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Sample records for animal reservoir hosts

  1. Leptospira Serovars for Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in Humans and Animals in Africa: Common Leptospira Isolates and Reservoir Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgies F Mgode

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The burden of leptospirosis in humans and animals in Africa is higher than that reported from other parts of the world. However, the disease is not routinely diagnosed in the continent. One of major factors limiting diagnosis is the poor availability of live isolates of locally circulating Leptospira serovars for inclusion in the antigen panel of the gold standard microscopic agglutination test (MAT for detecting antibodies against leptospirosis. To gain insight in Leptospira serovars and their natural hosts occurring in Tanzania, concomitantly enabling the improvement of the MAT by inclusion of fresh local isolates, a total of 52 Leptospira isolates were obtained from fresh urine and kidney homogenates, collected between 1996 and 2006 from small mammals, cattle and pigs. Isolates were identified by serogrouping, cross agglutination absorption test (CAAT, and molecular typing. Common Leptospira serovars with their respective animal hosts were: Sokoine (cattle and rodents; Kenya (rodents and shrews; Mwogolo (rodents; Lora (rodents; Qunjian (rodent; serogroup Grippotyphosa (cattle; and an unknown serogroup from pigs. Inclusion of local serovars particularly serovar Sokoine in MAT revealed a 10-fold increase in leptospirosis prevalence in Tanzania from 1.9% to 16.9% in rodents and 0.26% to 10.75% in humans. This indicates that local serovars are useful for diagnosis of human and animal leptospirosis in Tanzania and other African countries.

  2. Leptospira Serovars for Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in Humans and Animals in Africa: Common Leptospira Isolates and Reservoir Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgode, Georgies F; Machang'u, Robert S; Mhamphi, Ginethon G; Katakweba, Abdul; Mulungu, Loth S; Durnez, Lies; Leirs, Herwig; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Belmain, Steven R

    2015-12-01

    The burden of leptospirosis in humans and animals in Africa is higher than that reported from other parts of the world. However, the disease is not routinely diagnosed in the continent. One of major factors limiting diagnosis is the poor availability of live isolates of locally circulating Leptospira serovars for inclusion in the antigen panel of the gold standard microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for detecting antibodies against leptospirosis. To gain insight in Leptospira serovars and their natural hosts occurring in Tanzania, concomitantly enabling the improvement of the MAT by inclusion of fresh local isolates, a total of 52 Leptospira isolates were obtained from fresh urine and kidney homogenates, collected between 1996 and 2006 from small mammals, cattle and pigs. Isolates were identified by serogrouping, cross agglutination absorption test (CAAT), and molecular typing. Common Leptospira serovars with their respective animal hosts were: Sokoine (cattle and rodents); Kenya (rodents and shrews); Mwogolo (rodents); Lora (rodents); Qunjian (rodent); serogroup Grippotyphosa (cattle); and an unknown serogroup from pigs. Inclusion of local serovars particularly serovar Sokoine in MAT revealed a 10-fold increase in leptospirosis prevalence in Tanzania from 1.9% to 16.9% in rodents and 0.26% to 10.75% in humans. This indicates that local serovars are useful for diagnosis of human and animal leptospirosis in Tanzania and other African countries. PMID:26624890

  3. Leptospira Serovars for Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in Humans and Animals in Africa: Common Leptospira Isolates and Reservoir Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Mgode, Georgies F.; Machang’u, Robert S.; Mhamphi, Ginethon G; Katakweba, Abdul; Mulungu, Loth S.; Durnez, Lies; Leirs, Herwig; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Belmain, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The burden of leptospirosis in humans and animals in Africa is higher than that reported from other parts of the world. However, the disease is not routinely diagnosed in the continent. One of major factors limiting diagnosis is the poor availability of live isolates of locally circulating Leptospira serovars for inclusion in the antigen panel of the gold standard microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for detecting antibodies against leptospirosis. To gain insight in Leptospira serovars and th...

  4. Detection of urinary biomarkers in reservoir hosts of Leptospirosis by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogenic leptospires colonize the renal tubules of reservoir hosts of infection and are excreted via urine into the environment. Reservoir hosts include a wide range of domestic and wild animal species and include cattle, dogs and rats which can persistently excrete large numbers of pathogenic lep...

  5. Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanepoel, Robert; Smit, Sheilagh B; Rollin, Pierre E;

    2007-01-01

    To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998-2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%-3.6% of 2...... species of insectivorous bat and 1 species of fruit bat. We found antibody to the virus in the serum of 9.7% of 1 of the insectivorous species and in 20.5% of the fruit bat species, but attempts to isolate virus were unsuccessful. ...

  6. GLOBAL PATTERNS OF LEPTOSPIRA PREVALENCE IN VERTEBRATE RESERVOIR HOSTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie U.; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread emerging bacterial zoonosis. As the transmission is believed to be predominantly waterborne, human incidence is expected to increase in conjunction with global climate change and associated extreme weather events. Providing more accurate predictions of human leptospi......Leptospirosis is a widespread emerging bacterial zoonosis. As the transmission is believed to be predominantly waterborne, human incidence is expected to increase in conjunction with global climate change and associated extreme weather events. Providing more accurate predictions of human...... leptospirosis requires more detailed information on animal reservoirs that are the source of human infection. We evaluated the prevalence of Leptospira in vertebrates worldwide and its association with taxonomy, geographic region, host biology, ambient temperature, and precipitation patterns. A multivariate...

  7. Transmission or Within-Host Dynamics Driving Pulses of Zoonotic Viruses in Reservoir-Host Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Raina K; Peel, Alison J; Streicker, Daniel G; Gilbert, Amy T; McCallum, Hamish; Wood, James; Baker, Michelle L; Restif, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Progress in combatting zoonoses that emerge from wildlife is often constrained by limited knowledge of the biology of pathogens within reservoir hosts. We focus on the host-pathogen dynamics of four emerging viruses associated with bats: Hendra, Nipah, Ebola, and Marburg viruses. Spillover of bat infections to humans and domestic animals often coincides with pulses of viral excretion within bat populations, but the mechanisms driving such pulses are unclear. Three hypotheses dominate current research on these emerging bat infections. First, pulses of viral excretion could reflect seasonal epidemic cycles driven by natural variations in population densities and contact rates among hosts. If lifelong immunity follows recovery, viruses may disappear locally but persist globally through migration; in either case, new outbreaks occur once births replenish the susceptible pool. Second, epidemic cycles could be the result of waning immunity within bats, allowing local circulation of viruses through oscillating herd immunity. Third, pulses could be generated by episodic shedding from persistently infected bats through a combination of physiological and ecological factors. The three scenarios can yield similar patterns in epidemiological surveys, but strategies to predict or manage spillover risk resulting from each scenario will be different. We outline an agenda for research on viruses emerging from bats that would allow for differentiation among the scenarios and inform development of evidence-based interventions to limit threats to human and animal health. These concepts and methods are applicable to a wide range of pathogens that affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. PMID:27489944

  8. Reservoir Competence of Wildlife Host Species for Babesia microti

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle H Hersh; Tibbetts, Michael; Strauss, Mia; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Keesing, Felicia

    2012-01-01

    Human babesiosis is an increasing health concern in the northeastern United States, where the causal agent, Babesia microti, is spread through the bite of infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We sampled 10 mammal and 4 bird species within a vertebrate host community in southeastern New York to quantify reservoir competence (mean percentage of ticks infected by an individual host) using real-time PCR. We found reservoir competence levels >17% in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), raccoons (...

  9. GLOBAL PATTERNS OF LEPTOSPIRA PREVALENCE IN VERTEBRATE RESERVOIR HOSTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie U; Pipper, Christian; Jensen, Per M

    2016-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread emerging bacterial zoonosis. As the transmission is believed to be predominantly waterborne, human incidence is expected to increase in conjunction with global climate change and associated extreme weather events. Providing more accurate predictions of human leptospirosis requires more detailed information on animal reservoirs that are the source of human infection. We evaluated the prevalence of Leptospira in vertebrates worldwide and its association with taxonomy, geographic region, host biology, ambient temperature, and precipitation patterns. A multivariate regression analysis with a meta-analysis-like approach was used to analyze compiled data extracted from 300 Leptospira-related peer reviewed papers. A fairly uniform Leptospira infection prevalence of about 15% was found in the majority of mammalian families. Higher prevalence was frequently associated with species occupying urban habitats, and this may explain why climatic factors were not significantly correlated with prevalence as consistently as expected. Across different approaches of the multiple regression analyses, the variables most frequently correlated with Leptospira infection prevalence were the host's ability to swim, minimum ambient temperature, and methodologic quality of the study. Prevalence in carnivores was not associated with any climatic variable, and the importance of environmental risk factors were indicated to be of lesser consequence in nonhuman mammals. The dataset is made available for further analysis. PMID:27187029

  10. Reservoir competence of wildlife host species for Babesia microti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Michelle H; Tibbetts, Michael; Strauss, Mia; Ostfeld, Richard S; Keesing, Felicia

    2012-12-01

    Human babesiosis is an increasing health concern in the northeastern United States, where the causal agent, Babesia microti, is spread through the bite of infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We sampled 10 mammal and 4 bird species within a vertebrate host community in southeastern New York to quantify reservoir competence (mean percentage of ticks infected by an individual host) using real-time PCR. We found reservoir competence levels >17% in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda), and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and 0% in all other species, including all 4 bird species. Data on the relative contributions of multiple host species to tick infection with B. microti and level of genetic differentiation between B. microti strains transmitted by different hosts will help advance understanding of the spread of human babesiosis. PMID:23171673

  11. Identifying Transmission Cycles at the Human-Animal Interface: The Role of Animal Reservoirs in Maintaining Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Funk; Hiroshi Nishiura; Hans Heesterbeek; W. John Edmunds; Francesco Checchi

    2013-01-01

    Many infections can be transmitted between animals and humans. The epidemiological roles of different species can vary from important reservoirs to dead-end hosts. Here, we present a method to identify transmission cycles in different combinations of species from field data. We used this method to synthesise epidemiological and ecological data from Bipindi, Cameroon, a historical focus of gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), a disease that has often been considere...

  12. A reservoir of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria in asymptomatic hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G Perron

    Full Text Available The population genetics of pathogenic bacteria has been intensively studied in order to understand the spread of disease and the evolution of virulence and drug resistance. However, much less attention has been paid to bacterial carriage populations, which inhabit hosts without producing disease. Since new virulent strains that cause disease can be recruited from the carriage population of bacteria, our understanding of infectious disease is seriously incomplete without knowledge on the population structure of pathogenic bacteria living in an asymptomatic host. We report the first extensive survey of the abundance and diversity of a human pathogen in asymptomatic animal hosts. We have found that asymptomatic swine from livestock productions frequently carry populations of Salmonella enterica with a broad range of drug-resistant strains and genetic diversity greatly exceeding that previously described. This study shows how agricultural practice and human intervention may lead and influence the evolution of a hidden reservoir of pathogens, with important implications for human health.

  13. Sensitivity of Lyme Borreliosis Spirochetes to Serum Complement of Regular Zoo Animals: Potential Reservoir Competence of Some Exotic Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha, Lucie; Golovchenko, Maryna; Oliver, James H; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia

    2016-01-01

    Reaction of vertebrate serum complement with different Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species is used as a basis in determining reservoir hosts among domesticated and wild animals. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii were tested for their sensitivity to sera of exotic vertebrate species housed in five zoos located in the Czech Republic. We confirmed that different Borrelia species have different sensitivity to host serum. We found that tolerance to Borrelia infection possessed by hosts might differ among individuals of the same genera or species and is not affected by host age or sex. Of all zoo animals included in our study, carnivores demonstrated the highest apparent reservoir competency for Lyme borreliosis spirochetes. We showed that selected exotic ungulate species are tolerant to Borrelia infection. For the first time we showed the high tolerance of Siamese crocodile to Borrelia as compared to the other studied reptile species. While exotic vertebrates present a limited risk to the European human population as reservoirs for the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis, cases of incidental spillover infection could lead to successful replication of the pathogens in a new host, changing the status of selected exotic species and their role in pathogen emergence or maintenance. The question if being tolerant to pathogen means to be a competent reservoir host still needs an answer, simply because the majority of exotic animals might never be exposed to spirochetes in their natural environment. PMID:26783940

  14. More Novel Hantaviruses and Diversifying Reservoir Hosts — Time for Development of Reservoir-Derived Cell Culture Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.

  15. Animal salmonelloses: a brief review of “host adaptation and host specificity” of Salmonella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammato Evangelopoulou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica, the most pathogenic species of the genusSalmonella, includes more than 2,500 serovars, many of which are of great veterinary and medical significance. The emergence of food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., has increased knowledge about the mechanisms helping microorganisms to persist and spread within new host populations. It has also increased information about the properties they acquire for adapting in the biological environment of a new host. Thedifferences observed between serovars in their host preference and clinical manifestations are referred to as “serovar-host specificity” or “serovar-host adaptation”. The genus Salmonella, highly adaptive to vertebrate hosts, has many pathogenic serovars showing host specificity. Serovar Salmonella Typhi, causing disease to man and higher primates, is a good example of host specificity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that Salmonella serovars use to overcome animal species' barriers or adapt to new hosts is also important for understanding the origins of any other infectious diseases or the emergence of new pathogens. In addition, molecular methods used to study the virulence determinants of Salmonella serovars, could also be used to model ways of studying the virulence determinants used by bacteria in general, when causing disease to a specific animal species

  16. Zika virus, vectors, reservoirs, amplifying hosts, and their potential to spread worldwide: what we know and what we should investigate urgently

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    Rengina Vorou

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: It is a public health imperative to define the domestic and wild animal reservoirs, amplification hosts, and vector capacity of the genera Aedes, Anopheles, and Mansonia. These variables will define the geographic distribution of Zika virus along with the indicated timing and scale of the environmental public health interventions worldwide.

  17. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) origin and animal reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Hamzah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Though not confirmed yet, multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. The disease is heavily endemic in dromedary camel populations of East Africa and the Middle East. It is unclear as to when the virus was introduced to dromedary camels, but data from studies that investigated stored dromedary camel sera and geographical distribution of involved dromedary camel populations suggested that the virus was present in dromedary camels several decades ago. Though bats and alpacas can serve as potential reservoirs for MERS-CoV, dromedary camels seem to be the only animal host responsible for the spill over human infections. PMID:27255185

  18. Hantavirus reservoir hosts associated with peridomestic habitats in Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    G. Calderón; N Pini; Bolpe, J.; Levis, S.; Mills, J; Segura, E.; Guthmann, N.; Cantoni, G.; Becker, J.; Fonollat, A.; Ripoll, C.; Bortman, M.; Benedetti, R.; D Enria

    1999-01-01

    Five species of sigmodontine rodents have been identified in Argentina as the putative reservoirs of six circulating hantavirus genotypes. Two species of Oligoryzomys are associated with the genotypes causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Oligoryzomys flavescens for Lechiguanas and O. longicaudatus for Andes and Oran genotypes. Reports of human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome prompted rodent trapping (2,299 rodents of 32 species during 27,780 trap nights) at potential exposure sites i...

  19. Enzooticity of the dogs, the reservoir host of Thelazia callipaeda, in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Min; Yu, Jae-Ran; Park, Hyun-Young; Huh, Sun; Kim, Sang-Kun; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2002-01-01

    The reservoir hosts of Thelazia callipaeda were examined. The eyes of the 76 dogs raised at farm, 78 military dogs (shepherds), 96 cattle, and 105 pigs were investigated for the presence of eyeworm. Among them, six worms of T. callipaeda were collected from two dogs raised at farm (2.7%), and 188 worms from 26 shepherds (33.5%). No worms were recovered from the cattle or pigs. These results suggest that the dogs, especially the military dogs are serving as a reservoir host of T. callipaeda in...

  20. HERPESTES AUROPUNCTATUS AS A NEW RESERVOIR HOST OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS IN IRAN

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    GH. Mowlavi

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A new reservoir host of Trichinella was identified as: Herpestes auropunctatus, (Mangoose in province of Khuzestan, south west of Iran. Wild swine, brown bear jackal and wild cat have been reported as natural host for Trichinella so far. The larvae obtained from the mongoose was infective for rat and white mouse, but the latter was more sensitive comparatively (This study was carried out in the Ahwaz Health Research Station.

  1. The Lyme Disease Pathogen Has No Effect on the Survival of Its Rodent Reservoir Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voordouw, Maarten J.; Lachish, Shelly; Dolan, Marc C.

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens that cause devastating morbidity and mortality in humans may be relatively harmless in their natural reservoir hosts. The tick-borne bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease in humans but few studies have investigated whether this pathogen reduces the fitness of its reservoir hosts under natural conditions. We analyzed four years of capture-mark-recapture (CMR) data on a population of white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, to test whether B. burgdorferi and its tick vector affect the survival of this important reservoir host. We used a multi-state CMR approach to model mouse survival and mouse infection rates as a function of a variety of ecologically relevant explanatory factors. We found no effect of B. burgdorferi infection or tick burden on the survival of P. leucopus. Our estimates of the probability of infection varied by an order of magnitude (0.051 to 0.535) and were consistent with our understanding of Lyme disease in the Northeastern United States. B. burgdorferi establishes a chronic avirulent infection in their rodent reservoir hosts because this pathogen depends on rodent mobility to achieve transmission to its sedentary tick vector. The estimates of B. burgdorferi infection risk will facilitate future theoretical studies on the epidemiology of Lyme disease. PMID:25688863

  2. The lyme disease pathogen has no effect on the survival of its rodent reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J Voordouw

    Full Text Available Zoonotic pathogens that cause devastating morbidity and mortality in humans may be relatively harmless in their natural reservoir hosts. The tick-borne bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease in humans but few studies have investigated whether this pathogen reduces the fitness of its reservoir hosts under natural conditions. We analyzed four years of capture-mark-recapture (CMR data on a population of white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, to test whether B. burgdorferi and its tick vector affect the survival of this important reservoir host. We used a multi-state CMR approach to model mouse survival and mouse infection rates as a function of a variety of ecologically relevant explanatory factors. We found no effect of B. burgdorferi infection or tick burden on the survival of P. leucopus. Our estimates of the probability of infection varied by an order of magnitude (0.051 to 0.535 and were consistent with our understanding of Lyme disease in the Northeastern United States. B. burgdorferi establishes a chronic avirulent infection in their rodent reservoir hosts because this pathogen depends on rodent mobility to achieve transmission to its sedentary tick vector. The estimates of B. burgdorferi infection risk will facilitate future theoretical studies on the epidemiology of Lyme disease.

  3. Cytokine and Chemokine Expression in Kidneys during Chronic Leptospirosis in Reservoir and Susceptible Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mariko; Roche, Louise; Geroult, Sophie; Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Monchy, Didier; Huerre, Michel; Goarant, Cyrille

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Humans can be infected after exposure to contaminated urine of reservoir animals, usually rodents, regarded as typical asymptomatic carriers of leptospires. In contrast, accidental hosts may present an acute form of leptospirosis with a range of clinical symptoms including the development of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered as a possible AKI-residual sequela but little is known about the renal pathophysiology consequent to leptospirosis infection. Herein, we studied the renal morphological alterations in relation with the regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, comparing two experimental models of chronic leptospirosis, the golden Syrian hamster that survived the infection, becoming carrier of virulent leptospires, and the OF1 mouse, a usual reservoir of the bacteria. Animals were monitored until 28 days after injection with a virulent L. borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum to assess chronic infection. Hamsters developed morphological alterations in the kidneys with tubulointerstitial nephritis and fibrosis. Grading of lesions revealed higher scores in hamsters compared to the slight alterations observed in the mouse kidneys, irrespective of the bacterial load. Interestingly, pro-fibrotic TGF-β was downregulated in mouse kidneys. Moreover, cytokines IL-1β and IL-10, and chemokines MIP-1α/CCL3 and IP-10/CXCL-10 were significantly upregulated in hamster kidneys compared to mice. These results suggest a possible maintenance of inflammatory processes in the hamster kidneys with the infiltration of inflammatory cells in response to bacterial carriage, resulting in alterations of renal tissues. In contrast, lower expression levels in mouse kidneys indicated a better regulation of the inflammatory response and possible resolution processes likely related to resistance mechanisms. PMID:27219334

  4. Cytokine and Chemokine Expression in Kidneys during Chronic Leptospirosis in Reservoir and Susceptible Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mariko; Roche, Louise; Geroult, Sophie; Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Monchy, Didier; Huerre, Michel; Goarant, Cyrille

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Humans can be infected after exposure to contaminated urine of reservoir animals, usually rodents, regarded as typical asymptomatic carriers of leptospires. In contrast, accidental hosts may present an acute form of leptospirosis with a range of clinical symptoms including the development of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered as a possible AKI-residual sequela but little is known about the renal pathophysiology consequent to leptospirosis infection. Herein, we studied the renal morphological alterations in relation with the regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, comparing two experimental models of chronic leptospirosis, the golden Syrian hamster that survived the infection, becoming carrier of virulent leptospires, and the OF1 mouse, a usual reservoir of the bacteria. Animals were monitored until 28 days after injection with a virulent L. borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum to assess chronic infection. Hamsters developed morphological alterations in the kidneys with tubulointerstitial nephritis and fibrosis. Grading of lesions revealed higher scores in hamsters compared to the slight alterations observed in the mouse kidneys, irrespective of the bacterial load. Interestingly, pro-fibrotic TGF-β was downregulated in mouse kidneys. Moreover, cytokines IL-1β and IL-10, and chemokines MIP-1α/CCL3 and IP-10/CXCL-10 were significantly upregulated in hamster kidneys compared to mice. These results suggest a possible maintenance of inflammatory processes in the hamster kidneys with the infiltration of inflammatory cells in response to bacterial carriage, resulting in alterations of renal tissues. In contrast, lower expression levels in mouse kidneys indicated a better regulation of the inflammatory response and possible resolution processes likely related to resistance mechanisms. PMID:27219334

  5. Novel methods for surveying reservoir hosts and vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi in Northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Veronica Aili

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in North America and presents challenges to clinicians, researchers and the public in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, which is a zoonotic pathogen obligate upon hematophagous arthropod vectors and propagates in small mammal reservoir hosts. Identifying factors governing zoonotic diseases within regions of high-risk provides local health and agricultural agencies with necessary information to formulate public policy and implement treatment protocols to abate the rise and expansion of infectious disease outbreaks. In the United States, the documented primary reservoir host of Lyme disease is the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, and the arthropod vector is the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis. Reducing the impact of Lyme disease will need novel methods for identifying both the reservoir host and the tick vector. The reservoir host, Peromyscus leucopus is difficult to distinguish from the virtually identical Peromyscus maniculatus that also is present in Northern Minnesota, a region where Lyme disease is endemic. Collection of the Ixodes tick, the Lyme disease vector, is difficult as this is season dependent and differs from year to year. This study develops new strategies to assess the extent of Borrelia burgdorferi in the local environment of Northern Minnesota. A selective and precise method to identify Peromyscus species was developed. This assay provides a reliable and definitive method to identify the reservoir host, Peromyscus leucopus from a physically identical and sympatric Peromyscus species, Peromyscus maniculatus. A new strategy to collect ticks for measuring the disbursement of Borrelia was employed. Students from local high schools were recruited to collect ticks. This strategy increased the available manpower to cover greater terrain, provided students with valuable experience in research methodology, and highlighted the

  6. Evaluation of Animal and Plant Resources Status Quo after the Reservoir Construction in Turks River and Protection Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to assess the status quo of animal and plant resources in Turks River after the construction of the reservoir.[Method] Through field investigation,document check and sample identification,the distribution of animal and plants resources in Turks River after the construction of the reservoir was studied and corresponding protection measures were proposed.[Result] Under the influence of reservoir,there were fifteen types of rare animals,one species of national primary protected animals,...

  7. Ecological Niche Modeling of main reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamrezaei, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-08-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), caused by Leishmania major, is a common zoonotic vector-borne disease in Iran. Close contact with infected reservoir hosts increases the probability of transmission of Leishmania parasite infections to susceptible humans. Four gerbil species (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) serve as the main reservoir hosts for ZCL in different endemic foci of Iran. These species include Rhombomys opimus, Meriones libycus, Meriones hurrianae and Tatera indica; while notable infection has been reported in Nesokia indica as well. The purpose of this study is to model the distribution of these reservoirs to identify the risk areas of ZCL. A data bank was developed including all published data during the period of 1970-2015. Maximum entropy model was used to find the most appropriate ecological niches for each species. The areas under curve obtained were 0.961, 0.927, 0.922, 0.997 and 0.899, instead of 1, for training test in R. opimus, M. libycus, T. indica, M. hurrianae and N. indica, respectively. The environmental variable with the highest gain when used in isolation was slope for R. opimus and N. indica, annual mean temperature for M. libycus, and seasonal precipitation for T. indica and M. hurrianae. Summation of presence probabilities for three main species, i.e., R. opimus, M. libycus and T. indica revealed favorable ecological niches in wide areas of 16 provinces. This is the first study to predict the distribution of ZCL reservoir hosts in Iran. Climatology and topography variables had high contributions toward the prediction of potential distribution of the main reservoir species; therefore, as climate changes, the models should be updated periodically with novel data, and the results should be used in disease-monitoring programs. PMID:27150212

  8. Wild fauna as a probable animal reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Njiokou, F.; Laveissière, Claude; Simo, G.; Nkinin, S.; Grébaut, Pascal; Cuny, Gérard; Herder, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    In order to Study the existence of a wild animal reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in South Cameroon, blood was collected from wild animals in three human African trypanosomiasis foci and from a nonendemic control area. The 1142 wild animals sampled belonged to 36 different species pertaining to eight orders (407 primates, 347 artiodactyls, 265 rodents, 54 pangolins, 53 carnivores, 11 Saurians and crocodilians, and five hyraxes). QBC (R) and KIVI tests detected trypanosomes on 1.7% (...

  9. Experimental Infection of Potential Reservoir Hosts with Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Naomi L Forrester; Travassos Da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of encephalitis among 125 affected equids in coastal Chiapas, Mexico, resulted in a 50% case-fatality rate. The outbreak was attributed to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IE, not previously associated with equine disease and death. To better understand the ecology of this VEEV strain in Chiapas, we experimentally infected 5 species of wild rodents and evaluated their competence as reservoir and amplifying hosts. Rodents from 1 species (Baiomys musculus...

  10. Environmental influences on virus-host interactions in an Australian subtropical reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säwström, Christin; Pollard, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Viral and prokaryotic interactions in freshwaters have been investigated worldwide but there are few temporal studies in the tropics and none in the sub-tropics. In this 10-month study, we examined temporal changes in virus-host interactions and viral life cycles (lytic versus lysogenic) in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions in a subtropical water reservoir (Wivenhoe) in southeast Queensland, Australia. Heterotrophic prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria were positively correlated with concentrations of viruses throughout the study, indicating the presence of both bacteriophages and cyanophages in the reservoir. The percentage of heterotrophic prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria containing intracellular viruses (FVIC) ranged between 0.2% and 2.4% and did not vary significantly over the 10-month study, whereas lysogenic heterotrophic prokaryotes were only detected in the drier months of June and July. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the oxidative-reduction potential (ORP) of the water reservoir influenced the concentrations of viruses, heterotrophic prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria significantly, with low ORP offering a favourable environment for these components. There was a negative relationship between FVIC and rainfall suggesting the associated run-off altered virus-host interactions. Overall, our study provides novel information and inferences on how virus-host interactions in subtropical freshwaters might respond to changes in precipitation predicted to occur with global climate change. PMID:23757232

  11. Laboratory based diagnosis of leishmaniasis in rodents as the reservoir hosts in southern Iran, 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amin Masoumeh; Azizi Kourosh; Kalantari Mohsen; Motazedian Mohammad Hossein; Asgari Qasem; Najafi Mohammad Esmaeil; Dabaghmanesh Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To examine the fauna of rodents as zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis reservoir hosts in Zarqan County, Fars Province, south of Iran, during 2012. Methods:During 2012, wild rodents from different parts of this region were caught by Sherman traps and checked by the examination of liver and spleen smears, for Leishmania infection, to see which species were acting as reservoir hosts;the slides were then processed to extract DNA for molecular test using PCR assay. Results:From 108 rodent species caught, 63%were male and 37%identified as female. Meriones libycus was the most abundant species caught (80.5%) and 5.7%of them were found to be smear-positive for Leishmania amastigotes. The other species were Rattus rattus (14.8%) and Mus musculus (4.7%), but none of them were found positive. Leishmania infection was observed in male and female samples microscopically. Moreover, molecular results revealed Leishmania major in three male and two female specimens. Conclusions:Based on our knowledge, Meriones libycus is incriminated as the main reservoir hosts of Leishmania major in the rural area of Zarqan.

  12. Didelphis marsupialis (common opossum): a potential reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallig, Henk D F H; da Silva, Eduardo S; van der Meide, Wendy F; Schoone, Gerard J; Gontijo, Celia M F

    2007-01-01

    Identification of the zoonotic reservoir is important for leishmaniasis control program. A number of (wild) animal species may serve as reservoir hosts, including the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. A survey carried out in Didelphis specimens (n = 111) from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, an important focus of human leishmaniasis in Brazil, is reported. All animals were serologically tested with indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and direct agglutination tests (DAT) based on L. (L.) donovani or L. (V.) braziliensis antigen. A sub-population (n = 20) was analyzed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Leishmania-specific DNA. For species identification, PCR-positive samples were subjected to restriction enzyme fragment polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Depending on the sero-diagnostic test employed, the sero-prevalence varied between 8.1% (9/111 animals positive with DAT test based on L. braziliensis antigen) and 21.6% (24/111 animals positive with IFAT). Five out of 20 samples analyzed with PCR tested positive for the presence of Leishmania-specific DNA. RFLP analysis revealed that two samples contained L. braziliensis complex DNA, one contained L. donovani complex DNA, and two samples could not be typed with the methodology used. These data suggest a potential role for the opossum as a reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the region. PMID:17767408

  13. Ground deformation at collapse calderas: influence of host rock lithology and reservoir multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of source mechanisms have been proposed to account for observed caldera deformation. Here we present a systematic set of new results from numerical forward modelling using a Finite Element Method. which provides a link between measured ground deformation and the inaccessible deformation source. We simulate surface displacements due to pressure changes in a shallow oblate reservoir overlain by host rock with variable mechanical properties. We find that the amplitude and wavelength of resultant ground deformation is dependent on the distribution of mechanically stiff and soft lithologies and their relative distribution above a reservoir. In addition, we note an influence of layering on the critical ratio of horizontal over vertical displacements, a criterion employed to discriminate between different finite source geometries.

  14. Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotypes from Different Animal Hosts and Different Geographic Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidaric, V.; Janezic, S.; Indra, A.;

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic sporogenic bacterium traditionally associated with human nosocomial infections, and animals have been recognized as an important potential reservoir for human infections (Rodriguez-Palacios et al., 2013). Ribotype 078 is often reported in animals but according...

  15. Wild and domestic animals as hosts of Toxoplasma gondii in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jokelainen, Pikka

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. In this work including nationwide epidemiological cross-sectional studies and descriptive case series studies, T. gondii was confirmed as endemic, common, and sometimes fatal in a selection of animal hosts in Finland. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in all host species investigated, including hosts hunted or raised for human consumption. The samples were screened with a commercial d...

  16. The relationship between host lifespan and pathogen reservoir potential: an analysis in the system Arabidopsis thaliana--cucumber mosaic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Michel Hily

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the determinants of pathogen reservoir potential is central to understand disease emergence. It has been proposed that host lifespan is one such determinant: short-lived hosts will invest less in costly defenses against pathogens, so that they will be more susceptible to infection, more competent as sources of infection and/or will sustain larger vector populations, thus being effective reservoirs for the infection of long-lived hosts. This hypothesis is sustained by analyses of different hosts of multihost pathogens, but not of different genotypes of the same host species. Here we examined this hypothesis by comparing two genotypes of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana that differ largely both in life-span and in tolerance to its natural pathogen Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Experiments with the aphid vector Myzus persicae showed that both genotypes were similarly competent as sources for virus transmission, but the short-lived genotype was more susceptible to infection and was able to sustain larger vector populations. To explore how differences in defense against CMV and its vector relate to reservoir potential, we developed a model that was run for a set of experimentally-determined parameters, and for a realistic range of host plant and vector population densities. Model simulations showed that the less efficient defenses of the short-lived genotype resulted in higher reservoir potential, which in heterogeneous host populations may be balanced by the longer infectious period of the long-lived genotype. This balance was modulated by the demography of both host and vector populations, and by the genetic composition of the host population. Thus, within-species genetic diversity for lifespan and defenses against pathogens will result in polymorphisms for pathogen reservoir potential, which will condition within-population infection dynamics. These results are relevant for a better understanding of host-pathogen co-evolution, and of

  17. Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotypes from Different Animal Hosts and Different Geographic Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zidaric, V.; Janezic, S; Indra, A.; Kokotovic, Branko; Blanco, J.L.; Seyboldt, C; Diaz, C. Rodriguez; Poxton, I R; Perreten, V.; Drigo, I; Jiraskova, A; OCEPEK, M.; Weese, J.S.; Songer, J G; Rupnik, M.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic sporogenic bacterium traditionally associated with human nosocomial infections, and animals have been recognized as an important potential reservoir for human infections (Rodriguez-Palacios et al., 2013). Ribotype 078 is often reported in animals but according to recent studies the overlap between PCR ribotypes found in humans and animals seems to be increasing (Bakker et al., 2010; Gould and Limbago, 2010; Janezic et al., 2012; Keel et al., 2007; Koene e...

  18. Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Christer

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the water reservoirs in the world. There are nearly 50 000 large dams in the world, retaining more than 6500 km3 of water. Creation of reservoirs has inundated an area like the size of France or California and has forced 40–80 million people to resettle. The majority of these reservoirs have been built during the last 50 years, but new reservoirs are still constructed at a rate of nearly one new reservoir per day. Reservoirs are used for irrigation, hydroe...

  19. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a potential reservoir host of cardiorespiratory parasites in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, Adnan; Alić, Amer; Klebić, Ismar; Kadrić, Mirsad; Brianti, Emanuele; Duscher, Georg Gerhard

    2016-06-15

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered as reservoir of different cardiorespiratory parasites of veterinary and medical importance. Since data on cardiorespiratory parasites in foxes in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still lacking, the aims of the present study were to (i) investigate the prevalence and geographical distribution of these parasites, (ii) determine genetic diversity of detected parasite species, and (iii) to estimate the role of foxes in the transmission cycle to companion animals and humans. Four species, morphologically and molecularly identified as Eucoleus boehmi (64.6%; 51/79), Eucoleus aerophilus (69.7%; 154/221), Crenosoma vulpis (45.7%; 101/221) and Linguatula serrata (1.3%; 1/79) were retrieved from nasal cavity and lungs in 184 (83.3%) animals. The occurrence of heartworms, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis was not detected by necropsy or PCR. Furthermore, three distinct haplotypes of E. aerophilus (I, III, XV) and two of C. vulpis (I, II) previously reported in pet animals and wild carnivores were confirmed in this study. A new haplotype of C. vulpis (designated as haplotype V) was also identified based on 12S rRNA gene for the first time. The present study indicates a high prevalence and wide distribution of nasal and lung nematodes in fox population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and supports the existence of transmission patterns between wildlife and pet animals. PMID:27198779

  20. Host behaviour–parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are proba...

  1. Ultrastructural Observation and Gene Expression Profiling of Schistosoma japonicum Derived from Two Natural Reservoir Hosts, Water Buffalo and Yellow Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Jianmei Yang; Xingang Feng; Zhiqiang Fu; Chunxiu Yuan; Yang Hong; Yaojun Shi; Min Zhang; Jinming Liu; Hao Li; Ke Lu; Jiaojiao Lin

    2012-01-01

    Water buffalo and yellow cattle are the two of the most important natural reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in endemic areas of China, although their susceptibility differs, with water buffalo being less conducive to the growth and development of S. japonicum. Results from the current study show that the general morphology and ultrastructure of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts also differed. Using high-throughput microarray technology, we also compared the gene expression...

  2. Methane-rich fluid inclusions and their hosting volcanic reservoir rocks of the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pu-Jun; HOU Qi-jun; CHENG Ri-hui; LI Quan-lin; GUO Zhen-hua; HUANG Yu-long

    2004-01-01

    Methane-rich fluids were recognized to be hosted in the reservoir volcanic rocks as primary inclusions.Samples were collected from core-drillings of volcanic gas reservoirs with reversed δ12C of alkane in the Xujiaweizi depression of the Songliao Basin. The volcanic rocks are rhyolite dominant being enriched in the more incompatible elements like Cs, Rb, Ba, Th, U and Th with relative high LREE, depleted HREE and negative anomalies of Ti and Nb,suggesting a melt involving both in mantle source and crustal assimilation. Primary fluids hosted in the volcanic rocks should have the same provenance with the magma. The authors concluded that the enclosed CH4 in the volcanics are mantle/magma-derived alkane and the reversed δ13C of alkane in the corresponding gas reservoirs is partly resulted from mixture between biogenic and abiogenic gases.

  3. Internal structure of fault zones in geothermal reservoirs: Examples from palaeogeothermal fields and potential host rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonie Philipp, Sonja; Reyer, Dorothea; Meier, Silke; Bauer, Johanna F.; Afşar, Filiz

    2014-05-01

    Fault zones commonly have great effects on fluid transport in geothermal reservoirs. During fault slip all the pores and small fractures that meet with the slip plane become interconnected so that the inner part of the fault, the fault core, consisting of breccia or gouge, may suddenly develop a very high permeability. This is evidenced, for example by networks of mineral veins in deeply eroded fault zones in palaeogeothermal fields. Inactive faults, however, may have low permeabilities and even act as flow barriers. In natural and man-made geothermal reservoirs, the orientation of fault zones in relation to the current stress field and their internal structure needs be known as accurately as possible. One reason is that the activity of the fault zone depends on its angle to the principal stress directions. Another reason is that the outer part of a fault zone, the damage zone, comprises numerous fractures of various sizes. Here we present field examples of faults, and associated joints and mineral veins, in palaeogeothermal fields, and potential host rocks for man-made geothermal reservoirs, respectively. We studied several localities of different stratigraphies, lithologies and tectonic settings: (1) 58 fault zones in 22 outcrops from Upper Carboniferous to Upper Cretaceous in the Northwest German Basin (siliciclastic, carbonate and volcanic rocks); (2) 16 fault zones in 9 outcrops in Lower Permian to Middle Triassic (mainly sandstone, limestone and granite) in the Upper Rhine Graben; and (3) 74 fault zones in two coastal sections of Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic age (mudstones and limestone-marl alternations) in the Bristol Channel Basin, UK. (1) and (2) are outcrop analogues of geothermal reservoir horizons, (3) represent palaeogeothermal fields with mineral veins. The field studies in the Northwest German Basin (1) show pronounced differences between normal-fault zones in carbonate and clastic rocks. In carbonate rocks clear damage zones occur that are

  4. Ultrastructural observation and gene expression profiling of Schistosoma japonicum derived from two natural reservoir hosts, water buffalo and yellow cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Yang

    Full Text Available Water buffalo and yellow cattle are the two of the most important natural reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in endemic areas of China, although their susceptibility differs, with water buffalo being less conducive to the growth and development of S. japonicum. Results from the current study show that the general morphology and ultrastructure of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts also differed. Using high-throughput microarray technology, we also compared the gene expression profiles of adult schistosomes derived from the two hosts. We identified genes that were differentially expressed in worms from the two natural hosts. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with protein kinase and phosphatase, the stimulus response, and lipid and nucleotide metabolism were overexpressed, whereas genes associated with reproduction, anatomical structure morphogenesis and multifunctional motif were underexpressed in schistosomes from water buffalo. These differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in nucleotide, energy, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, transcription, transport and signaling pathway. This suggests that they are key molecules affecting the survival and development of schistosomes in different natural host species. The results of this study add to current understanding of the interplay between parasites and their natural hosts, and provide valuable information for the screening of vaccine candidates or new drug targets against schistosomiasis in the natural reservoir hosts in endemic areas.

  5. Molecular characterization of trichomonads isolated from animal hosts in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B; Rivera, Windell L

    2013-09-23

    Trichomonads are amitochondrial anaerobic flagellated protists that are either parasites or commensals, generally living in the digestive or genitourinary tract of humans and animals. It has been reported that these protozoa can migrate to other sites in their target host, can adapt to new hosts, and are capable of zoonotic transmission. In this study, 59 trichomonad isolates from different animal hosts in the Philippines were identified and characterized. Primer sets were designed and were successful in amplifying the 18S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses. Results showed that BLAST analysis of the isolates corresponded to the clustering of the isolates together with reference sequences in the constructed ML tree. Cattle and pig isolates were most likely Tetratrichomonas buttreyi, which were observed to be commensal in both animals. All duck and rooster isolates were similar with Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. All dog isolates together with single isolates from boa, goat, and owl were identical to Pentatrichomonas hominis. Occurrence of P. hominis in Boa constrictor imperator (boa) and Otus megalotis (Philippine scops owl) suggested the adaptation of the trichomonad to new hosts. Reptile hosts were observed to harbor Trichomitus batrachorum or Hypotrichomonas acosta. Three reptile isolates (Igu2, Igu4, and Liz7) suggest novel species belonging to Class Hypotrichomonadea. Furthermore, iguanas were infected with T. batrachorum or H. acosta. Trichomonads in animal hosts are commensal and the mode of transmission is via fecal-oral route. They are capable of adaptation to new hosts and therefore, zoonotic transmission is possible as well as pathogenesis in host. Thus, trichomonads can pose threats to the health of humans and animals. PMID:23622817

  6. Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaasenbeek Cor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variability of rickettsiae infections of the different tick stages were determined for 9 years. Results The DNA of the human pathogen R. conorii as well as R. helvetica, R. sp. IRS and R. bellii-like were found. Unexpectedly, the DNA of the highly pathogenic R. typhi and R. prowazekii and 4 other uncharacterized Rickettsia spp. related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents supported our hypothesis that cross-infection can occur under natural conditions, since R. typhi/prowazekii and R. helvetica as well as their vectors share rodents as reservoir hosts. In one biotope, the infection rate with R. helvetica was ~66% for 9 years, and was comparable between larvae, nymphs, and adults. Larvae caught by flagging generally have not yet taken a blood meal from a vertebrate host. The simplest explanation for the comparable prevalence of R. helvetica between the defined tick stages is, that R. helvetica is vertically transmitted through the next generation with high efficiency. The DNA of R. helvetica was also present in whole blood from mice, deer and wild boar. Conclusion Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica, and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae.

  7. Validation of qPCR Methods for the Detection of Mycobacterium in New World Animal Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Genevieve; Malukiewicz, Joanna; Boere, Vanner; Grativol, Adriana D; Pereira, Luiz Cezar M; Silva, Ita de Oliveira; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R; Truman, Richard; Stone, Anne C

    2015-11-01

    Zoonotic pathogens that cause leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) and tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, MTBC) continue to impact modern human populations. Therefore, methods able to survey mycobacterial infection in potential animal hosts are necessary for proper evaluation of human exposure threats. Here we tested for mycobacterial-specific single- and multi-copy loci using qPCR. In a trial study in which armadillos were artificially infected with M. leprae, these techniques were specific and sensitive to pathogen detection, while more traditional ELISAs were only specific. These assays were then employed in a case study to detect M. leprae as well as MTBC in wild marmosets. All marmosets were negative for M. leprae DNA, but 14 were positive for the mycobacterial rpoB gene assay. Targeted capture and sequencing of rpoB and other MTBC genes validated the presence of mycobacterial DNA in these samples and revealed that qPCR is useful for identifying mycobacterial-infected animal hosts. PMID:26571269

  8. A multi-country approach for attributing human salmonellosis to animal reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo

    in the traditional microbial subtyping approach in the aforementioned Member States. This PhD project has provided results for a European “source of infection account” for Salmonella, and has at the same time been evaluating the approaches attempted, raising questions and proposing solutions on how to deal......This thesis presents a mathematical modeling approach to estimate the contribution of four animal reservoirs of the food chain to the occurrence of salmonellosis cases in humans in the European Union. In addition, an alternative and more explorative approach based on expert elicitation is attempted...... and laying hens, using a Bayesian model based on microbial subtyping in 24 countries of the European Union. The chosen approach is recognized as data intensive, requiring numbers for Salmonella occurrence in food-producing animals, reported human cases, information on possibility of infection abroad (from...

  9. Capsicum Species: Symptomless Hosts and Reservoirs of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polston, J E; Cohen, L; Sherwood, T A; Ben-Joseph, R; Lapidot, M

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT Five Capsicum species were tested for susceptibility to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and the mild strain of TYLCV (TYLCV-Mld). TYLCV was able to infect 30 of 55 genotypes of C. annuum, one of six genotypes of C. chinense, one of two genotypes of C. baccatum, and the only genotype of C. frutescens tested but was unable to infect the one genotype of C. pubescens tested. This is the first evidence for the susceptibility of C. baccatum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens to TYLCV. Unlike TYLCV isolates, TYLCV-Mld was unable to infect C. chinense. No host differences were observed between the Israeli and Florida isolates of TYLCV. None of the Capsicum species showed symptoms after infection with TYLCV or TYLCV-Mld. TYLCV was detected in fruits of C. annuum, but whiteflies were unable to transmit virus from fruits to plants. White-flies were able to transmit both TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld from infected pepper plants to tomato plants. Pepper plants in research plots were found infected with TYLCV at rates as much as 100%. These data demonstrate the ability of some genotypes of pepper to serve as reservoirs for the acquisition and transmission of TYLCV and TYLCV-Mld. PMID:18944303

  10. Over-wintering tadpoles of Mixophyes fasciolatus act as reservoir host for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Narayan

    Full Text Available Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, a cutaneous amphibian fungus that causes the lethal disease chytridiomycosis, has been implicated as a cause of many amphibian declines. Bd can tolerate low temperatures with an optimum thermal range from 17-24°C. It has been shown that Bd infection may result in species extinction, avoiding the transmission threshold presented by density dependent transmission theory. Prevalence of Bd during autumn and winter has been shown to be as low as 0% in some species. It is currently unclear how Bd persists in field conditions and what processes result in carry-over between seasons. It has been hypothesised that overwintering tadpoles may host Bd between breeding seasons. The Great Barred Frog (Mixophyes fasciolatus is a common, stable and widespread species in Queensland, Australia, and is known to carry Bd. Investigation into Bd infection of different life stages of M. fasciolatus during seasonally low prevalence may potentially reveal persistence and carry-over methods between seasons. Metamorphs, juveniles, and adults were swabbed for Bd infection over three months (between March and May, 2011 at 5 sites of varying altitude (66 m-790 m. A total of 93 swabs were analysed using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR real-time analysis. PCR analysis showed 6 positive (1 excluded, 4 equivocal and 83 negative results for infection with Bd. Equivocal results were assumed to be negative using the precautionary principle. The 5 positive results consisted of 4 emerging (Gosner stage 43-45 metamorphs and 1 adult M. fasciolatus. Fisher's exact test on prevalence showed that the prevalence was significantly different between life stages. All positive results were sampled at high altitudes (790 m; however prevalence was not significantly different between altitudes. Infection of emerging metamorphs suggests that individuals were infected as tadpoles. We hypothesise that M. fasciolatus tadpoles carry Bd through seasons. Thus

  11. Reservoir Interactions and Disease Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Reluga, T.; Meza, R; Walton, D. B.; Galvani, A P

    2007-01-01

    Animal populations act as reservoirs for emerging diseases. In order for transmission to be self-sustaining, a pathogen must have a basic reproduction number R0 > 1. Following a founding transmission event from an animal reservoir to humans, a pathogen has not yet adapted to its new environment and is likely to have an R0 < 1. However, subsequent evolution may rescue the pathogen from extinction in its new host. Recent applications of branching process theory investigate how the emergence of ...

  12. Swine and rabbits are the main reservoirs of hepatitis E virus in China: detection of HEV RNA in feces of farmed and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junke; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Geng, Jiabao; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of HEV is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate HEV infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of HEV. Eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR. The products of PCR were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. The positive rates of HEV RNA isolated from pigs in Beijing, Shandong, and Henan were 33%, 30%, and 92%, respectively, and that from rabbits in Beijing was 5%. HEV RNA was not detectable in farmed foxes, sheep or sika deer, or in wild animals in zoos, including wild boars, yaks, camels, Asiatic black bears, African lions, red pandas, civets, wolves, jackals and primates. Sequence analysis revealed that swine isolates had 97.8%-98.4% nucleotide sequence identity to genotype 4d isolates from patients in Shandong and Jiangsu of China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that swine HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, including subgenotype 4h in Henan and 4d in Beijing and Shandong. The rabbit HEV strains shared 93%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with rabbit strains isolated from Inner Mongolia. In conclusion, swine and rabbits have been confirmed to be the main reservoirs of HEV in China. PMID:26303139

  13. Validation of qPCR Methods for the Detection of Mycobacterium in New World Animal Reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Housman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic pathogens that cause leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae and tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, MTBC continue to impact modern human populations. Therefore, methods able to survey mycobacterial infection in potential animal hosts are necessary for proper evaluation of human exposure threats. Here we tested for mycobacterial-specific single- and multi-copy loci using qPCR. In a trial study in which armadillos were artificially infected with M. leprae, these techniques were specific and sensitive to pathogen detection, while more traditional ELISAs were only specific. These assays were then employed in a case study to detect M. leprae as well as MTBC in wild marmosets. All marmosets were negative for M. leprae DNA, but 14 were positive for the mycobacterial rpoB gene assay. Targeted capture and sequencing of rpoB and other MTBC genes validated the presence of mycobacterial DNA in these samples and revealed that qPCR is useful for identifying mycobacterial-infected animal hosts.

  14. The impact of Fusarium mycotoxins on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-02-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  15. Feasibility of Multiplex Quantum Dot Stain Using Primary Antibodies from Four Distinct Host Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jonathan K.; Hubbard, Elena N.; Stokes, Todd H.; Moffitt, Richard A.; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the feasibility of multiplex QD stain for four biomarkers and our progress in finding four suitable biomarkers from four different hosts. There is a demand for using more than three fluorescent probes on a single tissue sample for disease detection to offer a more reliable prediction of disease progression. We developed a protocol for targeting four biomarkers using four primary antibodies from four different animal hosts. We performed primary-secondary antibody binding assays on nitrocellulose paper and stained breast cancer microarray slides with known expression of ER, PR, and HER2. We identified the lack of a standard protocol and the limited supply of primary antibodies from hosts other than rabbit and mouse in the market as key challenges. The results show variable success in both assays, but indicate future potential for this protocol with more development. PMID:23367436

  16. The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the c...

  17. Diversity and Distribution of Host Animal Species of Hantavirus and Risk to Human Health in Jiuhua Mountain Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xing Qiang; LI Shi Guang; LIU Hong; WANG Jun; HUA Ri Mao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diversity and the distribution of host animal species of hantavirus and the effect on human health in Jiuhua Mountain area, China. Methods The host animal species of hantavirus was surveyed by using the trap method and the species diversity was evaluated by using the Simpson, Shannon-Weaner, and Pielou indices. Hantavirus antigens or antibodies in lung and blood samples of all the captured host animals were detected by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. Results Nine animal species of hantavirus were distributed in the forest ecosystem of Jiuhua Mountain. Of these, Niviventer confucianus and Apodemus agrarius were predominant, and N. confucianus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus had relatively large niche breadth index values. The host animals in the eastern and western mountain regions shared similar biodiversity index characteristics, predominant species, and species structures. Hantavirus was detected in 5 host animal species in Jiuhua Mountain area, the carriage rate of hantavirus was 6.03%. The average density of host animals in forest areas of the mountainous area was only 2.20%, and the virus infection rate in the healthy population was 2.33%. Conclusion The circulation of hantavirus was low in the forest areas of Jiuhua Mountain and did not pose a threat to human health.

  18. Host choice of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in animal baited experiments: a field study in Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Kirstein, Oscar David; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    Background Host choice and feeding success of sand fly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are important factors in understanding the epidemiology and for developing efficient control strategies. The aim of the present study was to determine the host preference of Phlebotomus orientalis in the VL focus of Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia. Methods Two separate experiments were conducted testing attraction of P. orientalis to humans, domestic animals, and small wild animals. The ho...

  19. First detection of an ignored parasite, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, in different animal hosts in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akkada, Somaia S; Ashmawy, Karam I; Dweir, Amira W

    2015-03-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts. The present study investigated the prevalence of E. cuniculi in different animal hosts from different provinces of Egypt (Alexandria, Behera, and Assuit) using serological (IFAT and ELISA) and molecular (PCR) assays. A total of 324 serum and 274 urine samples were collected from seven different species of animals (cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goat, rabbit, dog, and rat). The results of serological examination confirmed the occurrence of antibodies against E. cuniculi in 38.9 % (126 out of 324) of the examined animals. The significant (P < 0.01) highest positivity was observed in goats (67 %) followed by buffaloes, rabbits, dogs, rat, and cattle (46.42, 41, 40, 36.2, and 28.1 %, respectively), while the least was recorded in sheep (9 %). Behera province showed the highest (P < 0.01) infection rate (40.68 %) followed by Alexandria and Assuit (39.2 and 22.73 %, respectively). The infection rate was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in females (45.34 %) than that in males (30.47 %). Positive cases were observed in all age categories. The highest infection rate (64.66 %) was recorded in the age group 1-5 years and the least was recorded in the age group <1 year (34.85 %).On the other hand, only five positive out of 274 urine samples (1.82 %) were detected by PCR. Our study provides a wide database on prevalence and epidemiology of an ignored parasite (E. cuniculi) for the first time in Egypt. PMID:25547075

  20. Does influenza A virus infection affect movement behaviour during stopover in its wild reservoir host?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Daniel; Safi, Kamran; Avril, Alexis; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Wikelski, Martin; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Elmberg, Johan; Tolf, Conny; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen a surge in research on avian influenza A viruses (IAVs), in part fuelled by the emergence, spread and potential zoonotic importance of highly pathogenic virus subtypes. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread dabbling duck in the world, and one of the most important natural hosts for studying IAV transmission dynamics. In order to predict the likelihood of IAV transmission between individual ducks and to other hosts, as well as between geographical regions, it is important to understand how IAV infection affects the host. In this study, we analysed the movements of 40 mallards equipped with GPS transmitters and three-dimensional accelerometers, of which 20 were naturally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV), at a major stopover site in the Northwest European flyway. Movements differed substantially between day and night, as well as between mallards returning to the capture site and those feeding in natural habitats. However, movement patterns did not differ between LPAIV infected and uninfected birds. Hence, LPAIV infection probably does not affect mallard movements during stopover, with high possibility of virus spread along the migration route as a consequence. PMID:26998334

  1. Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Leiling; Hoang, Kevin M; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to protect themselves or their kin from parasitism. Documenting the costs of medication behaviours is complicated by natural variation in the medicinal components of diets and their covariance with other dietary components, such as macronutrients. In the current study, we explore the costs of the usage of antiparasitic compounds in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), using natural variation in concentrations of antiparasitic compounds among plants. Upon infection by their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, monarch butterflies can selectively oviposit on milkweed with high foliar concentrations of cardenolides, secondary chemicals that reduce parasite growth. Here, we show that these antiparasitic cardenolides can also impose significant costs on both uninfected and infected butterflies. Among eight milkweed species that vary substantially in their foliar cardenolide concentration and composition, we observed the opposing effects of cardenolides on monarch fitness traits. While high foliar cardenolide concentrations increased the tolerance of monarch butterflies to infection, they reduced the survival rate of caterpillars to adulthood. Additionally, although non-polar cardenolide compounds decreased the spore load of infected butterflies, they also reduced the life span of uninfected butterflies, resulting in a hump-shaped curve between cardenolide non-polarity and the life span of infected butterflies

  2. Massive stars formed in atomic hydrogen reservoirs: HI observations of gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Michałowski, Michał J; Hjorth, J; Krumholz, M R; Tanvir, N R; Kamphuis, P; Burlon, D; Baes, M; Basa, S; Berta, S; Ceron, J M Castro; Crosby, D; D'Elia, V; Elliott, J; Greiner, J; Hunt, L K; Klose, S; Koprowski, M P; Floc'h, E Le; Malesani, D; Murphy, T; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Palazzi, E; Rasmussen, J; Rossi, A; Savaglio, S; Schady, P; Sollerman, J; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Watson, D; van der Werf, P; Vergani, S D; Xu, D

    2015-01-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), among the most energetic events in the Universe, are explosions of massive and short-lived stars, so they pinpoint locations of recent star formation. However, several GRB host galaxies have recently been found to be deficient in molecular gas (H2), believed to be the fuel of star formation. Moreover, optical spectroscopy of GRB afterglows implies that the molecular phase constitutes only a small fraction of the gas along the GRB line-of-sight. Here we report the first ever 21 cm line observations of GRB host galaxies, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, implying high levels of atomic hydrogen (HI), which suggests that the connection between atomic gas and star formation is stronger than previously thought, with star formation being potentially directly fuelled by atomic gas (or with very efficient HI-to-H2 conversion and rapid exhaustion of molecular gas), as has been theoretically shown to be possible. This can happen in low metallicity gas near the onset of star forma...

  3. Ecological connectivity of Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs and Triatoma pallidipennis hosts in an anthropogenic landscape with endemic Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine M Ramsey

    Full Text Available Traditional methods for Chagas disease prevention are targeted at domestic vector reduction, as well as control of transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission. Population connectivity of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected vectors and hosts, among sylvatic, ecotone and domestic habitats could jeopardize targeted efforts to reduce human exposure. This connectivity was evaluated in a Mexican community with reports of high vector infestation, human infection, and Chagas disease, surrounded by agricultural and natural areas. We surveyed bats, rodents, and triatomines in dry and rainy seasons in three adjacent habitats (domestic, ecotone, sylvatic, and measured T. cruzi prevalence, and host feeding sources of triatomines. Of 12 bat and 7 rodent species, no bat tested positive for T. cruzi, but all rodent species tested positive in at least one season or habitat. Highest T. cruzi infection prevalence was found in the rodents, Baiomys musculus and Neotoma mexicana. In general, parasite prevalence was not related to habitat or season, although the sylvatic habitat had higher infection prevalence than by chance, during the dry season. Wild and domestic mammals were identified as bloodmeals of T. pallidipennis, with 9% of individuals having mixed human (4.8% single human and other mammal species in bloodmeals, especially in the dry season; these vectors tested >50% positive for T. cruzi. Overall, ecological connectivity is broad across this matrix, based on high rodent community similarity, vector and T. cruzi presence. Cost-effective T. cruzi, vector control strategies and Chagas disease transmission prevention will need to consider continuous potential for parasite movement over the entire landscape. This study provides clear evidence that these strategies will need to include reservoir/host species in at least ecotones, in addition to domestic habitats.

  4. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) - reservoir host of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Derdáková, Markéta; Čobádiová, Andrea; Hisira, Vladimír

    2016-06-01

    In Central Europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently Cf foodborne infections. In this study serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. Moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from Southern Slovakia were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by indirect and to N. caninum by competitive ELISA. The presence of parasitic DNA in blood samples was determined by standard or real time PCR techniques. Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 45 (39.8%) and 38 (33.6%) animals, respectively. Females were more frequently infected for both pathogens than males. The high seropositivity against both coccidia indicates a permanent occurrence of these pathogens in the studied locality. T. gondii DNA was confirmed in five seropositive boars (4.4%) and N. caninum in 23 blood samples (20.4%). Three out of 23 N. caninum PCR positive animals did not show seropositivity. Three out of 113 blood samples of wild boars were positive for A. phagocytophilum (2.7%). The obtained A. phagocytophilum sequences were 100% identical with GenBankTM isolates from Slovak dog (KC985242); German horse (JF893938) or wild boar (EF143810) and red deer (EF143808) from Poland. Coinfections of T. gondii with N. caninum and N. caninum with A. phagocytophilum were detected in single cases. Results suggest a potential zoonotic risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to humans and the spread of neosporosis to farm animals. PMID:27078648

  5. Spatio-temporal Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Arctic Rabies Viruses and Their Reservoir Hosts in Greenland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hanke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited knowledge on spatio-temporal epidemiology of zoonotic arctic fox rabies among countries bordering the Arctic, in particular Greenland. Previous molecular epidemiological studies have suggested the occurrence of one particular arctic rabies virus (RABV lineage (arctic-3, but have been limited by a low number of available samples preventing in-depth high resolution phylogenetic analysis of RABVs at that time. However, an improved knowledge of the evolution, at a molecular level, of the circulating RABVs and a better understanding of the historical perspective of the disease in Greenland is necessary for better direct control measures on the island. These issues have been addressed by investigating the spatio-temporal genetic diversity of arctic RABVs and their reservoir host, the arctic fox, in Greenland using both full and partial genome sequences. Using a unique set of 79 arctic RABV full genome sequences from Greenland, Canada, USA (Alaska and Russia obtained between 1977 and 2014, a description of the historic context in relation to the genetic diversity of currently circulating RABV in Greenland and neighboring Canadian Northern territories has been provided. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed delineation into four major arctic RABV lineages (arctic 1-4 with viruses from Greenland exclusively grouping into the circumpolar arctic-3 lineage. High resolution analysis enabled distinction of seven geographically distinct subclades (3.I - 3.VII with two subclades containing viruses from both Greenland and Canada. By combining analysis of full length RABV genome sequences and host derived sequences encoding mitochondrial proteins obtained simultaneously from brain tissues of 49 arctic foxes, the interaction of viruses and their hosts was explored in detail. Such an approach can serve as a blueprint for analysis of infectious disease dynamics and virus-host interdependencies. The results showed a fine-scale spatial population

  6. New sylvatic hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and their reservoir competence in the humid Chaco of Argentina: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, M Marcela; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A; Cardinal, M Victoria; Schijman, Alejandro G; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2013-05-01

    A four-year longitudinal study of the structure of sylvatic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, reservoir host competence and parasite discrete typing units was conducted in a disturbed rural area of the humid Chaco in Argentina. Among 190 mammals examined by xenodiagnosis and polymerase chain reaction amplification, the composite prevalence of infection was substantially higher in Dasypus novemcinctus armadillos (57.7%) and Didelphis albiventris opossums (38.1%) than in Euphractus sexcinctus (20.0%), Tolypeutes matacus (12.5%), and Chaetophractus vellerosus (6.3%) armadillos. Trypanosoma cruzi was detected for the first time in Thylamys pusilla small opossums and in two unidentified small rodents. Infection was spatially aggregated only in armadillos. All Didelphis were infected with T. cruzi I and all armadillo species were infected with T. cruzi III, implying two distinct sylvatic cycles with no inputs from the domestic cycle. Dasypus armadillos and Didelphis opossums were much more infectious to vectors than other armadillos, small opossums, or rodents. PMID:23530075

  7. CO(1-0) in z >/~ 4 Quasar Host Galaxies: No Evidence for Extended Molecular Gas Reservoirs

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, D A; Carilli, C L; Knudsen, K K; Lo, K Y; Benford, D J; Staguhn, J G; Hunter, T R; Bertoldi, F; Henkel, C; Menten, K M; Weiss, A; Yun, M S; Scoville, N Z; Riechers, Dominik A.; Walter, Fabian; Carilli, Christopher L.; Knudsen, Kirsten K.; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Hunter, Todd R.; Bertoldi, Frank; Henkel, Christian; Menten, Karl M.; Weiss, Axel; Yun, Min S.; Scoville, Nick Z.

    2006-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) observations of the high-redshift quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) BR 1202-0725 (z=4.69), PSS J2322+1944 (z=4.12), and APM 08279+5255 (z=3.91) using the NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and the MPIfR Effelsberg 100m telescope. We detect, for the first time, the CO ground-level transition in BR 1202-0725. For PSS J2322+1944 and APM 08279+5255, our observations result in line fluxes that are consistent with previous NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) observations, but they reveal the full line profiles. We report a typical lensing-corrected velocity-integrated intrinsic CO(1-0) line luminosity of L'(CO) = 5 x 10^10 K km/s pc^2 and a typical total H_2 mass of M(H2) = 4 x 10^10 M_sun for the sources in our sample. The CO/FIR luminosity ratios of these high-z sources follow the same trend as seen for low-z galaxies, leading to a combined solution of log(L_FIR) = (1.39 +/- 0.05) x log(L(CO))-1.76. It has previously been suggested that the molecular gas reservoirs in some quasar host galaxies may exhibit lumi...

  8. Bartonellae in animals and vectors in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Davoust, B.; Cabre, O; Rolain, J. M.; Raoult, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Bartonellae are gram-negative facultative intracellular alpha-proteobacteria from the family Bartonellaceae. The natural history of bartonellae consists of a reservoir/host, which is a vertebrate with chronic intravascular infection with sustained bacteremia, and a vector (usually an arthropod) that transfers the bacteria from the reservoir to a susceptible yet uninfected host. In order to reveal the sources and reservoirs of Bartonella infection in animals and vectors in New Caledonia, we co...

  9. The modes of evolutionary emergence of primal and late pandemic influenza virus strains from viral reservoir in animals: an interdisciplinary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Dany

    2011-01-01

    Based on a wealth of recent findings, in conjunction with earliest chronologies pertaining to evolutionary emergences of ancestral RNA viruses, ducks, Influenzavirus A (assumingly within ducks), and hominids, as well as to the initial domestication of mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and wild horse (Equus ferus), presumed genesis modes of primordial pandemic influenza strains have multidisciplinarily been configured. The virological fundamentality of domestication and farming of those various avian and mammalian species has thereby been demonstrated and broadly elucidated, within distinctive coevolutionary paradigms. The mentioned viral genesis modes were then analyzed, compatibly with common denominators and flexibility that mark the geographic profile of the last 18 pandemic strains, which reputedly emerged since 1510, the antigenic profile of the last 10 pandemic strains since 1847, and the genomic profile of the last 5 pandemic strains since 1918, until present. Related ecophylogenetic and biogeographic aspects have been enlightened, alongside with the crucial role of spatial virus gene dissemination by avian hosts. A fairly coherent picture of primary and late evolutionary and genomic courses of pandemic strains has thus been attained, tentatively. Specific patterns underlying complexes prone to generate past and future pandemic strains from viral reservoir in animals are consequentially derived. PMID:23074663

  10. Analysis of cathepsin and furin proteolytic enzymes involved in viral fusion protein activation in cells of the bat reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah El Najjar

    Full Text Available Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing.

  11. dogs may be a reservoir host for Angiostrongylus costaricensis Cães podem ser hospedeiros reservatórios do Angiostrongylus costaricensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens RODRIGUEZ

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasitic nematode of wild rodents. Several other vertebrate species including man may become infected by ingestion of the third stage larvae produced by the intermediate hosts, usually slugs from the family Veronicellidae. There is a report of the diagnosis of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in Canis familiaris with lesions resembling those found in human disease. As a preliminar evaluation of the adequacy of a canine model for pathogenetic studies, a dog was inoculated with 75 L3 of A. costaricensis. Infection was established and fist stage larvae were found in feces up to 88 days post infection, sometimes in very large numbers (9.5 x 10(4 L1/g. No clinical manifestations or significant lesions were detected. These are indications that dog may play a role as a reservoir host for A. costaricensis.Angiostrongylus costaricensis é um nematódeo parasita de roedores silvestres. Várias espécies de vertebrados incluindo o homem, podem se infectar pela ingestão das larvas de terceiro estágio (L3 produzidas no hospedeiro intermediário, geralmente lesmas da família Veronicellidae. Existe um relato do diagnóstico de angiostrongilíase abdominal em Canis familiaris com lesões semelhantes ao encontrado na doença humana. Visando uma avaliação preliminar da utilidade do modelo canino para estudos de patogenia, um cão foi inoculado com 75 larvas L3 do A. costaricensis. O animal se infectou e larvas de primeiro estágio foram encontradas nas fezes até 88 dias após a inoculação, às vezes em número muito elevado (9,5 x 10(4 L1/g. Não foram detectadas manifestações clínicas ou significantes lesões nos intestinos. Estas são indicações de que cães possam ser hospedeiros reservatórios do A. costaricensis.

  12. Comparison of plant and animal diversity on new reservoir islands and established lake islands in the northern boreal forests of Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Species diversity of passerines, small mammals and woody plants were studied in new islands of the La Grande-3 hydroelectric reservoir in the northern forests of Quebec and compared with that of natural islands in two neighbouring lakes. Contrary to predictions that species diversity would be reduced on reservoir islands because of their relatively recent creation, in fact species animal diversity, richness and composition were similar in both island groups. Richness of woody plants on reservoir islands exceeded that on lake island, although the mean age of trees on lake islands was significantly higher than that on reservoir islands. It was suggested that the creation of reservoir islands may change insular pattern of wild fires, and that differences in plant diversity between island groups may have resulted from differences in fire cycle rather than from isolation alone. Animal communities composition, too, might be influenced after a fire, because of the differences in the colonizing capacity of plant and animal species. 42 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  13. The broad spectrum of Trichinella hosts: from cold- to warm-blooded animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, studies on Trichinella have shown that the host range is wider than previously believed and new Trichinella species and genotypes have been described. Three classes of vertebrates are known to act as hosts, mammals, birds and reptiles, and infected vertebrates have been detected on all continents but Antarctica. Mammals represent the most important hosts and all Trichinella species are able to develop in this vertebrate class. Natural infections with Trichinella have been described in more than 150 mammalian species belonging to 12 orders (i.e., Marsupialia, Insectivora, Edentata, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Cetacea, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, Tylopoda and Primates). The epidemiology of the infection greatly varies by species relative to characteristics, such as diet, life span, distribution, behaviour, and relationships with humans. The non-encapsulated species Trichinella pseudospiralis, detected in both mammals (14 species) and birds (13 species), shows a cosmopolitan distribution with three distinguishable populations in the Palearctic, Nearctic and Australian regions. Two additional non-encapsulated species, Trichinella papuae, detected in wild pigs and saltwater crocodiles of Papua New Guinea, and Trichinella zimbabwensis, detected in farmed Nile crocodiles of Zimbabwe, can complete their life cycle in both mammals and reptiles. To the best of our knowledge, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis are the only two parasites known to complete their entire life cycle independently of whether the host is warm-blooded or cold-blooded. This suggests that these two Trichinella species are capable of activating different physiological mechanisms, according to the specific vertebrate class hosting them. PMID:15970384

  14. Genetic Relationship between Human and Animal Isolates of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Anke; Krüger, Monika; SCHMID, JAN

    2005-01-01

    Analyzing Candida albicans isolates from different human and animal individuals by Ca3 fingerprinting, we obtained no evidence for host-specific genotypes and for the existence of species-specific lineages, even though a certain degree of separation between human and animal isolates was found. Therefore, animals could potentially serve as reservoirs for human Candida infection.

  15. Helminth infections in animals and man: Population dynamics, host susceptibility and immuno-modeulatory effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipworm infections with the two closely related species, Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis are common in human and pigs, respectively. The intestinal anatomy and physiology and immune function of the two hosts are similar and we considered pigs a very useful model for human infections. In mo...

  16. Variation in Inflammatory Response during Pneumococcal Infection Is Influenced by Host-Pathogen Interactions but Associated with Animal Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Magda S; Escudero, Laura; Sylvius, Nicolas; Norman, Martin; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Andrew, Peter W

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation is a crucial part of innate immune responses but, if imbalanced, can lead to serious clinical conditions or even death. Cytokines regulate inflammation, and studies report their impact on clinical outcome. However, host and pathogen genetic backgrounds influence cytokine production, making it difficult to evaluate which inflammatory profiles (if any) relate to improved prognosis.Streptococcus pneumoniaeis a common human pathogen associated with asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage. Infrequently, it can lead to a wide range of diseases with high morbidity and mortality rates. Studies show that both pneumococcal serotype and host genetic background affect the development of disease and contribute to variation in inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated the impact of the host and pneumococcal genetic backgrounds on pulmonary cytokine responses and their relationship to animal survival. Two inbred mouse strains, BALB/c and CBA/Ca, were infected with 10 pneumococcal strains, and the concentrations of six pulmonary cytokines were measured at 6 h and 24 h postinfection. Collected data were analyzed by principal-component analysis to identify whether there is any pattern in the observed cytokine variation. Our results show that host-pneumococcus combination was at the core of observed variation in cytokine responses, yet the resulting cytokine profile discriminated only between survivors and fatalities but not mouse or pneumococcal strains used during infection. Therefore, our results indicate that although alternative inflammatory profiles are generated during pneumococcal infection, a common pattern emerged, which determined the clinical outcome of pneumococcal infections. PMID:26787718

  17. Host-targeted approaches to managing animal health: old problems and new tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M E; Bütz, D E; Yang, M; Sand, J M

    2016-07-01

    Our fellow medical and regulatory scientists question the animal producer's dependence on antibiotics and antimicrobial chemicals in the production of animal products. Retail distributors and consumers are putting even more pressure on the animal industry to find new ways to produce meat without antibiotics and chemicals. In addition, federal funding agencies are increasingly pressuring researchers to conduct science that has application. In the review that follows, we outline our approach to finding novel ways to improve animal performance and health. We use a strict set of guidelines in our applied research as follows: (1) Does the work have value to society? (2) Does our team have the skills to innovate in the field? (3) Is the product we produce commercially cost-effective? (4) Are there any reasons why the general consumer will reject the technology? (5) Is it safe for the animal, consumer, and the environment? Within this framework, we describe 4 areas of research that have produced useful products, areas that we hope other scientists will likewise explore and innovate such as (1) methods to detect infection in herds and flocks, (2) methods to control systemic and mucosal inflammation, (3) improvements to intestinal barrier function, and (4) methods to strategically potentiate immune defense. We recognize that others are working in these areas, using different strategies, but believe our examples will illustrate the vast opportunity for research and innovation in a world without antibiotics. Animal scientists have been given a new challenge that may help shape the future of both animal and human medicine. PMID:27345308

  18. Massive stars formed in atomic hydrogen reservoirs: H i observations of gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Gentile, G.; Hjorth, J.;

    2015-01-01

    inflow scenario is also consistent with the existence of the companion HI object with no optical counterpart ∼19 kpc from the GRB 060505 host, and with the fact that the HI centroids of the GRB 980425 and 060505 hosts do not coincide with optical centres of these galaxies, but are located close...

  19. Effect of Protein Depletion on Host and Tumor Response to Paclitaxel in Experimental Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Abdel-Moneim M.; Azza A. Abdel-Fatah; Basent B. Hassan; Mahmoud M. El-Merzebani; Damanhouri, Zoheir A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is aimed to examine the possible effects of Protein Malnutrition (PM) on the therapeutic activity and toxicity of paclitaxel in mice implanted with Ehrlich carcinoma cells. Mice that were fed either with standard or low protein diets were treated with a single dose of paclitaxel (10 mg kg-1, i.p.). Paclitaxel administration increased the tumor growth delay of Ehrlich carcinoma from 2.8 days in protein deficient animals to 4.9 days in normal feeding mice and this represented ...

  20. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  1. Inverse modelling of the reversely magnetized, shallow plumbing system hosting oil reservoirs of the Auca Mahuida volcano (Payeina retroarc, Neuquén Basin, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, John; De Ritis, Riccardo; Ventura, Guido; Longo, Mariana; Ravat, Dhananjay; Speranza, Fabio; Chiappini, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    The Auca Mahuida volcano (2.03-0.88 Ma) located east of the Andean thrust front in the Neuquén basin (Argentina) hosts an oil system of thermogenic origin and is affected by the NW-SE striking-faults. Intrusive bodies and the underlying Jurassic sediments constitute the reservoir rocks. Aeromagnetic data collected in the Auca Mahuida area detected multiple dipolar magnetic anomalies, many of which have reverse polarity. Palaeomagnetic measurements on rock samples collected in the field together with available age determinations indicate that the reversely magnetized sources were mainly emplaced during the Matuyama reverse polarity chron while the normal polarity sources were emplaced during the Olduvai and/or Jaramillo subchrons. The location and geometry of the intrusive bodies is poorly known and the customary magnetic inversion is rendered difficult because of multiple natural remanent magnetization directions. To address these difficulties, a voxel inversion was applied to model the vector residual magnetic intensity (VRMI) transformation of the observed total magnetic intensity data. The modelling showed a 1.5 km deep, subcircular ring-shaped intrusion below the summit of the volcano and a series of NW-SE elongated, fault-controlled intrusive bodies to depths up to 3-4 km. Our results show that magnetic data and VRMI modelling help resolve the geometry of the shallow plumbing system of volcanoes with remanently magnetized sources, and estimate the depth and geometry of potential oil reservoirs in volcanic areas.

  2. Host-specificity of Staphylococcus aureus causing intramammary infections in dairy animals assessed by genotyping and virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Gal, G Kahila; Blum, S E; Hadas, L; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Leitner, G

    2015-03-23

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most relevant pathogens causing clinical and subclinical, chronic mastitis in dairy animals. Routinely, mastitis pathogens are isolated and classified to genus or species level, and regarded as single entities. However, S. aureus includes a broad range of genotypes with distinct pathogenic and epidemiologic characteristics. The objective of the present study was to assess the host-specificity of S. aureus causing mastitis in dairy animals, based on phylogenetic and genotypic characterization as well as the presence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in the pathogen genome. S. aureus isolates from mastitis in cows, sheep and goats in Israel, and from cows in Germany, the USA and Italy, were compared by the following methods: a. Bayesian phylogenetic comparison of sequences of genes nuc, coa, lukF and clfA, b. genotyping by spa and agr typing, and assignment to MLST Clonal Complexes (MLST CC), and c. the presence of a broad array of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. Overall, phylogenetic, virulence and genotyping approaches agreed with each other. Cow isolates could be differentiated from sheep and goat isolates with all three methods, with different resolution. In two phylogenetic clusters, segregation was found also between cow isolates from Israel and abroad. Sheep and goats' isolates showed less variability than isolates from cows in all methods used. In conclusion, different S. aureus lineages are associated to cows in contrast to goats and sheep, suggesting co-evolution between pathogen and host species. Modern diagnostics approaches should aim to explore molecular data for a better understanding and cost-effective management of mastitis. PMID:25631254

  3. Experimental infection studies demonstrating Atlantic salmon as a host and reservoir of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVa with insights into pathology and host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, J; Piesik, P; Hershberger, P K; Garver, K A

    2013-09-27

    In British Columbia, Canada (BC), aquaculture of finfish in ocean netpens has the potential for pathogen transmission between wild and farmed species due to the sharing of an aquatic environment. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is enzootic in BC and causes serious disease in wild Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, which often enter and remain in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, netpens. Isolation of VHSV from farmed Atlantic salmon has been previously documented, but the effects on the health of farmed salmon and the wild fish sharing the environment are unknown. To determine their susceptibility, Atlantic salmon were exposed to a pool of 9 isolates of VHSV obtained from farmed Atlantic salmon in BC by IP-injection or by waterborne exposure and cohabitation with diseased Pacific herring. Disease intensity was quantified by recording mortality, clinical signs, histopathological changes, cellular sites of viral replication, expression of interferon-related genes, and viral tissue titers. Disease ensued in Atlantic salmon after both VHSV exposure methods. Fish demonstrated gross disease signs including darkening of the dorsal skin, bilateral exophthalmia, light cutaneous hemorrhage, and lethargy. The virus replicated within endothelial cells causing endothelial cell necrosis and extensive hemorrhage in anterior kidney. Infected fish demonstrated a type I interferon response as seen by up-regulation of genes for IFNα, Mx, and ISG15. In a separate trial infected salmon transmitted the virus to sympatric Pacific herring. The results demonstrate that farmed Atlantic salmon can develop clinical VHS and virus can persist in the tissues for at least 10 weeks. Avoiding VHS epizootics in Atlantic salmon farms would limit the potential of VHS in farmed Atlantic salmon, the possibility for further host adaptation in this species, and virus spillback to sympatric wild fishes. PMID:23838146

  4. Experimental infection studies demonstrating Atlantic salmon as a host and reservoir of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVa with insights into pathology and host immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Piesik, P.; Hershberger, P.K.; Garver, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada (BC), aquaculture of finfish in ocean netpens has the potential for pathogen transmission between wild and farmed species due to the sharing of an aquatic environment. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is enzootic in BC and causes serious disease in wild Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, which often enter and remain in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, netpens. Isolation of VHSV from farmed Atlantic salmon has been previously documented, but the effects on the health of farmed salmon and the wild fish sharing the environment are unknown. To determine their susceptibility, Atlantic salmon were exposed to a pool of 9 isolates of VHSV obtained from farmed Atlantic salmon in BC by IP-injection or by waterborne exposure and cohabitation with diseased Pacific herring. Disease intensity was quantified by recording mortality, clinical signs, histopathological changes, cellular sites of viral replication, expression of interferon-related genes, and viral tissue titers. Disease ensued in Atlantic salmon after both VHSV exposure methods. Fish demonstrated gross disease signs including darkening of the dorsal skin, bilateral exophthalmia, light cutaneous hemorrhage, and lethargy. The virus replicated within endothelial cells causing endothelial cell necrosis and extensive hemorrhage in anterior kidney. Infected fish demonstrated a type I interferon response as seen by up-regulation of genes for IFNα, Mx, and ISG15. In a separate trial infected salmon transmitted the virus to sympatric Pacific herring. The results demonstrate that farmed Atlantic salmon can develop clinical VHS and virus can persist in the tissues for at least 10 weeks. Avoiding VHS epizootics in Atlantic salmon farms would limit the potential of VHS in farmed Atlantic salmon, the possibility for further host adaptation in this species, and virus spillback to sympatric wild fishes.

  5. Studies on rodents role as reservoir hosts of leishmaniasis with specical reference to their ectoparasites in Suez Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoukry, Nahla M; El-Naggar, Mostafa H; Darwish, Ahmed B; Soliman, Belal A; El-Sawaf, Bahira M

    2006-04-01

    The distribution of rodents was studied in three different habitats. Seven rodent species were identified: Rattus norvegicus, R. alexandrinus, R. frugivorous, Mus musculus, Acomys russatus, Meriones sacramenti and Gerbillus pyramidum. The species distribution varied with the habitat type. The highest density of rodents was in July and August and the lowest one was in January. However, some species were collected all the year round. The rodents were investigated for the endo- and ecto-parasites. No Leishmania parasites were found. The ectoparasites were: Xenopsylla cheopis, Leptopsylla segnis and Ctenocephalides felis, Polyplax spinulos, Hyalomma dromedarii (nymph) and Echinolaelaps echidninus and Hemolaelaps glassgowi. Ecto-parasites were on rodents all year-round in domestic habitat and peridomestic habitats. In wild one, ecto-parasites activity was from March to December. The rodents' role as reservoir for L. major was experimentally studied. Rodents inoculated with L. major together with hamster and BALB-c mice developed cutaneous lesions. The active lesions, the rodents' ecological habitats and the presence of insect-vector may pave the way to an epidemic zoonotic leishmaniasis role. PMID:16605103

  6. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  7. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  8. Climate-driven variation in the intensity of a host-symbiont animal interaction along a broad elevation gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Meléndez

    Full Text Available Gradients of environmental stress may affect biotic interactions in unpredictable ways responding to climate variation, depending on the abiotic stress tolerance of interacting partners. Here, we study the effect of local climate on the intensity of feather mites in six mountain passerines along a 1400 m elevational gradient characterized by shifting temperature and rainfall. Although obligatory symbionts of warm-blooded organisms are assumed to live in mild and homeothermic environments, those inhabiting external, non-blood-irrigated body portions of the host organism, such as feather mites, are expected to endure exposure to the direct influence of a fluctuating climate. As expected, feather mite intensity declined with elevation in all bird species, a pattern that was also found in cold-adapted passerines that have typical alpine habits. The elevation cline was mainly explained by a positive effect of the average temperature upon mite intensity in five of the six species studied. Precipitation explained less variance in mite intensity than average temperature, and showed a negative correlation in half of the studied species. We found no climate-driven migration of mites along the wings of birds, no replacement of mite species along elevation gradients and no association with available food resources for mites (estimated by the size of the uropygial gland. This study suggests that ectosymbionts of warm-blooded animals may be highly sensitive to climatic variation and become less abundant under stressful environmental conditions, providing empirical evidence of the decline of specialized biotic interactions among animal species at high elevations.

  9. Attributing foodborne salmonellosis in humans to animal reservoirs in the European Union using a multi-country stochastic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2015-01-01

    A Bayesian modelling approach comparing the occurrence of Salmonella serovars in animals and humans was used to attribute salmonellosis cases to broilers, turkeys, pigs, laying hens, travel and outbreaks in 24 European Union countries. Salmonella data for animals and humans, covering the period f...

  10. Attributing foodborne salmonellosis in humans to animal reservoirs in the European Union using a multi-country stochastic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2015-01-01

    A Bayesian modelling approach comparing the occurrence of Salmonella serovars in animals and humans was used to attribute salmonellosis cases to broilers, turkeys, pigs, laying hens, travel and outbreaks in 24 European Union countries. Salmonella data for animals and humans, covering the period......, highlighting differences in the epidemiology of Salmonella, surveillance focus and eating habits across the European Union....

  11. Fermented milk supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics can effectively alter the intestinal microbiota and immunity of host animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Zhu, H; Lu, C; Kang, Z; Luo, Y; Feng, L; Lu, X

    2012-09-01

    Fermented milk supplemented with 2 probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide, was orally administered to 100 healthy adults at 480 g/d for 2 wk in a randomized controlled trial. The fecal bacterial compositions of these subjects were examined by culture before and after the intervention. The same fermented milk was also orally fed to BALB/c mice, and immune as well as fecal bacteria analyses were conducted using the same culturing methods. After the intervention, increases in fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were observed among the subjects compared with the subjects in the control group. In contrast, after the intervention, fecal enterobacilli were significantly decreased in the test group compared with the control group. The same effects on the composition of the intestinal microbiota were observed in mice. Furthermore, the tested mice were found to have significantly increased delayed-type hypersensitivity, plaque-forming cells, and half-hemolysis values after the intervention with the fermented milk. In summary, the synbiotic fermented milk containing probiotics and a prebiotic may contribute to improve intestinal health and may have a positive effect on the humoral and cell-mediated immunity of host animals. PMID:22916885

  12. Molecular characterization reveals distinct genospecies of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from diverse North American hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Bradburd, Gideon; Foley, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen that infects humans, domestic animals and wildlife throughout the Holarctic. In the far-western United States, multiple rodent species have been implicated as natural reservoirs for A. phagocytophilum. However, the presence of multiple A. phagocytophilum strains has made it difficult to determine which reservoir hosts pose the greatest risk to humans and domestic animals. Here we characterized three genetic markers (23S–5S rRNA inte...

  13. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV. PMID:27553173

  14. The salmonella transcriptome in lettuce and cilantro soft rot reveals a niche overlap with the animal host intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Danielle M; Parker, Craig T; Zhou, Yaguang; Sela, Shlomo; Kroupitski, Yulia; Brandl, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that population sizes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 increased 56-fold when inoculated alone onto cilantro leaves, versus 2,884-fold when coinoculated with Dickeya dadantii, a prevalent pathogen that macerates plant tissue. A similar trend in S. enterica populations was observed for soft-rotted lettuce leaves. Transcriptome analysis of S. enterica cells that colonized D. dadantii-infected lettuce and cilantro leaves revealed a clear shift toward anaerobic metabolism and catabolism of substrates that are available due to the degradation of plant cells by the pectinolytic pathogen. Twenty-nine percent of the genes that were upregulated in cilantro macerates were also previously observed to have increased expression levels in the chicken intestine. Furthermore, multiple genes induced in soft rot lesions are also involved in the colonization of mouse, pig, and bovine models of host infection. Among those genes, the operons for ethanolamine and propanediol utilization as well as for the synthesis of cobalamin, a cofactor in these pathways, were the most highly upregulated genes in lettuce and cilantro lesions. In S. Typhimurium strain LT2, population sizes of mutants deficient in propanediol utilization or cobalamin synthesis were 10- and 3-fold lower, respectively, than those of the wild-type strain in macerated cilantro (P < 0.0002); in strain SL1344, such mutants behaved similarly to the parental strain. Anaerobic conditions and the utilization of nutrients in macerated plant tissue that are also present in the animal intestine indicate a niche overlap that may explain the high level of adaptation of S. enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease. PMID:23104408

  15. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of Dobrava-Belgrade virus L and S genetic segments isolated from an animal reservoir in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV is a member of the Bunyaviridae family, genus Hantavirus, possessing a single-stranded RNA genome consisting of three segments, designated L (large, M (medium and S (small. In this study, we present phylogenetic analysis of a newly detected DOBV strain isolated from Apodemus agrarius. Analysis was based on partial L and S segment sequences, in comparison to previously published DOBV sequences from Serbia and elsewhere. A phylogenetic tree based on partial S segment revealed local geographical clustering of DOBV sequences from Serbia, unrelated to host (rodent or human. The topology of the phylogenetic tree was confirmed with a high percent of completely or partially resolved quartets in likelihood-mapping analysis, whereas no evidence of possible recombination in the examined S segment data set was found.

  16. Temporal genetic variability and host sources of Escherichia coli associated with fecal pollution from domesticated animals in the shellfish culture environment of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to analyze the genetic variability of Escherichia coli from domesticated animal wastes for microbial source tracking (MST) application in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. (GTG)5 primer was used to generate 1363 fingerprints from E. coli isolated from feces of known 9 domesticated animal sources around this shellfish culture area. Jackknife analysis of the complete (GTG)5-PCR DNA fingerprint library indicated that isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with an 84.28% average rate of correct classification. Based on one-year source tracking data, the dominant sources of E. coli were swine, chickens, ducks and cows in this water area. Moreover, annual and spatial changes of E. coli concentrations and host sources may affect the level and distribution of zoonotic pathogen species in waters. Our findings will further contribute to preventing fecal pollution in aquatic environments and quality control of shellfish. - Highlights: → The host-origin library developed by (GTG)5-PCR could be used to shellfish water MST. → Fecal pollution of Xiangshan Bay arose from multiple sources of agricultural wastes. → High level of E. coli concentration in shellfish water increases the health risk. → Annual changes of E. coli host sources affect distribution of zoonotic pathogens. - The temporal genetic variability and dominant host sources of E. coli in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay was characterized.

  17. Temporal genetic variability and host sources of Escherichia coli associated with fecal pollution from domesticated animals in the shellfish culture environment of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Linglin, E-mail: full1103@yahoo.com.cn [Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Shuai Jiangbing [Zhejiang Entry and Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Wang Yanbo; Ma Hongjia [Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Li Jianrong, E-mail: lijianrong@mail.zjgsu.edu.cn [Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China)

    2011-10-15

    This study was conducted to analyze the genetic variability of Escherichia coli from domesticated animal wastes for microbial source tracking (MST) application in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. (GTG){sub 5} primer was used to generate 1363 fingerprints from E. coli isolated from feces of known 9 domesticated animal sources around this shellfish culture area. Jackknife analysis of the complete (GTG){sub 5}-PCR DNA fingerprint library indicated that isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with an 84.28% average rate of correct classification. Based on one-year source tracking data, the dominant sources of E. coli were swine, chickens, ducks and cows in this water area. Moreover, annual and spatial changes of E. coli concentrations and host sources may affect the level and distribution of zoonotic pathogen species in waters. Our findings will further contribute to preventing fecal pollution in aquatic environments and quality control of shellfish. - Highlights: > The host-origin library developed by (GTG){sub 5}-PCR could be used to shellfish water MST. > Fecal pollution of Xiangshan Bay arose from multiple sources of agricultural wastes. > High level of E. coli concentration in shellfish water increases the health risk. > Annual changes of E. coli host sources affect distribution of zoonotic pathogens. - The temporal genetic variability and dominant host sources of E. coli in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay was characterized.

  18. Research Strategies to Reduce Tick Densities and the Risk of Tick-borne Disease Transmission through Host-Targeted Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    While white-tailed deer are not reservoir hosts for the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, they are the keystone host animal on which adult female blacklegged ticks engorge on blood that is essential to production of tick eggs and completion of the life cycle. This session explores current re...

  19. Study on murine-like animals and their parasitical fleas in Chongqing Reservoir Area of the Three Gorges%三峡重庆库区鼠形动物及其体表寄生蚤调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季恒青; 冯连贵; 丁贤彬; 毛德强; 李洪; 涂涛田

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species composition and density of the murine-like animals and their parasitical fleas in Chongqing Reservoir Area of the Three Gorges and provide a scientific basis for preventing and controlling the diseases transmitted by the murine - like animals and fleas. Methods The night trap method was used to investigate the species composition and density of the murine-like animals. Live murine-like animals were captured by cage-trap and anaesthetized for collecting the parasitic fleas to investigate the flea species and the infection rate and index. Results The average density of the murine-like animals was 1.58% with a density of 1.56% in the rooms from 2009 to 2010, which was a little lower than that in outdoors (1.60%). A total of 11 species, 2315 murine-like animals belonging to 2 orders and 2 families were captured, of which Anourosorex squamipes, Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus were the dominant species with the constituent ratio being 38.75%, 25.14% and 19.27%, respectively. The average rate of the murine-like animals infected with fleas and the total flea index were 6.74% and 0.29, respectively. Five species of parasitic fleas were collected including Leptopsylla segnis (79.16%), Xenopsylla cheopis (1.08%), Monopsyllus anisus (2.54%), Palaeopsylla remota (8.90%) and Ctenocephalides felis (8.32%). Conclusion There exist important reservoir host of plague, Leptospinosis and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and X. cheopis which is an important vector of plague in the Three Gorges Reservoir. There are abundant species of the murine - like animals with relatively low density, low flea infection rate and low total flea index.%目的 掌握三峡重庆库区鼠形动物及其体表寄生蚤种类及密度状况,为预防控制鼠、蚤传播的疾病提供依据.方法 采用夹夜法开展鼠形动物密度监测和种类调查;采用鼠笼法捕活鼠麻醉后梳检体表寄生蚤查染蚤情况.结果 2009-2010年三峡库区

  20. 3种保虫宿主日本血吸虫特征性差异表达基因的筛选与验证%Screening and verification on characteristic differentially expressed genes of Schistosoma japonicum from three reservoir hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨健美; 林矫矫; 石耀军; 冯新港; 傅志强; 苑纯秀; 刘金明; 洪炀; 李浩; 陆珂

    2012-01-01

    Objective To get the characteristic differentially expressed genes of Schistosoma japonicum from three important reservoir hosts: yellow cattle, water buffalo and goat, so as to find the genetic markers to identify the various sources of the parasite reservoir hosts. Methods The 49 d worms were collected from artificially infected animals, and the total RNA(s) of worms were extracted and reverse-transcripted to cDNA, and then hybridized with custom-built microarray to screen characteristic differentially expressed genes of every hosl, and the microarray results were validated by the real-time PCR method. Results From results of microarray, we got 3 characteristic differentially expressed genes of S. japonicum from yellow cattle, 4 from water buffalo and 7 from goat. We verified schistosome samples from three reservoir hosts in another experiment, the results showed that 2 in yellow cattle, 3 in water buffalo, and 5 in goat were verified to be consistent with microarray results. Conclusions The ten characteristic differentially expressed genes of S. japonicum from three reservoir hosts screened by microarray might be used as genetic markers to identify the various sources of reservoir hosts for S. japonicum.%目的 筛选日本血吸虫3种重要保虫宿主来源虫体的特征性差异表达基因,寻找可以用于鉴别这3种宿主来源虫体的遗传标记.方法 日本血吸虫尾蚴人工感染黄牛、水牛和山羊,收集感染后49 d成虫,分别抽提RNA,逆转录成cDNA,体外转录为cRNA并进行片段化;采用定制的血吸虫芯片分别进行杂交,筛选每种宿主来源虫体的特征性差异表达基因.采用实时定量PCR法对所筛选差异表达基因的表达水平做进一步测定,验证芯片数据的结果,并对这些特征性差异表达基因进行验证.结果 通过芯片杂交,分析筛选获得实验黄牛组来源虫体特征性差异表达基因3个,水牛组来源虫体4个,山羊组来源虫体7个.其中黄牛组2

  1. Isolation of tick and mosquito-borne arboviruses from ticks sampled from livestock and wild animal hosts in Ijara District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Lutomiah, Joel; Obanda, Vincent; Gakuya, Francis; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Michuki, George; Chepkorir, Edith; Fischer, Anne; Venter, Marietjie; Sang, Rosemary

    2013-09-01

    Tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. The Ijara District, an arid to semiarid region in northern Kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. Part of the Ijara District lies within the boundaries of a Kenya Wildlife Service-protected conservation area. Arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, animals, and humans is reported in the region, mainly because prevailing conditions necessitate that people continuously move their animals in search of pasture, bringing them in contact with ongoing arbovirus transmission cycles. To identify the tick-borne viruses circulating among these communities, we analyzed ticks sampled from diverse animal hosts. A total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from both wildlife and livestock hosts and processed in 1520 pools of up to eight ticks per pool. The sampled ticks were classified to species, processed for virus screening by cell culture using Vero cells and RT-PCR (in the case of Hyalomma species), followed by amplicon sequencing. The tick species sampled included Rhipicephalus pulchellus (76.12%), Hyalomma truncatum (8.68%), Amblyomma gemma (5.00%), Amblyomma lepidum (4.34%), and others (5.86%). We isolated and identified Bunyamwera (44), Dugbe (5), Ndumu (2), Semliki forest (25), Thogoto (3), and West Nile (3) virus strains. This observation constitutes a previously unreported detection of mosquito-borne Semliki forest and Bunyamwera viruses in ticks, and association of West Nile virus with A. gemma and Rh. pulchellus ticks. These findings provide additional evidence on the potential role of ticks and associated animals in the circulation of diverse arboviruses in northeastern Kenya, including viruses previously known to be essentially mosquito borne. PMID:23805790

  2. Ferrets as a Novel Animal Model for Studying Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stittelaar, Koert J.; de Waal, Leon; van Amerongen, Geert; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J.B.; Fraaij, Pieter L.A.; van Baalen, Carel A.; van Kampen, Jeroen J.A.; van der Vries, Erhard; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; de Swart, Rik L.

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of severe respiratory tract disease in immunocompromised patients. Animal models are indispensable for evaluating novel intervention strategies in this complex patient population. To complement existing models in rodents and non-human primates, we have evaluated the potential benefits of an HRSV infection model in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Nine- to 12-month-old HRSV-seronegative immunocompetent or immunocompromised ferrets were infected with a low-passage wild-type strain of HRSV subgroup A (105 TCID50) administered by intra-tracheal or intra-nasal inoculation. Immune suppression was achieved by bi-daily oral administration of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone. Throat and nose swabs were collected daily and animals were euthanized four, seven, or 21 days post-infection (DPI). Virus loads were determined by quantitative virus culture and qPCR. We observed efficient HRSV replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. In immunocompromised ferrets, virus loads reached higher levels and showed delayed clearance as compared to those in immunocompetent animals. Histopathological evaluation of animals euthanized 4 DPI demonstrated that the virus replicated in the respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. These animal models can contribute to an assessment of the efficacy and safety of novel HRSV intervention strategies. PMID:27314379

  3. Ferrets as a Novel Animal Model for Studying Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koert J. Stittelaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV is an important cause of severe respiratory tract disease in immunocompromised patients. Animal models are indispensable for evaluating novel intervention strategies in this complex patient population. To complement existing models in rodents and non-human primates, we have evaluated the potential benefits of an HRSV infection model in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo. Nine- to 12-month-old HRSV-seronegative immunocompetent or immunocompromised ferrets were infected with a low-passage wild-type strain of HRSV subgroup A (105 TCID50 administered by intra-tracheal or intra-nasal inoculation. Immune suppression was achieved by bi-daily oral administration of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone. Throat and nose swabs were collected daily and animals were euthanized four, seven, or 21 days post-infection (DPI. Virus loads were determined by quantitative virus culture and qPCR. We observed efficient HRSV replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. In immunocompromised ferrets, virus loads reached higher levels and showed delayed clearance as compared to those in immunocompetent animals. Histopathological evaluation of animals euthanized 4 DPI demonstrated that the virus replicated in the respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. These animal models can contribute to an assessment of the efficacy and safety of novel HRSV intervention strategies.

  4. Life history and demographic drivers of reservoir competence for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostfeld, Richard S; Levi, Taal; Jolles, Anna E; Martin, Lynn B; Hosseini, Parviez R; Keesing, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Animal and plant species differ dramatically in their quality as hosts for multi-host pathogens, but the causes of this variation are poorly understood. A group of small mammals, including small rodents and shrews, are among the most competent natural reservoirs for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, in eastern North America. For a group of nine commonly-infected mammals spanning >2 orders of magnitude in body mass, we asked whether life history features or surrogates for (unknown) encounter rates with ticks, predicted reservoir competence for each pathogen. Life history features associated with a fast pace of life generally were positively correlated with reservoir competence. However, a model comparison approach revealed that host population density, as a proxy for encounter rates between hosts and pathogens, generally received more support than did life history features. The specific life history features and the importance of host population density differed somewhat between the different pathogens. We interpret these results as supporting two alternative but non-exclusive hypotheses for why ecologically widespread, synanthropic species are often the most competent reservoirs for multi-host pathogens. First, multi-host pathogens might adapt to those hosts they are most likely to experience, which are likely to be the most abundant and/or frequently bitten by tick vectors. Second, species with fast life histories might allocate less to certain immune defenses, which could increase their reservoir competence. Results suggest that of the host species that might potentially be exposed, those with comparatively high population densities, small bodies, and fast pace of life will often be keystone reservoirs that should be targeted for surveillance or management. PMID:25232722

  5. Life history and demographic drivers of reservoir competence for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Ostfeld

    Full Text Available Animal and plant species differ dramatically in their quality as hosts for multi-host pathogens, but the causes of this variation are poorly understood. A group of small mammals, including small rodents and shrews, are among the most competent natural reservoirs for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, in eastern North America. For a group of nine commonly-infected mammals spanning >2 orders of magnitude in body mass, we asked whether life history features or surrogates for (unknown encounter rates with ticks, predicted reservoir competence for each pathogen. Life history features associated with a fast pace of life generally were positively correlated with reservoir competence. However, a model comparison approach revealed that host population density, as a proxy for encounter rates between hosts and pathogens, generally received more support than did life history features. The specific life history features and the importance of host population density differed somewhat between the different pathogens. We interpret these results as supporting two alternative but non-exclusive hypotheses for why ecologically widespread, synanthropic species are often the most competent reservoirs for multi-host pathogens. First, multi-host pathogens might adapt to those hosts they are most likely to experience, which are likely to be the most abundant and/or frequently bitten by tick vectors. Second, species with fast life histories might allocate less to certain immune defenses, which could increase their reservoir competence. Results suggest that of the host species that might potentially be exposed, those with comparatively high population densities, small bodies, and fast pace of life will often be keystone reservoirs that should be targeted for surveillance or management.

  6. The present and future of rabies vaccine in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dong-Kun; Kim, Ha-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Song, Jae-Young

    2013-01-01

    An effective strategy for preventing rabies consists of controlling rabies in the host reservoir with vaccination. Rabies vaccine has proven to be the most effective weapon for coping with this fatal viral zoonotic disease of warm-blooded animals, including human. Natural rabies infection of an individual is always associated with exposure to rabid animals, and the duration of clinical signs can vary from days to months. The incubation period for the disease depends on the site of the bite, s...

  7. Comparison of methods and animal models commonly used for investigation of fecal microbiota: Effects of time, host and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Nørrung, Birgit; Saadbye, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    specific pathogen free (SPF). or human flora associated (HFA). A higher variation (p <0.05) in fecal microbiota over time was observed for HFA than for SPF animals. Analysis of DGGE and T-RFLP profiles of fecal microbiota from SPF and HFA rats revealed that variation over time was less significant than...... variation between individuals, and that phylogenetic profiles clustered according to gender. These observations should be taken into account when designing future research addressing changes in fecal microbiota....

  8. CRN13 candidate effectors from plant and animal eukaryotic pathogens are DNA-binding proteins which trigger host DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Garcés, Diana; Camborde, Laurent; Pel, Michiel J C; Jauneau, Alain; Martinez, Yves; Néant, Isabelle; Leclerc, Catherine; Moreau, Marc; Dumas, Bernard; Gaulin, Elodie

    2016-04-01

    To successfully colonize their host, pathogens produce effectors that can interfere with host cellular processes. Here we investigated the function of CRN13 candidate effectors produced by plant pathogenic oomycetes and detected in the genome of the amphibian pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (BdCRN13). When expressed in Nicotiana, AeCRN13, from the legume root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches, increases the susceptibility of the leaves to the oomycete Phytophthora capsici. When transiently expressed in amphibians or plant cells, AeCRN13 and BdCRN13 localize to the cell nuclei, triggering aberrant cell development and eventually causing cell death. Using Förster resonance energy transfer experiments in plant cells, we showed that both CRN13s interact with nuclear DNA and trigger plant DNA damage response (DDR). Mutating key amino acid residues in a predicted HNH-like endonuclease motif abolished the interaction of AeCRN13 with DNA, the induction of DDR and the enhancement of Nicotiana susceptibility to P. capsici. Finally, H2AX phosphorylation, a marker of DNA damage, and enhanced expression of genes involved in the DDR were observed in A. euteiches-infected Medicago truncatula roots. These results show that CRN13 from plant and animal eukaryotic pathogens promotes host susceptibility by targeting nuclear DNA and inducing DDR. PMID:26700936

  9. Plant subviral RNAs as a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA): Analogy with animal lncRNAs in host-virus interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hanako; Masuta, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and viroids belong to the group called subviral agents and are the smallest pathogens of plants. In general, small satRNAs and viroids are 300-400 nt in size and do not encode any functional proteins; they are thus regarded as so-called long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). These lncRNAs are receiving great attention as a new RNA class involved in gene regulation to control important biological processes such as gene transcription and epigenetic regulation. A substantial number of lncRNAs in animal cells have been found to play important roles in the interactions between a virus and its host. We here discuss the pathogenicity of subviral RNAs (especially satRNAs) in plant cells and their functions as lncRNAs associated with viral diseases, using animal lncRNAs as an analogy. Because, unlike animal lncRNAs, plant subviral RNAs can replicate and accumulate at very high levels in infected cells, we here considered the unique possibility that the RNA silencing machinery of plants, an important defense mechanism against virus infection, may have brought about the replication ability of subviral molecules. In addition, we also discuss the possibility that satRNAs may have arisen from plant-virus interactions in virus-infected cells. Understanding the molecular functions of these unique lncRNAs in plants will enable us to reveal the most plausible origins of these subviral RNAs. PMID:26116900

  10. Assessment of vector/host contact: comparison of animal-baited traps and UV-light/suction trap for collecting Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, vectors of Orbiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delécolle Jean-Claude

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence and massive spread of bluetongue in Western Europe during 2006-2008 had disastrous consequences for sheep and cattle production and confirmed the ability of Palaearctic Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae to transmit the virus. Some aspects of Culicoides ecology, especially host-seeking and feeding behaviors, remain insufficiently described due to the difficulty of collecting them directly on a bait animal, the most reliable method to evaluate biting rates. Our aim was to compare typical animal-baited traps (drop trap and direct aspiration to both a new sticky cover trap and a UV-light/suction trap (the most commonly used method to collect Culicoides. Methods/results Collections were made from 1.45 hours before sunset to 1.45 hours after sunset in June/July 2009 at an experimental sheep farm (INRA, Nouzilly, Western France, with 3 replicates of a 4 sites × 4 traps randomized Latin square using one sheep per site. Collected Culicoides individuals were sorted morphologically to species, sex and physiological stages for females. Sibling species were identified using a molecular assay. A total of 534 Culicoides belonging to 17 species was collected. Abundance was maximal in the drop trap (232 females and 4 males from 10 species whereas the diversity was the highest in the UV-light/suction trap (136 females and 5 males from 15 species. Significant between-trap differences abundance and parity rates were observed. Conclusions Only the direct aspiration collected exclusively host-seeking females, despite a concern that human manipulation may influence estimation of the biting rate. The sticky cover trap assessed accurately the biting rate of abundant species even if it might act as an interception trap. The drop trap collected the highest abundance of Culicoides and may have caught individuals not attracted by sheep but by its structure. Finally, abundances obtained using the UV-light/suction trap did not estimate

  11. Use of isotopes for research and control of vectors of animal diseases, host-pathogen relationships and the environmental impact of control procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To cope with the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be utilized. As an example, nagana alone (animal trypanosomiasis) profoundly affects socioeconomic development in Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of the more than 7 million square kilometres where it is present. The need to control this disease has been emphasized by a mandate from the 1974 World Food Conference of the United Nations. If this disease alone could be eliminated, the cattle population could be increased by at least 120 million head with a resultant yearly increase in meat production of 1.5 million tons having a value totalling 750 million US dollars. The symposium was convened to discuss the various research and control aspects of nagana and related diseases and was the first of its kind to be convened by the sponsoring organizations The symposium amply demonstrated the value and usefulness of isotopes in the research and control of vectors of animal diseases, the elucidation of host-pathogen relationships and the degradation of pesticides. The symposium received an enthusiastic response, reflected in the large number of papers presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique (SIT) as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its different aspects such as mass-rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behaviour and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations on insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides. The technical sessions began with 3 review papers, one on the FAO Animal Health Division's field research on tsetse flies, the second on the

  12. "Confirmation of Meriones libycus (Rodentia; Gerbillidae as the Main Reservoir Host of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Arsanjan, Fars Province, South of Iran (1999-2000"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Rassi

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Arsanjan county Fars province, a new focus of ZCL, during 1999-2000. Totally fifty nine Meriones libycus captured by live traps and four out of them (6.8% were naturally infected with parasites. Parasites were cultured in monophasic medium RPMI 1640 and isolated promastigotes were identified using RAPD-PCR test in Medical Parasitology Unit of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The results showed that parasites were L. major, so, Meriones libycus was known the principal reservoir of ZCL in the rural region of Arsanjan. Rhombomys opimus and Tatera indica were absent in the study areas.

  13. Animal experimental model of a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction after allogenic transplantation of bone marrow in lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft-versus-host (GVH) disease represents a serious still unsolved problem in the human allogenic transplantation of bone marrow. An experimental model of GVH reaction after an allogenic transplantation of bone marrow in the adult mouse has been worked out as a prerequisite for further studies on the therapeutic influence of this syndrome. 3 groups have been formed out of 82 lethally X-irradiated C57 Bl mice. The non-transplanted control group died to a hundred per cent within 12 days. While out of the 2nd group treated with syngenic bone marrow 55 per cent survived from the 22nd day, 30 per cent of the third animal group, allogenicly transplanted with histoincompatible AKR donor marrow developed a chronic GVH syndrome. The following symptoms were observed: retardation, alterations of the skin, diarrhea, edemas of the legs, failing increase of leukocytes in blood and proliferation of lymphocytes in bone marrow of about 60 per cent (18 per cent in syngenically transplanted animals), in lacking proliferation of hematopoiesis. The increase of liver and especially spleen index is not characteristic in comparison with the syngenically transplanted group, since in the latter there is also an increase of the values on account of a strong hematopoetic proliferation. The model is suitable and sufficiently well characterized for the performance of further experimental studies. (author)

  14. 利什曼原虫家畜宿主研究新进展%Advances in research on domestic animals as hosts of Leishmania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄唱洲; 伍卫平; 官亚宜

    2013-01-01

    利什曼病是一种被忽视的热带病(neglected tropical diseases,NTD),近年来,其预防控制工作正进一步受到关注.控制传染源是预防控制传染病的重要环节,感染利什曼原虫的人和犬是该病的重要传染源已经毋庸置疑,但越来越多的研究发现家畜感染利什曼原虫或在利什曼病传播中具有一定的作用.本文就利什曼原虫感染家畜的研究进展进行综述.%Since leishmaniasis was defined as one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTD) by the WHO, the prevention and control of leishmaniasis has attracted greater attentions. Controlling the source of infection is an important step in preventing and controlling communicable diseases. Without question, people and dogs infected with Leishmania are important sources of infection. However, mounting research has found that domestic animals are infected with Leishmania or they play a role in the transmission of leishmaniasis. Advances in research on domestic animals as hosts of Leishmania are reviewed in this paper.

  15. Independence of Anaplasma marginale Strains with High and Low Transmission Efficiencies in the Tick Vector following Simultaneous Acquisition by Feeding on a Superinfected Mammalian Reservoir Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain superinfection occurs when a second pathogen strain infects a host already carrying a primary strain. Anaplasma marginale superinfection occurs when the second strain encodes a unique variant surface repertoire as compared to the primary strain and the epidemiologic consequences depend on th...

  16. Animales silvestres como reservorios de leptospirosis en Chile: Una revisión de los estudios efectuados en el país Wild animals as reservoirs of leptospirosis in Chile.: Revision of studies in the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ZAMORA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se entrega información sobre ratas y ratones capturados en laprovincia de Valdivia que actúan como reservorios de serovares deLeptospirainterrogans y Leptospira borgpeterseni, así como tambiénse dan a conocer resultados de otras especies animales capturados en lazona central del país. Se analizan los porcentajes de positividaddetectados por especie animal y el consecuente riesgo que significan estosreservorios animales para los animales domésticos y para el hombre. Se completa la información sobre los huéspedes de mantenimientode esta espiroquetosis en animales de vida libre, de acuerdo a una revisiónde la literatura especializada del exterior sobre el tema. Todo ello, enun intento de entregar documentación que alerte sobre los eventualesportadores existentes en nuestro medio y, por ende, ser una posible fuentede infección de enfermedades transmisibles a la especie humana ya diferentes especies de animales domésticos, Por último, se concluye que es del todo conveniente y necesarioque las autoridades correspondientes se preocupen de incentivar y fomentarestudios no sólo sobre leptospirosis, sino que también deotras enfermedades infecciosas y del estado sanitario en general de lafauna silvestre del país, financiando y licitando proyectos de investigación.La información que se logre de los trabajos que se realicen seráde considerable valor en la conservación del equilibrio ecológico,en medicina veterinaria preventiva y en salud públicaInformation is given regarding rats and mice captured in the provinceof Valdivia as reservoirs of serovars of Leptospira interrogansand Leptospira borgpeterseni; results obtained from other wild animalscaptured in the central area of the country are also included. The percentagesof positiveness detected by animal species as well as the consequent riskof these reservoirs for domestic animals and humans are analysed. Additional information on the subject in relation to reservoirs of leptospirasin

  17. International Clostridium difficile animal strain collection and large diversity of animal associated strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janezic, Sandra; Zidaric, Valerija; Pardon, Bart;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile is an important cause of intestinal infections in some animal species and animals might be a reservoir for community associated human infections. Here we describe a collection of animal associated C. difficile strains from 12 countries based on inclusion criteria......; 10 countries). Conclusions: This results show that although PCR ribotype 078 is often reported as the major animal C. difficile type, especially in pigs, the variability of strains in pigs and other animal hosts is substantial. Most common human PCR ribotypes (014/020 and 002) are also among most...... prevalent animal associated C. difficile strains worldwide. The widespread dissemination of toxigenic C. difficile and the considerable overlap in strain distribution between species furthers concerns about interspecies, including zoonotic, transmission of this critically important pathogen....

  18. Anticipating the Emerging of Some Strategical Infectious Animal Diseases in Indonesia Related to The Effect of Global Warming and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sjamsul Bahri; T Syafriati

    2011-01-01

    The effect of global warming and climate change is changing the season, included flooding in one area and very dry in other area, changing the temperature and humidity. These changes will trigger changing of the life of biological agent (virus, bacteria, parasites and so on), variety of animal species, variety of vectors as reservoir host of animal with the role of transmitting the disease to other animal species, This condition will trigger the new animal disease (emerging disease) or old di...

  19. Southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas are important reservoirs of two genotypes of Trypanosoma cruzi and host of a putative novel Trypanosoma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Roxanne A; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E; Barnes, John C; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is an important public health and veterinary pathogen. Although human cases are rare in the United States, infections in wildlife, and in some areas domestic dogs, are common. In 2008 and 2010, we investigated T. cruzi prevalence in possible vertebrate reservoirs in southern Texas, with an emphasis on southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus). Infection status was determined using a combination of culture isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serologic testing. Based on PCR and/or culture, T. cruzi was detected in 35 of 104 (34%) woodrats, 3 of 4 (75%) striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), 12 of 20 (60%) raccoons (Procyon lotor), and 5 of 28 (18%) other rodents including a hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), rock squirrel (Otospermophilus variegatus), black rat (Rattus rattus), and two house mice (Mus musculus). Additionally, another Trypanosoma species was detected in 41 woodrats, of which 27 were co-infected with T. cruzi. Genetic characterization of T. cruzi revealed that raccoon, rock squirrel, and cotton rat isolates were genotype TcIV, while woodrats and skunks were infected with TcI and TcIV. Based on the Chagas Stat-Pak assay, antibodies were detected in 27 woodrats (26%), 13 raccoons (65%), 4 skunks (100%), and 5 other rodents (18%) (two white-ankled mice [Peromyscus pectoralis laceianus], two house mice, and a rock squirrel). Seroprevalence based on indirect immunofluorescence antibody testing was higher for both woodrats (37%) and raccoons (90%), compared with the Chagas Stat-Pak. This is the first report of T. cruzi in a hispid cotton rat, black rat, rock squirrel, and white-ankled mouse. These data indicate that based on culture and PCR testing, the prevalence of T. cruzi in woodrats is comparable with other common reservoirs (i.e., raccoons and opossums) in the United States. However, unlike raccoons and opossums, which tend to be infected with a particular genotype, southern

  20. Vertebrate reservoirs and secondary epidemiological cycles of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, R A

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases of importance to human and domestic animal health are listed and the increasing emergence of syndromes, new epidemiological cycles and distributions are highlighted. These diseases involve a multitude of vectors and hosts, frequently for the same pathogen, and involve natural enzootic cycles, wild reservoirs and secondary epidemiological cycles, sometimes affecting humans and domestic animals. On occasions the main reservoir is in the domestic environment. Drivers for secondary cycles are mainly related to human impacts and activities and therefore, for purposes of prevention and control, the focus needs to be on the socioecology of the diseases. Technical and therapeutical solutions exist, and for control there needs to be a clear understanding of the main vertebrate hosts or reservoirs and the main vectors. The targets of interventions are usually the vector and/or secondary epidemiological cycles and, in the case of humans and domestic animals, the spillover or incidental hosts are treated. More attention needs to be given to the importance of the political economy in relation to vector-borne diseases, as many key drivers arise from globalisation, climate change and changes in structural ecologies. Attention to reducing the risk of emergence of new infection cycles through better management of the human-animal-environment interface is urgently needed. PMID:26470455

  1. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  2. Bayou virus detected in non-oryzomyine rodent hosts: an assessment of habitat composition, reservoir community structure, and marsh rice rat social dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsomback, Tyla S; McIntyre, Nancy E; Nisbett, Richard A; Strauss, Richard E; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Abuzeineh, Alisa A; de la Sancha, Noé; Dick, Carl W; Jonsson, Colleen B; Morris, Brandon E L

    2009-06-01

    In the United States, Bayou virus (BAYV) ranks second only to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in terms of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) incidents, having been confirmed in cases from Texas and Louisiana since its discovery in 1994. This study on BAYV infection among sympatric, non-oryzomyine rodents ("spillover") in Freeport, TX, is the first to link patterns of hantavirus interspecific spillover with the spatiotemporal ecology of the primary host (marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris). Mark-recapture and/or harvest methods were employed from March 2002 through May 2004 in two macrohabitat types. Rodent blood samples were screened for the presence of IgG antibody to BAYV antigen by IFA after which Ab-positive blood, saliva, and urine were analyzed for the presence of viral RNA by nested RT-PCR. From 727 non-oryzomyine captures, five seropositive (but not viral RNA positive) individuals were detected: one each of Baiomys taylori, Peromyscus leucopus, and Reithrodontomys fulvescens; and two Sigmodon hispidus. Spillover hosts were not associated with macrohabitat where O. palustris abundance, density, or seroprevalence was highest. Rather, spillover occurred in the macrohabitat indicative of greater overall disturbance (as indicated by grazing and exotic plant diversity) and overall biodiversity. Spillover occurred during periods of high seroprevalence detected elsewhere within the study region. Spillover locations differed significantly from all other capture locations in terms of percent water, shrub, and grass cover. Although greater habitat and mammal diversity of old-fields may serve to reduce seroprevalence levels by tempering intraspecific contacts between rice rats, greater diversity also may create an ecologically opportunistic setting for BAYV spillover. Impacts of varying levels of disturbance and biodiversity on transmission dynamics represent a vastly uncharacterized component of the evolutionary ecology of hantaviruses. PMID:20836801

  3. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IsabelHenriques

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of faecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of faecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull faeces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and faeces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull faeces (29% and 32% were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%. Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull faeces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes blaTEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A and tet(B, were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (blaCTX-M-1 and blaSHV-12 and seagull faeces (blaCMY-2. Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull faeces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived faecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health.

  4. Bat-man disease transmission: zoonotic pathogens from wildlife reservoirs to human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allocati, N; Petrucci, A G; Di Giovanni, P; Masulli, M; Di Ilio, C; De Laurenzi, V

    2016-01-01

    Bats are natural reservoir hosts and sources of infection of several microorganisms, many of which cause severe human diseases. Because of contact between bats and other animals, including humans, the possibility exists for additional interspecies transmissions and resulting disease outbreaks. The purpose of this article is to supply an overview on the main pathogens isolated from bats that have the potential to cause disease in humans. PMID:27551536

  5. Host feeding preference of Phlebotomus guggisbergi, a vector of Leishmania tropica in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R N; Ngumbi, P M; Mwanyumba, J P; Roberts, C R

    1993-07-01

    Recently the sandfly Phlebotomus guggisbergi was found to be a vector of Leishmania tropica causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Laikipia focus, Kenya, but extensive searches have shed no light on the identity of the rural reservoir host(s). In order to discover more about the biology of the vector, a host feeding preference study was conducted on wild sandflies in their natural cave environment over a 6-month period. Solid state Army miniature (SSAM) traps, without light bulb, were suspended over cages with potential hosts or an empty cage control. The animals tested included sheep, goat, dog, cat, hamster, rabbit, giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus), crested rat (Lophiomys imhausi) and rock hyrax (Procavia capensis), all of which (except hamsters) are normally found in the vicinity of the study site. Sandfly collections from traps baited with goat, sheep, cat, dog, rabbit, or wild rodent species were significantly higher than the control, whereas trap collections with hamster and rock hyrax were not significantly different from the control. Numbers of sandflies collected from the goat, sheep and cat were significantly greater than from the rabbit and rodents. The sex ratio also varied between collections: larger animals attracted a higher proportion of female P. guggisbergi than did the smaller animals (P > 0.05). Therefore greater emphasis should be placed on surveying larger animals to assess their status as reservoir hosts for L. tropica in Kenya. PMID:8369555

  6. Survey of wild mammal hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis parasites in panamá and costa rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D; Adler, Gregory H; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-03-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America. PMID:25859156

  7. Non-avian animal reservoirs present a source of influenza A PB1-F2 proteins with novel virulence-enhancing markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Alymova

    Full Text Available PB1-F2 protein, expressed from an alternative reading frame of most influenza A virus (IAV PB1 segments, may possess specific residues associated with enhanced inflammation (L62, R75, R79, and L82 and cytotoxicity (I68, L69, and V70. These residues were shown to increase the pathogenicity of primary viral and secondary bacterial infections in a mouse model. In contrast to human seasonal influenza strains, virulence-associated residues are present in PB1-F2 proteins from pandemic H1N1 1918, H2N2 1957, and H3N2 1968, and highly pathogenic H5N1 strains, suggesting their contribution to viruses' pathogenic phenotypes. Non-human influenza strains may act as donors of virulent PB1-F2 proteins. Previously, avian influenza strains were identified as a potential source of inflammatory, but not cytotoxic, PB1-F2 residues. Here, we analyze the frequency of virulence-associated residues in PB1-F2 sequences from IAVs circulating in mammalian species in close contact with humans: pigs, horses, and dogs. All four inflammatory residues were found in PB1-F2 proteins from these viruses. Among cytotoxic residues, I68 was the most common and was especially prevalent in equine and canine IAVs. Historically, PB1-F2 from equine (about 75% and canine (about 20% IAVs were most likely to have combinations of the highest numbers of residues associated with inflammation and cytotoxicity, compared to about 7% of swine IAVs. Our analyses show that, in addition to birds, pigs, horses, and dogs are potentially important sources of pathogenic PB1-F2 variants. There is a need for surveillance of IAVs with genetic markers of virulence that may be emerging from these reservoirs in order to improve pandemic preparedness and response.

  8. Coregulation of host-adapted metabolism and virulence by pathogenic yersiniae

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Kathrin eHeroven; Petra eDersch

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. The enteric pathogenic Yersinia species Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica and the causative agent of plague, Y. pestis, are able to survive in a large variety of environmental reservoirs (e.g. soil, plants, insects) as well as warm-blooded animals (e.g. rodents, pigs, humans) with a particular preference for lymphatic tis...

  9. Investigating the effects of food available and climatic variables on the animal host density of hemorrhagic Fever with renal syndrome in changsha, china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is influenced by population dynamics of its main host, rodents. It is therefore important to better understand rodents' characteristic in epidemic areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the potential impact of food available and climatic variability on HFRS rodent host and developed forecasting models. Monthly rodent density of HFRS host and climate data in Changsha from January 2004 to December 2011 were obtained. Monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI for rice paddies were extracted from MODIS data. Cross-correlation analysis were carried out to explore correlation between climatic variables and food available with monthly rodent data. We used auto-regressive integrated moving average model with explanatory variables to examine the independent contribution of climatic variables and food supply to rodent density. The results indicated that relative rodent density of HFRS host was significantly correlated with monthly mean temperatures, monthly accumulative precipitation, TVDI and NDVI with lags of 1-6 months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Food available plays a significant role in population fluctuations of HFRS host in Changsha. The model developed in this study has implications for HFRS control and prevention.

  10. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Among Eleven Potential Reservoir Species from Six States Across the Southern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Matthew E. Gompper; Monello, Ryan J.; Wenning, Krista M.; Gabriel, Mourad W.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Ar...

  11. New kind of polarotaxis governed by degree of polarization: attraction of tabanid flies to differently polarizing host animals and water surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egri, Ádám; Blahó, Miklós; Sándor, András; Kriska, György; Gyurkovszky, Mónika; Farkas, Róbert; Horváth, Gábor

    2012-05-01

    Aquatic insects find their habitat from a remote distance by means of horizontal polarization of light reflected from the water surface. This kind of positive polarotaxis is governed by the horizontal direction of polarization (E-vector). Tabanid flies also detect water by this kind of polarotaxis. The host choice of blood-sucking female tabanids is partly governed by the linear polarization of light reflected from the host's coat. Since the coat-reflected light is not always horizontally polarized, host finding by female tabanids may be different from the established horizontal E-vector polarotaxis. To reveal the optical cue of the former polarotaxis, we performed choice experiments in the field with tabanid flies using aerial and ground-based visual targets with different degrees and directions of polarization. We observed a new kind of polarotaxis being governed by the degree of polarization rather than the E-vector direction of reflected light. We show here that female and male tabanids use polarotaxis governed by the horizontal E-vector to find water, while polarotaxis based on the degree of polarization serves host finding by female tabanids. As a practical by-product of our studies, we explain the enigmatic attractiveness of shiny black spheres used in canopy traps to catch tabanids.

  12. Community structures and niche characteristics of Leptospira host animals in farmlands along Huaihe River%沿淮农田区钩端螺旋体宿主动物群落结构及生态位特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兴强; 顾莉莉; 王俊; 李青; 花高荣; 张冠林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the syngenetic and synecological characteristics of Leptospira host animals in the farmlands along Huaihe River, China. Methods Trap-at-night method was used to capture small animals in the farmlands along Huaihe River. Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou index, and Levins index, the indices of community dominance, diversity, evenness, and niche breadth, were used for the analysis of syngenetic characteristics and niche characteristics of Leptospira host animals in the farmland ecosystem. Results Of the animals captured in the farmlands along Huaihe River, Apodemus agrarius accounted for 89.80%, Crocidura attenuata 6.51%, and Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Cricetulus triton together 3.69%. The density of host animals was the lowest (5.54%) in 2006 and the highest (13.75%) in 2010. The diversity index, evenness index, and dominance index of the host animals along Huaihe River were 0.4338, 0.2696, and 0.8111, respectively. The spatial niche breadth indices of Ap. Agrarius and C. Attenuata were 0.8030 and 0.9353, respectively, but the spatial niche breadth indices of R. Norvegicus, M. Musculus, and C. Triton were 0.3912 to 0.4220. The temporal niche breadth indices were 0.9185 to 0.9979 for all host animals except C. Triton (0). Conclusion There are 5 species of Leptospira host animals in the farmlands along Huaihe River, among which Ap. Agrarius is the dominant species and C. Attenuata is also common. The host animal density increased in general in 2005-2011, with the peak level in 2010. The host animals have low diversity and evenness and high dominant concentration. Ap. Agrarius and C. Attenuata have good adaptation to farmland ecosystem and good farmland resource utilization ability. The competition between the species of host animals is not prominent, which may lead to the population outbreak of Ap. Agrarius, so the regions along Huaihe River are high-risk areas of leptospirosis.%目的 研究沿淮农田区钩端螺旋体(

  13. Reasons for reservoir effect variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater reservoir effects can be large and highly variable. I will present my investigations into the short-term variability of the freshwater reservoir effect in two Northern German rivers. The samples analysed in this study were collected between 2007 and 2012. Reservoir ages of water sample...... potentially very different radiocarbon ages. Finally, I will discuss the influence of bomb carbon on radiocarbon dating of modern freshwater samples....... plants. Their carbon should represent an average value of the entire growth season. However, there are large reservoir age variations in aquatic plants and animals as well. These can best be explained by the multitude of carbon sources which can be utilized by aquatic organisms, and which have...

  14. 日本血吸虫感染不同相容性动物宿主的比较研究%Comparative study on Schistosoma japonicum infection in different permissive animal hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨健美; 林矫矫; 苑纯秀; 冯新港; 傅志强; 石耀军; 刘金明; 洪炀; 李浩; 陆珂

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to understand the difference for worm development , worm morphology and host's histopatholo-gy in Schistosoma j aponicum (S. j aponicum) infected animal hosts , including natural hosts and experimental animal hosts . We artificially infected six animal hosts (yellow cattle , water buffalo , goat, New Zealand rabbit , BALB/c mice , and Wistar rat) with the same source of S . japonicum cercariae . The parasites were perfused through the hepatic portal vein on day 49 after infection. The male and female worms were detached manually and counted , and the length and width of the worms were measured . The results showed that the worm recoveries in permissive hosts were higher than that in non permissive hosts , and the length of the worms from permissive hosts were greater than those from non permissive hosts . Parasites in all the hosts could develop into maturation and cause liver damage in their hosts except for Wistar rat . The livers from permissive hosts were fulfilled with white egg nodules , and composed of egg- granulomas ; while the livers from water buffalo were red but with few egg nodules ; the livers from Wistar rat had no damage at all . The histologies! sections from livers of infected natural hosts showed that in yellow cattle and goat , hepatocytes displayed mild swelling , and a large number of inflammatory cells were seen to be in -filtrating and aggregating , including eosinophils and lymphocytes , and typical striped eosinophilic deposits were observed . Compared with yellow cattle and goat , the structural integrity of the hepatic lobules in infected buffalo was intacted in the liv -ers . There was actinomorphous distribution of hepatic cord centered on central veins , polygonal hepatocytes without edema and inflammatory cell infiltration , leaving only scattered neutrophils and monocytes . This study provides reference data for labora- tory and field studies in understanding the differences of S. j aponicum infection in different

  15. Bartonellae in animals and vectors in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Davoust, Bernard; Cabre, Olivier; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2011-12-01

    Bartonellae are gram-negative facultative intracellular alpha-proteobacteria from the family Bartonellaceae. The natural history of bartonellae consists of a reservoir/host, which is a vertebrate with chronic intravascular infection with sustained bacteremia, and a vector (usually an arthropod) that transfers the bacteria from the reservoir to a susceptible yet uninfected host. In order to reveal the sources and reservoirs of Bartonella infection in animals and vectors in New Caledonia, we collected the blood samples of 64 dogs, 8 cats, 30 bovines, 25 horses and 29 wild deer Cervus timorensis russa and 308 associated blood-sucking parasites (14 keds Hippobosca equina, 258 ticks (22 Rhipicephalus microplus, 235 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 1 Haemaphysalis longicornis), 12 fleas Ctenocephalides felis and 24 dog lice Trichodectes canis). We isolated ten strains of Bartonella: four Bartonella henselae from cats and six Bartonella chomelii from cattle. The strains were characterized by sequencing of five genes (16S, ITS, rpoB, gltA and ftsZ). The six strains isolated from cattle were close to the reference strain of B. chomelii and were, probably, imported from France with cattle of Limousin race. PCR showed that 35% of keds collected from deer and 31% of deer were infected by B. aff. schoenbuchensis; all other samples were negative. Our data confirmed that in New Caledonia, as in other regions of the world, cats are the major reservoirs of B. henselae. We also confirmed that Hippoboscidae flies may serve as the vectors of ruminant-associated bartonellae. PMID:22018646

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of the Animal Pathogen Listeria ivanovii, Which Provides Insights into Host Specificities and Evolution of the Genus Listeria

    OpenAIRE

    Buchrieser, C; Rusniok, C.; Garrido, P; HAIN, T; M. Scortti; Lampidis, R.; Kaerst, U.; Chakraborty, T; Cossart, P.; Kreft, J; Vazquez-Boland, J A; Goebel, W.; Glaser, P

    2011-01-01

    We report the complete and annotated genome sequence of the animal pathogenListeria ivanoviisubsp.ivanoviistrain PAM 55 (serotype 5), isolated in 1997 in Spain from an outbreak of abortion in sheep. The sequence and its analysis are available at an interactive genome browser at the Institut Pasteur (http://genolist.pasteur.fr/LivaList/).

  17. Chlamydia pneumoniae is genetically diverse in animals and appears to have crossed the host barrier to humans on (at least two occasions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice M Mitchell

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common human and animal pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases. Since the first isolation of C. pneumoniae TWAR in 1965, all human isolates have been essentially clonal, providing little evolutionary insight. To address this gap, we investigated the genetic diversity of 30 isolates from diverse geographical locations, from both human and animal origin (amphibian, reptilian, equine and marsupial. Based on the level of variation that we observed at 23 discreet gene loci, it was clearly evident that the animal isolates were more diverse than the isolates of human origin. Furthermore, we show that C. pneumoniae isolates could be grouped into five major genotypes, A-E, with A, B, D and E genotypes linked by geographical location, whereas genotype C was found across multiple continents. Our evidence strongly supports two separate animal-to-human cross species transfer events in the evolutionary history of this pathogen. The C. pneumoniae human genotype identified in the USA, Canada, Taiwan, Iran, Japan, Korea and Australia (non-Indigenous most likely originated from a single amphibian or reptilian lineage, which appears to have been previously geographically widespread. We identified a separate human lineage present in two Australian Indigenous isolates (independent geographical locations. This lineage is distinct and is present in Australian amphibians as well as a range of Australian marsupials.

  18. Human health hazard from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.;

    2006-01-01

    . The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that......The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans...... antimicrobial-resistant animal enterococci should be disregarded as a human health hazard. On the basis of review of the literature, we find that neither the results provided by molecular typing that classify enterococci as host-specific organisms nor the occurrence of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci...

  19. In vivo assessment of the host reactions to the biodegradation of the two novel magnesium alloys ZEK100 and AX30 in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huehnerschulte Tim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on biodegradable magnesium implants published recently use magnesium-calcium-alloys or magnesium-aluminum-rare earth-alloys. However, since rare earths are a mixture of elements and their toxicity is unclear, a reduced content of rare earths is favorable. The present study assesses the in vivo biocompatibility of two new magnesium alloys which have a reduced content (ZEK100 or contain no rare earths at all (AX30. Methods 24 rabbits were randomized into 4 groups (AX30 or ZEK100, 3 or 6 months, respectively and cylindrical pins were inserted in their tibiae. To assess the biodegradation μCT scans and histological examinations were performed. Results The μCT scans showed that until month three ZEK100 degrades faster than AX30, but this difference is leveled out after 6 months. Histology revealed that both materials induce adverse host reactions and high numbers of osteoclasts in the recipient bone. The mineral apposition rates of both materials groups were high. Conclusions Both alloys display favorable degradation characteristics, but they induce adverse host reactions, namely an osteoclast-driven resorption of bone and a subsequent periosteal formation of new bone. Therefore, the biocompatibility of ZEK100 and AX30 is questionable and further studies, which should focus on the interactions on cellular level, are needed.

  20. Transmission or Within-Host Dynamics Driving Pulses of Zoonotic Viruses in Reservoir–Host Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Raina K.; Peel, Alison J.; Streicker, Daniel G.; Gilbert, Amy T.; McCallum, Hamish; Wood, James; Baker, Michelle L.; Restif, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Progress in combatting zoonoses that emerge from wildlife is often constrained by limited knowledge of the biology of pathogens within reservoir hosts. We focus on the host–pathogen dynamics of four emerging viruses associated with bats: Hendra, Nipah, Ebola, and Marburg viruses. Spillover of bat infections to humans and domestic animals often coincides with pulses of viral excretion within bat populations, but the mechanisms driving such pulses are unclear. Three hypotheses dominate current research on these emerging bat infections. First, pulses of viral excretion could reflect seasonal epidemic cycles driven by natural variations in population densities and contact rates among hosts. If lifelong immunity follows recovery, viruses may disappear locally but persist globally through migration; in either case, new outbreaks occur once births replenish the susceptible pool. Second, epidemic cycles could be the result of waning immunity within bats, allowing local circulation of viruses through oscillating herd immunity. Third, pulses could be generated by episodic shedding from persistently infected bats through a combination of physiological and ecological factors. The three scenarios can yield similar patterns in epidemiological surveys, but strategies to predict or manage spillover risk resulting from each scenario will be different. We outline an agenda for research on viruses emerging from bats that would allow for differentiation among the scenarios and inform development of evidence-based interventions to limit threats to human and animal health. These concepts and methods are applicable to a wide range of pathogens that affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. PMID:27489944

  1. 厦门市肾综合征出血热宿主动物感染情况调查%Hantavirus infections among host animals of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国伟; 郭志南; 黄建炜; 陈华芳; 徐雪荣; 陈敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the host animals of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ( HFRS) and their natural infections with Hantavirus in Xiamen . Methods Night cage-traps were used to capture rodents indoor and outdoor. After the rats were taxonomically identified, their sera samples and lung tissues were aseptically collected and tested for serum Hantavirus antibody and antigen in lung tissues. Results From 2008 to 2009,2 orders,2 families, 6 species host animals were captured, dominated by Rattus norvegicus(45. 14% ). The overall positive rate of Hantavirus antibody among the host animals was 13.45% , of which R. norvegicus was 21. 52% . Positive lung tissues detected from the host animals was 2. 52% , all belonged to R. novegicus. Conclusion The natural foci of HFRS are extensively present in Xiamen,R, novegicus is the major host animal.%目的 调查厦门市肾综合征出血热(HFRS,出血热),出血热宿主动物及其自然感染汉坦病毒状况,明确主要传染源种类,为预防和控制出血热提供科学依据.方法 应用笼夜法捕鼠,计算鼠密度及鼠种构成,对鼠肺检测出血热病毒抗原,血清检测抗体.结果 2008 -2009年厦门市鼠形动物总捕获率为8.02%,属于2目2科6种,以褐家鼠(45.14%)为优势种.宿主动物血清阳性率为13.45%,褐家鼠血清阳性率为21.52%;宿主动物带毒率为2.52%,带毒指数为0.037 77.宿主动物带毒率调查阳性均为褐家鼠,全市褐家鼠带毒率为2.63%,此次监测结果与厦门市20世纪80年代宿主动物调查结果无差别(P>0.05).结论 厦门市存在以褐家鼠为主要传染源的出血热疫源地,提示应根据褐家鼠的生态特点采取有针对性的综合防控措施,有效控制以褐家鼠为主的鼠密度,降低出血热发生和流行的危险.

  2. Prevalence of avian influenza and host ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Møller, Anders Pape

    2007-01-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds are common reservoirs of the low pathogenic subtypes of avian influenza (LPAI), which are easily transmitted to poultry and become highly pathogenic. As the risk of virus transmission depends on the prevalence of LPAI in host-reservoir systems, there is an urgent need for understanding how host ecology, life history and behaviour can affect virus prevalence in the wild. To test for the most important ecological correlates of LPAI virus prevalence at the interspecific ...

  3. Modeling the ecologic niche of plague in sylvan and domestic animal hosts to delineate sources of human exposure in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael; Haseeb, M A

    2015-01-01

    Plague has been established in the western United States (US) since 1900 following the West Coast introduction of commensal rodents infected with Yersinia pestis via early industrial shipping. Over the last century, plague ecology has transitioned through cycles of widespread human transmission, urban domestic transmission among commensal rodents, and ultimately settled into the predominantly sylvan foci that remain today where it is maintained alternatively by enzootic and epizootic transmission. While zoonotic transmission to humans is much less common in modern times, significant plague risk remains in parts of the western US. Moreover, risk to some threatened species that are part of the epizootic cycle can be quite substantive. This investigation attempted to predict the risk of plague across the western US by modeling the ecologic niche of plague in sylvan and domestic animals identified between 2000 and 2015. A Maxent machine learning algorithm was used to predict this niche based on climate, altitude, land cover, and the presence of an important enzootic species, Peromyscus maniculatus. This model demonstrated good predictive ability (AUC = 86%) and identified areas of high risk in central Colorado, north-central New Mexico, and southwestern and northeastern California. The presence of P. maniculatus, altitude, precipitation during the driest and wettest quarters, and distance to artificial surfaces, all contributed substantively to maximizing the gain function. These findings add to the known landscape epidemiology and infection ecology of plague in the western US and may suggest locations of particular risk to be targeted for wild and domestic animal intervention. PMID:26713244

  4. Travelling between Two Worlds: Complement as a Gatekeeper for an Expanded Host Range of Lyme Disease Spirochetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraiczy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evading innate immunity is a prerequisite for pathogenic microorganisms in order to survive in their respective hosts. Concerning Lyme disease spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia (B. burgdorferi sensu lato group, a broad range of diverse vertebrates serve as reservoir or even as incidental hosts, including humans. The capability to infect multiple hosts implies that spirochetes have developed sophisticated means to counter the destructive effects of complement of humans and various animals. While the means by which spirochetes overcome the hosts immune defense are far from being completely understood, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that binding of the key regulator of the alternative pathway, Factor H, plays a pivotal role for immune evasion and that Factor H is an important determinant of host specificity. This review covers (i the contribution of complement in host-specificity and transmissibility of Lyme disease spirochetes; (ii the involvement of borrelial-derived determinants to host specificity; (iii the interplay of human and animal Factor H with complement-acquiring surface proteins of diverse borrelial species; and (iv the potential role of additional animal complement proteins in the immune evasion of spirochetes.

  5. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C.; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  6. The raccoon (Procyon lotor) as potential rabies reservoir species in Germany: a risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Adriaan; Ortmann, Steffen; Kretzschmar, Antje S; Köhnemann, Berit; Michler, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial wildlife rabies has been successfully eliminated from Germany predominantly as a result of the distribution of oral rabies vaccine baits. In case that wildlife rabies would re-emerge among its known reservoir species in Germany, swift action based on previous experiences could spatially and temporally limit and subsequently control such an outbreak. However, if rabies emerged in the raccoon population in Germany (Procyon lotor), there are no tools or local experience available to cope with this situation. This is especially worrisome for urban areas like Kassel (Hesse) due to the extremely high raccoon population density. A rabies outbreak among this potential reservoir host species in these urban settings could have a significant impact on public and animal health. PMID:22712420

  7. Are ticks venomous animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; James J Valdés

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many...

  8. [Ecotoxicological value of sediments state from reservoir R-11 of Techa River reservoir cascade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priakhin, E A; Bogdanov, G O; Traipitsyna, G A; Deriabina, L V; Stukalov, P M; Aleksandrova, O A; Akleev, A V

    2010-01-01

    Researches of sediments state from reservoir R-11 of tandem Techa river reservoir cascade were made. Shershni (Shershni's reservoir, Chelyabinsk region) was used as reference reservoir. Radiochemical analysis of sediments and water from those reservoirs were made (radioactivity in sediments of R-11 ranged from 240 to 360 kBq/kg of dry weight for 90Sr and from 10 to 161 kBq/kg of dry weight for 137Cs). Hydrobiological researches were included (1) detection of quantitative progress and species composition of Oligochaeta fauna in reservoirs and (2) bioassay of sediments in laboratory conditions with using test-organisms Tubifex culture. Calculation of absorbed dose for Oligochaeta from reservoir R-11 was performed on basis of radiochemical analysis data. Our results indicated that quantitative progress of Oligochaeta in reservoir R-11 was less then progress in Shershni's reservoir. R-11 sediments bioassay did not show any toxic effect by tubificidae in laboratory experiments. Significant dependence for quantitative progress Oligochaeta in reservoir R-11, survival rate and breeding power from absorbed dose rate weren't found. However in subacute research breeding power for animals with higher radiation (absorbed) dose was reduced. PMID:20464971

  9. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of a newfound bat-borne hantavirus supports a laurasiatherian host association for ancestral mammalian hantaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Peter T; Drexler, Jan F; Kallies, René; Ličková, Martina; Bokorová, Silvia; Mananga, Gael D; Szemes, Tomáš; Leroy, Eric M; Krüger, Detlev H; Drosten, Christian; Klempa, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic l-segment showed that MAKV was the most closely related to other bat-borne hantaviruses and shared a most recent common ancestor with the Asian hantaviruses Xuan Son and Laibin. Breakdown of the virus load in a bat animal showed that MAKV resembles rodent-borne hantaviruses in its organ distribution in that it predominantly occurred in the spleen and kidney; this provides a first insight into the infection pattern of bat-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral state reconstruction based on a tree of l gene sequences of all relevant hantavirus lineages was combined with phylogenetic fossil host hypothesis testing, leading to a statistically significant rejection of the mammalian superorder Euarchontoglires (including rodents) but not the superorder Laurasiatheria (including shrews, moles, and bats) as potential hosts of ancestral hantaviruses at most basal tree nodes. Our data supports the emerging concept of bats as previously overlooked hantavirus reservoir hosts. PMID:27051047

  11. Natural reservoirs for homologs of hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaender, Stephanie; Brown, Richard Jp; Pietschmann, Thomas; Steinmann, Eike

    2014-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus is considered a major public health problem, infecting 2%-3% of the human population. Hepatitis C virus infection causes acute and chronic liver disease, including chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In fact, hepatitis C virus infection is the most frequent indication for liver transplantation and a vaccine is not available. Hepatitis C virus displays a narrow host species tropism, naturally infecting only humans, although chimpanzees are also susceptible to experimental infection. To date, there is no evidence for an animal reservoir of viruses closely related to hepatitis C virus which may have crossed the species barrier to cause disease in humans and resulted in the current pandemic. In fact, due to this restricted host range, a robust immunocompetent small animal model is still lacking, hampering mechanistic analysis of virus pathogenesis, immune control and prophylactic vaccine development. Recently, several studies discovered new viruses related to hepatitis C virus, belonging to the hepaci- and pegivirus genera, in small wild mammals (rodents and bats) and domesticated animals which live in close contact with humans (dogs and horses). Genetic and biological characterization of these newly discovered hepatitis C virus-like viruses infecting different mammals will contribute to our understanding of the origins of hepatitis C virus in humans and enhance our ability to study pathogenesis and immune responses using tractable animal models. In this review article, we start with an introduction on the genetic diversity of hepatitis C virus and then focus on the newly discovered viruses closely related to hepatitis C virus. Finally, we discuss possible theories about the origin of this important viral human pathogen. PMID:26038514

  12. Status of Norris Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  14. Hantavirus Immunology of Rodent Reservoirs: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Schountz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships.

  15. Analysis and Surveillance on Major Host Animal Species and Vectors of Plague in Shenzhen City%深圳市鼠疫宿主动物及媒介监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬忠; 李怀昕; 谢旭; 梅树江; 林一曼; 李迎慧; 马汉武; 程锦泉

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对深圳市鼠疫宿主动物及媒介的监测和分析,为鼠疫防治工作提供依据.方法 采用笼日法;采集全部活鼠体表蚤鉴定后分类;采用鼠疫间接血球凝集试验(IHA)查鼠血清F1抗体,脏器压印法分离鼠疫耶尔森氏菌.结果 2005年共捕获鼠形动物472只,捕获率8.25%,隶属于2目2科3属4种,褐家鼠占87.50%;2010年共捕获鼠形动物320只,捕获率7.52%,隶属于2目2科4属5种,褐家鼠占94.06%;两次监测均显示褐家鼠为本市优势鼠种.南山区鼠密度下降趋势明显,二者差异有统计学意义(x2= 48.7,P<0.001).2005年发现129只鼠形动物寄生565匹印鼠客蚤,染蚤率为27.33%,总蚤指数为1.20;2010年发现35只鼠形动物寄生79匹印鼠客蚤,染蚤率为10.93%,总蚤指数为0.25.染蚤率(x2=31.2,P<0.001)和总蚤指数(x2=1 130.0,P<0.001)呈下降趋势.2005年获鼠血清458份,2010年获鼠血清315份,鼠疫F1抗体检测均为阴性.2005年鼠脏器压印培养407份,2010年鼠脏器压印培养320份,均未分离出鼠疫杆菌.结论 深圳市未发现鼠间鼠疫疫情,鼠疫媒介生物密度呈下降趋势,南山区鼠密度下降趋势明显.%Objective To investigate and analyze the species of the hosts and the vectors of plague in Shenzhen, and to provide the scientific evidence for prevention and treatment of plague. Methods Host animals were captured by daily cage- caught. Fleas were classified after being identified. Yersinia pestis F1 antibodies were detected by IHA and Yersinia pestis was separated by organ impression. Results A total of 472 rat- like animals were captured in 2005, belonging to 2 orders, 3 genera, and 4 species. The capture rate was 8.25%. R. Norvegicus constituted 87.50% of the total number. A total of 320 rat- like animals were captured in 2010, belonging to 2 orders, 4 genera, and 5 species. The capture rate was 7.52%. R. Norvegicus, constituted 94.06% of the total number. R. Norvegicus was

  16. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... order of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also...... implications for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany. The surprisingly old ages of the earliest pottery most probably are caused by a freshwater reservoir effect. In a sediment core from the Limfjord, northern Denmark, the impact of the...

  17. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN WILD AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a single celled parasite of all warm blooded hosts worldwide. It causes mental retardation and loss of vision in children, and abortion in livestock. Cats are the main reservoir of T. gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the resistant stage (oocyst) of the par...

  18. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  20. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.

  1. Laboratory animal allergy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, A

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers at 8 laboratory animal facilities. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing with common and occupational allergens. Total and specific IgE measures were obtained....

  2. Host Cell Invasion by Toxoplasma gondii Is Temporally Regulated by the Host Microtubule Cytoskeleton ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Kristin R.; Morrissette, Naomi S.; LaChapelle, Stephanie; Blader, Ira J.

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that invades and replicates within most nucleated cells of warm-blooded animals. The basis for this wide host cell tropism is unknown but could be because parasites invade host cells using distinct pathways and/or repertoires of host factors. Using synchronized parasite invasion assays, we found that host microtubule disruption significantly reduces parasite invasion into host cells early after stimulating parasite invasion but...

  3. Questions and Answers about Ebola, Pets, and Other Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions and Answers about Ebola, Pets, and Other Animals Language: English Español Français Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How are animals involved in Ebola outbreaks? Because the natural reservoir ...

  4. Undiscovered Bat Hosts of Filoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, John Paul; Alexander, Laura W.; Bowden, Sarah E.; Hayman, David T. S.; Drake, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Ebola and other filoviruses pose significant public health and conservation threats by causing high mortality in primates, including humans. Preventing future outbreaks of ebolavirus depends on identifying wildlife reservoirs, but extraordinarily high biodiversity of potential hosts in temporally dynamic environments of equatorial Africa contributes to sporadic, unpredictable outbreaks that have hampered efforts to identify wild reservoirs for nearly 40 years. Using a machine learning algorithm, generalized boosted regression, we characterize potential filovirus-positive bat species with estimated 87% accuracy. Our model produces two specific outputs with immediate utility for guiding filovirus surveillance in the wild. First, we report a profile of intrinsic traits that discriminates hosts from non-hosts, providing a biological caricature of a filovirus-positive bat species. This profile emphasizes traits describing adult and neonate body sizes and rates of reproductive fitness, as well as species’ geographic range overlap with regions of high mammalian diversity. Second, we identify several bat species ranked most likely to be filovirus-positive on the basis of intrinsic trait similarity with known filovirus-positive bats. New bat species predicted to be positive for filoviruses are widely distributed outside of equatorial Africa, with a majority of species overlapping in Southeast Asia. Taken together, these results spotlight several potential host species and geographical regions as high-probability targets for future filovirus surveillance. PMID:27414412

  5. Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andrew W

    2012-07-01

    Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

  6. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the z=2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, T K Daisy

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of CO(J=3-2) line emission in the strongly-lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z=2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z=0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of S_cont = 7.4 +/- 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J=3-2) line intensity of I_(CO(3-2)) = (12.6 +/- 2.0) Jy km s^-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of L'(CO(3-2)) = (3.4 +/- 0.7) x 10^10 (10.1/mu_L) K km s^-1 pc^2 for the SMG, where mu_L is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of M_gas = (2.7 +/- 0.6) x 10^10 (10.1/mu_L) Msun. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1^{+1.1}_{-1.3} K, a dust mass of M_du...

  7. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  8. Antisense treatment of caliciviridae: an emerging disease agent of animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alvin W; Matson, David O; Stein, David A; Skilling, Douglas E; Kroeker, Andrew D; Berke, Tamas; Iversen, Patrick L

    2002-04-01

    The Earth's oceans are the primary reservoir for an emerging family of RNA viruses, the Caliciviridae, which can cause a spectrum of diseases in marine animals, wildlife, farm animals, pets and humans. Certain members of this family have unusually broad host ranges, and some are zoonotic (transmissible from animals to humans). The RNA virus replicative processes lack effective genetic repair mechanisms, and, therefore, virtually every calicivirus replicate is a mutant. Hence, traditional therapeutics dependent on specific nucleic acid sequences or protein epitopes lack the required diversity of sequence or conformational specificity that would be required to reliably detect, prevent or treat infections from these mutant clusters (quasi-species) of RNA viruses, including the Caliciviridae. Antisense technology using phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers shows promise in overcoming these current diagnostic and therapeutic problems inherent with newly emerging viral diseases. PMID:12044040

  9. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  10. Viral/Host interaction in viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Grand, R. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Service de Neurovirologie, 92 (France)

    2006-07-01

    The major objectives of the Neuro-virology Department (SNV for 'Service de Neurovirologie') are related to the study of host/pathogen interactions, particularly during primate lentiviral infections. Various experimental models have been developed such as non-human primates infected with the HIV-related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), as an animal model of human AIDS. The current research programs of the SNV following four main directions: 1) Study of the pathogenesis of primate lentiviral infection, including mucosal transmission of HIV/SIV, primary infection, dissemination to various reservoirs, neuro-pathogenesis and hematopoietic disorders; 2) Prevention of HIV transmission, particularly through vaccination but also by means of microbicides applied to genital mucosa and post-exposure treatment with antiviral drugs; 3) Cellular and molecular pharmacology of new antiviral compounds; 4) Development of new primate models of human hematological disorders like chronic myeloid leukemia cells and development on new gene transfer in hematopoietic cells based on the use of lentiviral vectors Main programs of the SNV will be presented as well as the perspective focused on the use of non invasive in vivo imaging approaches for the exploration of immune and hematopoietic cells.

  11. Wild and synanthropic reservoirs of Leishmania species in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, André Luiz R; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2014-12-01

    The definition of a reservoir has changed significantly in the last century, making it necessary to study zoonosis from a broader perspective. One important example is that of Leishmania, zoonotic multi-host parasites maintained by several mammal species in nature. The magnitude of the health problem represented by leishmaniasis combined with the complexity of its epidemiology make it necessary to clarify all of the links in transmission net, including non-human mammalian hosts, to develop effective control strategies. Although some studies have described dozens of species infected with these parasites, only a minority have related their findings to the ecological scenario to indicate a possible role of that host in parasite maintenance and transmission. Currently, it is accepted that a reservoir may be one or a complex of species responsible for maintaining the parasite in nature. A reservoir system should be considered unique on a given spatiotemporal scale. In fact, the transmission of Leishmania species in the wild still represents an complex enzootic "puzzle", as several links have not been identified. This review presents the mammalian species known to be infected with Leishmania spp. in the Americas, highlighting those that are able to maintain and act as a source of the parasite in nature (and are thus considered potential reservoirs). These host/reservoirs are presented separately in each of seven mammal orders - Marsupialia, Cingulata, Pilosa, Rodentia, Primata, Carnivora, and Chiroptera - responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild. PMID:25426421

  12. Wild and synanthropic reservoirs of Leishmania species in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz R. Roque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a reservoir has changed significantly in the last century, making it necessary to study zoonosis from a broader perspective. One important example is that of Leishmania, zoonotic multi-host parasites maintained by several mammal species in nature. The magnitude of the health problem represented by leishmaniasis combined with the complexity of its epidemiology make it necessary to clarify all of the links in transmission net, including non-human mammalian hosts, to develop effective control strategies. Although some studies have described dozens of species infected with these parasites, only a minority have related their findings to the ecological scenario to indicate a possible role of that host in parasite maintenance and transmission. Currently, it is accepted that a reservoir may be one or a complex of species responsible for maintaining the parasite in nature. A reservoir system should be considered unique on a given spatiotemporal scale. In fact, the transmission of Leishmania species in the wild still represents an complex enzootic “puzzle”, as several links have not been identified. This review presents the mammalian species known to be infected with Leishmania spp. in the Americas, highlighting those that are able to maintain and act as a source of the parasite in nature (and are thus considered potential reservoirs. These host/reservoirs are presented separately in each of seven mammal orders – Marsupialia, Cingulata, Pilosa, Rodentia, Primata, Carnivora, and Chiroptera – responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild.

  13. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi among eleven potential reservoir species from six states across the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emily L; Roellig, Dawn M; Gompper, Matthew E; Monello, Ryan J; Wenning, Krista M; Gabriel, Mourad W; Yabsley, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0-68%) and opossums (17-52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi in the

  14. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  15. Hosts and parasites as aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraschewski, H

    2006-06-01

    Over the past decades, various free-living animals (hosts) and their parasites have invaded recipient areas in which they had not previously occurred, thus gaining the status of aliens or exotics. In general this happened to a low extent for hundreds of years. With variable frequency, invasions have been followed by the dispersal and establishment of non-indigenous species, whether host or parasite. In the literature thus far, colonizations by both hosts and parasites have not been treated and reviewed together, although both are usually interwoven in various ways. As to those factors permitting invasive success and colonization strength, various hypotheses have been put forward depending on the scientific background of respective authors and on the conspicuousness of certain invasions. Researchers who have tried to analyse characteristic developmental patterns, the speed of dispersal or the degree of genetic divergence in populations of alien species have come to different conclusions. Among parasitologists, the applied aspects of parasite invasions, such as the negative effects on economically important hosts, have long been at the centre of interest. In this contribution, invasions by hosts as well as parasites are considered comparatively, revealing many similarities and a few differences. Two helminths, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, of cattle and sheep and the swimbladder nematode, Anguillicola crassus, of eels are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change. Introductions of F. hepatica have been associated with imports of cattle or other grazing animals. In various target areas, susceptible lymnaeid snails serving as intermediate hosts were either naturally present and/or were introduced from the donor continent of the parasite (Europe) and/or from other regions which were not within the original range of the parasite, partly reflecting progressive stages of a global biota change. In several

  16. Engineering Microbiomes to Improve Plant and Animal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, UG; Sachs, JL

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Animal and plant microbiomes encompass diverse microbial communities that colonize every accessible host tissue. These microbiomes enhance host functions, contributing to host health and fitness. A novel approach to improve animal and plant fitness is to artificially select upon microbiomes, thus engineering evolved microbiomes with specific effects on host fitness. We call this engineering approach host-mediated microbiome selection, because this method selects upon micr...

  17. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  18. Genospecies diversity of Lyme disease spirochetes in rodent reservoirs.

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, D.; Endepols, S.; Ohlenbusch, A.; Eiffert, H.; Spielman, A.; Matuschka, F. R.

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether particular Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. genospecies associate solely with rodent reservoir hosts, we compared the genospecies prevalence in questing nymphal Ixodes ticks with that in xenodiagnostic ticks that had fed as larvae on rodents captured in the same site. No genospecies was more prevalent in rodent-fed ticks than in questing ticks. The three main spirochete genospecies, therefore, share common rodent hosts.

  19. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  20. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  1. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  2. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  3. Exploring reservoir dynamics: a case study of rabies in the Serengeti ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Lembo, Tiziana; Hampson, Katie; Haydon, Daniel T.; Craft, Meggan; Dobson, Andy; Dushoff, Jonathan; Ernest, Eblate; Hoare, Richard; Kaare, Magai; Mlengeya, Titus; Mentzel, Christine; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of infection reservoir dynamics is critical for effective disease control, but identifying reservoirs of multi-host pathogens is challenging. Here, we synthesize several lines of evidence to investigate rabies reservoirs in complex carnivore communities of the Serengeti ecological region in northwest Tanzania, where the disease has been confirmed in 12 carnivore species.Long-term monitoring data suggest that rabies persists in high-density domestic dog Canis familiaris populations (...

  4. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  5. Quadruped Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Skrba, Ljiljana; Reveret, Lionel; Hétroy, Franck; Cani, Marie-Paule; O'Sullivan, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation of realistic animals in the computer graphics area. In...

  6. Thin Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, D.

    1998-01-01

    Lattice animals provide a discretized model for the theta transition displayed by branched polymers in solvent. Exact graph enumeration studies have given some indications that the phase diagram of such lattice animals may contain two collapsed phases as well as an extended phase. This has not been confirmed by studies using other means. We use the exact correspondence between the q --> 1 limit of an extended Potts model and lattice animals to investigate the phase diagram of lattice animals ...

  7. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  8. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  9. Ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Apanaskevich, D A; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martínez, I; Reyes-Novelo, E; Esteve-Gassent, M D; Pérez de León, A A

    2016-01-15

    Domestic animals and wildlife play important roles as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens that are transmitted to humans by ticks. Besides their role as vectors of several classes of microorganisms of veterinary and public health relevance, ticks also burden human and animal populations through their obligate blood-feeding habit. It is estimated that in Mexico there are around 100 tick species belonging to the Ixodidae and Argasidae families. Information is lacking on tick species that affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife through their life cycle. This study was conducted to bridge that knowledge gap by inventorying tick species that infest humans, domestic animals and wildlife in the State of Yucatan, Mexico. Amblyomma ticks were observed as euryxenous vertebrate parasites because they were found parasitizing 17 animal species and human. Amblyomma mixtum was the most eryxenous species found in 11 different animal species and humans. Both A. mixtum and A. parvum were found parasitizing humans. Ixodes near affinis was the second most abundant species parasitizing six animal species (dogs, cats, horses, white-nosed coati, white-tail deer and black vulture) and was found widely across the State of Yucatan. Ixodid tick populations may increase in the State of Yucatan with time due to animal production intensification, an increasing wildlife population near rural communities because of natural habitat reduction and fragmentation. The diversity of ticks across host taxa documented here highlights the relevance of ecological information to understand tick-host dynamics. This knowledge is critical to inform public health and veterinary programs for the sustainable control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. PMID:26790745

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with animals and its relevance to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnalisaPantosti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbioma and resistoma, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA emerged fifty years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The “pig” MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health.

  11. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  12. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in science (as in any other human use that is not also in the animals’ best interest). These views are not compatible, and since all three views in more or less pure form are found in modern Western societies, use of animals for research is bound to cause controversy. However, there may be room for some kind......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  13. Estudo de dois anos com animais reservatórios em área de ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar americana humana em bairro de urbanização antiga na cidade de Manaus-AM, Brasil Two year study of reservoir animals in an old urban area with cutaneous Leishmaniasis occurrence in the city of Manaus-AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem o resultado de dois anos de investigação de um foco de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA, ocorrida em área urbanizada em um conjunto habitacional na cidade da Manaus-AM. Chama atenção o fato de que este não é o padrão de ocorrência de surtos da doença na região, e sim interrupção da transmissão após urbanização. Foram investigados os animais considerados reservatórios em potencial para a leishmaniose em domicílios humanos e em áreas de floresta adjacentes. Foram testados anticorpos contra Leishmania spp em amostras de sangue de cães e detectada reatividade pela reação de imunofluorescencia indireta em oito (20,51 % dos examinados. Entre os animais silvestres examinados a espécie Didelphis marsupialis foi predominante, com 20 exemplares capturados, sendo encontrados homoflagelados em três destes e lesões suspeitas de leishmaniose cutanea em dois. Acredita-se que um assentamento populacional desordenado ocorrido nas adjacências tenha causado o deslocamento das populações de vetores e reservatórios naturais em direção às casas do conjunto Hiléia propiciando o surto.This is the result of a two year follow-up of a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL foci in the Hileia urban neighborhood in Manaus. It is important to point out that this is not the usual pattern of Leishmaniasis occurrence in this area. The authors investigated the animal potential reservoir in households and in the surrounding forest area. Samples were tested for leishmaniasis antibodies by RIFI. Eight (20.51% of the examined domestic dogs showed reactivity. In captured wild animals, the Didelphis marsupialis was predominant in twenty specimens, three with homoflagelated in the blood and two with suspicious cutaneous lesions. We believe that the disordered population growth in the nearby area pushed the population of vectors and natural reservoir toward the homes in the Heleia neighborhood creating conditions for this outbreak.

  14. Response of Leptospira interrogans to Physiologic Osmolarity: Relevance in Signaling the Environment-to-Host Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission of pathogenic Leptospira between mammalian hosts usually involves dissemination via soil or water contaminated by the urine of reservoir hosts. The ability of Leptospira to adapt to the variety of conditions found inside and outside of the host is reflected in the relatively large geno...

  15. Anticipating the Emerging of Some Strategical Infectious Animal Diseases in Indonesia Related to The Effect of Global Warming and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsul Bahri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global warming and climate change is changing the season, included flooding in one area and very dry in other area, changing the temperature and humidity. These changes will trigger changing of the life of biological agent (virus, bacteria, parasites and so on, variety of animal species, variety of vectors as reservoir host of animal with the role of transmitting the disease to other animal species, This condition will trigger the new animal disease (emerging disease or old disease will be re-emerged (re-emerging diseases. This paper will discuss the effect of global warming and climate change on animal diseases in Indonesia such as Bluetongue (BT, Nipah, Japanese encephalitis (JE, West Nile (WN, and Rift Valley fever (RVF. The climate changes such as increasing the earth temperature and rainfall will cause extremely increase of vector population for BT, JE, WN and RVF. In addition, animal transportation and bird migration from one country to others or region will cause changing of ecological system and will open the chance to distribute the diseases. Hence, anticipation on those disease outbreaks should be taken by conducting the surveilance and early detection to those diseases. The possibility of entering Nipah disease in Indonesia should be anticipated because the avaibility of Nipah virus and the reservoir host (Pteropus spp and also pigs as amplifier host in the surrounding area. Other diseases such as, leptospirosis, anthrax and avian influenza (H5N1 are also have a wider potential to distributing the disease related to the climate change in Indonesia.

  16. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  17. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...... har betydning for driften af reservoiret. MIKE 11 modelsystemet er udvalgt til simulering af flodsystemet inklusiv reservoiret, mens en evolutionsbaseret algoritme i softwaresystemet AUTOCAL er benyttet som optimeringsværktøj. Herved er det blevet muligt at beregne gruppen af ikke-dominerede løsninger...

  18. Reservoir annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical information with regard to performance and reservoir parameters of provincial oil and gas pools was consolidated into a convenient reference manual. The information was subdivided into nine sections, each dealing with a specific type of reservoir data. Maps showing oil and gas pools, production areas and well spacing were presented. Reservoir data and reserves for all oil and gas pools broken down by unit and non-unit areas was also provided. Natural gas production in 1994 was 7.905 billion cubic metres, setting a new record and exceeding the previous record set in 1993 by about 10.5%. Initial reserves of gas were increased by 9.962 billion cubic metres in 1994, resulting in a net increase of 2.051 billion cubic metres and a remaining established reserves year-end value of 86.748 billion cubic meters. There were 892 new gas well completions in 1994. tabs., figs

  19. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  20. First report of natural infection in hedgehogs with Leishmania major, a possible reservoir of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Pérez, Míriam; Khaldi, Mourad; Riera, Cristina; Mozo-León, Denis; Ribas, Alexis; Hide, Mallorie; Barech, Ghania; Benyettou, Meryam; Seghiri, Kamel; Doudou, Souad; Fisa, Roser

    2014-07-01

    We report here the first known cases of natural infection of hedgehogs with Leishmania major. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an important public health problem in the area of M'sila, a semi-arid province in Algeria's northern Sahara, where two species of hedgehog live, Atelerix algirus and Paraechinus aethiopicus. The aim of this research was to survey Leishmania infection in these hedgehogs and evaluate whether they were reservoir hosts of Leishmania in an endemic zoonotic focus of leishmaniasis. Serological and molecular methods were used to determine the presence of Leishmania in 24 hedgehogs caught directly by hand and identified at species level as 19 A. algirus and 5 P. aethiopicus. Specific anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 29.2% of individuals by Western blot and in 26.3% by ELISA. The real-time PCR performed in spleen, ear and blood samples detected Leishmania spp. DNA in 12.5% of the individuals, one A. algirus and two P. aethiopicus. Three skin and two spleen samples of these animals were found to be parasitized and were identified by molecular test as L. major. Considering our results, it is suggested that hedgehogs have a potential epidemiological role as reservoir hosts of L. major. PMID:24699087

  1. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  2. Glycoconjugates in Host-Helminth Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Mickum, Megan L.; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Richard D. Cummings

    2013-01-01

    Helminths are multicellular parasitic worms that comprise a major class of human pathogens and cause an immense amount of suffering worldwide. Helminths possess an abundance of complex and unique glycoconjugates that interact with both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity in definitive and intermediate hosts. These glycoconjugates represent a major untapped reservoir of immunomodulatory compounds, which have the potential to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and antigenic glyca...

  3. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Staczek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  4. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  5. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  6. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  7. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    chalk intervals are to some extent cemented and cannot compact mechanically at realistic effective stresses and only deform elastically. All chalk intervals though, may react by fracturing to changes in shear stress. So where natural fractures are not prevalent, fractures may be generated hydraulically....... Fractures play a significant role in the production of hydrocarbons from chalk reservoirs....

  8. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  9. Animal Models of Ricin Toxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Chad J; Song, Kejing; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Gardner, Donald J.; Seth H Pincus

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of ricin toxicosis are necessary for testing the efficacy of therapeutic measures, as well studying the mechanisms by which ricin exerts its toxicity in intact animals. Because ricin can serve as a particularly well-characterized model of tissue damage, and the host response to that damage, studies of the mechanisms of ricin toxicity may have more general applicability. For example, our studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of ricin-induced hypoglycemia ...

  10. 42 CFR 71.54 - Etiological agents, hosts, and vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Etiological agents, hosts, and vectors. 71.54..., INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Importations § 71.54 Etiological agents, hosts, and vectors. (a) A... any arthropod or other animal host or vector of human disease, or any exotic living arthropod or...

  11. Geothermal reservoirs - A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly, Sayantan; Kumar, Mohan MS

    2012-01-01

    A brief discussion and review of the geothermal reservoir systems, geothermal energy and modeling and simulation of the geothermal reservoirs has been presented here. Different types of geothermal reservoirs and their governing equations have been discussed first. The conceptual and numerical modeling along with the representation of flow though fractured media, some issues related to non isothermal flow through fractured media, the efficiency of the geothermal reservoir, structure of the num...

  12. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Nalleli Loria-Cervera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106 of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease.

  13. Animal models for the study of leishmaniasis immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers ("low" 1 × 10(2) and "high" 1 × 10(6)) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease. PMID:24553602

  14. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  15. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  16. Animal performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  17. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  18. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  19. Distribution and characteristics of volcanic reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yulong; WANG Pujun; CHEN Shuming

    2009-01-01

    About forty productive oil/gas fields hosted in volcanic reservoirs have been found since 1957 in fourteen basins of China. They can be simply subdivided into two groups, the east and the west. Reservoir volcanic rocks of the east group are predominantly composed of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rhyolite and Tertiary basalt, preferred being considered as rift type volcanics developed in the circum-Pacific tectonic regime. Those of the west are Permo-Carboniferous intermediate/basic volcanic rocks, being island-arc type ones developed in paleo-Asian Ocean tectonic regime.

  20. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    Reservoir properties of chalk depend on the primary sediment composition as well as on subsequent diagenesis and tectonic events. Chalks of the North Sea almost exclusively have mudstone or wackestone texture. Microfossils may have retained their porosity where degree of diagenesis is low, or be......, and the best reservoir properties are typically found in mudstone intervals. Chalk mudstones vary a lot though. The best mudstones are purely calcitic, well sorted and may have been redeposited by traction currents. Other mudstones are rich in very fine grained silica, which takes up pore space and...... thus reduces porosity at the same time as it increases specific surface and thus cause permeability to be low. In the Central North Sea the silica is quartzitic. Silica rich chalk intervals are typically found in the Ekofisk and Hod formations. In addition to silica, Upper Cretaceous and Palæogene...

  1. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Research on improving animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to improve animal nutrition, studies have been carried out on the utilization of animal feeds using radioisotopes. Improvement of the nutritive value of straws, digestibility and VFA production by alkali treatment and other treatments has been studied by injecting VFA labelled with C14 and H3. Microbial protein synthesis rates in ruminants were studied using C14 and S35 labelled mixed culture of bacterial protozca. Results obtained are helpful in understanding the metabolism in rumens and the microbial proteins available to the host animals on various dietary regimen. (A.K.)

  3. Introduced Siberian Chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) Contribute More to Lyme Borreliosis Risk than Native Reservoir Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Maud Marsot; Jean-Louis Chapuis; Patrick Gasqui; Anne Dozières; Sébastien Masséglia; Benoit Pisanu; Elisabeth Ferquel; Gwenaël Vourc'h

    2013-01-01

    The variation of the composition in species of host communities can modify the risk of disease transmission. In particular, the introduction of a new host species can increase health threats by adding a new reservoir and/or by amplifying the circulation of either exotic or native pathogens. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-host vector-borne disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is transmitted by the bite of hard ticks, especially Ixodes ricinus in ...

  4. [Influenza in heterothermic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Cianciarullo, Aurora Marques; Kobashi, Leonardo Setsuo; Trindade, Hermínio Gomes; Fernandes, Wilson; Pinto, José Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus) and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana) were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin) or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza virus and also susceptibility to the infection. PMID:15330057

  5. Virus evolution in the face of the host response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Microbial infections are highly dynamic processes in which the invading pathogen must counteract host responses to complete an infectious cycle. Viruses offer a broad repertoire of strategies to cope with host defences. Complex DNA viruses encode a number of immunomodulatory proteins aimed at interacting with the host to modulate host responses. In contrast with this 'interacting' strategy, the highly variable RNA viruses employ an 'evasion' strategy, with the frequent selection of mutants capable of evading host immune responses. Mutation rates for RNA viruses are in the range of 10-3 to 10-5 misincorporations per nucleotide copied. This continuous mutational input has as a result that viral genome populations do not consist of a defined nucleotide sequence but of multitudes of closely related sequences. The entire mutant distribution is termed a viral quasispecies. The spectrum of mutants serves as a reservoir of genetic and phenotypic variants. The continuous replenishment of this dynamic reservoir constitutes an adaptative strategy for RNA viruses since selective pressures can result in dominance of viral subpopulations that were a minority in the parental distribution of mutants. Quasispecies adaptability is reflected not only in evasion of immune responses but also in changes in cell tropism and host range of viruses, with implications for viral disease emergence and re-emergence. Several examples of human and animal viruses in which quasispecies dynamics plays a role in viral persistence and disease progression will be discussed. Quasispecies dynamics has additional implications for virus evolution, the diagnosis of viral disease and the design of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Viral populations can contain a memory of those genomes that were dominant at an earlier stage of their evolutionary history. This is a genetic memory in the form of minority components of the mutant spectrum, first described with two independent lineages of foot

  6. Reservoirs of Non-baumannii Acinetobacter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Atrouni, Ahmad; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Hamze, Monzer; Kempf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous gram negative and non-fermenting coccobacilli that have the ability to occupy several ecological niches including environment, animals and human. Among the different species, Acinetobacter baumannii has evolved as global pathogen causing wide range of infection. Since the implementation of molecular techniques, the habitat and the role of non-baumannii Acinetobacter in human infection have been elucidated. In addition, several new species have been described. In the present review, we summarize the recent data about the natural reservoir of non-baumannii Acinetobacter including the novel species that have been described for the first time from environmental sources and reported during the last years. PMID:26870013

  7. Trusted Hosts in Host Identity Protocol (HIP)

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Amir

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to study the possibilities to establish trusted hosts in Host Identity Protocol (HIP) and implement certificate handling in HIP packets. The time complexity and performance while using certificates in HIP packets was also measured. The research project was carried out at Arcada University of Applied Sciences in collaboration with Helsinki University. The project aimed to implement standard x.509 certification of the public key used as HI (Host Identity) to deri...

  8. XX. Animal models of pneumocystosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dei-Cas, E.; Brun-Pascaud, M.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;

    1998-01-01

    As in vitro culture systems allowing to isolate Pneumocystis samples from patients or other mammal hosts are still not available, animal models have critical importance in Pneumocystis research. The parasite was reported in numerous mammals but P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) experimental models were...... source of parasites taxonomically related to P. carinii sp. f hominis. Moreover, primates might be used as experimental hosts to human Pneumocystis. A marked variability of parasite levels among corticosteroid-treated animals and the fact that the origin of the parasite strain remains unknown, are...... important drawbacks of the corticosteroid-treated models. For these reasons, inoculated animal models of PCP were developed. The intratracheal inoculation of lung homogenates containing viable parasites in corticosteroid-treated non-latently infected rats resulted in extensive, reproducible Pneumocystis...

  9. Reconstructing magma reservoir dynamics from field evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, R.; Muntener, O.; Ulmer, P.

    2013-12-01

    Reconstructing the dynamics within magma reservoirs during and after emplacement greatly enhance our understanding of their formation and evolution. By determining the length and timescales over which magma remains mobile within magma reservoirs, fluxes of magma that is possibly extractable can be quantified, providing a link between plutonic and volcanic systems, and constraints on the likelihood of a pluton feeding volcanic eruptions. However, the general absence of marker beds and uncertainties regarding at which crystal fractions super-solidus foliation patterns are recorded make it difficult to reconstruct and quantify deformation inside plutons, especially the deformation that occurred at low crystal fractions. Here we present a case study of the Listino Ring Structure (LRS) of the Adamello Batholith in N-Italy, a 300-500 m-wide semi-circular zone of intensely foliated tonalite containing abundant evidence for magmatic deformation and magma mingling (Brack, 1984). The differences in the interaction between felsic and mafic magmas recorded in the form of mafic dikes, sheets and enclaves can be used to determine spatial and/or temporal differences of magma rheology during evolution of the reservoir. Detailed field mapping shows a clear difference in intrusion style between the southern and eastern sides of the LRS, as mafic magma intrudes into different felsic host magmas. An attempt is made to quantify these differences in terms of the physical state of the host magmas, using a variety of analyses pertaining to the breakup of mafic dikes into enclaves, the assimilation of phenocrysts from the host magma by the mafic magma, and the back-veining of mafic dikes and enclaves. The common component of these analyses is a parametrization of the phase petrology of the magmas as a function of temperature, which allows for the determination of melt fraction and composition at super-solidus conditions, from which physical properties such as density and viscosity can be

  10. Environmental assessment of cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental impacts, both adverse and beneficial, of cooling reservoirs are compared to cooling towers as an alternative closed cycle cooling system. Generally, the impacts associated with the construction of a cooling reservoir system are greater than for a comparable cooling tower system. Operational impacts are generally greater for cooling towers due to their visual impact, plus icing, fogging, and noise problems. The principle advantages of cooling reservoirs are their lower operating and maintenance costs, greater reliability, greater cooling efficiency, reduced water consumption in areas where cooling water storage is required, and their multiple use potential. A review of pertinent literature on cooling reservoir ecosystems, has revealed that entrainment, thermal, and chemical effects generally result in reduced populations of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos in the vicinity of the power plant discharge. Adverse far field effects are generally less significant and are sometimes stimulatory. The overall effects of a power plant on the fish populations of cooling reservoirs appear to be minor. Based on the thermal characteristics of a model 6400 acre cooling reservoir with four 1150 MWe reactors, the ecological characteristics of the reservoir were predicted. The multiple use possibilities of cooling reservoirs provide their most significant beneficial aspect when compared to cooling towers. In addition, the cage culture of food fishes in cooling reservoirs provides an economical and practical method of commercially utilizing the waste heat discharged by power plants. For many areas of the country, cooling reservoirs appear to provide an environmentally and socially desirable alternative to cooling towers

  11. Biotecnologia animal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  12. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  13. Identification of Bacterial Specialists in Hosts belonging to Aves, Mammalia, and Pisces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only a portion of bacteria found in animal guts are able to establish specific associations within animal hosts. Taxa that have formed these specialized relationships may have played a prominent role in host evolution and may also contribute significantly to current host physiolo...

  14. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  15. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  16. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  17. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Abdelgawad

    Full Text Available Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM, a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls.

  18. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  19. Persistent HIV-1 replication maintains the tissue reservoir during therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Redondo, Ramon; Fryer, Helen R; Bedford, Trevor; Kim, Eun-Young; Archer, John; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Chung, Yoon-Seok; Penugonda, Sudhir; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Fletcher, Courtney V; Schacker, Timothy W; Malim, Michael H; Rambaut, Andrew; Haase, Ashley T; McLean, Angela R; Wolinsky, Steven M

    2016-02-01

    Lymphoid tissue is a key reservoir established by HIV-1 during acute infection. It is a site associated with viral production, storage of viral particles in immune complexes, and viral persistence. Although combinations of antiretroviral drugs usually suppress viral replication and reduce viral RNA to undetectable levels in blood, it is unclear whether treatment fully suppresses viral replication in lymphoid tissue reservoirs. Here we show that virus evolution and trafficking between tissue compartments continues in patients with undetectable levels of virus in their bloodstream. We present a spatial and dynamic model of persistent viral replication and spread that indicates why the development of drug resistance is not a foregone conclusion under conditions in which drug concentrations are insufficient to completely block virus replication. These data provide new insights into the evolutionary and infection dynamics of the virus population within the host, revealing that HIV-1 can continue to replicate and replenish the viral reservoir despite potent antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26814962

  20. Calderas and magma reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Katharine V.; Giordano, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Large caldera-forming eruptions have long been a focus of both petrological and volcanological studies; petrologists have used the eruptive products to probe conditions of magma storage (and thus processes that drive magma evolution), while volcanologists have used them to study the conditions under which large volumes of magma are transported to, and emplaced on, the Earth's surface. Traditionally, both groups have worked on the assumption that eruptible magma is stored within a single long-lived melt body. Over the past decade, however, advances in analytical techniques have provided new views of magma storage regions, many of which provide evidence of multiple melt lenses feeding a single eruption, and/or rapid pre-eruptive assembly of large volumes of melt. These new petrological views of magmatic systems have not yet been fully integrated into volcanological perspectives of caldera-forming eruptions. Here we explore the implications of complex magma reservoir configurations for eruption dynamics and caldera formation. We first examine mafic systems, where stacked-sill models have long been invoked but which rarely produce explosive eruptions. An exception is the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, where seismic and petrologic data show that multiple sills at different depths fed a multi-phase (explosive and effusive) eruption. Extension of this concept to larger mafic caldera-forming systems suggests a mechanism to explain many of their unusual features, including their protracted explosivity, spatially variable compositions and pronounced intra-eruptive pauses. We then review studies of more common intermediate and silicic caldera-forming systems to examine inferred conditions of magma storage, time scales of melt accumulation, eruption triggers, eruption dynamics and caldera collapse. By compiling data from large and small, and crystal-rich and crystal-poor, events, we compare eruptions that are well explained by simple evacuation of a zoned

  1. [Human reservoirs of Pneumocystis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissmann, Gustavo; Morilla, Ruben; Friaza, Vicente; Calderón, Enrique; Varela, Jose M

    2010-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii, the fungal agent that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), is known to exclusively infect humans. Molecular studies have enabled detection of this fungus in individuals who have been colonized by P. jirovecii. Such colonization, found in several populations, seems to act as a human reservoir for the fungus. Various studies have reported mutations associated with sulfa resistance in P. jirovecii strains isolated from colonized patients, who can transmit the mutant genotype to PCP-susceptible individuals. The growing interest in P. jirovecii colonization may prompt the design of new prevention and management strategies for PCP. PMID:19403207

  2. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  3. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  4. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  5. Tracer testing for reservoir description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigham, W.E.; Abbaszadeh-Dehghani, M.

    1987-05-01

    When a reservoir is studied in detail for an EOR project, well-to-well tracers should be used as a tool to help understand the reservoir in a quantitative way. Tracers complement the more traditional reservoir evaluation tools. This paper discusses the concepts underlying tracer testing, the analysis methods used to produce quantitative results, and the meaning of these results in terms of conceptual picture of the reservoir. Some of the limitations of these analysis methods are discussed, along with ongoing research on tracer flow.

  6. Tracer testing for reservoir description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a reservoir is studied in detail for an EOR project, well-to-well tracers should be used as a tool to help understand the reservoir in a quantitative way. Tracers complement the more traditional reservoir evaluation tools. This paper discusses the concepts underlying tracer testing, the analysis methods used to produce quantitative results, and the meaning of these results in terms of conceptual picture of the reservoir. Some of the limitations of these analysis methods are discussed, along with ongoing research on tracer flow

  7. Reservoir geochemistry; Geoquimica de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Joelma Pimentel; Rangel, Mario Duncan; Morais, Erica Tavares de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)], Emails: joelma.lopes@petrobras.com.br, mduncan@petrobras.com.br, ericat@petrobras.com.br; Aguiar, Helen G.M. de [Fundacao GORCEIX, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: helenaguiar.GORCEIX@petrobras.com.br

    2008-03-15

    Reservoir Geochemistry has many important practical applications during petroleum exploration, appraisal and development of oil fields. The most important uses are related to providing or disproving connectivity between reservoirs of a particular well or horizon. During exploration, reservoir geochemistry can indicate the direction of oil filling, suggesting the most appropriate places for drilling new wells. During production, studies of variations in composition with time and determination of proportions of commingled production from multiple zones, may also be carried out. The chemical constituents of petroleum in natural reservoirs frequently show measurable compositional variations, laterally and vertically. Due to the physical and chemical nature of petroleum changes with increasing maturity (or contribution of a second source during the filling process), lateral and vertical compositional variations exist in petroleum columns as reservoir filling is complete. Compositional variation can also be introduced by biodegradation or water washing. Once the reservoir is filled, density driven mixing and molecular diffusion tend to eliminate inherited compositional variations in an attempt to establish mechanical and chemical equilibrium in the petroleum column (England, 1990). Based on organic geochemical analysis it is possible to define these compositional variations among reservoirs, and use these data for developing of petroleum fields and for reservoir appraisal. Reservoir geochemistry offers rapid and low cost evaluation tools to aid in understanding development and production problems. Moreover, the applied methodology is relatively simple and gives reliable results, and can be performed routinely in any good geochemical laboratory at a relatively low cost. (author)

  8. Animal Picobirnavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Masachessi, Gisela; Mladenova, Zornitsa

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of vertebrate hosts. The name ‘Picobirnavirus’ derives from the prefix ‘pico’ (latin for ‘small’) in reference to the small virion size, plus the prefix ‘bi’ (latin for ‘two’) and the word ‘RNA’ to indicate the nature of the viral genome. The serendipitous discovery of PBV dates back to 1988 from Brazil, when human fecal samples collected during the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected for ...

  9. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eWiedemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica species is a Gram negative bacterium, which is responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruit with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i attachment to host surfaces; (ii entry processes; (iii, multiplication; (iv suppression of host defence mechanisms ; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections.

  10. Natural history of Zoonotic Babesia: Role of wildlife reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Yabsley, Michael J.; Shock, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease on all inhabited continents and various wildlife species are the principal reservoir hosts for zoonotic Babesia species. The primary vectors of Babesia are Ixodid ticks, with the majority of zoonotic species being transmitted by species in the genus Ixodes. Species of Babesia vary in their infectivity, virulence and pathogenicity for people. Various factors (e.g., increased interactions between people and the environment, increased immunosuppression,...

  11. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  12. [Dangerous animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  13. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  14. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir

  15. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  16. Tick-Host Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogstraal, H.; Aeschlimann, André

    2010-01-01

    A review the various patterns of tick-host relationships are discussed in detail in order to answer the following questions : 1. How, when and where did host specificity of each parasite group evolve ? 2. How strict is specificity in each case ? 3. Why and under what circumstances does specificity break down ? The authors present several definitions which characterize the various degrees of parasitic specificity existing today between ticks and their hosts. Tick-host relationships are ...

  17. Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs Using a Combination of Downhole Pressure and Self-Potential Transient Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yuji Nishi; Tsuneo Ishido

    2012-01-01

    In order to appraise the utility of self-potential (SP) measurements to characterize fractured reservoirs, we carried out continuous SP monitoring using multi Ag-AgCl electrodes installed within two open holes at the Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The observed ratio of SP change to pressure change associated with fluid flow showed different behaviors between intact host rock and fractured rock regions. Characteristic behavior peculiar to fractured reservoirs, which is predicted from numerical simulati...

  18. Unraveling Host-Vector-Arbovirus Interactions by Two-Gene High Resolution Melting Mosquito Bloodmeal Analysis in a Kenyan Wildlife-Livestock Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Omondi

    Full Text Available The blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are directly linked to the spread of pathogens that they transmit. Efficient identification of arthropod vector bloodmeal hosts can identify the diversity of vertebrate species potentially involved in disease transmission cycles. While molecular bloodmeal analyses rely on sequencing of cytochrome b (cyt b or cytochrome oxidase 1 gene PCR products, recently developed bloodmeal host identification based on high resolution melting (HRM analyses of cyt b PCR products is more cost-effective. To resolve the diverse vertebrate hosts that mosquitoes may potentially feed on in sub-Saharan Africa, we utilized HRM profiles of both cyt b and 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Among 445 blood-fed Aedeomyia, Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, and Mimomyia mosquitoes from Kenya's Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo regions where many mosquito-transmitted pathogens are endemic, we identified 33 bloodmeal hosts including humans, eight domestic animal species, six peridomestic animal species and 18 wildlife species. This resolution of vertebrate host species was only possible by comparing profiles of both cyt b and 16S markers, as melting profiles of some pairs of species were similar for either marker but not both. We identified mixed bloodmeals in a Culex pipiens from Mbita that had fed on a goat and a human and in two Mansonia africana mosquitoes from Baringo that each had fed on a rodent (Arvicanthis niloticus in addition to a human or baboon. We further detected Sindbis and Bunyamwera viruses in blood-fed mosquito homogenates by Vero cell culture and RT-PCR in Culex, Aedeomyia, Anopheles and Mansonia mosquitoes from Baringo that had fed on humans and livestock. The observed mosquito feeding on both arbovirus amplifying hosts (including sheep and goats and possible arbovirus reservoirs (birds, porcupine, baboons, rodents informs arbovirus disease epidemiology and vector control strategies.

  19. Reservoir engineering and hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summaries are included which show advances in the following areas: fractured porous media, flow in single fractures or networks of fractures, hydrothermal flow, hydromechanical effects, hydrochemical processes, unsaturated-saturated systems, and multiphase multicomponent flows. The main thrust of these efforts is to understand the movement of mass and energy through rocks. This has involved treating fracture rock masses in which the flow phenomena within both the fractures and the matrix must be investigated. Studies also address the complex coupling between aspects of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository in a fractured rock medium. In all these projects, both numerical modeling and simulation, as well as field studies, were employed. In the theoretical area, a basic understanding of multiphase flow, nonisothermal unsaturated behavior, and new numerical methods have been developed. The field work has involved reservoir testing, data analysis, and case histories at a number of geothermal projects

  20. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  1. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  2. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  3. Reservoir Systems in Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, W.; Tung, C.; Tai, C.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change may cause more climate variability and further results in more frequent extreme hydrological events which may greatly influence reservoir¡¦s abilities to provide service, such as water supply and flood mitigation, and even danger reservoir¡¦s safety. Some local studies have identified that climate change may cause more flood in wet period and less flow in dry period in Taiwan. To mitigate climate change impacts, more reservoir space, i.e. less storage, may be required to store higher flood in wet periods, while more reservoir storage may be required to supply water for dry periods. The goals to strengthen adaptive capacity of water supply and flood mitigation are conflict under climate change. This study will focus on evaluating the impacts of climate change on reservoir systems. The evaluation procedure includes hydrological models, a reservoir water balance model, and a water supply system dynamics model. The hydrological models are used to simulate reservoir inflows under different climate conditions. Future climate scenarios are derived from several GCMs. Then, the reservoir water balance model is developed to calculate reservoir¡¦s storage and outflows according to the simulated inflows and operational rules. The ability of flood mitigation is also evaluated. At last, those outflows are further input to the system dynamics model to assess whether the goal of water supply can still be met. To mitigate climate change impacts, the implementing adaptation strategies will be suggested with the principles of risk management. Besides, uncertainties of this study will also be analyzed. The Feitsui reservoir system in northern Taiwan is chosen as a case study.

  4. Allometry of animal-microbe interactions and global census of animal-associated microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Thomas L; Simmons, Karen A

    2015-07-01

    Animals live in close association with microorganisms, mostly prokaryotes, living in or on them as commensals, mutualists or parasites, and profoundly affecting host fitness. Most animal-microbe studies focus on microbial community structure; for this project, allometry (scaling of animal attributes with animal size) was applied to animal-microbe relationships across a range of species spanning 12 orders of magnitude in animal mass, from nematodes to whales. Microbial abundances per individual animal were gleaned from published literature and also microscopically counted in three species. Abundance of prokaryotes/individual versus animal mass scales as a nearly linear power function (exponent = 1.07, R(2) = 0.94). Combining this power function with allometry of animal abundance indicates that macrofauna have an outsized share of animal-associated microorganisms. The total number of animal-associated prokaryotes in Earth's land animals was calculated to be 1.3-1.4 × 10(25) cells and the total of marine animal-associated microbes was calculated to be 8.6-9.0 × 10(24) cells. Animal-associated microbes thus total 2.1-2.3 × 10(25) of the approximately 10(30) prokaryotes on the Earth. Microbes associated with humans comprise 3.3-3.5% of Earth's animal-associated microbes, and domestic animals harbour 14-20% of all animal-associated microbes, adding a new dimension to the scale of human impact on the biosphere. This novel allometric power function may reflect underlying mechanisms involving the transfer of energy and materials between microorganisms and their animal hosts. Microbial diversity indices of animal gut communities and gut microbial species richness for 60 mammals did not indicate significant scaling relationships with animal body mass; however, further research in this area is warranted. PMID:26108631

  5. Dating formation of natural gas pools using fluid inclusion data from reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A method has been suggested which is based on the homogenization temperatures and other data of fluid inclusions from a reservoir rock, with the combination of burial and geothermal history of the hosted rock, to date the gas reservoir formation. On the basis of this, a case study of the Carboniferous-Permiangas pools in the Ordos Basin has been conducted. The results have shown that the reservoir sandstones of the gas pool were filled by gases during 125-150 Ma, earlier in the southern area and later in the northern area, which is consistentwith the basin's geological and geochemical background under which the gas pools formed.

  6. Species' life-history traits explain interspecific variation in reservoir competence: a possible mechanism underlying the dilution effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Y X Huang

    Full Text Available Hosts species for multi-host pathogens show considerable variation in the species' reservoir competence, which is usually used to measure species' potential to maintain and transmit these pathogens. Although accumulating research has proposed a trade-off between life-history strategies and immune defences, only a few studies extended this to host species' reservoir competence. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we studied the relationships between some species' life-history traits and reservoir competence in three emerging infectious vector-borne disease systems, namely Lyme disease, West Nile Encephalitis (WNE and Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE. The results showed that interspecific variation in reservoir competence could be partly explained by the species' life histories. Species with larger body mass (for hosts of Lyme disease and WNE or smaller clutch size (for hosts of EEE had a lower reservoir competence [corrected]. Given that both larger body mass and smaller clutch size were linked to higher extinction risk of local populations, our study suggests that with decreasing biodiversity, species with a higher reservoir competence are more likely to remain in the community, and thereby increase the risk of transmitting these pathogens, which might be a possible mechanism underlying the dilution effect.

  7. Genetic Characterization of Escherichia coli Populations from Host Sources of Fecal Pollution by Using DNA Fingerprinting†

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, Sandra L; Daniels, Annette D.; Salmore, Alissa K.

    2003-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from common host sources of fecal pollution and characterized by using repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR fingerprinting. The genetic relationship of strains within each host group was assessed as was the relationship of strains among different host groups. Multiple isolates from a single host animal (gull, human, or dog) were found to be identical; however, in some of the animals, additional strains occurred at a lower frequency. REP PCR finge...

  8. Multidrug resistance found in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from rural water reservoirs in Guantao, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongna; Zhou, Yufa; Guo, Shuyuan; Chang, Weishan

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been isolated from humans and animals across the world. However, data on prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae from rural water reservoirs is limited. This study aimed to isolate and characterize ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in rural water reservoirs in Guantao, China. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were found in 5 (16.7%) of 30 sampled rural water reservoirs. Sixty-six individual isolates expressing a...

  9. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  10. TRITIUM RESERVOIR STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J

    2005-11-10

    The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.

  11. Animal Intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  12. Surveillance of host animals of leptospirosis in Pan'an county,Zhejiang province,2007-2009%2007-2009年浙江省磐安县钩端螺旋体病宿主动物监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应凯满; 张孟田

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解浙江省磐安县野鼠、牛、猪、鸭和青蛙钩端螺旋体带菌情况.方法 对野鼠鼠肾、牛中段尿、猪肾、鸭肾和青蛙肾等进行钩端螺旋体菌株的分离培养.结果 2007-2009年磐安县共分离培养到钩端螺旋体菌8株,经鉴定均为黄疸出血群.野鼠分离培养到7株,带菌率为2.13%;青蛙分离到1株,带菌率为0.33%;牛中段尿、猪肾和鸭肾未分离出钩端螺旋体菌.不同鼠种的带菌率社鼠8.33%、黄胸鼠3.03%.结论 野鼠为磐安县钩端螺旋体病的主要传染源,黄疸出血群为主要的感染菌群.%Objective To investigate the carriage of Leptospira of host animals and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of leptospirosis. Methods The kidney samples of rats, pigs. ducks, frogs and midstream urine of cattle were taken to isolate the pathogen. Results From 2007 to 2009 , eight strains of Leptospira were isolated; all were L. icterohaemorrhagiae. Seven strains were detected in the rats with the positive rate of 2.13% ; and 1 strain was detected in the frog with the positive rate of 0.33% . No Leptospira strain was detected in the remaining samples. The carriage rate was 8.33% for Rattus confucianus and 3.03% for Rattus flavipectus. Conclusion The field mouse was the predominant host animal of leptospirosis in Pan'an county, and L. icterohemorrhagiae was the major pathogen.

  13. Characterization of Ordovician carbonate reservoirs, southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Hai-ruo

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of the prolific Ordovician Red River reservoirs in 1995 in southeastern Saskatchewan was the catalyst for extensive exploration activity which resulted in the discovery of more than 15 new Red River pools. The best yields of Red River production to date have been from dolomite reservoirs. Understanding the processes of dolomitization is, therefore, crucial for the prediction of the connectivity, spatial distribution and heterogeneity of dolomite reservoirs.The Red River reservoirs in the Midale area consist of 3~4 thin dolomitized zones, with a total thickness of about 20 m, which occur at the top of the Yeoman Formation. Two types of replacement dolomite were recognized in the Red River reservoir: dolomitized burrow infills and dolomitized host matrix. The spatial distribution of dolomite suggests that burrowing organisms played an important role in facilitating the fluid flow in the backfilled sediments. This resulted in penecontemporaneous dolomitization of burrow infills by normal seawater. The dolomite in the host matrix is interpreted as having occurred at shallow burial by evaporitic seawater during precipitation of Lake Almar anhydrite that immediately overlies the Yeoman Formation. However, the low δ18O values of dolomited burrow infills (-5.9‰~ -7.8‰, PDB) and matrix dolomites (-6.6‰~ -8.1‰, avg. -7.4‰ PDB) compared to the estimated values for the late Ordovician marine dolomite could be attributed to modification and alteration of dolomite at higher temperatures during deeper burial, which could also be responsible for its 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7084~0.7088) that are higher than suggested for the late Ordovician seawaters (0.7078~0.7080). The trace amounts of saddle dolomite cement in the Red River carbonates are probably related to "cannibalization" of earlier replacement dolomite during the chemical compaction.

  14. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Project: reservoir selection task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Project has prepared a two-year program to develop and field test methods of stimulating geothermal wells. The program provides for six field experiments which progress in difficulty from low temperature reservoirs using current technology to high temperature reservoirs using advanced types of stimulation treatments. The process used to select the six field experiment locations and stimulation treatments is described. Tentatively, the following reservoirs are proposed: Raft River, East Mesa, Baca and Westmorland (two experiments), and Brawley and The Geysers or Roosevelt Hot Springs (two experiments). The program will be reviewed after each field treatment to select a specific well candidate for the next experiment and to determine whether alteration of the sequence will be beneficial to the overall success of the project and the geothermal industry.

  15. Relationships of a Novel Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia spielmani sp. nov., with Its Hosts in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Dania; Schlee, Daniela B.; Allgöwer, Rainer; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether the pathogenic variant of Lyme disease spirochetes, isolate A14S, is perpetuated in a particular reservoir-vector relationship, we screened vector ticks in various Central European sites for a related spirochete and determined its host association. A14S-like spirochetes infect numerous questing ticks in the Petite Camargue Alsacienne (PC). They frequently infect dormice, but no mice or voles. Garden dormice appear to be better reservoir hosts for A14S-like spirochetes tha...

  16. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  17. Coregulation of host-adapted metabolism and virulence by pathogenic yersiniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kathrin eHeroven

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. The enteric pathogenic Yersinia species Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica and the causative agent of plague, Y. pestis, are able to survive in a large variety of environmental reservoirs (e.g. soil, plants, insects as well as warm-blooded animals (e.g. rodents, pigs, humans with a particular preference for lymphatic tissues. In order to manage rapidly changing environmental conditions and inter-bacterial competition, Yersinia senses the nutritional composition during the course of an infection by special molecular devices, integrates this information and adapts its metabolism accordingly. In addition, nutrient availability has an impact on expression of virulence genes in response to C-sources, demonstrating a tight link between the pathogenicity of yersiniae and utilization of nutrients. Recent studies revealed that global regulatory factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (Crp and the carbon storage regulator (Csr system are part of a large network of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control strategies adjusting metabolic changes and virulence in response to temperature, ion and nutrient availability. Gained knowledge about the specific metabolic requirements and the correlation between metabolic and virulence gene expression that enable efficient host colonization led to the identification of new potential antimicrobial targets.

  18. Coregulation of host-adapted metabolism and virulence by pathogenic yersiniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Dersch, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the principles how pathogenic bacteria adapt their metabolism to a specific host microenvironment is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis. The enteric pathogenic Yersinia species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica and the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, are able to survive in a large variety of environmental reservoirs (e.g., soil, plants, insects) as well as warm-blooded animals (e.g., rodents, pigs, humans) with a particular preference for lymphatic tissues. In order to manage rapidly changing environmental conditions and interbacterial competition, Yersinia senses the nutritional composition during the course of an infection by special molecular devices, integrates this information and adapts its metabolism accordingly. In addition, nutrient availability has an impact on expression of virulence genes in response to C-sources, demonstrating a tight link between the pathogenicity of yersiniae and utilization of nutrients. Recent studies revealed that global regulatory factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (Crp) and the carbon storage regulator (Csr) system are part of a large network of transcriptional and posttranscriptional control strategies adjusting metabolic changes and virulence in response to temperature, ion and nutrient availability. Gained knowledge about the specific metabolic requirements and the correlation between metabolic and virulence gene expression that enable efficient host colonization led to the identification of new potential antimicrobial targets. PMID:25368845

  19. Plastic behaviors in hosts promote the emergence of retaliatory parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Abou Chakra; Christian Hilbe; Arne Traulsen

    2014-01-01

    Mafia like behavior, where individuals cooperate under the threat of punishment, occurs not only in humans, but is also observed in several animal species. Observations suggest that avian hosts tend to accept a certain degree of parasitism in order to avoid retaliating punishment from the brood parasite. To understand under which conditions it will be beneficial for a host to cooperate, we model the interaction between hosts and parasites as an evolutionary game. In our model, the host’s beha...

  20. Viral host-adaptation:insights from evolution experiments with phages

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, James Pj; Harrison, Ellie; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Phages, viral parasites of bacteria, share fundamental features of pathogenic animal and plant viruses and represent a highly tractable empirical model system to understand viral evolution and in particular viral host-adaptation. Phage adaptation to a particular host genotype often results in improved fitness by way of parallel evolution whereby independent lineages hit upon identical adaptive solutions. By contrast, phage adaptation to an evolving host population leads to the evolution of in...

  1. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir)

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Legowo; Iwan. K. Hadihardaja; Azmeri

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of ...

  2. Web hosting for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Host your own website or blog with this unique guide If you'd like to make the leap from a hosted environment to a self-hosted service, this book is for you. You may be making the move from casual blogging to professional blogging. Or, you might already be self-hosting, but want a good guide to show you how to get more out of your plan. In simple, easy-to-understand language, this helpful book breaks down all the functions of web hosting for self-hosted users, from setting up new e-mail accounts to backing up and securing your site, analyzing server logs, choosing a platform to ins

  3. Opportunistic yeast pathogens: reservoirs, virulence mechanisms, and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polvi, Elizabeth J; Li, Xinliu; O'Meara, Teresa R; Leach, Michelle D; Cowen, Leah E

    2015-06-01

    Life-threatening invasive fungal infections are becoming increasingly common, at least in part due to the prevalence of medical interventions resulting in immunosuppression. Opportunistic fungal pathogens of humans exploit hosts that are immunocompromised, whether by immunosuppression or genetic predisposition, with infections originating from either commensal or environmental sources. Fungal pathogens are armed with an arsenal of traits that promote pathogenesis, including the ability to survive host physiological conditions and to switch between different morphological states. Despite the profound impact of fungal pathogens on human health worldwide, diagnostic strategies remain crude and treatment options are limited, with resistance to antifungal drugs on the rise. This review will focus on the global burden of fungal infections, the reservoirs of these pathogens, the traits of opportunistic yeast that lead to pathogenesis, host genetic susceptibilities, and the challenges that must be overcome to combat antifungal drug resistance and improve clinical outcome. PMID:25700837

  4. 2010 Fresno Reservoir Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Fresno Reservoir in June of 2010 to develop a topographic map and compute a storage-elevation relationship...

  5. 2011 Groundhog Reservoir Bathymetric Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey performed a bathymetric survey of Groundhog Reservoir using a man-operated boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global...

  6. Glendo Reservoir 2003 Sedimenation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Glendo Reservoir in May and July of 2003 and January 2005 to develop a new topographic map and compute a present...

  7. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  8. Animated nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  9. Towards the Elimination of Schistosomiasis japonica through Control of the Disease in Domestic Animals in The People's Republic of China: A Tale of over 60Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z-G; Zhao, Y-E; Lee Willingham, A; Wang, T-P

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica, an endemic, zoonotic tropical parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma japonicum, remains an important public health concern in The People's Republic of China. Unlike other species of Schistosoma, over 40 species of wild and domestic animals can act as reservoir hosts of S. japonicum, which increases the difficulty for the control of this tropical disease. It is widely recognized that domestic animals, particularly water buffaloes and cattle, play an important role in the transmission of S. japonicum. Hence, since the 1950s when The People's Republic of China commenced fight against the disease, the control of animal schistosomiasis has been carried out almost synchronously with that of human schistosomiasis, such that great strides have been made over the past six decades. In this chapter, we review the history and current status of schistosomiasis control in domestic animals in The People's Republic of China. We thoroughly analyse the prevalence of domestic animal schistosomiasis at different stages of schistosomiasis control and the role of different species of domestic animals in transmission of the disease, summarize the control strategies and assess their effectiveness. Furthermore, the challenges ahead are discussed and recommendations for future direction are provided. PMID:27137450

  10. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  11. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  12. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J; Hoog, de, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in co...

  13. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  14. Remotely sensed small reservoir monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, Dirk; Annor, Frank; Iannini, Lorenzo; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    A new 'growing' maximum likelihood classification algorithm for small reservoir delineation has been developed and is tested with Radarsat-2 data for reservoirs in the semi-arid Upper East Region, Ghana. The delineation algorithm is able to find the land-water boundary from SAR imagery for different weather and environmental conditions. As such, the algorithm allows for remote sensed operational monitoring of small reservoirs. Multipurpose small reservoirs (1-100 ha) are important for many livelihoods in rural semi-arid West Africa. In order to manage and plan these reservoirs and to assess their hydrological impact at a river basin scale, it is important to monitor their water storage fluctuation. Several studies on remotely sensed reservoir mapping have recently been published, but no single method yields good results for all weather and environmental conditions. Detection of small reservoirs from optical satellite imagery using supervised maximum likelihood classification is a well proved method. The application of this method for the monitoring of small reservoirs is however limited because of its dependence on cloud-free day-acquisitions. Delineation from SAR images is promising, but because of difficulties with wind induced Bragg-scattering and low contrast between the water surface and the dried-out surroundings at the end of the dry season, only quasi manual methods have been applied successfully. A smart combination of optical satellite based detection combined with a delineation method for SAR imagery is proposed. From the optical satellite based small reservoir detection the reservoir window is determined in which the 'growing' maximum likelihood classification on SAR images is performed. A water-class seed and land-class seed are implemented and grown dependent on the likelihood of a pixel to belong to one class. The likelihood is calculated based on the probability distributions of the growing land and water populations. Combinations of single

  15. Endemic bacteriophages: a cautionary tale for evaluation of bacteriophage therapy and other interventions for infection control in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinski Andrew M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most effective targets for control of zoonotic foodborne pathogens in the farm to fork continuum is their elimination in food animals destined for market. Phage therapy for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ruminants, the main animal reservoir of this pathogen, is a popular research topic. Since phages active against this pathogen may be endemic in host animals and their environment, they may emerge during trials of phage therapy or other interventions, rendering interpretation of trials problematic. Methods During separate phage therapy trials, sheep and cattle inoculated with 109 to 1010 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 soon began shedding phages dissimilar in plaque morphology to the administered therapeutic phages. None of the former was previously identified in the animals or in their environment. The dissimilar “rogue” phage was isolated and characterized by host range, ultrastructure, and genomic and proteomic analyses. Results The “rogue” phage (Phage vB_EcoS_Rogue1 is distinctly different from the administered therapeutic Myoviridae phages, being a member of the Siphoviridae (head: 53 nm; striated tail: 152 x 8 nm. It has a 45.8 kb genome which is most closely related to coliphage JK06, a member of the “T1-like viruses” isolated in Israel. Detailed bioinformatic analysis reveals that the tail of these phages is related to the tail genes of coliphage lambda. The presence of “rogue” phages resulting from natural enrichments can pose problems in the interpretation of phage therapeutic studies. Similarly, evaluation of any interventions for foodborne or other bacterial pathogens in animals may be compromised unless tests for such phages are included to identify their presence and potential impact.

  16. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  17. Reservoir Competence of the Redwood Chipmunk (Tamias Ochrogenys) for Anaplasma Phagocytophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, Nathan C.; Janet E. Foley

    2009-01-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) is an emerging tick-transmitted disease that persists in rodent- Ixodes ricinus-complex tick cycles across the Holarctic. Although the putative reservoir for anaplasmosis in the western United States is the dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), this rodent was not shown reservoir-competent because of failure of infection from woodrats to other animals via ticks. Redwood chipmunks are common in habitats where Anaplasma phagocytophilum is common, have high PCR-...

  18. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  19. Climate Variability Impacts on Watershed Nutrient Delivery and Reservoir Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. D.; Prochnow, S. J.; Zygo, L. M.; Byars, B. W.

    2005-05-01

    Reservoirs in agricultural dominated watersheds tend to exhibit pulse-system behavior especially if located in climates dominated by summer convective precipitation inputs. Concentration and bulk mass of nutrient and sediment inputs into reservoir systems vary in terms of timing and magnitude of delivery from watershed sources to reservoirs under these climate conditions. Reservoir management often focuses on long-term average inputs without considering short and long-term impacts of variation in loading. In this study we modeled a watershed-reservoir system to assess how climate variability affects reservoir primary production through shifts in external loading and internal recycling of limiting nutrients. The Bosque watershed encompasses 423,824 ha in central Texas which delivers water to Lake Waco, a 2900 ha reservoir that is the primary water source for the city of Waco and surrounding areas. Utilizing the Soil Water Assessment Tool for the watershed and river simulations and the CE-Qual-2e model for the reservoir, hydrologic and nutrient dynamics were simulated for a 10 year period encompassing two ENSO cycles. The models were calibrated based on point measurement of water quality attributes for a two year time period. Results indicated that watershed delivery of nutrients was affected by the presence and density of small flood-control structure in the watershed. However, considerable nitrogen and phosphorus loadings were derived from soils in the upper watershed which have had long-term waste-application from concentrated animal feeding operations. During El Niño years, nutrient and sediment loads increased by 3 times above non-El Niño years. The simulated response within the reservoir to these nutrient and sediment loads had both direct and indirect. Productivity evaluated from chlorophyll a and algal biomass increased under El Niño conditions, however species composition shifts were found with an increase in cyanobacteria dominance. In non-El Niño years

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  3. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  4. An overview of animal prion diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Muhammad; Mahmood Saqib

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encep...

  5. Brucellosis at the animal/ecosystem/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, J; Scholz, H C; Barbier, T; Nicolas, C; Wattiau, P; Fretin, D; Whatmore, A M; Cloeckaert, A; Blasco, J M; Moriyon, I; Saegerman, C; Muma, J B; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Letesson, J-J

    2011-11-01

    Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely unknown. Metabolism and virulence of Brucella are now considered to be two sides of the same coin. Mechanisms presiding to the colonization of the pregnant uterus in different animal species are not known. Vaccination is the cornerstone of control programs in livestock and although the S19, RB51 (both in cattle) and Rev 1 (in sheep and goats) vaccines have been successfully used worldwide, they have drawbacks and thus the ideal brucellosis vaccine is still very much awaited. There is no vaccine available for pigs and wildlife. Animal brucellosis control strategies differ in the developed and the developing world. Most emphasis is put on eradication and on risk analysis to avoid the re-introduction of Brucella in the developed world. Information related to the prevalence of brucellosis is still scarce in the developing world and control programs are rarely implemented. Since there is no vaccine available for humans, prevention of human brucellosis relies on its control in the animal reservoir. Brucella is also considered to be an agent to be used in bio- and agroterrorism attacks. At the animal/ecosystem/human interface it is critical to reduce opportunities for Brucella to jump host species as already seen in livestock, wildlife and humans. This task is a challenge for the future in terms of veterinary public health, as for wildlife and ecosystem managers and will need a "One Health" approach to be successful. PMID:21571380

  6. A framework for evaluating animals as sentinels for infectious disease surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Halliday, Jo E.B; Meredith, Anna L.; Darryn L Knobel; Darren J Shaw; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of infectious diseases are highly variable. Host ranges, host responses to pathogens and the relationships between hosts are heterogeneous. Here, we argue that the use of animal sentinels has the potential to use this variation and enable the exploitation of a wide range of pathogen hosts for surveillance purposes. Animal sentinels may be used to address many surveillance questions, but they may currently be underused as a surveillance tool and there is a need for improved interd...

  7. Conspicuous impacts of inconspicuous hosts on the Lyme disease epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Brisson, Dustin; Dykhuizen, Daniel E.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic pathogens are a constant threat to human health throughout the world. Control strategies to protect public health regularly fail, due in part to the tendency to focus on a single host species assumed to be the primary reservoir for a pathogen. Here, we present evidence that a diverse set of species can play an important role in determining disease risk to humans using Lyme disease as a model. Host-targeted public health strategies to control the Lyme disease epidemic in Nort...

  8. Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning Hotopp, Julie C

    2011-04-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is increasingly described between bacteria and animals. Such transfers that are vertically inherited have the potential to influence the evolution of animals. One classic example is the transfer of DNA from mitochondria and chloroplasts to the nucleus after the acquisition of these organelles by eukaryotes. Even today, many of the described instances of bacteria-to-animal transfer occur as part of intimate relationships such as those of endosymbionts and their invertebrate hosts, particularly insects and nematodes, while numerous transfers are also found in asexual animals. Both of these observations are consistent with modern evolutionary theory, in particular the serial endosymbiotic theory and Muller's ratchet. Although it is tempting to suggest that these particular lifestyles promote horizontal gene transfer, it is difficult to ascertain given the nonrandom sampling of animal genome sequencing projects and the lack of a systematic analysis of animal genomes for such transfers. PMID:21334091

  9. Reservoir Protection Technology in China: Research & Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiangui; Wu Juan; Kang Yili

    2006-01-01

    @@ Great development of reservoir protection technology (RPT) has been achieved since 1996, including oil and gas reservoir protection for exploration wells, reservoir protection during underbalanced drilling, protection of fractured tight sandstone gas reservoir, and reservoir protection while increase production and reconstructing, development and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) etc. It has stepped into a new situation with special features and advantage. These technical advancements marked that China's RTP have realized leaps from porous reservoirs to fractured reservoirs,from conventional medium-to-low permeability reservoirs to unconventional reservoirs, from oil and gas producers to exploration wells, and from application mainly in drilling and completion processes to application in stimulation,development, production and EOR processes.

  10. The impact of anthropogenic factors on the natural values of the water reservoirs in Sosnowiec (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowska Dominika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many plant and animal species are closely related to the aquatic environment. Small reservoirs are a place of the biodiversity concentration. Reservoirs are especially important for amphibian species as a place of feeding, shelter and wintering. Many anthropogenic factors has a significant impact on the natural values of water reservoirs (surroundings of the water reservoirs, the shore`s type, distance from roads and buildings, the role of the object and the chemical status. They can eliminate or change amphibian population. The effect of three such factors was determined for one of the cities in the Upper Silesian Agglomeration - Sosnowiec (91 km2. The paper presents an assessment of the impact of the type of surroundings, the percentage share of the open space around water reservoirs and the distance from roads and buildings on the number of amphibian species present in the reservoir. In the analysis were taken into account 20 reservoirs, in which amphibian species were found. This analysis indicates the influence urban factors on the number of amphibian species in water reservoirs based on positive correlations in the case of Spearman Rank correlation and the Fisher’s exact test. Results of these calculations highlight the negative impact of the anthropopressure (the changes in the environment on the amphibian breeding places and the biodiversity.

  11. Algae as reservoirs for coral pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Sweet

    Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is

  12. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  13. Cloud computing and Reservoir project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The support for complex services delivery is becoming a key point in current internet technology. Current trends in internet applications are characterized by on demand delivery of ever growing amounts of content. The future internet of services will have to deliver content intensive applications to users with quality of service and security guarantees. This paper describes the Reservoir project and the challenge of a reliable and effective delivery of services as utilities in a commercial scenario. It starts by analyzing the needs of a future infrastructure provider and introducing the key concept of a service oriented architecture that combines virtualisation-aware grid with grid-aware virtualisation, while being driven by business service management. This article will then focus on the benefits and the innovations derived from the Reservoir approach. Eventually, a high level view of Reservoir general architecture is illustrated.

  14. Miniature Reservoir Cathode: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancil, Bernard K.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2002-01-01

    We report on recent work to produce a small low power, low cost reservoir cathode capable of long life (more than 100,000 hours) at high loading (> 5 A/sq cm). Our objective is a highly manufacturable, commercial device costing less than $30. Small highly loaded cathodes are needed, especially for millimeter wave tubes, where focusing becomes difficult when area convergence ratios are too high. We currently have 3 models ranging from .060-inch diameter to. 125-inch diameter. Reservoir type barium dispenser cathodes have a demonstrated capability for simultaneous high emission density and long life. Seven reservoir cathodes continue to operate on the cathode life test facility at NSWC, Crane, Indiana at 2 and 4 amps/sq cm. They have accumulated nearly 100,000 hours with practically no change in emission levels or knee temperature.

  15. The Effect of Toxoplasma gondii on Animal Behavior: Playing Cat and Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Joanne P

    2007-01-01

    A convincing body of evidence now exists to indicate that the ubiquitous protozoan Toxoplasma gondii can cause permanent behavioral changes in its host, even as a consequence of adult-acquired latent infection. Such behavioral alterations appear to be the product of strong selective pressures for the parasite to enhance transmission from its intermediate host reservoir, primarily rodent, to its feline definitive host, wherein sexual reproduction can occur and the life cycle completed. This ar...

  16. Are Migratory Animals Superspreaders of Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche McKay, Alexa; Hoye, Bethany J

    2016-08-01

    Migratory animals are simultaneously challenged by the physiological demands of long-distance movements and the need to avoid natural enemies including parasites and pathogens. The potential for animal migrations to disperse pathogens across large geographic areas has prompted a growing body of research investigating the interactions between migration and infection. However, the phenomenon of animal migration is yet to be incorporated into broader theories in disease ecology. Because migrations may expose animals to a greater number and diversity of pathogens, increase contact rates between hosts, and render them more susceptible to infection via changes to immune function, migration has the potential to generate both "superspreader species" and infection "hotspots". However, migration has also been shown to reduce transmission in some species, by facilitating parasite avoidance ("migratory escape") and weeding out infected individuals ("migratory culling"). This symposium was convened in an effort to characterize more broadly the role that animal migrations play in the dynamics of infectious disease, by integrating a range of approaches and scales across host taxa. We began with questions related to within-host processes, focusing on the consequences of nutritional constraints and strenuous movement for individual immune capability, and of parasite infection for movement capacity. We then scaled-up to between-host processes to identify what types, distances, or patterns of host movements are associated with the spread of infectious agents. Finally, we discussed landscape-scale relationships between migration and infectious disease, and how these may be altered as a result of anthropogenic changes to climate and land use. We are just beginning to scratch the surface of the interactions between infection and animal migrations; yet, with so many migrations now under threat, there is an urgent need to develop a holistic understanding of the potential for migrations to

  17. New Hosts of The Lassa Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayemi, Ayodeji; Cadar, Daniel; Magassouba, N'Faly; Obadare, Adeoba; Kourouma, Fode; Oyeyiola, Akinlabi; Fasogbon, Samuel; Igbokwe, Joseph; Rieger, Toni; Bockholt, Sabrina; Jérôme, Hanna; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Garigliany, Mutien; Lorenzen, Stephan; Igbahenah, Felix; Fichet, Jean-Nicolas; Ortsega, Daniel; Omilabu, Sunday; Günther, Stephan; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) causes a deadly haemorrhagic fever in humans, killing several thousand people in West Africa annually. For 40 years, the Natal multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis, has been assumed to be the sole host of LASV. We found evidence that LASV is also hosted by other rodent species: the African wood mouse Hylomyscus pamfi in Nigeria, and the Guinea multimammate mouse Mastomys erythroleucus in both Nigeria and Guinea. Virus strains from these animals were isolated in the BSL-4 laboratory and fully sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of viral genes coding for glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, polymerase and matrix protein show that Lassa strains detected in M. erythroleucus belong to lineages III and IV. The strain from H. pamfi clusters close to lineage I (for S gene) and between II &III (for L gene). Discovery of new rodent hosts has implications for LASV evolution and its spread into new areas within West Africa. PMID:27140942

  18. Adaptation of Trichinella nativa in hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Airas, Niina

    2014-01-01

    Trichinella nativa is a member of the genus Trichinella, which includes nine different species and three genotypes. Trichinella spp. are spread worldwide and they can cause a disease called trichinellosis in both animals and humans. In this thesis, the epidemiology of T. nativa and other Trichinella species in a boreal environment was investigated. Unusual T. nativa infection in a domestic cat with clinical signs was reported. Host responses induced by T. nativa and Trichinella spiralis were ...

  19. The Carpenteria reservoir redevelopment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M.; Krogh, K.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Coombs, S. [Pacific Operators Offshore, Inc., Carpinteria, CA (United States); Paul, R.G. [Dept. of the Interior (United States); Voskanian, M.M. [California State Lands Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ershaghi, I. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop a simulation-based reservoir management system that could be used to guide the redevelopment of the Carpenteria Offshore Field, which is located just seven miles from Santa Barbara. The system supports geostatistical and geological modeling and reservoir forecasting. Moreover, it is also a shared resource between the field operator, Pacific Operators Offshore, and the mineral owners, the U.S. Department of the Interior and the State of California.

  20. Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; McCallister, J.V.; Mazza, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Belden & Blake and the US DOE will cofund a horizontal well to be drilled in the Clinton Sandstone as part of the DOE`s multi well program titled ``Horizontal Drilling in Shallow Geologic Complex Reservoirs.`` This well will be located in Mahoning County, Ohio in an area which has demonstrated above average Clinton gas production. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first horizontal well drilled to the Clinton Sand formation in Ohio. Since many of the remaining Clinton Sand drilling sites are of poorer reservoir quality, they may not be developed unless technology such as horizontal drilling can be successfully demonstrated.

  1. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium isolates from exotic pet animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki

    2015-04-30

    The Cryptosporidium horse genotype, a zoonotic protozoan parasite first found in a Prezewalski wild horse, has not been found in any other mammal but calves, horses, and humans. Hedgehogs, popular exotic pet animals in Japan, are a reservoir of two zoonotic Cryptosporidum: C. parvum and C. erinacei (previously known as the hedgehog genotype). Recently, after finding Cryptosporidium infection in a four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), we identified the isolate genetically as the Cryptosporidium horse genotype. Its subtype (VIbA13) was the same as that of an isolate from a pet shop employee with severe clinical symptoms, as reported previously from sequencing analysis of the partial Cryptosporidum 60kDa glycoprotein gene sequence. The occurrence of this genotype in hedgehog indicates that the horse genotype has broad host specificity. This report is the first of a study identifying isolates from pet reptiles genetically in Japan. The study identified a new host (Teratoscincus scincus) in C. serpentis lizard genotype by sequencing analysis of partial SSU rRNA and actin genes. PMID:25801359

  2. Gastrointestinal function in the parasitized host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphasis in this review is on (1) digestive-absorptive, secretory and smooth muscle functions altered by gastrointestinal (GI) parasites, (2) mechanisms by which parasites induce changes, and (3) the influence of parasite-induced alterations on the health of the host. Examples involving laboratory and domestic animals indicate that inflammation is an important factor in pathological alterations in epithelial and smooth muscle tissues throughout the alimentary canal. Observations on GI secretory activity reveal an influence of parasites on the host GI endocrine system. It is argued that assessments of the significance of parasite-induced changes on the host must be balanced with the adaptive potential and 'reserve capacity' of the GI system. In this regard host immunity should be considered a specific adaptation. Some tracer studies are mentioned marginally, such as the use of 14C polyethylene glycol to estimate the direction of not fluid movement in the small intestine, and the use of 51Cr to demonstrate the significantly faster intestinal transit in Trichinella spiralis infected animals

  3. Though not Reservoirs, Dogs might Transmit Leptospira in New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noellie Gay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptospira has been a major public health concern in New Caledonia for decades. However, few multidisciplinary studies addressing the zoonotic pattern of this disease were conducted so far. Here, pig, deer and dog samples were collected. Analyses were performed using molecular detection and genotyping. Serological analyses were also performed for dogs. Our results suggest that deer are a reservoir of L. borgpetersenii Hardjobovis and pigs a reservoir of L. interrogans Pomona. Interestingly, 4.4% of dogs were renal carriers of Leptospira. In dog populations, MAT results confirmed the circulation of the same Leptospira serogroups involved in human cases. Even if not reservoirs, dogs might be of significance in human contamination by making an epidemiological link between wild or feral reservoirs and humans. Dogs could bring pathogens back home, shedding Leptospira via their urine and in turn increasing the risk of human contamination. We propose to consider dog as a vector, particularly in rural areas where seroprevalence is significantly higher than urban areas. Our results highlight the importance of animal health in improving leptospirosis prevention in a One Health approach.

  4. Though not reservoirs, dogs might transmit Leptospira in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Noellie; Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Goarant, Cyrille

    2014-04-01

    Leptospira has been a major public health concern in New Caledonia for decades. However, few multidisciplinary studies addressing the zoonotic pattern of this disease were conducted so far. Here, pig, deer and dog samples were collected. Analyses were performed using molecular detection and genotyping. Serological analyses were also performed for dogs. Our results suggest that deer are a reservoir of L. borgpetersenii Hardjobovis and pigs a reservoir of L. interrogans Pomona. Interestingly, 4.4% of dogs were renal carriers of Leptospira. In dog populations, MAT results confirmed the circulation of the same Leptospira serogroups involved in human cases. Even if not reservoirs, dogs might be of significance in human contamination by making an epidemiological link between wild or feral reservoirs and humans. Dogs could bring pathogens back home, shedding Leptospira via their urine and in turn increasing the risk of human contamination. We propose to consider dog as a vector, particularly in rural areas where seroprevalence is significantly higher than urban areas. Our results highlight the importance of animal health in improving leptospirosis prevention in a One Health approach. PMID:24747539

  5. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  6. Gut Microbiotas and Host Evolution: Scaling Up Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Our understanding of species evolution is undergoing restructuring. It is well accepted that host-symbiont coevolution is responsible for fundamental aspects of biology. However, the emerging importance of plant- and animal-associated microbiotas to their hosts suggests a scale of coevolutionary interactions many-fold greater than previously considered. This review builds on current understanding of symbionts and their contributions to host evolution to evaluate recent data demonstrating similar contributions of gut microbiotas. It further considers a multilayered model for microbiota to account for emerging themes in host-microbiota interactions. Drawing on the structure of bacterial genomes, this model distinguishes between a host-adapted core microbiota, and a flexible, environmentally modulated microbial pool, differing in constraints on their maintenance and in their contributions to host adaptation. PMID:27039196

  7. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M.; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  8. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  9. Hydrodynamics of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin: Key to understanding reservoir performance and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashin, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Warrior Basin of the southeastern United States hosts one of the world's most prolific and long-lived coalbed methane plays, and the wealth of experience in this basin provides insight into the relationships among basin hydrology, production performance, and environmental issues. Along the southeast margin of the basin, meteoric recharge of reservoir coal beds exposed in an upturned fold limb exerts a strong control on water chemistry, reservoir pressure, and production performance. Fresh-water plumes containing Na-HCO3 waters with low TDS content extend from the structurally upturned basin margin into the interior of the basin. Northwest of the plumes, coal beds contain Na-Cl waters with moderate to high-TDS content. Carbon isotope data from produced gas and mineral cements suggest that the fresh-water plumes have been the site of significant bacterial activity and that the coalbed methane reservoirs contain a mixture of thermogenic and late-stage biogenic gases. Water produced from the fresh-water plumes may be disposed safely at the surface, whereas underground injection has been used locally to dispose of highly saline water. Wells in areas that had normal hydrostatic reservoir pressure prior to development tend to produce large volumes of water and may take up to 4 a to reach peak gas production. In contrast, wells drilled in naturally underpressured areas distal to the fresh-water plumes typically produce little water and achieve peak gas rates during the first year of production. Environmental debate has focused largely on issues associated with hydrologic communication between deep reservoir coal beds and shallow aquifers. In the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior Basin, a broad range of geologic evidence suggests that flow is effectively confined within coal and that the thick intervals of marine shale separating coal zones limit cross-formational flow. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrodynamics of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin: Key to understanding reservoir performance and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Black Warrior Basin of the southeastern United States hosts one of the world's most prolific and long-lived coalbed methane plays, and the wealth of experience in this basin provides insight into the relationships among basin hydrology, production performance, and environmental issues. Along the southeast margin of the basin, meteoric recharge of reservoir coal beds exposed in an upturned fold limb exerts a strong control on water chemistry, reservoir pressure, and production performance. Fresh-water plumes containing Na-HCO3 waters with low TDS content extend from the structurally upturned basin margin into the interior of the basin. Northwest of the plumes, coal beds contain Na-Cl waters with moderate to high-TDS content. Carbon isotope data from produced gas and mineral cements suggest that the fresh-water plumes have been the site of significant bacterial activity and that the coalbed methane reservoirs contain a mixture of thermogenic and late-stage biogenic gases. Water produced from the fresh-water plumes may be disposed safely at the surface, whereas underground injection has been used locally to dispose of highly saline water. Wells in areas that had normal hydrostatic reservoir pressure prior to development tend to produce large volumes of water and may take up to 4 a to reach peak gas production. In contrast, wells drilled in naturally underpressured areas distal to the fresh-water plumes typically produce little water and achieve peak gas rates during the first year of production. Environmental debate has focused largely on issues associated with hydrologic communication between deep reservoir coal beds and shallow aquifers. In the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior Basin, a broad range of geologic evidence suggests that flow is effectively confined within coal and that the thick intervals of marine shale separating coal zones limit cross-formational flow

  11. Proteomic Investigation of Photorhabdus Bacteria for Nematode-Host Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ram; Kushwah, Jyoti; Ganguly, Sudershan; Garg, Veena; Somvanshi, Vishal S

    2016-09-01

    Majority of animals form symbiotic relationships with bacteria. Based on the number of bacterial species associating with an animal, these symbiotic associations can be mono-specific, relatively simple (2-25 bacterial species/animal) or highly complex (>10(2)-10(3) bacterial species/animal). Photorhabdus (family-Enterobacteriaceae) forms a mono-specific symbiotic relationship with the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis. This system provides a tractable genetic model for animal-microbe symbiosis studies. Here, we investigated the bacterial factors that may be responsible for governing host specificity between nematode and their symbiont bacteria using proteomics approach. Total protein profiles of P. luminescens ssp. laumondii (host nematode- H. bacteriophora) and P. luminescens ssp. akhurstii (host nematode- H. indica) were compared using 2-D gel electrophoresis, followed by identification of differentially expressed proteins by MALDI-TOF MS. Thirty-nine unique protein spots were identified - 24 from P. luminescens ssp. laumondii and 15 from P. luminescens ssp. akhurstii. These included proteins that might be involved in determining host specificity directly (for e.g. pilin FimA, outer membrane protein A), indirectly through effect on bacterial secondary metabolism (for e.g. malate dehydrogenase Mdh, Pyruvate formate-lyase PflA, flavo protein WrbA), or in a yet unknown manner (for e.g. hypothetical proteins, transcription regulators). Further functional validation is needed to establish the role of these bacterial proteins in nematode-host specificity. PMID:27407301

  12. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  13. Nechako Reservoir mathematical modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of 540 MW of hydroelectric generating capacity to the Nechako Reservoir involves the increased diversion of water from the headwaters of the Nechako River in the Fraser River drainage to the Kemano River on the Pacific coast. Approval of the project requires a two level release structure at Kenney Dam at the head of the Nechako Canyon to manage downstream flows and water temperatures to conserve and protect chinook and sockeye populations. Two- and three-dimensional mathematical models were used to evaluate the hydrothermal characteristics of the Nechako Reservoir and to assess the capability of the proposed structure to provide releases necessary to meet downstream objectives. Results of the modelling show that deep water intake temperatures are sensitive to reservoir surface elevation and the deep water intake elevation. Modelling results for maximum release of 200 m3/s show that the deep water intake invert should be located at an elevation of 795 m to ensure water temperature criteria are met. The three dimensional modelling showed that little, if any additional bottom water mixing beyond that indicated by the two dimensional results for a nearby lake is likely to occur as a result of the Kenamo completion project. Extreme condition analysis shows that there exists sufficient volumes of cold water in the Nechako reservoir to ensure that the 10 degree C water release criteria can be met for the required period. 4 refs., 1 fig

  14. Mathematical modelling of reservoir ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Martin; Hejzlar, Josef; Kafková, Dagmar; Balejová, Marcela; Thébault, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2001), s. 109-124. ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/98/0281; GA AV ČR IAA3042903 Keywords : mathematical model ling * ecosystems * reservoir Rimov Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  15. SURVAI VECTOR DAN RESERVOIR PENYAKIT ZOONOTIK YANG DITULARKAN OLEH ARTHROPODA DI DESA BASI, KECAMATAN DONDO KABUPATEN BUOL — TOLITOLI, SULAWESI TENGAH, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti R. Hadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An ecological survey was conducted in Central Sulawesi to obtain information on the distri­bution of reservoir hosts and vectors of arthropod-borne zoonotic diseases. Serological test were done from human sera collected in the area against arboviral and rickettsial antigens. Three species of Culex mosquitoes known as potential vectors of arbovirosis: Cx. bitaeni-orhynchus, Cx. gelidus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, were found in the area surveyed. A known vector of scrub typhus, Leptotrombidium (L. deliensis, was also found in that area. Suspected reservoirs of arthropod-borne zoonosis in the area surveyed were chickens, ducks, cows, horses, monkeys and rats. The prevalence of antibodies against arbovirus group A antigens ( Chikungunya, Getah and Sindbis was 34,06%, 28,5% and 4,39%, against arbovirus group B antigen (Japanese Encepha­litis was 93,4% and none against Rickettsia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhy antigens, out of 91 human sera examined. Antibodies were found in animal sera examined against arbovirus group A and arbovirus group B antigens in a variation of 11,8% — 100%. The prevalence of antibodies against R. tsutsugamushi antigen was 22,7% out of 22 rat sera examined.

  16. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode to improve performance in ion and Hall thrusters. We will adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose....

  17. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...

  18. Host Responses to Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, C; Fleming, D; Bishop, D; Rumbaugh, K P

    2016-01-01

    From birth to death the human host immune system interacts with bacterial cells. Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in matrices composed of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and have been implicated in both the healthy microbiome and disease states. The immune system recognizes many different bacterial patterns, molecules, and antigens, but these components can be camouflaged in the biofilm mode of growth. Instead, immune cells come into contact with components of the EPS matrix, a diverse, hydrated mixture of extracellular DNA (bacterial and host), proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. As bacterial cells transition from planktonic to biofilm-associated they produce small molecules, which can increase inflammation, induce cell death, and even cause necrosis. To survive, invading bacteria must overcome the epithelial barrier, host microbiome, complement, and a variety of leukocytes. If bacteria can evade these initial cell populations they have an increased chance at surviving and causing ongoing disease in the host. Planktonic cells are readily cleared, but biofilms reduce the effectiveness of both polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages. In addition, in the presence of these cells, biofilm formation is actively enhanced, and components of host immune cells are assimilated into the EPS matrix. While pathogenic biofilms contribute to states of chronic inflammation, probiotic Lactobacillus biofilms cause a negligible immune response and, in states of inflammation, exhibit robust antiinflammatory properties. These probiotic biofilms colonize and protect the gut and vagina, and have been implicated in improved healing of damaged skin. Overall, biofilms stimulate a unique immune response that we are only beginning to understand. PMID:27571696

  19. Integrated reservoir management -- a team approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated reservoir management has received significant attention in recent years. The need to enhance recovery from the vast amount of remaining oil- and gas-in-place requires better reservoir management practices. The purpose of this article is to outline critical technical areas, document benefits received from a team approach to reservoir management, and identify the major attributes of a successful reservoir management organization and program

  20. Generation of entanglement density within a reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarou, C.; Garraway, B. M.; Piilo, J.; Maniscalco, S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We study a single two-level atom interacting with a reservoir of modes defined by its reservoir structure function. Within this framework we are able to define a density of entanglement involving a continuum of reservoir modes. The density of entanglement is derived for a system with a single excitation by taking a limit of the global entanglement. Utilizing the density of entanglement we quantify the entanglement between the atom and the modes, and also between the reservoir mode...

  1. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Baten, E.; Vandewalle, T.; van Renterghem, K.

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely ra...

  2. Parasite host range and the evolution of host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, F A; Hall, A R; Buckling, A; Scanlan, P D

    2015-05-01

    Parasite host range plays a pivotal role in the evolution and ecology of hosts and the emergence of infectious disease. Although the factors that promote host range and the epidemiological consequences of variation in host range are relatively well characterized, the effect of parasite host range on host resistance evolution is less well understood. In this study, we tested the impact of parasite host range on host resistance evolution. To do so, we used the host bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and a diverse suite of coevolved viral parasites (lytic bacteriophage Φ2) with variable host ranges (defined here as the number of host genotypes that can be infected) as our experimental model organisms. Our results show that resistance evolution to coevolved phages occurred at a much lower rate than to ancestral phage (approximately 50% vs. 100%), but the host range of coevolved phages did not influence the likelihood of resistance evolution. We also show that the host range of both single parasites and populations of parasites does not affect the breadth of the resulting resistance range in a naïve host but that hosts that evolve resistance to single parasites are more likely to resist other (genetically) more closely related parasites as a correlated response. These findings have important implications for our understanding of resistance evolution in natural populations of bacteria and viruses and other host-parasite combinations with similar underlying infection genetics, as well as the development of phage therapy. PMID:25851735

  3. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia

  4. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  5. Enemies and turncoats: bovine tuberculosis exposes pathogenic potential of Rift Valley fever virus in a common host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beechler, B R; Manore, C A; Reininghaus, B; O'Neal, D; Gorsich, E E; Ezenwa, V O; Jolles, A E

    2015-04-22

    The ubiquity and importance of parasite co-infections in populations of free-living animals is beginning to be recognized, but few studies have demonstrated differential fitness effects of single infection versus co-infection in free-living populations. We investigated interactions between the emerging bacterial disease bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and the previously existing viral disease Rift Valley fever (RVF) in a competent reservoir host, African buffalo, combining data from a natural outbreak of RVF in captive buffalo at a buffalo breeding facility in 2008 with data collected from a neighbouring free-living herd of African buffalo in Kruger National Park. RVF infection was twice as likely in individual BTB+ buffalo as in BTB- buffalo, which, according to a mathematical model, may increase RVF outbreak size at the population level. In addition, co-infection was associated with a far higher rate of fetal abortion than other infection states. Immune interactions between BTB and RVF may underlie both of these interactions, since animals with BTB had decreased innate immunity and increased pro-inflammatory immune responses. This study is one of the first to demonstrate how the consequences of emerging infections extend beyond direct effects on host health, potentially altering the dynamics and fitness effects of infectious diseases that had previously existed in the ecosystem on free-ranging wildlife populations. PMID:25788592

  6. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  7. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  13. Human Benefits of Animal Interventions for Zoonosis Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-15

    Industrialized countries have contained recent zoonotic disease outbreaks, but countries with limited resources cannot respond adequately. Dr. Nina Marano, veterinarian and Chief, Geographic Medicine and Health Promotion Branch, CDC, comments on the focus on animal reservoirs to prevent outbreaks in developing nations.  Created: 4/15/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  14. Surveillance of vectors and host animals of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in Donghai, China in 2010-2011%江苏省东海县2010-2011年发热伴血小板减少综合征媒介及宿主动物监测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆奎; 葛恒明; 胡建利; 张振宇; 王燕萍; 焦永军; 李志锋; 胡书铭; 陆大江

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查了解发热伴血小板减少综合征病毒(Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus,SFTSV)的宿主动物和传染源在动物及媒介中的分布情况,为该传染病的防治工作提供科学依据.方法 采用鼠笼法在发病区野外及居民区捕鼠,计算捕获率并进行鼠种分类,取其心、肝、脾、肺、肾、脑脏器;无菌采集当地的牛、羊、猪、鸡、犬等动物血,并采集螨、蜱、蚊等节肢动物;采用荧光定量RT-PCR检测鼠体脏器及螨、蜱、蚊体内SFTSV核酸;采用双抗原夹心ELISA法检测动物血清中SFTSV总抗体.结果 东海县鼠类主要有黑线姬鼠、大仓鼠、小仓鼠、臭鼩鼱、褐家鼠、小家鼠6种;野鼠捕获率较高为13.47%,主要鼠种为黑线姬鼠;家鼠捕获率相对较低为6.98%,主要鼠种为小家鼠、褐家鼠;各种鼠均有不同程度感染SFTSV,野鼠的心、肝、脾、肺、肾、脑脏器感染SFTSV构成比肝脏最高为26.32%(5/19)>心、肺的21.05%(4/19)>肾、脾、脑的10.53%(2/19);室内鼠仅有心、脑脏器检出SFTSV核酸阳性,且为单一脏器感染;牛、鸡SFTSV的总感染率分别为4.55%和1.54%;节肢动物中的小盾纤恙螨及毒棘厉螨也携带SFTSV,而蜱和蚊未检出SFTSV核酸.结论 鼠类、牛、鸡及节肢动物中的小盾纤恙螨及毒棘厉螨可能是该地SFTSV的宿主动物或传播媒介.%Objective To investigate the host animals and vectors of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention of this infectious disease in Donghai county,Jiangsu province,China.Methods Rodents were captured by squirrel-cage method in the field and in the residential areas of the disease epidemic foci;the capture rate of rodents was calculated,and the captured rodents were identified; the heart,liver,spleen,lung,kidney and brain of each rodent were collected.The blood of local cattle

  15. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host. PMID:26314055

  16. Exposure to Leishmania spp. and sand flies in domestic animals in northwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Rohousova, Iva; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Kostalova, Tatiana; Polanska, Nikola; Lestinova, Tereza; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Maia, Carla; King, Roni; Votypka, Jan; Jaffe, Charles L.; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Volf, Petr; Baneth, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Background Human visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani is considered an anthroponosis; however, Leishmania-infected animals have been increasingly reported in L. donovani foci, and the role of these animals as reservoirs for human L. donovani infection remains unclear. Methods We conducted a study of domestic animals (goats, sheep, cows, dogs, and donkeys) in three L. donovani foci in northwestern Ethiopia. Domestic animals were screened for Leishmania DNA and for anti-L. donov...

  17. Hydropower plant Ermenek. Reservoir impounding; Wasserkraftanlage Ermenek. Einstau des Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linortner, Johannes [Poeyry Energy Turkey, Ankara (Turkey); Zenz, Gerald [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria); Kohler, Roman [Poeyry Energy Austria, Salzburg (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    A Turkish-Austrian Consortium is constructing the hydro power plant Ermenek in Turkey. Client of this project is the Turkish State Hydraulic Works, DSI. The project consists of a double curved arch dam, a large grout curtain, a pressure tunnel, a power house and appurtenant structures. The arch dam is ideally located in a narrow gorge, with a natural width at the base of 20 m and at the crest of 110 m, with an entire dam height of 218 m and a concrete volume of 290 000 m{sup 3}. The concreting works for the dam started on 6{sup th} September 2007 and were finished by 20{sup th} October 2009. As the reservoir has an overall volume of about 4 600 million m{sup 3} the impounding started during the construction. Within a very short time the reservoir level has increased up to 70 m above foundation. The entire dam safety concept is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Animation Trends in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Lirong Xiao

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we give a survey of animation content in education. At present, there is an extensive literature addressing the impact of animation in education and psychology fields. However, in animation field, although some software companies have developed their individual production toolboxes or platforms for animation content in education, there is lack of relevant research from the perspective of animation techniques. This paper first gives a survey of current animation content in educat...

  19. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This may also put wild animals at risk of not just infections but also of control efforts targeted at......The distribution of vector borne diseases is highly determined by environmental and climatic parameters. As the climate becomes warmer the potential for spread of exotic vector borne diseases may therefore increase in the Nordic countries. But this does not mean that all new outbreaks of diseases...... eliminating reservoirs. Insect borne Blue tongue, Black tongue, West Nile Virus, Usutu, avian malaria, Dirofilarial worms and Tick Borne Encephalitis are spreading and pose an increasing threat to people and animals in Northern Europe. Climate driven mathematical models may provide quantitative estimates of...

  20. Animal models of henipavirus infection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartl, Hana M; Berhane, Yohannes; Czub, Markus

    2009-09-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) form a separate genus Henipavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae, and are classified as biosafety level four pathogens due to their high case fatality rate following human infection and because of the lack of effective vaccines or therapy. Both viruses emerged from their natural reservoir during the last decade of the 20th century, causing severe disease in humans, horses and swine, and infecting a number of other mammalian species. The current review summarises current published data relating to experimental infection of small and large animals, including the natural reservoir species, the Pteropus bat, with HeV or NiV. Susceptibility to infection and virus distribution in the individual species is discussed, along with the pathogenesis, pathological changes, and potential routes of transmission. PMID:19084436

  1. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  2. Statfjord field: Development strategy and reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the reservoir performance and management of the Statfjord Field after eight years of production. The reason behind the reservoir development strategies and field experiences are presented. The original development plans have been refined based on field performance through an extensive monitoring program and use of reservoir simulation. The acquired data has improved the geological model and the knowledge of fluid movements in all three reservoirs. This has resulted in a large and complex reservoir simulation model with more than 20,000 grid blocks

  3. Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Dawn M; Dagleish, Mark P; Bachofen, Claudia; Boag, Brian; Deane, David; Percival, Ann; Zadoks, Ruth N; Russell, George C

    2015-01-01

    Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where an eradication program started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common. Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analyzed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, ∼260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and ∼130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies. These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but only a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been infected. PMID:26441927

  4. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  5. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  6. Survey of Wild Mammal Hosts of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Parasites in Panamá and Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ, KADIR; CALZADA, JOSÉ E.; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A.; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D; Adler, Gregory H.; GOTTDENKER, NICOLE L.; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica a...

  7. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  8. Hantavirus Reservoirs: Current Status with an Emphasis on Data from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Carvalho de Oliveira; Alexandro Guterres; Jorlan Fernandes; Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea; Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino; Elba Regina Sampaio Lemos

    2014-01-01

    Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of ro...

  9. Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten

    With an increasing demand for oil and diculties in nding new major oil elds, research on methods to improve oil recovery from existing elds is more necessary now than ever. The subject of this thesis is to construct ecient numerical methods for simulation and optimization of oil recovery with...... emphasis on optimal control of water ooding with the use of smartwell technology. We have implemented immiscible ow of water and oil in isothermal reservoirs with isotropic heterogenous permeability elds. We use the method of lines for solution of the partial differential equation (PDE) system that governs...... size control in order to minimize the computational cost per simulation. We implement a numerical method for nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) along with smart-well technology to maximize the net present value (NPV) of an oil reservoir. The optimization is based on quasi-Newton sequential...

  10. Reservoir compartmentalization assessment by using FTIR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permanyer, A. [Dept. Geoquimica, Petrologia i Prospeccio Geologica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 - Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rebufa, C.; Kister, J. [Universite d' Aix - Marseille III, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de St. Jerome, CNRS UMR 6171, Laboratoire de Geochimie Organique Analytique et Environnement (GOAE), Case 561, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2007-09-15

    Reservoir geochemistry has traditionally used the gas chromatographic fingerprinting method and star diagrams to provide evidence of petroleum reservoir compartmentalization. Recently alternative techniques such as Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy have been postulated to aid the evaluation of reservoir compartmentalization, and to characterize the geochemical evolution of oils from individual reservoirs. FTIR spectroscopy was applied successfully in the Tarragona Basin, Offshore N.E. Spain, validating the method to identify oils from different reservoirs. Moreover the method was successfully applied to provide evidence of compositional differences in oils from a faulted reservoir (El Furrial field, Venezuela), in which GC fingerprints failed to differentiate the oils. FTIR spectroscopy therefore, proves to be a complementary tool for reservoir compartmentalization studies. (author)

  11. Overview of Vertebrate Animal Models of Fungal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hohl, Tobias M

    2014-01-01

    Fungi represent emerging infectious threats to human populations worldwide. Mice and other laboratory animals have proved invaluable in modeling clinical syndromes associated with superficial and life-threatening invasive mycoses. This review outlines salient features of common vertebrate animal model systems to study fungal pathogenesis, host antifungal immune responses, and antifungal compounds.

  12. Stocks Reservoir report June 1988

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, N.M.

    1988-01-01

    This report comprises a mean weekly summary of the raw data of the fish population of the Stocks Reservoir major tributaries in conjunction with completed maps, diagrams, tables and figures. These cover the Stocks tributary stream survey, the Fishery and fish plate impingement. This paper does not constitute a final report which the author intends to submit as a Ph.D. thesis. However, it does present much of the data and analysis completed in its final draft, which may be of immediate...

  13. Mathematical Optimization in Reservoir Management

    OpenAIRE

    Najafiazar, Bahador

    2014-01-01

    Getting the most out of a hydrocarbon reservoir is not a trivial task. It takes plentyof interwoven decisions to make. There are many forms of tools that support engineersto make correct decisions. The simplest ones would only display measurementsin a suitable way, and appoint the rest of the decision making processto human knowledge and experience. Complex decision support tools may implementmodel-based estimation and optimization. This work targets methods foroptimization-based decision sup...

  14. Carbon sequestration in leaky reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie, Alain; MOREAUX Michel; Tidball, Mabel

    2011-01-01

    PDF file identical to the paper submitted (available online at the conference site) with authors and affiliations added. International audience We propose in this paper a model of optimal Carbon Capture and Storage in which the reservoir of sequestered carbon is leaky, and pollution eventually is released into the atmosphere. We formulate the social planner problem as an optimal control program and we describe the optimal consumption paths as a function of the initial conditions, the ph...

  15. Reservoir characterization using wavelet transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Vega, Nestor

    Automated detection of geological boundaries and determination of cyclic events controlling deposition can facilitate stratigraphic analysis and reservoir characterization. This study applies the wavelet transformation, a recent advance in signal analysis techniques, to interpret cyclicity, determine its controlling factors, and detect zone boundaries. We tested the cyclostratigraphic assessments using well log and core data from a well in a fluvio-eolian sequence in the Ormskirk Sandstone, Irish Sea. The boundary detection technique was tested using log data from 10 wells in the Apiay field, Colombia. We processed the wavelet coefficients for each zone of the Ormskirk Formation and determined the wavelengths of the strongest cyclicities. Comparing these periodicities with Milankovitch cycles, we found a strong correspondence of the two. This suggests that climate exercised an important control on depositional cyclicity, as had been concluded in previous studies of the Ormskirk Sandstone. The wavelet coefficients from the log data in the Apiay field were combined to form features. These vectors were used in conjunction with pattern recognition techniques to perform detection in 7 boundaries. For the upper two units, the boundary was detected within 10 feet of their actual depth, in 90% of the wells. The mean detection performance in the Apiay field is 50%. We compared our method with other traditional techniques which do not focus on selecting optimal features for boundary identification. Those methods resulted in detection performances of 40% for the uppermost boundary, which lag behind the 90% performance of our method. Automated determination of geologic boundaries will expedite studies, and knowledge of the controlling deposition factors will enhance stratigraphic and reservoir characterization models. We expect that automated boundary detection and cyclicity analysis will prove to be valuable and time-saving methods for establishing correlations and their

  16. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Sun

    2015-01-01

    In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified ani...

  17. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  19. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  20. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  1. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  2. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Advantages and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, N. V.; Slagle, A. L.; Goldberg, D.

    2014-12-01

    by temperature difference between injected fluid and the host formation, may be particularly important for reservoir stability in high-temperature offshore locations. Overall, unconventional reservoirs in offshore locations offer the potential benefits of vast and safe storage for captured CO2 emissions.

  3. Bacterial receptors for host transferrin and lactoferrin: molecular mechanisms and role in host-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, Ari; Pogoutse, Anastassia; Adamiak, Paul; Moraes, Trevor F; Schryvers, Anthony B

    2013-12-01

    Iron homeostasis in the mammalian host limits the availability of iron to invading pathogens and is thought to restrict iron availability for microbes inhabiting mucosal surfaces. The presence of surface receptors for the host iron-binding glycoproteins transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf) in globally important Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of humans and food production animals suggests that Tf and Lf are important sources of iron in the upper respiratory or genitourinary tracts, where they exclusively reside. Lf receptors have the additional function of protecting against host cationic antimicrobial peptides, suggesting that the bacteria expressing these receptors reside in a niche where exposure is likely. In this review we compare Tf and Lf receptors with respect to their structural and functional features, their role in colonization and infection, and their distribution among pathogenic and commensal bacteria. PMID:24266357

  4. Plastic behaviors in hosts promote the emergence of retaliatory parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Maria; Hilbe, Christian; Traulsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Mafia like behavior, where individuals cooperate under the threat of punishment, occurs not only in humans, but is also observed in several animal species. Observations suggest that avian hosts tend to accept a certain degree of parasitism in order to avoid retaliating punishment from the brood parasite. To understand under which conditions it will be beneficial for a host to cooperate, we model the interaction between hosts and parasites as an evolutionary game. In our model, the host's behavior is plastic, and thus, its response depends on the previous interactions with the parasite. We find that such learned behavior in turn is crucial for the evolution of retaliating parasites. The abundance of this kind of mafia behavior oscillates in time and does not settle to an equilibrium. Our results suggest that retaliation is a mechanism for the parasite to evade specialization and to induce acceptance by the host. PMID:24589512

  5. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  6. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  7. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  8. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  9. Prevalence of Hydatid Cysts in Livestock Animals in Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), c...

  10. High Metallicity LGRB Hosts

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, J F; Levesque, E M; Kewley, L J; Tanvir, N R; Levan, A J; Patel, S K; Misra, K; Huang, K -H; Reichart, D E; Nysewander, M; Schady, P

    2015-01-01

    We present our imaging and spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of two dark long bursts with anomalously high metallicities, LGRB 051022 and LGRB 020819B, which in conjunction with another LGRB event with an optical afterglow comprise the three LGRBs with high metallicity host galaxies in the Graham & Fruchter (2013) sample. In Graham & Fruchter (2013), we showed that LGRBs exhibit a strong and apparently intrinsic preference for low metallicity environments (12+log(O/H) < 8.4 in the KK04 scale) in spite of these three cases with abundances of about solar and above. These exceptions however are consistent with the general star-forming galaxy population of comparable brightness & redshift. This is surprising: even among a preselected sample of high metallicity LGRBs, were the metal aversion to remain in effect for these objects, we would expect their metallicity to still be lower than the typical metallicity for the galaxies at that luminosity and redshift. Therefore we deduce that it...

  11. Influenza virus in a natural host, the mallard: experimental infection data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Jourdain

    Full Text Available Wild waterfowl, particularly dabbling ducks such as mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, are considered the main reservoir of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs. They carry viruses that may evolve and become highly pathogenic for poultry or zoonotic. Understanding the ecology of LPAIVs in these natural hosts is therefore essential. We assessed the clinical response, viral shedding and antibody production of juvenile mallards after intra-esophageal inoculation of two LPAIV subtypes previously isolated from wild congeners. Six ducks, equipped with data loggers that continually monitored body temperature, heart rate and activity, were successively inoculated with an H7N7 LPAI isolate (day 0, the same H7N7 isolate again (day 21 and an H5N2 LPAI isolate (day 35. After the first H7N7 inoculation, the ducks remained alert with no modification of heart rate or activity. However, body temperature transiently increased in four individuals, suggesting that LPAIV strains may have minor clinical effects on their natural hosts. The excretion patterns observed after both re-inoculations differed strongly from those observed after the primary H7N7 inoculation, suggesting that not only homosubtypic but also heterosubtypic immunity exist. Our study suggests that LPAI infection has minor clinically measurable effects on mallards and that mallard ducks are able to mount immunological responses protective against heterologous infections. Because the transmission dynamics of LPAIVs in wild populations is greatly influenced by individual susceptibility and herd immunity, these findings are of high importance. Our study also shows the relevance of using telemetry to monitor disease in animals.

  12. Hosting a Katrina Evacuee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, David

    2008-03-01

    No individual or institution anticipated the impact on the academic research community of hurricane Katrina. When Tulane physicist Wayne Reed asked me to host his research group just a day or two after the disaster, with no authorization or understanding of the commitment, I agreed immediately and then pondered implications. Fortunately, colleagues helped in making the commitment real, only the bureaucracy of my public university posing small hindrances. Industry was remarkably generous in providing Reed with significant ``loaner'' equipment, and amazingly, a suite of custom Reed experiments was running within weeks. At the end, the most productive collaborations for Reed seemed not to have been with my group, with its similar research, but to other groups at my institution, particularly the synthetic chemists, who gained access to methods previously unique to Tulane while offering samples previously unique to UMass. Quickly designed projects exploiting this match turned out remarkably productive. Although begun with trepidation, hosting of Reed had huge positive benefits to me and UMass, and I believe, also to Reed and Tulane. Some key lessons for the future: (i) industry has capacity and willingness to help academic research during disruption (ii) commitment of a host institution must be immediate, without a wait for formal approvals or arrangement of special funding -- delay leads only to discouragement, (iii) continuing academic progress of displaced students must come first, and (iv) intellectual synergy rather than overlap should be the basis for seeking a host. Lastly, NSF or other funding agency should consider a program directly addressing the research needs of unexpectedly disrupted academic scientists, and most particularly, graduate students who face greatly extended studies.

  13. IPv6 host fingerprint

    OpenAIRE

    Nerakis, Eleftherios

    2006-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis explores ways of using probe packets to identify the type and version of OS that is run by a remote IPv6 host. Such a probing technique can be effective because developers of different OSes often interpret the guidance provided by the RFCs slightly differently, and consequently their network protocol stack implementation may generate responses bearing unique markers to certain probing packets. The key challenge is to find suit...

  14. The influence of cage farming on infection of the corvine fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) with metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomidae) from the Chavantes reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, I P; Franceschini, L; Zica, É O P; Carvalho, E D; Silva, R J

    2014-09-01

    The development of cage fish farms has been associated with an increase in parasitic diseases. Organic matter resulting from feed waste and faeces attracts animals such as birds and invertebrates that can act as hosts for parasites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cage farming on Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae infections of Plagioscion squamosissimus collected close to a cage farm in the Chavantes reservoir (Paranapanema River). Thirty-seven fish were collected in an area close to cages (CF), and 28 in an area not influenced by cages (CT). All specimens were weighed, measured and the eyes removed for morphological analyses of metacercariae. The prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and condition factor were calculated. The prevalence (CF = 86.4%, CT = 57.1%), mean infection intensity (CF = 20.31 ± 1.13, CT = 4.29 ± 7.14) and mean abundance (CF = 17.70 ± 6.27, CT = 2.35 ± 0.77) were higher in the CF (P 0.05) between the mean abundance and standard length or the total weight and condition factor in either group (P> 0.05). Fish farms may interfere with the life cycle of A. compactum, leading to more infections with P. squamosissimus. This could be due to an increase in the number of host animals that are attracted by the availability of food resources derived from fish farms. PMID:23628163

  15. Ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic animals and wildlife play important roles as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens that are transmitted to humans by ticks. Besides their role as vectors of several classes of microorganisms of veterinary and public health relevance, ticks also burden human and animal populations through their o...

  16. Human health hazard from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2006-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans...

  17. Human Health Hazards from Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli of Animal Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, A. M.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2009-01-01

    antimicrobial agents in food animals may add to the burden of antimicrobial resistance in humans. Bacteria from the animal reservoir that carry resistance to antimicrobial agents that are regarded as highly or critically important in human therapy (e.g., aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and third- and fourth...

  18. On-farm interventions to reduce epizootic bacteria in food-producing animals and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food producing animals can be reservoirs of human pathogenic bacteria such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (O157- and non-O157 Shigatoxin-producing E. coli), Salmonella, and Campylobacter, often harboring these pathogens within their gastrointestinal tracts. Carrier animals colonized by these...

  19. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Villarroel; Kortine Annina Kleinheinz; Vanessa Isabell Jurtz; Henrike Zschach; Ole Lund; Morten Nielsen; Mette Voldby Larsen

    2016-01-01

    The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPh...

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of a newfound bat-borne hantavirus supports a laurasiatherian host association for ancestral mammalian hantaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowski, P. T.; Drexler, J. F.; Kallies, R.; Lickova, M; Bokorova, S.; Mananga, G. D.; Szemes, T.; Leroy, Eric; Kruger, D H; Drosten, C.; Klempa, B.

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Ph...

  1. An overview of animal prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Mahmood, Saqib

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of cervids and spongiform encephalopathy of primates. Although some cases of sporadic atypical scrapie and BSE have also been reported, animal prion diseases have basically occurred via the acquisition of infection from contaminated feed or via the exposure to contaminated environment. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are naturally sustaining epidemics. The transmission of BSE to human has caused more than 200 cases of variant Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease and has raised serious public health concerns. The present review discusses the epidemiology, clinical neuropathology, transmissibility and genetics of animal prion diseases. PMID:22044871

  2. Probiotics in animal nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Durand, H

    2010-03-01

    The use of probiotics for farm animals has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, can strongly affect the structure and activities of the gut microbial communities, leading to impaired health and performance in livestock animals. In this review, the most important benefits of yeast and bacterial probiotics upon the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in ruminants and monogastric animals (equines, pigs, poultry, fish) reported in the recent scientific literature are described, as well as their implications in terms of animal nutrition and health. Additional knowledge on the possible mechanisms of action is also provided. PMID:21840795

  3. Contamination of semiarid potiguar reservoirs by harmful bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermeton Duarte do Nascimento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination in the semi-arid section of Northeast Brazil is a current concern for the country’s researchers, since this region is considered one of the poorest in Brazil and the water in these locations is a primary vehicle for disease transmission. We collected physical and chemical data as well as water samples from four semiarid potiguar reservoirs during the dry and rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. These samples were prepared in a laboratory at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN and their physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were evaluated. The procedures of microbial isolation and identification followed the Standard Methods for Examinations of Water and Wastewater. Then Vitek II system (Bio-Merieux® was used to identify the microbial specimens and we calculated the frequency of specimens’ occurrence. Altogether, 168 bacteria were isolated and identified; 97% were Gram-negative and only 3% were Gram-positive. Within the Gram negatives, 73.2% were identified as belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and, in general terms, the most constant genera in the water reservoirs were Vibrio and Aeromonas. Among the Enterobacteriaceae family, the species Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae complex and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most frequent. There was no statistical difference between the number or morphotype groups found in the periods, p=0.255 and p=0.237, respectively. The analyzed data indicate possible contamination of these water reservoirs by human and/or animal fecal material.

  4. Reservoir evaluation using discriminant analysis. [China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yangjian, O.; Jianru, L.

    1982-01-01

    The ability to evaluate sandstone reservoirs has been greatly improved since the use of electonic computer in processing well log data. But it is still difficult to analyse reservoirs with high water saturation, or reservoirs with high residual oil saturation and aquifers containing oil etc. Based on the studies of the reservoirs and aquifers in respect to their oil saturation, porosity, lithology factor and other independent parameters relative to water invasion and water distribution etc., an optimum discrimination is proposed for the accurate evalation of reservoirs and aquifers using discriminant analysis as a tool. The final recognition is achieved on the electronic computer. This new technique and processing program has been widely tested and verified in the Shengli oil field and other fields in east China, with precision up to 90 percent or more. Now the technique has been extensively applied to the evaluation of Tertiary reservoirs with success.

  5. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2015-05-28

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.

  6. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  7. Improving teleportation fidelity in structured reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yu-Xia; Xi, Xiao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Seeking flexible methods to control quantum teleportation in open systems is an important task of quantum communication. In this paper, we study how the super-Ohmic, Ohmic and sub-Ohmic reservoirs affect teleportation of a general one-qubit state. The results revealed that the structures of the reservoirs play a decisive role on quality of teleportation. Particularly, the fidelity of teleportation may be improved by the strong backaction of the non-Markovian memory effects of the reservoir. T...

  8. Review of Geomechanical Application in Reservoir Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Bataee; Sonny Irawan

    2014-01-01

    This study has reviewed the geomechanical considerations and applications in reservoir modeling. Geomechanical studies are applied in the reservoir to establish some features as field subsidence/inflation and stability. The reservoir stress alters with the change in the pressure and temperature either by production or EOR injection/thermal methods. The field subsidence/inflation can damage surface facilities. The change in field new stress state could lead ...

  9. Entanglement trapping in a nonstationary structured reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarou, C.; Luoma, K; Maniscalco, S.; Piilo, J.; Garraway, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    We study a single two-level atom interacting with a reservoir of modes defined by a reservoir structure function with a frequency gap. Using the pseudomodes technique, we derive the main features of a trapping state formed in the weak coupling regime. Utilizing different entanglement measures we show that strong correlations and entanglement between the atom and the modes are in existence when this state is formed. Furthermore, an unexpected feature for the reservoir is revealed. In the long ...

  10. Resolution of carbonate reservoirs at depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous Smackover algal mounds associated with granite knobs produce oil throughout southwestern Alabama. This paper reports on a detailed gravity survey over Vocation Field demonstrates lateral density contrasts between reservoir and non-reservoir rocks that can be measured even when the reservoir depth exceeds 14,000 feet (4270 m). A similar gravity survey combined with standard seismic and subsurface interpretation methods could have drastically increased the success rate and lowered development costs

  11. Time-lapse seismic within reservoir engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenziel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Time-lapse 3D seismic is a fairly new technology allowing dynamic reservoir characterisation in a true volumetric sense. By investigating the differences between multiple seismic surveys, valuable information about changes in the oil/gas reservoir state can be captured. Its interpretation involves different disciplines, of which the main three are: reservoir management, rock physics, and seismics. The main challenge is expressed as "How to optimally benefit from time-lapse seismic". The chall...

  12. Advance reservoir evaluation by using NMR logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on brief explanation of the measurement principle for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging, this paper illustrates the importance of NMR logging in reservoir evaluation through typical case examples. These case examples include: Reservoir characterization and productivity evaluation by using NMR logging, determination of reservoir porosity in complex lithology, identification of oil, water and gas zones under complex reservoir conditions where resistivity log data give poor indication, guiding the implementation of completion and drilling programs, etc. Excellent application results indicate that NMR logging has its special features and advantages in comparison with conventional logging techniques. It is a very practical and very promising logging technology

  13. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Reservoir management and thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoelectric power stations on regulated rivers may cause violations in stream temperature standards if the dilution water from the upstream reservoir is not adequate. However, it is possible that such violations would occur over a short period or that there exists an acceptable temperature violation range. A minmax model is developed for determining the minimum value of the maximum violation of the temperature standard, the reservoir storage, and release levels for reservoir-river systems. The model is applied to the Shellmouth Reservoir in Manitoba, Canada

  15. Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions From China's Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    Hydroelectricity has typically been regarded as a green energy source, but reservoirs created for its generation emit greenhouse gases (GHGs) just as natural lakes and rivers do. The role of reservoirs in GHG emissions has been overlooked. Substantial amounts of methane (CH4) are emitted from reservoir surfaces every year, which account for about 20% of the total CH4 emission from inland waters. GHG emissions (transferred into carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents) from some tropical reservoirs even exceed CO2 emissions from thermal power plants if the same amount of electricity is generated.

  16. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Julia; Kleinheinz, Kortine Annina; Jurtz, Vanessa Isabell; Zschach, Henrike; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten; Larsen, Mette Voldby

    2016-01-01

    The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPhinder predicts the host species of a query phage as the host of the most genomically similar reference phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k) is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST and significantly outperforming BLAST on phages for which both had predictions. HostPhinder predictions on phage draft genomes from the INTESTI phage cocktail corresponded well with the advertised targets of the cocktail. Our study indicates that for most phages genomic similarity correlates well with related bacterial hosts. HostPhinder is available as an interactive web service [1] and as a stand alone download from the Docker registry [2]. PMID:27153081

  17. Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host’s reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host’s contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

  18. The Effect of Probiotics on Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Corcionivoschi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria and their effect in combating digestive disorders in humans and animals has been demonstrated and supported in numerous scientific studies. Probiotic bacteria are used in a wide range of nutritional techniques in order to support the host organism during physiological strain, to reduce stress due to technology and to combat diarrheal syndromes (occurring naturally or pharmacologically induced. Based on a rich bibliographic material, this paper presents the role of probiotic bacteria to equilibrate the beneficial microbial population and in bacterial turnover by stimulating the host immune response via specific secretions (eg. bacteriocins and competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic germs in the digestive tract (Salmonella, E. coli. In the same context, this review presents the basic studies on the effect of probiotic bacteria in health maintenance for the main species of farm animals: pigs, poultry, cattle and sheep.

  19. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  20. Analysis of monitoring results on plague's host animal and its medium insects in Quanzhou city of Fujian province between 2000 and 2009%2000-2009年福建省泉州市鼠疫宿主动物及媒介昆虫监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋平; 王伟明; 杨德林; 张庆虎

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the composition and distribution of animal reservoir of plague in Quanzhou city, Fujian province, and so as to accumulate basic data for making the plague prevention and control measures. Methods Rodents were captured by cages in six monitoring spots of Quanzhou city between 2000 and 2009. Then rodents and flea species were identified. Rats liver and spleen homogenates were detected of plague F1 antigen by reverse indirect hemagglutination test (RIHA); rats serum were detected of plague F1 antibody by indirect hemagglutination test (IHA). Results A total of 26 264 rodents were captured between 2000 and 2009.Rattus norvegicus and Rattus flavipectus were dominant species, which were accounted for 45.97% (12 074/26 264)and 32.01%(8407/26 264), respectively. The account of Rattus flavipectus captured between 2005 and 2009 was (26.99 ± 2.46)% and (37.03 ± 3.79)% between 2000 and 2004. The difference was statistically significant (t =4.97, P < 0.05). Total rodent densities was (6.86 ± 1.44)%, including(5.36 ± 1.83)% in mountains and (6.81 ±1.66)% in coastal areas, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant(t =1.01, P > 0.05). Total flea index and flea infection rate of rodents were 1.39 ± 0.34 and (35.90 ± 5.34)%, respectively. Xenopsylla Cheopis index was 1.20 and free flea index was 0.009. Flea infection rate was (32.36 ± 0.96)% between 2005 and 2009, which was lower than (39.44 ± 0.39)% between 2000 and 2004(t =2.76, P < 0.05). Conclusions The major rodent species found in Quanzhou city is Rattus norvegicus. Xenopsylla Cheopis is the dominant flea species.Spreading of plague among Rattus is not found.%目的 了解福建省泉州市鼠疫宿主动物及媒介的种群构成及数量分布情况,为鼠疫防治工作积累基础资料。方法 2000 - 2009年在泉州市6个监测点采用笼日法捕鼠,并对捕获鼠类及检获蚤类进行鉴定;取鼠肝和脾匀浆,采用反

  1. Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

    2014-06-16

    Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals. PMID:24636787

  2. Food and human gut as reservoirs of transferable antibiotic resistance encoding genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-MarcRolain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase and spread of antibiotic resistance (AR over the past decade in human pathogens has become a worldwide health concern. Recent genomic and metagenomic studies in humans, animals, in food and in the environment have led to the discovery of a huge reservoir of AR genes called the resistome that could be mobilized and transferred from these sources to human pathogens. AR is a natural phenomenon developed by bacteria to protect antibiotic-producing bacteria from their own products and also to increase their survival in highly competitive microbial environments. Although antibiotics are used extensively in humans and animals, there is also considerable usage of antibiotics in agriculture, especially in animal feeds and aquaculture. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the sources of AR and the use of antibiotics in these reservoirs as selectors for emergence of AR bacteria in humans via the food chain.

  3. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the transmission of serious illnesses. Read more » Morris Animal Foundation Receives $750,000 Grant for Cancer Studies. ... Give Partners Become a Partner Meet Our Partners Animal Lovers Our Work Ways to Give Pet Health ...

  4. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  5. Animals in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  7. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO

    2011-01-01

    The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted...

  8. Generic Face Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Renato; Hitschfeld-Kahler, Nancy; Terissi, Lucas; Gomez, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience In computer vision, the animation of objects has attracted a lot attention, specially the animations of 3D face models. The animation of face models requires in general to manually adapt each generic movement (open/close mouth) to each specific head geometry. In this work we propose a technique for the animation of any face model avoiding most of the manual intervention. In order to achieve this we assume that: (1) faces, despite obvious differences are quite similar...

  9. Imaging of Awake Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The 3Rs of reduction, refinement and replacement are the guiding principles of animal research and embedded in national and international legislation regulating the use of animals in scientific procedures. Awake imaging by MRI of rodents can offer a reduction by increasing the quality of scientific data through longitudinal imaging using less animals by avoiding a serial sacrifice design and refinement through reducing the stressful effects animals are exposed to, in comparison to existing mo...

  10. Biopolitics: Animals, meat, food

    OpenAIRE

    Janović Nikola

    2009-01-01

    The general idea of this text is to reflect biopolitical constitution of the society and its implications related to the issues of animal welfare. Since animal in biopolitical formation is technically reduced to an object - commodity for contentment of the industry and of the people needs - critical public advisories are calling from moral, ethical and legal standpoint for attention to the fact that is necessary to protect animals from the unnecessary exploitation. It is obvious that animal p...

  11. High virulence of Wolbachia after host switching: when autophagy hurts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winka Le Clec'h

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are widespread endosymbionts found in a large variety of arthropods. While these bacteria are generally transmitted vertically and exhibit weak virulence in their native hosts, a growing number of studies suggests that horizontal transfers of Wolbachia to new host species also occur frequently in nature. In transfer situations, virulence variations can be predicted since hosts and symbionts are not adapted to each other. Here, we describe a situation where a Wolbachia strain (wVulC becomes a pathogen when transfected from its native terrestrial isopod host species (Armadillidium vulgare to another species (Porcellio d. dilatatus. Such transfer of wVulC kills all recipient animals within 75 days. Before death, animals suffer symptoms such as growth slowdown and nervous system disorders. Neither those symptoms nor mortalities were observed after injection of wVulC into its native host A. vulgare. Analyses of wVulC's densities in main organs including Central Nervous System (CNS of both naturally infected A. vulgare and transfected P. d. dilatatus and A. vulgare individuals revealed a similar pattern of host colonization suggesting an overall similar resistance of both host species towards this bacterium. However, for only P. d. dilatatus, we observed drastic accumulations of autophagic vesicles and vacuoles in the nerve cells and adipocytes of the CNS from individuals infected by wVulC. The symptoms and mortalities could therefore be explained by this huge autophagic response against wVulC in P. d. dilatatus cells that is not triggered in A. vulgare. Our results show that Wolbachia (wVulC can lead to a pathogenic interaction when transferred horizontally into species that are phylogenetically close to their native hosts. This change in virulence likely results from the autophagic response of the host, strongly altering its tolerance to the symbiont and turning it into a deadly pathogen.

  12. Modelling the effect of wettability distributions on oil recovery from microporous carbonate reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Kallel, W; Wood, Rachel; van Dijke, M.I.J.; Sorbie, K.S.; Jiang, Z.; Harland, S

    2015-01-01

    Carbonate-hosted hydrocarbon reservoirs are often weakly- to moderately oil-wet. Such wettability states are reached after oil migration through a series of chemical processes which are only understood in outline even though wettability is fundamental to prediction of multi-phase flow behaviour. Modelling the pore-scale wettability features of carbonates using pore-network models is challenging due to both our inability to incorporate appropriate chemical characteristics to the pore surfaces ...

  13. Antibiotic Treatment Expands the Resistance Reservoir and Ecological Network of the Phage Metagenome

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, Sheetal R.; Lee, Henry H.; Spina, Catherine S.; Collins, James J.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian gut ecosystem has significant influence on host physiology 1–4 , but the mechanisms that sustain this complex environment in the face of different stresses remain obscure. Perturbations to this ecosystem, such as through antibiotic treatment or diet, are currently interpreted at the level of bacterial phylogeny 5–7 . Less is known about the contributions of the abundant population of phage to this ecological network. Here, we explore the phageome as a potential genetic reservoir...

  14. Blastocystis sp. from food animals in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sreekumar, C.; Selvaraj, J.; Gomathinayagam, S.; Thangapandiyan, M.; Ravikumar, G.; Roy, Parimal; C Balachandran

    2013-01-01

    Blastocystis, a zoonotic protozoan found in the intestinal tracts of a wide range of animals, has not been reported from non-human hosts from India so far. Organisms indistinguishable from Blastocystis sp. were identified in the Giemsa stained intestinal scrapings collected from carcasses of piglet and poultry that were brought for necropsy to the Central University Laboratory, Chennai. The ‘central vacuole forms’ of the parasite, with number of nuclei ranging from 1 to 12 were identified. Th...

  15. Animal viruses, radiation, repair mechanisms, and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of radiation on animal viruses are reviewed in terms of repair mechanisms and their possible relationship to virus transformation and carcinogenesis. Repair mechanisms are reviewed under the headings; multiplicity reactivation, photoreactivation, host-cell reactivation (dark repair), and uv reactivation. Other topics discussed are: transformation of cells in vitro by irradiated viruses, oncogenicity of virus-transformed cells in vivo, and possible role of repair mechanisms in virus transformation and oncogenesis

  16. Greater migratory propensity in hosts lowers pathogen transmission and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-09-01

    Animal migrations are spectacular and migratory species have been shown to transmit pathogens that pose risks to human health. Although migration is commonly assumed to enhance pathogen dispersal, empirical work indicates that migration can often have the opposite effect of lowering disease risk. Key to assessing disease threats to migratory species is the ability to predict how migratory behaviour influences pathogen invasion success and impacts on migratory hosts, thus motivating a mechanistic understanding of migratory host-pathogen interactions. Here, we develop a quantitative framework to examine pathogen transmission in animals that undergo two-way directed migrations between wintering and breeding grounds annually. Using the case of a pathogen transmitted during the host's breeding season, we show that a more extreme migratory strategy (defined by the time spent away from the breeding site and the total distance migrated) lowers the probability of pathogen invasion. Moreover, if migration substantially lowers the survival probability of infected animals, then populations that spend comparatively less time at the breeding site or that migrate longer distances are less vulnerable to pathogen-induced population declines. These findings provide theoretical support for two non-exclusive mechanisms proposed to explain how seasonal migration can lower infection risk: (i) escape from habitats where parasite transmission stages have accumulated and (ii) selective removal of infected hosts during strenuous journeys. Our work further suggests that barriers to long-distance movement could increase pathogen prevalence for vulnerable species, an effect already seen in some animal species undergoing anthropogenically induced migratory shifts. PMID:24460702

  17. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Legowo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.

  18. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Popa V.I.; Lascar I.; Valcu M.; Sebe Ioana Teona; Caraban B.; Margina Arina Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  20. Animal Models for imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Barbara Y.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models can be used in the study of disease. This chapter discusses imaging animal models to elucidate the process of human disease. The mouse is used as the primary model. Though this choice simplifies many research choices, it necessitates compromises for in vivo imaging. In the future, we can expect improvements in both animal models and imaging techniques.

  1. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  2. Industralization of Animal Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Oya S. Erdogdu; David Hennessy

    2003-01-01

    The economic concerns and the technological developments increased control over nature and nurture in the animal agriculture. That changed the seasonality pattern of the supply side and lead to structural change in the animal agriculture together with the demand side factors. In this study we focused on the supply side factors and document the ‘industralization’ of the animal agricultural production.

  3. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa V.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  4. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Don; Koerner, Roy; Moos, Dan; Nguyen, John; Phillips, Chris; Tagbor, Kwasi; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  5. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  6. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology

  7. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology

  8. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Meral Karaman

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrie...

  9. Understanding complex host-microbe interactions in Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thomas C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Any multicellular organism may be considered a metaorganism or holobiont—comprised of the macroscopic host and synergistic interdependence with bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and numerous other microbial and eukaryotic species including algal symbionts. Defining the individual microbe-host conversations in these consortia is a challenging but necessary step on the path to understanding the function of the associations as a whole. Dissecting the fundamental principles that underlie all host-microbe interactions requires simple animal models with only a few specific bacterial species. Here I present Hydra as such a model with one of the simplest epithelia in the animal kingdom, with the availability of a fully sequenced genome and numerous genomic tools, and with few associated bacterial species. PMID:22688725

  10. Exploration on ecological regulation of the reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Qihua

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir regulation process in the Yangtze River basin is mainly divided into two types of flood regulation and initiating benefit regulation. The present reservoir management system and operation mode are mainly for dealing with or coordinating of flood control and benefit initiation as well as benefit distribution among various beneficial functions. From the view point of river ecosystem protection, the current regulation mode has two kinds of problems: firstly, most of the reservoir regulation plans do not consider ecosystem protection at downstream of dams and needs of environment protection in reservoir areas; secondly, integrated regulation or management of water resources is ignored. It is very necessary to improve reservoir regulation mode, bearing problems faced by regulation of the Three Gorges reservoir and issues related to cascade development and regulation in Tuojiang and Minjiang River basins in mind. In accordance with the concept of scientific development, and the philosophy of "ensuring a healthy Yangtze River and promoting the har-mony between human and water", taking flood control, benefit initiation and eco-system as a whole, this paper put for-ward the basic consideration to improve reservoir regulation as follows : on the basis of requirements of ecosystem protec-tion at downstream of dams and needs of environment protection in reservoir areas, we should bring the functions of res-ervoir such as flood control and benefit initiation into full play, control the negative influence to the ecosystem at down-stream of dams and the environment in reservoir areas in an endurable scope, and restore the ecosystem and the environ-ment step by step. This paper put forward the relevant regulation process aiming at the idiographic problems such as pro-tection of ecosystem at downstream of dams and environment in reservoir areas, protection of aquatic wildlife species and fish species, regulation of sediment and protection of wetland.

  11. Reviewing host proteins of Rhabdoviridae: Possible leads for lesser studied viruses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Guleria; M Kiranmayi; R Sreejith; K Kumar; S K Sharma; S Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Rhabdoviridae, characterized by bullet-shaped viruses, is known for its diverse host range, which includes plants, arthropods, fishes and humans. Understanding the viral–host interactions of this family can prove beneficial in developing effective therapeutic strategies. The host proteins interacting with animal rhabdoviruses have been reviewed in this report. Several important host proteins commonly interacting with animal rhabdoviruses are being reported, some of which, interestingly, have molecular features, which can serve as potential antiviral targets. This review not only provides the generalized importance of the functions of animal rhabdovirus-associated host proteins for the first time but also compares them among the two most studied viruses, i.e. Rabies virus (RV) and Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV). The comparative data can be used for studying emerging viruses such as Chandipura virus (CHPV) and the lesser studied viruses such as Piry virus (PIRYV) and Isfahan virus (ISFV) of the Rhabdoviridae family.

  12. Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jie; Han, Naijian; Streicker, Daniel; Li, Gang; Tang, Xianchun; Shi, Zhengli; Hu, Zhihong; Zhao, Guoping; Fontanet, Arnaud; Guan, Yi; Wang, Linfa; Jones, Gareth; Field, Hume E.; Daszak, Peter; Zhang, Shuyi

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bats are the natural reservoir of a range of coronaviruses (CoVs), and that rhinolophid bats harbor viruses closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV, which caused an outbreak of respiratory illness in humans during 2002–2003. We examined the evolutionary relationships between bat CoVs and their hosts by using sequence data of the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and the bat cytochrome b gene. Phylogenetic analyses showed mul...

  13. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak;

    2014-01-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral...... cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction...... calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity and diet, thereby extending direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past....

  14. Jet set pets: examining the zoonosis risk in animal import and travel across the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Anthony R Fooks,1,2 Nicholas Johnson1 1Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-Borne Diseases Research Group, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, 2Department of Clinical Infection, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Ownership of companion animals or pets is popular throughout the world. Unfortunately, such animals are susceptible to and potential reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens. Close proximity to and contact with pets can lead to human infections. The distribution of zoo...

  15. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in different animal species from the Southeast of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia L Vitral; Marcelo A Pinto; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia L.; Yuri E Khudyakov; Débora R dos Santos; Ana Maria C. Gaspar

    2005-01-01

    Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection (HEV) has been observed in both humans and different animal species living in non-endemic areas, suggesting that animals could be important reservoir for virus transmission to man. Antibodies to HEV have been detected in some Brazilian population groups. Nevertheless, sporadic cases of acute HEV infection have never been reported. We collected 271 serum samples from several domestic animals and also from pig handlers from Southeast of Brazil...

  16. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who......This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  17. GENOMIC DIVERSITY OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE FROM FISH, BOVINE AND HUMAN HOSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group B Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a cause of infectious disease in multiple poikilothermic and homothermic animal species. Epidemiological and zoonotic considerations necessitate an undertaking of a comparison of S. agalactiae isolates from different phylogenetic hosts and geographical regi...

  18. Zooplankton of the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Mykolaichuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to zooplankton species composition in the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir. The greatest species diversity was found in the macrophyte communities of the upper reservoir’s littoral, but the least zooplankton diversity – in the pelagic zone of the lower reservoir.

  19. Zooplankton of the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Mykolaichuk

    2006-01-01

    The paper is devoted to zooplankton species composition in the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir. The greatest species diversity was found in the macrophyte communities of the upper reservoir’s littoral, but the least zooplankton diversity – in the pelagic zone of the lower reservoir.

  20. Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most widely used method of thermal oil recovery is by injecting steam into the reservoir. A well-designed steam injection project is very efficient in recovering oil, however its applicability is limited in many situations. Simulation studies and field experience has shown that for low injectivity reservoirs, small thickness of the oil-bearing zone, and reservoir heterogeneity limits the performance of steam injection. This paper discusses alternative methods of transferring heat to heavy oil reservoirs, based on electromagnetic energy. They present a detailed analysis of low frequency electric resistive (ohmic) heating and higher frequency electromagnetic heating (radio and microwave frequency). They show the applicability of electromagnetic heating in two example reservoirs. The first reservoir model has thin sand zones separated by impermeable shale layers, and very viscous oil. They model preheating the reservoir with low frequency current using two horizontal electrodes, before injecting steam. The second reservoir model has very low permeability and moderately viscous oil. In this case they use a high frequency microwave antenna located near the producing well as the heat source. Simulation results presented in this paper show that in some cases, electromagnetic heating may be a good alternative to steam injection or maybe used in combination with steam to improve heavy oil production. They identify the parameters which are critical in electromagnetic heating. They also discuss past field applications of electromagnetic heating including technical challenges and limitations

  1. Advances in China's Oil Reservoir Description Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Longxin; Huang Shiyan; Jia Ailin; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Oil reservoir description in China has undergone rapid development in recent years. Extensive research carried out at various oilfields and petroleum universities has resulted in the formulation of comprehensive oil reservoir description techniques and methods uniquely suited to the various development phases of China's continental facies. The new techniques have the following characteristics:

  2. Optimal early refill rules for Danjiangkou Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun WANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water levels in reservoirs are generally not allowed to exceed the flood-limited water level during the flood season, which means that huge amounts of water spill in order to provide adequate storage for flood prevention and that it is difficult to fill the reservoir fully at the end of year. Early reservoir refill is an effective method for addressing the contradiction between the needs of flood control and of comprehensive utilization. This study selected the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which is the water source for the middle route of the South-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP in China, as a case study, and analyzed the necessity and operational feasibility of early reservoir refill. An early reservoir refill model is proposed based on the maximum average storage ratio, optimized by the progressive optimality algorithm, and the optimal scheduling schemes were obtained. Results show that the best time of refill operation for the Danjiangkou Reservoir is September 15, and the upper limit water level during September is 166 m. The proposed early refill scheme, in stages, can increase the annual average storage ratio from 77.51% to 81.99%, and decrease spilled water from 2.439 × 109 m3 to 1.692 × 109 m3, in comparison to the original design scheme. The suggested early reservoir refill scheme can be easily operated with significant comprehensive benefits, which may provide a good reference for scheduling decision-making.

  3. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Optimal early refill rules for Danjiangkou Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun WANG; Sheng-lian GUO; Guang YANG; Xing-jun HONG; Ting HU

    2014-01-01

    Water levels in reservoirs are generally not allowed to exceed the flood-limited water level during the flood season, which means that huge amounts of water spill in order to provide adequate storage for flood prevention and that it is difficult to fill the reservoir fully at the end of year. Early reservoir refill is an effective method for addressing the contradiction between the needs of flood control and of comprehensive utilization. This study selected the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which is the water source for the middle route of the South-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) in China, as a case study, and analyzed the necessity and operational feasibility of early reservoir refill. An early reservoir refill model is proposed based on the maximum average storage ratio, optimized by the progressive optimality algorithm, and the optimal scheduling schemes were obtained. Results show that the best time of refill operation for the Danjiangkou Reservoir is September 15, and the upper limit water level during September is 166 m. The proposed early refill scheme, in stages, can increase the annual average storage ratio from 77.51% to 81.99%, and decrease spilled water from 2.439×109 m3 to 1.692×109 m3, in comparison to the original design scheme. The suggested early reservoir refill scheme can be easily operated with significant comprehensive benefits, which may provide a good reference for scheduling decision-making.

  5. Identifying and Evaluating of Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haixia

    2002-01-01

    The identification and evaluation of oil reservoir with logging data are one of most important ways in geologic logging services. For the last decades, with the further development of the oil & gas exploration, great advances have been achieved in techniques on the acquisition, processing and interpretative evaluation of logging data. How to identify fluid characteristics and evaluate the productivity in light oil reservoir (the crude density being between 0.74g/cm3 and 0.82g/cm3)has become one of the difficulties.With the establishment of the regional interpretation criterion of the study blocks, the optimized logging parameters that reflect the reservoir characteristics have been used to establish the chart for the interpretation of oil-water reservoir combining with well logging parameters. Then, to begin with geologic reserves of crude in single well, we establish evaluation criterion for productivity in oil reservoir with determining lower limit value of the reservoir and applying the relationship between chart parameters. The techniques are verified in production and get better effect.On the basis of the reservoir characteristics analysis of both basin A and B, We established the evaluation method of static productivity on light oil reservoir with getting quantitative evaluation parameters after quantitatively evaluating the date of core, pyrolysis chromatogram and gas chromatogram. It provides new technique 7 for new well interpretation and old well review, as well as evidence for project.design of well testing.

  6. Reservoir optimization for the synthetic brugge field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Egberts, P.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing availability of data and tools for history matching and optimisation brings the long-term goal of closed loop reservoir management closer. However, still many issues are not solved. An example is the interaction between the history match of the reservoir model and the optimisation. How im

  7. Time-lapse seismic within reservoir engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Time-lapse 3D seismic is a fairly new technology allowing dynamic reservoir characterisation in a true volumetric sense. By investigating the differences between multiple seismic surveys, valuable information about changes in the oil/gas reservoir state can be captured. Its interpretation involves d

  8. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  9. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-09

    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  10. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  11. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs. PMID:24943886

  12. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  13. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    porous media. The main conclusion of most previous studies was that it is the rock wettability alteration towards more water wetting condition that helps improving the oil recovery. In the first step of this project, we focused on verifying this conclusion. Coreflooding experiments were carried out using...... imbibition rather than forced flooding. The objective of the third step of this project was to investigate the potential of high salinity waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous imbibition using core plugs with and...... without aging. The total oil recovery, recovery rate and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injected fluids under different temperatures and wettability conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that the oil recovery mechanism under high salinity seawater flooding at...

  14. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU del

  15. Towards understanding the benefits, establishment and maintenance of host-microbe homeostasis in Hydra

    OpenAIRE

    Franzenburg, Sören

    2013-01-01

    Animals evolved in a biotic environment dominated by microbes. Thus, all animals, ranging from simple invertebrates to primates, are host to complex microbial communities, which are essential for the host’s health. However, the mechanisms determining the community composition and homeostasis within this microbiota are not fully understood. The present thesis includes a detailed analysis of the microbiota in the cnidarian host Hydra, including its beneficial function, establishment, regulation...

  16. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushita, Yasmin; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the VW1 and the CCS1 wells, structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. Intention was for two million tons per annum (MTPA) of CO2 to be injected for 20 years. In the preceding, the 2010 Potosi heterogeneous model (referred to as the "Potosi Dynamic Model 2010" in this topical report) was re-run using a new injection scenario; 3.2 MTPA for 30 years. The extent of the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010, however, appeared too small for the new injection target. It was not sufficiently large enough to accommodate the evolution of the plume. The new model, Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a, was built by extending the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010 grid to 30 miles x 30 miles (48.3km x48.3km), while preserving all property modeling workflows and layering. This model was retained as the base case of Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a. The Potosi reservoir model was updated to take into account the new data from the verification well VW2 which was drilled in 2012. The new porosity and permeability modeling was

  17. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. PMID:27155351

  18. Discovery based and targeted Mass Spectrometry in farm animal proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in mass spectrometry have greatly improved accuracy and speed of analyses of proteins and biochemical pathways. These proteome technologies have transformed research and diagnostic methods in the biomedical fields, and in food and farm animal sciences proteomics can be used...... experiments from tissues and body fluids from pig, cow and horse, and currently provides the primary public resource for designing SRM methods for farm animal applications...... approach for investigating farm animal biology. SRM is particularly important for validation biomarker candidates This talk will introduce the use of different mass spectrometry approaches through examples related to food quality and animal welfare, including studies of gut health in pigs, host pathogen...

  19. Perturbation of host ubiquitin systems by plant pathogen/pest effector proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Banfield, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial pathogens and pests of animals and plants secrete effector proteins into host cells, altering cellular physiology to the benefit of the invading parasite. Research in the past decade has delivered significant new insights into the molecular mechanisms of how these effector proteins function, with a particular focus on modulation of host immunity-related pathways. One host system that has emerged as a common target of effectors is the ubiquitination system in which substrate proteins...

  20. Mosquito host choices on livestock amplifiers of Rift Valley fever virus in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal hosts may vary in their attraction and acceptability as components of the host location process for assessing biting rates of vectors and risk of exposure to pathogens. However, these parameters remain poorly understood for mosquito vectors of the Rift Valley fever (RVF), an arboviral disease...

  1. Micro array analysis of the intestinal host response in Giardia duodenalis assemblage E infected cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia duodenalis is one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in humans and animals. However, little is known about the host-parasite interaction in its natural hosts. The objective of this study was to investigate the intestinal response in calves following a G. duodenalis infection, us...

  2. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gibson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  3. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  4. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  5. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  6. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  7. Animal Violence Demystified

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (char...

  8. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Shimamura; Nobuo Kubota; Kazutoshi Shibuya

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the presen...

  9. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  10. The representative animal

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  11. Animal Production in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SARICA, Şenay; Ulutaş, Zafer; ŞAHİN, Aziz

    2004-01-01

    Animal sector in Turkey has changed considerably in the last few years. Although the most significant advancements have occurred in the poultry sector, the cattle and small ruminants sector could not achieve similar improvements. Reasons of the depression in the cattle and small ruminants sector are the lack of breeding animal materials and high quality feed sources, insufficient disease control, disorganized and small size of the animal farms, lack of infrastructure, poor education levels of...

  12. Thinking with animals

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    they also enlist them to symbolize, dramatize, and illuminate aspects of humans' experience and fantasy. Humans merge with animals in stories, films, philosophical speculations, and scientific treatises. In their performance on many stages and in different ways, animals move us to think." "Essays in the book investigate the changing patterns of anthropomorphism across different time periods and settings, as well as their transformative effects, both figuratively and literally, upon animals, h...

  13. Fracture propagation and fluid transport in palaeogeothermal fields and man-made reservoirs in limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, S. L.; Reyer, D.; Meier, S.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal reservoirs are rock units from which the internal heat can be extracted using water as a transport means in an economically efficient manner. In geothermal reservoirs in limestone (and similar in other rocks with low matrix permeability), fluid flow is largely, and may be almost entirely, controlled by the permeability of the fracture network. No flow, however, takes place along a particular fracture network unless the fractures are interconnected. For fluid flow to occur from one site to another there must be at least one interconnected cluster of fractures that links these sites (the percolation threshold must be reached). In order to generate permeability in man-made reservoirs, interconnected fracture systems are formed either by creating hydraulic fractures or by massive hydraulic stimulation of the existing fracture system in the host rock. For effective stimulation, the geometry of the fracture system and the mechanical properties of the host rock (particularly rock stiffnesses and strengths) must be known. Here we present results of a study of fracture systems in rocks that could be used to host man-made geothermal reservoirs: the Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) limestones in Germany. Studies of fracture systems in exposed palaeogeothermal fields can also help understand the permeability development in stimulated reservoirs. We therefore present data on the infrastructures of extinct fracture-controlled geothermal fields in fault zones in the Blue Lias (Lower Jurassic), Great Britain. In fault zones there are normally two main mechanical and hydrogeological units. The fault core, along which fault slip mostly occurs, consists mainly of breccia and other cataclastic rocks. The fault damage zone comprises numerous fractures of various sizes. During fault slip, the fault core may transport water (if its orientation is favourable to the hydraulic gradient in the area). In the damage zone, however, fluid transport through fracture networks depends

  14. Impact of simulated microgravity on the normal developmental time line of an animal-bacteria symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jamie S; Khodadad, Christina L M; Ahrendt, Steven R; Parrish, Mirina L

    2013-01-01

    The microgravity environment during space flight imposes numerous adverse effects on animal and microbial physiology. It is unclear, however, how microgravity impacts those cellular interactions between mutualistic microbes and their hosts. Here, we used the symbiosis between the host squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri as a model system. We examined the impact of simulated microgravity on the timeline of bacteria-induced development in the host light organ, the site of the symbiosis. To simulate the microgravity environment, host squid and symbiosis-competent bacteria were incubated together in high-aspect ratio rotating wall vessel bioreactors and examined throughout the early stages of the bacteria-induced morphogenesis. The host innate immune response was suppressed under simulated microgravity; however, there was an acceleration of bacteria-induced apoptosis and regression in the host tissues. These results suggest that the space flight environment may alter the cellular interactions between animal hosts and their natural healthy microbiome. PMID:23439280

  15. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  16. The dying animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    The study of animal death is poised to blossom into an exciting new interdisciplinary field-and one with profound relevance for bioethics. Areas of interest include the biology and evolution of death-related behavior in nonhuman animals, as well as human social, psychological, cultural, and moral attitudes toward and practices related to animal death. In this paper, I offer a brief overview of what we know about death-related behavior in animals. I will then sketch some of the bioethical implications of this emerging field of research. PMID:24092402

  17. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  18. Diagnosis of animal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R

    1987-01-01

    The aims of the diagnostic evaluation are to establish the presence and severity of disease and the importance of animal exposure as the etiology of the disease. The evaluation of the importance of animals may be part of a general allergy evaluation or specifically directed toward an animal in certain cases, such as occupational exposure. The diagnostic techniques are medical history, physical examination, allergy skin tests or in vitro tests for IgE antibody and correlation of improvement in symptoms with animal avoidance. PMID:3477684

  19. Political Communication with Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, E

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka present in Zoopolis (2011). I will argue their political theory is an important step forward in the debate about animal rights, because it proposes to see animals as po...

  20. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    2010-05-01

    Conventional reservoir simulation and modeling is a bottom-up approach. It starts with building a geological model of the reservoir that is populated with the best available petrophysical and geophysical information at the time of development. Engineering fluid flow principles are added and solved numerically so as to arrive at a dynamic reservoir model. The dynamic reservoir model is calibrated using the production history of multiple wells and the history matched model is used to strategize field development in order to improve recovery. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Modeling approaches the reservoir simulation and modeling from an opposite angle by attempting to build a realization of the reservoir starting with the measured well production behavior (history). The production history is augmented by core, log, well test and seismic data in order to increase the accuracy of the Top-Down modeling technique. Although not intended as a substitute for the conventional reservoir simulation of large, complex fields, this novel approach to reservoir modeling can be used as an alternative (at a fraction of the cost) to conventional reservoir simulation and modeling in cases where performing conventional modeling is cost (and man-power) prohibitive. In cases where a conventional model of a reservoir already exists, Top-Down modeling should be considered as a compliment to, rather than a competition for the conventional technique, to provide an independent look at the data coming from the reservoir/wells for optimum development strategy and recovery enhancement. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Modeling starts with well-known reservoir engineering techniques such as Decline Curve Analysis, Type Curve Matching, History Matching using single well numerical reservoir simulation, Volumetric Reserve Estimation and calculation of Recovery Factors for all the wells (individually) in the field. Using statistical techniques multiple Production Indicators (3, 6, and 9 months cum