing activity in serum as well as in mucosal sites and was correlated with both mucosal IgA and mucosal IgG response.Overall,PIKA could be a good mucosal adjuvant candidate for inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine for use in possible future pandemic.

  12. Polarimetric scattering and SAR information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Ya-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Taking an innovative look at Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), this practical reference fully covers new developments in SAR and its various methodologies and enables readers to interpret SAR imagery An essential reference on polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), this book uses scattering theory and radiative transfer theory as a basis for its treatment of topics. It is organized to include theoretical scattering models and SAR data analysis techniques, and presents cutting-edge research on theoretical modelling of terrain surface. The book includes quantitative app

  13. Protein Subcellular Localization Prediction and Genomic Polymorphism Analysis of the SARS Coronavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季星来; 柳树群; 李岭; 孙之荣

    2004-01-01

    The cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been identified as a new coronavirus (CoV).Several sequences of the complete genome of SARS-CoV have been determined.The subcellular localization (SubLocation) of annotated open-reading frames of the SARS-CoV genome was predicted using a support vector machine.Several gene products were predicted to locate in the Golgi body and cell nucleus.The SubLocation information was combined with predicted transmembrane information to develop a model of the viral life cycle.The results show that this information can be used to predict the functions of genes and even the virus pathogenesis.In addition,the entire SARS viral genome sequences currently available in GenBank were compared to identify the sequence variations among different isolates.Some variations in the Hong Kong strains may be related to the special clinical manifestations and provide clues for understanding the relationship between gene functions and evolution.These variations reflect the evolution of the SARS virus in human populations and may help development of a vaccine.

  14. High-Dose Mannose-Binding Lectin Therapy for Ebola Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    are heavily glycosylated and contain high-mannose. As a result, MBL binds to Ebola and Marburg viruses and mediates com- plement-dependent virus ...host cells. Therefore, MBL preferentially recognizes glycosylated viruses including influenza virus , human immunodeficiency virus , severe acute...respiratory syndrome coronovirus (SARS-CoV), Ebola virus , and Marburg virus . It also recognizes many glycosylated gram- positive and gram-negative bacteria [1

  15. Canopy reconstruction from interferometric SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varekamp, C.

    2001-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is investigated as a method for 3D tree mapping. When operational, the method may be important for monitoring forests with a persistent cloud cover such as tropical rain forests. The problem of crown displacement due to lay-over in a vegetation with a

  16. Stalking SARS: CDC at Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the SARS outbreak and how CDC worked to solve the mystery.  Created: 5/22/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  17. Bird flu: lessons from SARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gary W K; Leung, Ting F

    2007-06-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and avian influenza are two important newly emerged infections with pandemic potential. Both infections have crossed the species barrier to infect humans. SARS originated from southern China and spread to many countries in early 2003. The close collaboration of scientists around the world resulted in a rapid identification of the causative agent, and the early isolation of infected cases and meticulous infection control measures were the key to successfully controlling the outbreak of SARS. The first outbreak of human cases of avian influenza was reported in 1997 in Hong Kong. Since 2003, there have been many small outbreaks of human cases around the world, and the reported mortality is greater than 50%. Current evidence suggests that the human-to-human transmission of avian influenza is rather inefficient, but mutation might occur in the future resulting in improved transmission and possibly a pandemic in humans. As with the outbreak of SARS, the development of sensitive and accurate early diagnostic tests is extremely important for successful control of the outbreak at source. The availability of isolation facilities, the stockpiling of antiviral agents and effective and safe vaccination will be extremely important in minimising the damage of a new influenza pandemic.

  18. Computerized ionospheric tomography based on geosynchronous SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng; Tian, Ye; Dong, Xichao; Wang, Rui; Long, Teng

    2017-02-01

    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) based on spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an emerging technique to construct the three-dimensional (3-D) image of ionosphere. The current studies are all based on the Low Earth Orbit synthetic aperture radar (LEO SAR) which is limited by long repeat period and small coverage. In this paper, a novel ionospheric 3-D CIT technique based on geosynchronous SAR (GEO SAR) is put forward. First, several influences of complex atmospheric environment on GEO SAR focusing are detailedly analyzed, including background ionosphere and multiple scattering effects (induced by turbulent ionosphere), tropospheric effects, and random noises. Then the corresponding GEO SAR signal model is constructed with consideration of the temporal-variant background ionosphere within the GEO SAR long integration time (typically 100 s to 1000 s level). Concurrently, an accurate total electron content (TEC) retrieval method based on GEO SAR data is put forward through subband division in range and subaperture division in azimuth, obtaining variant TEC value with respect to the azimuth time. The processing steps of GEO SAR CIT are given and discussed. Owing to the short repeat period and large coverage area, GEO SAR CIT has potentials of covering the specific space continuously and completely and resultantly has excellent real-time performance. Finally, the TEC retrieval and GEO SAR CIT construction are performed by employing a numerical study based on the meteorological data. The feasibility and correctness of the proposed methods are verified.

  19. [Medical history from SARS to pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Cheng

    2003-05-31

    SARS is a new kind of pneumonia. From the end of 2002 to the beginning of 2003, SARS broke in Guangdong province, Hong Kong and Beijing, and then gradually spread to the world. SARS is extremely contagious. The symptoms of SARS progress very quickly. SARS smashes the people's tranquil life and many people live in horror, worry and anxiety. But if we review the medical history of pneumonia, we would have a better understanding of SARS. This article focuses the history of people's understanding of pneumonia on the historical documents, diagnosis, etiology and treatment. Through the epidemic of SARS, the author hopes to express that contagion will live with us for a long time, but it is not a deadly disease. It is preventable and good care is essential for contagious patients. As Chinese people, we should have the best use of TCM in our combat with contagion.

  20. Deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chae-Wun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Choi, In-Soo

    2013-08-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1% and 88.2-91.8% identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4% and 87.8-90.7% identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.

  1. Elicitation of strong immune responses by a DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 in murine and porcine animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ping Li; Hye Na Kang; Lorne A Babiuk; Qiang Liu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the immunogenicity of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 DNA vaccine alone or with a protein vaccine boost in murine and porcine animal models.METHODS: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein was constructed and used to vaccinate mice and piglets with or without boosting with a recombinant E2 protein vaccine formulated with CpG ODN and 10% Emulsigen. The immunogenicity of HCV E2 vaccines was analyzed by ELISA for antibody responses, MTT assay for lymphocyte proliferation,ELISPOT for the number of interferon-γ secreting cells,and cytotoxic T lymphocyte assays.RESULTS: Intradermal injection of E2 DNA vaccine induced strong Th1-like immune responses in mice. In piglets, E2 DNA vaccine elicited moderate and more balanced immune responses. A DNA vaccine prime and protein boost vaccination strategy induced significantly higher E2-specific antibody levels and shifted the immune response towards Th2-like ones in piglets.CONCLUSION: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein elicited E2-specific immune responses in mice and piglets. Recombinant E2 protein vaccination following DNA immunization significantly increased the antibody response in piglets. These HCV E2 vaccines may represent promising hepatitis C vaccine candidates for further investigations.

  2. Development of a method for bacteria and virus recovery from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, James E; Goyal, Sagar M; Kim, Seung Won; Kuehn, Thomas H; Raynor, Peter C; Ramakrishnan, M A; Anantharaman, Senthilvelan; Tang, Weihua

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the work presented here is to study the effectiveness of building air handling units (AHUs) in serving as high volume sampling devices for airborne bacteria and viruses. An HVAC test facility constructed according to ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999 was used for the controlled loading of HVAC filter media with aerosolized bacteria and virus. Nonpathogenic Bacillus subtilis var. niger was chosen as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Three animal viruses; transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), avian pneumovirus (APV), and fowlpox virus were chosen as surrogates for three human viruses; SARS coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and smallpox virus; respectively. These bacteria and viruses were nebulized in separate tests and injected into the test duct of the test facility upstream of a MERV 14 filter. SKC Biosamplers upstream and downstream of the test filter served as reference samplers. The collection efficiency of the filter media was calculated to be 96.5 +/- 1.5% for B. subtilis, however no collection efficiency was measured for the viruses as no live virus was ever recovered from the downstream samplers. Filter samples were cut from the test filter and eluted by hand-shaking. An extraction efficiency of 105 +/- 19% was calculated for B. subtilis. The viruses were extracted at much lower efficiencies (0.7-20%). Our results indicate that the airborne concentration of spore-forming bacteria in building AHUs may be determined by analyzing the material collected on HVAC filter media, however culture-based analytical techniques are impractical for virus recovery. Molecular-based identification techniques such as PCR could be used.

  3. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS...

  4. Preparation, characterization and preliminary in vivo studies of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Lin; CHANG Guohui; LI Shuangli; ZHANG Xumin; CHEN Xishu; YU Jun; CHEN Ze; WANG Jian; QIN Ede; ZHU Qingyu; YU Man; DING Zhifen; SHI Huiying; CHENG Xiaojie; WANG Caiping

    2003-01-01

    A large quantity of SARS-CoV virus was proliferated in Vero cells, inactivated with β-propiolactone, then purified by Sepharose 4FF column chromatography to prepare inactivated vaccine. The vaccine was identified by Western blot, mass spectrographic analysis, ELISA and electron microscopy. The vaccine with or without aluminum hydroxide adjuvant was inoculated into female BALB/c mice at different dosages. The result showed that the antibodies to SARS-CoV were induced in the mice. The antibody levels induced by the vaccine with aluminum hydroxide were higher than those without aluminum hydroxide.

  5. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES... and Budget under control number 0579-0013)...

  6. Controlling Data Collection to Support SAR Image Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Cordaro, J. Thomas; Burns, Bryan L.

    2008-10-14

    A desired rotation of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image can be facilitated by adjusting a SAR data collection operation based on the desired rotation. The SAR data collected by the adjusted SAR data collection operation can be efficiently exploited to form therefrom a SAR image having the desired rotational orientation.

  7. Human LINE1 endonuclease domain as a putative target of SARS-associated autoantibodies involved in the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wei-ping; SHU Cui-li; LI Bo-an; ZHAO Jun; CHENG Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS)is a disease with a mortality of 9.56%.Although SARS is etiologically linked to a new coronavirus(SARS-CoV)and functional cell receptor has been identified,the pathogenesis of the virus infection is largely unclear.Methods The clinical specimens were processed and analyzed using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in-house.Further investigations of target antigen included reviews of phage display technique,rapid amplification of cDNA ends(RACE)technique,protein expression and purification,Western blotting validation,serological and immunohistochemical staining in postmortem tissue.Results A type of medium or low titer anti-lung tissue antibodies were found in the sera of SARS patients at the early stage of the disease.Human long interspersed nuclear element 1(LINE1)gene endonuclease(EN)domain protein was one of the target autoantigens and it was aberrantly expressed in the lung tissue of SARS patients.Anti-EN antibody was positive in the sera of 40.9% of SARS patients.Conclusions Human LINE1 endonuclease domain was identified as a putative target of SARS-associated autoantibodies,which were presented in the serum of SARS patients and may be involved in the pathogenesis of SARS.

  8. Reflectors for SAR performance testing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) performance testing and estimation is facilitated by observing the system response to known target scene elements. Trihedral corner reflectors and other canonical targets play an important role because their Radar Cross Section (RCS) can be calculated analytically. However, reflector orientation and the proximity of the ground and mounting structures can significantly impact the accuracy and precision with which measurements can be made. These issues are examined in this report.

  9. SAR Image Complex Pixel Representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Complex pixel values for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of uniform distributed clutter can be represented as either real/imaginary (also known as I/Q) values, or as Magnitude/Phase values. Generally, these component values are integers with limited number of bits. For clutter energy well below full-scale, Magnitude/Phase offers lower quantization noise than I/Q representation. Further improvement can be had with companding of the Magnitude value.

  10. Purification, stability, and immunogenicity analyses of five bluetongue virus proteins for use in development of a subunit vaccine that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenna; Bréard, Emmanuel; Lövgren Bengtsson, Karin; Grönvik, Kjell-Olov; Zientara, Stéphan; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Hägglund, Sara

    2014-03-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes bluetongue disease, a vector-borne disease of ruminants. The recent northerly spread of BTV serotype 8 in Europe resulted in outbreaks characterized by clinical signs in cattle, including unusual teratogenic effects. Vaccination has been shown to be crucial for controlling the spread of vector-borne diseases such as BTV. With the aim of developing a novel subunit vaccine targeting BTV-8 that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals, five His-tagged recombinant proteins, VP2 and VP5 of BTV-8 and NS1, NS2, and NS3 of BTV-2, were expressed in baculovirus or Escherichia coli expression systems for further study. Optimized purification protocols were determined for VP2, NS1, NS2, and NS3, which remained stable for detection for at least 560 to 610 days of storage at +4°C or -80°C, and Western blotting using sera from vaccinated or experimentally infected cattle indicated that VP2 and NS2 were recognized by BTV-specific antibodies. To characterize murine immune responses to the four proteins, mice were subcutaneously immunized twice at a 4-week interval with one of three protein combinations plus immunostimulating complex ISCOM-Matrix adjuvant or with ISCOM-Matrix alone (n = 6 per group). Significantly higher serum IgG antibody titers specific for VP2 and NS2 were detected in immunized mice than were detected in controls. VP2, NS1, and NS2 but not NS3 induced specific lymphocyte proliferative responses upon restimulation of spleen cells from immunized mice. The data suggest that these recombinant purified proteins, VP2, NS1, and NS2, could be an important part of a novel vaccine design against BTV-8.

  11. Spaceborne SAR Imaging Algorithm for Coherence Optimized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Qiu

    Full Text Available This paper proposes SAR imaging algorithm with largest coherence based on the existing SAR imaging algorithm. The basic idea of SAR imaging algorithm in imaging processing is that output signal can have maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR by using the optimal imaging parameters. Traditional imaging algorithm can acquire the best focusing effect, but would bring the decoherence phenomenon in subsequent interference process. Algorithm proposed in this paper is that SAR echo adopts consistent imaging parameters in focusing processing. Although the SNR of the output signal is reduced slightly, their coherence is ensured greatly, and finally the interferogram with high quality is obtained. In this paper, two scenes of Envisat ASAR data in Zhangbei are employed to conduct experiment for this algorithm. Compared with the interferogram from the traditional algorithm, the results show that this algorithm is more suitable for SAR interferometry (InSAR research and application.

  12. Signal Processing for Digital Beamforming FMCW SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the limitations of single channel Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (FMCW Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR, Digital Beamforming (DBF technology is introduced to improve system performance. Combined with multiple receive apertures, DBF FMCW SAR can obtain high resolution in low pulse repetition frequency, which can increase the processing gain and decrease the sampling frequency. The received signal model of DBF FMCW SAR is derived. The continuous antenna motion which is the main characteristic of FMCW SAR received signal is taken into account in the whole signal processing. The detailed imaging diagram of DBF FMCW SAR is given. A reference system is also demonstrated in the paper by comparing with a single channel FMCW SAR. The validity of the presented diagram is demonstrated with a point target simulation results.

  13. Building Detection in SAR Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Ryan Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koch, Mark William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moya, Mary M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goold, Jeremy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Current techniques for building detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery can be computationally expensive and/or enforce stringent requirements for data acquisition. The desire is to present a technique that is effective and efficient at determining an approximate building location. This approximate location can be used to extract a portion of the SAR image to then perform a more robust detection. The proposed technique assumes that for the desired image, bright lines and shadows, SAR artifact effects, are approximately labeled. These labels are enhanced and utilized to locate buildings, only if the related bright lines and shadows can be grouped. In order to find which of the bright lines and shadows are related, all of the bright lines are connected to all of the shadows. This allows the problem to be solved from a connected graph viewpoint. Where the nodes are the bright lines and shadows and the arcs are the connections between bright lines and shadows. Constraints based on angle of depression and the relationship between connected bright lines and shadows are applied to remove unrelated arcs. Once the related bright lines and shadows are grouped, their locations are combined to provide an approximate building location. Experimental results are provided showing the outcome of the technique.

  14. Elementary study on the antigenicity of SARS-CoV Mc region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZU QIONG HU; WEI ZHAO; WEN BING ZHANG; HUI JUN YAN; LI FANG JIANG; ZHI WEI LIU; ZHI HUA LIU; BEI GUO LONG

    2006-01-01

    To test the antigenic activity of M protein (Mc protein) in the inner membrane of SARS-CoV,SARS-CoV Mc protein's bases locating inside the membrane were cloned, the His-fusion protein was expressed in E. coli and analyzed for its antigenic activity. Among those 7 clinically diagnosed patients' sera, there were 5 positive and 2 negative in reaction with His-fusion protein. All of the 20 healthy persons'sera and rabbit anti-OC43 and 229E were of negative reaction with His-fusion protein. The animals immunized with His-fusion protein have produced multi-clonal antibody. The His-fusion protein could specially react with clinically diagnosed SARS patients' sera and the animals immunized with His-fusion protein could produce specifically multi-clonal antibody, but it could not react with the sera of healthy persons and the rabbit anti-OC43 and 229E.

  15. InSAR Forensics: Tracing InSAR Scatterers in High Resolution Optical Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, XiaoXiang

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a step towards a better interpretation of the scattering mechanism of different objects and their deformation histories in SAR interferometry (InSAR). The proposed technique traces individual SAR scatterer in high resolution optical images where their geometries, materials, and other properties can be better analyzed and classified. And hence scatterers of a same object can be analyzed in group, which brings us to a new level of InSAR deformation monitoring.

  16. Satellite SAR geocoding with refined RPC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Liao, Mingsheng

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have proved that the Rational Polynomial Camera (RPC) model is able to act as a reliable replacement of the rigorous Range-Doppler (RD) model for the geometric processing of satellite SAR datasets. But its capability in absolute geolocation of SAR images has not been evaluated quantitatively. Therefore, in this article the problems of error analysis and refinement of SAR RPC model are primarily investigated to improve the absolute accuracy of SAR geolocation. Range propagation delay and azimuth timing error are identified as two major error sources for SAR geolocation. An approach based on SAR image simulation and real-to-simulated image matching is developed to estimate and correct these two errors. Afterwards a refined RPC model can be built from the error-corrected RD model and then used in satellite SAR geocoding. Three experiments with different settings are designed and conducted to comprehensively evaluate the accuracies of SAR geolocation with both ordinary and refined RPC models. All the experimental results demonstrate that with RPC model refinement the absolute location accuracies of geocoded SAR images can be improved significantly, particularly in Easting direction. In another experiment the computation efficiencies of SAR geocoding with both RD and RPC models are compared quantitatively. The results show that by using the RPC model such efficiency can be remarkably improved by at least 16 times. In addition the problem of DEM data selection for SAR image simulation in RPC model refinement is studied by a comparative experiment. The results reveal that the best choice should be using the proper DEM datasets of spatial resolution comparable to that of the SAR images.

  17. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants.

  18. Bistatic SAR: Signal Processing and Image Formation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the significant processing steps that were used to take the raw recorded digitized signals from the bistatic synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) hardware built for the NCNS Bistatic SAR project to a final bistatic SAR image. In general, the process steps herein are applicable to bistatic SAR signals that include the direct-path signal and the reflected signal. The steps include preprocessing steps, data extraction to for a phase history, and finally, image format. Various plots and values will be shown at most steps to illustrate the processing for a bistatic COSMO SkyMed collection gathered on June 10, 2013 on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

  19. TanDEM-X Bistatic SAR Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Balss, Ulrich; Niedermeier, Andreas; Breit, Helko

    2010-01-01

    In June, 2010 the German SAR satellite TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X-Add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) will be launched. Together with TerraSAR-X, launched June 15, 2007, it will form the first spaceborne bistatic SAR platform. Usually one of the satellite is transmitting (active satellite), while both are receiving. As both satellites fly in a helix orbit constellation, during a recording a satellite has to be passive, if the other one is close to the line of sight to the observation targ...

  20. DETEKCIJA SPREMEMB V RADARSKIH SLIKAH SAR

    OpenAIRE

    Izak, Rok

    2016-01-01

    V magistrskem delu je opisan princip detekcije sprememb površja Zemlje s pomočjo radarskih slik SAR, ki so bile zajete s satelitom TanDEM-X. Opisani so tudi principi delovanja radarja z umetno odprtino, načini zajema podatkov ter osnove interferometrije V prvem sklopu magistrskega dela, je bil cilj predlagati metodo za zaznavo gozdne površine v slikah SAR. V drugem delu so bile s pomočjo SAR interferometrije zaznane spremembe na kroni gozdov v okolici Postojne. Slike SAR, so bile zajete v raz...

  1. A Research on Airborne Squint Hybrid SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIANYong; ZHOUYinqing; LIChunsheng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the squint mode hybrid SAR (Synthetic aperture radar) geometry. Based on the squint mode SAR geometry, the hybrid SAR signal model in squint case is derived. Based on this signal model, the hybrid SAR imaging process parameter is discussed. Aimed at the squint case, we analyze not only the relationship between the resolution and SAR system parameters, but also the relation between the time extension of the maximum azimuth signal and SAR system parameters. This research establishes the theoretical foundation for the design of squint hybrid SAR and serves as a good guide for the future work of improving the resolution of squint hybrid SAR. Based on the two-step algorithm, by considering the squint angle and cubic phase term, we are going to use the deramp SC-Chirp Scaling algorithm for squint hybrid SAR imaging. This algorithm uses the deramp method for the first step processing, and the SC-Chirp Scaling algorithm for the second step processing. The process procedure of this algorithm includes the squint angle, has the explicit physical meaning, therefore is convenient for analysis. The computer simulation result proves the validity of the analysis.

  2. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction from multistatic SAR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigling, Brian D; Moses, Randolph L

    2005-08-01

    This paper discusses reconstruction of three-dimensional surfaces from multiple bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Techniques for surface reconstruction from multiple monostatic SAR images already exist, including interferometric processing and stereo SAR. We generalize these methods to obtain algorithms for bistatic interferometric SAR and bistatic stereo SAR. We also propose a framework for predicting the performance of our multistatic stereo SAR algorithm, and, from this framework, we suggest a metric for use in planning strategic deployment of multistatic assets.

  3. SARS transmission pattern in Singapore reassessed by viral sequence variation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological investigations of infectious disease are mainly dependent on indirect contact information and only occasionally assisted by characterization of pathogen sequence variation from clinical isolates. Direct sequence analysis of the pathogen, particularly at a population level, is generally thought to be too cumbersome, technically difficult, and expensive. We present here a novel application of mass spectrometry (MS-based technology in characterizing viral sequence variations that overcomes these problems, and we apply it retrospectively to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS outbreak in Singapore. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The success rate of the MS-based analysis for detecting SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV sequence variations was determined to be 95% with 75 copies of viral RNA per reaction, which is sufficient to directly analyze both clinical and cultured samples. Analysis of 13 SARS-CoV isolates from the different stages of the Singapore outbreak identified nine sequence variations that could define the molecular relationship between them and pointed to a new, previously unidentified, primary route of introduction of SARS-CoV into the Singapore population. Our direct determination of viral sequence variation from a clinical sample also clarified an unresolved epidemiological link regarding the acquisition of SARS in a German patient. We were also able to detect heterogeneous viral sequences in primary lung tissues, suggesting a possible coevolution of quasispecies of virus within a single host. CONCLUSION: This study has further demonstrated the importance of improving clinical and epidemiological studies of pathogen transmission through the use of genetic analysis and has revealed the MS-based analysis to be a sensitive and accurate method for characterizing SARS-CoV genetic variations in clinical samples. We suggest that this approach should be used routinely during outbreaks of a wide variety of agents, in order

  4. InfoTerra/TerraSAR initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Manfred W.

    2004-01-01

    The overarching goal of the InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative is to establish a self-sustaining operational/commercial business built on Europe"s know-how and experience in space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology, in SAR data processing as well as in SAR applications. InfoTerra stands for a new business concept based on supplying innovative geo-information products and services. TerraSAR is a space and ground system conceived to consist of an initial deployment and operation of 2 Radar satellites (one in X- and one in L-band) flying in a tandem configuration in the same orbit. The design of TerraSAR is driven by the market and is user-oriented. TerraSAR is key to capturing a significant proportion of the existing market and to opening new market opportunities, when it becomes operational. The InfoTerra/TerraSAR Initiative has evolved gradually. It started in 1997 as a joint venture between German (DSS) and British (MMS-UK) space industry, strongly supported by both space agencies, DLR and BNSC. In early 2001, DLR and BNSC submitted to ESA the Formal Programme Proposal for InfoTerra/TerraSAR to become an essential element of ESA"s Earth Watch Programme. In summer 2001, when it became evident that there was not yet sufficient support from the ESA Member States to allow immediate start entering into TerraSAR Phase C/D, it has been decided to implement first a TerraSAR consolidation phase. In early 2002, in order to avoid further delays, a contract was signed between DLR and Astrium GmbH on the development of one component of TerraSAR, the TerraSAR-X, in the frame of a national programme, governed by a Public Private Partnership Agreement. Even if now the different launch dates for TerraSAR-X and TerraSAR-L are narrowing down the window of common data acquisition, it is a reasonable starting point, but it should always be kept in mind that the utmost goal for the longterm is to achieve self sustainability by supplying geo-information products and services

  5. Design and application of 60mer oligonucleotide microarray in SARS coronavirus detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The 60mer oligonucleotide microarray was designed and applied to detecting of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) coronavirus. Thirty 60mer specific oligos were designed to cover the whole genome of the first submitted coronavirus strain, according to the sequence of TOR2 (GENEBANK Accession: AY274119). These primers were synthesized and printed into a microarray with 12×12 spots. RNAs were extracted from the throat swab and gargling fluid of SARS patients and reverse-transcripted into the double strand cDNAs. The cDNAs were prepared as restricted cDNA fragments by the restriction display (RD) technique and labeled by PCR with the Cy5-universal primer. The labeled samples were then applied to the oligo microarray for hybridization. The diagnostic capability of the microarray was evaluated after the washing and scanning steps. The scanning result showed that samples of SARS patients were hybridized with multiple SARS probes on the microarray, and there is no signal on the negative and blank controls. These results indicate that the genome of SARS coronavirus can be detected in parallel by the 60mer oligonucleotide microarray, which can improve the positive ratio of the diagnosis. The oligo microarray can also be used for monitoring the behavior of the virus genes in different stages of the disease status.

  6. A 3D model of SARS_CoV 3CL proteinase and its inhibitors design by virtual screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOCheng; CHENJing; LUOHai-Bin; CHENLi-Li; LIGuo-Wei; SUNTao; YUChang-Ying; YUELi-Duo; SHENJian-Hua; JIANGHua-Liang; XIONGBin; GUIChun-Shan; XUXiao-Ying; DUANWen-Hu; SHENJing-Kang; QINLei; SHITi-Liu; LIYi-Xue; CHENKai-Xian; LUOXiao-Min; SHENXu

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To constructed a three-dimensional (3D) model for the 3C like (3CL) proteinase of SARS coronavirus (SARS_CoV), and to design inhibitors of the 3CL proteinase based on the 3D model. METHODS: Bioinformatics analyses were performed to search the homologous proteins of the SARS_CoV 3CL proteinase from the GenBank and PDB database. A 3D model of the proteinase was constructed by using homology modeling technique. Targeting to the 3D model and its X-ray crystal structure of the main proteinase (Mpro) of transmissible gastroenteritis virus(TGEV), virtual screening was performed employing molecular docking method to identify possible 3CL proteinase inhibitors from small molecular databases. RESULTS:Sequence alignment indicated that the SARS_CoV 3CL proteinase was extremely homologous to TGEV Mpro, especially the substrate-binding pocket (active site). Accordingly, a 3D model for the SARS_CoV 3CL proteinase was constructed based on the crystal structure of TGEV Mpro. The 3D model adopts a similar fold of the TGEV mpro, its structure and binding pocket feature are almost as same as that of TGEV Mpro. The tested virtual screening indicated that 73 available proteinase inhibitors in the MDDR database might dock into both the binding pockets of the TGEV Mpro and the SARS_CoV 3CL proteinase. CONCLUSIONS:Either the 3D model of the SARS_CoV 3CL proteinase or the X-ray crystal stucture of the TGEV Mpro may be used as a starting point for design anti-SARS drugs. Screening the known proteinase inhibitors may be an appreciated shortcut to discover anti-SARS drugs.

  7. Tumorigenic DNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.

    1989-01-01

    The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  8. Human coronavirus EMC does not require the SARS-coronavirus receptor and maintains broad replicative capability in mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Raj, V Stalin; Muth, Doreen; Meyer, Benjamin; Kallies, Stephan; Smits, Saskia L; Wollny, Robert; Bestebroer, Theo M; Specht, Sabine; Suliman, Tasnim; Zimmermann, Katrin; Binger, Tabea; Eckerle, Isabella; Tschapka, Marco; Zaki, Ali M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Haagmans, Bart L; Drosten, Christian

    2012-12-11

    A new human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) has emerged very recently in the Middle East. The clinical presentation resembled that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as encountered during the epidemic in 2002/2003. In both cases, acute renal failure was observed in humans. HCoV-EMC is a member of the same virus genus as SARS-CoV but constitutes a sister species. Here we investigated whether it might utilize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV receptor. Knowledge of the receptor is highly critical because the restriction of the SARS receptor to deep compartments of the human respiratory tract limited the spread of SARS. In baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, lentiviral transduction of human ACE2 (hACE2) conferred permissiveness and replication for SARS-CoV but not for hCoV-EMC. Monkey and human kidney cells (LLC-MK2, Vero, and 769-P) and swine kidney cells were permissive for both viruses, but only SARS-CoV infection could be blocked by anti-hACE2 antibody and could be neutralized by preincubation of virus with soluble ACE2. Our data show that ACE2 is neither necessary nor sufficient for hCoV-EMC replication. Moreover, hCoV-EMC, but not SARS-CoV, replicated in cell lines from Rousettus, Rhinolophus, Pipistrellus, Myotis, and Carollia bats, representing four major chiropteran families from both suborders. As human CoV normally cannot replicate in bat cells from different families, this suggests that hCoV-EMC might use a receptor molecule that is conserved in bats, pigs, and humans, implicating a low barrier against cross-host transmission. IMPORTANCE A new human coronavirus (hCoV) emerged recently in the Middle East. The disease resembled SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), causing a fatal epidemic in 2002/2003. Coronaviruses have a reservoir in bats and because this novel virus is related to SARS-CoV, we investigated whether it might replicate in bat cells and use the same receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]). This knowledge is

  9. Indirect ELISAs based on recombinant and affinity-purified glycoprotein E of Aujeszky's disease virus to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenkov, O S; Fodor, N; Fodor, I

    1999-01-01

    Two indirect ELISAs for the detection of antibodies against glycoprotein E (gE) of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) in sera have been developed. The rec-gE-ELISA is based on the E. coli-expressed recombinant protein containing the N-terminal sequences of gE (aa 1-125) fused with the glutathione S-transferase from Schistosoma japonicum. The affi-gE-ELISA is based on native gE, which was purified from virions by affinity chromatography. The tests were optimised and compared with each other, as well as with the recently developed blocking gE-ELISA (Morenkov et al., 1997b), with respect to specificity and sensitivity. The rec-gE-ELISA was less sensitive in detecting ADV-infected animals than the affi-gE-ELISA (sensitivity 80% and 97%, respectively), which is probably due to the lack of conformation-dependent immunodominant epitopes on the recombinant protein expressed in E. coli. The specificity of the rec-gE-ELISA and affi-gE-ELISA was rather moderate (90% and 94%, respectively) because it was necessary to set such cut-off values in the tests that provided a maximum level of sensitivity, which obviously increased the incidence of false positive reactions. Though the indirect ELISAs detect antibodies against many epitopes of gE, the blocking gE-ELISA, which detects antibodies against only one immunodominant epitope of gE, showed a better test performance (specificity 99% and sensitivity 98%). This is most probably due to rather high dilutions of the sera used in the indirect gE-ELISAs (1:30) as compared to the serum dilution in the blocking gE-ELISA (1:2). We conclude that the indirect gE-ELISAs are sufficiently specific and sensitive to distinguish ADV-infected swine from those vaccinated with gE-negative vaccine and can be useful, in particularly affi-gE-ELISA, as additional tests for the detection of antibodies to gE.

  10. Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2001-01-01

    Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed...

  11. PHARUS: Airborne SAR Development in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Koomen, P.J.; Snoeij, P.; Pouwels, H.

    1992-01-01

    The PHARUS project (PHARUS stands for Phased Array Universal SAR) aims for a polarimetric C-band aircraft SAR that will be finalized in 1994. The system will make use of a phased array antenna with solid state amplifiers. The project consists of two phases, a definition phase and a realization phase

  12. Advanced antennas for SAR spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Single and multi-frequency antenna concepts were developed to evaluate the feasibility of building large aperture polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems to be launched in low cost vehicles such as the Delta 2. The antennas are 18.9 m long by 2.6 m wide (L-band) and achieve single polarization imaging to an incidence angle of 55 degrees and dual/quad imaging to 42 degrees. When combined with strawman spacecraft designs, both concepts meet the mass and volume constraints imposed by a Delta 2 launch.

  13. SAR processing using SHARC signal processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Barton D.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Skaron, Steve A.

    1998-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is uniquely suited to help solve the Search and Rescue problem since it can be utilized either day or night and through both dense fog or thick cloud cover. Other papers in this session, and in this session in 1997, describe the various SAR image processing algorithms that are being developed and evaluated within the Search and Rescue Program. All of these approaches to using SAR data require substantial amounts of digital signal processing: for the SAR image formation, and possibly for the subsequent image processing. In recognition of the demanding processing that will be required for an operational Search and Rescue Data Processing System (SARDPS), NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA/Stennis Space Center are conducting a technology demonstration utilizing SHARC multi-chip modules from Boeing to perform SAR image formation processing.

  14. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren J Stockman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SARS outbreak of 2002-2003 presented clinicians with a new, life-threatening disease for which they had no experience in treating and no research on the effectiveness of treatment options. The World Health Organization (WHO expert panel on SARS treatment requested a systematic review and comprehensive summary of treatments used for SARS-infected patients in order to guide future treatment and identify priorities for research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In response to the WHO request we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on ribavirin, corticosteroids, lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r, type I interferon (IFN, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, and SARS convalescent plasma from both in vitro studies and in SARS patients. We also searched for clinical trial evidence of treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Sources of data were the literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to February 2005. Data from publications were extracted and evidence within studies was classified using predefined criteria. In total, 54 SARS treatment studies, 15 in vitro studies, and three acute respiratory distress syndrome studies met our inclusion criteria. Within in vitro studies, ribavirin, lopinavir, and type I IFN showed inhibition of SARS-CoV in tissue culture. In SARS-infected patient reports on ribavirin, 26 studies were classified as inconclusive, and four showed possible harm. Seven studies of convalescent plasma or IVIG, three of IFN type I, and two of LPV/r were inconclusive. In 29 studies of steroid use, 25 were inconclusive and four were classified as causing possible harm. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an extensive literature reporting on SARS treatments, it was not possible to determine whether treatments benefited patients during the SARS outbreak. Some may have been harmful. Clinical trials should be designed to validate a standard protocol for dosage

  15. Differential sensitivity of bat cells to infection by enveloped RNA viruses: coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Bats (Chiroptera host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3 were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed.

  16. Validation of burst overlapping for ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Ryo; Motohka, Takeshi; Ohki, Masato; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) aboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite- 2 (ALOS-2, "DAICHI-2") is the latest L-band spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). PALSAR-2 observes the world mainly with 10 m resolution / 70 km swath Stripmap mode and 25 m resolution / 350 km swath ScanSAR mode. The 3-m resolution Stripmap mode is mainly used upon Japan. 350 km ScanSAR observation could detect large scale deformation e.g., the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake and its aftershocks in 2015. ALOS-2 ScanSAR is the first one that supports ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferometry in L-band spaceborne SAR. However, because of the parameter setting error for the orbit estimation, ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 ScanSAR could achieve little number of interferometric pair until the software modification on February 8, 2015. That is, the burst overlap timing required for the interferometric analysis was insufficient and it depends on the observation date. In this paper, we report the investigation results of this case and discuss the current status of the ALOS-2 ScanSAR InSAR. Some archives achieved before February 8, 2015 can be used for interferometric analysis with after Feb. 8. However, most of them have no interferometric pair. We also report that the archives acquired after February 8, have enough burst overlapping.

  17. Identification of a novel conserved HLA-A*0201-restricted epitope from the spike protein of SARS-CoV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Bing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spike (S protein is a major structural glycoprotein of coronavirus (CoV, the causal agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS. The S protein is a potent target for SARS-specific cell-mediated immune responses. However, the mechanism CoV pathogenesis in SARS and the role of special CTLs in virus clearance are still largely uncharacterized. Here, we describe a study that leads to the identification of a novel HLA-A*0201-restricted epitope from conserved regions of S protein. Results First, different SARS-CoV sequences were analyzed to predict eight candidate peptides from conserved regions of the S protein based upon HLA-A*0201 binding and proteosomal cleavage. Four of eight candidate peptides were tested by HLA-A*0201 binding assays. Among the four candidate peptides, Sp8 (S958-966, VLNDILSRL induced specific CTLs both ex vivo in PBLs of healthy HLA-A2+ donors and in HLA-A2.1/Kb transgenic mice immunized with a plasmid encoding full-length S protein. The immunized mice released IFN-γ and lysed target cells upon stimulation with Sp8 peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cells in comparison to other candidates. Conclusion These results suggest that Sp8 is a naturally processed epitope. We propose that Sp8 epitope should help in the characterization of mechanisms of virus control and immunopathology in SARS-CoV infection.

  18. Updated progress in theories and applications of spaceborne SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Ling; Huang, Cheng; Ding, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhi-Wei

    2006-12-01

    InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) and D-InSAR (Differential InSAR) are rapidly developed new technologies of space geodesy during the late 20th century, and now obviously become hot research topics in the field of microwave remote sensing. Compared with the other sensors, InSAR possesses many incomparable advantages such as the capability to work at all-time and under all weather, very high spatial resolution and strong penetrability through the ground surface. This paper introduces general status of SAR, InSAR, D-InSAR technology, and the principles of InSAR and D-InSAR. New theories and the potential problems of (D-)InSAR technology are largely discussed, including multi-baseline interferometry, Pol-InSAR technique, the correction of atmospheric effects, permanent Scatterers method, the synthesization technique between InSAR and GPS, LIDAR etc., and the InSAR parallel algorithm. Then the new applications of InSAR and D-InSAR are described in detail including 3D topographic mapping, deformation monitoring (including surface subsidence, landside monitoring and ITRF's foundation and maintenance, etc.), thematic mapping (including agriculture and forestry, oceanic surveying and flood monitoring, etc.) and meteorology etc.. Finally, the prospect and future trends in InSAR development are summarized.

  19. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  20. Functional genomics highlights differential induction of antiviral pathways in the lungs of SARS-CoV-infected macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna de Lang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV is likely mediated by disproportional immune responses and the ability of the virus to circumvent innate immunity. Using functional genomics, we analyzed early host responses to SARS-CoV infection in the lungs of adolescent cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis that show lung pathology similar to that observed in human adults with SARS. Analysis of gene signatures revealed induction of a strong innate immune response characterized by the stimulation of various cytokine and chemokine genes, including interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10, which corresponds to the host response seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome. As opposed to many in vitro experiments, SARS-CoV induced a wide range of type I interferons (IFNs and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in the lungs of macaques. Using immunohistochemistry, we revealed that these antiviral signaling pathways were differentially regulated in distinctive subsets of cells. Our studies emphasize that the induction of early IFN signaling may be critical to confer protection against SARS-CoV infection and highlight the strength of combining functional genomics with immunohistochemistry to further unravel the pathogenesis of SARS.

  1. Antenna motion errors in bistatic SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Yazıcı, Birsen; Cagri Yanik, H.

    2015-06-01

    Antenna trajectory or motion errors are pervasive in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. Motion errors typically result in smearing and positioning errors in SAR images. Understanding the relationship between the trajectory errors and position errors in reconstructed images is essential in forming focused SAR images. Existing studies on the effect of antenna motion errors are limited to certain geometries, trajectory error models or monostatic SAR configuration. In this paper, we present an analysis of position errors in bistatic SAR imagery due to antenna motion errors. Bistatic SAR imagery is becoming increasingly important in the context of passive imaging and multi-sensor imaging. Our analysis provides an explicit quantitative relationship between the trajectory errors and the positioning errors in bistatic SAR images. The analysis is applicable to arbitrary trajectory errors and arbitrary imaging geometries including wide apertures and large scenes. We present extensive numerical simulations to validate the analysis and to illustrate the results in commonly used bistatic configurations and certain trajectory error models.

  2. SARS - infectious disease of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is an emerging viral infectious disease. According to the World Health Organization, a suspected case of SARS is defined as documented fever (temperature >38°C, lower respiratory tract symptoms, and contact with a person believed to have had SARS or history of travel to an area of documented transmission. A probable case is a suspected case with chest radiographic findings of pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, or an unexplained respiratory illness resulting in death, with autopsy findings of ARDS without identifiable cause. In this article some SARS epidemiological data in Indonesia will also presented. There are 7 SARS suspected cases and 2 probable cases were registered in Indonesia on the period of 1 March to 9 July 2003, and no more cases were reported after that time. How will be SARS progression in the future will be a subject of discussion among scientist, and we will have to wait and be prepared for any development might occur. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 59-63Keywords: SARS, Case Definition, Etiology, Indonesia

  3. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  4. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  5. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  6. Land Subsidence Monitoring Using PS-InSAR Technique for L-Band SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, S.; Chatterjee, R. S.; Singh, K. B.; Kumar, D.

    2016-10-01

    Differential SAR-Interferometry (D-InSAR) is one of the potential source to measure land surface motion induced due to underground coal mining. However, this technique has many limitation such as atmospheric in homogeneities, spatial de-correlation, and temporal decorrelation. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry synthetic aperture radar (PS-InSAR) belongs to a family of time series InSAR technique, which utilizes the properties of some of the stable natural and anthropogenic targets which remain coherent over long time period. In this study PS-InSAR technique has been used to monitor land subsidence over selected location of Jharia Coal field which has been correlated with the ground levelling measurement. This time series deformation observed using PS InSAR helped us to understand the nature of the ground surface deformation due to underground mining activity.

  7. Analysis of Resolution of Bistatic SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial resolutions at different directions of bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BiSAR) have been derived from the ambiguity function. Compared with monostatic signal to noise ratio, BiSAR's resolutions of a fixed point target are varying with slow time since BiSAR system is space-variant. Constraints for the assumption of space-invariant bistatic topology are proposed in the paper. Moreover, under the assumption of invariance, the change of resolutions at different point in the image scene is taken into account, and we have specified two key parameters that affect resolutions directly and analyzed the way how they influence on the resolutions.

  8. Geologic mapping in Greenland with polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Brooks, C. K.

    1995-01-01

    The application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for geologic mapping in Greenland is investigated by the Danish Center for Remote Sensing (DCRS) in co-operation with the Danish Lithosphere Centre (DLC). In 1994 a pilot project was conducted in East Greenland. The Danish airborne SAR, EMISAR......, acquired fully polarimetric C-band data which, upon processing and calibration, was interpreted jointly by DCRS and DLC. Several geologic phenomena are readily identified in the SAR imagery, while different lithologies seem to be indistinguishable because they have similar geomorphologies. The geologic...

  9. SAR observations of coastal zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, G. A.; Kasischke, E. S.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology to the observation of coastal zones phenomena are detailed. The conditions observed include gravity wave detection, surf zone location, surface currents, and long-period 'surf beats'. Algorithms have been developed and successfully tested that determine significant wave and current parameters from the sea surface backscatter of microwave energy. Doppler information from the SAR optical correlator allows a rough estimation of near shore surface flow velocities that has been found in agreement with both theory and in situ observations as well. Seasat SAR data of the Scotland and North Carolina coasts are considered, as well as the results of bathymetric updating of coastal area charts.

  10. SAR ATR Based on Convolutional Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhuangzhuang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new method of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image target recognition based on a convolutional neural network. First, we introduce a class separability measure into the cost function to improve this network’s ability to distinguish between categories. Then, we extract SAR image features using the improved convolutional neural network and classify these features using a support vector machine. Experimental results using moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition SAR datasets prove the validity of this method.

  11. Offshore wind mapping Mediterranean area using SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete;

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface, for example from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR), provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean Sea, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often...... with long periods of missing data. Here, we focus on evaluating the use of SAR for offshore wind mapping. Preliminary results from the analysis of SAR-based ocean winds in Mediterranean areas show interesting large scale wind flow features consistent with results from previous studies using numerical models...

  12. Canadian SAR remote sensing for the Terrestrial Wetland Global Change Research Network (TWGCRN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Shannon; Brisco, Brian; Cull, Andrew; Gallant, Alisa L.; Sadinski, Walter J.; Thompson, Dean

    2010-01-01

    The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) has more than 30 years of experience investigating the use of SAR remote sensing for many applications related to terrestrial water resources. Recently, CCRS scientists began contributing to the Terrestrial Wetland Global Change Research Network (TWGCRN), a bi-national research network dedicated to assessing impacts of global change on interconnected wetland-upland landscapes across a vital portion of North America. CCRS scientists are applying SAR remote sensing to characterize wetland components of these landscapes in three ways. First, they are using a comprehensive set of RADARSAT-2 SAR data collected during April to September 2009 to extract multi-temporal surface water information for key TWGCRN study landscapes in North America. Second, they are analyzing polarimetric RADARSAT-2 data to determine areas where double-bounce represents the primary scattering mechanism and is indicative of flooded vegetation in these landscapes. Third, they are testing advanced interferometric SAR techniques to estimate water levels with RADARSAT-2 Fine Quad polarimetric image pairs. The combined information from these three SAR analysis activities will provide TWGCRN scientists with an integrated view and monitoring capability for these dynamic wetland-upland landscapes. These data are being used in conjunction with other remote sensing and field data to study interactions between landscape and animal (birds and amphibians) responses to climate/global change.

  13. Bistatic Experiment Using TerraSAR-X and DLR’s new F-SAR System

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Stefan; Rodriguez-Cassolà, Marc; Nottensteiner, Anton; Horn, Ralf; Scheiber, Rolf; Steinbrecher, Ulrich; Metzig, Robert; Limbach, Markus; Mittermayer, Josef; Krieger, Gerhard; Moreira, Alberto; Schwerdt, Marco

    2008-01-01

    A bistatic X-band experiment was successfully performed early November 2007. TerraSAR-X was used as transmitter and DLR’s new airborne radar system F-SAR, which was programmed to acquire data in a quasi-continuous mode to avoid echo window synchronization issues, was used as bistatic receiver. Precise phase and time referencing between both systems, which is essential for obtaining high resolution SAR images, was derived during the bistatic processing. Hardware setup and performance analyses ...

  14. GRECO-SAR: An Orbital Polarimetric SAR Simulator of Deterministic Complex Targets for Vessel Classification Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Margarit Martín, Gerard; Mallorquí Franquet, Jordi Joan; Rius Casals, Juan Manuel; Sanz Marcos, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) simulator that is able to generate polarimetric SAR (POLSAR) and polarimetric inverse SAR data of complex targets. It solves the electromagnetic problem via high-frequency approximations, such as physical optics and the physical theory of diffraction, with notable computational efficiency. In principle, any orbital monostatic sensor working at any band, resolution, and operating mode can be modeled. To make simulations more realistic, the t...

  15. SAR-SIFT: A SIFT-LIKE ALGORITHM FOR SAR IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Dellinger, Flora; Delon, Julie; Gousseau, Yann; Michel, Julien; Tupin, Florence

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm is widely used in computer vision to match features between images or to localize and recognize objets. However, mostly because of speckle noise, it does not perform well on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. We present here an improvement of this algorithm for SAR images, named SAR-SIFT. A new gradient computation, yielding an orientation and a magnitude robust to speckle noise, is first introduced. It is then...

  16. SARS-A Worldwide Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜保华

    2003-01-01

    所谓SARS,即严重急性呼吸道综合症,是一种传染力很强的呼吸道疾病。这种新的疾病最先由世界卫生组织医生Carlo Urbani博士确诊,患者是一位48岁的商人,后来因该病而死亡。Urbani医生本人也因感染该病而于2003年3月29日去世,死时年仅46岁。在此期间,SARS开始蔓延。自SARS发现后的一个半月里,全球已有数千人被感染。

  17. Atmosphere Observations by Geosynchronous SARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti guarnieri, Andrea; Rocca, Fabio; Wadge, Geoff; Schulz, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    We analyze different geosynchronous Synthetic Aperture RADAR concepts aimed to get both tropospheric and ionospheric delay maps with a revisit time of minutes and sub-continental coverage. Such products could be used either to compensate the delay in LEO-SAR missions and GNSS, or to generate integrated water-vapor maps to be used for Numerical Weather Forecast. The system exploits the principle of RADAR location, by transmitting a pulse with a suitable bandwidth, and the residual non-zero eccentricity of COMmunication SATellites. Different concepts are proposed as payload in COMSAT, or constellations of small satellites, that is monostatic or bistatic/multistatic RADARS. The selection of the best frequency, from L to Ku, and the analysis of performances is presented.

  18. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  19. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be...

  20. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  1. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious...

  2. Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA) regulate gene silencing and modify homeostatic status in animals faced with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been established that reduced susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a genetic component. This genetic component may take the form of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), which are molecules that function as regulators of gene expression. Various sncRNAs ...

  3. The effect of maternal antibodies on the detection of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in peripheral blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmer, G.M.; Maanen, van C.; Goey, de I.; Brinkhof, J.; Wentink, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Persistently infected animals (PI animals), that is those animals born after an intrauterine infection of the dam during the first 120 days of gestation, are the main source of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD virus) in a cattle population. The success of any BVD virus eradication programme depends

  4. Polarimetric SAR Interferometry Evaluation in Mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Kuk; Fatoyinbo,Temilola; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Sun, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    TanDEM-X (TDX) enables to generate an interferometric coherence without temporal decorrelation effect that is the most critical factor for a successful Pol-InSAR inversion, as have recently been used for forest parameter retrieval. This paper presents mangrove forest height estimation only using single-pass/single-baseline/dual-polarization TDX data by means of new dual-Pol-InSAR inversion technique. To overcome a lack of one polarization in a conventional Pol- InSAR inversion (i.e. an underdetermined problem), the ground phase in the Pol-InSAR model is directly estimated from TDX interferograms assuming flat underlying topography in mangrove forest. The inversion result is validated against lidar measurement data (NASA's G-LiHT data).

  5. Optimal Approach to SAR Image Despeckling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Speckle filtering of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images while preserving the spatial signal variability (texture and fine structures) still remains a challenge. Many algorithms have been proposed for the SAR imagery despeckling. However,simulated annealing (SA) method is one of excellent choices currently. A critical problem in the study on SA is to provide appropriate cooling schedules that ensure fast convergence to near-optimal solutions. This paper gives a new necessary and sufficient condition for the cooling schedule so that the algorithm state converges in all probability to the set of globally minimum cost states.Moreover, it constructs an appropriate objective function for SAR image despeckling. An experimental result of the actual SAR image processing is obtained.

  6. Ionosphere correction algorithm for spaceborne SAR imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yang; Mengdao Xing; Guangcai Sun

    2016-01-01

    For spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ima-ging, the dispersive ionosphere has significant effects on the pro-pagation of the low frequency (especial y P-band) radar signal. The ionospheric effects can be a significant source of the phase error in the radar signal, which causes a degeneration of the image quality in spaceborne SAR imaging system. The background ionospheric effects on spaceborne SAR through modeling and simulation are analyzed, and the qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the spatio-temporal variability of the ionosphere is given. A novel ionosphere correction algorithm (ICA) is proposed to deal with the ionospheric effects on the low frequency spaceborne SAR radar signal. With the proposed algorithm, the degradation of the image quality caused by the ionosphere is corrected. The simulation re-sults show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Introduction to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    18 m L RADARSAT 1995 10 m × 9 m C ENVISAT 2002 25 m × 25 m C TerraSAR-X 2006 < 1 m × 1 m X Radarsat II 2005 3 m × 3 m C SAR-Lupe 2005 < 1 m...1 m X IGS-2b 2008 30 cm × 30 cm X Airborne SAR DOSAR 1989 < 1 m × 1 m S,C,X,Ka CARABAS- II 1997 3 m × 3 m VHF PAMIR 2003 10 cm × 10 cm X...Lynx 1999 10 cm × 10 cm Ku MISAR 2003 0.5 m × 0.5 m Ka RAMSES 1994 10 cm × 10 cm P,L,S,C,X,Ku,Ka,W MEMPHIS 1997 20 cm × 20 cm Ka,W E-SAR 1994 1.5

  8. Advanced Antenna for Digital Beamforming SAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a wideband (500 MHz) L-band phased-array antenna for airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications based on a novel approach that will make possible...

  9. Cynomolgus macaque as an animal model for severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Lawler

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in 2002 and 2003 affected global health and caused major economic disruption. Adequate animal models are required to study the underlying pathogenesis of SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV infection and to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. We report the first findings of measurable clinical disease in nonhuman primates (NHPs infected with SARS-CoV. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In order to characterize clinically relevant parameters of SARS-CoV infection in NHPs, we infected cynomolgus macaques with SARS-CoV in three groups: Group I was infected in the nares and bronchus, group II in the nares and conjunctiva, and group III intravenously. Nonhuman primates in groups I and II developed mild to moderate symptomatic illness. All NHPs demonstrated evidence of viral replication and developed neutralizing antibodies. Chest radiographs from several animals in groups I and II revealed unifocal or multifocal pneumonia that peaked between days 8 and 10 postinfection. Clinical laboratory tests were not significantly changed. Overall, inoculation by a mucosal route produced more prominent disease than did intravenous inoculation. Half of the group I animals were infected with a recombinant infectious clone SARS-CoV derived from the SARS-CoV Urbani strain. This infectious clone produced disease indistinguishable from wild-type Urbani strain. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV infection of cynomolgus macaques did not reproduce the severe illness seen in the majority of adult human cases of SARS; however, our results suggest similarities to the milder syndrome of SARS-CoV infection characteristically seen in young children.

  10. On Bistatic Forward-looking SAR Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Viet Thuy; Pettersson, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Left/right ambiguity and low angular (azimuth) resolution are severe problems for monostatic forward-looking SAR imaging. It is strongly believed that these technical issues can definitely be solved with bistatic forward-looking SAR. The analysis presented in this paper points out that the left/right ambiguity problem still exits. However, an appropriate selection of the position of bistatic base line and antenna beamwidth allows us to conceal it. The paper also gives some recommendations whi...

  11. SARS: Key factors in crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-Chao; Chen, Thai-Form; Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted at a single hospital selected in Taipei during the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak from March to July, 2003 in Taiwan. During this period of time, 104 SARS patients were admitted to the hospital. There were no negative reports related to the selected hospital despite its being located right in the center of an area struck by the epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors enabling the hospital to survive SARS unscathed. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with the nursing directors and nursing managers of the SARS units, along with a review of relevant hospital documents. The five key elements identified as survival factors during this SARS crisis are as follows: 1. good control of timing for crisis management, 2. careful decision-making, 3. thorough implementation, 4. effective communication, and 5. trust between management and employees. The results of this study reconfirmed the selected hospital as a model for good crisis management during the SARS epidemic.

  12. SAR110894, a potent histamine H₃-receptor antagonist, displays procognitive effects in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Guy; Pichat, Philippe; Pruniaux, Marie-Pierre; Beeské, Sandra; Lopez-Grancha, Mati; Genet, Elisabeth; Terranova, Jean-Paul; Castro, Antonio; Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Black, Mark; Varty, Geoffrey B; Weiner, Ina; Arad, Michal; Barak, Segev; De Levie, Amaya; Guillot, Etienne

    2012-08-01

    SAR110894 is a novel histamine H₃-R ligand, displaying high and selective affinity for human, rat or mouse H₃-Rs. SAR110894 is a potent H₃-R antagonist at native receptors, reversing R-α-methylhistamine-induced inhibition of electrical field stimulation contraction in the guinea-pig ileum. Additionally, SAR110894 inhibited constitutive GTPγS binding at human H₃-Rs demonstrating inverse agonist properties. In behavioral models addressing certain aspects of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), SAR110894 improved memory performances in several variants of the object recognition task in mice (0.3-3 mg/kg, p.o.) or rats (0.3-1 mg/kg, p.o.). Moreover, SAR110894 (1 mg/kg, p.o.) reversed a deficit in working memory in the Y-maze test, following an acute low dose of phencyclidine (PCP) (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice sensitized by repeated treatment with a high dose of PCP (10 mg/kg, i.p.). In the latent inhibition (LI) model, SAR110894 potentiated LI in saline-treated rats (1 and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) and reversed abnormally persistent LI induced by neonatal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in rodents (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.p.). In a social novelty discrimination task in rats, SAR110894 attenuated selective attention deficit induced by neonatal PCP treatment (3 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) or a parametric modification of the procedure (3 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.). SAR110894 showed efficacy in several animal models related to the cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It prevented the occurrence of episodic memory deficit induced by scopolamine in rats (0.01-10 mg/kg, p.o.) or by the central infusion of the toxic amyloid fragment β₂₅₋₃₅ in the object recognition test in mice (1 and 3 mg/kg, p.o.). Altogether, these findings suggest that SAR110894 may be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of the cognitive symptoms of AD, schizophrenia and certain aspects of ADHD.

  13. Online Health Education on SARS to University Students during the SARS Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mee Lian; Koh, David; Iyer, Prasad; Seow, Adeline; Goh, Lee Gan; Chia, Sin Eng; Lim, Meng Kin; Ng, Daniel; Ong, Choon Nam; Phua, Kai Hong; Tambyah, Paul; Chow, Vincent T K; Chew, Suok Kai; Chandran, Ravi; Lee, Hin Peng

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about how online learning may be used to disseminate health information rapidly and widely to large university populations if there is an infectious disease outbreak. During the SARS outbreak in Singapore in 2003, a six-lesson elearning module on SARS was developed for a large university population of 32,000 students. The module…

  14. Synthetic SAR Image Generation using Sensor, Terrain and Target Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Anders; Abulaitijiang, Adili; Dall, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    A tool to generate synthetic SAR images of objects set on a clutter background is described. The purpose is to generate images for training Automatic Target Recognition and Identification algorithms. The tool employs a commercial electromagnetic simulation program to calculate radar cross sections...... of the object using a CAD-model. The raw measurements are input to a SAR system and terrain model, which models thermal noise, terrain clutter, and SAR focusing to produce synthetic SAR images. Examples of SAR images at 0.3m and 0.1m resolution, and a comparison with real SAR imagery from the MSTAR dataset...

  15. Detection and analysis of rabies street virus in animals in China%我国各地区动物狂犬病街毒的检测及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐葛林; 严家新; 张永振; 董关木; 唐建蓉; 杨晓明; 孟胜利; 吴杰; 肖奇友; 周敦金; 朱凤才; 王萍; 王定明; 明平刚

    2008-01-01

    目的 检测我国不同地区动物中狂犬病毒带毒率并分析糖蛋白编码基因序列.方法 El.ISA、免疫荧光法分别检测586份采集自中国不同地区的犬、猫,蝙蝠和野鼠脑标本和16份犬唾液中狂犬病街毒,阳性标本乳鼠颅内接种.并测序.结果 ELISA、免疫荧光法均在犬脑中分离到10株狂犬病街毒,其中贵州省113份犬脑中分离到2株病毒,湖南省62份犬脑中分离到2株病毒,武汉市70份犬脑中分离到2株病毒,江苏省85份犬脑中分离到4株病毒,沈阳市69份犬脑中未分离到狂犬病毒;79份猫脑、100份蝙蝠脑及8份鼠脑中未检出狂犬病街毒,16份犬唾液标本未检出狂犬病毒.在贵州省和武汉市,冬季采集的112份犬脑末检出狂犬病毒.春夏季采集的40份犬脑中,4份阳性.分离的10株狂犬病毒阳性株颅内接种乳鼠后.均发病死亡.所有分离株均属狂犬病毒基因1型,可分为4个亚组.结论 同一地区的狂犬病毒分离株以及相邻省份的狂犬病毒分离株的同源性十分接近,动物样本采集时间与狂犬病毒阳检率有关.%Objective To detect the positive rate of rabies virus in animals of different regions in China and to analyze the sequences of glycoprotein encoding gene.Methods Rabies street viruses were detected in 586 brain samples of dogs,cats,bats,mice and 16 saliva samples of dogs from different regions in China using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)and immunofluorescent assay (IFA).Positive samples were inoculated intracranially to neonate rats and then sequenced.Results Ten street virus strains were isolated from dog brains using ELISA and IFA,in which 2 positive of 113 in Guizhou Province,2 positive of 62 in Hunan Province,2 positive of 70 in Wuban city,4 positive of 85 in Jiangsu Province,and no positive of 69 in Shenyang city.There was no detectable rabies virus in brains of 79 cats,100 bats,8 mice and in 16 saliva samples.One hundred and twelve brain samples

  16. Multiresolution analysis of SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The 'Multiresolution Analysis of SAR Data' program supported research work in five areas. Geometric hashing theory can now be viewed as a Bayesian approach to object recognition. False alarm rates can be greatly reduced by using certain enhancements and modifications developed under this project. Geometric hashing algorithms now exist for the Connection Machine. Recognition of synthetically-produced dot arrays was demonstrated using a model base of 1024 objects. The work represents a substantial advance over existing model-based vision capabilities. Algorithms were developed for determining the translation and rotation of a sensor given only the image flow field data. These are new algorithms, and are much more stable than existing computer vision algorithms for this task. The algorithms might provide independent verification of gyroscopic data, or might be used to compute relative motion with respect to a moving scene object, or may be useful for motion-based segmentation. Our theories explaining the Dempster/Shafer calculus and developing new uncertainty reasoning calculi were extended, and presented at a conference and were incorporated into the Bayesian interpretation of geometric hashing. 'Wavelet Slice Theorem' was developed in several different versions, any of which yields an alternate approach to image formation. The result may well provide a more stable approach to image formation than the standard Fourier-based projection slide theorem, since interpolation of unknown spectra values is better-founded.

  17. Performance evaluation of SAR/GMTI algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Wendy; Pierson, William; Mcginnis, Ryan; Majumder, Uttam; Minardi, Michael; Sobota, David

    2016-05-01

    There is a history and understanding of exploiting moving targets within ground moving target indicator (GMTI) data, including methods for modeling performance. However, many assumptions valid for GMTI processing are invalid for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. For example, traditional GMTI processing assumes targets are exo-clutter and a system that uses a GMTI waveform, i.e. low bandwidth (BW) and low pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Conversely, SAR imagery is typically formed to focus data at zero Doppler and requires high BW and high PRF. Therefore, many of the techniques used in performance estimation of GMTI systems are not valid for SAR data. However, as demonstrated by papers in the recent literature,1-11 there is interest in exploiting moving targets within SAR data. The techniques employed vary widely, including filter banks to form images at multiple Dopplers, performing smear detection, and attempting to address the issue through waveform design. The above work validates the need for moving target exploitation in SAR data, but it does not represent a theory allowing for the prediction or bounding of performance. This work develops an approach to estimate and/or bound performance for moving target exploitation specific to SAR data. Synthetic SAR data is generated across a range of sensor, environment, and target parameters to test the exploitation algorithms under specific conditions. This provides a design tool allowing radar systems to be tuned for specific moving target exploitation applications. In summary, we derive a set of rules that bound the performance of specific moving target exploitation algorithms under variable operating conditions.

  18. Identification of an HLA-A* 0201-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitope SSp-1 of SARS-CoV spike protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang B; Yu Y; Wang X; Yang R; Cao X; Chen H; Jiang X; Zhang M; Wan T; Li N; Zhou X; Wu Y; Yang F

    2004-01-01

    A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), has been identified as the causal agent of SARS. Spike (S) protein is a major structural glycoprotein of the SARS virus and a potential target for SARS-specific cell-mediated immune responses. A panel of S protein-derived peptides was tested for their binding affinity to HLA-A * 0201 molecules. Peptides with high affinity for HLA-A * 0201 were then assessed for their capacity to elicit specific immune responses mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) both in vivo, in HLA-A2. 1/Kb transgenic mice, and in vitro, from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) harvested from healthy HLA-A2.1 + donors. SARS-CoV protein-derived peptide-1 (SSp-1 RLNEVAKNL), induced peptide-specific CTLs both in vivo (transgenic mice) and in vitro (human PBLs), which specifically released interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) upon stimulation with SSp-1-pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) or T2 cells. SSp-1-specific CTLs also lysed major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched tumor cell lines engineered to express S proteins. HLA-A * 0201-SSp-1 tetramer staining revealed the presence of significant populations of SSp-1-specific CTLs in SSp-1-induced CD8+ T cells. We propose that the newly identified epitope SSp-1 will help in the characterization of virus control mechanisms and immunopathology in SARS-CoV infection, and may be relevant to the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for SARS.

  19. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  20. Hydrodynamics of the groundwater-fed Sian Ka'an Wetlands, Mexico, From InSAR and SAR Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondwe, Bibi Ruth Neuman; Hong, S.; Wdowinski, S.

    2008-01-01

    to understand, quantify and predict the wetland dynamics. Remotely sensed Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data offer new opportunities to get hydrodynamic information, which is useful for wetland management. InSAR data produces temporal phase......-changes of the backscattered radar signal, which can be related to the water level changes in vegetated wetlands. SAR data reveals information of surface properties such as the degree of flooding through the amplitude of the backscattered signal. We used RADARSAT-1 InSAR and SAR data to form 36 interferograms and 13 flooding...

  1. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  2. The impact of SARS on hospital performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ran-Chou

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the SARS epidemic, healthcare utilization and medical services decreased significantly. However, the long-term impact of SARS on hospital performance needs to be further discussed. Methods A municipal hospital in Taipei City was shut down for a month due to SARS and then became the designated SARS and infectious disease hospital for the city. This study collected the outpatient, inpatient and emergency service volumes for every year from April to March over four years. Average monthly service amount ± standard deviation were used to compare patient volume for the whole hospital, as well as the outpatient numbers accessing different departments. The ARIMA model of outpatient volume in the pre-SARS year was developed. Results The average monthly service volume of outpatient visits for the base year 2002 was 52317 ± 4204 visits per month, and number for 2003 and the following two years were 55%, 82% and 84% of the base year respectively. The average emergency service volume was 4382 ± 356 visits per month at the base year and this became 45%, 77% and 87% of the base year for the following three years respectively. Average inpatient service volume was 8520 ± 909 inpatient days per month at the base year becoming 43%, 81% and 87% of the base year for the following three years respectively. Only the emergency service volume had recovered to the level of a non-significant difference at the second year after SARS. In addition, the departments of family medicine, metabolism and nephrology reached the 2002 patient number in 2003. The ARIMA (2,1,0 model was the most suitable for outpatient volume in pre-SARS year. The MAPE of the ARIMA (2,1,0 model for the pre-SARS year was 6.9%, and 43.2%, 10.6%, 6.2% for following 3 years. Conclusion This study demonstrates that if a hospital is completely shut down due to SARS or a similar disease, the impact is longer than previous reported and different departments may experience

  3. Global emergence of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV belongs to the flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, which includes dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was isolated in 1947, in the Zika forest near Kampala, Uganda, from one of the rhesus monkeys used as sentinel animals in a yellow fever research program.

  4. A modified algorithm for SAR parallel imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ju-rong; WANG Fei; CAO Ning; LU Hao

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar can provide two dimension images by converting the acquired echoed SAR signal to targets coordinate and reflectivity. With the advancement of sophisticated SAR signal processing, more and more SAR imaging methods have been proposed for synthetic aperture radar which works at near field and the Fresnel approximation is not appropriate. Time domain correlation is a kind of digital reconstruction method based on processing the synthetic aperture radar data in the two-dimensional frequency domain via Fourier transform. It reconstructs SAR image via simply correlation without any need for approximation or interpolation. But its high computational cost for correlation makes it unsuitable for real time imaging. In order to reduce the computational burden a modified algorithm about time domain correlation was given in this paper. It also can take full advantage of parallel computations of the imaging processor. Its practical implementation was proposed and the preliminary simulation results were presented. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is a computationally efficient way of implementing the reconstruction in real time SAR image processing.

  5. Low complexity efficient raw SAR data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Shantanu; Boufounos, Petros; Vetro, Anthony; Okada, Yu

    2011-06-01

    We present a low-complexity method for compression of raw Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Raw SAR data is typically acquired using a satellite or airborne platform without sufficient computational capabilities to process the data and generate a SAR image on-board. Hence, the raw data needs to be compressed and transmitted to the ground station, where SAR image formation can be carried out. To perform low-complexity compression, our method uses 1-dimensional transforms, followed by quantization and entropy coding. In contrast to previous approaches, which send uncompressed or Huffman-coded bits, we achieve more efficient entropy coding using an arithmetic coder that responds to a continuously updated probability distribution. We present experimental results on compression of raw Ku-SAR data. In those we evaluate the effect of the length of the transform on compression performance and demonstrate the advantages of the proposed framework over a state-of-the-art low complexity scheme called Block Adaptive Quantization (BAQ).

  6. Representations of SARS in the British newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washer, Peter

    2004-12-01

    In the Spring of 2003, there was a huge interest in the global news media following the emergence of a new infectious disease: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). This study examines how this novel disease threat was depicted in the UK newspapers, using social representations theory and in particular existing work on social representations of HIV/AIDS and Ebola to analyse the meanings of the epidemic. It investigates the way that SARS was presented as a dangerous threat to the UK public, whilst almost immediately the threat was said to be 'contained' using the mechanism of 'othering': SARS was said to be unlikely to personally affect the UK reader because the Chinese were so different to 'us'; so 'other'. In this sense, the SARS scare, despite the remarkable speed with which it was played out in the modern global news media, resonates with the meanings attributed to other epidemics of infectious diseases throughout history. Yet this study also highlights a number of differences in the social representations of SARS compared with earlier epidemics. In particular, this study examines the phenomena of 'emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases' over the past 30 or so years and suggests that these have impacted on the faith once widely held that Western biomedicine could 'conquer' infectious disease.

  7. Automated rectification and geocoding of SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Curlander, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    An automated post-processing system has been developed for rectification and geocoding of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery. The system uses as input a raw uncorrected image from the operational SAR correlator, and produces as a standard output a rectified and geocoded product. The accurate geolocation of SAR image pixels is provided by a spatial transformation model which maps the slant range-azimuth SAR image pixels into their location on a prespecified map grid. This model predicts the geodetic location of each pixel by utilizing: the sensor platform position; a geoid model; the parameters of the data collection system and the processing parameters used in the SAR correlator. Based on their geodetic locations, the pixels are mapped by using the desired cartographic projection equations. This rectification and geocoding technique has been tested with Seasat and SIR-B images. The test results demonstrate absolute location uncertainty of less than 50 m and relative distortion (scale factor and skew) of less than 0.1 percent relative to local variations from the assumed geoid.

  8. ICAO's anti-SARS airport activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Silvio; Curdt-Christiansen, Claus M

    2003-11-01

    To prevent SARS from spreading through air travel and in order to rebuild the confidence of the traveling public in the safety of air travel, ICAO has set up an "Anti-SARS Airport Evaluation Project." The first phase of this project was to develop a set of protective measures for international airports in affected areas to adopt and implement and then to send out, on the request of Contracting States, a team of inspectors to evaluate and assess airports and issue a "statement of evaluation" that the airport inspected complies with the ICAO anti-SARS protective measures. In cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO), the first part of phase 1 was completed in early June this year, and the second part of phase 1 followed soon after. By mid-July, five international airports in Southeast Asia had been inspected and found to be in full compliance with the ICAO anti-SARS protective measures. The success of this ICAO project is believed to have contributed significantly to the recovery of international air travel and related industries now taking place. Phase 2 of the project is now being developed. It is aimed at preventing a resurgence of SARS, but it also contains elements to make the methodology developed applicable to future outbreaks of any other communicable disease in which the mode of transmission could involve aviation and/or the need to prevent the spread of the disease by air travel.

  9. METAPNEUMOVIRUS AND BOKAVIRUS RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN THE STRUCTURE OF SARS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Harlamov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the literature data about new pneumotropic viruses - metapneumovirus and bokavirus: taxonomy, structural features, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, clinical symptoms of the diseases they cause and complications. The high incidence and bokavirus metapnevmovirus structure of SARS infections in preschool children, the authors have shown the example carried out at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Children Medical University (now RNIMU named after N.I. Pirogov and on the basis of clinical Institute of Virology, multicenter, randomized, blind, placebo-controlled study on the therapeutic efficacy and safety of interferon inducer Kagocel in 120 children aged 2 to 6 years. The findings to point out on significant reduction in the rate of relief of basic clinical manifestations of SARS, regardless of etiology, in children taking Kagocel in compare with a group of children who took a placebo.

  10. Exploration of Advanced Bistatic SAR Experiments (in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Yun-kai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on the results of several advanced hybrid bistatic SAR experiments. The hybrid bistatic configuration applies to the case in which the transmitter and receiver are mounted on different types of platforms, e.g., spaceborne/airborne, airborne/stationary, spaceborne/stationary, and so on. Several hybrid bistatic SAR experiments have been performed successfully, i.e., TerraSAR-X/PAMIR, PAMIR/stationary, and TerraSAR-X/stationary. Furthermore, Multiple Baseline Interferometry SAR (MB-InSAR and Digital Beam-Forming (DBF technologies are validated in the TerraSAR-X/stationary configuration. Note that the DBF experiment results based on the spaceborne illuminator are discussed for the first time in SAR community. In addition, this paper emphasizes imaging geometry, image analysis, and focusing results.

  11. Application of SAR Imagery in Submarine Topography Surveys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁川; 梁开龙; 桂力民

    2004-01-01

    An important research area in oceanographic surveying and mapping is to obtain submarine topography by remote sensing technique, especially by SAR imagery. In this article, problems related to SAR imagery are analyzed to provide references for the further research.

  12. SAR of psilocybin analogs: discovery of a selective 5-HT 2C agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sard, Howard; Kumaran, Govindaraj; Morency, Cynthia; Roth, Bryan L; Toth, Beth Ann; He, Ping; Shuster, Louis

    2005-10-15

    An SAR study of psilocybin and psilocin derivatives reveals that 1-methylpsilocin is a selective agonist at the h5-HT(2C) receptor. The corresponding phosphate derivative, 1-methylpsilocybin, shows efficacy in an animal model for obsessive-compulsive disorder, as does 4-fluoro-N,N-dimethyltryptamine. These results suggest a new area for development of novel 5-HT(2C) agonists with applications for drug discovery.

  13. Is modulating virus virulence by induced systemic resistance realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faoro, Franco; Gozzo, Franco

    2015-05-01

    Induction of plant resistance, either achieved by chemicals (systemic acquired resistance, SAR) or by rhizobacteria (induced systemic resistance, ISR) is a possible and/or complementary alternative to manage virus infections in crops. SAR mechanisms operating against viruses are diverse, depending on the pathosystem, and may inhibit virus replication as well as cell-to-cell and long-distance movement. Inhibition is often mediated by salicylic acid with the involvement of alternative oxidase and reactive oxygen species. However, salicylate may also stimulate a separate downstream pathway, leading to the induction of an additional mechanism, based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1-mediated RNA silencing. Thus, SAR and RNA silencing would closely cooperate in the defence against virus infection. Despite tremendous recent progress in the knowledge of SAR mechanisms, only a few compounds, including benzothiadiazole and chitosan have been shown to reduce the severity of systemic virus disease in controlled environment and, more modestly, in open field. Finally, ISR induction, has proved to be a promising strategy to control virus disease, particularly by seed bacterization with a mixture of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. However, the use of any of these treatments should be integrated with cultivation practices that reduce vector pressure by the use of insecticides, or by Bt crops.

  14. Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

    1983-11-01

    Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested.

  15. Exploration of Advanced Bistatic SAR Experiments (in English)

    OpenAIRE

    Deng Yun-kai; Robert Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study concentrates on the results of several advanced hybrid bistatic SAR experiments. The hybrid bistatic configuration applies to the case in which the transmitter and receiver are mounted on different types of platforms, e.g., spaceborne/airborne, airborne/stationary, spaceborne/stationary, and so on. Several hybrid bistatic SAR experiments have been performed successfully, i.e., TerraSAR-X/PAMIR, PAMIR/stationary, and TerraSAR-X/stationary. Furthermore, Multiple Baseline Interferomet...

  16. Verification of L-band SAR calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. W.; Jackson, P. L.; Kasischke, E.

    1985-01-01

    Absolute calibration of a digital L-band SAR system to an accuracy of better than 3 dB has been verified. This was accomplished with a calibration signal generator that produces the phase history of a point target. This signal relates calibration values to various SAR data sets. Values of radar cross-section (RCS) of reference reflectors were obtained using a derived calibration relationship for the L-band channel on the ERIM/CCRS X-C-L SAR system. Calibrated RCS values were compared to known RCS values of each reference reflector for verification and to obtain an error estimate. The calibration was based on the radar response to 21 calibrated reference reflectors.

  17. Infrastructure monitoring with spaceborne SAR sensors

    CERN Document Server

    ANGHEL, ANDREI; CACOVEANU, REMUS

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a novel non-intrusive infrastructure monitoring technique based on the detection and tracking of scattering centers in spaceborne SAR images. The methodology essentially consists of refocusing each available SAR image on an imposed 3D point cloud associated to the envisaged infrastructure element and identifying the reliable scatterers to be monitored by means of four dimensional (4D) tomography. The methodology described in this book provides a new perspective on infrastructure monitoring with spaceborne SAR images, is based on a standalone processing chain, and brings innovative technical aspects relative to conventional approaches. The book is intended primarily for professionals and researchers working in the area of critical infrastructure monitoring by radar remote sensing.

  18. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Prevention in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2004-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a newly identified respiratory disease that threatened Taiwan between April 14 and July 5, 2003. Chang Gung University experienced various SARS-related episodes, such as the postponement of classes for 7 days, the reporting of probable SARS cases, and the isolation of students under Level A and B…

  19. Progress Toward Demonstrating SAR Monitoring of Chinese Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weigen; Johannessen, Johnny; Alpers, Werner; Yang, Jingsong

    2010-12-01

    "Demonstrating SAR monitoring of Chinese seas" is a project of the ESA-MOST Dragon 2 program. This paper presents the progress of the project. Retrieval algorithms for SAR monitoring of sea surface currents, oceanic internal waves, sea surface winds, oil spills and ships have been advanced. SAR monitoring of Chinese seas in near-real-time is now in demonstration phase.

  20. Substitution at Aspartic Acid 1128 in the SARS Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Mediates Escape from a S2 Domain-Targeting Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Keng, Choong-Tat; Leung, Cynthia Sau-Wai; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Poon, Leo Lit Man; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2014-01-01

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the etiological agent for the infectious disease, SARS, which first emerged 10 years ago. SARS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that has crossed the species barriers to infect humans. Bats, which harbour a diverse pool of SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs), are believed to be the natural reservoir. The SARS-CoV surface Spike (S) protein is a major antigenic determinant in eliciting neutralizing antibody production during SARS-CoV infection. In our previous work, we showed that a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the S2 subunit of the S protein are capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV infection in vitro (Lip KM et al, J Virol. 2006 Jan; 80(2): 941–50). In this study, we report our findings on the characterization of one of these mAbs, known as 1A9, which binds to the S protein at a novel epitope within the S2 subunit at amino acids 1111–1130. MAb 1A9 is a broadly neutralizing mAb that prevents viral entry mediated by the S proteins of human and civet SARS-CoVs as well as bat SL-CoVs. By generating mutant SARS-CoV that escapes the neutralization by mAb 1A9, the residue D1128 in S was found to be crucial for its interaction with mAb 1A9. S protein containing the substitution of D1128 with alanine (D1128A) exhibited a significant decrease in binding capability to mAb 1A9 compared to wild-type S protein. By using a pseudotyped viral entry assay, it was shown that the D1128A substitution in the escape virus allows it to overcome the viral entry blockage by mAb 1A9. In addition, the D1128A mutation was found to exert no effects on the S protein cell surface expression and incorporation into virion particles, suggesting that the escape virus retains the same viral entry property as the wild-type virus. PMID:25019613

  1. Substitution at aspartic acid 1128 in the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein mediates escape from a S2 domain-targeting neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oi-Wing Ng

    Full Text Available The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV is the etiological agent for the infectious disease, SARS, which first emerged 10 years ago. SARS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that has crossed the species barriers to infect humans. Bats, which harbour a diverse pool of SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs, are believed to be the natural reservoir. The SARS-CoV surface Spike (S protein is a major antigenic determinant in eliciting neutralizing antibody production during SARS-CoV infection. In our previous work, we showed that a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that target the S2 subunit of the S protein are capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV infection in vitro (Lip KM et al, J Virol. 2006 Jan; 80(2: 941-50. In this study, we report our findings on the characterization of one of these mAbs, known as 1A9, which binds to the S protein at a novel epitope within the S2 subunit at amino acids 1111-1130. MAb 1A9 is a broadly neutralizing mAb that prevents viral entry mediated by the S proteins of human and civet SARS-CoVs as well as bat SL-CoVs. By generating mutant SARS-CoV that escapes the neutralization by mAb 1A9, the residue D1128 in S was found to be crucial for its interaction with mAb 1A9. S protein containing the substitution of D1128 with alanine (D1128A exhibited a significant decrease in binding capability to mAb 1A9 compared to wild-type S protein. By using a pseudotyped viral entry assay, it was shown that the D1128A substitution in the escape virus allows it to overcome the viral entry blockage by mAb 1A9. In addition, the D1128A mutation was found to exert no effects on the S protein cell surface expression and incorporation into virion particles, suggesting that the escape virus retains the same viral entry property as the wild-type virus.

  2. Investigations on the inactivation of selected bacteria and viruses during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic alkaline cofermentation of biological waste materials, food residues and other animal residues; Seuchenhygienische Untersuchungen zur Inaktivierung ausgewaehlter Bakterien und Viren bei der mesophilen und thermophilen anaeroben alkalischen Faulung von Bio- und Kuechenabfaellen sowie anderen Rest- und Abfallstoffen tierischer Herkunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoferer, M. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelt- und Tierhygiene sowie Tiermedizin mit Tierklinik

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the inactivation kinetics of a number of different bacteria (Salmonella Senftenberg, Escherichia coli O157, Enterococcus faecium) and viruses (Bovine Enterovirus (ECBO), Equine Rhinovirus (ERV), Poliovirus, Bovine Parvovirus (BPV)) during the process of anaerobic cofermentation. Experiments were conducted in a semi-technical biogas plant at the University of Hohenheim. The fermenter was fed with a mixture of slurry from pigs or cattle (75%) and leftovers (25%) and was run under mesophilic (30 C + 35 C) as well as under thermophilic temperature conditions (50 C + 55 C). Volume and filter-sandwich germ-carriers were specifically developed and/or optimised for these analyses. Parallel to the experiments at the University of Hohenheim and under almost identical process conditions, various viruses (African Swine Fever Virus, Pseudorabies Virus, Classical Swine Fever Virus, Foot and Mouth Disease Virus, Swine Vesicular Disease Virus) were examined at the Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals in Tuebingen. The results obtained at each research institution are directly compared. (orig.)

  3. Identification of phosphorylation sites in the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) of SARS-coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang; Shao, Jianmin; Sun, Maomao; Liu, Jinxiu; Xu, Gongjin; Zhang, Xumin; Xu, Ningzhi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Siqi

    2007-12-01

    After decoding the genome of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), next challenge is to understand how this virus causes the illness at molecular bases. Of the viral structural proteins, the N protein plays a pivot role in assembly process of viral particles as well as viral replication and transcription. The SARS-CoV N proteins expressed in the eukaryotes, such as yeast and HEK293 cells, appeared in the multiple spots on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), whereas the proteins expressed in E. coli showed a single 2DE spotE These 2DE spots were further examined by Western blot and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, and identified as the N proteins with differently apparent pI values and similar molecular mass of 50 kDa. In the light of the observations and other evidences, a hypothesis was postulated that the SARS-CoV N protein could be phosphorylated in eukaryotes. To locate the plausible regions of phosphorylation in the N protein, two truncated N proteins were generated in E. coli and treated with PKC[alpha]. The two truncated N proteins after incubation of PKC[alpha] exhibited the differently electrophoretic behaviors on 2DE, suggesting that the region of 1-256 aa in the N protein was the possible target for PKC[alpha] phosphorylation. Moreover, the SARS-CoV N protein expressed in yeast were partially digested with trypsin and carefully analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In contrast to the completely tryptic digestion, these partially digested fragments generated two new peptide mass signals with neutral loss, and MS/MS analysis revealed two phosphorylated peptides located at the "dense serine" island in the N protein with amino acid sequences, GFYAEGSRGGSQASSRSSSR and GNSGNSTPGSSRGNSPARMASGGGK. With the PKC[alpha] phosphorylation treatment and the partially tryptic digestion, the N protein expressed in E. coli released the same peptides as observed in yeast cells. Thus, this investigation provided the preliminary data to determine the phosphorylation sites in the SARS-CoV N protein, and

  4. Geocoding of AIRSAR/TOPSAR SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecz, Francesco; Lou, Yun-Ling; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    It has been demonstrated and recognized that radar interferometry is a promising method for the determination of digital elevation information and terrain slope from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. An important application of Interferometric SAR (InSAR) data in areas with topographic variations is that the derived elevation and slope can be directly used for the absolute radiometric calibration of the amplitude SAR data as well as for scattering mechanisms analysis. On the other hand polarimetric SAR data has long been recognized as permitting a more complete inference of natural surfaces than a single channel radar system. In fact, imaging polarimetry provides the measurement of the amplitude and relative phase of all transmit and receive polarizations. On board the NASA DC-8 aircraft, NASA/JPL operates the multifrequency (P, L and C bands) multipolarimetric radar AIRSAR. The TOPSAR, a special mode of the AIRSAR system, is able to collect single-pass interferometric C- and/or L-band VV polarized data. A possible configuration of the AIRSAR/TOPSAR system is to acquire single-pass interferometric data at C-band VV polarization and polarimetric radar data at the two other lower frequencies. The advantage of this system configuration is to get digital topography information at the same time the radar data is collected. The digital elevation information can therefore be used to correctly calibrate the SAR data. This step is directly included in the new AIRSAR Integrated Processor. This processor uses a modification of the full motion compensation algorithm described by Madsen et al. (1993). However, the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with the additional products such as local incidence angle map, and the SAR data are in a geometry which is not convenient, since especially DEMs must be referred to a specific cartographic reference system. Furthermore, geocoding of SAR data is important for multisensor and/or multitemporal purposes. In this paper, a procedure to

  5. Stochastic dynamic model of SARS spreading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yaolin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon the simulation of the stochastic process of infection, onset and spreading of each SARS patient, a system dynamic model of SRAS spreading is constructed. Data from Vietnam is taken as an example for Monte Carlo test. The preliminary results indicate that the time-dependent infection rate is the most important control factor for SARS spreading. The model can be applied to prediction of the course with fluctuations of the epidemics, if the previous history of the epidemics and the future infection rate under control measures are known.

  6. Fighting SARS in grand collaboration: Our strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟南山

    2003-01-01

    @@ The war without gunsmoke against severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS), a type of communicable atypical pneumonia (AP), is now outspreading throughout China and many other countries in the world. So far, the disease has swept through nearly 30 countries and regions. Globally, more than 7,000 people have been infected, with a total of over 550 deaths. More than 5,000 people in mainland of China have been affected and approximately 200 have died. In some areas, the current situation remains at large. It is estimated that SARS has caused a financial loss of over 30 billion dollars (US) worldwide.

  7. Science data collection with polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Woelders, Kim; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    1996-01-01

    Discusses examples on the use of polarimetric SAR in a number of Earth science studies. The studies are presently being conducted by the Danish Center for Remote Sensing. A few studies of the European Space Agency's EMAC programme are also discussed. The Earth science objectives are presented, an......, and the potential of polarimetric SAR is discussed and illustrated with data collected by the Danish airborne EMISAR system during a number of experiments in 1994 and 1995. The presentation will include samples of data acquired for the different studies...

  8. Advances in studies of animal models for dengue virus infection%登革病毒动物模型的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 彭涛; 安静

    2004-01-01

    登革病毒(dengue virus)属于黄病毒属,是一种以蚊虫为传播媒介的RNA病毒。根据E蛋白抗原性的不同,登革病毒被分为四个血清型(DEN-1,2,3,4),它威胁着数以亿计的、居住在热带和亚热带地区的人们的健康。引起登革热(dengue fever,DF)和登革出血热(dengue hemorrhagic fever,DHF),前者是一种轻型的发热性疾病,而后者则是一种威胁患者生命的综合症,死亡率较高。

  9. Viruses as teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, R D

    1993-03-01

    The ability of certain viruses to affect prenatal development in domestic animals is well documented. However, differentiating a viral-induced malformation from those caused by genetic or other environmental causes is a diagnostic dilemma. Understanding how viruses interact with their embryo-fetal hosts and the potential consequences on prenatal development requires refining and dispelling some old concepts and injecting new insights into this diagnostic challenge. This article discusses several viral teratogens affecting domestic animals: Akabane, bluetongue, Cache Valley, Japanese B encephalitis, bovine viral diarrhea, Border disease, Chuzan, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, hog cholera, Rift Valley fever, and Wesselsbron disease viruses.

  10. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming, [No Value; Timens, W; Bulthuis, MLC; Lely, AT; Navis, GJ; van Goor, H

    2004-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute infectious disease that spreads mainly via the respiratory route. A distinct coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been identified as the aetiological agent of SARS. Recently, a metallopeptidase named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identifie

  11. Surveillance of animal carriers of Hantan virus and their ectoparasites at Shanghai costal harbors%上海口岸动物宿主携带汉坦病毒及其体表寄生虫监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁鲁民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To monitor rodent carriers of Hantan virus, the pathogen of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and related ectozoan vectors in Shanghai coastal harbors. Methods From 2008 to 2009, quarterly surveys of the rodent carriers were performed in Shanghai coastal harbors of Chongming, Jinshan and Zhapu. The rodents were collected using rat cages and clamps. Blood and lung samples were taken for HFRS viral testingand ectoparasites were collected for laboratory identification. The HFRS-IgG and HFRS-IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and MacELISA, respectively. HFRS Hantan virus antigens in lung tissue samples were detected by direct immune florescence technique. Hantan virus genotype was analyzed using RT-PCR. Results A total of 232 rodents and 3 birds were captured, including 4 species of 4 genera of Rodentia and 2 species of 2 genera of Insectivora. None of the samples tested positive for HFRS Hantan virus. Conclusion No Hantan virus positive samples were isolated from the captured rodents in the Shanghai coastal harbors, and only a very small amount of ectoparasites were collected from the animals. Crocidura lasiura was the most common animal in these harbors, and Laelaps jettmari huaihoensis comb.n. Collected from Apodemus agrarius was a new record in Shanghai.%目的 监测上海口岸汉坦病毒在鼠形动物宿主中的携带情况和相关的体外寄生虫种类.方法 2008-2009年每季度对上海市周边的崇明、金山、乍浦等口岸鼠形动物宿主调查1次.通过鼠笼、鼠夹诱捕鼠类,检测其血液和肺组织标本的汉坦病毒.采用ELISA检测血清HFRS-IgG抗体,IgM捕捉ELISA法(MacELISA)检测HFRS-IgM抗体,直接免疫荧光法检测鼠肺组织肾综合征出血热(HFRS)抗原,并通过RT-PCR检测汉坦病毒基因并分型.结果 共捕获鼠形动物232只,其中啮齿目4属4种,食虫目2属2种,还有鸟类3种,体外寄生虫有革螨4属4种,蚤2属2种,吸虱1属1种;用各种检测方法未从

  12. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... have developed mink enteritis following inoculation with virulent mink enteritis virus. Each...

  13. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease...

  14. 9 CFR 113.312 - Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. 113.312... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.312 Rabies Vaccine, Live Virus. Rabies Vaccine shall be prepared from...

  15. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine,...

  16. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Venezuelan, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Each serial or subserial... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. 113.207 Section 113.207 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL...

  17. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  18. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  19. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  20. Quantum-SAR extension of the spectral-SAR algorithm: application to polyphenolic anticancer bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Mihai V; Putz, Ana-Maria; Lazea, Marius; Ienciu, Luciana; Chiriac, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Aiming to assess the role of individual molecular structures in the molecular mechanism of ligand-receptor interaction correlation analysis, the recent Spectral-SAR approach is employed to introduce the Quantum-SAR (QuaSAR) "wave" and "conversion factor" in terms of difference between inter-endpoint inter-molecular activities for a given set of compounds; this may account for inter-conversion (metabolization) of molecular (concentration) effects while indicating the structural (quantum) based influential/detrimental role on bio-/eco- effect in a causal manner rather than by simple inspection of measured values; the introduced QuaSAR method is then illustrated for a study of the activity of a series of flavonoids on breast cancer resistance protein.

  1. Quantum-SAR Extension of the Spectral-SAR Algorithm. Application to Polyphenolic Anticancer Bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Mihai V.; Putz, Ana-Maria; Lazea, Marius; Ienciu, Luciana; Chiriac, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to assess the role of individual molecular structures in the molecular mechanism of ligand-receptor interaction correlation analysis, the recent Spectral-SAR approach is employed to introduce the Quantum-SAR (QuaSAR) “wave” and “conversion factor” in terms of difference between inter-endpoint inter-molecular activities for a given set of compounds; this may account for inter-conversion (metabolization) of molecular (concentration) effects while indicating the structural (quantum) based influential/detrimental role on bio-/eco- effect in a causal manner rather than by simple inspection of measured values; the introduced QuaSAR method is then illustrated for a study of the activity of a series of flavonoids on breast cancer resistance protein. PMID:19399244

  2. TomoSAR Platform: The New Irstea Service as Demand for SAR, Interferometry, Polarimetry and Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Tong Minh, Dinh; Ngo, Yen-Nhi; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Maurel, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Developing and improving methods to monitor both natural and non-natural environments such as forest and urban in space and time is a timely challenge. To overcome this challenge, we created a software platform - TomoSAR. The kernel of this platform supports the entire processing from SAR, Interferometry, Polarimetry, to Tomography (so called TomoSAR). The objective of this paper is to introduce this platform about its design architecture and its capacity. We showed four examples to highlight the TomoSAR platform capacities. First, the useful of the interferometric coherence of TOPS Sentinel-1 for land cover classification was highlighted. Second, a TOPS Sentinel-1 differential interferogram in a complex scenario volcano was successfully produced. Third, a TOPS Persistent Scatterers Interferometry analysis for estimating subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City area was demonstrated. Finally, the capability of processing and modelling of 3D P-band tomography in volume forest scattering were reported.

  3. Pains and Gains from China's Experiences with Emerging Epidemics: From SARS to H7N9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jinwen; Yu, Weijia; Chen, Jiajie; Kang, Kang; Qiu, Congling

    2016-01-01

    Over the recent decades, China experienced several emerging virus outbreaks including those caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome- (SARS-) coronavirus (Cov), H5N1 virus, and H7N9 virus. The SARS tragedy revealed faults in China's infectious disease prevention system, propelling the Chinese government to enact reforms that enabled better combating of the subsequent H1N1 and H7N9 avian flu epidemics. The system is buttressed by three fundamental, mutually reinforcing components: (1) enduring government administration reforms, including legislation establishing a unified public health emergency management system; (2) prioritized funding for biotechnology and biomedicine industrialization, especially in the areas of pathogen identification, drug production, and the development of vaccines and diagnostics; and (3) increasing investment for public health and establishment of a rapid-response infectious diseases prevention and control system. China is now using its hard-gained experience to support the fight against Ebola in Africa and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in its own country. PMID:27525272

  4. Joint Sparsity in SAR Tomography for Urban Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiao Xiang; Ge, Nan; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    With meter-resolution images delivered by modern SAR satellites like TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X, it is now possible to map urban areas from space in very high level of detail using advanced interferometric techniques such as PSI and SAR Tomography (TomoSAR), whereas these multi-pass techniques are based on a great number of images. We aim at precise TomoSAR reconstruction while significantly reducing the required number of images by incorporating building a priori knowledge to the estimation. In...

  5. An Optical Flow Method Applied to Co-Registration of Remote Sensing Images: Example for SAR/SAR, SAR/LIDAR, SAR/Optical Images of BIOSAR 2010 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin-Koeniguer, Elise

    2016-08-01

    This article proposes an optical flow type method for coregistration of forest remote sensing images. The principle of the algorithm called GeFolki is first explained. Results are shown on the images of the BioSAR 3 campaign, for the production of SAR interferograms, the coregistration a SAR and LIDAR image, and the coregistration an optical image and SAR image.The advantages of such an algorithm over conventional algorithms are explained. Finally, we propose various applications within the operating data for future BIOMASS mission: massive interferometry, ground truth production, upscaling by fusion of LIDAR and SAR data, and image mining.

  6. A Review About SAR Technique for Shallow Water Bathymetry Surveys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has become one of the important tools for shallow water bathymetry surveys. This has significant economic efficiency compared with the traditional bathymetry surveys. Numerical models have been developed to simulate shallow water bathymetry SAR images. Inversion of these models makes it possible to assess the water depths from SAR images. In this paper, these numerical models of SAR technique are reviewed, and examples are illustrated including in the coastal areas of China. Some issues about SAR technique available and the research orientation in future are also discussed.

  7. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...... pathology, to biomarkers in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, to drug testing and targeted medicine....

  8. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  9. CFAR Edge Detector for Polarimetric SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Skriver, Henning; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg;

    2003-01-01

    Finding the edges between different regions in an image is one of the fundamental steps of image analysis, and several edge detectors suitable for the special statistics of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images have previously been developed. In this paper, a new edge detector...

  10. Multichannel imaging with the AMBER FMCW SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van; Graaf, M.W. van der; Vlothuizen, W.J.; Tan, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    An X-band Digital Array Synthetic Aperture Radar for a Short Range Tactical UAV is presented. The Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave radar principle in combination with digital beam forming over 24 receive channels is used to achieve low power and advanced imaging SAR capabilities on small platform

  11. Satellite sar detection of hurricane helene (2006)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ju, Lian; Cheng, Yongcun; Xu, Qing;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the wind structure of hurricane Helene (2006) over the Atlantic Ocean is investigated from a C-band RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image acquired on 20 September 2006. First, the characteristics, e.g., the center, scale and area of the hurricane eye (HE) are determined...

  12. Ambiguity noise analysis of a SAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haishan; Chang, Wenge; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-12-01

    The presence of range and azimuth (or Doppler) ambiguities in synthetic aperture radars (SARs) is well known. The ambiguity noise is related to the antenna pattern and the value of pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Because a new frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) SAR has the characters of low cost and small size, and the capacity of real-time signal processing, the antenna will likely vibrate or deform due to a lack of the stabilized platform. And the value of PRF cannot be much high because of the high computation burden for the real-time processing. The aim of this study is to access and improve the performance of a new FMCW SAR system based on the ambiguity noise. First, the quantitative analysis of the system's ambiguity noise level is performed; an antenna with low sidelobes is designed. The conclusion is that the range ambiguity noise is small; the azimuth ambiguity noise is somewhat increased, however, it is sufficiently small to have marginal influence on the image quality. Finally, the ambiguity noise level is measured using the imaging data from a Ku-band FMCW SAR. The results of this study show that the measured noise level coincides with the theoretical noise level.

  13. SAR Image Texture Analysis of Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Liu, Yu

    Oil spills are seriously affecting the marine ecosystem and cause political and scientific concern since they have serious affect on fragile marine and coastal ecosystem. In order to implement an emergency in case of oil spills, it is necessary to monitor oil spill using remote sensing. Spaceborne SAR is considered a promising method to monitor oil spill, which causes attention from many researchers. However, research in SAR image texture analysis of oil spill is rarely reported. On 7 December 2007, a crane-carrying barge hit the Hong Kong-registered tanker "Hebei Spirit", which released an estimated 10,500 metric tons of crude oil into the sea. The texture features on this oil spill were acquired based on extracted GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix) by using SAR as data source. The affected area was extracted successfully after evaluating capabilities of different texture features to monitor the oil spill. The results revealed that the texture is an important feature for oil spill monitoring. Key words: oil spill, texture analysis, SAR

  14. What is Gammarus campylops of Sars, 1894

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, J.H.; Kant, P.

    1966-01-01

    A revision of the specimens described by Sars, 1894, as Gammarus campylops Leach, 1814, proved that they did not belong to that species, nor to Gammarus ochlos Reid, 1945 (= G. sarsi Reid, 1943), as Reid believed. Reid’s species, of which also original specimens have been reexamined, is identical wi

  15. Living in the Shadow of SARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUZHU

    2003-01-01

    I Was born in April, when spring is in the air, the sun shines, the sky is blue, and the fragrance of lilacs is everywhere. This year's birthday was unforgettable.As the SARS epidemic had broken out in Beijing, it was spent under the threat of this killer disease.

  16. Effect of timing of challenge following short-term natural exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b on animal performance and immune response in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos-Valdez, L; Wilson, B K; Burciaga-Robles, L O; Step, D L; Holland, B P; Richards, C J; Montelongo, M A; Confer, A W; Fulton, R W; Krehbiel, C R

    2016-11-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common and economically detrimental disease of beef cattle during the postweaning period, causing the majority of morbidity and mortality in feedlots. The pathogenesis of this disease often includes an initial viral infection, which can predispose cattle to a secondary bacterial infection. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of timing of an intratracheal (MH) challenge relative to 72 h of natural exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1b persistently infected (PI) calves on performance, serum antibody production, total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count, rectal temperature, clinical severity score (CS), and haptoglobin (Hp). Steers ( = 24; 276 ± 31 kg initial BW) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments (8 steers/treatment) in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were steers not exposed to calves PI with BVDV 1b and not challenged with MH (CON), steers intratracheally challenged with MH 84 h after being exposed to calves PI with BVDV 1b for 72 h (LateCh), and steers intratracheally challenged with MH 12 h after being exposed to calves PI with BVDV 1b for 72 h (EarlyCh). Performance (ADG, DMI, and G:F) was decreased ( marketing channels allow for variation in the timing of respiratory pathogen exposure, understanding the physiological changes in morbid cattle will lead to improved management of BRD.

  17. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  18. Citizens’ Health Information Behaviors During SARS Spread Periods in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nei-Ching Yeh

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the information behaviors of citizens during the periods of SARS spreading in Taiwan. This study is exploratory in nature, and the naturalistic inquiry approach was applied. Sixteen persons, aged from 20 to 62 years old, were interviewed in order to understand their primary information channels of obtaining SARS information, the characteristics of information communication, the methods of infection, the attitudes toward SARS news, and the influences of SARS to life. The findings show that most participants obtained SARS information from televisions. SARS became the major topic of chatting between people, but telephone communication replaced face to face communication. Part of interviewers applied folk medicine to guard against SARS. Participant dissatisfied that governments did not announce much more authoritative information. The results also found participants’ information sharing and information avoidance behaviors.[Article content in Chinese

  19. The first Sentinel-1 SAR image of a typhoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we present the first Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) typhoon image acquired in the northwest Pacific on October 4, 2014. The eye shape and sea surface wind patterns associated with Typhoon Phanfone are clearly shown in the high-quality SAR image. SAR winds retrieval procedure was given but the actual wind estimates will only be available after the European Space Agency (ESA) releases the official calibration coefficients in order to accurately derive the SAR-measured normalized radar cross section. This study demonstrates the advantage of Sentinel-1 SAR with regards to imaging fine scale typhoon patterns on the sea surface beneath storm clouds. This paper also advocates the use of Sentinel-1 SAR data that is made freely and openly available worldwide for the first time in civilian SAR history.

  20. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... canine distemper susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall be used as test animals....

  1. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  2. BioSAR Airborne Biomass Sensing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Johnson, P.

    2007-05-24

    This CRADA was developed to enable ORNL to assist American Electronics, Inc. test a new technology--BioSAR. BioSAR is a an airborne, low frequency (80-120 MHz {approx} FM radio frequencies) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology which was designed and built for NASA by ZAI-Amelex under Patrick Johnson's direction. At these frequencies, leaves and small branches are nearly transparent and the majority of the energy reflected from the forest and returned to the radar is from the tree trunks. By measuring the magnitude of the back scatter, the volume of the tree trunk and therefore the biomass of the trunks can be inferred. The instrument was successfully tested on tropical rain forests in Panama. Patrick Johnson, with American Electronics, Inc received a Phase II SBIR grant from DOE Office of Climate Change to further test and refine the instrument. Mr Johnson sought ORNL expertise in measuring forest biomass in order for him to further validate his instrument. ORNL provided ground truth measurements of forest biomass at three locations--the Oak Ridge Reservation, Weyerhaeuser Co. commercial pine plantations in North Carolina, and American Energy and Power (AEP) Co. hardwood forests in southern Ohio, and facilitated flights over these forests. After Mr. Johnson processed the signal data from BioSAR instrument, the processed data were given to ORNL and we attempted to derive empirical relationships between the radar signals and the ground truth forest biomass measurements using standard statistical techniques. We were unsuccessful in deriving such relationships. Shortly before the CRADA ended, Mr Johnson discovered that FM signal from local radio station broadcasts had interfered with the back scatter measurements such that the bulk of the signal received by the BioSAR instrument was not backscatter from the radar but rather was local radio station signals.

  3. ANALYSIS OF MULTIPATH PIXELS IN SAR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As the received radar signal is the sum of signal contributions overlaid in one single pixel regardless of the travel path, the multipath effect should be seriously tackled as the multiple bounce returns are added to direct scatter echoes which leads to ghost scatters. Most of the existing solution towards the multipath is to recover the signal propagation path. To facilitate the signal propagation simulation process, plenty of aspects such as sensor parameters, the geometry of the objects (shape, location, orientation, mutual position between adjacent buildings and the physical parameters of the surface (roughness, correlation length, permittivitywhich determine the strength of radar signal backscattered to the SAR sensor should be given in previous. However, it's not practical to obtain the highly detailed object model in unfamiliar area by field survey as it's a laborious work and time-consuming. In this paper, SAR imaging simulation based on RaySAR is conducted at first aiming at basic understanding of multipath effects and for further comparison. Besides of the pre-imaging simulation, the product of the after-imaging, which refers to radar images is also taken into consideration. Both Cosmo-SkyMed ascending and descending SAR images of Lupu Bridge in Shanghai are used for the experiment. As a result, the reflectivity map and signal distribution map of different bounce level are simulated and validated by 3D real model. The statistic indexes such as the phase stability, mean amplitude, amplitude dispersion, coherence and mean-sigma ratio in case of layover are analyzed with combination of the RaySAR output.

  4. [Epidemiology of Ebola virus disease and of other highly contagious, life-threatening diseases with low incidence in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlkes, L; Kreuels, B; Schwarz, N G; May, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Apart from sporadic exported cases, the occurrence of Ebola, Marburg and Lassa virus diseases is limited to the African continent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever occurs in Southeastern Europe but, so far, not in Germany. Other hemorrhagic fever disease-viruses occur in distinct regions in South America. Pulmonary plague is the bacterial infectious disease with the most contagious and lethal course and it is endemic to Madagascar and East Africa, but also occurs in other countries (e.g. India, USA). Monkey pox epidemics have occurred in remote areas of the Congo Basin. Such outbreaks could potentially become more common with the discontinuation of the cross-protective smallpox vaccination. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that emerged in 2002/2003 is another pathogen with significant epidemic potential. Typical for these diseases is a natural circulation between reservoir animals in remote areas. Sporadic transmission to humans can occur through contact with an infected animal. Subsequent human-to-human transmission can lead to epidemics, such as the current outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa.

  5. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): knowledge, attitudes, practices and sources of information among physicians answering a SARS fever hotline service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J-F; Olowokure, B; Kaydos-Daniels, S C; Chang, H-J; Barwick, R S; Lee, M-L; Deng, C-Y; Factor, S H; Chiang, C-E; Maloney, S A

    2006-01-01

    In June 2003, Taiwan introduced a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) telephone hotline service to provide concerned callers with rapid access to information, advice and appropriate referral where necessary. This paper reports an evaluation of the knowledge, attitude, practices and sources of information relating to SARS among physicians who staffed the SARS fever hotline service. A retrospective survey was conducted using a self-administered postal questionnaire. Participants were physicians who staffed a SARS hotline during the SARS epidemic in Taipei, Taiwan from June 1 to 10, 2003. A response rate of 83% was obtained. All respondents knew the causative agent of SARS, and knowledge regarding SARS features and preventive practices was good. However, only 54% of respondents knew the incubation period of SARS. Hospital guidelines and news media were the major information sources. In responding to two case scenarios most physicians were likely to triage callers at high risk of SARS appropriately, but not callers at low risk. Less than half of all respondents answered both scenarios correctly. The results obtained suggest that knowledge of SARS was generally good although obtained from both medical and non-medical sources. Specific knowledge was however lacking in certain areas and this affected the ability to appropriately triage callers. Standardized education and assessment of prior knowledge of SARS could improve the ability of physicians to triage callers in future outbreaks.

  6. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soo Kwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    1999-06-01

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus.

  7. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  8. The E Protein Is a Multifunctional Membrane Protein of SARS-CoV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingfa Wu; Jia Ji; Jing Xu; Jia Ye; Yongwu Hu; Wenjun Chen; Songgang Li; Jun Wang; Jian Wang; Shengli Bi; Huanming Yang; Yilin Zhang; Hong Lü; Jing Wang; Ximiao He; Yong Liu; Chen Ye; Wei Lin; Jianfei Hu

    2003-01-01

    The E (envelope) protein is the smallest structural protein in all coronaviruses andis the only viral structural protein in which no variation has been detected. Weconducted genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of SARS-CoV. Based ongenome sequencing, we predicted the E protein is a transmembrane (TM) pro-tein characterized by a TM region with strong hydrophobicity and α-helix con-formation. We identified a segment (NH2-_L-Cys-A-Y-Cys-Cys-N_-COOH) in thecarboxyl-terminal region of the E protein that appears to form three disulfide bondswith another segment of corresponding cysteines in the carboxyl-terminus of the S(spike) protein. These bonds point to a possible structural association between theE and S proteins. Our phylogenetic analyses of the E protein sequences in all pub-lished coronaviruses place SARS-CoV in an independent group in Coronaviridaeand suggest a non-human animal origin.

  9. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  10. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  11. Spaceborne Polarimetric SAR Interferometry: Performance Analysis and Mission Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloude Shane R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate multichannel imaging radar systems employing coherent combinations of polarimetry and interferometry (Pol-InSAR. Such systems are well suited for the extraction of bio- and geophysical parameters by evaluating the combined scattering from surfaces and volumes. This combination leads to several important differences between the design of Pol-InSAR sensors and conventional single polarisation SAR interferometers. We first highlight these differences and then investigate the Pol-InSAR performance of two proposed spaceborne SAR systems (ALOS/PalSAR and TerraSAR-L operating in repeat-pass mode. For this, we introduce the novel concept of a phase tube which enables (1 a quantitative assessment of the Pol-InSAR performance, (2 a comparison between different sensor configurations, and (3 an optimization of the instrument settings for different Pol-InSAR applications. The phase tube may hence serve as an interface between system engineers and application-oriented scientists. The performance analysis reveals major limitations for even moderate levels of temporal decorrelation. Such deteriorations may be avoided in single-pass sensor configurations and we demonstrate the potential benefits from the use of future bi- and multistatic SAR interferometers.

  12. Simulation of SAR backscatter for forest vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Richa; Kumar, Shashi; Agrawal, Shefali

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one of the most recent imaging technology to study the forest parameters. The invincible characteristics of microwave acquisition in cloudy regions and night imaging makes it a powerful tool to study dense forest regions. A coherent combination of radar polarimetry and interferometry (PolInSAR) enhances the accuracy of retrieved biophysical parameters. This paper attempts to address the issue of estimation of forest structural information caused due to instability of radar platforms through simulation of SAR image. The Terai Central Forest region situated at Haldwani area in Uttarakhand state of India was chosen as the study area. The system characteristics of PolInSAR dataset of Radarsat-2 SAR sensor was used for simulation process. Geometric and system specifications like platform altitude, center frequency, mean incidence angle, azimuth and range resolution were taken from metadata. From the field data it was observed that average tree height and forest stand density were 25 m and 300 stems/ha respectively. The obtained simulated results were compared with the sensor acquired master and slave intensity images. It was analyzed that for co-polarized horizontal component (HH), the mean values of simulated and real master image had a difference of 0.3645 with standard deviation of 0.63. Cross-polarized (HV) channel showed better results with mean difference of 0.06 and standard deviation of 0.1 while co-polarized vertical component (VV) did not show similar values. In case of HV polarization, mean variation between simulated and real slave images was found to be the least. Since cross-polarized channel is more sensitive to vegetation feature therefore better simulated results were obtained for this channel. Further the simulated images were processed using PolInSAR inversion modelling approach using three different techniques DEM differencing, Coherence Amplitude Inversion and Random Volume over Ground Inversion. DEM differencing

  13. Federated query services provided by the Seamless SAR Archive project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S.; Bryson, G.; Buechler, B.; Meertens, C. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Fielding, E. J.; Nicoll, J.; Youn, C.; Baru, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) archive (SSARA) project is a 2-year collaboration between UNAVCO, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and OpenTopography at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) to design and implement a seamless distributed access system for SAR data and derived data products (i.e. interferograms). A major milestone for the first year of the SSARA project was a unified application programming interface (API) for SAR data search and results at ASF and UNAVCO (WInSAR and EarthScope data archives) through the use of simple web services. A federated query service was developed using the unified APIs, providing users a single search interface for both archives (http://www.unavco.org/ws/brokered/ssara/sar/search). A command line client that utilizes this new service is provided as an open source utility for the community on GitHub (https://github.com/bakerunavco/SSARA). Further API development and enhancements added more InSAR specific keywords and quality control parameters (Doppler centroid, faraday rotation, InSAR stack size, and perpendicular baselines). To facilitate InSAR processing, the federated query service incorporated URLs for DEM (from OpenTopography) and tropospheric corrections (from the JPL OSCAR service) in addition to the URLs for SAR data. This federated query service will provide relevant QC metadata for selecting pairs of SAR data for InSAR processing and all the URLs necessary for interferogram generation. Interest from the international community has prompted an effort to incorporate other SAR data archives (the ESA Virtual Archive 4 and the DLR TerraSAR-X_SSC Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories collections) into the federated query service which provide data for researchers outside the US and North America.

  14. Tannins and Their Impacts on Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Ünver

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tannins are phenolic metabolites, which naturally produced by plants. They can defend plants against pathogen microorganisms and viruses. According to animal nutrition, tannins have both adverse and beneficial effects depending on animal species, physiological state of the animal, structure and concentration of the tannins. The objective of this study was to review the literature about tannins, their effects and usage of tannins in animal nutrition.

  15. Tannins and Their Impacts on Animal Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Esin Ünver; Aylin Ağma Okur; Emre Tahtabiçen; Burak Kara; Hasan Ersin Şamlı

    2014-01-01

    Tannins are phenolic metabolites, which naturally produced by plants. They can defend plants against pathogen microorganisms and viruses. According to animal nutrition, tannins have both adverse and beneficial effects depending on animal species, physiological state of the animal, structure and concentration of the tannins. The objective of this study was to review the literature about tannins, their effects and usage of tannins in animal nutrition.

  16. DNA-Based Vaccine Protects Against Zika in Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161959.html DNA-Based Vaccine Protects Against Zika in Animal Study ... In animals infected with Zika virus, the synthetic DNA-based vaccine was 100 percent effective in protecting ...

  17. Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ≥ 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ≥ 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days.

  18. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  19. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  20. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  1. A chimeric virus-mouse model system for evaluating the function and inhibition of papain-like proteases of emerging coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xufang; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Mielech, Anna M; Nichols, Daniel B; Wilson, Michael W; StJohn, Sarah E; Larsen, Scott D; Mesecar, Andrew D; Lenschow, Deborah J; Baric, Ralph S; Baker, Susan C

    2014-10-01

    To combat emerging coronaviruses, developing safe and efficient platforms to evaluate viral protease activities and the efficacy of protease inhibitors is a high priority. Here, we exploit a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) chimeric Sindbis virus system to evaluate protease activities and the efficacy of inhibitors directed against the papain-like protease (PLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) pathogen. We engineered Sindbis virus to coexpress PLpro and a substrate, murine interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), and found that PLpro mediates removal of ISG15 (deISGylation) from cellular proteins. Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue of PLpro or addition of a PLpro inhibitor blocked deISGylation in virus-infected cells. Thus, deISGylation is a marker of PLpro activity. Infection of alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR(-/-)) mice with these chimeric viruses revealed that PLpro deISGylation activity removed ISG15-mediated protection during viral infection. Importantly, administration of a PLpro inhibitor protected these mice from lethal infection, demonstrating the efficacy of a coronavirus protease inhibitor in a mouse model. However, this PLpro inhibitor was not sufficient to protect the mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV MA15, suggesting that further optimization of the delivery and stability of PLpro inhibitors is needed. We extended the chimeric-virus platform to evaluate the papain-like protease/deISGylating activity of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to provide a small-animal model to evaluate PLpro inhibitors of this recently emerged pathogen. This platform has the potential to be universally adaptable to other viral and cellular enzymes that have deISGylating activities. Importance: Evaluating viral protease inhibitors in a small-animal model is a critical step in the path toward antiviral drug development. We modified a biosafety level 2 chimeric virus system to

  2. How SARS Taught Me to Cook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAVALEE

    2003-01-01

    DURING the week-long May Day holiday I usually hold a party, or enjoy the good weather on outings with friends, but thanks to the SARS epidemic in Beijing this year, I stayed at home the entire May Day holiday. It was no problem finding something to do with my ample spare time, as I can surf the Internet for hours on end. My biggest headache was eating.Having dined in cafeterias and restaurants for the previous ten years or so, I had never learned to cook, but as SARS had begun to spread in Beijing in late April, the cafeteria in my work unit and most restaurants were closed for the holiday.

  3. SARS: Safeguards Accounting and Reporting Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedi, B.; Saadi, S.; Ait-Mohamed, S.

    In order to satisfy the requirements of the SSAC (State System for Accounting and Control of nuclear materials), for recording and reporting objectives; this computer program comes to bridge the gape between nuclear facilities operators and national inspection verifying records and delivering reports. The SARS maintains and generates at-facility safeguards accounting records and generates International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards reports based on accounting data input by the user at any nuclear facility. A database structure is built and BORLAND DELPHI programming language has been used. The software is designed to be user-friendly, to make extensive and flexible management of menus and graphs. SARS functions include basic physical inventory tacking, transaction histories and reporting. Access controls are made by different passwords.

  4. Estimating the Doppler centroid of SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    1989-01-01

    After reviewing frequency-domain techniques for estimating the Doppler centroid of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data, the author describes a time-domain method and highlights its advantages. In particular, a nonlinear time-domain algorithm called the sign-Doppler estimator (SDE) is shown to have...... attractive properties. An evaluation based on an existing SEASAT processor is reported. The time-domain algorithms are shown to be extremely efficient with respect to requirements on calculations and memory, and hence they are well suited to real-time systems where the Doppler estimation is based on raw SAR...... data. For offline processors where the Doppler estimation is performed on processed data, which removes the problem of partial coverage of bright targets, the ΔE estimator and the CDE (correlation Doppler estimator) algorithm give similar performance. However, for nonhomogeneous scenes it is found...

  5. Automated preprocessing of spaceborne SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlander, J. C.; Wu, C.; Pang, A.

    1982-01-01

    An efficient algorithm has been developed for estimation of the echo phase delay in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. This algorithm utilizes the spacecraft ephemeris data and the radar echo data to produce estimates of two parameters: (1) the centroid of the Doppler frequency spectrum f(d) and (2) the Doppler frequency rate. Results are presented from tests conducted with Seasat SAR data. The test data indicates that estimation accuracies of 3 Hz for f(d) and 0.3 Hz/sec for the Doppler frequency rate are attainable. The clutterlock and autofocus techniques used for estimation of f(d) and the Doppler frequency rate, respectively are discussed and the algorithm developed for optimal implementation of these techniques is presented.

  6. Non-parametric partitioning of SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyon, G.; Galland, F.; Réfrégier, Ph.

    2006-09-01

    We describe and analyse a generalization of a parametric segmentation technique adapted to Gamma distributed SAR images to a simple non parametric noise model. The partition is obtained by minimizing the stochastic complexity of a quantized version on Q levels of the SAR image and lead to a criterion without parameters to be tuned by the user. We analyse the reliability of the proposed approach on synthetic images. The quality of the obtained partition will be studied for different possible strategies. In particular, one will discuss the reliability of the proposed optimization procedure. Finally, we will precisely study the performance of the proposed approach in comparison with the statistical parametric technique adapted to Gamma noise. These studies will be led by analyzing the number of misclassified pixels, the standard Hausdorff distance and the number of estimated regions.

  7. Study on Protective Clothing against SARS Using PTFE/Poly(ether-ester) Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xin-min; ZHANG Jian-chun; GUO Yu-hai

    2004-01-01

    By means of texturing with organic conductive fiber, and then being treated with JAM-Y1 anti-bacteria agent, in the end, treated with the XL-550 waterproof agent, the PET fabric has permanent antistatic, anti-bacteria and waterproof and anti-oil properties. The PET fabric was laminated with PTFE membrane by paste dot coating, and then coated by Poly(ether-ester) solution in a direct process. The filter efficiency of NaCl aerosol, penetration property of poliomyelitis virus in liquid and animalcule in air of PET fabric laminated with PTFE membrane are measured. The properties show that the PET fabric laminated with PTFE membrane can separate SARS virus in air and liquid. The protective mechanism is also discussed in the article.

  8. Bistatic SAR tomography: processing and experimental results

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Biarge, Sergio; López Dekker, Francisco J.; Merlano Duncan, Juan Carlos; Mallorquí Franquet, Jordi Joan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents across-track tomography applied to a bistatic geometry with fixed receivers. This kind of geometry can overcome some of the classical monostatic tomography limitations such as temporal decorrelation and irregular baseline distribution. The Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSLab)of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) has implemented a SAR Bistatic Receiver for INterferometric Applications,SABRINA, with 4-channels. SABRINA has been used to carry out a bistatic tomogr...

  9. Digital demodulator for wide bandwidth SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørn Hjelm

    2000-01-01

    A novel approach to the design of efficient digital quadrature demodulators for wide bandwidth SAR systems is described. Efficiency is obtained by setting the intermediate frequency to 1/4 the ADC sampling frequency. One channel is made filter-free by synchronizing the local oscillator...... with the output decimator. The filter required by the other channel is optimized through global search using the system level performance metrics integrated sidelobe level ratio (ISLR) and peak sidelobe level ratio (PSLR)....

  10. SAR Product Improvements and Enhancements - SARprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    paper on current fields at Orkney, Scotland, was accepted for publication in IEEE - TGARS and is currently in press (available on IEEE Xplore as Early...Sea surface velocity vector retrieval using dual-beam interferometry: First demonstration, IEEE TGARS, 43, 2494- 2502, 2005. [2] Chapron, B., F...Bight by airborne along-track interferometric SAR, Proc. IGARSS 2002, 1822-1824, IEEE , 2002. [4] Bjerklie, D.M., S.L. Dingman, C.J. Vorosmarty, C.H

  11. Multiplier-free filters for wideband SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    2001-01-01

    This paper derives a set of parameters to be optimized when designing filters for digital demodulation and range prefiltering in SAR systems. Aiming at an implementation in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), an approach for the design of multiplier-free filters is outlined. Design results ar...... are presented in terms of filter complexity and performance. One filter has been coded in VHDL and preliminary results indicate that the filter can meet a 2 GHz input sample rate....

  12. Fast SAR Imaging Algorithm for FLGPR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A fast SAR imaging algorithm for near- field subsurface forward-looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) is presented. By using nonstationary convolution filter, the refocused image spectrum can be reconstructed directly from the backscattered signal spectrum of target area. The experimental results show the proposed method can fast achieve image refocusing. Also it has higher computational efficiency than the phase-shift migration approach and the delay-and-sum (DAS) approach.

  13. Adaptive Filter in SAR Interferometry Derived DEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Caijun; WANG Hua; WANG Jianglin; GE Linlin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of median filter, elevation dependent adaptive sigma median filter, and directionally dependent adaptive sigma median filter are tested on both InSAR Tandem DEM and simulated high-level noisy DEM. Through the comparison, the directionally dependent adaptive sigma median filter is proved to be the most effective one not only in the noise removing but also in the boundary preserve.

  14. Efficient Bistatic SAR Raw Signal Simulator of Extended Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bistatic SAR system is a new mode that allocates the radar transmitter and receiver on different platforms and has more advantages compared to the monostatic case. However, the existing bistatic SAR raw data simulator in the frequency domain can only handle the case of translation invariant system. In this paper, an efficient 2D frequency-domain raw data simulator of extended scenes for bistatic SAR of translation variant system is proposed by a geometric transformation method for the first time, where inverse STOLT interpolation is used to formulate the range migration terms. The presented simulator can accommodate the translation variant bistatic SAR system compared with existing bistatic SAR simulator. And it is more efficient than the time domain one by making use of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Simulation results for point targets and a real SAR image demonstrate its validity and effectiveness.

  15. Low-SAR metamaterial-inspired printed monopole antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. I.; Faruque, M. R. I.; Islam, M. T.; Ali, M. T.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a low-SAR metamaterial-embedded planar monopole antenna is introduced for a wireless communication system. A printed monopole antenna is designed for modern mobile, which operates in GSM, UMTS, LTE, WLAN, and Bluetooth frequency bands. A metamaterial structure is designed to use in the mobile handset with a multi-band printed monopole antenna. The finite integration technique of the CST microwave studio is used in this study. The measurement of antenna performances is taken in an anechoic chamber, and the SAR values are measured using COMOSAR system. The results indicate that metamaterial structure leads to reduce SAR without affecting antenna performance significantly. According to the measured results, the metamaterial attachment leads to reduce 87.7% peak SAR, 68.2% 1-g SAR, and 46.78% 10-g SAR compared to antenna without metamaterial.

  16. SARS epidemical forecast research in mathematical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guanghong; LIU Chang; GONG Jianqiu; WANG Ling; CHENG Ke; ZHANG Di

    2004-01-01

    The SIJR model, simplified from the SEIJR model, is adopted to analyze the important parameters of the model of SARS epidemic such as the transmission rate, basic reproductive number. And some important parameters are obtained such as the transmission rate by applying this model to analyzing the situation in Hong Kong, Singapore and Canada at the outbreak of SARS. Then forecast of the transmission of SARS is drawn out here by the adjustment of parameters (such as quarantined rate) in the model. It is obvious that inflexion lies on the crunode of the graph, which indicates the big difference in transmission characteristics between the epidemic under control and not under control. This model can also be used in the comparison of the control effectiveness among different regions. The results from this model match well with the actual data in Hong Kong, Singapore and Canada and as a by-product, the index of the effectiveness of control in the later period can be acquired. It offers some quantitative indexes, which may help the further research in epidemic diseases.

  17. Differentiation of canine distemper virus isolates in fur animals from various vaccine strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism according to phylogenetic relations in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jianjun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to effectively identify the vaccine and field strains of Canine distemper virus (CDV, a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. We selected an 829 bp fragment of the nucleoprotein (N gene of CDV. By RFLP analysis using BamHI, field isolates were distinguishable from the vaccine strains. Two fragments were obtained from the vaccine strains by RT-PCR-RFLP analysis while three were observed in the field strains. An 829 nucleotide region of the CDV N gene was analyzed in 19 CDV field strains isolated from minks, raccoon dogs and foxes in China between 2005 and 2007. The results suggest this method is precise, accurate and efficient. It was also determined that three different genotypes exist in CDV field strains in fur animal herds of the north of China, most of which belong to Asian type. Mutated field strains, JSY06-R1, JSY06-R2 and JDH07-F1 also exist in Northern China, but are most closely related to the standard virulent strain A75/17, designated in Arctic and America-2 genetype in the present study, respectively.

  18. Fruit bats as a natural reservoir of zoonotic viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As a natural reservoir of manifold zoonotic viruses, fruit bats have been involved in at least three emerging zoonoses in recent years. This paper aims to introduce the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases emerged in the Australasian region between 1994 and 1999, transmission pathways of the newly discovered viruses and the relationship between the changed entironment of fruit bats and occurrences of these emerging diseases and provide a clue for the epidemiological investigations of SARS.

  19. Ezrin interacts with the SARS coronavirus Spike protein and restrains infection at the entry stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kaoru Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV and its envelope fusion with host cell membrane are controlled by a series of complex molecular mechanisms, largely dependent on the viral envelope glycoprotein Spike (S. There are still many unknowns on the implication of cellular factors that regulate the entry process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using as bait the carboxy-terminal endodomain of S, which faces the cytosol during and after opening of the fusion pore at early stages of the virus life cycle. Here we show that the ezrin membrane-actin linker interacts with S endodomain through the F1 lobe of its FERM domain and that both the eight carboxy-terminal amino-acids and a membrane-proximal cysteine cluster of S endodomain are important for this interaction in vitro. Interestingly, we found that ezrin is present at the site of entry of S-pseudotyped lentiviral particles in Vero E6 cells. Targeting ezrin function by small interfering RNA increased S-mediated entry of pseudotyped particles in epithelial cells. Furthermore, deletion of the eight carboxy-terminal amino acids of S enhanced S-pseudotyped particles infection. Expression of the ezrin dominant negative FERM domain enhanced cell susceptibility to infection by SARS-CoV and S-pseudotyped particles and potentiated S-dependent membrane fusion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ezrin interacts with SARS-CoV S endodomain and limits virus entry and fusion. Our data present a novel mechanism involving a cellular factor in the regulation of S-dependent early events of infection.

  20. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  1. Efficient Bistatic SAR Raw Signal Simulator of Extended Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Yang; Weidong Yu; Shichao Zheng; Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Bistatic SAR system is a new mode that allocates the radar transmitter and receiver on different platforms and has more advantages compared to the monostatic case. However, the existing bistatic SAR raw data simulator in the frequency domain can only handle the case of translation invariant system. In this paper, an efficient 2D frequency-domain raw data simulator of extended scenes for bistatic SAR of translation variant system is proposed by a geometric transformation method for the first t...

  2. SAR Imaging through the Earth’s Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    SAR it may be useful for bistatic rather than monostatic imaging, i.e., for the case where the transmitting and receiving antennas are two different... SAR IMAGING THROUGH THE EARTHS IONOSPHERE SEMYON TSYNKOV NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY 11/13/2013 Final Report DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution...30-09-2013 SAR Imaging through the Earth’s Ionosphere FA9550-10-1-0092 FA9550-10-1-0092 Semyon V. Tsynkov North Carolina State University Campus Box

  3. Death of a SARS case from secondary aspergillus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧君; 丁彦青; 徐军; 李欣; 李学锋; 杨磊; 张文丽; 耿健; 申洪; 蔡俊杰; 康伟; 吴正容; 赵菲; 钟南山

    2004-01-01

    @@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute infectious disease which has been found to spread mainly via respiration. The first case was idnetified in Guangdong, southem China in November 2002. This disease has resulted in a severe epidemic outbreak in 27 countries and regions. In order to investigate the etiology and clinicopathologic characteristics of SARS, we reported here a patient with SARS who died of aspergillosis after prolonged treatment with corticosteroids.

  4. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  5. InSAR Scientific Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrola, E. M.; Rosen, P. A.; Sacco, G.; Zebker, H. A.; Simons, M.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    The InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE) is a software development effort in its second year within the NASA Advanced Information Systems and Technology program. The ISCE will provide a new computing environment for geodetic image processing for InSAR sensors that will enable scientists to reduce measurements directly from radar satellites and aircraft to new geophysical products without first requiring them to develop detailed expertise in radar processing methods. The environment can serve as the core of a centralized processing center to bring Level-0 raw radar data up to Level-3 data products, but is adaptable to alternative processing approaches for science users interested in new and different ways to exploit mission data. The NRC Decadal Survey-recommended DESDynI mission will deliver data of unprecedented quantity and quality, making possible global-scale studies in climate research, natural hazards, and Earth's ecosystem. The InSAR Scientific Computing Environment is planned to become a key element in processing DESDynI data into higher level data products and it is expected to enable a new class of analyses that take greater advantage of the long time and large spatial scales of these new data, than current approaches. At the core of ISCE is both legacy processing software from the JPL/Caltech ROI_PAC repeat-pass interferometry package as well as a new InSAR processing package containing more efficient and more accurate processing algorithms being developed at Stanford for this project that is based on experience gained in developing processors for missions such as SRTM and UAVSAR. Around the core InSAR processing programs we are building object-oriented wrappers to enable their incorporation into a more modern, flexible, extensible software package that is informed by modern programming methods, including rigorous componentization of processing codes, abstraction and generalization of data models, and a robust, intuitive user interface with

  6. Coastline detection in SAR images using discriminant cuts segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xianwen; Zou, Xiaolin; Yu, Tan

    2016-11-01

    The discriminant cut algorithm is used to detect coastlines in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The proposed approach is a region-based one, which is able to capture and utilize spatial information in the image. The real SAR images, e.g. ALOS-1 PALSAR and COSMO-SkyMed SAR images, together with in-situ GPS data were collected and used to validate the performance of the proposed approach for coastline detection in SAR images. The accuracy is better than 4 times the image resolution. The efficiency is also tested.

  7. Bistatic SAR: State of the Art and Development Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Tao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bistatic SAR (BiSAR systems have attracted the interests from global researchers and become a hotspot in the international radar community due to the progress of radar technology and rapidly increased applications nowadays. Based on the BiSAR experiments and breakthrough of the key technology, the paper summarized the general progresses of BiSAR systems, especially in European radar community, from different aspects such as system design, processing idea and topology etc. Different bistatic image formation algorithms have been analyzed and reviewed. Finally, the development trend is discussed in the paper.

  8. Motion measurement errors and autofocus in bistatic SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigling, Brian D; Moses, Randolph L

    2006-04-01

    This paper discusses the effect of motion measurement errors (MMEs) on measured bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) phase history data that has been motion compensated to the scene origin. We characterize the effect of low-frequency MMEs on bistatic SAR images, and, based on this characterization, we derive limits on the allowable MMEs to be used as system specifications. Finally, we demonstrate that proper orientation of a bistatic SAR image during the image formation process allows application of monostatic SAR autofocus algorithms in postprocessing to mitigate image defocus.

  9. Crop identification of SAR data using digital textural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuesch, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    After preprocessing SEASAT SAR data which included slant to ground range transformation, registration to LANDSAT MSS data and appropriate filtering of the raw SAR data to minimize coherent speckle, textural features were developed based upon the spatial gray level dependence method (SGLDM) to compute entropy and inertia as textural measures. It is indicated that the consideration of texture features are very important in SAR data analysis. The SEASAT SAR data are useful for the improvement of field boundary definitions and for an earlier season estimate of corn and soybean area location than is supported by LANDSAT alone.

  10. SAR11 bacteria linked to ocean anoxia and nitrogen loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Wu, Jieying; Deutsch, Samuel;

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the SAR11 clade constitute up to one half of all microbial cells in the oxygen-rich surface ocean. SAR11 bacteria are also abundant in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), where oxygen falls below detection and anaerobic microbes have vital roles in converting bioavailable nitrogen to N2 gas....... Anaerobic metabolism has not yet been observed in SAR11, and it remains unknown how these bacteria contribute to OMZ biogeochemical cycling. Here, genomic analysis of single cells from the world’s largest OMZ revealed previously uncharacterized SAR11 lineages with adaptations for life without oxygen...

  11. Risk Factors for SARS-Related Deaths in 2003, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN LIU; WAN-NIAN LIANG; QI CHEN; XUE-QIN XIE; JIANG WU; XIONG HE; ZE-JUN LIU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the potential risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS)-related deaths in Beijing. Methods Epidemiological data were collected among the confirmed SARS patients officially reported by Beijing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (BCDC), and information was also supplemented by a follow-up case survey. Chi-square test and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Old age (over 60 years) was found to be significantly associated with SARS-related deaths in the univariate analysis. Also, history of contacting SARS patients within 2 weeks prior to the onset of illness, health occupation, and inferior hospital ranking as well as longer interval of clinic consulting (longer than 1 day) were the risk factors for SARS-related deaths. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis found four risk factors for SARS-related deaths. Conclusion Old age (over 60 years) is the major risk factor for SARS-related deaths.Moreover, hospital health workers, the designated hospitals for SARS clinical services and the interval of consulting doctors (less than 1 day) are protective factors for surviving from SARS.

  12. Geometric registration and rectification of spaceborne SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlander, J. C.; Pang, S. N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of automated location and geometric rectification techniques for digitally processed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. A software package has been developed that is capable of determining the absolute location of an image pixel to within 60 m using only the spacecraft ephemeris data and the characteristics of the SAR data collection and processing system. Based on this location capability algorithms have been developed that geometrically rectify the imagery, register it to a common coordinate system and mosaic multiple frames to form extended digital SAR maps. These algorithms have been optimized using parallel processing techniques to minimize the operating time. Test results are given using Seasat SAR data.

  13. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  14. Influenza and SARS-coronavirus activating proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT are expressed at multiple sites in human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bertram

    Full Text Available The type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT activate influenza viruses and the SARS-coronavirus (TMPRSS2 in cell culture and may play an important role in viral spread and pathogenesis in the infected host. However, it is at present largely unclear to what extent these proteases are expressed in viral target cells in human tissues. Here, we show that both HAT and TMPRSS2 are coexpressed with 2,6-linked sialic acids, the major receptor determinant of human influenza viruses, throughout the human respiratory tract. Similarly, coexpression of ACE2, the SARS-coronavirus receptor, and TMPRSS2 was frequently found in the upper and lower aerodigestive tract, with the exception of the vocal folds, epiglottis and trachea. Finally, activation of influenza virus was conserved between human, avian and porcine TMPRSS2, suggesting that this protease might activate influenza virus in reservoir-, intermediate- and human hosts. In sum, our results show that TMPRSS2 and HAT are expressed by important influenza and SARS-coronavirus target cells and could thus support viral spread in the human host.

  15. EFSA AHAW Panel (EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare), ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control) and EMA (European Medicines Agency), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the possible risks posed by the Influenza A(H3N2v) virus for animal health and its potential spread and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette

    Swine are an important host in influenza virus ecology since they are susceptible to infections with both avian and human influenza A viruses. In 2011 and 2012, clusters of human infection with a swine-origin influenza A(H3N2) variant virus (H3N2v) containing the matrix (M) gene from the 2009 H1N...

  16. Classification and monitoring of reed belts using dual-polarimetric TerraSAR-X time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Iris; Jagdhuber, Thomas; Itzerott, Sibylle

    2016-04-01

    The shorelines of lakes in northeastern Germany are often covered by reed. These reed belts fulfill an important function as erosion protection, biotope for animals, carbon storage, and as cleaning filter for lake water. However, despite their importance for the limnic ecosystem, reed vegetation in northeastern Germany is not regularly monitored. In this research study we investigate the potential of synthetic aperture radar polarimetry (PolSAR) for seasonal monitoring of reed vegetation. SAR imagery enables sunlight- and (almost) weather-independent monitoring. Polarimetric decomposition techniques allow the physical characterization of the scattering scenario and the involved scatterers. Our study is based on 19 dual-polarimetric (HH/VV) TerraSAR-X images acquired between August 2014 and May 2015. We calculated different polarimetric indices comprising the HH and VV intensities, the dual-polarimetric coherency matrix with dominant and mean alpha scattering angles, entropy and anisotropy (normalized eigen-value difference) as well as combinations of entropy and anisotropy for the analysis of the scattering scenarios. The reed areas in the TerraSAR-X images were classified using a random forest algorithm and validated with high-resolution digital orthophotos. The time series analysis of the reed belts revealed significant seasonal changes in the double bounce sensitive parameters (intensity ratio HH/VV and intensity difference HH-VV, the co-polarimetric coherence phase and the dominant and mean alpha scattering angles). Additionally, the dual-polarimetric coherence (amplitude), anisotropy, entropy, and anisotropy-entropy-combinations showed seasonal changes of reed. In summer, the reed areas are characterized within the X-band SAR data by volume scattering, whereas in winter double-bounce scattering dominates. The volume scattering in summer is caused predominantly by reed leaves. In autumn, the leaves start to wither and fall off, so that in winter predominately

  17. Multi-Temporal SAR Interferometry for Landslide Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, R.; Narayan, A. B.; Tiwari, A.; Dikshit, O.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    In the past few years, SAR Interferometry specially InSAR and D-InSAR were extensively used for deformation monitoring related applications. Due to temporal and spatial decorrelation in dense vegetated areas, effectiveness of InSAR and D-InSAR observations were always under scrutiny. Multi-temporal InSAR methods are developed in recent times to retrieve the deformation signal from pixels with different scattering characteristics. Presently, two classes of multi-temporal InSAR algorithms are available- Persistent Scatterer (PS) and Small Baseline (SB) methods. This paper discusses the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterer (StaMPS) based PS-InSAR and the Small Baselines Subset (SBAS) techniques to estimate the surface deformation in Tehri dam reservoir region in Uttarkhand, India. Both PS-InSAR and SBAS approaches used sixteen ENVISAT ASAR C-Band images for generating single master and multiple master interferograms stack respectively and their StaMPS processing resulted in time series 1D-Line of Sight (LOS) mean velocity maps which are indicative of deformation in terms of movement towards and away from the satellites. From 1D LOS velocity maps, localization of landslide is evident along the reservoir rim area which was also investigated in the previous studies. Both PS-InSAR and SBAS effectively extract measurement pixels in the study region, and the general results provided by both approaches show a similar deformation pattern along the Tehri reservoir region. Further, we conclude that StaMPS based PS-InSAR method performs better in terms of extracting more number of measurement pixels and in the estimation of mean Line of Sight (LOS) velocity as compared to SBAS method. It is also proposed to take up a few major landslides area in Uttarakhand for slope stability assessment.

  18. Antibody binding site mapping of SARS-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain by a combination of yeast surface display and phage peptide library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jingxue; Wen, Kun; Mou, Zhirong; Zou, Liyun; Che, Xiaoyan; Ni, Bing; Wu, Yuzhang

    2009-12-01

    The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) protein plays an important role in viral infection, and is a potential major neutralizing determinant. In this study, three hybridoma cell lines secreting specific monoclonal antibodies against the RBD of the S protein were generated and their exact binding sites were identified. Using yeast surface display, the binding sites of these antibodies were defined to two linear regions on the RBD: S(337-360) and S(380-399). Using these monoclonal antibodies in phage peptide library screening identified 10 distinct mimotopes 12 amino acids in length. Sequence comparison between native epitopes and these mimotopes further confirmed the binding sites, and revealed key amino acid residues involved in antibody binding. None of these antibodies could neutralize the murine leukemia virus pseudotyped expressing the SARS-CoV spike protein (MLV/SARS-CoV). However, these mAbs could be useful in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV due to their exclusive reactivity with SARS-CoV. Furthermore, this study established a feasible platform for epitope mapping. Yeast surface display combined with phage peptide library screening provides a convenient strategy for the identification of epitope peptides from certain antigenic proteins.

  19. The R Protein of SARS-CoV: Analyses of Structure and Function Based on Four Complete Genome Sequences of Isolates BJ01-BJ04

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuyuan Xu; Zizhang Zhang; Jing Xu; Wei Wei; Jingui Zhu; Haiyan Sun; Xiaowei Zhang; Jun Zhou; Songgang Li; Jun Wang; Jian Wang; Haiqing Zhang; Shengli Bi; Huanming Yang; Xiangjun Tian; Jia Ji; Wei Li; Yan Li; Wei Tian; Yujun Han; Lili Wang

    2003-01-01

    The R (replicase) protein is the uniquely defined non-structural protein (NSP)responsible for RNA replication, mutation rate or fidelity, regulation of transcrip-tion in coronaviruses and many other ssRNA viruses. Based on our completegenome sequences of four isolates (BJ01-BJ04) of SARS-CoV from Beijing, China,we analyzed the structure and predicted functions of the R protein in comparisonwith 13 other isolates of SARS-CoV and 6 other coronaviruses. The entire ORF(open-reading frame) encodes for two major enzyme activities, RNA-dependentRNA polymerase (RdRp) and proteinase activities. The R polyprotein under-goes a complex proteolytic process to produce 15 function-related peptides. Ahydrophobic domain (HOD) and a hydrophilic domain (HID) are newly identifiedwithin NSP1. The substitution rate of the R protein is close to the average ofthe SARS-CoV genome. The functional domains in all NSPs of the R proteingive different phylogenetic results that suggest their different mutation rate underselective pressure. Eleven highly conserved regions in RdRp and twelve cleavagesites by 3CLP (chymotrypsin-like protein) have been identified as potential drugtargets. Findings suggest that it is possible to obtain information about the phy-logeny of SARS-CoV, as well as potential tools for drug design, genotyping anddiagnostics of SARS.

  20. Impact of the Regulators SigB, Rot, SarA and sarS on the Toxic Shock Tst Promoter and TSST-1 Expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego O Andrey

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen manifesting virulence through diverse disease forms, ranging from acute skin infections to life-threatening bacteremia or systemic toxic shock syndromes. In the latter case, the prototypical superantigen is TSST-1 (Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1, encoded by tst(H, and carried on a mobile genetic element that is not present in all S. aureus strains. Transcriptional regulation of tst is only partially understood. In this study, we dissected the role of sarA, sarS (sarH1, RNAIII, rot, and the alternative stress sigma factor sigB (σB. By examining tst promoter regulation predominantly in the context of its native sequence within the SaPI1 pathogenicity island of strain RN4282, we discovered that σB emerged as a particularly important tst regulator. We did not detect a consensus σB site within the tst promoter, and thus the effect of σB is likely indirect. We found that σB strongly repressed the expression of the toxin via at least two distinct regulatory pathways dependent upon sarA and agr. Furthermore rot, a member of SarA family, was shown to repress tst expression when overexpressed, although its deletion had no consistent measurable effect. We could not find any detectable effect of sarS, either by deletion or overexpression, suggesting that this regulator plays a minimal role in TSST-1 expression except when combined with disruption of sarA. Collectively, our results extend our understanding of complex multifactorial regulation of tst, revealing several layers of negative regulation. In addition to environmental stimuli thought to impact TSST-1 production, these findings support a model whereby sporadic mutation in a few key negative regulators can profoundly affect and enhance TSST-1 expression.

  1. Impact of the Regulators SigB, Rot, SarA and sarS on the Toxic Shock Tst Promoter and TSST-1 Expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey, Diego O; Jousselin, Ambre; Villanueva, Maite; Renzoni, Adriana; Monod, Antoinette; Barras, Christine; Rodriguez, Natalia; Kelley, William L

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen manifesting virulence through diverse disease forms, ranging from acute skin infections to life-threatening bacteremia or systemic toxic shock syndromes. In the latter case, the prototypical superantigen is TSST-1 (Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1), encoded by tst(H), and carried on a mobile genetic element that is not present in all S. aureus strains. Transcriptional regulation of tst is only partially understood. In this study, we dissected the role of sarA, sarS (sarH1), RNAIII, rot, and the alternative stress sigma factor sigB (σB). By examining tst promoter regulation predominantly in the context of its native sequence within the SaPI1 pathogenicity island of strain RN4282, we discovered that σB emerged as a particularly important tst regulator. We did not detect a consensus σB site within the tst promoter, and thus the effect of σB is likely indirect. We found that σB strongly repressed the expression of the toxin via at least two distinct regulatory pathways dependent upon sarA and agr. Furthermore rot, a member of SarA family, was shown to repress tst expression when overexpressed, although its deletion had no consistent measurable effect. We could not find any detectable effect of sarS, either by deletion or overexpression, suggesting that this regulator plays a minimal role in TSST-1 expression except when combined with disruption of sarA. Collectively, our results extend our understanding of complex multifactorial regulation of tst, revealing several layers of negative regulation. In addition to environmental stimuli thought to impact TSST-1 production, these findings support a model whereby sporadic mutation in a few key negative regulators can profoundly affect and enhance TSST-1 expression.

  2. Advances in virus research. Volume 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maramorosch, K.; Murphy, F.A.; Shatkin, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents topics in virus research and advances made in this field. Topics covered include: ambisense RNA genomes of arenaviruses and phleboviruses; the molecular basis of antigenic variation in influenza virus; epitope mapping of flavivirus glycoproteins; regulation of adenovirus mRNA formation; regulation of protein synthesis in virus infected animal cells; and antibody-dependent enhancement of vira infectivity.

  3. Efficient and Quick Inactivation of SARS Coronavirus and Other Microbes Exposed to the Surfaces of Some Metal Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN HAN; LAN CHEN; SHU-MIN DUAN; QING-XIANG YANG; MIN YANG; CHEN GAO; BAO-YUN ZHANG; HONG HE; XIAO-PING DONG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the two metal catalysts Ag/Al2O3 and Cu/Al2O3 that interdict the transmission pathway for SARS and other respiratory infectious diseases. Methods Two metal catalysts Ag/Al2O3 and Cu/Al2O3 were pressed into wafers. One hundred μL 106 TCID50/mL SARS-CoV, 100 μL 106 PFU/mL recombinant baculovirus expressing hamster's prion protein (haPrP) protein and roughly 106 E. coli were slowly dropped onto the surfaces of the catalyst wafers and exposed for 5 and 20 min, respectively. After eluted from the surfaces of wafers, the infectivity of viruses and propagation of bacteria were measured. The expression of PrP protein was determined by Western blot. The morphological changes of bacteria were observed by electronic microscopy. Results After exposure to the catalysts surfaces for 5 and 20 min, the infectivity of SARS-CoV in Vero cells and baculovirus in Sf9 cells dropped down to a very low and undetectable level, and no colony was detected using bacteria culture method. The expression of haPrP protein reduced to 21.8% in the preparation of Sf9 cells infected with recombinant baculovirus exposed for 5 min and was undetectable exposed for 20 min. Bacterial membranes seemed to be cracked and the cytoplasm seemed to be effluent from cell bodies. Conclusion Exposures to the surfaces of Ag/Al2O3 and Cu/Al2O3 destroy the replication and propagation abilities of SARS-CoV, baculovirus and E. coli. Inactivation ability of metal catalysts needs to interact with air, utilizing oxygen molecules in air. Efficiently killing viruses and bacteria on the surfaces of the two metal catalysts has a promising potential for air-disinfection in hospitals, communities, and households.

  4. Multi-look polarimetric SAR image filtering using simulated annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Based on a previously published algorithm capable of estimating the radar cross-section in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images, a new filter is presented utilizing multi-look polarimetric SAR images. The underlying mean covariance matrix is estimated from the observed sample covariance...

  5. SARS treatment: experience from a team in Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The epidemic of SARS in Guangdong province of China is beginning to be restrained. In May 2003, Dr. Zhong Nanshan, head of the Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, presented at a training course in Beijing for medical personnel. Some important issues have been addressed based on the experience concluded during their combating with SARS in Guangdong.

  6. The Danish polarimetric SAR for remote sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz; Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Dall, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    Presents the Danish polarimetric SAR system, EMISAR, and the approach taken in the system design to achieve a reliable high performance system. The design and implementation of the antenna system as well as the analog and digital hardware are discussed. The SAR utilises a dual polarised microstri...

  7. Comparing satellite SAR and wind farm wake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Vincent, P.; Husson, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) wind fields from RADARSAT-1/-2 and Envisat and to compare these wakes qualitatively to wind farm wake model results. From some satellite SAR wind maps very long wakes are observed. Th...

  8. Crop Classification Using Short-Revisit Multitemporal SAR Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Mattia, Francesco; Satalino, Giuseppe;

    2011-01-01

    Classification of crops and other land cover types is an important application of both optical/infrared and SAR satellite data. It is already an import application of present satellite systems, as it will be for planned missions, such as the Sentinels. An airborne SAR data set with a short revisi...

  9. Investigation of Polarimetric SAR Data Acquired at Multiple Incidence Angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Thougaard; Skriver, Henning; Thomsen, A.

    1998-01-01

    The dependence of different polarimetric parameters on the incidence angles in the range of 30° to 60° is investigated for a number of different crops using airborne SAR data. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the effect of the variation of incidence angle within a SAR image when...

  10. (Q)SAR: A Tool for the Toxicologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Thomas; Gad-McDonald, Samantha; Kruhlak, Naomi; Powley, Mark; Greene, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    A continuing education (CE) course at the 2014 American College of Toxicology annual meeting covered the topic of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships [(Q)SAR]. The (Q)SAR methodologies use predictive computer modeling based on predefined rules to describe the relationship between chemical structure and a chemical's associated biological activity or statistical tools to find correlations between biologic activity and the molecular structure or properties of a compound. The (Q)SAR has applications in risk assessment, drug discovery, and regulatory decision making. Pressure within industry to reduce the cost of drug development and societal pressure for government regulatory agencies to produce more accurate and timely risk assessment of drugs and chemicals have necessitated the use of (Q)SAR. Producing a high-quality (Q)SAR model depends on many factors including the choice of statistical methods and descriptors, but first and foremost the quality of the data input into the model. Understanding how a (Q)SAR model is developed and applied is critical to the successful use of such a tool. The CE session covered the basic principles of (Q)SAR, practical applications of these computational models in toxicology, how regulatory agencies use and interpret (Q)SAR models, and potential pitfalls of using them.

  11. Genome organization of the SARS-CoV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jing; Hu, Jianfei; Wang, Jing;

    2003-01-01

    Annotation of the genome sequence of the SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus) is indispensable to understand its evolution and pathogenesis. We have performed a full annotation of the SARS-CoV genome sequences by using annotation programs publicly available or devel...

  12. Polarimetric SAR interferometry applied to land ice: modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos; Skriver, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a few simple scattering models intended for the application of polarimetric SAR interfer-ometry to land ice. The principal aim is to eliminate the penetration bias hampering ice sheet elevation maps generated with single-channel SAR interferometry. The polarimetric coherent...

  13. Impact of SARS on China's economy limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoRunyuan

    2003-01-01

    China's economic upsurge cannot be reversed by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) now ravaging some parts of the country. China's economy will maintain its steady growth momentum despite the SARS' impact to some extent on investment, consumption andexport, according to a number of noted Chinese experts.

  14. Immunological Responses against SARS-Coronavirus Infection in Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun Xu; Xiao-Ming Gao

    2004-01-01

    Since the outbreak of a SARS epidemic last year, significant advances have been made on our understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between the SARS coronavirus (CoV) and the immune system. Strong humoral responses have been found in most patients following SARS-CoV infection, with high titers of neutralizing Abspresent in their convalescent sera. The nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV appear to be the dominant antigens recognized by serum Abs. CD4+ T cell responses against the N protein have been observed in SARS patients and an HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope in the S protein has been identified.It is likely that the immune responses induced by SARS-CoV infection could also cause pathological damage to the host, especially in the case of proinflammatory cytokines. There is also evidence suggesting that SARS-CoV might be able to directly invade cells of the immune system. Our understanding on the interaction between SARS-CoV, the immune system and local tissues is essential to future diagnosis, control and treatment of this very contagious disease.

  15. Immunological Responses against SARS-Coronavirus Infection in Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaojunXu; Xiao-MingGao

    2004-01-01

    Since the outbreak of a SARS epidemic last year, significant advances have been made on our understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between the SARS coronavirus (CoV) and the immune system. Strong humoral responses have been found in most patients following SARS-CoV infection, with high titers of neutralizing Abs present in their convalescent sera. The nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV appear to be the dominant antigens recognized by serum Abs. CD4+ T cell responses against the N protein have been observed in SARS patients and an HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope in the S protein has been identified. It is likely that the immune responses induced by SARS-CoV infection could also cause pathological damage to the host, especially in the case of proinflammatory cytokines. There is also evidence suggesting that SARS-CoV might be able to directly invade cells of the immune system. Our understanding on the interaction between SARS-CoV, the immune system and local tissues is essential to future diagnosis, control and treatment of this very contagious disease. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(2):119-122.

  16. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  17. Cloaked similarity between HIV-1 and SARS-CoV suggests an anti-SARS strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kliger Yossef

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is a febrile respiratory illness. The disease has been etiologically linked to a novel coronavirus that has been named the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV, whose genome was recently sequenced. Since it is a member of the Coronaviridae, its spike protein (S2 is believed to play a central role in viral entry by facilitating fusion between the viral and host cell membranes. The protein responsible for viral-induced membrane fusion of HIV-1 (gp41 differs in length, and has no sequence homology with S2. Results Sequence analysis reveals that the two viral proteins share the sequence motifs that construct their active conformation. These include (1 an N-terminal leucine/isoleucine zipper-like sequence, and (2 a C-terminal heptad repeat located upstream of (3 an aromatic residue-rich region juxtaposed to the (4 transmembrane segment. Conclusions This study points to a similar mode of action for the two viral proteins, suggesting that anti-viral strategy that targets the viral-induced membrane fusion step can be adopted from HIV-1 to SARS-CoV. Recently the FDA approved Enfuvirtide, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal heptad repeat of HIV-1 gp41, as an anti-AIDS agent. Enfuvirtide and C34, another anti HIV-1 peptide, exert their inhibitory activity by binding to a leucine/isoleucine zipper-like sequence in gp41, thus inhibiting a conformational change of gp41 required for its activation. We suggest that peptides corresponding to the C-terminal heptad repeat of the S2 protein may serve as inhibitors for SARS-CoV entry.

  18. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehls, John F. [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km{sup 2}. Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of

  19. Unparallel trajectory bistatic spotlight SAR imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JING Wei; XING MengDao; BAO Zheng

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for unparallel trajectory bistatic spotlight SAR imaging is proposed. The approach utilizes the concept of instantaneous Doppler wavenumber and introduces two variants, the sum-range and subtraction-range, to develop the 2D frequency analytical formula. Based on the assumption of plane wavefront, the transmitting and receiving Doppler are separated and formulated via series reversion. And frequency scaling is applied to focus image. The algorithm is with high computational efficiency, and provides well focus for limited scene imaging. Simulation result confirms the validity of the approach.

  20. Cross-calibration of interferometric SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    Generation of digital elevation models from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is a well established technique. Achieving a high geometric fidelity calls for a calibration accounting for inaccurate navigation data and system parameters as well as system imperfections. Fully......, but not necessarily from map to map. It is based on natural distributed targets for which no a priori knowledge is needed. In particular, no DEM is required as in calibration techniques based on dedicated calibration scenes. To achieve absolute calibration, i.e. elimination of a constant elevation offset, a single...

  1. Two dimensional estimates from ocean SAR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Le Caillec

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images of the ocean yield a lot of information on the sea-state surface providing that the mapping process between the surface and the image is clearly defined. However it is well known that SAR images exhibit non-gaussian statistics and that the motion of the scatterers on the surface, while the image is being formed, may yield to nonlinearities. The detection and quantification of these nonlinearities are made possible by using Higher Order Spectra (HOS methods and more specifically, bispectrum estimation. The development of the latter method allowed us to find phase relations between different parts of the image and to recognise their level of coupling, i.e. if and how waves of different wavelengths interacted nonlinearly. This information is quite important as the usual models assume strong nonlinearities when the waves are propagating in the azimuthal direction (i.e. along the satellite track and almost no nonlinearities when propagating in the range direction. In this paper, the mapping of the ocean surface to the SAR image is reinterpreted and a specific model (i.e. a Second Order Volterra Model is introduced. The nonlinearities are thus explained as either produced by a nonlinear system or due to waves propagating into selected directions (azimuth or range and interacting during image formation. It is shown that quadratic nonlinearities occur for waves propagating near the range direction while for those travelling in the azimuthal direction the nonlinearities, when present, are mostly due to wave interactions but are almost completely removed by the filtering effect coming from the surface motion itself (azimuth cut-off. An inherent quadratic interaction filtering (azimuth high pass filter is also present. But some other effects, apparently nonlinear, are not detected with the methods described here, meaning that either the usual relation developed for the Ocean-to-SAR transform is somewhat incomplete

  2. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  3. The prospects for using (Q)SARs in a changing political environment--high expectations and a key role for the European Commission's joint research centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, A P; Van Leeuwen, C J; Hartung, T

    2004-01-01

    Recent policy developments in the European union (EU) and within the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have placed increased emphasis on the use of structure-activity relationships (SARs) and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), collectively referred to as (Q)SARs, within various regulatory programmes for the assessment of chemicals and products. The most significant example within the EU is the European commission's proposal (of 29 October 2003) to introduce a new system for managing chemicals (called REACH), which calls for an increased use of (Q)SARs and other non-animal methods, especially for the assessment of low production volume chemicals. Another development within the EU is the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which foresees the phasing out of animal testing on cosmetics, combined with the imposition of marketing bans on cosmetics that have been tested on animals after certain deadlines. At the same time, the Existing Chemicals programme within the OECD is investigating ways of increasing the use of chemical category approaches, which depend heavily on the use of (Q)SARs, activity-activity relationships and read-across. Such developments are placing an enormous challenge on industry, regulatory bodies, and on the European commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), which is responsible for providing independent scientific advice to policy makers in the European Commission and the Member States. This paper reviews the different scientific and regulatory purposes for which reliable (Q)SARs could be used, and describes the current work of the JRC in providing scientific support for the development, validation and implementation of (Q)SARs.

  4. The Accuratre Signal Model and Imaging Processing in Geosynchronous SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng

    With the development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) application, the disadvantage of low earth orbit (LEO) SAR becomes more and more apparent. The increase of orbit altitude can shorten the revisit time and enlarge the coverage area in single look, and then satisfy the application requirement. The concept of geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) SAR system is firstly presented and deeply discussed by K.Tomiyasi and other researchers. A GEO SAR, with its fine temporal resolution, would overcome the limitations of current imaging systems, allowing dense interpretation of transient phenomena as GPS time-series analysis with a spatial density several orders of magnitude finer. Until now, the related literatures about GEO SAR are mainly focused in the system parameter design and application requirement. As for the signal characteristic, resolution calculation and imaging algorithms, it is nearly blank in the related literatures of GEO SAR. In the LEO SAR, the signal model analysis adopts the `Stop-and-Go' assumption in general, and this assumption can satisfy the imaging requirement in present advanced SAR system, such as TerraSAR, Radarsat2 and so on. However because of long propagation distance and non-negligible earth rotation, the `Stop-and-Go' assumption does not exist and will cause large propagation distance error, and then affect the image formation. Furthermore the long propagation distance will result in the long synthetic aperture time such as hundreds of seconds, therefore the linear trajectory model in LEO SAR imaging will fail in GEO imaging, and the new imaging model needs to be proposed for the GEO SAR imaging processing. In this paper, considering the relative motion between satellite and earth during signal propagation time, the accurate analysis method for propagation slant range is firstly presented. Furthermore, the difference between accurate analysis method and `Stop-and-Go' assumption is analytically obtained. Meanwhile based on the derived

  5. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... established as follows: (1) Twenty-five parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall...

  6. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine... Newcastle disease virus supplied by or approved by Veterinary Services and the vaccinates observed each...

  7. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia... shall be individually tested for neutralizing antibody against feline panleukopenia virus to...

  8. Ice flow mapping with P-band SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Nielsen, Ulrik; Kusk, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    -band SAR data have been acquired in Greenland, and both offset tracking and DInSAR have been applied to the full resolution data as well as to data degraded to the resolution of Biomass. Generally, ice velocity maps are successfully generated, but in the ablation zone, DInSAR fails in the melt season......Glacier and ice sheet dynamics are currently mapped with X-, C-, and L-band SAR. With the prospect of a P-band SAR, Biomass, to be launched within the next decade it is interesting to look into the potential of P-band for ice velocity mapping. In this paper first results are presented. Airborne P...

  9. SAR Image Desp eckling by Sparse Reconstruction Based on Shearlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jian; LI Xiao; XU Shuang-Xing; LIU Huan; HUANG Jing-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is usually polluted by multiplicative speckle noise, which can affect further processing of SAR image. This paper presents a new approach for multiplicative noise removal in SAR images based on sparse coding by shearlets filtering. First, a SAR despeckling model is built by the theory of compressed sensing (CS). Secondly, obtain shearlets coefficient through shearlet transform, each scale coefficient is represented as a unit. For each unit, sparse coefficient is iteratively estimated by using Bayesian estimation based on shearlets domain. The represented units are finally collaboratively aggregated to construct the despeckling image. Our results in SAR image despeckling show the good performance of this algorithm, and prove that the algorithm proposed is robustness to noise, which is not only good for reducing speckle, but also has an advantage in holding information of the edge.

  10. Flood Mapping Using InSAR Coherence Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, S.; Ben Abdallah, W.; Abdelfatteh, R.

    2014-09-01

    Classic approaches for the detection of flooded areas are based on a static analysis of optical images and/or SAR data during and after the event. In this paper, we aim to extract the flooded zones by using the SAR image coupled with the InSAR coherence. A new formulation of the ratio approach for flood detection is given considering InSAR coherence. Our contribution is to take advantage from the coherence map provided using the InSAR pairs (one before and one after the event) to enhance the detection of flooded areas. We explore the fact that the coherence values during and after the flood are mainly differents on the flooded zones and we give a more suitable flood decision rule using this assumption. The proposed approach is tested and validated in the case of the flood taken place in 2005 in the region of Kef in Tunisia.

  11. Identification of an epitope of SARS-coronavirus nucleocapsid protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING LIN; JIN WANG; HONG XIA WANG; HUA LIANG JIANG; JIAN HUA SHEN; YOU HUA XIE; YUAN WANG; GANG PEI; BEI FEN SHEN; JIA RUI WU; BING SUN; XU SHEN; RUI FU YANG; YI XUE LI; YONG YONG JI; YOU YU HE; MUDE SHI; WEI LU; TIE LIU SHI

    2003-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a majorvirion structural protein. In this study, two epitopes (N1 and N2) of the N protein of SARS-CoV werepredicted by bioinformatics analysis. After immunization with two peptides, the peptides-specific antibodieswere isolated from the immunized rabbits. The further experiments demonstrated that N1 peptide-inducedpolyclonal antibodies had a high affinity to bind to E. coli expressed N protein of SARS-CoV. Furthermore, itwas confirmed that N1 peptide-specific IgG antibodies were detectable in the sera of severe acute respiratorysyndrome (SARS) patients. The results indicated that an epitope of the N protein has been identified andN protein specific Abs were produced by peptide immunization, which will be useful for the study of SARS-CoV.

  12. Analysis of proteins that interact with nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV using 15-mer phage-displayed library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZhengXue; WANG ZhanHui; LIU YingLe; DONG Wei; QI YiPeng

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of proteins that interact with N protein of SARS-CoV using 15-mer phage-displayed library will help to explore the virus pathogenesis and to develop new drugs and vaccines against SARS. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified N protein of SARS-CoV. This 46-kD N protein was verified by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot. Then, the peptides binding-specific to N protein were identified using 15-mer phage-displayed library. Surprisingly, all of the 89 clones from monoclonal ELISA were positive (S/N>2.1) and the result was further confirmed experimentally once again. Six N protein-binding peptides, designated separately as SNA1, SNA2, SNA4, SNA5, SNA9 and SNG11, were selected for sequencing. Sequence analysis suggested that SNA5 shared approximatively 100% sequence identity to SNA4, SNA2, SNA9 and SNA1. In addition, the binding specificity of the 15-mer peptides with the SARS-CoV N protein was further demonstrated by blocking ELISA using the synthetical 15-mer peptide according to the deduced amino acid sequence of SNA5. Also, the deduced amino sequence of SNA5 was compared with proteins in translated database using the tblastx program, and the results showed that the proteins with the highest homology were Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase iron-sulfur subunits (UCRI or UQCR), otherwise known as the Rieske iron-sulfur proteins (RISP). Notablely, in the [2Fe-2S] redox centre of UCRI, there were 6 residues [GGW(Y)F(Y)CP] compatible to the residues (position 2→7, GGWFCP7) of the NH2-terminal of the 15-mer peptide, which indicated higher binding specificity between the N protein of SARS-CoV and the redox centre of UCRI to some extent. Here, the possible molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV N protein in the pathogenesis of SARS are discussed.

  13. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  14. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  15. Emerging Viruses in the Felidae: Shifting Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith A. Brown

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat is afflicted with multiple viruses that serve as powerful models for human disease including cancers, SARS and HIV/AIDS. Cat viruses that cause these diseases have been studied for decades revealing detailed insight concerning transmission, virulence, origins and pathogenesis. Here we review recent genetic advances that have questioned traditional wisdom regarding the origins of virulent Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP diseases, the pathogenic potential of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV in wild non-domestic Felidae species, and the restriction of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV mediated immune impairment to domestic cats rather than other Felidae species. The most recent interpretations indicate important new evolutionary conclusions implicating these deadly infectious agents in domestic and non-domestic felids.

  16. Emerging viruses in the Felidae: shifting paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Troyer, Jennifer L; Brown, Meredith A; Johnson, Warren E; Antunes, Agostinho; Roelke, Melody E; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2012-02-01

    The domestic cat is afflicted with multiple viruses that serve as powerful models for human disease including cancers, SARS and HIV/AIDS. Cat viruses that cause these diseases have been studied for decades revealing detailed insight concerning transmission, virulence, origins and pathogenesis. Here we review recent genetic advances that have questioned traditional wisdom regarding the origins of virulent Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) diseases, the pathogenic potential of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in wild non-domestic Felidae species, and the restriction of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) mediated immune impairment to domestic cats rather than other Felidae species. The most recent interpretations indicate important new evolutionary conclusions implicating these deadly infectious agents in domestic and non-domestic felids.

  17. Comparison and Analysis of Geometric Correction Models of Spaceborne SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weihao; Yu, Anxi; Dong, Zhen; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-06-25

    Following the development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR), SAR images have become increasingly common. Many researchers have conducted large studies on geolocation models, but little work has been conducted on the available models for the geometric correction of SAR images of different terrain. To address the terrain issue, four different models were compared and are described in this paper: a rigorous range-doppler (RD) model, a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model, a revised polynomial (PM) model and an elevation derivation (EDM) model. The results of comparisons of the geolocation capabilities of the models show that a proper model for a SAR image of a specific terrain can be determined. A solution table was obtained to recommend a suitable model for users. Three TerraSAR-X images, two ALOS-PALSAR images and one Envisat-ASAR image were used for the experiment, including flat terrain and mountain terrain SAR images as well as two large area images. Geolocation accuracies of the models for different terrain SAR images were computed and analyzed. The comparisons of the models show that the RD model was accurate but was the least efficient; therefore, it is not the ideal model for real-time implementations. The RPC model is sufficiently accurate and efficient for the geometric correction of SAR images of flat terrain, whose precision is below 0.001 pixels. The EDM model is suitable for the geolocation of SAR images of mountainous terrain, and its precision can reach 0.007 pixels. Although the PM model does not produce results as precise as the other models, its efficiency is excellent and its potential should not be underestimated. With respect to the geometric correction of SAR images over large areas, the EDM model has higher accuracy under one pixel, whereas the RPC model consumes one third of the time of the EDM model.

  18. Real-time optical processor prototype for remote SAR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Linda; Doucet, Michel; Harnisch, Bernd; Suess, Martin; Bourqui, Pascal; Legros, Mathieu; Desnoyers, Nichola; Guillot, Ludovic; Mercier, Luc; Savard, Maxime; Martel, Anne; Châteauneuf, François; Bergeron, Alain

    2009-09-01

    A Compact Real-Time Optical SAR Processor has been successfully developed and tested. SAR, or Synthetic Aperture Radar, is a powerful tool providing enhanced day and night imaging capabilities. SAR systems typically generate large amounts of information generally in the form of complex data that are difficult to compress. Specifically, for planetary missions and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems with limited communication data rates this is a clear disadvantage. SAR images are typically processed electronically applying dedicated Fourier transformations. This, however, can also be performed optically in real-time. Indeed, the first SAR images have been optically processed. The optical processor architecture provides inherent parallel computing capabilities that can be used advantageously for the SAR data processing. Onboard SAR image generation would provide local access to processed information paving the way for real-time decision-making. This could eventually benefit navigation strategy and instrument orientation decisions. Moreover, for interplanetary missions, onboard analysis of images could provide important feature identification clues and could help select the appropriate images to be transmitted to Earth, consequently helping bandwidth management. This could ultimately reduce the data throughput requirements and related transmission bandwidth. This paper reviews the design of a compact optical SAR processor prototype that would reduce power, weight, and size requirements and reviews the analysis of SAR image generation using the table-top optical processor. Various SAR processor parameters such as processing capabilities, image quality (point target analysis), weight and size are reviewed. Results of image generation from simulated point targets as well as real satellite-acquired raw data are presented.

  19. Comparison and Analysis of Geometric Correction Models of Spaceborne SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihao Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR, SAR images have become increasingly common. Many researchers have conducted large studies on geolocation models, but little work has been conducted on the available models for the geometric correction of SAR images of different terrain. To address the terrain issue, four different models were compared and are described in this paper: a rigorous range-doppler (RD model, a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC model, a revised polynomial (PM model and an elevation derivation (EDM model. The results of comparisons of the geolocation capabilities of the models show that a proper model for a SAR image of a specific terrain can be determined. A solution table was obtained to recommend a suitable model for users. Three TerraSAR-X images, two ALOS-PALSAR images and one Envisat-ASAR image were used for the experiment, including flat terrain and mountain terrain SAR images as well as two large area images. Geolocation accuracies of the models for different terrain SAR images were computed and analyzed. The comparisons of the models show that the RD model was accurate but was the least efficient; therefore, it is not the ideal model for real-time implementations. The RPC model is sufficiently accurate and efficient for the geometric correction of SAR images of flat terrain, whose precision is below 0.001 pixels. The EDM model is suitable for the geolocation of SAR images of mountainous terrain, and its precision can reach 0.007 pixels. Although the PM model does not produce results as precise as the other models, its efficiency is excellent and its potential should not be underestimated. With respect to the geometric correction of SAR images over large areas, the EDM model has higher accuracy under one pixel, whereas the RPC model consumes one third of the time of the EDM model.

  20. Plant-derived vaccine protects target animals against a viral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalsgaard, K.; Uttenthal, A.; Jones, T.D.; Xu, F.; Merrywater, A.; Hamilton, W.D.O.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Boshuizen, R.S.; Kamstrup, S.; Lomonos, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    The successful expression of animal or human virus epitopes on the surface of plant viruses has recently been demonstrated. These chimeric virus particles (CVPs) could represent a cost-effective and safe alternative to conventional animal cell-based vaccines. We report the insertion of oligonucleoti

  1. Genomes of Abundant and Widespread Viruses from the Deep Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ghai, Rohit; Saghaï, Aurélien; López-García, Purificación

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The deep sea is a massive, largely oligotrophic ecosystem, stretched over nearly 65% of the planet’s surface. Deep-sea planktonic communities are almost completely dependent upon organic carbon sinking from the productive surface, forming a vital component of global biogeochemical cycles. However, despite their importance, viruses from the deep ocean remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the first complete genomes of deep-sea viruses assembled from metagenomic fosmid libraries. “Candidatus Pelagibacter” (SAR11) phage HTVC010P and Puniceispirillum phage HMO-2011 are considered the most abundant cultured marine viruses known to date. Remarkably, some of the viruses described here recruited as many reads from deep waters as these viruses do in the photic zone, and, considering the gigantic scale of the bathypelagic habitat, these genomes provide information about what could be some of the most abundant viruses in the world at large. Their role in the viral shunt in the global ocean could be very significant. Despite the challenges encountered in inferring the identity of their hosts, we identified one virus predicted to infect members of the globally distributed SAR11 cluster. We also identified a number of putative proviruses from diverse taxa, including deltaproteobacteria, bacteroidetes, SAR11, and gammaproteobacteria. Moreover, our findings also indicate that lysogeny is the preferred mode of existence for deep-sea viruses inhabiting an energy-limited environment, in sharp contrast to the predominantly lytic lifestyle of their photic-zone counterparts. Some of the viruses show a widespread distribution, supporting the tenet “everything is everywhere” for the deep-ocean virome. PMID:27460793

  2. Unique pattern of enzootic primate viruses in Gibraltar macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A; Pizarro, Mark; Shaw, Eric; Cortes, John; Fuentes, Agustin; Barry, Peter; Lerche, Nicholas; Grant, Richard; Cohn, Douglas; Jones-Engel, Lisa

    2008-07-01

    Because Gibraltar's macaques (Macaca sylvanus) have frequent contact with humans, we assayed 79 macaques for antibodies to enzootic primate viruses. All macaques were seronegative for herpesvirus B, simian T-cell lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus, and rhesus cytomegalovirus. Seroprevalence of simian foamy virus reached 88% among adult animals.

  3. The Ecosystems SAR (EcoSAR) an Airborne P-band Polarimetric InSAR for the Measurement of Vegetation Structure, Biomass and Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Ranson, K. Jon; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Sun, Guoqing; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Perrine, Martin L.; Du Toit, Cornelis F.; Bonds, Quenton; Beck, Jaclyn; Lu, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    EcoSAR is a new synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instrument being developed at the NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the polarimetric and interferometric measurements of ecosystem structure and biomass. The instrument uses a phased-array beamforming architecture and supports full polarimetric measurements and single pass interferometry. This Instrument development is part of NASA's Earth Science Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program (ESTO IIP).

  4. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  5. Genome sequencing and characterization analysis of a Beijing isolate of chicken corona virus infectious bronchitis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Weiwu; YU Jialin; LI Ning; GONG Yuanshi; SUN Qixin; CHEN Zhangliang; CHEN Chen; ZHANG Ying; ZHAO Yiqiang; FENG Jidong; CHEN Fuyong; WU Qingming; YANG Hanchun; WANG Ming

    2004-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (AIBV) is lassified as a member of the genus coronavirus in the family coronaviridae. The enveloped virus has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 28 kilo-bases,which has a 5′ cap structure and 3′ polyadenylation tract.The complete genome sequence of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Beijing isolate, was determined by cloning sequencing and primer walking. The whole genome is 27733 nucleotides in length, has ten open reading frames: 5′-orfla-orflab-s-3a-3b-e-m- 6a-6b-n-3′. Alignments of the genome sequence of IBV Beijing isolate with those of two AIBV strains and one SARS coronavirus were performed respectively. The genome sequence of IBV Beijing isolate compared with that of the IBV strain LX4 (uncompleted, 19440 bp in size) was 91.2%similarity. However, the full-length genome sequence of IBV Beijing isolate was 85.2% identity to that of IBV Strain Beaudette, and was only 50.8% homology to that of SARS coronavirus. The results showed that the genome of IBV has remarkable variation. And IBV Beijing isolate is not closely related to SARS coronavirus. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole genome sequence, S protein, M protein and N protein, also showed that AIBV Beijing isolate is lone virus in group Ⅲ and is distant from SARS coronavirus. In conclusion, this study will contribute to the studies of diagnosis and diseases control on IBV in China.

  6. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  7. Pains and Gains from China’s Experiences with Emerging Epidemics: From SARS to H7N9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent decades, China experienced several emerging virus outbreaks including those caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome- (SARS- coronavirus (Cov, H5N1 virus, and H7N9 virus. The SARS tragedy revealed faults in China’s infectious disease prevention system, propelling the Chinese government to enact reforms that enabled better combating of the subsequent H1N1 and H7N9 avian flu epidemics. The system is buttressed by three fundamental, mutually reinforcing components: (1 enduring government administration reforms, including legislation establishing a unified public health emergency management system; (2 prioritized funding for biotechnology and biomedicine industrialization, especially in the areas of pathogen identification, drug production, and the development of vaccines and diagnostics; and (3 increasing investment for public health and establishment of a rapid-response infectious diseases prevention and control system. China is now using its hard-gained experience to support the fight against Ebola in Africa and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in its own country.

  8. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  9. Spacial Variation in SAR Images of Different Resolution for Agricultural Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Skriver, Henning

    1999-01-01

    The spatial variation in two types of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images covering agricultural fields is analysed. C-band polarimetric SAR data from the Danish airborne SAR, EMISAR, have been compared to space based ERS-1 C-band SAR with respect to scale and effect of polarization. The general...

  10. La experiencia de los virus emergentes en el Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Máttar V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Existe una interrelación muy estrecha entre el hombre, su ecología y el mundo microbiano, tanto el ser humano como los agentes infecciosos han coevolucionado durante milenios (1. La historia demuestra que ha existido una confluencia de diferentes enfermedades infecciosas y las principales civilizaciones. En los últimos años las enfermedades zoonoticas emergentes han ido cobrando una importancia creciente en el terreno de la salud humana y animal, surgiendo nuevas enfermedades procedentes siempre de lugares insospechados y causantes de graves problemas para el hombre o los animales (2. La mayoría de patógenos involucrados en las enfermedades infecciosas emergentes (EIE son de origen bacteriano o rickettsial (54.3%. En este grupo están incluidos los patógenos bacterianos resistentes a los antibióticos. Los patógenos de origen viral y los priones, constituyen el 25.4% de eventos de las EIE, los protozoarios representan el 10.7%, seguido de los hongos 6.3% y los helmintos en un 3.3%. El 60.3% de las enfermedades infecciosas emergentes son causadas por patógenos zoonoticos (2. El 71.8% de estas zoonosis son causados por patógenos que se originan de la fauna silvestre, como la emergencia del virus de Nipah en Malasia y el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS en China (3.

  11. Feline aminopeptidase N is not a functional receptor for avian infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbison Carole E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronaviruses are an important cause of infectious diseases in humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, and have the continued potential for emergence from animal species. A major factor in the host range of a coronavirus is its receptor utilization on host cells. In many cases, coronavirus-receptor interactions are well understood. However, a notable exception is the receptor utilization by group 3 coronaviruses, including avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Feline aminopeptidase N (fAPN serves as a functional receptor for most group 1 coronaviruses including feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV, canine coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. A recent report has also suggested a role for fAPN during IBV entry (Miguel B, Pharr GT, Wang C: The role of feline aminopeptidase N as a receptor for infectious bronchitis virus. Brief review. Arch Virol 2002, 147:2047–2056. Results Here we show that, whereas both transient transfection and constitutive expression of fAPN on BHK-21 cells can rescue FIPV and TGEV infection in non-permissive BHK cells, fAPN expression does not rescue infection by the prototype IBV strain Mass41. To account for the previous suggestion that fAPN could serve as an IBV receptor, we show that feline cells can be infected with the prototype strain of IBV (Mass 41, but with low susceptibility compared to primary chick kidney cells. We also show that BHK-21 cells are slightly susceptible to certain IBV strains, including Ark99, Ark_DPI, CA99, and Iowa97 ( Conclusion We conclude that fAPN is not a functional receptor for IBV, the identity of which is currently under investigation.

  12. Experimental infection of animals with influenzavirus types A and B*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniker, C. K. J.; Nair, C. M. G.

    1972-01-01

    The knowledge that domestic cats were susceptible to infection with freshly isolated A/Hong Kong/68 influenzavirus led to studies on the susceptibility of some other animal species to this virus, as well as to studies on the ability of egg-passaged Hong Kong virus and an Asian virus to infect cats. The ability of a recent isolate of influenzavirus B to infect these animals was also studied. Macaca radiata monkeys could be infected with fresh isolates of A/Hong Kong virus by intranasal instillation or by contact with infected animals. They could also be infected with influenzavirus B by intranasal challenge, but contact transmission was not demonstrated. Mongrel dogs were found to be susceptible to A/Hong Kong/68 virus by intranasal instillation, but not to type B virus. Domestic cats could be infected with A/Hong Kong/68 virus passaged 6 times in eggs. They were also susceptible to infection with an established laboratory strain of Asian virus. Cats could be infected with influenzavirus B either by intranasal challenge or by contact with infected animals. In no case was clinical illness found following infection, but the infected animals shed virus from the throat and developed haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies. PMID:4196340

  13. Experimental infection of animals with influenzavirus types A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniker, C K; Nair, C M

    1972-01-01

    The knowledge that domestic cats were susceptible to infection with freshly isolated A/Hong Kong/68 influenzavirus led to studies on the susceptibility of some other animal species to this virus, as well as to studies on the ability of egg-passaged Hong Kong virus and an Asian virus to infect cats. The ability of a recent isolate of influenzavirus B to infect these animals was also studied. Macaca radiata monkeys could be infected with fresh isolates of A/Hong Kong virus by intranasal instillation or by contact with infected animals. They could also be infected with influenzavirus B by intranasal challenge, but contact transmission was not demonstrated. Mongrel dogs were found to be susceptible to A/Hong Kong/68 virus by intranasal instillation, but not to type B virus. Domestic cats could be infected with A/Hong Kong/68 virus passaged 6 times in eggs. They were also susceptible to infection with an established laboratory strain of Asian virus. Cats could be infected with influenzavirus B either by intranasal challenge or by contact with infected animals. In no case was clinical illness found following infection, but the infected animals shed virus from the throat and developed haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies.

  14. Tight formation flying for an along-track SAR interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Eberhard; Runge, Hartmut

    2004-08-01

    While space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has evolved into a mature technology over the past two decades, there is a growing interest in interferometric SAR applications. Especially along-track interferometry with its capability to resolve the velocity of on-ground objects and ocean currents is of high interest for scientific applications. The accuracy of the resolved velocity on ground scales directly with the along-track separation between adjacent SAR antennas. Since space vehicles are quite limited in size, a formation flying approach with two SAR instruments distributed onto two spacecraft thus appears to be an innovative approach to along-track SAR interferometry. In the framework of an ESA study, this paper discusses the potential benefits, drawbacks and problems associated with a close formation flight for an along-track interferometry SAR mission. To this end, the absolute and relative orbit reconstruction requirements for the SAR processing chain are derived from basic interferometric principles as well as appropriate baselines of the satellite formation in L-Band and X-Band. A discussion of potential space-borne navigation sensors is presented along with the accuracy of state-of-the-art relative orbit reconstruction. Finally, appropriate thrusters for formation acquisition and control are discussed together with approaches to formation flying guidance and control as well as fuel consumption.

  15. Regional landslide forecasting model using interferometric SAR images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董育烦; 张发明; 高正夏; 蒯志要

    2008-01-01

    Method of obtaining landslide evaluating information by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique was discussed. More precision landslide surface deformation data extracted from InSAR image need take suitable SAR interferometric data selecting, path tracking, phase unwrapping processes. Then, the DEM model of scope and surface shape of the landslide was built. Combining with geological property of landslide and sliding displacements obtained from InSAR/D-InSAR images, a new landslide forecasting model called equal central angle slice method for those not obviously deformed landslides was put forward. This model breaks the limits of traditional research methods of geology. In this model, the landslide safety factor was calculated by equal central angle slice method, then considering the persistence ratio of the sliding surface based on plastic theory, the minimum safety factor was the phase when plastic area were complete persistence. This new model makes the application of InSAR/D-InSAR technology become more practical in geology hazard research.

  16. Ground Displacement Measurement of the 2013 Balochistan Earthquake with interferometric TerraSAR-X ScanSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yague-Martinez, N.; Fielding, E. J.; Haghshenas-Haghighi, M.; Cong, X.; Motagh, M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will address the 24 September 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan Earthquake in western Pakistan from the point of view of interferometric processing algorithms of wide-swath TerraSAR-X ScanSAR images. The algorithms are also valid for TOPS acquisition mode, the operational mode of the Sentinel-1A ESA satellite that was successfully launched in April 2014. Spectral properties of burst-mode data and an overview of the interferometric processing steps of burst-mode acquisitions, emphasizing the importance of the co-registration stage, will be provided. A co-registration approach based on incoherent cross-correlation will be presented and applied to seismic scenarios. Moreover geodynamic corrections due to differential atmospheric path delay and differential solid Earth tides are considered to achieve accuracy in the order of several centimeters. We previously derived a 3D displacement map using cross-correlation techniques applied to optical images from Landsat-8 satellite and TerraSAR-X ScanSAR amplitude images. The Landsat-8 cross-correlation measurements cover two horizontal directions, and the TerraSAR-X displacements include both horizontal along-track and slant-range (radar line-of-sight) measurements that are sensitive to vertical and horizontal deformation. It will be justified that the co-seismic displacement map from TerraSAR-X ScanSAR data may be contaminated by postseismic deformation due to the fact that the post-seismic acquisition took place one month after the main shock, confirmed in part by a TerraSAR-X stripmap interferogram (processed with conventional InSAR) covering part of the area starting on 27 September 2013. We have arranged the acquisition of a burst-synchronized stack of TerraSAR-X ScanSAR images over the affected area after the earthquake. It will be possible to apply interferometry to these data to measure the lower magnitude of the expected postseismic displacements. The processing of single interferograms will be discussed. A

  17. Indoor experimental facility for airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) configurations - rail-SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirose, Getachew; Phelan, Brian R.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Koenig, Francois; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2014-05-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing an indoor experimental facility to evaluate and assess airborne synthetic-aperture-radar-(SAR)-based detection capabilities. The rail-SAR is located in a multi-use facility that also provides a base for research and development in the area of autonomous robotic navigation. Radar explosive hazard detection is one key sensordevelopment area to be investigated at this indoor facility. In particular, the mostly wooden, multi-story building houses a two (2) story housing structure and an open area built over a large sandbox. The housing structure includes reconfigurable indoor walls which enable the realization of multiple See-Through-The-Wall (STTW) scenarios. The open sandbox, on the other hand, allows for surface and buried explosive hazard scenarios. The indoor facility is not rated for true explosive hazard materials so all targets will need to be inert and contain surrogate explosive fills. In this paper we discuss the current system status and describe data collection exercises conducted using canonical targets and frequencies that may be of interest to designers of ultra-wideband (UWB) airborne, ground penetrating SAR systems. A bi-static antenna configuration will be used to investigate the effects of varying airborne SAR parameters such as depression angle, bandwidth, and integration angle, for various target types and deployment scenarios. Canonical targets data were used to evaluate overall facility capabilities and limitations. These data is analyzed and summarized for future evaluations. Finally, processing techniques for dealing with RF multi-path and RFI due to operating inside the indoor facility are described in detail. Discussion of this facility and its capabilities and limitations will provide the explosive hazard community with a great airborne platform asset for sensor to target assessment.

  18. Compact polarimetric SAR product and calibration considerations for target analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Ramin

    2016-10-01

    Compact polarimetric (CP) data exploitation is currently of growing interest considering the new generation of such Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. These systems offer target detection and classification capabilities comparable to those of polarimetric SARs (PolSAR) with less stringent requirements. A good example is the RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM). In this paper, some characteristic CP products are described and effects of CP mode deviation from ideal circular polarization transmit on classifications are modeled. The latter is important for operation of typical CP modes (e.g., RCM). The developed model can be used to estimate the ellipticity variation from CP measured data, and hence, calibrate the classification products.

  19. SAR antenna design for ambiguity and multipath suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz; Dich, Mikael

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been developed at the Electromagnetics Institute (EMI) for remote sensing applications. The paper considers the radiation of antennas for a SAR system from a systems perspective. The basic specifications of an idealised antenna...... are obtained from the required swath and the azimuth footprint needed for the SAR processing. The radiation from a real antenna causes unwanted signal returns that lead to intensity variations (multipath) and ghost echoes (ambiguity). Additional specifications are deduced by considering these signals...

  20. Ocean Surface Wind Speed of Hurricane Helene Observed by SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Cheng, Yongcun; Li, Xiaofeng;

    2011-01-01

    Prediction System (NOGAPS) model, C-band geophysical model functions (GMFs) which describe the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) dependence on the wind speed and the geometry of radar observations (i.e., incidence angle and azimuth angle with respect to wind direction) such as CMOD5 and newly developed...... CIWRAP models have been tested to extract wind speed from SAR data. The SAR retrieved ocean surface winds were compared to the aircraft wind speed observations from stepped frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR). The results show the capability of hurricane wind monitoring by SAR....