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Sample records for animal reproductive processes

  1. Glycobiology of Reproductive Processes in Marine Animals: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Costantini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycobiology is the study of complex carbohydrates in biological systems and represents a developing field of science that has made huge advances in the last half century. In fact, it combines all branches of biomedical research, revealing the vast and diverse forms of carbohydrate structures that exist in nature. Advances in structure determination have enabled scientists to study the function of complex carbohydrates in more depth and to determine the role that they play in a wide range of biological processes. Glycobiology research in marine systems has primarily focused on reproduction, in particular for what concern the chemical communication between the gametes. The current status of marine glycobiology is primarily descriptive, devoted to characterizing marine glycoconjugates with potential biomedical and biotechnological applications. In this review, we describe the current status of the glycobiology in the reproductive processes from gametogenesis to fertilization and embryo development of marine animals.

  2. Reproductive interference between animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröning, Julia; Hochkirch, Axel

    2008-09-01

    Although sexual interactions between species (reproductive interference) have been reported from a wide range of animal taxa, their potential for determining species coexistence is often disregarded. Here, we review evidence from laboratory and field studies illustrating that heterospecific sexual interactions are frequently associated with fitness loss and can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences. We define reproductive interference as any kind of interspecific interaction during the process of mate acquisition that adversely affects the fitness of at least one of the species involved and that is caused by incomplete species recognition. We distinguish seven types of reproductive interference: signal jamming, heterospecific rivalry, misdirected courtship, heterospecific mating attempts, erroneous female choice, heterospecific mating, and hybridization. We then discuss the sex-specific costs of these types and highlight two typical features of reproductive interference: density-dependence and asymmetry. Similar to competition, reproductive interference can lead to displacement of one species (sexual exclusion), spatial, temporal, or habitat segregation, changes in life history parameters, and reproductive character displacement. In many cases, patterns of coexistence might be shaped by reproductive interference rather than by resource competition, as the presence of a few heterospecifics might substantially decrease reproductive success. Therefore, interspecific sexual interactions should receive more attention in ecological research. Reproductive interference has mainly been discussed in the context of invasive species or hybrid zones, whereas its influence on naturally-occurring sympatric species pairs has rarely been addressed. To improve our knowledge of the ecological significance of reproductive interference, findings from laboratory experiments should be validated in the field. Future studies should also focus on ecological mechanisms, such

  3. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  4. Neotenic reproduction in various animal groups

    OpenAIRE

    Nevěčný, Karel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to collect information about neoteny (i. e. reproduction of animals in the larval stage to adult without metamorphosis) that describe the reproduction and assess the representation, if found more groups of animals in which it occurs. The basic method was searching various sources, sorting and analyzing. It is a compilation of work to prepare review. The sources of information were professional articles and books of Czech and foreign, including some Internet resource...

  5. Relations between animal transgenesis and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Transgenesis has become an essential tool for the study of gene expression mechanisms and functions. Transgenesis is also more and more used for biotechnological applications such as the study of human diseases, the adaptation of pig organs to humans, the production of pharmaceutical proteins in milk and likely in the future for the improvement of animal production. The use of transgenesis relies on the efficiency of gene transfer. New tools have been recently designed to improve gene transfer. The methods of gene transfer are highly dependent on the techniques of animal reproduction. Conversely, the need to improve transgenesis urges researchers to study some of the key steps in reproduction and to find new techniques for gene transfer. This paper summarises the recent data and the perspectives offered by animal transgenesis.

  6. Laparoscopy and ultrasonography in animal reproduction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the applications of laparoscopy and ultrasonography in the Animal Reproduction Laboratory at the University Pertanian Malaysia during the past decade. Laparoscopy was used for the study of ovarian function in cattle and buffalo, the determination of ovulation rates in sheep and goat and intrauterine insemination of sheep. More recently ultrasonography has proved a valuable diagnostic tool for pregnancy diagnosis in cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats and for monitoring and assessing the superovulatory response to gonadotropins in bovine embryo transfer programmes. The cost of equipment is no more than the cost of the basic equipment in a radioimmunoassay laboratory. These techniques are easily mastered and no special precautions are needed for their use under tropical conditions. It is concluded that laparoscopy and ultrasonography could make significant contributions to strengthen research in animal reproduction in Asia. (author). 18 refs

  7. Current and future assisted reproductive technologies for mammalian farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction in domestic animals is under control by man and the technologies developed to facilitate that control have a major impact on the efficiency of food production. Reproduction is an energy-intensive process. In beef cattle, for example, over 50 % of the total feed consumption required to produce a unit of meat protein is consumed by the dam of the meat animal (Anim Prod 27:367-379, 1978). Sows are responsible for about 20 % of the total feed needed to produce animals for slaughter (Adv Pork Prod 19:223-237, 2008). Accordingly, energy input to produce food from animal sources is reduced by increasing number of offspring per unit time a breeding female is in the herd. Using beef cattle as an example again, life-cycle efficiency for production of weaned calves is positively related to early age at puberty and short calving intervals (J Anim Sci 57:852-866, 1983). Reproductive technologies also dictate the strategies that can be used to select animals genetically for traits that improve production. Of critical importance has been artificial insemination (AI) (Anim Reprod Sci 62:143-172, 2000; Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 38:411-441, 2007; Reprod Domest Anim 43:379-385, 2008; J Dairy Sci 92:5814-5833, 2009) and, as will be outlined in this chapter, emerging technologies offer additional opportunities for improvements in genetic selection. Given the central role of reproduction as a determinant of production efficiency and in genetic selection, improvements in reproductive technologies will be crucial to meeting the challenges created by the anticipated increases in world population (from seven billion people in 2011 to an anticipated nine billion by 2050; World population prospects: the 2010 revision, highlights and advance tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.220, New York) and by difficulties in livestock production wrought by climate change (SAT eJournal 4:1-23, 2007).The purpose of this chapter will be to highlight current and emerging reproductive

  8. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    O P Verma; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Chand, S

    2012-01-01

    It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction...

  9. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Contents The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive sys...

  10. Animal reproduction and physiology: from basis to application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI JianFang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Animal reproduction and physiology is one of the traditional subjects in biology, and also one of the most rapidly developing fields because it is related to human food requirements.Along with advances in the life sciences and biotechnology, animal reproduction and physiology has achieved new theoretical developments and potential applications.

  11. The role of pheromones and biostimulation in animal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekwot, P I; Ogwu, D; Oyedipe, E O; Sekoni, V O

    2001-03-30

    It is now known that pheromonal communication plays an important role in mammalian behaviour and reproductive processes. Chemical communication with pheromones is one means of transmitting such information. In mammals, signalling and priming pheromones are thought to act either singly or in combination through olfaction, auditory, visual (sight) or tactile stimuli. Pheromones are air-borne chemical substances ("signals") released in the urine or feces of animals or secreted from cutaneous glands that are perceived by the olfactory system and that elicit both behavioural and endocrine responses in conspecifics. Extensive studies in insects, rodents, swine, sheep, goats and cattle have established the importance of pheromones in the strong influence exerted by the male on reproductive activity in the female. There is a pheromone produced by the queen honey bee, which has two functions: inhibition of queen rearing and suppression of oogenesis in workers and in addition attracts drones during nuptial flight. It has also been demonstrated that the urine of male mice, rats, feral species and other wild rodents contains a priming pheromone that is responsible for hastening puberty in the females. Pheromones in the wool, wax and urine of a ram are sufficient to stimulate ewes to ovulate, while the buck has a strong characteristic seasonal odor and a buck jar containing the odor of the buck can be used as an aid in the detection of oestrus in does. The mere presence of the boar at the time of insemination of the sow improves sperm transport and ovulation, while the presence of the vasectomised bull has been reported to hasten the onset of puberty in heifers and also early resumption of ovarian activity in cattle following parturition. The role of pheromones in bovine reproduction is not as clearly defined as in sheep, goats and swine. Pheromones and other allelomimetic cues can exert profound effects on reproductive activity via the hypothalamic system that generates pulses

  12. The role of pheromones and biostimulation in animal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekwot, P I; Ogwu, D; Oyedipe, E O; Sekoni, V O

    2001-03-30

    It is now known that pheromonal communication plays an important role in mammalian behaviour and reproductive processes. Chemical communication with pheromones is one means of transmitting such information. In mammals, signalling and priming pheromones are thought to act either singly or in combination through olfaction, auditory, visual (sight) or tactile stimuli. Pheromones are air-borne chemical substances ("signals") released in the urine or feces of animals or secreted from cutaneous glands that are perceived by the olfactory system and that elicit both behavioural and endocrine responses in conspecifics. Extensive studies in insects, rodents, swine, sheep, goats and cattle have established the importance of pheromones in the strong influence exerted by the male on reproductive activity in the female. There is a pheromone produced by the queen honey bee, which has two functions: inhibition of queen rearing and suppression of oogenesis in workers and in addition attracts drones during nuptial flight. It has also been demonstrated that the urine of male mice, rats, feral species and other wild rodents contains a priming pheromone that is responsible for hastening puberty in the females. Pheromones in the wool, wax and urine of a ram are sufficient to stimulate ewes to ovulate, while the buck has a strong characteristic seasonal odor and a buck jar containing the odor of the buck can be used as an aid in the detection of oestrus in does. The mere presence of the boar at the time of insemination of the sow improves sperm transport and ovulation, while the presence of the vasectomised bull has been reported to hasten the onset of puberty in heifers and also early resumption of ovarian activity in cattle following parturition. The role of pheromones in bovine reproduction is not as clearly defined as in sheep, goats and swine. Pheromones and other allelomimetic cues can exert profound effects on reproductive activity via the hypothalamic system that generates pulses

  13. Public perceptions of reproductive biotechnologies: the case of farm animal breeding and reproduction in France and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Arouna P

    2004-01-01

    Results of previous qualitative and quantitative stages of the research project demonstrated that, although consumers had poor knowledge about breeding and reproduction procedures, they were concerned about the impact of breeding practices on their food items. They acknowledged breeding and reproduction to be at the very core of animal-based food chain process. Since however modern breeding programmers beg so much for genetics, their practices increasingly raised consumer concerns. This paper presents results of a research addressing this issue and based on interviews of livestock breeders and specialized scientists. This research was undertaken within the frame of an EU funded project (Sustainable Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction Project, 2000-2003). Interviews were performed according to the methodology of focus groups and results were used to prepare a discussion guide, including definitions of breeding techniques such as artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and molecular genetics. Farm animal breeding and reproduction methods raised high level of concerns in conventional terms like safety, healthiness and quality of food, factory farming and related consequences on environment, international issues, and cost. Several propositions were presented that deal with modern farm animal breeding and reproduction, EU regulation of breeding procedures, education of consumers on breeding methods, and labelling of products on breeding and reproduction grounds. PMID:15268794

  14. Spatial processing in color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yongyi; Stark, Henry

    2005-08-01

    We consider the reproduction of color subject to material and neighborhood constraints. By 'material constraints,' we mean any constraints that are applied to the amount of ink, lights, voltages, and currents that are used in the generation of color. In the first instance we consider the problem of reproducing a target color constrained by maximum additive color signals, such as in the phosphorescence process in a cathode ray tube. In the second instance we consider the more difficult problem of reproducing color subject to constraints on the maximum primary color variations in a (spatial) neighborhood. We introduce the idea of adjacent color variance (ACV) and then attempt to reproduce colors subject to an upper bound on the ACV. An algorithm that is suitable for this task is the method of vector space projections (VSP). In order to use VSP for constrained color reproduction, we use a novel approach to linearize nonlinear CIE-Lab space constraints. Experimental results are furnished that demonstrate that using the ACV as a bound helps to reduce reproduction artifacts in a color image.

  15. Relations between animal transgenesis and reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Transgenesis has become an essential tool for the study of gene expression mechanisms and functions. Transgenesis is also more and more used for biotechnological applications such as the study of human diseases, the adaptation of pig organs to humans, the production of pharmaceutical proteins in milk and likely in the future for the improvement of animal production. The use of transgenesis relies on the efficiency of gene transfer. New tools have been recently designed...

  16. New pathways in animal reproductive physiology frontiers and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzymowski, T

    1992-12-01

    reproductive activity. The mechanism of this process is still unknown. The role of peptydoergic neurons and cytokins in vascular permeability during hormone counter current transfer in the broad ligament vasculature, perihypophyseal cavernous sinus and carotid rete has not been investigated. It is suggested that progress in this area may change our point of view on many basic regulatory mechanisms involved in animal reproductive physiology.

  17. Laboratory training manual on radioimmunoassay in animal reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproduction must always be regarded as one of the major limiting factors in animal production and many of the modern methods for improving reproduction rely heavily on the ability to measure hormone levels in blood and milk. This has produced a world-wide demand for laboratory facilities to carry out hormone assays and the need for specialist training to allow these assays to be undertaken. The need to measure nanogram and picogram quantities and the use of radionuclides require a good deal of skill and care and this Manual has been prepared to aid training and provide the sort of information that rarely appears in scientific papers. It represents a further step in the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's series of Laboratory Training Manuals, and has been designed to aid training programmes of the type carried out during the Joint FAO/IAEA Interregional Training Course on Radioimmunoassay and its Application in Research on Animal Reproduction at Cornell University in July 1982. Many of the laboratory exercises described in this Manual are based on those conducted during the course

  18. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Verma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction includes Artificial insemination, Embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, embryo cryopreservation, Sexing of semen and embryos, cloning, transgenesis, stem cell technology, embryo genomics, micro and nanotechnology has been included. Recently in some of these fields remarkable progress has been made. None the less, imperfections are remaining and sustained efforts will be required to optimize existing and invent new technologies. Before referring an animal for an ART, the practitioner should be able to identify the underlying cause of subfertility of that animal. Knowing the complexity as well as the risks of these techniques, enables practitioners to refer a sub-fertile animal to the least complex and most appropriate and successful ART that can overcome specific causes of infertility. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 301-310

  19. Animation of boom failure processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer animations of oil boom failure mechanisms were discussed. The animations are useful in demonstrating the transient processes of boom failure. They consist of a series of images obtained from the graphical output of a computational fluid dynamics program, FLUENT, while the modeling is based on boom failure experiments carried out in flowing water channels. The animations can be viewed on a PC running under Windows '95. Three types of failures are presented, i. e. drainage failure, droplet entrainment and critical accumulation. 11 refs., 3 figs

  20. Contributions of an animal scientist to reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazer, Fuller W

    2011-08-01

    I became interested in biology as an undergraduate in a premedical curriculum but developed a passion for the field of reproductive biology because of a course in physiology of reproduction taken to meet requirements for admission to veterinary school. My career path changed, and I entered graduate school, obtained the Ph.D., and have enjoyed an academic career as a reproductive biologist conducting research in uterine biology and pregnancy in animal science departments at the University of Florida and at Texas A&M University. However, I have never allowed academic boundaries to interfere with research and graduate education as that is contrary to collegiality, the cornerstone of great universities. I consider that my major contributions to science include 1) identification of proteins secreted by cells of the uterine endometrium that are critical to successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy; 2) discovery of steroids and proteins required for pregnancy recognition signaling and their mechanisms of action in pigs and ruminant species; 3) investigation of fetal-placental development and placental transport of nutrients, including water and electrolytes; 4) identification of linkages between nutrition and fetal-placental development; 5) defining aspects of the endocrinology of pregnancy; and 6) contributing to efforts to exploit the therapeutic value of interferon tau, particularly for treatment of autoimmune diseases. My current studies are focused on the role of select nutrients in the uterine lumen, specifically amino acids and glucose, that affect development and survival of the conceptus and translation of mRNAs and, with colleagues at Seoul National University, gene expression by the avian reproductive tract at key periods postovulation. Another goal is to understand stromal-epithelial cell signaling, whereby progesterone and estrogen act via uterine stromal cells that express receptors for sex steroids to stimulate secretion of growth factors (e

  1. Telocytes in female reproductive system (human and animal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrovych, Veronika; Walocha, Jerzy A; Gil, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a newly discovered type of cell with numerous functions. They have been found in a large variety of organs: heart (endo-, myo-, epi- and pericardium, myocardial sleeves, heart valves); digestive tract and annex glands (oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, liver, gallbladder, salivary gland, exocrine pancreas); respiratory system (trachea and lungs); urinary system (kidney, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra); female reproductive system (uterus, Fallopian tube, placenta, mammary gland); vasculature (blood vessels, thoracic duct); serous membranes (mesentery and pleura); and other organs (skeletal muscle, meninges and choroid plexus, neuromuscular spindles, fascia lata, skin, eye, prostate, bone marrow). Likewise, TCs are widely distributed in vertebrates (fish, reptiles, birds, mammals, including human). This review summarizes particular features of TCs in the female reproductive system, emphasizing their involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:27060783

  2. Animal models and conserved processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greek Ray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? Methods We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Results Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. Conclusion We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is

  3. Fusarium mycotoxins: effects on reproductive function in domestic animals--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Pizzo, Fabiola; Spicer, Leon J; Caloni, Francesca

    2013-10-01

    On a global scale, cereal grains and animal feed may be contaminated with trichothecenes, such as deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin, zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisins, the major mycotoxins of Fusarium fungi. Of these mycotoxins, ZEA is unequivocally implicated in reproductive disorders of swine and other domestic animals. Experiments in vivo and in vitro indicate that ZEA and its metabolites exert estrogenic effects resulting in functional and morphological alterations in reproductive organs. Recently, the potential of trichothecenes and fumonisins to cause reproductive disorders in domestic animals has been investigated. The present review summarizes the toxicological data on the effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on ovarian function, testicular function, placenta and fetus, and puberty/sexual maturity of domestic animals. The results of in vivo animal studies and in vitro tests are reported and discussed.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Role of Natural Plant Derived Antioxidants in Animal Reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Rong-zhen; ZHOU Dao-wei

    2013-01-01

    The experimental knowledge on the role of oxidative stress, and beneifcial and detrimental effects of plant derived antioxidants in male and female animal reproduction are reviewed in this article. Free radical-induced oxidative stress in animal reproduction causes great loss to livestock industry. Antioxidant therapy has been implicated to be effective in preventing diseases resulted from oxidative stress. Considering the advantages of lower side effects of natural antioxidants than those of synthetic antioxidants, plants or their extracts have been extensively utilized in animals. Although many advances have been gained on application of plant derived antioxidants in alleviating oxidative stress, debatable issues still exist. Because many opposite effects were observed even using plant extracts containing similar bioactive substances in the same animal species. Therefore, plant derived antioxidants, like free radicals, are“double-edged swords”in animal reproduction, representing that they may exhibit beneifcial or detrimental effects in animal reproduction, including spermatogenesis, semen functions, estrous cycles, ovulation, ovary functions, endometrium, embryo development, and pregnancy. Besides dose-dependent manner as an explanation of plant extracts’ dual function, future studies are needed to investigate the mechanism of double-edged actions of plant derived antioxidants in different animal reproduction systems.

  5. Reproduction of an animal model of landmine blast injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce an animal model of landmine blast injuries for studying its mechanism and characteristics. Methods Fifteen healthy New Zealand white rabbits (body weight 1.9-2.4 kg were prepared as experimental animals. Punctiform burster was used to simulate the landmine, and it was electrically detonated far away to produce landmine blast injuries on unilateral hind limb of rabbits in upright state. The vital signs before and 5min, 15min, 30min, 45min, 1h, 2h, 3h, 6h, 9h and 12h after injuries were recorded. Autopsy of dead animals was performed immediately and the survivors were sacrificed for pathological examination 6h and 12h after the injury. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in the injured limb and distant organs were observed. Fifteen random adult body weights were generated by random number table, and the explosive energy of M14 landmine (about 29g TNT explosive energy was simulated, to compare the ratio of explosive force equivalent to weight calculated between experimental animals and randomly selected adults. Results No significant change in blood pressure was observed at different time points before and after injuries. A broom-like change was found in the injured limb by the general observation. The subareas and pathological changes of injured limb coincided with the typical limb injuries produced by landmine explosion. Damage in different degrees was found in distant organs, and the wound characteristics and injury of major organs were in accordance with the reports of relevant literature. The ratio of explosive equivalent to weight of experimental animals (0.50±0.04g TNT/kg was similar to that of randomly selected adults (0.51±0.05g TNT/kg. Conclusion The present animal model could simulate the landmine explosive injuries, and may be used in research of landmine explosive injuries. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.14

  6. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  7. Is Boric Acid Toxic to Reproduction in Humans? Assessment of the Animal Reproductive Toxicity Data and Epidemiological Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child).

  8. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and fis

  9. [Animal Reproduction and Breeding.] Student Materials. V.A. III. [II-A-1 through II-A-8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Part of a series of eight student learning modules in vocational agriculture, this booklet deals with animal reproduction and breeding. The topics covered are genetics, animal reproduction, breeding methods, artificial insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, and parturition care. Each section ends with a glossary and a quiz. (PLB)

  10. The influence of habitat fragmentation on multiple plant-animal interactions and plant reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvig, Lars A; Damschen, Ellen I; Haddad, Nick M; Levey, Douglas J; Tewksbury, Joshua J

    2015-10-01

    Despite broad recognition that habitat loss represents the greatest threat to the world's biodiyersity, a mechanistic understanding of how habitat loss and associated fragmentation affect ecological systems has proven remarkably challenging. The challenge stems from the multiple interdependent ways that landscapes change following fragmentation and the ensuing complex impacts on populations and communities of interacting species. We confronted these challenges by evaluating how fragmentation affects individual plants through interactions with animals, across five herbaceous species native to longleaf pine savannas. We created a replicated landscape experiment that provides controlled tests of three major fragmentation effects (patch isolation, patch shape [i.e., edge-to-area ratio], and distance to edge), established experimental founder populations of the five species to control for spatial distributions and densities of individual plants, and employed structural equation modeling to evaluate the effects of fragmentation on plant reproductive output and the degree to which these impacts are mediated through altered herbivory, pollination, or pre-dispersal seed predation. Across species, the most consistent response to fragmentation was a reduction in herbivory. Herbivory, however, had little impact.on plant reproductive output, and thus we found little evidence for any resulting benefit to plants in fragments. In contrast, fragmentation rarely impacted pollination or pre-dispersal seed predation, but both of these interactions had strong and consistent impacts on plant reproductive output. As a result, our models robustly predicted plant reproductive output (r2 = 0.52-0.70), yet due to the weak effects of fragmentation on pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation, coupled with the weak effect of herbivory on plant reproduction, the effects of fragmentation on reproductive output were generally small in magnitude and inconsistent. This work provides mechanistic

  11. The influence of habitat fragmentation on multiple plant-animal interactions and plant reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvig, Lars A; Damschen, Ellen I; Haddad, Nick M; Levey, Douglas J; Tewksbury, Joshua J

    2015-10-01

    Despite broad recognition that habitat loss represents the greatest threat to the world's biodiyersity, a mechanistic understanding of how habitat loss and associated fragmentation affect ecological systems has proven remarkably challenging. The challenge stems from the multiple interdependent ways that landscapes change following fragmentation and the ensuing complex impacts on populations and communities of interacting species. We confronted these challenges by evaluating how fragmentation affects individual plants through interactions with animals, across five herbaceous species native to longleaf pine savannas. We created a replicated landscape experiment that provides controlled tests of three major fragmentation effects (patch isolation, patch shape [i.e., edge-to-area ratio], and distance to edge), established experimental founder populations of the five species to control for spatial distributions and densities of individual plants, and employed structural equation modeling to evaluate the effects of fragmentation on plant reproductive output and the degree to which these impacts are mediated through altered herbivory, pollination, or pre-dispersal seed predation. Across species, the most consistent response to fragmentation was a reduction in herbivory. Herbivory, however, had little impact.on plant reproductive output, and thus we found little evidence for any resulting benefit to plants in fragments. In contrast, fragmentation rarely impacted pollination or pre-dispersal seed predation, but both of these interactions had strong and consistent impacts on plant reproductive output. As a result, our models robustly predicted plant reproductive output (r2 = 0.52-0.70), yet due to the weak effects of fragmentation on pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation, coupled with the weak effect of herbivory on plant reproduction, the effects of fragmentation on reproductive output were generally small in magnitude and inconsistent. This work provides mechanistic

  12. Assessing the animal ethics review process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, O.; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I.A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Although animal experiments play an important role in biomedical research, their use is ethically challenging. Primarily in Europe, North America and Australasia ethics committees are set up to control the animal use in science. Project approval is usually decided on a case-by-case basis with focus...... on ensuring that the animals are caused a minimum of harm relative to the possibility of achieving beneficial results. Even though rules in this area are reasonably uniform there seems to be significant room for differences, individual and culturally based, between ethics committees concerning how the rules...... are applied. Our aim was to conduct a review of empirical studies of the different kinds of animal ethics committees in order to clarify what is known about their operation and highlight information which is missing in their evaluation. Our main findings are that there is a significant variation in process...

  13. Sexuality and reproduction: implications in the process of healthy adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Adelita Campos Araújo; Valeria Lerch Lunardi; Rosemary Silva da Silveira; Maira Buss Thofehrn; Adrize Rutz Porto; Deisi Cardoso Soares

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the perceptions of adolescents about their process of healthy adolescence with regard to sexuality and reproduction. This is a qualitative research of exploratory type, involving 10 teenagers, in a state school in southern Rio Grande do Sul, between August and October 2007. To collect the data, were used semi-structured interviews, whose contents were subjected to thematic analysis, emerging the theme: sexuality and reproduction in adolescence. At the data, it w...

  14. Widespread presence of human BOULE homologs among animals and conservation of their ancient reproductive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Shah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex-specific traits that lead to the production of dimorphic gametes, sperm in males and eggs in females, are fundamental for sexual reproduction and accordingly widespread among animals. Yet the sex-biased genes that underlie these sex-specific traits are under strong selective pressure, and as a result of adaptive evolution they often become divergent. Indeed out of hundreds of male or female fertility genes identified in diverse organisms, only a very small number of them are implicated specifically in reproduction in more than one lineage. Few genes have exhibited a sex-biased, reproductive-specific requirement beyond a given phylum, raising the question of whether any sex-specific gametogenesis factors could be conserved and whether gametogenesis might have evolved multiple times. Here we describe a metazoan origin of a conserved human reproductive protein, BOULE, and its prevalence from primitive basal metazoans to chordates. We found that BOULE homologs are present in the genomes of representative species of each of the major lineages of metazoans and exhibit reproductive-specific expression in all species examined, with a preponderance of male-biased expression. Examination of Boule evolution within insect and mammalian lineages revealed little evidence for accelerated evolution, unlike most reproductive genes. Instead, purifying selection was the major force behind Boule evolution. Furthermore, loss of function of mammalian Boule resulted in male-specific infertility and a global arrest of sperm development remarkably similar to the phenotype in an insect boule mutation. This work demonstrates the conservation of a reproductive protein throughout eumetazoa, its predominant testis-biased expression in diverse bilaterian species, and conservation of a male gametogenic requirement in mice. This shows an ancient gametogenesis requirement for Boule among Bilateria and supports a model of a common origin of spermatogenesis.

  15. Sexuality and reproduction: implications in the process of healthy adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelita Campos Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the perceptions of adolescents about their process of healthy adolescence with regard to sexuality and reproduction. This is a qualitative research of exploratory type, involving 10 teenagers, in a state school in southern Rio Grande do Sul, between August and October 2007. To collect the data, were used semi-structured interviews, whose contents were subjected to thematic analysis, emerging the theme: sexuality and reproduction in adolescence. At the data, it was noticed the need to provide more guidelines to a healthy adolescence, in the sense of strengthening and promoting the necessary security for the exercise of adolescent sexuality and reproduction. It also showed the need to prepare the adolescent by professionals of health, of education or the family, to face some situations, such as: unwanted pregnancy, first sexual intercourse, self-medication, fear of talking to parents about sexuality and reproduction, among others.

  16. Strengthening research on animal reproduction and disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the results presented by participants of a final Research Co-ordination Meeting which was held from 1 to 5 February 1993 at the University of Chulalongkorn, Bangkok, Thailand, as part of an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Strengthening Research on Animal Reproduction and Disease Diagnosis in Asia through the Application of Immunoassay Techniques. The purpose of this Programme was essentially to encourage national livestock production and veterinary institutes in Asia to conduct on-farm research into existing constraints on animal productivity and ways of reducing or removing these through low cost changes in management. Emphasis was given to defining existing levels of reproductive efficiency in indigeneous livestock and examining responses to nutritional or other interventions, and to exploring possibilities for using new approaches for diagnosing and controlling some diseases considered to impact adversely on Asian livestock production. Within the framework of all studies, immunoassay (radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were employed for measuring levels of reproductive hormones or detecting antibodies to a variety of disease causing agents, the aim being to gain better insight into the underlying nature of the problems being encountered and reasons for the success or otherwise of approaches taken for their resolution. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. EFECTOS DE LOS FITOESTRÓGENOS EN LA REPRODUCCIÓN ANIMAL PHYTOSTROGEN EFFECTS ON ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Yohan Lenis Sanin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los fitoestrógenos son compuestos producidos como metabolitos secundarios en algunas plantas y forrajes destinados al consumo humano y animal. Su importancia radica en que cuando son consumidos pueden tener actividad endógena de forma agónica o antagónica con los estrógenos. Se conocen cinco familias de fitoestrógenos clasificadas de acuerdo a su estructura química (flavonoides, isoflavonoides, coumestanos, lignanos y estilbenos. A pesar de que los fitoestr��genos afectan aparatos y sistemas de vital importancia como el renal, nervioso, cardiovascular entre otros; uno de los sistemas más afectados es el reproductivo, sobre el cual se centra la presente revisión, sin embargo, la literatura es controversial al respecto, demostrado efectos tanto carcinogénicos como anticarcinogénicos. El mecanismo de acción de los fitoestrógenos está mediado por la estimulación o inhibición de los receptores ERalfa y ERbeta que son propios de los estrógenos, por lo cual se consideran de importancia en los sistemas productivos y la salud humana por alteraciones que puedan provocar sobre la fisiología reproductiva. El objetivo de esta revisión es mostrar el estado del arte del conocimiento del efecto de los fitoestrógenos sobre la reproducción y resaltar los vacíos en el conocimiento.Phytoestrogens are compounds produced as secondary metabolites in some plants and forajes for animal and human consumption. Its importance is that when they are consumed they can have endogenous activity of agonizing or antagonizing the estrogens. It is known five families of phytoestrogens classified according to their chemical structure as (flavonoids, isoflavones, coumestans, lignans and stilbenes. Despite the fact that phytoestrogens affect vital systems such as the kidney, nervous, cardiovascular and others, one of the most affected is the reproductive tract, in which is the focuses of this review; however, the literature is controversial because they has

  18. Modulation of diabetes-mellitus-induced male reproductive dysfunctions in experimental animal models with medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyan Chand Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today diabetes mellitus has emerged as a major healthcare problem throughout the world. It has recently broken the age barrier and has been diagnosed in younger people also. Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with many complications including male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of the diabetes mellitus in various traditional system of medicine and in folklore worldwide as they are a rich source of bioactive phytoconstituents, which lower blood glucose level and/or also act as antioxidants resulting in the amelioration of oxidative-stress-induced diabetic complications. The present review describes the ameliorative effects of medicinal plants or their products, especially on male reproductive dysfunctions, in experimental diabetic animal models.

  19. Developmental and reproductive toxicity of inorganic arsenic: animal studies and human concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M S; Macintosh, M S; Baumrind, N

    1998-01-01

    Information on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of inorganic arsenic is available primarily from studies in animals using arsenite and arsenate salts and arsenic trioxide. Inorganic arsenic has been extensively studied as a teratogen in animals. Data from animal studies demonstrate that arsenic can produce developmental toxicity, including malformation, death, and growth retardation, in four species (hamsters, mice, rats, rabbits). A characteristic pattern of malformations is produced, and the developmental toxicity effects are dependent on dose, route, and the day of gestation when exposure occurs. Studies with gavage and diet administration indicate that death and growth retardation are produced by oral arsenic exposure. Arsenic is readily transferred to the fetus and produces developmental toxicity in embryo culture. Animal studies have not identified an effect of arsenic on fertility in males or females. When females were dosed chronically for periods that included pregnancy, the primary effect of arsenic on reproduction was a dose-dependent increase in conceptus mortality and in postnatal growth retardation. Human data are limited to a few studies of populations exposed to arsenic from drinking water or from working at or living near smelters. Associations with spontaneous abortion and stillbirth have been reported in more than one of these studies, but interpretation of these studies is complicated because study populations were exposed to multiple chemicals. Thus, animal studies suggest that environmental arsenic exposures are primarily a risk to the developing fetus. In order to understand the implications for humans, attention must be given to comparative pharmacokinetics and metabolism, likely exposure scenarios, possible mechanisms of action, and the potential role of arsenic as an essential nutrient.

  20. El bienestar animal en la reproducción y producción de cerdos - The animal welfare in the reproduction and production of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl bienestar animal es una condición ideal, resultado de la aplicación de normas específicas, adecuadas y posibles, sobre los sistemas y procesos involucrados a lo largo de toda la cadenaproductiva, que permiten a los animales vivir en las mejores condiciones posibles, sin padecer sufrimientos físicos o psicológicos innecesarios. Para todos los animales y en especial para aquellos cuyo destino será servir de fuente de alimentos al hombre, se antensifica el compromiso ético de brindarles a lo largo de su vida productiva las mejores condiciones posibles de hábitat, sanidad, manejo, alimentación y cuidados en general. En la actualidad,conceptos de bienestar animal, son cuestión de interés público complejo y multifacético que incluye importantes dimensiones científicas, éticas, económicas y políticas. Por ser un temade importancia creciente en la sociedad, el bienestar animal ha de abordarse sobre bases científicas verdaderas. Las causas de los problemas de bienestar animal, se deben a la percepción errónea acerca de los animales, como seres que no sienten y que por lo tanto, no son capaces de sufrir. Es fácil que se desarrollen actitudes negativas hacia los animales, lo cual se refleja en conductas de negligencia, crueldad o trato irrespetuoso. Los productores,médicos veterinarios, así como la sociedad en general, concientes del cuidado de los animales, saben la importancia de conocer los aspectos del confort de los animales ya que la fisiología, el desarrollo y el comportamiento del animal, son afectados por las malas condiciones ambientales, de producción y de manejo en general. En esta revisión, se presentan aspectos relacionados con el bienestar animal en la reproducción y producción de cerdos.ABSTRACTThe animal wefare is an ideal condition, result of the application of specific, appropriate and possible norms, on the systems and processes involved along the whole productive chain thatyou/they allow to the

  1. Genetic causes of transitions from sexual reproduction to asexuality in plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, M; Sharbel, T F; Schwander, T

    2014-07-01

    The persistence of sexual reproduction in the face of competition from asexual invaders is more likely if asexual lineages are produced infrequently or have low fitness. The generation rate and success of new asexual lineages will be influenced by the proximate mechanisms underlying transitions to asexuality. As such, characterization of these mechanisms can help explain the distribution of reproductive modes among natural populations. Here, we synthesize the literature addressing proximate causes of transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction in plants and animals. In cyclical and facultatively asexual taxa, individual mutations can cause obligate asexuality. The evolution of asexuality in obligately sexual groups is more complex, requiring the simultaneous acquisition of two traits generally controlled by different genetic factors: unreduced gamete formation and spontaneous development of unfertilized gametes. At least three 'pre-adaptations' could favour transitions to obligate asexuality in obligate sexuals. First, linkage among loci affecting separate key components of asexuality facilitates its spread, with evidence for these linkage blocks in plants. Second, asexuality should evolve more readily in haplodiploids; support for this hypothesis comes from two examples where a single locus causes transitions to asexuality. Third, standing genetic variation for the production of unreduced gametes could facilitate transitions to asexuality, but whether the ability to produce unreduced gametes contributes to the evolution of obligate asexuality remains unclear. We close by reviewing the associations between asexuality, hybridization and polyploidy, and argue that current data suggest that hybridization is more likely to play a causal role in transitions to asexuality than polyploidy.

  2. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  3. Novel approaches in andrology examination and follicular fluid biochemical characterization in the optimization of reproductive technologies in farm animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vencato, Juri

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the studies reported in this Thesis was to increase our understanding of two aspects of the reproductive system in farm animals: the andrological evaluation and the follicular fluid composition. The final aim was to give some tools that can be helpful in optimizing the application of assisted reproductive technologies. Studies were conducted in bulls, rams, alpacas, lamas and dairy buffalo cows. The first study was designed to investigate the efficacy of scrotal thermograp...

  4. Review of reproductive and developmental toxicity induced by organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, A.; Takagi, A.; Nishimura, T.; Kanno, J.; Ema, M. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Widespread use of organotins has caused increasing amounts to be released into the environment. The most important non-pesticidal route of entry of organotins into the environment is through leaching of organotin-stabilized PVC in water, and the use in antifouling agents, resulting in the introduction of organotin into the aquatic environment. Data are available regarding the detection of butyltins and phenyltins in aquatic marine organisms and marine products. Food chain bioamplification of butyltin in oysters, mud crabs, marine mussels, chinook salmons, dolphins, tunas, and sharks and of phenyltin in carps and horseshoe crabs has been reported. These findings indicate that organotins accumulate in the food chain and are bioconcentrated, and that humans can be exposed to organotins via seafood. The levels of organotin compounds in seafood are not considered to be sufficiently high to affect human health. However, Belfroid et al. (2000) noted that more research on residual TBT levels in seafood was needed before a definitive conclusion on possible health risks could be drawn. Although the toxicity of organotins has been extensively reviewed, the reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins is not well understood. We summarized the data of the studies on reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals.

  5. Processing puppies: An animal shelter ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Tallberg, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This book is about life at an Australian animal shelter, called ANIMA. The shelter is tasked with organizing the dark side of humanity of cruelty, neglect, and ignorance. It is about the humans and animals who live and die in the organization - often silenced and hidden in society. Employees join the organization to save animals, yet due to organizational constraints, are the ones who are tasked with the killing. In ANIMA, the emotional and moral conflict is both constant and intense for a...

  6. Coxiella burnetii associated reproductive disorders in domestic animals-a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agerholm Jørgen S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacterium Coxiella burnetii has been detected in the fetal membranes, birth fluids and vaginal mucus, as well as in the milk and other excretions of several domestic mammals. The finding of C. burnetii in association with abortion, parturition and in the postpartum period has led to the hypothesis that C. burnetii causes a range of reproductive diseases. This review critically evaluates the scientific basis for this hypothesis in domestic mammals. The review demonstrates a solid evidence for the association between C. burnetii infection and sporadic cases of abortion, premature delivery, stillbirth and weak offspring in cattle, sheep and goats. C. burnetii induced in-herd epidemics of this complete expression of reproductive failure have been reported for sheep and goats, but not for cattle. The single entities occur only as part of the complex and not as single events such as generally increased stillbirth rate. Studies show that C. burnetii initially infects the placenta and that subsequent spread to the fetus may occur either haematogenous or by the amniotic-oral route. The consequences for the equine, porcine, canine and feline conceptus remains to the elucidated but that infection of the conceptus may occur is documented for most species. There is no solid evidence to support a hypothesis of C. burnetii causing disorders such as subfertility, endometritis/metritis, or retained fetal membranes in any kind of domestic animal species. There is a strong need to validate non-pathology based methods such as polymerase chain reaction for their use in diagnostic and research in relation to establishing C. burnetii as the cause of abortion and to adapt an appropriate study design and include adequate control animals when linking epidemiological findings to C. burnetii or when evaluating effects of vaccination in production herds.

  7. Animal models for information processing during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, A M L; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2002-12-01

    Information provided by external stimuli does reach the brain during sleep, although the amount of information is reduced during sleep compared to wakefulness. The process controlling this reduction is called 'sensory' gating and evidence exists that the underlying neurophysiological processes take place in the thalamus. Furthermore, it is clear that stimuli given during sleep can alter the functional state of the brain. Two factors have been shown to play a crucial role in causing changes in the sleeping brain: the intensity and the relevance of the stimulus. Intensive stimuli arouse the brain, as well as stimuli having a high informational impact on the sleeping person. The arousal threshold for important stimuli is quite low compared to neutral stimuli. A central question in sleep research is whether associative learning, or in other words the formation of new associations between stimuli, can take place in a sleeping brain. It has been shown that simple forms of learning are still possible during sleep. In sleeping rats, it is proven that habituation, an active, simple form of learning not to respond to irrelevant stimuli, can occur. Moreover, there is evidence for the view that more complex associations can be modulated and newly formed during sleep. This is shown by two experimental approaches: an extinction paradigm and a latent inhibition (pre-exposure) paradigm. The presentation of non-reinforced stimuli during sleep causes slower extinction compared to the same presentation of these stimuli during wakefulness. Consistently, the suppressive capacity of a stimulus in the latent inhibition paradigm is less when previously pre-exposed during sleep, as compared to pre-exposure during wakefulness. Thus, while associative learning is not completely blocked during sleep, aspects of association formation are clearly altered. However, animal studies also clearly indicate that complex forms of learning are not possible during sleep. It is hypothesised that this

  8. Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-04-07

    Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

  9. Humans act against the natural process of breeder selection: A modern sickness for animal populations?

    OpenAIRE

    Balbontín, Javier; Penteriani, Vincenzo; Ferrer, Miguel, ed.imp.lib

    2005-01-01

    We present a new idea about the possible effects of human-induced mortality on different age cohorts (i.e., breeders vs. juveniles) in long-lived animals. Our hypothesis is based on Curio's idea on the effect of natural selective processes on cohorts to explain age-related increases in fecundity (selection hypothesis). We believe that negative human pressure may modify such contribution to reproduction of good versus low quality phenotypes, altering the genetic structure of the population. Ec...

  10. Identified and unidentified challenges for reproductive biotechnologies regarding infectious diseases in animal and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibier, M

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the known and theoretical risks for in vivo derived and in vitro produced embryos as well as for nuclear transferred or transgenic embryos in terms of animal diseases or diseases of public health consequence. For in vivo derived embryos, a considerable number of experiments and scientific investigations have resulted in recommended guidelines and procedures that ensure a high level of safety. The effectiveness of these measures has been validated by field experience with the safe transfer of several million embryos over the past three decades. In vitro produced embryos have several characteristics that differentiate them from the former, in particular a structure of the zona pellucida that results in a more frequent possible association of pathogens with the embryo. However, the guidelines prescribed by the IETS, the international standard setting body (OIE) and existing national regulatory frameworks are in place to minimize the risk of disease transmission. No specific public health risks have been identified to date with respect to in vivo or in vitro derived embryos. In regard to nuclear transferred and transgenic embryos, theoretical risks have been identified in relation to the potential effects on some intrinsic viruses such as endogenous retroviruses but very little targeted experimental work has been carried out on infectious diseases that could have adverse consequences on animal or human health. Although there has been no report of such adverse consequences associated with the limited number of animals produced to date by such reproductive technologies, a precautionary approach is warranted given the potential negative impacts and it would be prudent to restrict at this stage, the international movement of such "manipulated" embryos.

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Time Compressed Animated Delivery Multimedia Technology on Student Learning in Reproductive Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Michael S.; Oki, Angela C.; Senger, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of a multimedia technology referred to as "Time Compressed Animated Delivery" (TCAD), on student learning in a junior-level reproductive physiology course. In experiment 1, participating students received one of two presentations of the same instructional material: TCAD and a lecture captured on video. At the…

  12. Receptor blockers - general aspects with respect to their use in domestic animal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, B; Schuler, G

    2000-07-01

    Receptor blockers compete with the respective agonist for binding to a given receptor without inducing complete signal transduction. In recent years, major interest has focused on sex-steroid hormone receptor blockers (antagonists). Indications have been obtained that inadequate changes in receptor conformation and subsequent failure of transcriptional activation are major events preventing hormonal activity. However, various subtypes and variants of receptors and receptor mutations have also been identified. Expression of antihormonal effects may vary depending on the type of receptor the blocker is bound to. Hence, receptor blockers may also have an inherent agonistic activity. Aglepristone is the first antiprogestin registered for veterinary use with the indication "interruption or prevention of pregnancy"; similarly, these types of compounds were successfully used for induction of parturition in the dog and cat and for conservative treatment of pyometra in the dog. Moreover, application of antiprogestins has clearly demonstrated the role of progesterone as a major factor controlling overt pseudopregnancy in dogs. With respect to farm animals, parturition was induced in cows without an increased incidence of retained fetal membranes. Other than antiprogestins, antioestrogens and antiandrogens are still in a more experimental phase. In particular for use in humans, high-affinity blockers binding to the oxytocin/vasopressin receptor are in development; they exert distinct tocolytic activities. Also, the release of GnRH can be inhibited by respective antagonists; however, their use in reproduction is still hampered by the high dose requirement and the side effects observed. PMID:10844202

  13. Animal models for information processing during sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.

    2002-01-01

    Information provided by external stimuli does reach the brain during sleep, although the amount of information is reduced during sleep compared to wakefulness. The process controlling this reduction is called `sensory' gating and evidence exists that the underlying neurophysiological processes take

  14. SELECTED FACTORS SHAPING THE REPRODUCTION PROCESSES OF FARMS ASSETS CONDUCTING AGRICULTURAL ACCOUNTANCY (FADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Grzelak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to identify the selected factors shaping the reproduction processes of farms conducting agricultural accountancy (FADN. It has been recognized that the higher indicator of reproduction, in the analysed groups, is accompanied by greater resources of land, labour and capital. The reproduction processes are dependent on the business outlook conditions, but resource factors are relatively independent of them. There is a diverse range of processes of reproduction between the various components of assets. The relatively high level of reproduction of assets in the case of machinery and transportation equipment, and for building substance remains at a very low level. Education of head of households has also diversifi ed the scale of reproduction processes. The favourable factor in this area was a higher level of education, and its agricultural profi le.

  15. From 'public service' to artificial insemination: animal breeding science and reproductive research in early twentieth-century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) was the first conceptive technology to be widely used in agriculture. Whereas at the beginning of the twentieth century all cows in England and Wales were mated to bulls, by the end of the 1950s 60% conceived through artificial insemination. By then a national network of 'cattle breeding centres' brought AI within the reach of every farmer. In this paper I explore how artificial insemination, which had few supporters in the 1920s and 1930s, was transformed into an 'indispensable' method for reproducing cattle. I discuss the factors that made organised AI possible (but still negotiable and controversial), including changes in cultures of cattle breeding, novel State involvement in bovine reproduction, the rise of new 'animal breeding research' centres at Cambridge, Edinburgh and Reading universities, war preparations and central planning by the Milk Marketing Board (from 1933). I go on to show that the unprecedented focus on bovine reproduction set in motion by the AI centres effectively generated new networks of reproductive research, through these the 'biopower' of the farm was incorporated into the clinic. The example of AI shows that by combining the history of reproductive technology in agriculture and medicine we can give a richer account of modern reproduction. PMID:17543839

  16. The endocrine system controlling sexual reproduction in animals: Part of the evolutionary ancient but well conserved immune system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Huybrechts, Roger

    2016-01-15

    Drastic changes in hormone titers, in particular of steroid hormones, are intuitively interpreted as necessary and beneficial for optimal functioning of animals. Peaks in progesterone- and estradiol titers that accompany the estrus cycle in female vertebrates as well as in ecdysteroids at each molt and during metamorphosis of holometabolous insects are prominent examples. A recent analysis of insect metamorphosis yielded the view that, in general, a sharp rise in sex steroid hormone titer signals that somewhere in the body some tissue(s) is undergoing programmed cell death/apoptosis. Increased steroid production is part of this process. Typical examples are ovarian follicle cells in female vertebrates and invertebrates and the prothoracic gland cells, the main production site of ecdysteroids in larval insects. A duality emerges: programmed cell death-apoptosis is deleterious at the cellular level, but it may yield beneficial effects at the organismal level. Reconciling both opposites requires reevaluating the probable evolutionary origin and role of peptidic brain hormones that direct steroid hormone synthesis. Do e.g. Luteinizing Hormone in vertebrates and Prothoracicotropic Hormone (PTTH: acting through the Torso receptor) in insects still retain an ancient role as toxins in the early immune system? Does the functional link of some neuropeptides with Ca(2+)-induced apoptosis make sense in endocrine archeology? The endocrine system as a remnant of the ancient immune system is undoubtedly counterintuitive. Yet, we will argue that such paradigm enables the logical framing of many aspects, the endocrine one inclusive of both male and female reproductive physiology.

  17. Archiving the animation film-making process. The earliest Dutch animation films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Mette

    2012-01-01

    abstractAnimation film-makers working in the Netherlands in the first decade of the 20th century,made use of processes and skills from live-action film production and the world of the visualarts. And yet for the majority, making animation films was nothing more than an excursionduring their careers

  18. Reproductive investment is connected to innate immunity in a long-lived animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggazi, Sara A; Noreikiene, Kristina; Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2016-10-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms optimize their resource allocation strategy to maximize lifetime reproductive success. Individuals can flexibly reallocate resources depending on their life-history stage, and environmental and physiological factors, which lead to variable life-history strategies even within species. Physiological trade-offs between immunity and reproduction are particularly relevant for long-lived species that need to balance current reproduction against future survival and reproduction, but their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. A major unresolved issue is whether the first-line innate immune function is suppressed by reproductive investment. In this paper, we tested if reproductive investment is associated with the suppression of innate immunity, and how this potential trade-off is resolved depending on physiological state and residual reproductive value. We used long-lived capital-breeding female eiders (Somateria mollissima) as a model. We showed that the innate immune response, measured by plasma bacteria-killing capacity (BKC), was negatively associated with increasing reproductive investment, i.e., with increasing clutch size and advancing incubation stage. Females in a better physiological state, as indexed by low heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H/L) ratios, showed higher BKC during early incubation, but this capacity decreased as incubation progressed, whereas females in poorer state showed low BKC capacity throughout incubation. Although plasma BKC generally declined with increasing H/L ratios, this decrease was most pronounced in young females. Our results demonstrate that reproductive investment can suppress constitutive first-line immune defence in a long-lived bird, but the degree of immunosuppression depends on physiological state and age. PMID:27215635

  19. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: American Society of Animal Science L. E. Casida Award for Excellence in Graduate Education: Thoughts on mentoring graduate students in reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M F

    2016-07-01

    Programs in animal science are particularly well suited for graduate education because students can receive comprehensive training in the laboratory as well as with the whole animal. Furthermore, graduate students in animal science have the opportunity to understand how their research relates to a real world problem. Graduate students need to take ownership of their education by identifying training goals, choosing a mentor who will help them achieve their goals, and becoming engaged in research as soon as possible. In my own graduate program, I emphasize concepts more than techniques and I believe that graduate course work should focus on the basic areas of science that underlie reproductive biology (e.g., endocrinology, biochemistry, physiology, immunology, and statistics). Based on the increase in technology available for scientific investigation and the diversity of expertise required to address important research problems, graduate students need to learn the importance of establishing productive collaborations and begin building a scientific network. Preparation for graduate school frequently begins early with a curiosity and passion for understanding how biology works. Undergraduate courses can facilitate scientific thinking by providing opportunities in lectures and laboratories for students to transition from passive learners to thinking of themselves as animal scientists. There is a profound difference between individuals who view themselves as practitioners of a discipline and those who are simply trying to complete a course requirement. Teachers of undergraduate courses should incorporate experiential learning exercises into their lectures and laboratories to provide undergraduate students the opportunity to function as animal scientists and to embrace their scientific education. Graduate training has been the most enjoyable aspect of my career and it has been a joy to witness the achievements of students following completion of their degree! PMID

  20. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: American Society of Animal Science L. E. Casida Award for Excellence in Graduate Education: Thoughts on mentoring graduate students in reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M F

    2016-07-01

    Programs in animal science are particularly well suited for graduate education because students can receive comprehensive training in the laboratory as well as with the whole animal. Furthermore, graduate students in animal science have the opportunity to understand how their research relates to a real world problem. Graduate students need to take ownership of their education by identifying training goals, choosing a mentor who will help them achieve their goals, and becoming engaged in research as soon as possible. In my own graduate program, I emphasize concepts more than techniques and I believe that graduate course work should focus on the basic areas of science that underlie reproductive biology (e.g., endocrinology, biochemistry, physiology, immunology, and statistics). Based on the increase in technology available for scientific investigation and the diversity of expertise required to address important research problems, graduate students need to learn the importance of establishing productive collaborations and begin building a scientific network. Preparation for graduate school frequently begins early with a curiosity and passion for understanding how biology works. Undergraduate courses can facilitate scientific thinking by providing opportunities in lectures and laboratories for students to transition from passive learners to thinking of themselves as animal scientists. There is a profound difference between individuals who view themselves as practitioners of a discipline and those who are simply trying to complete a course requirement. Teachers of undergraduate courses should incorporate experiential learning exercises into their lectures and laboratories to provide undergraduate students the opportunity to function as animal scientists and to embrace their scientific education. Graduate training has been the most enjoyable aspect of my career and it has been a joy to witness the achievements of students following completion of their degree!

  1. SHORT, MEDIUM AND LONG-TERM OPPORTUNITIES AND NEEDS FOR RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE FARM ANIMAL BREEDING AND REPRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kompan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European landscape is characterised by a range of diverse farming systems. These relate not only to varied geographical environments, but also to different social and cultural environments for farming and food production. This diversity is unique to Europe and underlines the importance of European agriculture. Animal breeding is a knowledge intensive sector, and for the future competitiveness of animal breeding and animal production, high level European research is indispensable. The preparation of Strategic Research Agenda were in a full process: opportunities and problems, gaps, short, medium and long term opportunities and needs for research. Each country experts from different group have opportunity to help define his country dimension of animal breeding in its regional and country context, and also in relation to European and global developments. The Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction European Technology Platform, brings together a wide range of interested parties to produce a vision of how livestock breeding might develop in the next 20 years, and constitutes the first step in achieving that vision.

  2. Self/non-self recognition mechanisms in sexual reproduction: new insight into the self-incompatibility system shared by flowering plants and hermaphroditic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hitoshi; Morita, Masaya; Iwano, Megumi

    2014-08-01

    Sexual reproduction is an essential process for generating a genetic variety in the next generation. However, most flowering plants and hermaphroditic animals potentially allow self-fertilization. Approximately 60% of angiosperms possess a self-incompatibility (SI) system to avoid inbreeding. The SI system functions at a process of interaction between pollen (or pollen tube) and the pistil. These SI-responsible factors (S-determinants) in pollen and the pistil are encoded by highly polymorphic multiallelic genes in the S-locus, which are tightly linked making a single haplotype. Different taxonomic families utilize different types of S-determinant proteins. In contrast to the plant system, the mechanisms of SI in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals are largely unknown. Among them, promising candidates for SI in ascidians (primitive chordates) were recently identified. The SI system in the ascidian Cionaintestinalis was found to be very similar to those in flowering plants: The products of sperm- and egg-side multiallelic SI genes, which are tight linked and highly polymorphic, appear to be responsible for the SI system as revealed by genetic analysis. These findings led us to speculate that the SI systems in plants and animals evolved in a manner of convergent evolution. Here, we review the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the SI system in flowering plants, particularly Brassicacea, and in ascidians from the viewpoint of common mechanisms shared by plants and animals.

  3. Neuropeptides linking the control of appetite with reproductive function in domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of puberty and maintenance of normal reproductive cycles are regulated by secretion of gonadotropin hormones from the pituitary gland, which is dependent upon the pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. It is well established that secretion of...

  4. Animal experimentation in Malta : regulatory processes and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Scerri, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Prior to Malta’s accession to the European Union (EU) in May 2004, new legislative processes regulating the use of animals for scientific research purposes were adopted in line with the provisions found under the European Union Council Directive 86/609/EEC. The scope of these regulations is to protect animals used or intended to be used in scientific experimental procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm, using evaluation procedures that promote refinement, reductio...

  5. a New Animation of Subduction Processes for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. J.; Lieu, W. K.; Mantey, A.; Ward, A.; Todd, F.; Farrar, E.; Sean, M.; Windler, J.

    2015-12-01

    The subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath convergent plate margins is a fundamental plate tectonic concept and an important Earth process. It is responsible for some of Earth's most dangerous natural hazards including earthquakes and volcanic eruptions but also produced the continental crust and important mineral deposits. A range of geoscientific efforts including NSF MARGINS and GeoPRISMS initiatives have advanced our understanding of subduction zone processes. In spite the importance of subduction zones and our advancing understanding of how these function, there are few animations that clearly explain the subduction process to non-expert audiences. This deficiency reflects the disparate expertises between geoscientists who know the science but have weak animation skills and digital artists and animators who have strong skills in showing objects in motion but are not experts in natural processes like plate tectonics. This transdisciplinary gap can and should be bridged. With a small grant from NSF (DUE-1444954) we set about to generate a realistic subduction zone animation aimed at the university undergraduate audience by first working within our university to rough out a draft animation and then contract a professional to use this to construct the final version. UTD Geosciences faculty (Stern) and graduate student (Lieu) teamed up with faculty from UTD School of Arts, Technology, and Emerging Communication (ATEC)(Farrar, Fechter, and McComber) to identify and recruit talented ATEC undergraduate students (Mantey, Ward) to work on the project. Geoscientists assembled a storyboard and met weekly with ATEC undergraduates to generate a first draft of the animation, which guided development of an accompanying narrative. The draft animation with voice-over was then handed off to professional animator Windler (Archistration CG) to generate the final animation. We plan to show both the student-generated draft version and the final animation during our presentation

  6. The zootechnical applications of biotechnology in animal reproduction: current methods and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thibier, Michel

    2005-01-01

    International audience The development of the four generations of Reproductive Biotechnology, particularly in cattle and since the last world war, represents one of the best examples of the success story of technology transfer. This review will only refer to the first three generations and will not deal with nuclear transfer nor transgenesis. Based on sound so-called "finalised" research, Artificial Insemination first, then in vivo collected embryo transfer and later in vitro fertilised em...

  7. Inter-observer agreement on a checklist to evaluate scientific publications in the field of animal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, Céline; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Arlt, Sebastian P

    2012-01-01

    This study's objective was to determine respondents' inter-observer agreement on a detailed checklist to evaluate three exemplars (one case report, one randomized controlled study without blinding, and one blinded, randomized controlled study) of the scientific literature in the field of bovine reproduction. Fourteen international scientists in the field of animal reproduction were provided with the three articles, three copies of the checklist, and a supplementary explanation. Overall, 13 responded to more than 90% of the items. Overall repeatability between respondents using Fleiss's κ was 0.35 (fair agreement). Combining the "strongly agree" and "agree" responses and the "strongly disagree" and "disagree" responses increased κ to 0.49 (moderate agreement). Evaluation of information given in the three articles on housing of the animals (35% identical answers) and preconditions or pretreatments (42%) varied widely. Even though the overall repeatability was fair, repeatability concerning the important categories was high (e.g., level of agreement=98%). Our data show that the checklist is a reasonable and practical supporting tool to assess the quality of publications. Therefore, it may be used in teaching and practicing evidence-based veterinary medicine. It can support training in systematic and critical appraisal of information and in clinical decision making. PMID:22709736

  8. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for Detection of Ruminant Processed Animal Proteins in Non-Ruminant Processed Animal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Margry, R.J.C.F.; Vaessen, J.C.H.; Doremalen, van A.M.H.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Kaathoven, van R.G.C.; Kemmers-Voncken, A.E.M.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2013-01-01

    Due to a growing aquaculture industry, demand for high-quality proteins for aquatic feeds is increasing. Non-ruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) have shown great potential for this purpose. Safe reintroduction of non-ruminant PAPs in aqua feed requires methods that can discriminate ruminant an

  9. Sperm processing for advanced reproductive technologies: Where are we today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappa, Kari L; Rodriguez, Harold F; Hakkarainen, Gloria C; Anchan, Raymond M; Mutter, George L; Asghar, Waseem

    2016-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) utilize sperm sorting methods to select viable sperm from the semen samples. Conventional sperm sorting techniques in current use are density gradient centrifugation, direct swim-up, and conventional swim-up. These methods use multiple centrifugation steps, which have been shown to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that decrease DNA integrity and damage sperm. Newer technologies, such as microfluidics, electrophoresis, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), and birefringence eliminate the centrifugation steps and can improve the selection of sperm with higher DNA integrity, normal morphology, and motility as well as improved artificial insemination outcomes. In this review, we discuss some recent research in centrifugation and non-centrifugation based techniques and their effect on sperm quality and ART outcomes. PMID:26845061

  10. Modeling DNA structure and processes through animation and kinesthetic visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Christine

    There have been many studies regarding the effectiveness of visual aids that go beyond that of static illustrations. Many of these have been concentrated on the effectiveness of visual aids such as animations and models or even non-traditional visual aid activities like role-playing activities. This study focuses on the effectiveness of three different types of visual aids: models, animation, and a role-playing activity. Students used a modeling kit made of Styrofoam balls and toothpicks to construct nucleotides and then bond nucleotides together to form DNA. Next, students created their own animation to depict the processes of DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Finally, students worked in teams to build proteins while acting out the process of translation. Students were given a pre- and post-test that measured their knowledge and comprehension of the four topics mentioned above. Results show that there was a significant gain in the post-test scores when compared to the pre-test scores. This indicates that the incorporated visual aids were effective methods for teaching DNA structure and processes.

  11. The zootechnical applications of biotechnology in animal reproduction: current methods and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibier, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The development of the four generations of Reproductive Biotechnology, particularly in cattle and since the last world war, represents one of the best examples of the success story of technology transfer. This review will only refer to the first three generations and will not deal with nuclear transfer nor transgenesis. Based on sound so-called "finalised" research, Artificial Insemination first, then in vivo collected embryo transfer and later in vitro fertilised embryo transfer have been implemented worldwide. Each of these Biotechnologies has many advantages and limitations. In addition to the specificity of each of them, one major point is that farmers and breeders may choose either collectively or individually, the best technology to be used in order to achieve the goals they have set for their industry. It is noteworthy that these technologies have been able to match with the economics demands over the last decades and yet are in a very good capacity to respond to the contemporary demand of sustainable development. In this context, there are further advantages such as potentially contributing to maintaining biodiversity or allowing preservation ex situ of genes otherwise threatened to extinction. PMID:15982450

  12. Reproductive hacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  13. Radioimmunoassay determination of the effect on animal reproduction of alternative of feeding suplementation in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal object of this trial was to evaluate the influence of three alternatives of feeding suplementation in dairy cows in the post-partum period in ecuadorian highlands. Thirty sic animals in fist lactation were used in this experiment and were divided in three groups according to the feed intake: Group A diet was 5 Kg. of a commercial concentrate mixture with 12 per cent of crude protein plus pasture ad libitum; Group B diet was green banans (Musa paradisiaca) and pasture and Group C diet was the control only pasture. Using Radioimmunoassay technique (RIA), progesterone values were determinated in milk from each cow. the sampling was sequential, two samples a week, starting 6 days after parturition, until the animal was pregnant or until the study was finished, 150 days after post-partum for each cow. This research allowed us to evaluate the ovaric post-partum activity of each group: Frequency and length of the oestrus cycles; efficiency of oestrus detection, calving-first, oestrus period, calving-conception length, conception rate, and services per conception. Additional datas were used in this study such as: milk production, palpations and treatments

  14. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…

  15. 抑制素对动物生殖系统的影响及其在动物生产中的应用%Advance in Effect of Inhibin on Animal Reproductive System and its Application in Animal Reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万宏; 王春强; 周虚

    2011-01-01

    lnhibin belongs to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily.Inhibin, produced by granulosa cells and sertoli cells, is a heterodimeric gonadal glycopeptides consisting of a common α-subunit covalently bonded to a unique β-subunit that can be either βA (inhibin A) or βB (inhibin B).Both inhibin A and inhibin B function in an endocrine manner to suppress FSH secretion from gonadotropes in the pituitary.This review focus on the distribution and structure, expression and function of inhibin in male and female, mechanism of action and the procgress of its application in animal reproduction.%抑制素是转化生长因子β超家族成员之一,是由α亚基和β亚基构成的异二聚体,主要由卵泡颗粒细胞和睾丸支持细胞分泌,在生殖系统的功能主要是通过调节FSH合成和分泌发挥的.作者就抑制素的分布与结构、在雌雄动物生殖系统的表达及功能、在动物生产中的应用进展进行综述.

  16. Extraterrestrials and Generic Social Processes: Minimizing Resistance in Teaching the Reproduction of Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrotta, Kylie L.; Rusche, Sarah Nell

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a class activity that uses a combination of strategies to overcome obstacles students face when learning about the reproduction of inequality in everyday life. Based on Schwalbe et al.'s (2000) piece on "generic social processes," and following the idea of "making the strange familiar and the familiar…

  17. Processes of Middle-Class Reproduction in a Graduate Employment Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Sarah; Hutchings, Merryn; Maylor, Uvanney; Mendick, Heather; Menter, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Teach First is an educational charity that places graduates to teach in "challenging" schools for two years. It is marketed as an opportunity to develop employability while "making a difference". In this paper, I examine the process of class reproduction occurring in this graduate employment scheme through examining the discourses used in Teach…

  18. Symmetry breaking and coarsening in spatially distributed evolutionary processes including sexual reproduction and disruptive selection

    CERN Document Server

    Sayama, H; Bar-Yam, Y; Sayama, Hiroki; Kaufman, Les; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2000-01-01

    Sexual reproduction presents significant challenges to formal treatment of evolutionary processes. A starting point for systematic treatments of ecological and evolutionary phenomena has been provided by the gene centered view of evolution. The gene centered view can be formalized as a dynamic mean field approximation applied to genes in reproduction / selection dynamics. We show that spatial distributions of organisms with local mating neighborhoods in the presence of disruptive selection give rise to symmetry breaking and spontaneous pattern formation in the genetic composition of local populations. Global dynamics follows conventional coarsening of systems with nonconserved order parameters. The results have significant implications for ecology of genetic diversity and species formation.

  19. The process of decision making in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Annika K; Diedrich, Klaus; Ludwig, Michael

    2005-11-01

    The decision-making process regarding the optimal infertility treatment strategy is influenced by several factors. In addition to the underlying cause of infertility, the process of decision making is also influenced by other factors. These factors are mainly (1) the duration of infertility, (2) patient's age, and (3) the number of previously performed treatment cycles of intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). The duration of infertility influences diagnostic steps as well as therapeutic options. With an infertility of at least 5 years the benefit of intrauterine insemination is limited and couples should be counseled to go forward with IVF. Patients age >or= 40 years should be treated with IVF, whereas patients age >or= 43 years should be counseled about their very limited chance to conceive even through IVF. The number of insemination cycles should be limited to four. Couples who have undergone at least six IVF cycles should be counseled to discontinue therapy. The treatment program should be as individualized as possible, with individual counseling that is adapted after each single treatment cycle. PMID:16317623

  20. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  1. The impact of environmental stress on male reproductive development in plants: biological processes and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    In plants, male reproductive development is extremely sensitive to adverse climatic environments and (a)biotic stress. Upon exposure to stress, male gametophytic organs often show morphological, structural and metabolic alterations that typically lead to meiotic defects or premature spore abortion and male reproductive sterility. Depending on the type of stress involved (e.g. heat, cold, drought) and the duration of stress exposure, the underlying cellular defect is highly variable and either involves cytoskeletal alterations, tapetal irregularities, altered sugar utilization, aberrations in auxin metabolism, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidative stress) or the ectopic induction of programmed cell death (PCD). In this review, we present the critically stress-sensitive stages of male sporogenesis (meiosis) and male gametogenesis (microspore development), and discuss the corresponding biological processes involved and the resulting alterations in male reproduction. In addition, this review also provides insights into the molecular and/or hormonal regulation of the environmental stress sensitivity of male reproduction and outlines putative interaction(s) between the different processes involved.

  2. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  3. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  4. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  5. Impact of the Phytoestrogen Content of Laboratory Animal Feed on the Gene Expression Profile of the Reproductive System in the Immature Female Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Naciff, Jorge M; Overmann, Gary J.; Torontali, Suzanne M.; Carr, Gregory J.; Tiesman, Jay P.; DASTON, GEORGE P.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the dietary background of phytoestrogens on the outcome of rodent bioassays used to identify and assess the reproductive hazard of endocrine-disrupting chemicals is controversial. Phytoestrogens, including genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol, are fairly abundant in soybeans and alfalfa, common ingredients of laboratory animal diets. These compounds are weak agonists for the estrogen receptor (ER) and, when administered at sufficient doses, elicit an estrogenic response in vivo. ...

  6. Process of couple communication in reproductive health among rural married couples in India

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Karvande, Shilpa

    2009-01-01

    Communication is often recognized as a cornerstone of modern society. Helping couples communicate about reproductive health is viewed as vital for involvement of both the partners in decision making, treatment seeking and promoting health. It is hence crucial to understand ‘communication’ among married partners before designing any couple-targeted strategies. Communication is a process which involves more than sending and receiving messages. For comprehensive understanding of communication, i...

  7. Application of hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin in processed meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Lene; Broge, Eva Honnens de Lichtenberg; Bejerholm, Camilla; Jensen, Kirsten

    2016-03-01

    With increasing consumer interest in functional foods, proteins from slaughterhouse side streams can offer interesting application opportunities in this respect. Worldwide, increasing numbers of people are suffering from hypertension and protein deficiency. Hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin may show ACE-inhibitory activity, which is central to the treatment of hypertension. Furthermore, the protein content of, for example, meat products increases markedly through the addition of hydrolyzed proteins, and these protein-rich products are of interest to those suffering from protein deficiency. Through a series of analyses, six selected hydrolysates were analyzed for their application potential in the Danish meat product saveloy. Hydrolyzed pig rectum and bovine diaphragm showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activities, and these activities were maintained in the processed saveloys. The ACE-inhibitory activities could not readily be explained by the amino acid profile. The content of N-compounds in the saveloys increased with increasing addition of hydrolysate, with little difference between the added hydrolysates. A sensory panel assessed the saveloys with added porcine rectum (8%), bovine diaphragm (8%), and bovine heart (4% and 8%) as having the strongest off-flavors (chemical flavor). No increase in salty taste resulting from the addition of hydrolysates was detected in the saveloys. Finally, the consumers found the saveloys too mild in flavor and recommended the addition of more spices. PMID:27004118

  8. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  9. 'Biogeneric' developmental processes: drivers of major transitions in animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Stuart A

    2016-08-19

    Using three examples drawn from animal systems, I advance the hypothesis that major transitions in multicellular evolution often involved the constitution of new cell-based materials with unprecedented morphogenetic capabilities. I term the materials and formative processes that arise when highly evolved cells are incorporated into mesoscale matter 'biogeneric', to reflect their commonality with, and distinctiveness from, the organizational properties of non-living materials. The first transition arose by the innovation of classical cell-adhesive cadherins with transmembrane linkage to the cytoskeleton and the appearance of the morphogen Wnt, transforming some ancestral unicellular holozoans into 'liquid tissues', and thereby originating the metazoans. The second transition involved the new capabilities, within a basal metazoan population, of producing a mechanically stable basal lamina, and of planar cell polarization. This gave rise to the eumetazoans, initially diploblastic (two-layered) forms, and then with the addition of extracellular matrices promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, three-layered triploblasts. The last example is the fin-to-limb transition. Here, the components of a molecular network that promoted the development of species-idiosyncratic endoskeletal elements in gnathostome ancestors are proposed to have evolved to a dynamical regime in which they constituted a Turing-type reaction-diffusion system capable of organizing the stereotypical arrays of elements of lobe-finned fish and tetrapods. The contrasting implications of the biogeneric materials-based and neo-Darwinian perspectives for understanding major evolutionary transitions are discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431521

  10. Interactive Mouse-Driven Animation of Mathematical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Newcomb

    1986-01-01

    Provides examples from elementary mathematics principles which illustrate some of the advantages of an interactive mouse-driven animation. Explains the effectiveness of this approach with exercises dealing with a plane of waves and quadratic formulas. (ML)

  11. Animal models and measures of perceptual processing in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Steven J.; Talpos, John C; GEYER, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the discussions regarding animal paradigms for assessing perception at the seventh meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS). A breakout group at the meeting addressed candidate tests in animals that might best parallel the human paradigms selected previously in the CNTRICS program to assess two constructs in the domain of perception: gain control and visual integration. The perception breakout group evaluate...

  12. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  13. Predicting chronic copper and nickel reproductive toxicity to Daphnia pulex-pulicaria from whole-animal metabolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nadine S; Kirwan, Jennifer A; Johnson, Craig; Yan, Norman D; Viant, Mark R; Gunn, John M; McGeer, James C

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of omics approaches in environmental research has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying toxicity; however, extrapolation from molecular effects to whole-organism and population level outcomes remains a considerable challenge. Using environmentally relevant, sublethal, concentrations of two metals (Cu and Ni), both singly and in binary mixtures, we integrated data from traditional chronic, partial life-cycle toxicity testing and metabolomics to generate a statistical model that was predictive of reproductive impairment in a Daphnia pulex-pulicaria hybrid that was isolated from an historically metal-stressed lake. Furthermore, we determined that the metabolic profiles of organisms exposed in a separate acute assay were also predictive of impaired reproduction following metal exposure. Thus we were able to directly associate molecular profiles to a key population response - reproduction, a key step towards improving environmental risk assessment and management.

  14. Innovative non-animal testing strategies for reproductive toxicology: the contribution of Italian partners within the EU project ReProTect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Stefano; Altieri, Ilaria; Arabi, Sabina; Balduzzi, Donatella; Bechi, Nicoletta; Cordelli, Eugenia; Galli, Cesare; Ietta, Francesca; Modina, Silvia C; Narciso, Laura; Pacchierotti, Francesca; Villani, Paola; Galli, Andrea; Lazzari, Giovanna; Luciano, Alberto Maria; Paulesu, Luana; Spanò, Marcello; Mantovani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive toxicity, with its many targets and mechanisms, is a complex area of toxicology; thus, the screening and identification of reproductive toxicants is a main scientific challenge for the safety assessment of chemicals, including the European Regulation on Chemicals (REACH). Regulatory agencies recommend the implementation of the 3Rs principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) as well as of intelligent testing strategies, through the development of in vitro methods and the use of mechanistic information in the hazard identification and characterization steps of the risk assessment process. The EU Integrated Project ReProTect (6th Framework Programme) implemented an array of in vitro tests to study different building blocks of the mammalian reproductive cycle: methodological developments and results on male and female germ cells, prostate and placenta are presented. PMID:22194079

  15. Innovative non-animal testing strategies for reproductive toxicology: the contribution of Italian partners within the EU project ReProTect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lorenzetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive toxicity, with its many targets and mechanisms, is a complex area of toxicology; thus, the screening and identification of reproductive toxicants is a main scientific challenge for the safety assessment of chemicals, including the European Regulation on Chemicals (REACH. Regulatory agencies recommend the implementation of the 3Rs principle (refinement, reduction, replacement as well as of intelligent testing strategies, through the development of in vitro methods and the use of mechanistic information in the hazard identification and characterization steps of the risk assessment process. The EU Integrated Project ReProTect (6th Framework Programme implemented an array of in vitro tests to study different building blocks of the mammalian reproductive cycle: methodological developments and results on male and female germ cells, prostate and placenta are presented.

  16. Reproductive technologies and reproductive rights

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Pinhas Shifman

    2014-01-01

    We observe a modern approach that allows for the possibility of a planned separation between sexual relations and procreation. The widespread use of contraceptives created the possibility of sex without reproduction, just as reproductive technologies created the possibility of reproduction without sex. Consequentially, the individual`s ability to control and plan childbirth has expanded, but parallel possibilities have been created for societal intervention in that process. The question wheth...

  17. Reproductive physiology in eastern snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) exposed to runoff from a concentrated animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eastern snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is widely distributed throughout the eastern and central U.S. and may be a useful model organism to study land use impacts on water quality. We compared the reproductive condition of C. serpentina from a pond impacted by runoff fr...

  18. Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Livestock Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and N. Sri Balaji

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of farm animals is a prime concern over the years for researchers. Several reproductive technologies have been employed to achieve this. Assisted reproductive technologies like Artificial insemination, Superovulation, In vitro Fertilization, Embryo Transfer have been introduced to overcome reproductive problems, to increase the offspring from selected female’s and to reduce the generation intervals in farm animals. The progress achieved during the last few years in the assisted reproductive technologies field has been phenomenal. Artificial Insemination (AI is the most effective method being used for the genetic improvement of animals. Reproductive capacity and efficiency has been improved tremendously since the introduction of artificial insemination. The development of cloning using various cells from the animal body has created opening of a fascinating scientific arena. These technologies have been propounded as saviors of indigenous livestock breeds. These alternative reproductive techniques are available not only for manipulation of reproductive processes but also proven to be powerful tools in curbing the spread of vertically transmitted diseases. The successful reproductive technologies such as AI and Embryo transfer need be applied on a large scale, emerging biotechnogies such as MOET, IVF and Cloning provides powerful tool for rapidly changing the animal populations, genetically. This advanced reproduction technologies will definitely play an important role in the future perspective and visions for efficient reproductive performance in livestock. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 238-240

  19. Processing by the main olfactory system of chemosignals that facilitate mammalian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Michael J; Cherry, James A

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Most mammalian species possess two parallel circuits that process olfactory information. One of these circuits, the accessory system, originates with sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). This system has long been known to detect non-volatile pheromonal odorants from conspecifics that influence numerous aspects of social communication, including sexual attraction and mating as well as the release of luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland. A second circuit, the main olfactory system, originates with sensory neurons in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). This system detects a wide range of non-pheromonal odors relevant to survival (e.g., food and predator odors). Over the past decade evidence has accrued showing that the main olfactory system also detects a range of volatile odorants that function as pheromones to facilitate mate recognition and activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal neuroendocrine axis. We review early studies as well as the new literature supporting the view that the main olfactory system processes a variety of different pheromonal cues that facilitate mammalian reproduction. PMID:24929017

  20. Processing by the main olfactory system of chemosignals that facilitate mammalian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Michael J; Cherry, James A

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Most mammalian species possess two parallel circuits that process olfactory information. One of these circuits, the accessory system, originates with sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). This system has long been known to detect non-volatile pheromonal odorants from conspecifics that influence numerous aspects of social communication, including sexual attraction and mating as well as the release of luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland. A second circuit, the main olfactory system, originates with sensory neurons in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). This system detects a wide range of non-pheromonal odors relevant to survival (e.g., food and predator odors). Over the past decade evidence has accrued showing that the main olfactory system also detects a range of volatile odorants that function as pheromones to facilitate mate recognition and activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal neuroendocrine axis. We review early studies as well as the new literature supporting the view that the main olfactory system processes a variety of different pheromonal cues that facilitate mammalian reproduction.

  1. Pre-attentive processing and schizophrenia: animal studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    RATIONALE: Schizophrenia is characterized by a large variety of cognitive symptoms, among which information processing deficits have been extensively studied. So far, these aspects have been found to be remarkably stable and effective treatment is still lacking. Traditionally, information processing

  2. Reproduction of a new inferior vena cava thrombosis model and study of the evolutionary process of thrombolysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian FU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the reproduction of a new model of thrombosis of inferior vena cava (IVC, and explore the natural process of thrombolysis and its mechanism in rats. Methods Forty-eight SD rats were randomly classified into experimental group and control group. In the experimental group, the lumen of the vena cava was blocked by about 80%-90% with a ligature of IVC below the left renal vein, and then the animals were redivided into three subgroups (n=12, each. In group A, the IVC endothelium was damaged and its tributaries were ligated. In group B, the IVC endothelium was damaged and its tributaries were not ligated. In group C, no damage was done to the endothelium of the IVC but all its tributaries were ligated. A sham-operated group served as control. The length and weight of the vinous thrombus and the percentage of the IVC luminal area were compared after operation to determine the optimum animal model of venous thrombosis. According to the best mode to establish the model, the thrombus specimens were collected and detected by HE and Masson staining, and the ED-1 expressions were examined by immunohistochemical staining after thrombus formation in 30 rats. The natural evolution of intravenous thrombolysis was analyzed dynamically and the cell types involved in this process were observed. Results Gross observation showed that the experimental group was successfully induced thrombus formation. The thrombus length and weight in group A was significantly higher than that in group B and group C, and no difference between group B and C. The thrombus area in group A was significantly higher than that in groups B and group C, which identified the group A was the optimal model group of venous thrombosis. In the group reproduced by the best mode of the model, HE and Masson staining results showed that new capillaries and the components of collagen and extracellular matrix increased gradually with the passage of time in the process of

  3. International Society for Wildlife Endocrinology: the future of endocrine measures for reproductive science, animal welfare and conservation biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ganswindt, André; Brown, Janine L.; Elizabeth W. Freeman; Kouba, Andrew J.; Penfold, Linda M.; Santymire, Rachel M.; Vick, Mandi M; Wielebnowski, Nadja; Willis, Erin L.; Milnes, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Hormone analysis is a precise and widely accepted tool for monitoring reproductive function and responses to stressors. Although hormones are present and can be measured in various biological matrices, non-invasive methods have gained popularity over the past 30 years as a more practical approach for assessing ovarian, testicular and, more recently, adrenocortical activity in intractable wildlife species. Non-invasive hormone monitoring also has been key to understanding biological mechanisms...

  4. Glycobiology of Reproductive Processes in Marine Animals: The State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Costantini; Alessandra Gallo

    2012-01-01

    Glycobiology is the study of complex carbohydrates in biological systems and represents a developing field of science that has made huge advances in the last half century. In fact, it combines all branches of biomedical research, revealing the vast and diverse forms of carbohydrate structures that exist in nature. Advances in structure determination have enabled scientists to study the function of complex carbohydrates in more depth and to determine the role that they play in a wide range of ...

  5. The Narrative Reproduction of Contemporary Montenegrin Identity in The Process of Euroatlantic Intergrations (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Banović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available If we conceptualize reality as a large narrative we “build ourselves into” as social beings, and consider social activities and identities as narratively mediated, the full extent of the capacity of narratives in the creation, shaping, transmission and reconstruction of contemporary social identities, as well as the reproduction of the concept of nation in everyday life becomes apparent. The imagined Euro- Atlantic future of Montenegro demands certain narrative interpretations of the past, which, in latter stages tend to become meta-narratives susceptible to consensus. The linkage of significant historical events to the process of Euro-Atlantic integrations of Montenegro is preformed through different meta-discursive practices, most often through ceremonial evocations of memories of significant events from the recent as well as further history of Montenegro. In this context, celebrations of Statehood Day and Independence Day are especially important, as they serve as reminders of the decisions of the Congress of Berlin, the Podgorica Assembly, the antifascist struggle of World War II and the independence of Montenegro attained through the referendum held in 2006. The clearly defined key points, along with the logical coherence the narrative is based on, provide the narrative with a certain “flexibility” which enables it to take in new elements. Narrative interpretations of the past have a significant role in the reproduction of the nation, as well as the shaping and consolidation of a desirable national identity, while the established narrative continuity between the past, present and imagined Euro-Atlantic future of Montenegro emerges as the “official” mediator in the reproduction of contemporary Montenegrin identity in the process of Euro-Atlantic integration. In order to fully comprehend this narrative, it is advisable to conceptualize it both in a synchronic as well as a diachronic perspective, as can be shown in two charts which

  6. Interactions with the environment during plant sexual reproduction and dispersal consequences for the concept of sexual reproduction and life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, M.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between seed plants and animals during pollination and fruit and seed dispersal is well known, and marks the sexual reproduction process. During the history of the plant kingdom, the development of sexual reproduction has been governed by changes in the environment of the plant, toge

  7. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP)

  8. Unconscious Processing of Negative Animals and Objects: Role of the Amygdala Revealed by fMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Zhiyong; Li, Han; Chen, Gang; Yang, Jiongjiong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional stimuli can be processed through the amygdala without conscious awareness. The amygdala is also involved in processing animate and social information. However, it is unclear whether different categories of pictures (e.g., animals, objects) elicit different activity in the amygdale and other regions without conscious awareness. The objective of this study was to explore whether the factors of category, emotion and picture context modulate brain activa...

  9. Sponge budding is a spatiotemporal morphological patterning process: Insights from synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography into the asexual reproduction of Tethya wilhelma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickel Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary agametic-asexual reproduction mechanisms such as budding and fission are present in all non-bilaterian and many bilaterian animal taxa and are likely to be metazoan ground pattern characters. Cnidarians display highly organized and regulated budding processes. In contrast, budding in poriferans was thought to be less specific and related to the general ability of this group to reorganize their tissues. Here we test the hypothesis of morphological pattern formation during sponge budding. Results We investigated the budding process in Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae by applying 3D morphometrics to high resolution synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography (SR-μCT image data. We followed the morphogenesis of characteristic body structures and identified distinct morphological states which indeed reveal characteristic spatiotemporal morphological patterns in sponge bud development. We discovered the distribution of skeletal elements, canal system and sponge tissue to be based on a sequential series of distinct morphological states. Based on morphometric data we defined four typical bud stages. Once they have reached the final stage buds are released as fully functional juvenile sponges which are morphologically and functionally equivalent to adult specimens. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that budding in demosponges is considerably more highly organized and regulated than previously assumed. Morphological pattern formation in asexual reproduction with underlying genetic regulation seems to have evolved early in metazoans and was likely part of the developmental program of the last common ancestor of all Metazoa (LCAM.

  10. A Tissue Retrieval and Postharvest Processing Regimen for Rodent Reproductive Tissues Compatible with Long-Term Storage on the International Space Station and Postflight Biospecimen Sharing Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collection and processing of tissues to preserve space flight effects from animals after return to Earth is challenging. Specimens must be harvested with minimal time after landing to minimize postflight readaptation alterations in protein expression/translation, posttranslational modifications, and expression, as well as changes in gene expression and tissue histological degradation after euthanasia. We report the development of a widely applicable strategy for determining the window of optimal species-specific and tissue-specific posteuthanasia harvest that can be utilized to integrate into multi-investigator Biospecimen Sharing Programs. We also determined methods for ISS-compatible long-term tissue storage (10 months at −80°C that yield recovery of high quality mRNA and protein for western analysis after sample return. Our focus was reproductive tissues. The time following euthanasia where tissues could be collected and histological integrity was maintained varied with tissue and species ranging between 1 and 3 hours. RNA quality was preserved in key reproductive tissues fixed in RNAlater up to 40 min after euthanasia. Postfixation processing was also standardized for safe shipment back to our laboratory. Our strategy can be adapted for other tissues under NASA’s Biospecimen Sharing Program or similar multi-investigator tissue sharing opportunities.

  11. A tissue retrieval and postharvest processing regimen for rodent reproductive tissues compatible with long-term storage on the international space station and postflight biospecimen sharing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijayalaxmi; Holets-Bondar, Lesya; Roby, Katherine F; Enders, George; Tash, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    Collection and processing of tissues to preserve space flight effects from animals after return to Earth is challenging. Specimens must be harvested with minimal time after landing to minimize postflight readaptation alterations in protein expression/translation, posttranslational modifications, and expression, as well as changes in gene expression and tissue histological degradation after euthanasia. We report the development of a widely applicable strategy for determining the window of optimal species-specific and tissue-specific posteuthanasia harvest that can be utilized to integrate into multi-investigator Biospecimen Sharing Programs. We also determined methods for ISS-compatible long-term tissue storage (10 months at -80°C) that yield recovery of high quality mRNA and protein for western analysis after sample return. Our focus was reproductive tissues. The time following euthanasia where tissues could be collected and histological integrity was maintained varied with tissue and species ranging between 1 and 3 hours. RNA quality was preserved in key reproductive tissues fixed in RNAlater up to 40 min after euthanasia. Postfixation processing was also standardized for safe shipment back to our laboratory. Our strategy can be adapted for other tissues under NASA's Biospecimen Sharing Program or similar multi-investigator tissue sharing opportunities.

  12. Reproduction and appraisal of an animal model of acute myelomonocytic leukemia in the CB6F1generation mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-li ZUO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce an acute myelomonocytic leukemia M4(AML-M4animal model with the CB6F1generation mice.Methods The CB6F1(BALB/c C57BL/6mice were inoculated intravenously with different amounts(1×106,2×106,5×106,1 ×107of WEHI-3cells,a cell line of myelomonocytic leukemia.The correlation between the animal survival and the inoculated amount was analyzed.The mice,inoculated with 1×106 cells,were selected for observation of leukemia onset,and sampled for routine blood test.Four weeks after inoculation,the peripheral blood was collected from moribund mice,morphological observation was made in blood smears,and immunophenotype and major histocompatibility complex(MHCwas determined;the marrow cells were collected for morphological observation,and immunochemical and karyotype analysas were made.The liver,spleen,kidney,lung,heart and brain were obtained for pathological observation.The results of all the observations and determinations were then comprehensively analyzed to evaluate the authenticity of the established AML-M4mice model.Ara-C,in a dosage of 50mg/kg or 100mg/kg,was intraperitoneally injected to the model mice for observation of the disease course and survival of the animals,and to evaluate the sensitivity of model mice to the chemotherapeutics.Normal mice were selected to serve as control in all the experiments.Results Mice inoculated with different amount of WEHI-3cells died of leukemia 17to 33days after inoculation,and a negative correlation between the inoculated amount and the survival time of animals was observed(r=-0.936,P < 0.01.Those inoculated with 1×106 cells survived for 25~33(28.50±1.87days.Four weeks after inoculation,the WBC counts of peripheral blood increased obviously with a peak value of 81×109/L,in the moribund leukemic mice,which was significantly different from that of normal control(P < 0.05.Leukemia cells with larger size and irregular shape were observed in the blood smear.A large number of primary and

  13. Structure and function of the tentpole in the reproductive process of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Wang, Di; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Li

    2012-10-01

    The tentpole is a unique structure of the female gametophyte in Ginkgo biloba; however, its exact functions in the reproductive process are unclear. In the present study, we used semi-thin sectioning and electron microscopy to study the structure and function of the tentpole during fertilization in G. biloba. The tentpole was always initiated between two or more deeply immersed archegonia. Before fertilization, the tentpole had developed into a column-like structure, protruding toward the archegonial chamber; cells at the periphery of tentpole were loosely ranged, and abundant lipid droplets and starch grains were accumulated in the tentpole cells. After fertilization, the tentpole degenerated, and some membranous debris was overlaid on its surface. In addition, there were significant decreases in the lipids and starch grains. These results suggested that the tentpole led to the degeneration of the megaspore membrane and then supported the pliable apex of the nucellar tissues. Importantly, the tentpole also contributed to supplying nutrition for fertilization and embryo development.

  14. Quaternary ammonium disinfectants cause subfertility in mice by targeting both male and female reproductive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Vanessa E; Melin, Travis E; Dessify, Brian J; Nguyen, Christina T; Shea, Caroline S; Hrubec, Terry C

    2016-01-01

    Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) are common ingredients in household bathroom and kitchen cleaning sprays. ADBAC+DDAC cause reproductive toxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate gender-specific reproductive effects from ADBAC+DDAC. Female reproduction was assessed through ovulation, oocyte implantation, and estrus cycling. Male reproductive function was assessed by sperm concentration, motility, and viability. Numbers of corpora lutea were not different after 2 weeks, but decreased after 8 weeks of ADBAC+DDAC exposure. Dams exposed for 5 weeks to ADBAC+DDAC spent significantly less time in estrus. ADBAC+DDAC exposed males exhibited declines in both sperm concentration and motility, but not sperm viability. Subfertility in mice from ADBAC+DDAC exposure is, therefore, mediated through reproductive disturbances in both females and males. While the effect of ADBAC+DDAC exposure on human health is unclear, widespread exposure necessitates further consideration of their potential reproductive toxicity. PMID:26582257

  15. Cross-Cultural Influences on Rhythm Processing: Reproduction, Discrimination, and Beat Tapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cameron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The structures of musical rhythm differ between cultures, despite the fact that the ability to synchronize one’s movements to musical rhythms appears to be universal. To measure the influence of culture on rhythm processing, we tested East African and North American adults on the perception, production, and beat tapping of rhythms derived from East African and Western music. To assess rhythm perception, participants identified whether pairs of rhythms were same or different. To assess rhythm production, participants reproduced rhythms after hearing them. To assess beat tapping, participants tapped the beat along with repeated rhythms. We expected that performance in all three tasks would be influenced both by the culture of the participant and by the culture of the rhythm. Specifically, we predicted that a participant’s ability to discriminate, reproduce, and accurately tap the beat would be better for rhythms from their own culture than for rhythms from another culture. In the rhythm discrimination task, there were no differences in discriminating culturally familiar and unfamiliar rhythms. In the rhythm reproduction task, both groups reproduced East African rhythms more accurately than Western rhythms, but East African participants also showed an effect of cultural familiarity, leading to a significant interaction. In the beat tapping task, participants in both groups tapped the beat more accurately for culturally familiar than unfamiliar rhythms. The results demonstrate that culture does influence the processing of musical rhythm. In terms of the function of musical rhythm, our results are consistent with theories that musical rhythm enables synchronization. Musical rhythm may foster musical cultural identity by enabling within-group synchronization to music, perhaps supporting social cohesion.

  16. Critical Analysis of Assessment Studies of the Animal Ethics Review Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Varga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the approval of animal research projects depends on the decisions of Animal Ethics Committees (AEC’s, which review the projects. An animal ethics review is performed as part of the authorization process and therefore performed routinely, but comprehensive information about how well the review system works is not available. This paper reviews studies that assess the performance of animal ethics committees by using Donabedian’s structure-process-outcome model. The paper points out that it is well recognised that AECs differ in structure, in their decision-making methods, in the time they take to review proposals and that they also make inconsistent decisions. On the other hand, we know little about the quality of outcomes, and to what extent decisions have been incorporated into daily scientific activity, and we know almost nothing about how well AECs work from the animal protection point of view. In order to emphasise this viewpoint in the assessment of AECs, the paper provides an example of measures for outcome assessment. The animal suffering is considered as a potential measure for outcome assessment of the ethics review. Although this approach has limitations, outcome assessment would significantly increase our understanding of the performance of AECs.

  17. Critical Analysis of Assessment Studies of the Animal Ethics Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Orsolya

    2013-01-01

    In many countries the approval of animal research projects depends on the decisions of Animal Ethics Committees (AEC's), which review the projects. An animal ethics review is performed as part of the authorization process and therefore performed routinely, but comprehensive information about how well the review system works is not available. This paper reviews studies that assess the performance of animal ethics committees by using Donabedian's structure-process-outcome model. The paper points out that it is well recognised that AECs differ in structure, in their decision-making methods, in the time they take to review proposals and that they also make inconsistent decisions. On the other hand, we know little about the quality of outcomes, and to what extent decisions have been incorporated into daily scientific activity, and we know almost nothing about how well AECs work from the animal protection point of view. In order to emphasise this viewpoint in the assessment of AECs, the paper provides an example of measures for outcome assessment. The animal suffering is considered as a potential measure for outcome assessment of the ethics review. Although this approach has limitations, outcome assessment would significantly increase our understanding of the performance of AECs. PMID:26479540

  18. Systematic review of the association between oil and natural gas extraction processes and human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balise, Victoria D; Meng, Chun-Xia; Cornelius-Green, Jennifer N; Kassotis, Christopher D; Kennedy, Rana; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-09-15

    This systematic review identified 45 original published research articles related to oil and gas extraction activities and human reproductive endpoints. Reproductive outcomes were categorized as [1] birth outcomes associated with maternal exposure, [2] semen quality, fertility, and birth outcomes associated with adult paternal exposure, [3] reproductive cancers, and [4] disruption of human sex steroid hormone receptors. The results indicate there is moderate evidence for an increased risk of preterm birth, miscarriage, birth defects, decreased semen quality, and prostate cancer. The quality of the evidence is low and/or inadequate for stillbirth, sex ratio, and birth outcomes associated with paternal exposure, and testicular cancer, female reproductive tract cancers, and breast cancer, and the evidence is inconsistent for an increased risk of low birth weight; therefore, no conclusions can be drawn for these health effects. There is ample evidence for disruption of the estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors by oil and gas chemicals, which provides a mechanistic rationale for how exposure to oil and gas activities may increase the health risks we have outlined. The results from this systematic review suggest there is a negative impact on human reproduction from exposure to oil and gas activities. Many of the 45 studies reviewed identified potential human health effects. Most of these studies focused on conventional oil and gas activities. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of unconventional oil and gas operations on human health. The impact of unconventional oil and gas activities may be greater than that of conventional activity, given that unconventional activities employ many of the same approaches and use dozens of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals in hydraulic fracturing. PMID:27568524

  19. Systematic review of the association between oil and natural gas extraction processes and human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balise, Victoria D; Meng, Chun-Xia; Cornelius-Green, Jennifer N; Kassotis, Christopher D; Kennedy, Rana; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-09-15

    This systematic review identified 45 original published research articles related to oil and gas extraction activities and human reproductive endpoints. Reproductive outcomes were categorized as [1] birth outcomes associated with maternal exposure, [2] semen quality, fertility, and birth outcomes associated with adult paternal exposure, [3] reproductive cancers, and [4] disruption of human sex steroid hormone receptors. The results indicate there is moderate evidence for an increased risk of preterm birth, miscarriage, birth defects, decreased semen quality, and prostate cancer. The quality of the evidence is low and/or inadequate for stillbirth, sex ratio, and birth outcomes associated with paternal exposure, and testicular cancer, female reproductive tract cancers, and breast cancer, and the evidence is inconsistent for an increased risk of low birth weight; therefore, no conclusions can be drawn for these health effects. There is ample evidence for disruption of the estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors by oil and gas chemicals, which provides a mechanistic rationale for how exposure to oil and gas activities may increase the health risks we have outlined. The results from this systematic review suggest there is a negative impact on human reproduction from exposure to oil and gas activities. Many of the 45 studies reviewed identified potential human health effects. Most of these studies focused on conventional oil and gas activities. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of unconventional oil and gas operations on human health. The impact of unconventional oil and gas activities may be greater than that of conventional activity, given that unconventional activities employ many of the same approaches and use dozens of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals in hydraulic fracturing.

  20. Multiple routes to mental animation: language and functional relations drive motion processing for static images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, Kenny R; Christophel, Thomas B; Fehr, Thorsten; Valdés-Conroy, Berenice; Herrmann, Manfred

    2013-08-01

    When looking at static visual images, people often exhibit mental animation, anticipating visual events that have not yet happened. But what determines when mental animation occurs? Measuring mental animation using localized brain function (visual motion processing in the middle temporal and middle superior temporal areas, MT+), we demonstrated that animating static pictures of objects is dependent both on the functionally relevant spatial arrangement that objects have with one another (e.g., a bottle above a glass vs. a glass above a bottle) and on the linguistic judgment to be made about those objects (e.g., "Is the bottle above the glass?" vs. "Is the bottle bigger than the glass?"). Furthermore, we showed that mental animation is driven by functional relations and language separately in the right hemisphere of the brain but conjointly in the left hemisphere. Mental animation is not a unitary construct; the predictions humans make about the visual world are driven flexibly, with hemispheric asymmetry in the routes to MT+ activation.

  1. New developments in the detection and identification of processed animal proteins in feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Holst, von C.; Baeten, V.; Berben, G.; Boix, A.; Jong, de J.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the most likely route of infection of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is by consumption of feeds containing low levels of processed animal proteins (PAPs). This likely route of infection resulted in feed bans, which were primarily aimed at ruminant fe

  2. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA Signaling in Human and Ruminant Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Wocławek-Potocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA through activating its G protein-coupled receptors (LPAR 1–6 exerts diverse cellular effects that in turn influence several physiological processes including reproductive function of the female. Studies in various species of animals and also in humans have identified important roles for the receptor-mediated LPA signaling in multiple aspects of human and animal reproductive tract function. These aspects range from ovarian and uterine function, estrous cycle regulation, early embryo development, embryo implantation, decidualization to pregnancy maintenance and parturition. LPA signaling can also have pathological consequences, influencing aspects of endometriosis and reproductive tissue associated tumors. The review describes recent progress in LPA signaling research relevant to human and ruminant reproduction, pointing at the cow as a relevant model to study LPA influence on the human reproductive performance.

  3. Approaches to Optimizing Animal Cell Culture Process: Substrate Metabolism Regulation and Protein Expression Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanxing

    Some high value proteins and vaccines for medical and veterinary applications by animal cell culture have an increasing market in China. In order to meet the demands of large-scale productions of proteins and vaccines, animal cell culture technology has been widely developed. In general, an animal cell culture process can be divided into two stages in a batch culture. In cell growth stage a high specific growth rate is expected to achieve a high cell density. In production stage a high specific production rate is stressed for the expression and secretion of qualified protein or replication of virus. It is always critical to maintain high cell viability in fed-batch and perfusion cultures. More concern has been focused on two points by the researchers in China. First, the cell metabolism of substrates is analyzed and the accumulation of toxic by-products is decreased through regulating cell metabolism in the culture process. Second, some important factors effecting protein expression are understood at the molecular level and the production ability of protein is improved. In pace with the rapid development of large-scale cell culture for the production of vaccines, antibodies and other recombinant proteins in China, the medium design and process optimization based on cell metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement will play an important role. The chapter outlines the main advances in metabolic regulation of cell and expression improvement of protein in animal cell culture in recent years.

  4. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  5. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  6. The Natural Reproduction and Economic Reproduction of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the perspective of Marx’s materialism,the thesis expounds the natural reproduction and economic reproduction of agriculture,and analyzes the relationship between the two production processes.The natural reproduction of agriculture,the contradicted unification of agricultural organism and natural environment,conforms to natural law and has the specific objective environmental requirements.The economic reproduction of agriculture is the process of people’s production and labor which takes keeping the life vitality of agricultural organism as objective,including the reproduction of agricultural productivity and the reproduction of agricultural production relations.The agricultural productivity comprises social productivity and natural productivity.The process of agricultural economic reproduction must conform to the objective natural law and economic law.The relationship of agricultural natural reproduction and economic reproduction is that the agricultural natural reproduction process is intertwined with economic reproduction process;the variation trend of agricultural natural reproduction ability and economic reproduction ability is identical;the agricultural economic reproduction dominates over the natural reproduction.

  7. In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging (BLI: Noninvasive Visualization and Interrogation of Biological Processes in Living Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ripp

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI is increasingly being utilized as a method for modern biological research. This process, which involves the noninvasive interrogation of living animals using light emitted from luciferase-expressing bioreporter cells, has been applied to study a wide range of biomolecular functions such as gene function, drug discovery and development, cellular trafficking, protein-protein interactions, and especially tumorigenesis, cancer treatment, and disease progression. This article will review the various bioreporter/biosensor integrations of BLI and discuss how BLI is being applied towards a new visual understanding of biological processes within the living organism.

  8. PRODUCTS OF PROCESSING OF RAPESEED IN FEEDING OF FARM ANIMALS AND POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коnоnеnко S. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions of the import substitution, special importance is given to the search for new feed sources, methods of preparing them for feeding, the use of biologically active substances and enzymes. At the forefront of feed production is rape as breeding work with this culture has showed positive results. Currently, selectionists have bred yellow double-zero "00" varieties of rapeseeds free of erucic acid of "Canole" type, that have low glucosinolate level. The development of new and modern technology standards are required for preparation them for feeding, since they are fundamentally different from the previously used rapeseed varieties and have fewer restrictions for feeding to different types of farm animals and poultry. The article presents a fairly lengthy and reasoned review of the literature of a large number of authors on the topic, as well as given rapeseed market analysis, rational and advanced methods of preparing rapeseed processed products for feeding to young and adult animals. Much attention is paid to the use of a variety of biologically active substances and enzymes, which improve digestion and absorption of nutrients from rations with rapeseed processingproducts, increase productivity and reduce feed costs per unit of production. The use of processing products of rapeseed improves the profitability of livestock production. Feeding of rapeseedcake to cattle increases the protein content and volatile fatty acids in the rumen content, increases the number of infusoria and decreases ammonia levels. The inclusion of rape forage in diets of farm animals and poultry improves hematological parameters. Products of rapeseed processing of the varieties with low glucosinolatesa1re recommended for the rations of farm animals and poultry depending on the species, age and physiological state

  9. Innovative non-animal testing strategies for reproductive toxicology: the contribution of Italian partners within the EU project ReProTect

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Lorenzetti; Ilaria Altieri; Sabina Arabi; Donatella Balduzzi; Nicoletta Bechi; Eugenia Cordelli; Cesare Galli; Francesca Ietta; Modina, Silvia C.; Laura Narciso; Francesca Pacchierotti; Paola Villani; Andrea Galli; Giovanna Lazzari; Alberto Maria Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive toxicity, with its many targets and mechanisms, is a complex area of toxicology; thus, the screening and identification of reproductive toxicants is a main scientific challenge for the safety assessment of chemicals, including the European Regulation on Chemicals (REACH). Regulatory agencies recommend the implementation of the 3Rs principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) as well as of intelligent testing strategies, through the development of in vitro methods and the use of...

  10. Nutritional characteristics and losses on fermentation of corn silage, harvested in different reproductive stages with different grain processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Marafon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the harvest of corn plant in different reproductive stages and different processing grain about losses and nutritive value of silages. Significant differences in the stage of harvest showed up in lower (P 0.05 results found for the R5 stage, which had an average loss of around 5.77%, demonstrating that silage harvested at R5 stage, allow greater dry matter recovery and hence greater savings for the farmer. Regarding the parameter of losses of crude protein, there were no significant differences for the effects of isolated or associated stages of harvesting and processing of grain in corn silage. Large differences can be perceived as the loss of neutral detergent fiber and loss of acid detergent fiber silage, justified by the increase in the levels of acid detergent fiber in the average share of 22.96% in the silage harvested at stage R3 and reduction in their concentration with an average of 4.60% for the R5 stage. No significant differences were observed (P <0.05 for the particle size as the different treatments, only significance being observed as the participation of whole grains in bulk, this ranging on average from 2.59% to 10.27% dry matter, respectively for stage R3 and R4-R5. In general, silage maize plant reproductive stage R5 provided smaller losses nutritious silage storage and greater accumulation of grains in bulk when compared to R3 stage.

  11. Making and Unmaking the Endangered in India (1880-Present: Understanding Animal-Criminal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concerns of the present paper emerge from the single basic question of whether the available histories of the tiger are comprehensive enough to enable an understanding of how this nodular species comprises/contests the power dynamics of the present. Starting with this basic premise, this paper retells a series of events which go to clarify that a nuanced understanding of the manner in which a species serves certain political purposes is not possible by tracking the animal alone. A discourse on endangerment has beginnings in the body and being of species that are remarkably cut off from the tiger-the elephant, birds, and the rhino (and man if we might add-and develops with serious implications for power, resource appropriation, and criminality, over a period of time, before more directly recruiting the tiger itself. If we can refer to this as the intermittent making and unmaking of the endangered, it is by turning to the enunciations of Michel Foucault that we try to canvas a series of events that can be described as animal-criminal processes. The role of such processes in the construction of endangerment, the structuring of space, and shared ideas of man-animal relations is further discussed in this paper.

  12. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...) in part 579 Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food (21...--IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority... / Friday, May 10, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food...

  13. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 579 Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry... THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority citation...

  14. Torpor during reproduction in mammals and birds: dealing with an energetic conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllan, B M; Geiser, Fritz

    2014-09-01

    Torpor and reproduction in mammals and birds are widely viewed as mutually exclusive processes because of opposing energetic and hormonal demands. However, the reported number of heterothermic species that express torpor during reproduction is ever increasing, to some extent because of recent work on free-ranging animals. We summarize current knowledge about those heterothermic mammals that do not express torpor during reproduction and, in contrast, examine those heterothermic birds and mammals that do use torpor during reproduction. Incompatibility between torpor and reproduction occurs mainly in high-latitude sciurid and cricetid rodents, which live in strongly seasonal, but predictably productive habitats in summer. In contrast, torpor during incubation, brooding, pregnancy, or lactation occurs in nightjars, hummingbirds, echidnas, several marsupials, tenrecs, hedgehogs, bats, carnivores, mouse lemurs, and dormice. Animals that enter torpor during reproduction often are found in unpredictable habitats, in which seasonal availability of food can be cut short by changes in weather, or are species that reproduce fully or partially during winter. Moreover, animals that use torpor during the reproductive period have relatively low reproductive costs, are largely insectivorous, carnivorous, or nectarivorous, and thus rely on food that can be unpredictable or strongly seasonal. These species with relatively unpredictable food supplies must gain an advantage by using torpor during reproduction because the main cost is an extension of the reproductive period; the benefit is increased survival of parent and offspring, and thus fitness. PMID:24973362

  15. Unique educational methods to improve the veterinary employment selection process for rural mixed-animal practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brad J; Gwinner, Kevin P; Andrus, David M; Prince, J Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The rural mixed-animal veterinarian is a critical control point for safe, wholesome, affordable food production and security. The population of students entering food-animal practice is decreasing, and future shortages are likely. Veterinary practice owners will continue to struggle to find associates to fill open positions. Identifying and hiring the correct veterinarian for an open position is a challenging proposition for the rural practitioner. Kansas State University hosted a forum to facilitate the hiring process and provide education regarding the mechanism of an effective selection interview. A unique experiential technique known as "speed interviews" was used to facilitate communication between conference participants and to practice newly acquired skills. A survey of participants revealed similar viewpoints toward most job attributes. Veterinary students and prospective employers expressed realistic expectations of job requirements, salaries, and debt load. Students expressed willingness to work and desire to practice in the types of practices defined by the veterinarians. The symposium provided valuable insight for practitioners and students regarding the recruitment process. Appropriate and accurate representation at the time of job/associate selection is critical for long-term success and employee retention. The goal of the event was to provide a service to both prospective employers and students by offering education regarding the employment selection interview process and placing attendees in an environment rich with people who have complimentary goals. PMID:18287482

  16. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for predicting amino acids content in intact processed animal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Haba, Maria José; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio; Pérez-Marín, Dolores C

    2006-10-01

    Near-infrared calibrations were developed for the instantaneous prediction of amino acids composition of processed animal proteins (PAPs). Two sample presentation modes were compared (ground vs intact) for demonstrating the viability of the analysis in the intact form, avoiding the need for milling. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) equations for the prediction of amino acids in PAPs were developed using the same set of samples (N = 92 PAPs) analyzed in ground and intact form and in three cups differing in the optical window size. The standard error for cross validation (SECV) and the coefficient of determination (1-VR) values yielded with the calibrations developed using the samples analyzed in the intact form showed similar or even better accuracy than those obtained with finely ground samples. The excellent predictive ability (1-VR > 0.90; CV < 3.0%) obtained for the prediction of amino acids in intact processed animal proteins opens an enormous expectative for the on-line implementation of NIRS technology in the processing and marketing of these important protein feed ingredients, alleviating the costs and time associated with the routine quality controls.

  17. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products.

  18. Modeling unobserved sources of heterogeneity in animal abundance using a Dirichlet process prior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, R.M.; Mukherjee, B.; Zhang, L.; Ghosh, M.; Jelks, H.L.; Jordan, F.

    2008-01-01

    In surveys of natural populations of animals, a sampling protocol is often spatially replicated to collect a representative sample of the population. In these surveys, differences in abundance of animals among sample locations may induce spatial heterogeneity in the counts associated with a particular sampling protocol. For some species, the sources of heterogeneity in abundance may be unknown or unmeasurable, leading one to specify the variation in abundance among sample locations stochastically. However, choosing a parametric model for the distribution of unmeasured heterogeneity is potentially subject to error and can have profound effects on predictions of abundance at unsampled locations. In this article, we develop an alternative approach wherein a Dirichlet process prior is assumed for the distribution of latent abundances. This approach allows for uncertainty in model specification and for natural clustering in the distribution of abundances in a data-adaptive way. We apply this approach in an analysis of counts based on removal samples of an endangered fish species, the Okaloosa darter. Results of our data analysis and simulation studies suggest that our implementation of the Dirichlet process prior has several attractive features not shared by conventional, fully parametric alternatives. ?? 2008, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products. PMID:27109117

  20. The Optimum Mesophilic Temperature of Batch Process Biogas Production from Animal-based Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osita Obineche Obiukwu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimum mesophilic temperature of biogas production from blends The optimum temperature of biogas production from blends of animal-based wastes was determined under controlled heat supply to the digester in a batch digestion process. Cow Dung (CD and Poultry Droppings (PD were blended in the ratio of CD: PD: 1:3. The digester was operated at average ambient temperature of 30°C as baseline. Biogas production from the waste blends was monitored under the temperatures of 32 to 45°C. Results obtained indicate maximum cumulative gas yield was observed at the temperature of 40°C. The 40°C temperature gave the highest biogas yield of 2685 mL followed by the 35°C temperature with the cumulative yield of 2535 mL. The ambient temperature of 30°C had the least cumulative biogas yield of 185 mL. These results indicate that increased and steady biogas production can be achieved under the optimum mesophilic temperature of 40°C when these animal-based wastes are digested in batch digestion process.

  1. A nutribusiness strategy for processing and marketing animal-source foods for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward W; Seetharaman, Koushik; Maretzki, Audrey N

    2007-04-01

    Nutritional benefits of animal source foods in the diets of children in developing countries indicate a need to increase the availability of such foods to young children. A nutribusiness strategy based on a dried meat and starch product could be used to increase children's access to such foods. The "Chiparoo" was developed at The Pennsylvania State University with this objective in mind. Plant-based and meat ingredients of the Chiparoo are chosen based on regional availability and cultural acceptability. Chiparoo processing procedures, including solar drying, are designed to ensure product safety and to provide product properties that allow them to be eaten as a snack or crumbled into a weaning porridge. Continued work is needed to develop formulation and processing variations that accommodate the needs of cultures around the world. PMID:17374690

  2. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Richard J., E-mail: rkavanag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Van Der Kraak, Glen [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  3. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  4. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  5. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K

    2016-04-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species.

  6. Pilot scale study - processing of palm empty fruit bunch into animal feed at sterifeed pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5-1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

  7. Reproductive biotechnologies in Swedish male alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Maria Celina

    2016-01-01

    Alpacas have become more popular during the last decades. The herds have been built up by importing live animals since reproductive biotechnologies, for example artificial insemination and semen preservation, are not well-developed in this species. A major problem is the viscosity of the seminal plasma which hinders processing or evaluation of the semen. Enzymes have been used to deal with the viscous seminal plasma but they may damage spermatozoa or render them incapable of fertilization. Th...

  8. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) study of rotating cylindrical filters for animal cell perfusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo-Cardero, Alvio; Chico, Ernesto; Castilho, Leda; de Andrade Medronho, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the main fluid flow features inside a rotating cylindrical filtration (RCF) system used as external cell retention device for animal cell perfusion processes were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The motivation behind this work was to provide experimental fluid dynamic data for such turbulent flow using a high-permeability filter, given the lack of information about this system in the literature. The results shown herein gave evidence that, at the boundary between the filter mesh and the fluid, a slip velocity condition in the tangential direction does exist, which had not been reported in the literature so far. In the RCF system tested, this accounted for a fluid velocity 10% lower than that of the filter tip, which could be important for the cake formation kinetics during filtration. Evidence confirming the existence of Taylor vortices under conditions of turbulent flow and high permeability, typical of animal cell perfusion RCF systems, was obtained. Second-order turbulence statistics were successfully calculated. The radial behavior of the second-order turbulent moments revealed that turbulence in this system is highly anisotropic, which is relevant for performing numerical simulations of this system.

  9. Environmental lighting alters the infection process in an animal model of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachron, D L; Tumas, K M; Blank, K J; Prystowsky, M B

    1995-08-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of altered environmental lighting on the infection process of a murine leukemia virus, E-55(+), which induces a thymic lymphoma/leukemia in 100% of BALB.K mice inoculated as adults. One to two weeks after inoculation, high levels of proviral DNA are usually found. This is followed by an asymptomatic period of many weeks during which proviral DNA becomes essentially undetectable. Leukemia develops approximately 28 weeks postinoculation. In this experiment, one group of mice was exposed a consistent 10L: 14D cycle while a second was maintained in constant light (LL). A third group was exposed to a rotating cycle characterized by phase shifting a 10L: 14D cycle every three 24-h days (rLD). All cycles began 2 weeks prior to inoculation and were maintained thereafter. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 5, 10, and 15 weeks, and hematopoietic tissue was examined for proviral DNA content. At 1 week, LL- and rLD-exposed animals showed considerably less proviral DNA in bone marrow and spleen compared with controls. At 15 weeks, thymuses from controls were showing signs of infection whereas tissue from LL and rLD mice remained at background levels. We conclude that environmental lighting does alter the infective pattern displayed by this retrovirus, although whether this effect is mediated by changes in the target stem cells or through immunoenhancement has not yet been determined. PMID:7675882

  10. Evaluation of reproduction processes in farms in Poland after integration with the EU in the light of the data of agricultural accountancy system of the FADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Grzelak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to evaluate the dynamics of the processes taking place in Polish farms after the integration with the EU. It was observed that in the period of the Polish economic boom (2004, 2006-2007 , the operating farms would actively modernize their production potentials. It indicates a crucial role of microeconomic factors in creating reproductive processes. Widened reproduction was observed in 2004-2007 in FADN system farms while in successive period 2008-2009 the reproduction processes were restricted. However, there are considerable differences in the area owing to the existing scale of production. It has been found that in the farms of economic size larger than 16 ESU, the modernization processes provided for the widened reproduction in almost the whole of the examined period (2004-2009. On the other hand, decapitalisation of assets was dealt with in farms up to 8 ESU. A significant fall in the incomes of larger farms in 2008-2009, despite the introduced advanced level modernization processes and enlargement of production supplies, proves their strong susceptibility to economic situation change.

  11. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor.

  12. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  13. Utilization of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to utilize wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content, whereas Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimize the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40°C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared with the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing.

  14. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of 137Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff

  15. Animal welfare evaluation at a slaughterhouse for heavy pigs intended for processing

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Stocchi; Nicholas Aconiti Mandolini; Maria Marinsalti; Natalina Cammertoni; Anna Rita Loschi; Stefano Rea

    2014-01-01

    The Council Regulation (EC) No. 1099/2009 requires slaughterhouse managers to implement specific standard operating procedures for all pre-slaughter stages considered at risk, aimed at achieving adequate levels of animal welfare. This survey was aimed at testing the applicability to an abattoir for heavy pigs of an assessment system of animal welfare through animal-based measures. In the monitoring of handling operations, the number of animals fallen/slipped and prodded, and that of vocalisin...

  16. Reproductive health financing in Kenya: an analysis of national commitments, donor assistance, and the resources tracking process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidze, E.M.; Pradhan, J.; Beekink, E.; Maina, T.M.; Maina, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the flow of resources at the country level to reproductive health is essential for effective financing of this key component of health. This paper gives a comprehensive picture of the allocation of resources for reproductive health in Kenya and the challenges faced in the resource-trac

  17. Overview of the animal health drug development and registration process: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert P; Shryock, Thomas R; Cox, Brian R; Butler, Roger M; Hammelman, Jason E

    2011-05-01

    Products for animal health commercialization follow a structured progression from initial concept through to regulatory approval. Typically, products are developed for use in either food animals or companion animals. These can be for the intention of disease intervention, productivity enhancement or improvement in a quality of life capacity. The animal health industry is a regulated industry, meaning that a government agency is responsible for oversight of products, both pre- and post-approval. There are three primary US government agencies that ensure quality, safety and effectiveness for the approval of new products and post-marketing compliance.

  18. IMPAIRED PROCESSING IN THE PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX OF AN ANIMAL MODEL OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eAnomal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder clinically characterized by deficits in communication, lack of social interaction and, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. A number of studies have reported that sensory perception abnormalities are common in autistic individuals and might contribute to the complex behavioral symptoms of the disorder. In this context, hearing incongruence is particularly prevalent. Considering that some of this abnormal processing might stem from the unbalance of inhibitory and excitatory drives in brain circuitries, we used an animal model of autism induced by valproic acid (VPA during pregnancy in order to investigate the tonotopic organization of the primary auditory cortex (AI and its local inhibitory circuitry. Our results show that VPA rats have distorted primary auditory maps with over-representation of high frequencies, broadly tuned receptive fields and higher sound intensity thresholds as compared to controls. However, we did not detect differences in the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in AI of VPA and control rats. Altogether our findings show that neurophysiological impairments of hearing perception in this autism model occur independently of alterations in the number of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. These data support the notion that fine circuit alterations, rather than gross cellular modification, could lead to neurophysiological changes in the autistic brain.

  19. Gene delivery process in a single animal cell after femtosecond laser microinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microinjection of extracellular molecules into a single animal cell was performed by an amplified femtosecond laser irradiation. When a single-shot laser pulse was focused on the plasma membrane of a single fibroblast from the mouse cell line NIH3T3 with a high-numerical aperture objective lens, a transient hole with a diameter of 1 μm was formed. The delivery process of extracellular molecules immediately after the hole formation was monitored by a fluorescence staining with fluoresceinisothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran). Then the gene expression was confirmed using a DNA plasmid of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The gene expression was observed when the laser pulse was focused first on the cellular membrane and then on the nuclear membrane, while the gene was not expressed when the laser was focused only on the cellular membrane. On the basis of these results, the efficiency of gene delivery by the femtosecond laser microinjection and the subsequent gene expression were clarified.

  20. Reproduction of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome in an animal disease model as a tool for vaccine testing under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillen, John; McNair, Irene; Lagan, Paula; McKay, Karen; McClintock, Julie; Casement, Veronica; Charreyre, Catherine; Allan, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Snatch farrowed, colostrum deprived piglets were inoculated with different combinations of porcine circovirus 2, porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae candidate vaccines. 10 piglets were mock-vaccinated. Following virus challenge with a combined porcine circovirus 2/porcine parvovirus inoculum, all animals were monitored and samples taken for serology, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. At 24 dpc all non-vaccinated animals remaining were exhibiting signs of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Details of the study, analysis of samples and performance of the candidate vaccines are described.

  1. Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Orto V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

  2. Using Ants, Animal Behavior & the Learning Cycle to Investigate Scientific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Russell A.; Dolezal, Adam G.; Hicks, Michael R.; Butler, Michael W.; Morehouse, Nathan I.; Ganesh, Tirupalavanam G.

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of animals is an intrinsically fascinating topic for students from a wide array of backgrounds. We describe a learning experience using animal behavior that we created for middle school students as part of a graduate-student outreach program, Graduate Partners in Science Education, at Arizona State University in collaboration with a…

  3. Effects of Animation's Speed of Presentation on Perceptual Processing and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katja; Rasch, Thorsten; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Animations presented at different speed are assumed to differentially interact with learners' perception and cognition due to the constraints imposed by learners' limited sensitivity to incoming dynamic information. To investigate the effects of high and low presentation speed of animation, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, participants were…

  4. Evaluation of the Growth Process of Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques at Royan Institute from Birth to 9 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Nateghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to recent scientific progress in assisted reproductive techniques (ART, infertile couples can now become fertile. Thus, a number of infants in our country are the results of these costly interventions. This study has been undertaken to evaluate the physical growth process of different methods of ART infants by standard growth charts from birth until nine months of age.Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 333 infants conceived through ART [intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and in vitro fertilization (IVF] at Royan Institute. A sequential, non-random sampling method in a period of 22 months was used. Their growth was assessed by measuring infants weight, height and head circumference, and physical examination. The growth patterns were calculated by recording the values in standard growth charts. The final analysis was done with SPSS version 16 and by using Chi-square test.Findings: In comparison with growth charts, the weights of one-third of the infants were less than two standard deviations (SD at birth and one-fourth had head circumference less than three SD at birth. Low birth weight (LBW infants were six times more than infants of normal population. From birth to six months of age, growth abnormalities were seen in a substantial number of infants. However, at nine months of age, there was no significant difference observed between infants conceived by different methods of ART (IVF and ICSI.Conclusion: Multiple births are the most important confounding factor impacting the growth process of ART infants. Multiple pregnancies can lead to low birth weight, height and head circumference, and growth abnormalities up to six months of age. This abnormality improves by increasing age of the infants.

  5. MultiTrust : Animating Multicriteria Decision-making Processes in the Organic Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    -Organic-RDD.pdf), which was conducted under the auspices of ICROFS (i.e., the International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems, for more information please visit: http://www.icrofs.org/index.html). The color animation film was produced in 2013 by the award-wining Danish production company and animation studio......When thinking about animations, an intuitive reaction could be to dismiss them as mere children’s pastime, but that is by no means the whole picture. Animated films featuring highly specialized knowledge from, say, the domains of science, technology and engineering are to be found all over...... the current media landscape. There is a tendency that they are predominantly used in one specific communicative constellation, i.e., when domain-specific knowledge is communicated from an expert or authority to a lay person. That, too, is the case when it comes to the animated film “MultiTrust” (to be found...

  6. Nutrigenomics and its Applications in Animal Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Khare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNutrigenomics applies genomic technologies to study how nutrients affect expression of genes. With the advent of the post genomic era and with the use of functional genomic tools, the new strategies for evaluating the effects of nutrition on production efficiency and nutrient utilization are becoming available. Nutrigenomics plays an efficient role in various fields of animal health like nutrition, production, reproduction, disease process etc. Nutrigenomic approaches will enhance researchers‟ abilities to maintain animal health, optimize animal performance and improve milk and meat quality.

  7. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Nathoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  8. Animal welfare evaluation at a slaughterhouse for heavy pigs intended for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Stocchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Council Regulation (EC No. 1099/2009 requires slaughterhouse managers to implement specific standard operating procedures for all pre-slaughter stages considered at risk, aimed at achieving adequate levels of animal welfare. This survey was aimed at testing the applicability to an abattoir for heavy pigs of an assessment system of animal welfare through animal-based measures. In the monitoring of handling operations, the number of animals fallen/slipped and prodded, and that of vocalising pigs were recorded. In the monitoring of the immobilisation stage, carried out on the same pigs, vocalisations were recorded at the entrance to the box and falls/slips occurring inside it. Animal welfare assessment during the stunning-sticking-bleeding steps, was carried out by recording the head-only electrical stunning basic parameters set by legislation, vocalisations resulting from hot wanding, and clinical signs of consciousness, sensibility and certain death. Except for immobilisation, the percentage of occurrence of these events above acceptability limits was detected in all other preslaughter steps. The most critical stages were: handling in the unloading area and along the single-file chute, stunning and especially bleeding, where 84.13% of animals showed one or more signs of consciousness and/or sensibility recovery. Wrong placement of electrodes observed in 53.98% of the animals, insufficient voltage and low amperage may explain why a high percentage of pigs recovered consciousness and/or sensibility before death. Some simple restructuring of unloading area, slowdown of slaughter line speed, increase of personnel involved in pre-slaughter management and regular calibration of the electrical stunning device could be effectively corrective measures aimed at raising the animal welfare level at the slaughterhouse under study.

  9. Critical Analysis of Assessment Studies of the Animal Ethics Review Process

    OpenAIRE

    Orsolya Varga

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In many countries, the approval of animal research projects depends on the decisions of the ethics committees which review the projects. Since the efficiency of the protection of experimental animals greatly depends on the performance of the ethics committees, its regular assessment is crucial. This paper reviews the results of studies assessing the performance of the ethics committees, and emphasizes the importance of outcome assessment in the evaluation of the performance of ...

  10. Elektronische monitoring van luchtwassers op veehouderijbedrijven = Automated process monitoring and data logging of air scrubbers at animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Franssen, J.C.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    At 6 animal houses air scrubbers equipped with an automated process monitoring and data logging system were tested. The measured values were successfully stored but the measured values, especially the pH and EC of the recirculation water, appeared not to be correct at all times.

  11. 9 CFR 95.4 - Restrictions on the importation of processed animal protein, offal, tankage, fat, glands, certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000; (2) If the offal is... equivalent to the requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000; (ii... processed animal protein, offal, tankage, fat, glands, certain tallow other than tallow derivatives,...

  12. Relationship of microbial processes to the fate and behavior of transuranic elements in soils, plants, and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review considers the influence of soil physicochemical and microbial processes on the long-term solubility, form, and bioavailability of plutonium and other transuranic elements important in the nuclear fuel cycle. Emphasis is placed on delineation of the relationships between soil chemical and microbial processes and the role of soil microorganisms in effecting solubilization, transformation and plant/animal uptake of elements considered largely insoluble in soils strictly on the basis of their inorganic chemical characteristics

  13. Forest fragmentation and selective logging have inconsistent effects on multiple animal-mediated ecosystem processes in a tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schleuning

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes

  14. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  15. A meta-analysis review of the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin. 2. Effects on animal health, reproductive performance, and culling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, I R; DesCôteaux, L; Leslie, K; Fredeen, A; Shewfelt, W; Preston, A; Dowling, P

    2003-10-01

    This manuscript presents the results of a review of the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) on dairy cattle health, reproductive performance, and culling, that was carried out by an expert panel established by the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (CVMA). The panel was established by the CVMA in response to a request from Health Canada in 1998 and their report was made public in 1999. A series of meta-analyses was used to combine data on health-related parameters that were extracted from all randomized clinical trials that had been published in peer-reviewed journals or which were provided by Health Canada from the submission by Monsanto for registration of rBST in Canada. A companion paper (1) presents the estimates of the effect of the drug on production parameters. Recombinant bovine somatotropin was found to increase the risk of clinical mastitis by approximately 25% during the treatment period but there was insufficient data to draw firm conclusions about the effects of the drug on the prevalence of subclinical intra-mammary infections. Use of rBST increased the risk of a cow failing to conceive by approximately 40%. For cows which did conceive, there was no effect on services per conception and only a small increase in average days open (5 days). Use of the drug had no effect on gestation length, but the information about a possible effect on the risk of twinning was equivocal. Cows treated with rBST had an estimated 55% increase in the risk of developing clinical signs of lameness. Few studies reported data on culling, but based on those that did, there appeared to be an increase risk of culling evident in multiparous cows. Use of the drug in 1 lactation period appeared to reduce the risk of metabolic diseases (particularly ketosis) in the early period of the subsequent lactation.

  16. Reproductive Health and Reproductive Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health represents, almost to an equal extent, a socio-cultural and a medical fact. What influences it, both positively and negatively, stems from the ways in which we culturally cognize and act with regard to reproductive behavior. These thoughts and actions are conditioned by a culturally contextualized conceptualization of human physiology which is, in turn, based on the conceptualization of sexuality, and especially, the normativization of gender roles. Therefore, reproductive health is, above all, female health, when viewed as a socio-cultural category, meaning that reproductive vulnerability mostly refers to those factors that negatively influence female reproductive health. These factors are social – they negatively influence reproductive health through the institutional and legally normative aspects, they are economic – they decrease the number of those who, in a certain socio-cultural context, have timely access to quality medical care, and they are cultural – they reinforce modes of thinking and behavior which do not take into consideration the right of every human being to his or her own sexual and reproductive life, but rather insist on conforming individual sexuality and reproductive desires and capacities to the dominant cultural norm.

  17. Animal Behaviour Fieldwork: Introducing Psychology Students to the Process of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickins, Thomas E.; Donovan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development and running of a residential animal behaviour field trip. The trip has a number of elements that challenge and develop the students. First, this trip is open to students at levels two, three and M. This allows us to engineer a certain amount of peer assisted learning. Second, the students live together and…

  18. Application and Production Process of Maya Animation%Maya动画的应用领域和制作流程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文彬

    2013-01-01

    Maya作为最为常用的三维动画制作软件,应用领域包括影视动画、广告设计、机械设计、建筑行业等.Maya软件界面简洁,操作简单,涉及范围广,是三维动画制作的首选工具.Maya动画的制作流程则大致分为:实物建模、贴图制作、材质模拟、灯光和摄像机、动画制作.%@@@@Maya is the most commonly used 3D animation software, application areas including film and television animation, ad?vertising design, mechanical design, such as the construction industry. Maya software interface is simple, the operation is simple, involving a wide range, is the preferred tool of three-dimensional animation. The process to manufacture the Maya animation is di?vided into: physical modeling, texturing, texture simulation, lighting and camera, animation.

  19. Uncertainty in Population Estimates for Endangered Animals and Improving the Recovery Process

    OpenAIRE

    Rachlow, Janet L; Goble, Dale D.; Matthew Zak; J. Michael. Scott; Katie Hammond; Haines, Aaron M.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The objective of our study was to evaluate the mention of uncertainty (i.e., variance) associated with population size estimates within U.S. recovery plans for endangered animals. To do this we reviewed all finalized recovery plans for listed terrestrial vertebrate species. We found that more recent recovery plans reported more estimates of population size and uncertainty. Also, bird and mammal recovery plans reported more estimates of population size and uncertainty. We recomm...

  20. Estimating animal resource selection from telemetry data using point process models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Devin S.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Kuhn, Carey E.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of animal resource selection functions (RSF) using data collected from relocations of individuals via remote telemetry devices have become commonplace. Increasing technological advances, however, have produced statistical challenges in analysing such highly autocorrelated data. Weighted distribution methods have been proposed for analysing RSFs with telemetry data. However, they can be computationally challenging due to an intractable normalizing constant and cannot be aggregated (i.e. collapsed) over time to make space-only inference.

  1. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Nabeela Nathoo; V Wee Yong; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2014-01-01

    There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future resear...

  2. Test systems to identify reproductive toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, K; Stahlmann, R

    2000-09-01

    Experience with drugs and other xenobiotics indicates that both animal testing and epidemiological studies are necessary to provide adequate data for an estimation of risks that might be associated with exposure to a chemical substance. In this review, the pros and cons of test systems for reproductive toxicity are discussed. Usually, several studies are performed to cover the different phases of the reproductive cycle. In the preclinical development of drugs, the three so-called 'segment testing protocols' have been used for several decades now. More recently, new testing concepts have been accepted internationally which include more flexibility in implementation. Several examples of compounds with the potential for reproductive toxicity are presented in more detail in a discussion of some pitfalls of the tests for fertility (phthalates and fluoroquinolones), teratogenicity (acyclovir and protease inhibitors) and postnatal developmental toxicity (fluoroquinolones). In addition, important aspects of kinetics and metabolism as a prerequisite for a rational interpretation of results from toxicological studies are briefly discussed. In vitro assays are useful for supplementing the routinely used in vivo approaches or for studying an expected or defined effect, but they are not suitable for revealing an unknown effect of a chemical on the complex reproductive process. PMID:11021511

  3. Vitamin D in Reproductive Health and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Aya; Abell, Sally; Scragg, Robert; de Courten, Barbora

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin D has been primarily known for its role in maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and promoting healthy bone mineralization. Emerging evidence suggests that vitamin D may have a plethora of other functions including cardiometabolic and immunological effects and a role in modulating human reproductive processes. Despite this, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) remains highly prevalent worldwide due to the limited availability of foods that are naturally high or fortified with vitamin D, increased sun avoidance behaviors and use of sunscreen due to fear of skin cancer, and increased sedentary indoor lifestyles, especially among those of reproductive age. This review examines current and emerging evidence for the role of vitamin D in reproductive health including in fertility, conception, and pregnancy outcomes, and outlines areas for future research. We found that existing evidence is based primarily on animal models and in vitro studies with some recent support from observational studies in humans. While these studies indicate that VDD may be a risk factor for adverse fertility and pregnancy outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to establish causality. Future efforts to clarify the benefits of vitamin D in reproductive health may bring about practical, simple, and cost-effective means of improving fertility and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27228115

  4. Controlling of crustacean zooplankton reproduction in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters by strengthen operation and management of conventional process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-jun; ZHANG Jin-song; LI Xiao-wei; HE Jun-guo

    2010-01-01

    To counter the mass reproduction and penetration of crustacean zooplankton in Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) filters which may result in the presence of organisms in potable water and water pollution,this paper analyzed the factors affecting organisms' reproduction in BAC filters.A comparative study was performed on the density and composition of crustacean zooplankton of the concerned water treatment units of two advanced water plants (Plant A and B) which with the same raw water and the same treatment technique in southern China.The results obtained show that the crustaceans' density and composition was very different between the sand filtered water of Plant A and Plant B.which Harpacticoida bred sharply in the sediment tanks and penetrated sand filter into BAC falters was the primary reason of crustaceans reproduce in BAC filters of Plant A.For prevention of the organisms reproduction in BAC,some strengthen measures was taken including pre-chlorination,cleaning coagulation tanks and sediment tanks completely,increasing sludge disposal frequency to stop organisms enter BAC filters,and the finished water quality was improved and enhanced.

  5. Reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This article explores the reproductive health status of China. Since 1990, China has stepped up its efforts in promoting reproductive health and maternal and child health. Several studies demonstrated a remarkable progress made in this area. By 1997, maternal and infant mortality rates have declined, while the penetration rate for the immunization program and inpatient delivery rate increased. Despite these achievements, however, much remains to be done such as the lack of client-centered approaches to meet the increasingly diverse needs of the population for family planning services. A survey conducted in 1995 showed that the country's family planning program was focused primarily on demographic issues while little attention was given to reproductive health objectives. The situation improved when the State Planning Commission implemented its pilot program called the Quality of Care in Family Planning in China. The program yielded encouraging results including a reoriented philosophy towards reproductive health services, enhanced service facilities, informed choices for family planning methods, and the development of an operational information system. Another strategy adopted to address fertility and reproductive health issues was the implementation of adolescent reproductive health education as a required course for senior middle schools. Lastly, this article provided a brief overview of China's HIV/AIDS situation.

  6. Improving animal productivity and reproductive efficiency: Development and testing medicated urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks in rural farms of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) is low-cost technology and has great potential to enhance the nutrition of ruminant livestock in Bangladesh and improve animal productivity. Where it is required, UMMB may also be formulated to include anthelmintic medication to control nematode parasites and further improve production. A series of studies was conducted to develop and extend these technologies to rural farmers of Bangladesh. By feeding UMMB to smallholder dairy cows in two areas it was found that live-weight (LW) and condition score tended to be improved and milk yield was increased by 32 - 33%. In a second experiment, growing calves belonging to rural farmers were given Albendazole (7.5 mg/kg), fresh pineapple leaf (1.6 g/kg LW) or fresh neem leaf (1 g/kg LW) in single as well as split doses. Faecal worm egg counts were reduced by all treatments but pineapple leaves showed higher efficacy (97%) than neem leaves (67%) and overall, divided doses had lower efficacy than the single dose. A third study was then conducted where UMMB, medicated UMMB (0.5 mg fenbendazole/kg block)) and unsupplemented controls were compared in lactating cows. Both treatments improved milk yield and live-weight gain (P <0.05). The medicated UMMB reduced faecal worm egg counts to zero while the UMMB without medication also yielded a 25% reduction. An on-station study was then conducted where pineapple leaf UMMB and neem leaf UMMB were compared to unmedicated UMMB. The blocks were prepared and fed in split doses over five days to lactating cows. Supplementation of UMMB with pineapple had significantly (P <0.01) higher efficacy in reducing faecal worm egg counts than UMMB with neem, which had a greater effect than unmedicated UMMB. Similar trends were also observed in improvements in milk yield, milk fat concentration and live-weight gain (P <0.05). The latter study was then repeated on rural farms where treatment efficacy and production responses were again clearly demonstrated for

  7. Abnormal fear conditioning and amygdala processing in an animal model of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Markram, Kamila; Rinaldi, Tania; La Mendola, Deborah; Sandi, Carmen; Markram, Henry

    2008-01-01

    A core feature of autism spectrum disorders is the impairment in social interactions. Among other brain regions, a deficit in amygdala processing has been suggested to underlie this impairment, but whether the amygdala is processing fear abnormally in autism, is yet not clear. We used the valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism to (a) screen for autism-like symptoms in rats, (b) test for alterations in amygdala-dependent fear processing, and (c) evaluate neuronal reactivity and synaptic plast...

  8. Experimental investigations on the effects of nuisances on reproduction processes in forest trees. 3. interim report. Experimentelle Untersuchungen ueber Immissionswirkungen auf Reproduktionsvorgaenge bei Waldbaeumen. 3. Zwischenbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venne, H.; Scholz, F. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Grosshansdorf (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Forstgenetik und Forstpflanzenzuechtung)

    1989-01-01

    The following parts of this project were to be looked into more closely: 1. Effects of gaseous pollutants on fecundation processes in vivo, seed formation and seed germination. 2. Differences between cross-breeds or genotypes in their sensitivity to air pollutants as to fertility and/or viability. During cross-breeding tests with two male and six female poplar clones, marked differences in the sensitivity to SO{sub 2} fumigation were noted in allthree partial tests: in the reproduction phase, the seedling stage, and in the group of one-year-old seedlings. (orig./MG).

  9. 动物繁殖学教学改革新思想体系探析%Exploration and Analysis of New Ideology on the Teaching Reform in Animal Reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹鸿国; 范彩云; 李运生; 张运海; 章孝荣

    2014-01-01

    鉴于目前一些大学生所面临的实践技能薄弱、适应社会工作能力较低等问题,在大学培养和教育过程中,以增强当代大学生解决实际问题的能力及全面且更好地提升大学生的专业技能为目的的教学实践改革就具有十分重要的意义。针对当前部分大学生专业实践能力不足的问题,探讨了动物繁殖学教育教学改革的实践经验,以期达到更好的教育教学效果。%In view of the problems of weak practical skills and low ability to adapt society that some college students faced, the teaching practice reform with strengthening the ability of modern college students to solve practical problems and improve the professional skills of college students as the objective was of important significance. Aiming at the problem of lack of professional practice skills of some college students, the practice experience of the teaching reform of animal reproduction was discussed, so as to obtain better teaching effect.

  10. A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction approach for estimating processed animal proteins in feed: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cesarina Abete

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifting of the ban on the use of processed animal proteins (PAPs from non-ruminants in non-ruminant feed is in the wind, avoiding intraspecies recycling. Discrimination of species will be performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR, which is at a moment a merely qualitative method. Nevertheless, quantification of PAPs in feed is needed. The aim of this study was to approach the quantitative determination of PAPs in feed through Real Time (RT-PCR technique; three different protocols picked up from the literature were tested. Three different kind of matrices were examined: pure animal meals (bovine, chicken and pork; one feed sample certified by the European reference laboratory on animal proteins (EURL AP in feed spiked with 0.1% bovine meal; and genomic DNAs from bovine, chicken and pork muscles. The limit of detection (LOD of the three protocols was set up. All the results obtained from the three protocols considered failed in the quantification process, most likely due to the uncertain copy numbers of the analytical targets chosen. This preliminary study will allow us to address further investigations, with the purpose of developing a RT-PCR quantitative method.

  11. An alternative for teaching and learning the simple diffusion process using Algodoo animations

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Samir L; da Silva, Rodrigo L; Viana, Emilson R; Leal, Fábio F

    2014-01-01

    In this work animations of the random walk movement using a freeware Algodoo were done in order to support teaching the concepts of Brownian Motion. The random walk movement were simulate considering elastic collision between the particles in suspension in a fluid, and the particles which constitute the fluid. The intensity of velocities where defined in an arbitrary range, and we have a random distribution of the velocity directions. Using two methods, the distribution histogram of displacements (DHD) and the mean-square-displacement ${\\langle{\\Delta r^{2}}\\rangle}$ (MSD), it was possible to measure the diffusion coefficient of the system, and determine the regions where the system presents ballistic regime or diffusive transport regime. The ballistic regime was observed graphically when the MSD has a parabolic dependence with time, which differing from the typical diffusive regime where MSD has a linear dependence. The didactical strategy for combining analytical approaches as graphic analysis, and animatio...

  12. Contextual processing deficits in PTSD: from animal models to fMRI studies

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Liberzon

    2012-01-01

    Background : Context processing imbues appropriate salience to the stimuli that is encountered. This ability enables us to hide from a predator in the wild, but to enjoy a visit to the zoo, although the lion may look the same in both contexts. Failures in contextual processing can lead to inappropriate fear responses rooted in failures to use safety cues, consider internal states, anticipate events, or appraise them properly. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with exaggerated...

  13. Uncertainty in Population Estimates for Endangered Animals and Improving the Recovery Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Rachlow

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available United States recovery plans contain biological information for a species listed under the Endangered Species Act and specify recovery criteria to provide basis for species recovery. The objective of our study was to evaluate whether recovery plans provide uncertainty (e.g., variance with estimates of population size. We reviewed all finalized recovery plans for listed terrestrial vertebrate species to record the following data: (1 if a current population size was given, (2 if a measure of uncertainty or variance was associated with current estimates of population size and (3 if population size was stipulated for recovery. We found that 59% of completed recovery plans specified a current population size, 14.5% specified a variance for the current population size estimate and 43% specified population size as a recovery criterion. More recent recovery plans reported more estimates of current population size, uncertainty and population size as a recovery criterion. Also, bird and mammal recovery plans reported more estimates of population size and uncertainty compared to reptiles and amphibians. We suggest the use of calculating minimum detectable differences to improve confidence when delisting endangered animals and we identified incentives for individuals to get involved in recovery planning to improve access to quantitative data.

  14. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  15. Abnormal fear conditioning and amygdala processing in an animal model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markram, Kamila; Rinaldi, Tania; La Mendola, Deborah;

    2008-01-01

    acid (VPA) rat model of autism to (a) screen for autism-like symptoms in rats, (b) test for alterations in amygdala-dependent fear processing, and (c) evaluate neuronal reactivity and synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala by means of in vitro single-cell electrophysiological recordings. VPA...

  16. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farine, D.R.; Firth, J.A.; Aplin, L.M.; Crates, R.A.; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J.; Hinde, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a fra

  17. Animating Critical Action Learning: Process-Based Leadership and Management Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Kiran; Pedler, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Increasing attention is focusing on the value of critical approaches to enhancing leadership and management development processes. This paper examines how a critical action learning perspectives can be harnessed to produce valuable learning and development through critically reflective practise. Critical action learning approaches not only explore…

  18. Exploring the Reproductive Decision-making Process of HIV-positive Women in County Victoria, Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The community-based Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT programme in Trinidad and Tobago offers care and support to HIV-positive (HIV+ pregnant women and their families for their lifetime. This study explored the factors influencing repeat childbearing by PMTCT enrolees. Method: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively selected and consenting HIV+ women who enrolled in the PMTCT programme (n = 10 in County Victoria and four healthcare workers (HCWs. Transcribed interviews were analysed and coded using thematic content analysis. Results: Though women desired children and motherhood, some did not intend to conceive fearing HIV, age-related ill-health and vertical transmission. Others had not considered pregnancy and conceived through accident and partners’ disregard for the women’s HIV status, particularly if such partners were inebriated. Partners’ desire for children, especially in new relationships, led to planned pregnancies. Nine of the 10 HIV+ women did not seek family planning advice; the one that did was advised about partner infection but not risk reduction, vertical transmission or reinfection. Though HCWs supported HIV+ women’s reproductive rights, they agreed that HCWs stigmatized and discriminated against HIV+ mothers. Both parties saw the PMTCT programme as an effective programme in vastly reducing HIV transmission from mother to child. Conclusion: The PMTCT programme and family planning services should be integrated with tailored services toward HIV+ women and their partners to help them safely achieve their reproductive goals. Healthcare workers should be given training and skillsets to address stigma and discrimination against persons infected with HIV/AIDS within Trinidad and Tobago’s health workforce.

  19. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.

  20. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  1. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System Print A ... reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  2. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants.

  3. Petitioning process for irradiated foods and animal feeds in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of sufficient regulatory approvals continues to delay the commercial application of food irradiation in several countries. Often, the regulatory approval process itself appears too challenging and approvals are not even requested. The objective of this paper is to review petition requirements so that researchers and companies in other countries will be able to prepare petitions requesting approval for the import and sale of irradiated foods into North America. (author)

  4. Multivariate classification of animal communication signals: a simulation-based comparison of alternative signal processing procedures using electric fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, William G R; Davis, Justin K; Lovejoy, Nathan R; Pensky, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary studies of communication can benefit from classification procedures that allow individual animals to be assigned to groups (e.g. species) on the basis of high-dimension data representing their signals. Prior to classification, signals are usually transformed by a signal processing procedure into structural features. Applications of these signal processing procedures to animal communication have been largely restricted to the manual or semi-automated identification of landmark features from graphical representations of signals. Nonetheless, theory predicts that automated time-frequency-based digital signal processing (DSP) procedures can represent signals more efficiently (using fewer features) than can landmark procedures or frequency-based DSP - allowing more accurate classification. Moreover, DSP procedures are objective in that they require little previous knowledge of signal diversity, and are relatively free from potentially ungrounded assumptions of cross-taxon homology. Using a model data set of electric organ discharge waveforms from five sympatric species of the electric fish Gymnotus, we adopted an exhaustive simulation approach to investigate the classificatory performance of different signal processing procedures. We considered a landmark procedure, a frequency-based DSP procedure (the fast Fourier transform), and two kinds of time-frequency-based DSP procedures (a short-time Fourier transform, and several implementations of the discrete wavelet transform -DWT). The features derived from each of these signal processing procedures were then subjected to dimension reduction procedures to separate those features which permit the most effective discrimination among groups of signalers. We considered four alternative dimension reduction methods. Finally, each combination of reduced data was submitted to classification by linear discriminant analysis. Our results support theoretical predictions that time-frequency DSP procedures (especially DWT

  5. Acrylamide: inhibition of formation in processed food and mitigation of toxicity in cells, animals, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-06-01

    Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from the heat-inducing reactions between the amino group of the amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in plant-derived foods including cereals, coffees, almonds, olives, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. This review surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food, exposure and consumption by diverse populations, reduction of the content in different food categories, and mitigation of adverse in vivo effects. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels include selecting commercial food with a low acrylamide content, selecting cereal and potato varieties with low levels of asparagine and reducing sugars, selecting processing conditions that minimize acrylamide formation, adding food-compatible compounds and plant extracts to food formulations before processing that inhibit acrylamide formation during processing of cereal products, coffees, teas, olives, almonds, and potato products, and reducing multiorgan toxicity (antifertility, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenicity). The herein described observations and recommendations are of scientific interest for food chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology, but also have the potential to benefit nutrition, food safety, and human health.

  6. The process of minimising medicine use through dialogue based animal health and welfare planning, Workshop report FIBL. In: CORE Organic project no. 1903 - ANIPLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Alfoeldi, Thomas; Gantner, Urs; Vaarst, Mette; Algers, Bo; Nicholas, Phillipa; Gratzer, Elisabeth; Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Mejdell, Cecilie; Hansen, Berit; Whay, Becky; Walkenhorst, Michael; Smolders, Gidi; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Hassing, M.; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The process of minimising medicine use through dialogue based animal health and welfare planning. Livestock are important in many organic farming systems, and it is an explicit goal to ensure high levels of animal health and welfare (AHW) through good management. In two previous EU network projects, NAHWOA & SAFO, it was concluded that this is not guaranteed merely by following organic standards. Both networks recommended implementation of individual animal health plans to stimulate organ...

  7. [The effect of subchronic inhalations of nitric oxide on metabolic processes in blood of experimental animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveva, A G; Peretyagin, S P

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic processes were investigated in plasma and erythrocytes of Wistar rats exposed to daily 10-min sessions of NO inhalation for 30 days. These included determination of glucose and lactate, catalase activity, and activities of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and catalase. NO inhalation in a concentration of 20 ppm, 50 ppm and 100 ppm caused an increase in glucose and lactate. Inhalation of 100 ppm NO also increased catalase activity. Inhalation of all NO concentrations resulted in a decrease of ALDH activity, while the decrease in LDH activity was observed at NO concentrations of 50-100 ppm. PMID:27143382

  8. Hyperprolactinemia and male reproductive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.A. Weber (Robert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis some effects of PRL on reproductive functions have been investigated PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma. animal model has been used: For in men with a comparison an In. rats hyperprolactinemia has been induced by sub-cutaneous inoculation of a PRL- and ACTH-secreting transpla

  9. NucleoCounter-An efficient technique for the determination of cell number and viability in animal cell culture processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dimpalkumar; Naciri, Mariam; Clee, Paul; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2006-05-01

    The NucleoCounter is a novel, portable cell counting device based on the principle of fluorescence microscopy. The present work establishes its use with animal cells and checks its reliability, consistency and accuracy in comparison with other cytometric techniques. The main advantages of this technique are its ability to handle a large number of samples with a high degree of precision and its simplicity and specificity in detecting viable cells quantitatively in a heterogeneous culture. The work addresses and overcomes the problems of subjectivity, and some of the inherent sampling errors associated with using the traditional haemocytometer and Trypan Blue exclusion method. NucleoCounter offers reduced intra- and inter-observer variation as well as consistency in repetitive analysis that establishes it as an efficient and highly potential device for at-line monitoring of animal cell processes. Furthermore, since the only manual steps required are sample aspiration and mixing with two reagents, it is feasible that the whole method could be automated and brought on-line for process monitoring and control. PMID:19002893

  10. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lbpro) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lbpro L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. 15N-HSQC measurements of Lbpro L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLbpro, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lbpro, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lbpro and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lbpro. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes

  11. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  12. A cooperative approach to animal disease response activities: Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and vvIBD in California poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Emi K; Shea, Supie; Jones, Annette; Ramos, Gregory; Pitesky, Maurice

    2015-09-01

    Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDv) was first detected in the United States at the end of 2008. Since its detection, Federal and State animal health officials, the poultry industry and the research/academic community have led response activities through a collaborative effort. By June 2011, much still remained unknown regarding the basic epidemiology and ecology of vvIBD in California, although there were a number of potential activities to fill this information gap. Available resources limited the ability to pursue all the activities, and responsible parties and stakeholders recognized the need to prioritize the activities. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a useful multi-criteria decision making methodology that incorporates qualitative information (in the form of judgments) with available quantitative information. This is especially useful when there is very limited quantitative information, such as in the situation with vvIBD in California. A commercial package that allows ready use of the AHP model was utilized for prioritizing activities, incorporating input from members from the three stakeholder groups: State and Federal animal health officials, poultry industry, and research/academia. Based on their inputs on 17 potential activities, the participants identified three priority activities; specifically determination of risk factors for re-emergence or re-introduction at affected premises, development of a laboratory diagnostic test to screen for segment B of the vvIBDV genome and surveillance of other potential reservoirs (mealworms, rodents, beetles). In order to evaluate the ability of the AHP to respond to differences, a sensitivity analysis was done in order to evaluate changes in prioritization of activities. Changes in prioritization were noted demonstrating the plasticity of the model under different conditions. However, a 50% increase or decrease in weighting was necessary to affect the order of the three highest scoring

  13. ‘Expanding your mind’: the process of constructing gender-equitable masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in reproductive health or gender training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Mariano Salazar Torres

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional forms of masculinity strongly influence men's and women's wellbeing. Objective: This study has two aims: (i to explore notions of various forms of masculinities in young Nicaraguan men participating in programs addressing sexual health, reproductive health, and/or gender equality and (ii to find out how these young men perceive their involvement in actions aimed at reducing violence against women (VAW. Design: A qualitative grounded theory study. Data were collected through six focus groups and two in-depth interviews with altogether 62 young men. Results: Our analysis showed that the informants experienced a process of change, labeled ‘Expanding your mind’, in which we identified four interrelated subcategories: The apprentice, The responsible/respectful man, The proactive peer educator, and ‘The feminist man’. The process showed how an increased awareness of gender inequities facilitated the emergence of values (respect and responsibility and behavior (thoughtful action that contributed to increase the informant's critical thinking and agency at individual, social, and political levels. The process was influenced by individual and external factors. Conclusions: Multiple progressive masculinities can emerge from programs challenging patriarchy in this Latin American setting. The masculinities identified in this study show a range of attitudes and behaviors; however, all lean toward more equitable gender relations. The results suggest that learning about sexual and reproductive health does not directly imply developing more gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors or a greater willingness to prevent VAW. It is paramount that interventions to challenge machismo in this setting continue and are expanded to reach more young men.

  14. Animating the biodynamics of soil thickness using process vector analysis: A dynamic denudation approach to soil formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.L.; Domier, J.E.J.; Johnson, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper expands the dynamic denudation framework of landscape evolution by providing new process insights and details on how soil and its signature morphological feature, the biomantle, form and function in the environment. We examine soils and their biomantles from disparate parts of the world, from the tropics through midlatitudes and hyperarid through perhumid, a range that exhibits varying environments for, and of, life. We then explicate the process pathways that cause soils to thicken and thin, and to even disappear, then reform. We do this by examining thickness relationships, where soil thickness stand biomantle thickness bt are functions of upbuilding u and deepening d minus removal r processes, hence st/bt=f(u+d-r). Upbuilding has two subsets, u1, which includes all exogenous (allochthonous-outside) mineral and/or organic inputs to the soil system, and u2, which includes all endogenous (autochthonous-in situ) processes and productions, including weathering. Exogenous u1 inputs include eolian and slopewash inputs (sedimentations) of mineral and organic materials, mass wasting accumulations and the like. Endogenous u2 processes and productions include the sum of in situ bioturbations, biosynthetic productions, organic accumulations, biovoid productions, weathering and volume increases caused by their sum. Endogenous upbuildings, which dominantly occur in the biomantle, are basically biodynamic bd processes and productions, hence u2=bd. Therefore, if exogenous upbuildings u1 are minimal or zero, then biomantle thickness bt is expressed by bt=f(u2-r) or bt=f(bd-r). Drawing on these relationships, we employ a graphic-conceptual device called process vector analysis in a digital animation (see supplementary materials or cf. https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/jdomier/www/temp/ biomantle.html) that illustrates the main pathways that form both Earth's soil and its unique epidermis, the biomantle. We then discuss the main elements of the animation using still frames that

  15. Phosphatidylserine translocation to the mitochondrion is an ATP-dependent process in permeabilized animal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells were pulse labeled with [3H]serine, and the synthesis of phosphatidyl[3H]ethanolamine from phosphatidyl[3H]serine during the subsequent chase was used as a measure of lipid translocation to the mitochondria. When the CHO-K1 cells were pulse labeled and subsequently permeabilized with 50 μg of saponin per ml, there was no significant turnover of nascent phosphatidyl[3H]serine to form phosphatidyl[3H]ethanolamine during an ensuring chase. Supplementation of the permeabilized cells with 2 mM ATP resulted in significant phosphatidyl[3H]ethanolamine synthesis (83% of that found in intact cells) from phosphatidyl[3H]serine during a subsequent 2-hr chase. Phosphatidyl[3H]ethanolamine synthesis essentially ceased after 2 hr in the permeabilized cells. The translocation-dependent synthesis of phosphatidyl[3H]ethanolamine was a saturable process with respect to ATP concentration in permeabilized cells. The conversion of phosphatidyl[3H]serine to phosphatidyl[3H]ethanolamine did not occur in saponin-treated cultures supplemented with 2 mM AMP, 2 mM 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate, or apyrase plus 2 mM ATP. ATP was the most effective nucleotide, but the addition of GTP, CTP, UTP, and ADP also supported the translocation-dependent synthesis of phosphatidyl[3H]ethanolamine albeit to a lesser extent. These data provide evidence that the interorganelle translocation of phosphatidylserine requires ATP and is largely independent of soluble cytosolic proteins

  16. Sex-Specific Brain Deficits in Auditory Processing in an Animal Model of Cocaine-Related Schizophrenic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and superior colliculi, pontine reticular nuclei, in addition to mesocorticolimbic brain reward and nigrostriatal motor circuitries. This paper is the first to report sex differences to acoustic stimuli in Sprague-Dawley animals (Rattus norvegicus although such gender responses to acoustic startle have been reported in humans (Swerdlow et al. 1997 [1]. The startle method monitors pre-pulse inhibition (PPI as a measure of the loss of sensorimotor gating in the brain's neuronal auditory network; auditory deficiencies can lead to sensory overload and subsequently cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine addicts and schizophrenic patients as well as cocaine treated animals are reported to exhibit symptoms of defective PPI (Geyer et al., 2001 [2]. Key findings are: (a Cocaine significantly reduced PPI in both sexes. (b Females were significantly more sensitive than males; reduced PPI was greater in females than in males. (c Physiological saline had no effect on startle in

  17. Sex-specific brain deficits in auditory processing in an animal model of cocaine-related schizophrenic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Patricia A; Rosenbaum, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and superior colliculi, pontine reticular nuclei, in addition to mesocorticolimbic brain reward and nigrostriatal motor circuitries. This paper is the first to report sex differences to acoustic stimuli in Sprague-Dawley animals (Rattus norvegicus) although such gender responses to acoustic startle have been reported in humans (Swerdlow et al. 1997 [1]). The startle method monitors pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) as a measure of the loss of sensorimotor gating in the brain's neuronal auditory network; auditory deficiencies can lead to sensory overload and subsequently cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine addicts and schizophrenic patients as well as cocaine treated animals are reported to exhibit symptoms of defective PPI (Geyer et al., 2001 [2]). Key findings are: (a) Cocaine significantly reduced PPI in both sexes. (b) Females were significantly more sensitive than males; reduced PPI was greater in females than in males. (c) Physiological saline had no effect on startle in either sex

  18. What can other animals tell us about human social cognition? An evolutionary perspective on reflective and reflexive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, E E; Patterson, R; Barbey, A K

    2012-01-01

    Human neuroscience has seen a recent boom in studies on reflective, controlled, explicit social cognitive functions like imitation, perspective-taking, and empathy. The relationship of these higher-level functions to lower-level, reflexive, automatic, implicit functions is an area of current research. As the field continues to address this relationship, we suggest that an evolutionary, comparative approach will be useful, even essential. There is a large body of research on reflexive, automatic, implicit processes in animals. A growing perspective sees social cognitive processes as phylogenically continuous, making findings in other species relevant for understanding our own. One of these phylogenically continuous processes appears to be self-other matching or simulation. Mice are more sensitive to pain after watching other mice experience pain; geese experience heart rate increases when seeing their mate in conflict; and infant macaques, chimpanzees, and humans automatically mimic adult facial expressions. In this article, we review findings in different species that illustrate how such reflexive processes are related to ("higher order") reflexive processes, such as cognitive empathy, theory of mind, and learning by imitation. We do so in the context of self-other matching in three different domains-in the motor domain (somatomotor movements), in the perceptual domain (eye movements and cognition about visual perception), and in the autonomic/emotional domain. We also review research on the developmental origin of these processes and their neural bases across species. We highlight gaps in existing knowledge and point out some questions for future research. We conclude that our understanding of the psychological and neural mechanisms of self-other mapping and other functions in our own species can be informed by considering the layered complexity these functions in other species. PMID:22866032

  19. The probabilistic model of the process mixing of animal feed ingredients into a continuous mixer-reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Lytkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the polydisperse medium mixing process reflects its stochastic features in the form of uneven distribution of phase elements on the time of their presence in apparatus, particle size, ripple retention of the apparatus, random distribution of the material and thermal phase flows of the working volume, heterogeneity of the medium physical- and chemical properties, complicated by chemical reaction. For the mathematical description of the mixing process of animal feed ingredients in the presence of chemical reaction the system of differential equations of Academician V.V. Kafarov was used. Proposed by him hypothesis based on the theory of Markov’s processes stating that "any multicomponent mixture can be considered as the result of an iterative process of mixing the two components to achieve the desired uniformity of all the ingredients in the mixture" allows us to consider a process of mixing binary composition in a paddle mixer in the form of differential equations of two ingredients concentration numerous changes until it becomes a homogenous mixture. It was found out that the mixing process of the two-component mixture is determined in a paddle mixer with a constant mixing speed and a limit (equilibrium dispersion of the ingredients in the mixture i.e. with its uniformity. Adjustment of the model parameters was carried out according to the results of experimental studies on mixing the crushed wheat with metallomagnetic impurity, which was a key (indicator component. According to the best values of the constant of the continuous mixing speed and the equilibrium disperse values of the ingredients contents, the mathematical model parameters identification was carried out. The results obtained are used to develop a new generation mixer design.

  20. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  1. Male reproductive traits and their relationship to reproductive traits in their female progeny: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, B M; Gazzola, C; Holroyd, R G; Crisp, J; McGowan, M R

    2011-06-01

    The overall objective of one of the major research programs in the Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) for Beef Genetic Technologies is to 'Improve female reproductive performance' in tropical, northern Australian beef cattle herds. To address this overall objective, a quantitative genetics project focused on investigation of male reproductive traits was designed and linked to three female reproduction-focussed projects, (i) discovery of genes associated with post-partum re-conception and age at puberty; (ii) expression of genes associated with post-partum re-conception; and (iii) early predictors of lifetime female reproductive performance. During the initial planning of this male reproductive traits project, the CRC Scientific Review Committee recommended that the research team investigate and evaluate potentially new, early-life (i.e able to be measured before 2 years of age) predictors of both male and female reproductive performance. To address this recommendation, the following was carried out: (i) criteria for selection of traditional and candidate traits were established; (ii) methodology for tabulation of potential traits/phenotypes that define male and female reproductive function was developed; and (iii) a systematic scientific review of early-life predictors of male and female fertility was prepared. This review concluded that although factors that might be useful in predicting male reproductive performance have been studied for many years, there was relatively little useful information available to meet the objectives of this review. It was also concluded that the direction of future research should be guided not only by previous research which was scarce, but also by speculative hypotheses arising from an understanding of the physiological, endocrinological and genetic processes active in reproduction. A small number of new traits were recommended in addition to traditional sperm morphology, sexual behaviour, anatomical structure and growth traits

  2. Introduction: Imaging in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Tamar; Laufer, Neri

    2016-06-01

    The authors of this Views and Reviews outline in detail the indispensable role of imaging tools-ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging-in the diagnosis and treatment of female and male factor infertility. Equipment producing diagnostic images, coupled with ever-increasing computing power, will pave the way for novel functional dynamic studies that will expand the understanding of reproductive processes and their management. PMID:27117374

  3. Plant reproductive susceptibility to habitat fragmentation: review and synthesis through a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Ramiro; Ashworth, Lorena; Galetto, Leonardo; Aizen, Marcelo Adrián

    2006-08-01

    The loss and fragmentation of natural habitats by human activities are pervasive phenomena in terrestrial ecosystems across the Earth and the main driving forces behind current biodiversity loss. Animal-mediated pollination is a key process for the sexual reproduction of most extant flowering plants, and the one most consistently studied in the context of habitat fragmentation. By means of a meta-analysis we quantitatively reviewed the results from independent fragmentation studies throughout the last two decades, with the aim of testing whether pollination and reproduction of plant species may be differentially susceptible to habitat fragmentation depending on certain reproductive traits that typify the relationship with and the degree of dependence on their pollinators. We found an overall large and negative effect of fragmentation on pollination and on plant reproduction. The compatibility system of plants, which reflects the degree of dependence on pollinator mutualism, was the only reproductive trait that explained the differences among the species' effect sizes. Furthermore, a highly significant correlation between the effect sizes of fragmentation on pollination and reproductive success suggests that the most proximate cause of reproductive impairment in fragmented habitats may be pollination limitation. We discuss the conservation implications of these findings and give some suggestions for future research into this area. PMID:16913941

  4. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Jutta [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Kontaxis, Georg [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Department of Structural and Computational Biology, Campus Vienna Biocenter 5, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Rancan, Chiara [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Department of Gene Vectors, Haematologikum, Marchioninistrasse 25, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Skern, Tim, E-mail: timothy.skern@meduniwien.ac.at [Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Medical University of Vienna, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/3, A-1030 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb{sup pro}) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb{sup pro} L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. {sup 15}N-HSQC measurements of Lb{sup pro} L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb{sup pro}, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb{sup pro}, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb{sup pro} and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb{sup pro}. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes.

  5. The application of biotechnology in animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal food has to incorporate multiple objectives, ie. it should provide good animal health, good production and reproductive performance, reduce pollution of the environment as well as have the impact on food of animal origin, by supplying it, in addition to basic nutrients, with certain useful substances that can act preventively on the occurrence of various diseases in humans in modern living conditions. This complex task implies the application of scientific knowledge concerning biotechnology in the field of animal feed production, and also includes the use of specific nutrients that are the result of the latest developments in specific disciplines such as molecular biology and genetic engineering. As a result of researches in these areas there were created some varieties of cereals and legumes with improved nutritional properties. On the other hand, obtaining a safe food of animal origin product imposes the use of substances of natural origin (such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytobiotics, enzymes, chelating forms .., which provide better digestibility and more complete utilization of certain nutrients from the feedstuff. In this way, the quantity of undigested substances are significantly reduced as well as soil and the atmosphere pollution. The use of specific additives in animal nutrition resulting from biotechnological research is most frequent when a problem concerning certain level of production or animal health has to be overcome. This implies a group of non-nutritional ingredients which are aimed to regulate the digestive tract microflora, pH, weight gain, as well as to modify metabolic processes etc.

  6. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  7. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  8. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  9. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Skip sharing on social media links Share ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved June 11, 2012, ...

  10. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  11. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  12. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Jutta; Kontaxis, Georg; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb(pro)) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb(pro) L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. (15)N-HSQC measurements of Lb(pro) L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb(pro), lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb(pro), stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb(pro) and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb(pro).

  13. Neuroleptic Drugs Revert the Contextual Fear Conditioning Deficit Presented by Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: A Potential Animal Model of Emotional Context Processing in Schizophrenia?

    OpenAIRE

    Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Medrano, Wladimir Agostini; Levin, Raquel; Kameda, Sonia Regina; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Silva, Regina Helena; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present abnormalities in emotion processing. A previous study showed that the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a putative animal model of ADHD, present reduced contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The aim of the present study was to characterize the deficit in CFC presented by SHR. Adult male normotensive Wistar rats and SHR were submitted to the CFC task. Sensitivity of the animals to the shock and the ...

  14. Digital Realization of Traditional Animation Process---Taking Flash Paperless Animation System as an Example%传统动画制作工艺的数字化实现--以Flash无纸动画系统为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丛明

    2014-01-01

    本文首先总结了传统动画生产的工艺流程,然后按照流程顺序提出数字化的设想并论述了动画生产工艺流程数字化的优势,接着设计并论述了基于Flash技术进行传统动画生产工艺流程中各环节的实现。通过动画前期、中期、后期技术环节的解析与Flash技术的结合研究,设计了基于Flash动画技术的无纸动画制作系统的解决方案。%This paper first summarizes the process of traditional animation, and then proposes digital con-ceives according to the process and describes its advantage. The paper designs and discusses the realization of each link in the production of traditional animation based on Flash technology. Combining with the analysis on different steps of the animation technology and the Flash technology, we come to the Flash paperless animation system.

  15. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  16. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Firth, Josh A; Aplin, Lucy M; Crates, Ross A; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J; Hinde, Camilla A; Kidd, Lindall R; Milligan, Nicole D; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-04-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals that formed 73 737 groups from which we inferred a social network. Our framework identified that both social and spatial drivers contributed to assortment in the network. In particular, groups had a more even sex ratio than expected and exhibited a consistent age structure that suggested local association preferences, such as preferential attachment or avoidance. By contrast, recent immigrants were spatially partitioned from locally born individuals, suggesting differential dispersal strategies by phenotype. Our results highlight how different scales of social decision-making, ranging from post-natal dispersal settlement to fission-fusion dynamics, can interact to drive phenotypic structure in animal populations.

  17. EFFECTS OF PHYTOESTROGENS ON MAMMALIAN REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Socorro Retana-Márquez; Horacio Hernández; José Alfredo Flores; Minerva Muñoz-Gutiérrez; Gerardo Duarte; Jesús Vielma; Gonzalo Fitz-Rodríguez; Ilda Graciela Fernández; Matthieu Keller; José Alberto Delgadillo

    2012-01-01

    Global consumption of phytoestrogens and their effects have increased both in animals and humans due to the augmented use of legumes in animal diets as well as the increase in vegetarian diets in some human populations. Phytoestrogens are found widely in a variety of plants and fodder, and can have adverse effects mainly on the reproductive tract in most animal species. Many phytoestrogens can act as estrogenic agonists or antagonists, and their effects can vary from an estrogenic over-respon...

  18. Food availability at birth limited reproductive success in historical humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Ian J; Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Helle, Samuli; Russell, Andrew F; Lummaa, Virpi

    2010-12-01

    Environmental conditions in early life can profoundly affect individual development and have consequences for reproductive success. Limited food availability may be one of the reasons for this, but direct evidence linking variation in early-life nutrition to reproductive performance in adulthood in natural populations is sparse. We combined historical agricultural data with detailed demographic church records to investigate the effect of food availability around the time of birth on the reproductive success of 927 men and women born in 18th-century Finland. Our study population exhibits natural mortality and fertility rates typical of many preindustrial societies, and individuals experienced differing access to resources due to social stratification. We found that among both men and women born into landless families (i.e., with low access to resources), marital prospects, probability of reproduction, and offspring viability were all positively related to local crop yield during the birth year. Such effects were generally absent among those born into landowning families. Among landless individuals born when yields of the two main crops, rye and barley, were both below median, only 50% of adult males and 55% of adult females gained any reproductive success in their lifetime, whereas 97% and 95% of those born when both yields were above the median did so. Our results suggest that maternal investment in offspring in prenatal or early postnatal life may have profound implications for the evolutionary fitness of human offspring, particularly among those for which resources are more limiting. Our study adds support to the idea that early nutrition can limit reproductive success in natural animal populations, and provides the most direct evidence to date that this process applies to humans.

  19. 工频电磁场接触对大鼠生殖功能的影响%Animal Experimental Studies of Power Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on Reproductive Function of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁琳; 石燕; 徐彦; 王伟锋; 苗茂华; 施惠娟; 孙兆贵; 袁伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective An instrument of power frequency electromagnetic fields, applicable for an animal model with rats as experimental subjects, will be designed to evaluate risk of the damage on reproductive functions under low frequency electromagnetic field exposure. Method The rats were exposed to the magnetic field at certain intensity for some time. Some parameters of reproductiue function were measured including plasma levels of steroid hormones, estrous cycle, and the numbers and development status of the offspring in females, and weight of the testis and epididymis, sperm density, the proportion of motile sperms, and sperm plasma membrane integrity. Results The study found that one month exposure of 1mT electromagnetic field, 8hours daily, initiated at the age of 4 weeks didn't induced significant change in the secretion of hormones and fertility in females, only increased estrus frequency, in the power frequency electromagnetic field at 1mT, and with daily exposure time of 8 hours, for a month since the beginning at age of 4 weeks, the grown adult female rats have not shown a significant change in the secretion of hormones and fertility to bear future generations, and only estrus frequency increased, two month exposure of 2mT electromagnetic field, 12hours daily, initiated at the age of 8 weeks induced the decline of sperm motility of males.%目的 评价工频电磁场接触对大鼠生殖功能的影响,用以研究人类的电磁场接触对生殖功能的损伤风险.方法 自行设计制备磁场发生仪,把大鼠暴露于一定强度的磁场中生活一段时间.观察雌性大鼠的甾体激素水平、动情周期和生殖状况和数量;并观察雄性大鼠的睾丸和附睾重量、精子密度、活动精子比例和精子质膜完整性.结果 本实验发现工频电磁场强度达1 mT,每日暴露时间8h,自4周龄开始持续1个月,不会对雌性大鼠成年后甾体激素分泌情况和生育后代的情况产生显著影响,仅仅

  20. The expression of hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN channels in the rat ovary are dependent on the type of cell and the reproductive age of the animal: a laboratory investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Carly

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that levels of hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels 1 to 4 (HCN1-4 are linked to the reproductive age of the ovary. Methods Young, adult, and reproductively aged ovaries were collected from Sprague-Dawley rats. RT-PCR and western blot analysis of ovaries was performed to investigate the presence of mRNA and total protein for HCN1-4. Immunohistochemistry with semiquantitative H score analysis was performed using whole ovarian histologic sections. Results RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of mRNA for HCN1-4. Western blot analysis revealed HCN1-3 proteins in all ages of ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemistry with H score analysis demonstrated distinct age-related changes in patterns of HCN1-3 in the oocytes, granulosa cells, theca cells, and corpora lutea. HCN4 was present only in the oocytes, with declining levels during the reproduction lifespan. Conclusion The evidence presented here demonstrates cell-type and developmental age patterns of HCN1-4 channel expression in rat ovaries. Based on this, we hypothesize that HCN channels have functional significance in rat ovaries and may have changing roles in reproductive aging.

  1. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W., E-mail: jason.sohn@case.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and University Hospitals of Cleveland, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Sloan, Andrew [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm

  2. From gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone to SIFamides: are echinoderm SALMFamides the "missing link" in a bilaterian family of neuropeptides that regulate reproductive processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphick, Maurice R

    2013-11-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) belongs to a family of vertebrate neuropeptides with a C-terminal PxRFamide motif, which exert effects by activating the G-protein coupled receptors NPFF1 and/or NPFF2. Comparative analysis of genome sequence data has revealed that orthologs of NPFF1/NPFF2-type receptors occur throughout the Bilateria and the neuropeptide ligand that activates the Drosophila NPFF1/NPFF2-type receptor has been identified as AYRKPPFNGSIFamide ("SIFamide"). Therefore, SIFamide-type neuropeptides, which occur throughout protostomian invertebrates, probably share a common evolutionary origin with vertebrate PxRFamide-type neuropeptides. Based on structural similarities, here SALMFamide neuropeptides are identified as candidate ligand components of this ancient bilaterian peptide-receptor signaling system in a deuterostomian invertebrate phylum, the echinoderms (e.g., starfish, sea urchins). Furthermore, functional studies provide evidence that PxRFamide/SALMFamide/SIFamide-type neuropeptides have evolutionarily conserved roles in regulation (typically inhibitory) of reproductive processes.

  3. Triennial Reproduction Symposium: 2012 Casida Award recipient: philosophy for graduate education in reproductive physiology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, R D

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of graduate education in reproductive physiology and endocrinology is to develop scientists and educators who will create new knowledge and impart this knowledge to appropriate end users in animal agriculture. Technology changes over time but the scientific method remains constant. Society needs scientists and educators who are grounded in the fundamentals of biology as well as in animal agriculture. Students in reproductive physiology and endocrinology require a blending of fundamental sciences with application to agricultural species in their training. My philosophy has been to treat each student as a unique individual needing a program designed to eliminate weaknesses and to magnify strengths. Each student must have a background in statistics and biochemistry. These 2 fundamental areas of science are of such importance that they must be included early in the educational process to assure competence in research or teaching. Students must be involved in their own research as early as possible. Collaborative and interdisciplinary research has been a key factor in developing successful scientists and educators in my graduate education program. Success of students after graduation has been a rewarding aspect of training graduate students.

  4. The evolution of reproductive restraint through social communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Justin; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2004-07-27

    The evolution of altruistic behavior through group selection is generally viewed as possible in theory but unlikely in reality, because individual selection favoring selfish strategies should act more rapidly than group selection favoring cooperation. Here we demonstrate the evolution of altruism, in the form of conditional reproductive restraint based on an explicitly social mechanism, modulated by intrapopulation communication comprising signal and evolved response, in a spatially distributed predatory/parasitic/pathogenic model system. The predatory species consistently comes to exploit a signal implying overcrowding, individuals constraining their reproduction in response, with a corresponding increase in equilibrium reproduction rate in the absence of signal. This signaled restraint arises in a robust way for a range of model spatial systems; it outcompetes non-signal-based restraint and is not vulnerable to subversion by noncooperating variants. In these systems, communication is used to evaluate population density and regulate reproduction accordingly, consistent with central ideas of Wynne-Edwards [Wynne-Edwards, V. C. (1962) Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior (Hafner, New York)], whose claims about the evolutionary importance of group selection helped ignite decades of controversy. This quantitative simulation model shows how the key evolutionary transition from solitary living to sociality can occur. The process described here of cooperation evolving through communication may also help to explain other major evolutionary transitions such as intercellular communication leading to multicellular organisms.

  5. Reproductive morphology of female Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTELLA Z. BECEGATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive morphology of cetaceans is poorly studied and, despite the large number of strandings, reports on this subject are scarce due to access to carcasses mostly in an advanced state of decomposition. The present study aimed to describe histological characteristics of the female genital tract ofSotalia guianensis, in order to assist in future studies on the reproductive biology of these animals. Females of different ages, from stranding events on beaches in northeastern Brazil, were used. Fragments of all organs were collected and processed for light and scanning electron microscopy. Histological analyses showed that these structures were similar to those found in terrestrial mammals, with some peculiarities, such as the presence of differentiated cells in the vulvar subepidermal layer, not described in the literature on cetaceans. Reproductive studies with a morphological description of the female genital organs are extremely important, since they would enable a better understanding of the species reproductive physiology and assist in the development of new strategies for the species conservation.

  6. Reproductive morphology of female Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becegato, Estella Z; Andrade, Janaina P; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Silva, Fernanda M de Oliveira e

    2015-09-01

    The reproductive morphology of cetaceans is poorly studied and, despite the large number of strandings, reports on this subject are scarce due to access to carcasses mostly in an advanced state of decomposition. The present study aimed to describe histological characteristics of the female genital tract of Sotalia guianensis, in order to assist in future studies on the reproductive biology of these animals. Females of different ages, from stranding events on beaches in northeastern Brazil, were used. Fragments of all organs were collected and processed for light and scanning electron microscopy. Histological analyses showed that these structures were similar to those found in terrestrial mammals, with some peculiarities, such as the presence of differentiated cells in the vulvar subepidermal layer, not described in the literature on cetaceans. Reproductive studies with a morphological description of the female genital organs are extremely important, since they would enable a better understanding of the species reproductive physiology and assist in the development of new strategies for the species conservation.

  7. Molecular basis for regulating seasonal reproduction in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Taeko; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Animals that inhabit mid- to high-latitude regions exhibit various adaptive behaviors, such as migration, reproduction, molting and hibernation in response to seasonal cues. These adaptive behaviors are tightly regulated by seasonal changes in photoperiod, the relative day length vs night length. Recently, the regulatory pathway of seasonal reproduction has been elucidated using quail. In birds, deep brain photoreceptors receive and transmit light information to the pars tuberalis in the pituitary gland, which induces the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid-stimulating hormone locally activates thyroid hormone via induction of type 2 deiodinase in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Thyroid hormone then induces morphological changes in the terminals of neurons that express gonadotropin-releasing hormone and facilitates gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary gland. In mammals, light information is received by photoreceptors in the retina and neurally transmitted to the pineal gland, where it inhibits the synthesis and secretion of melatonin, which is crucial for seasonal reproduction. Importantly, the signaling pathway downstream of light detection and signaling is fully conserved between mammals and birds. In fish, the regulatory components of seasonal reproduction are integrated, from light detection to neuroendocrine output, in a fish-specific organ called the saccus vasculosus. Various physiological processes in humans are also influenced by seasonal environmental changes. The findings discussed herein may provide clues to addressing human diseases, such as seasonal affective disorder. PMID:27068698

  8. Reproduction of Przewalski's Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaříková, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    This work is about reproduction of Przewalski’s horses (Equus Przewalskii, Poliakov, 1881), which is similar to reproduction of domestic horses (Equus caballus, Linaeus, 1758). Przewalski’s horses are considered to only living ancestor of domestic horses, logically they have similar biology and reproduction. Despite different numbers of chromosome they could have fertile offspring. Reproductive differences are mainly in length of reproduction indicators. For example Przewalsky’s horses ar...

  9. Plant reproduction in spaceflight environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Kuang, A.; Porterfield, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Because plant reproduction is a complex developmental process there are many possible sites of perturbation by the unusual environments of orbital spacecraft. Previous long-duration experiments on Soviet platforms shared features of slowed development through the vegetative stage of plant growth and aborted reproductive function. Our goal has been to understand how special features of the spaceflight environment impact physiological function and reproductive development. In a series of short-duration experiments in the Shuttle mid-deck we studied early reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen and ovule development aborted at an early stage in the first experiment on STS-54 which utilized closed plant growth chambers. Post-flight analysis suggested that the plants may have been carbon dioxide limited. Subsequent experiments utilized carbon dioxide enrichment (on STS-51) and cabin air flow-through with an air exchange system (on STS-68). Both modifications allowed pollen and ovule development to occur normally on orbit, and full reproductive development up to the stage of an immature seed occurred on STS-68. However, analysis of plant roots from these experiments demonstrated a limitation in rootzone aeration in the spaceflight material that was not mitigated by these procedures. In the future, additional resources (crew time, upgraded flight hardware, and special platforms) will invite more elaborate, long-duration experimentation. On the ISS, a variable speed centrifuge and upgraded plant habitats will permit detailed experiments on the role of gravity in shaping the plant micro-environment, and what influence this plays during reproduction.

  10. Triennial Reproduction Symposium: challenges and opportunities facing livestock reproduction in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2009 Triennial Reproduction Symposium was held immediately before the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science, American Dairy Science Association, and Canadian Society of Animal Science in Montreal, Canada, in July 2009. The intent of the symposium was to identify major ch...

  11. Naturally occurring and melengestrol acetate-associated reproductive tract lesions in zoo canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, A; Munson, L; Gardner, I A

    2009-11-01

    As husbandry practices have improved, safe and effective contraception for captive wildlife management has become a necessity. Melengestrol acetate (MGA), a synthetic progestin, is highly effective and has been used in many zoo species. Long-term use of MGA has been associated with uterine lesions in zoo felids, but effects in zoo canids have not been evaluated. This retrospective study documented spontaneously occurring lesions and investigated the impact of MGA on the reproductive health of zoo canids. Reproductive tracts from adult females were submitted by US zoos to the Association of Zoos & Aquariums' Wildlife Contraception Center Health Surveillance Program. Reproductive tracts were sampled and processed for histopathologic examination following standard protocols. Microscopic evaluations were performed without prior knowledge of MGA treatment status. Prevalence of uterine lesions was evaluated and compared between MGA-treated animals (n = 20) and control (untreated) animals (n = 61). Common lesions within the study population as a whole included endometrial hyperplasia (predominantly cystic) (53%), hydrometra (33%), and adenomyosis (25%). Treatment with MGA was a risk factor for endometrial hyperplasia, hydrometra, fibrosis, and adenomyosis. Uterine mineralization occurred exclusively in MGA-treated animals. Results indicate that MGA contraception can lead to lesions that may permanently impair the fertility of females. Therefore, if long-term contraception of zoo canids is necessary, the use of alternate methods of reproductive control such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs or GnRH vaccines that reduce gonadal hormone exposure should be pursued.

  12. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  13. Mechanisms linking energy balance and reproduction: impact of prenatal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinehart, Erin M

    2016-01-01

    The burgeoning field of metabolic reproduction regulation has been gaining momentum due to highly frequent discoveries of new neuroendocrine factors regulating both energy balance and reproduction. Universally throughout the animal kingdom, energy deficits inhibit the reproductive axis, which demonstrates that reproduction is acutely sensitive to fuel availability. Entrainment of reproductive efforts with energy availability is especially critical for females because they expend large amounts of energy on gestation and lactation. Research has identified an assortment of both central and peripheral factors involved in the metabolic regulation of reproduction. From an evolutionary perspective, these mechanisms likely evolved to optimize reproductive fitness in an environment with an unpredictable food supply and regular bouts of famine. To be effective, however, the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic regulation of reproduction must also retain developmental plasticity to allow organisms to adapt their reproductive strategies to their particular niche. In particular, the prenatal environment has emerged as a critical developmental window for programming the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic control of reproduction. This review will discuss the current knowledge about hormonal and molecular mechanisms that entrain reproduction with prevailing energy availability. In addition, it will provide an evolutionary, human life-history framework to assist in the interpretation of findings on gestational programming of the female reproductive function, with a focus on pubertal timing as an example. Future research should aim to shed light on mechanisms underlying the prenatal modulation of the adaptation to an environment with unstable resources in a way that optimizes reproductive fitness.

  14. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.; Al-Juburi, A.Z.; Gandy, J.; Malek, A. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation or ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the newsletter highlights coordinated research programs in animal diseases including ELISA and RIA techniques in reproductive studies. Announcement of staff changes and forthcoming events are also covered

  16. Culturing Students' Practical Innovation Ability by Constructing the Opening Experiment Teaching Platform of Animal Reproduction%构建《动物繁殖学》开放式实验教学平台培养学生实践创新能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓霞

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to further improve the experimental teaching quality of Animal Reproduction,mobilize the initiative and creativity of students,enhance the experimental operation skills of students and cultivate high-quality innovative talent.Based on experimental teaching practice and available experimental teaching resources,the necessity,existing problems and suggestions of constructing the opening experimental teaching platform of Animal Reproduction were discussed.%为进一步提高《动物繁殖学》实验教学质量,充分调动学生的主动性和创新性,提高学生的实验操作技能,培养应用型高素质创新人才,结合多年的实验教学经验和现有实验教学资源,阐述了构建《动物繁殖学》开放式实验教学平台的必要性、存在的问题及建议。

  17. 我国五十年来海洋动物发育与 繁殖生物学的研究进展%Advanced in the Developmental and Reproductive Biology of Marine Animal during the Past 50 Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements in developmental and reproductive biology of marine economic animals since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. The first achievements are the studies of embryo nic development of amphioxus by professor Tong Dizhou (the famous experimental e mbryologist in China) and his collaborat ors in the 1950's to 1990's. The second ones are the studies on the development, habits and characteristics of shipworm s, as well as reproduction in advance and raising seedlings indoor by professor Wu Shangqin (the famous embryologist of marine animal in China) and her collabor ators at the end of 1950's to the beginning of the 1960's. In the 1960's, Zhao F azhen (academician of Academy of Sciences in China) and his collaborators resear ched larval development and artificial seedling of Penaeus chinensis. In fis h, the main studies were focused on embryonic development, ultrastructure of spe rm in a variety of fish. In crustacea, the main researches were centralized in l ife history, reproductive habits and characteristics, genesis of germ cells and impregnation biology in economic prawn, crab and atemia. The life history, devel opmentl of gonad, genesis and ultrastructure of germ cells were studied of some economic seashells.%我国在海洋动物发育与繁殖生 物学方面的研究是随着国民经济的迅速发展而起步的,并且在某些方面已取得了举世瞩目的 成就。作者着重对我国近50年来,海洋经济动物的发育和繁殖生物学研究作一综述。

  18. CONCENTRATION OF CIRCULATING IMMUNE COMPLEXES IN EXPERIMENTAL GENERALIZED INFLAMMATORY PROCESS IN ANIMALS OF DIFFERENT AGE UNDER ACTION OF IMMUNOMODULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko T.I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Under physiological conditions a formation and a presence of the CEC in liquids is one of the manifestations of the immune response to receipt of antigens and an important factor, which provides immunity. Circulating immune complexes act as agents involved in the regulation of immune response and maintaining communication between the immune system and other regulatory systems of the body and direction to his defense. The intensity of the formation of the CEC may vary under the influence of infectious antigens and immune preparations. Material and methods. Material for the experiment were white male rats 3 months of age ("young" weighing 100 -140gr. (n = 40 and 22-month ("old" weighing 200 -240 g. (n = 40. And the first (n=10 and second (n=10 groups of rats served as controls. Third (n=15 and fourth (n=15 group of animals was injected intraperitoneal daily agar culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa № 27835 ATCC (injected with 1.5 ml suspension of bacteria, which contained 109 CFU/ml. Fifth (n=15 and sixth (n=15 groups of animals were injected intraperitoneally daily agar culture of Escherichia coli number 25592, ATCC (injected with 1.5 ml of bacteria suspension which contain 109 CFU/ml. Control animals were taken from the experiment by decapitation 3rd day – n=20. Control and infected animals were taken from the experiment by decapitation at 3rd day - n=27, 5th day – n=27 and 7th day – n=26. In the second phase of the experiment Ia (n = 6 and IIa (n = 6 were the control group of rats following administration of the experimental composite preparation consisting amino acids, nucleotides, enzymes, vitamins (MF. In two age groups of animals with inflammation induced by E. coli suspension treated with MF 20 mсl 3- month rats (IIIa group n = 6 and 40 mсl 22-month rats (IVa group n = 6. Ib (n = 6 and IIb (n = 6 were the control group of rats after the injection of comparison, containing mannitol and natural antioxidant betakaroten (PO. In two age

  19. Functions of VEGF in female reproductive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As a homodimeric glycoprotein, vascular en- dothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific mitogen of vascular endothelial cells. It can induce proliferation and migration, and inhibit apoptosis of endothelial cell. VEGF is involved in many processes in the female reproductive system, such as ovulation, periodical changes of endometrium, embryo implantation and development. VEGF plays important roles in some reproductive diseases, including preeclampsia and fetal hypoevolutism in uterus. Based on our studies on angiogenesis and its relevant factors in the female reproductive system these years, the functions of VEGF in female reproductive system are reviewed, and the research prospect and application of VEGF are also discussed.

  20. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  1. Improving artificial breeding of cattle and buffalo in Asia. Guidelines and recommendations. A manual prepared under the framework of an IAEA Technical Cooperation Regional RCA Project on 'Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency', with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific Region (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency. The dual objectives of this project are (a) strengthening and extending the field applications of Urea Molasses Multinutrient Blocks (UMMB) and other feed supplementation strategies, and (b) monitoring and improving the reproductive management and fertility of smallholder dairy cattle subjected to Artificial Insemination (AI). The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of progesterone in milk and use of the computer database AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) play important roles in the success of the latter objective. The first meeting to plan project activities was held in January 1999 in Yangon, Myanmar and the second meeting to review progress and develop further work plans was held in February 2000 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The latter meeting concluded that the procedures currently used by different Asian countries for evaluation of breeding bulls should be standardized and unified protocols developed for ensuring quality control of semen during processing, storage and field use. It was recommended that this should be accomplished through a regional workshop of national consultants. A workshop of national consultants from 10 RCA Member States was therefore held in April 2002 in Faisalabad, Pakistan, to consider and discuss the following aspects and arrive at a consensus on the best procedures and practices to be adopted to suit conditions and needs in developing countries of Asia: - Selection, management and health control of AI bulls; - Semen technologies from collection through processing to storage; - Delivery and follow-up of field AI services to farmers The IAEA has also supported a similar project in

  2. Animal Models for imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Barbara Y.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models can be used in the study of disease. This chapter discusses imaging animal models to elucidate the process of human disease. The mouse is used as the primary model. Though this choice simplifies many research choices, it necessitates compromises for in vivo imaging. In the future, we can expect improvements in both animal models and imaging techniques.

  3. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    as models for the premature infants in research experiments within neonatology. While the comparison is unusual, the article argues that there are parallels across the decision-making processes that shape the lives and deaths of infants and pigs alike. Collectivities or the lack thereof as well......This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve...

  4. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  5. Reproductive Technology in the Context of Reproductive Teleology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Neil J.; Hampton, Simon Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that in the ordinary course of events, most parents routinely practice "reproductive teleology" in that they attempt to manipulate the physical and psychological characteristics of children, and they do so as part of the process of good parenting. Furthermore, such attempts are socially approved of and encouraged. With these…

  6. Geography and Dynamics of the Industries Processing Raw Materials of Animal Origin in the Villages of Kharkiv Region during the NEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lapchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background research related to the lack of researches in the given topic historiography. Territorial boundaries cover a large region — Kharkiv region, which until 1925 largely coincide with the boundaries of Kharkov province. And in 1925, it was divided into several provinces — Kharkov, Sumy, Kupiansk, Izyumskogo, Romney. The chronological boundaries article dated from 1921–1929’s, during which was implemented new economic polityka.Osnovnu attention paid to the article features geographically-sectoral design small-scale production of animal products in the region in 20 years of the twentieth century. On the basis of the detected and studied complex of sources the author analyzes the source base peasant industries in Kharkiv in this period. Found total number of farmers who were engaged in crafts processing animal products. Also revealed the specific industry Kharkov peasantry during nepu. Isnuvav number of factors that pushed the peasant engage in crafts: surplus agricultural products and raw materials; meet a wide range of numerous industrial, domestic and cultural needs; urgent need to replenish the family budget; surplus labor; free time from agricultural work (especially in winter and others. The development of rural industries processing animal products in the years 1921–1929 in the Kharkiv region characterized by strength and diversity. Village artisans representing an original way of small private commodity production. Basically crafts processing animal products involved in two socio-professional groups: lone artisan and peasant host of crafts. The social basis of industrial employment accounted malozemelni without sowing without Traction economy, which crafts were an important source of household income. The attention is focused on characteristic features of the state policy on «small business » peasants. Attention is paid to co-operation and effects of these industries on the further development rozvytok. Kooperatyvna form

  7. Reproductive immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2013-01-01

    pathological pregnancy are suggested to predispose to adaptive immunological processes against alloantigens on the trophoblast that may further increase the risk of pathological pregnancy outcome. The best documented adaptive immune reaction against fetal alloantigens is directed against male-specific minor...

  8. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...

  9. Reproductive Disorders in Cattle due to Nutritional Status

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Rajani; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu

    2008-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview on nutrition and incidences of reproductive problems in cattle. Overfeeding and underfeeding are equally detrimental to normal reproductive function. The exact mechanism of nutrition on reproduction is still not clear, but it is clear that the primary target area for sensing and reacting to nutritional status is the hypothalamus. Nutrition or perhaps more specifically certain food nutrients can influence the hormonal status of animals at several levels. G...

  10. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''51Cr, 32P and 35S) and stable (15N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  11. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies.

  12. [Reproductive toxicity of lindane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Nicole; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Bouvet, Suzanne; Goudey-Perrière, Françoise

    2002-01-01

    The present paper bears on the main effects of lindane (gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane) on endocrine and reproductive functions in mammals. This pesticide, once widely used to kill lice and a variety of pests that attack agricultural products, livestock and trees, has been progressively eliminated from many applications since the mid-1970s in Europe or USA, but is still used in the rest of the world. Lindane is absorbed through respiratory, digestive or cutaneous routes and accumulates in fat tissues. It damages human liver, kidney, neural and immune systems and induces birth defects, cancer and death. Chronic administration results in endocrine disruption in birds as well as in mammals. Treatment with 1-40 mg of lindane/kg b.w. disrupts testicular morphology, decreases spermatogenesis, inhibits testicular steroidogenesis, reduces plasma androgen concentrations and may adversely affect reproductive performances in males. In females, lindane disrupts the estrous cycle, reduces serum estrogen and progesterone levels, decreases sexual receptivity whereas in pregnant dams it decreases whelping rate and litter size. These effects were also observed in some rats exposed to residual environmental doses. In addition, there is concern that irreversible effects may be induced when animals are exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critically susceptible phases of sexual differentiation or development. These effects would results from (i) alterations of gonade or gamete cell membranes (ii) cell metabolism changes including alterations of ionic exchanges (mainly calcium or potassium), direct or free radical-mediated inhibition of steroidogenesis (iii) or neuroendocrine changes leading to a decrease in sexual performance of either parents or their offsprings exposed in utero or through lactation. PMID:12645304

  13. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  14. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  15. Neuroleptic drugs revert the contextual fear conditioning deficit presented by spontaneously hypertensive rats: a potential animal model of emotional context processing in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Medrano, Wladimir Agostini; Levin, Raquel; Kameda, Sonia Regina; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Silva, Regina Helena; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek

    2009-07-01

    Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present abnormalities in emotion processing. A previous study showed that the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a putative animal model of ADHD, present reduced contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The aim of the present study was to characterize the deficit in CFC presented by SHR. Adult male normotensive Wistar rats and SHR were submitted to the CFC task. Sensitivity of the animals to the shock and the CFC performance after repeated exposure to the task were investigated. Pharmacological characterization consisted in the evaluation of the effects of the following drugs administered previously to the acquisition of the CFC: pentylenetetrazole (anxiogenic) and chlordiazepoxide (anxiolytic); methylphenidate and amphetamine (used for ADHD); lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and valproic acid (mood stabilizers); haloperidol, ziprasidone, risperidone, amisulpride, and clozapine (neuroleptic drugs); metoclopramide and SCH 23390 (dopamine antagonists without antipsychotic properties); and ketamine (a psychotomimmetic). The effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (that worsens psychotic symptoms) and the performance in a latent inhibition protocol (an animal model of schizophrenia) were also verified. No differences in the sensitivity to the shock were observed. The repeated exposure to the CFC task did not modify the deficit in CFC presented by SHR. Considering pharmacological treatments, only the neuroleptic drugs reversed this deficit. This deficit was potentiated by proschizophrenia manipulations. Finally, a deficit in latent inhibition was also presented by SHR. These findings suggest that the deficit in CFC presented by SHR could be a useful animal model to study abnormalities in emotional context processing related to schizophrenia. PMID:18281713

  16. Reproduction and genetic diversity of the swamp buffalo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yindee, M.

    2010-01-01

    The water buffalo is one of the most important domestic animals in Southeast Asia including Thailand. As the Thai swamp buffalo population declined during the last two decades, the swamp buffalo reproductive performance needs to be improved. Lack of knowledge on swamp buffalo reproduction, improper

  17. Lateralization of brain processing in animal/plant categorization task%动植物分类任务中的左侧半球优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培培; 陈昭燃

    2012-01-01

    Objective Categorizing external stimuli in cognitive processing is a basic principle in the brain mechanism. Numerous studies have suggested different brain mechanisms in processing natural vs. Artificial objects. However, few studies have explored the difference in brain mechanism in processing animals and plants, although they play different roles in human evolution. To examine the difference in their processing mechanisms, we employed neuropsychological approach to compare the speed of judgment on nouns belonging to animals or plants. We also examined the relationship between functional lateralization of the brain and the difference in processing animals and plants. Methods Twenty-five right-handed participants (healthy college female subjects, 20 -25 years old) were asked to categorize 120 single-character nouns belong to either animals or plants. The subjects were instructed to respond with speech in one session, and response with button presses in the other two. In the first button-press session, left hand corresponded to animals, and right hand corresponded to plants. The correspondence was switched in the last session. Results In the speech-response session, the reaction time (RT) in responding to animals was significantly shorter than that to plants (t = -3.77, P < 0.001). In the button-press sessions, a significantly faster RT for animals than plants (t = -3. 98,P <0. 001) was observed with the right-hand response. Conclusion Our study provided primary but initial evidence showing the brain mechanisms in processing animals and plants are different. Relationships between the functional lateralization of the brain and the processing mechanisms for animals and plants were also observed.%目的 利用神经心理学方法比较人类对动植物类别的加工速度与大脑功能偏侧化的关系.方法 要求25名右利手被试分别用声音反应和按键反应方式判别刺激属于动物或植物.在按键反应任务中,按左手-动物,右手-植

  18. Definition of key parameters for constructing an online reference micrographs collection of processed animal particles in feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinchon Crespo, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Reference Laboratory for the detection of animal proteins in feedingstuffs (EURL-AP has developed an online micrographs collection supporting its network activities within the European Union for the detection of prohibited animal by-products in feed. So far, the only official method for detecting these by-products is light microscopy, which is highly dependent on the skills of a microscopist because it relies on particle recognition. In order to help the microscopist network to achieve high proficiency levels, it was necessary to create an online reference tool based on micrographs and accessible via an Intranet platform. Members of the National Reference Laboratories for animal proteins in feedingstuffs (NRL-AP and the International Association for Feedingstuff Analysis – Section Feedingstuff Microscopy (IAG have access to this micrographs collection. This paper describes how the online collection was created and what conditions had to be taken into account in creating such a tool. It also describes how information are periodically updated and managed within the context of the large amount of information included in each micrograph. The need for a robust back-office system as the foundation for all the research activities in this project is also covered, and the evaluation of the use of the online collection is discussed.

  19. Gender and social reproduction: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, B; Brenner, J

    1989-01-01

    It is argued that gender relations and social reproduction were both shaped by macrohistorical processes and shaped the processes. Social reproduction is defined within feminist theory as more than production in the Marxist sense. Societal reproduction is a combination of the organization of production, the organization of social reproduction, the perpetuation of gender, and the continuation of class relations. Social reproduction includes the care and socialization of children and care of the elderly or infirm. Social reproduction includes the organization of sexuality, biological reproduction, and how food, clothing, and shelter are made available. Most social reproduction occurs within the family unit. It is pointed out that variations in the distribution of the work of social reproduction are affected by the family, market, community, and state. The ways in which women construct their own worlds of activity is a central concern. The feminist concept of social reproduction differs from modernization theory, which is concerned with the institutional location of the tasks of social reproduction and the structural effects on the family and gender relations. This literature review focuses only on the history of family strategies and separate gender-related activities. The authors describe the changes in family organization that define men as income producers and women as caretakers, who base child rearing on love and feminine virtue rather than patriarchal authority and religious doctrine. The discussion focuses on the differences in marital relationships, motherhood, and sexuality between upper and middle class and working class women in the 19th century. Among working class women, a good wife was an efficient manager, a skilled domestic worker, and an income earner. The turn of the century was a period of social change marked by smaller average family size, the decline of household production, the rise in real wages, and increased consumption. It is argued that

  20. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  1. Neuropeptidomics applied to studies of mammalian reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thao T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptidomics, a mass spectrometry-based technique which aims to uncover the complete suite of neuropeptides present in a tissue, organ or cell from the brain or nervous system, has found application in studies examining physiological responses (e.g. food intake, appetite and reproduction. Neuropeptides (and peptide hormones have long been known as regulators of mammalian physiological processes, particularly reproduction. These peptides are derived from precursor proteins and become active via proteolytic processes and post-translational modifications. A relatively large number of neuropeptides, mainly formed in the hypothalamus or the anterior pituitary of mammals, have been specifically associated with reproduction, including GnRH, NPY, PYY and kisspeptin. Here, we will present an overview of neuropeptides, their roles in reproduction and the application of neuropeptidomics in this field. We address the advantages of neuropeptidomics in reproductive studies including the high throughput identification, profiling and quantification of neuropeptides present in reproductive tissues and also discuss some of the challenges. The application of neuropeptidomics to the field of reproduction will provide the foundation for a greater understanding of how neuropeptides act to regulate reproductive function.

  2. Near-infrared microscopic methods for the detection and quantification of processed by-products of animal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, O.; Fernández Pierna, J. A.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.

    2010-04-01

    Since the BSE crisis, researches concern mainly the detection, identification, and quantification of meat and bone meal with an important focus on the development of new analytical methods. Microscopic based spectroscopy methods (NIR microscopy - NIRM or/and NIR hyperspectral imaging) have been proposed as complementary methods to the official method; the optical microscopy. NIR spectroscopy offers the advantage of being rapid, accurate and independent of human analyst skills. The combination of an NIR detector and a microscope or a camera allows the collection of high quality spectra for small feed particles having a size larger than 50 μm. Several studies undertaken have demonstrated the clear potential of NIR microscopic methods for the detection of animal particles in both raw and sediment fractions. Samples are sieved and only the gross fraction (superior than 250 μm) is investigated. Proposed methodologies have been developed to assure, with an acceptable level of confidence (95%), the detection of at least one animal particle when a feed sample is adulterated at a level of 0.1%. NIRM and NIR hyperspectral imaging are running under accreditation ISO 17025 since 2005 at CRA-W. A quantitative NIRM approach has been developed in order to fulfill the new requirements of the European commission policies. The capacities of NIRM method have been improved; only the raw fraction is analyzed, both the gross and the fine fractions of the samples are considered, and the acquisition parameters are optimized (the aperture, the gap, and the composition of the animal feed). A mapping method for a faster collection of spectra is also developed. The aim of this work is to show the new advances in the analytical methods developed in the frame of the feed ban applied in Europe.

  3. Reproductive cessation and post-reproductive lifespan in Asian elephants and pre-industrial humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    decline in fertility generally parallels declines in survivorship in contrast to humans with a decoupling of senescence in somatic and reproductive functions. Conclusions Our results show that the reproductive and survival patterns of Asian elephants differ from other long-lived animals exhibiting menopause, such as humans, and extreme longevity alone does not promote the evolution of menopause or post-reproductive lifespan, adding weight to the unusual kin-selected benefits suggested to favour such traits in humans and killer whales. PMID:25183990

  4. Animal Intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  5. Using a Delphi consensus process to develop an acupuncture treatment protocol by consensus for women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Caroline A; Grant Suzanne; Lyttleton Jane; Cochrane Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are increasingly utilised for resolving difficulties conceiving. These technologies are expensive to both the public purse and the individual consumers. Acupuncture is widely used as an adjunct to ART with indications that it may assist reducing the time to conception and increasing live birth rates. Heterogeneity is high between treatment protocols. The aim of this study was to examine what fertility acupuncturists consider key com...

  6. Investigation on reproduction process in two species of crab Eriphia sebana and Ocypode saratan in the intertidal zone of Chabahar area

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemiyan, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    The present study with headline investigation on reproduction in two species of crab Eriphia sebana and Ocypode saratan was carried out in the intertidal zone of Chabahar in thirteen month from December 2004 to December 2005. Checked samplings have been taken, 45 number Crab monthly from any four stations by manual or use trap. During this study the following subjects were measured: temperature range and salinity, measurable coast granule, determination of sex ratio, relations carapace width ...

  7. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  8. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  9. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  10. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  11. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  12. Effects of Ketamine on Context-Processing Performance in Monkeys: A New Animal Model of Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Rachael K.; MacDonald, Angus W; Chafee, Matthew V

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are at the crux of why many schizophrenia patients have poor functional outcomes. One of the cognitive symptoms experienced by schizophrenia patients is a deficit in context processing, the ability to use contextual information stored in working memory to adaptively respond to subsequent stimuli. As such, context processing can be thought of as the intersection between working memory and executive control. Although deficits in context processing have been extensively charac...

  13. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  14. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  15. Gestational exposure to atrazine has little effect on female reproductive parameters in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine (ATR), a commonly used herbicide, has been shown to exert reproductive effects in animals; however, most ofthese studies have focused on adult exposure. In contrast, there is limited information available on the reproductive and developmental effects of gestational expos...

  16. Effects of sexual reproduction of the inferior competitor Brachionus calyciflorus on its fitness against Brachionus angularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Niu, Cuijuan

    2015-03-01

    Sexual reproduction adversely affects the population growth of cyclic parthenogenetic animals. The density-dependent sexual reproduction of a superior competitor could mediate the coexistence. However, the cost of sex may make the inferior competitor more vulnerable. To investigate the effect of sexual reproduction on the inferior competitor, we experimentally paired the competition of one Brachionus angularis clone against three Brachionus calyciflorus clones. One of the B. calyciflorus clones showed a low propensity for sexual reproduction, while the other two showed high propensities. The results show that all B. calyciflorus clones were excluded in the competition for resources at low food level. The increased food level promoted the competition persistence, but the clones did not show a clear pattern. Both the cumulative population density and resting egg production increased with the food level. The cumulative population density decreased with the mixis investment, while the resting egg production increased with the mixis investment. A trade-off between the population growth and sexual reproduction was observed in this research. The results indicate that although higher mixis investment resulted in a lower population density, it would not determinately accelerate the exclusion process of the inferior competitor. On the contrary, higher mixis investment promoted resting egg production before being excluded and thus promised a long-term benefit. In conclusion, our results suggest that mixis investment, to some extent, favored the excluded inferior competitor under fierce competition or some other adverse conditions.

  17. Subclinical Endometritis Diagnosed through Cytobrush and Reproductive Performance in Cattle from the Municipality of Pupiales, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Antonio Vallejo Timarán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the distribution of subclinical endometritis and the reproductive behavior of dairy cattle diagnosed through endometrial cytology from the Municipality of Pupiales, Nariño. Materials and methods: A reproductive assessment was carried out (rectal palpation, ultrasonography and evaluation of vaginal mucus to determine the absence of early gestation and of clinical signs of uterine infection, and 174 cows were sampled through cervical catheterization and the technique of Cytobrush starting 30 days after birth. Consequently, the population under study was organized based on ovarian function (empty cycling normal or anestrous and the status of the uterus (with or without endometritis. Results: 43 cows (24.7% showed cellular changes indicative of an active inflammatory process originated in the endometrium. 79.06% of the animals diagnosed with subclinical endometritis were cyclic and had low reproductive performance. Conclusion: The high impact of subclinical endometritis in fertility and reproductive efficiency was determined. An early reproductive assessment must be performed, together with tests that make it possible to determine the presence of concomitant subclinical conditions.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the newsletter briefs on forthcoming events and on-going activities of the Joint Division. Active Co-ordinated Research Programmes, training workshops, expert meetings in the fields of animal feed supplementation, animal productivity and reproductive efficiency, and diagnostic methodologies in disease control are highlighted

  19. Incorporation of genetic technologies associated with applied reproductive technologies to enhance world food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science. Artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. Multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MO...

  20. Inoculation experimental animals with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains: an attempt to reestablish the dimorphic process and variation in pathogenicity as a function of time of preservation under mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes da Silva, A M; Borba, C M; de Oliveira, P C

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to reestablish the dimorphic process in strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the transition phase (Y reversible M) and to reisolate them, five strains in the transitional phase due to the long time of preservation under mineral oil and two strains in the yeast-like phase were inoculated into male albino rats. The animals were then studied for the presence of paracoccidioidomycotic granulomata. Of the seven strains inoculated, five caused granulomatous nodules in several organs of the animals and only two of these five strains, which had been preserved for the shortest period of time (9 years) were reisolated in culture. Two strains were unable to provoke infection, with no lesions detected in any organ. It is assumed that the long period of time during which the strains were left under oil favored the alteration of celt wall contents, leading to differences in pathogenicity.

  1. Cell biology solves mysteries of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovsky, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Reproduction and fertility have been objects of keen inquiry since the dawn of humanity. Medieval anatomists provided the first accurate depictions of the female reproductive system, and early microscopists were fascinated by the magnified sight of sperm cells. Initial successes were achieved in the in vitro fertilization of frogs and the artificial insemination of dogs. Gamete and embryo research was in the cradle of modern cell biology, providing the first evidence of the multi-cellular composition of living beings and pointing out the importance of chromosomes for heredity. In the 20th century, reproductive research paved the way for the study of the cytoskeleton, cell signaling, and the cell cycle. In the last three decades, the advent of reproductive cell biology has brought us human in vitro fertilization, animal cloning, and human and animal embryonic stem cells. It has contributed to the development of transgenesis, proteomics, genomics, and epigenetics. This Special Issue represents a sample of the various areas of reproductive biology, with emphasis on molecular and cell biological aspects. Advances in spermatology, ovarian function, fertilization, and maternal-fetal interactions are discussed within the framework of fertility and diseases such as endometriosis and diabetes.

  2. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  3. Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Kaleva, Marko M;

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis.......Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis....

  4. Use of glucose consumption rate (GCR) as a tool to monitor and control animal cell production processes in packed-bed bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwly, F; Papp, F; Ruffieux, P-A; Bernard, A R; Kadouri, A; von Stockar, U

    2006-03-01

    For animal cell cultures growing in packed-bed bioreactors where cell number cannot be determined directly, there is a clear need to use indirect methods that are not based on cell counts in order to monitor and control the process. One option is to use the glucose consumption rate (GCR) of the culture as an indirect measure to monitor the process in bioreactors. This study was done on a packed-bed bioreactor process using recombinant CHO cells cultured on Fibra-Cel disk carriers in perfusion mode at high cell densities. A key step in the process is the switch of the process from the cell growth phase to the production phase triggered by a reduction of the temperature. In this system, we have used a GCR value of 300 g of glucose per kilogram of disks per day as a criterion for the switch. This paper will present results obtained in routine operations for the monitoring and control of an industrial process at pilot-scale. The process operated with this GCR-based strategy yielded consistent, reproducible process performance across numerous bioreactor runs performed on multiple production sites. PMID:16153735

  5. Multiple reproductive strategies in a tropical hover wasp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, D.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Turillazzi, S.

    2005-01-01

    occurs in some of the nests. Present reproductive skew theory appears to be at best partly sufficient to account for the observed complexity of social organisation. The observed patterns of colony composition and reproductive sharing are weakly consistent with the hypothesis of reproductive transactions......Reproductive skew theory has been an important component of efforts to design a unifying theory of social evolution, as it aims to explain patterns of reproductive partitioning in animal societies as a function of relatedness, group productivity, fighting ability and ecological constraints on...... sample of colonies of the Stenogastrine wasp Parischnogaster mellyi with a powerful set of DNA microsatellite markers. We show that various apparently stable forms of social organisation co-exist in a single population, and that sharing of reproduction between related and unrelated egg-laying females...

  6. Analysis of Animal Metaphorical Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晴川

    2016-01-01

    Animal metaphor, as a kind of metaphor, refers to a cognitive process in which some aspects of human beings are understood or experienced through the aspects of animals. The meanings of animal metaphor are based on people's experience, cultural background, custom and the ways of thinking. Animal metaphorical expression is an important part of human's language expressions and communication.

  7. Assessment of auditory sensory processing in a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia-Gating of auditory-evoked potentials and prepulse inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Oranje, Bob; Yding, Birte;

    2010-01-01

    of sensory information processing seen in schizophrenia patients, can be assessed by highly homologues methods in both humans and rodents, evident by the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle response and the P50 (termed P1 here) suppression paradigms. Treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist...... findings confirm measures of early information processing to show high resemblance between rodents and humans, and indicate that early postnatal PCP-treated rats show deficits in pre-attentional processing, which are distinct from those observed in schizophrenia patients.......The use of translational approaches to validate animal models is needed for the development of treatments that can effectively alleviate cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia, which are unsuccessfully treated by the current available therapies. Deficits in pre-attentive stages...

  8. Suppressing subordinate reproduction provides benefits to dominants in cooperative societies of meerkats

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, M. B. V.; Cant, M A; Borgeaud, C.; Thavarajah, N.; Samson, J.; Clutton-Brock, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    In many animal societies, a small proportion of dominant females monopolize reproduction by actively suppressing subordinates. Theory assumes that this is because subordinate reproduction depresses the fitness of dominants, yet the effect of subordinate reproduction on dominant behaviour and reproductive success has never been directly assessed. Here, we describe the consequences of experimentally preventing subordinate breeding in 12 groups of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) for three bre...

  9. Stress hormones link food availability and population processes in seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Catastrophic population declines in marine top predators in the northern Pacific have been hypothesized to result from nutritional stress affecting reproduction and survival of individuals. However, empirical evidence for food-related stress in wild animals is frequently lacking or inconclusive. We used a field endocrinology approach to measure stress, identify its causes, and examine a link between stress and population processes in the common murre Uria aalge. We tested the empirical relationship between variations in the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) and food abundance, reproduction, and persistence of individuals at declining and increasing colonies in Cook Inlet, Alaska, from 1996 to 2001. We found that CORT secretion in murres is independent of colony, reproductive stage effects, and gender of individuals, but is directly negatively correlated with abundance of their food. Baseline CORT reflected current food abundance, whereas acute stress-induced CORT reflected food abundance in the previous month. As food supply diminished, increased CORT secretion predicted a decrease in reproductive performance. At a declining colony, increased baseline levels of CORT during reproduction predicted disappearance of individuals from the population. Persistence of individuals in a growing colony was independent of CORT during reproduction. The obtained results support the hypothesis that nutritional stress during reproduction affects reproduction and survival in seabirds. This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for CORT secretion as a mechanistic link between fluctuations in food abundance and population processes in seabirds. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  10. Reversible paired helical filament-like phosphorylation of tau is an adaptive process associated with neuronal plasticity in hibernating animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendt, T; Stieler, J; Strijkstra, AM; Hut, RA; Rudiger, J; Van der Zee, EA; Harkany, T; Holzer, M; Hartig, W; Härtig, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Neurofibrillary pathology [ paired helical filaments (PHFs)] formed by the microtubule-associated protein tau in a hyperphosphorylated form is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. The process of tau phosphorylation, thought to be of critical importance for PHF formation, an

  11. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vested

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.

  12. Shift work and circadian dysregulation of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Gamble

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Health impairments, including reproductive issues, are associated with working nights or rotating shifts. For example, shift work has been associated with an increased risk of irregular menstrual cycles, endometriosis, infertility, miscarriage, low birth weight or pre-term delivery, and reduced incidence of breastfeeding. Based on what is known about circadian regulation of endocrine rhythms in rodents (and much less in humans, the circadian clock is an integral regulatory part of the reproductive system. When this 24-h program is disordered by environmental perturbation (such as shift work or genetic alterations, the endocrine system can be impaired. The purpose of this review is to explore the hypothesis that misalignment of reproductive hormones with the environmental light-dark cycle and/or sleep wake rhythms can disrupt menstrual cycles, pregnancy, and parturition. We highlight the role of the circadian clock in regulating human reproductive physiology and shift work-induced pathology within each step of the reproductive axis while exploring potential mechanisms from the animal model literature. In addition to documenting the reproductive hazards of shift work, we also point out important gaps in our knowledge as critical areas for future investigation. For example, future studies should examine whether forced desynchronization disrupts gonadotropin secretion rhythms and whether there are sleep/wake schedules that are better or worse for the adaptation of the reproductive system to shift work. These studies are necessary in order to define not only whether or not shift-work induced circadian misalignment impairs reproductive capacity, but also to identify strategies for the future that can minimize this desynchronization.

  13. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  14. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  15. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind.......This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  16. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  17. Spermatogonial stem cells: Current biotechnologicaladvances in reproduction and regenerative medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the germ stemcells of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis.Through the process of spermatogenesis, they producesperm while concomitantly keeping their cellular poolconstant through self-renewal. SSC biology offersimportant applications for animal reproduction andovercoming human disease through regenerativetherapies. To this end, several techniques involvingSSCs have been developed and will be covered inthis article. SSCs convey genetic information to thenext generation, a property that can be exploited forgene targeting. Additionally, SSCs can be induced tobecome embryonic stem cell-like pluripotent cells invitro . Updates on SSC transplantation techniques withrelated applications, such as fertility restoration andpreservation of endangered species, are also covered onthis article. SSC suspensions can be transplanted to thetestis of an animal and this has given the basis for SSCfunctional assays. This procedure has proven technicallydemanding in large animals and men. In parallel, testistissue xenografting, another transplantation technique,was developed and resulted in sperm production intestis explants grafted into ectopical locations in foreignspecies. Since SSC culture holds a pivotal role in SSCbiotechnologies, current advances are overviewed.Finally, spermatogenesis in vitro , already demonstratedin mice, offers great promises to cope with reproductiveissues in the farm animal industry and human clinicalapplications.

  18. What we know about the genetics of reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

  19. Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

  20. CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of reproduction is important for seed stock production, selective breeding, growth rate, feed efficiency, meat quality, and biosecurity. These needs to control reproduction differ among cultivars and even segments of the same industry. No matter the impetus for aquaculturists to want to alte...

  1. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  2. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  3. Improving the reproductive management of smallholder dairy cattle and the effectiveness of artificial insemination: A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic development is progressing rapidly in Asia. One of the many consequences of this phenomenon is an increased demand for food arising from animal agriculture. This increased demand for animal products creates the possibility for a greater dispersion of economic resources, which to this point has been largely confined to urban areas. Thus, the opportunity for poverty alleviation in rural areas exists, but obstacles to this process must be removed. A high priority of the member states of the RCA (Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific) is thus to support research and the adoption of technologies that can help overcome these obstacles. Ironically, population expansion, although increasing demand, can have a net negative effect on livestock farming, by restricting the amount of land available for raising animals. Therefore, one major focus on increasing production of animal products must be the increase in productivity per animal and per unit of land. Improvement of nutrition is an important strategy for improving the output of livestock production and results can be obtained in the short-term. On the other hand, selective breeding is a highly effective and sustainable approach for increasing animal productivity in the long-term. Reproductive technologies such as artificial insemination (AI) allow single animals to have multiple progeny, reducing the number of parent animals required and allowing for significant increases in the intensity of selection, and proportional increases in genetic improvement of production

  4. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  5. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  6. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Staczek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  7. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  8. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  9. Physiological and biochemical changes of females of Piracanjuba, subjected to induced reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, M A; Costa, F G; de Carvalho, S; Seiva, F R F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare the level of fish female stress during induced reproduction with pituitary extract by two different methods, natural and semiextruded. The reproductive efficiency was 62.5% in the seminatural treatment and 100% in the extruded. Obtained egg volume was 5200 ml and 4000 ml, for seminatural and extruded treatments respectively. The mean number of eggs was 46.7 for the seminatural and 52.0 and for the extruded treatment. The percentage of viable eggs was, respectively, 87.2% and 8.17% for the natural treatment and extruded semimethods. Blood samples were collected to quantify cortisol and glucose levels, as well as red cell series and lymphocyte count. Fishes submitted to induction procedures showed elevated cortisol and glucose levels, compared to the control animals. The results for haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count showed no significant differences among groups. Significant differences found in the number of lymphocytes and monocytes suggest the general adaptation syndrome. Our results suggest the reproductive induction process with extrusion of gametes as a more stressful method than seminatural reproduction process. PMID:26719107

  10. Evaluation of pre-PCR processing approaches for enumeration of Salmonella enterica in naturally contaminated animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelin, Jenny; Andersson, Gunnar; Vigre, Håkan;

    2014-01-01

    Three pre‐PCR processing strategies for the detection and/or quantification of Salmonella in naturally contaminated soya bean meal were evaluated. Methods included: (i) flotation‐qPCR [enumeration of intact Salmonella cells prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR)], (ii) MPN‐PCR (modified most probable...... number method combined with qPCR) and (iii) qualitative culture enrichment PCR. The limit of quantification was 1·8 × 102 CFU g−1 (flotation‐qPCR) and 0·02 MPN g−1 (MPN‐PCR). Fifteen naturally contaminated Salmonella positive soya bean meal samples from one lot were analysed in parallel with the three...

  11. The male reproductive system and the effect of an extract of a medicinal plant (Hypericum perforatum on the labeling process of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião David Santos-Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum perforatum (hiperico is a plant that has been used to treat diseases and also inhibits rat and human vas deferens contractility. In nuclear medicine, stannous chloride (SnCl2 is used as a reducing agent to obtain radiopharmaceuticals labeling with technetium-99m. As the SnCl2 seems to have adverse effects related with the reproductive performance of male rabbits as well as the human consumption of hiperico might affect sexual function. In the present work, consistent results show significant changes on the blood constituents labeled by technetium-99m obtained from young rats under the effect of an hiperico extract as opposed to blood samples equally treated taken from elderly rat.. Supposedly, this extract could protect the male reproductive system against action of SnCl2 at least in young rats. The findings described in this work allow introducing a simple assay to evaluate the action of products that could interfere with the male reproductive system.Hypericum perforatum (hiperico tem sido utilizado para tratar diferentes distúrbios e também inibir a contractilidade do ducto deferente em ratos e em humanos. Na medicina nuclear, o cloreto estanoso (SnCl2 é usado como um agente redutor para obter radiofármacos marcados com tecnécio-99m. Como o SnCl2 parece acarretar efeitos indesejáveis relacionados com o desempenho reprodutivo de coelhos machos e o hiperico pode afetar a função sexual em humanos, o objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar resultados sobre o efeito de um extrato de hiperico na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com o tecnécio-99m retirados de ratos jovens e idosos. O hiperico parece alterar a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m isolados de sangue de animais jovens. Embora, esse resultado não seja observado em ratos idosos. Provavelmente, o extrato poderia apresentar uma ação protetora para o sistema reprodutivo contra a ação do SnCl2, pelo menos em ratos jovens. Os resultados

  12. “三维动画项目流程控制”要点综述%Discussion on "3D animation project process control"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林喆

    2014-01-01

    从实际项目制作角度出发,阐述了“三维动画创作”的要点,力图理清“三维动画创作”流程控制与管理的基本脉络。从功能划分、进度安排、渲染方案、项目分工四个方面进行了细致说明,论述其重点问题,揭示科学合理的流程控制对于三维动画创作的重要性。建议在制作中不断探索、调整,寻找最适合实际情况的创作思路。%In view of the actual project, the key points of "3D animation creation" are discussed. The process control and the basic venation of management have been expounded. Four aspects including the functional division, the arrangement of scheduling, rendering scheme and project arrangement are discussed. The core problems are introduced. The importance of a scientific and reasonable process control for the three dimensional animation creation are revealed. Incessant exploration, adjustment and searching the most suitable for the actual situation of creative mode in designing are recommended.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Postoperative Fracture Healing Process without Metal Artifact: A Preliminary Report of a Novel Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe; Guan, Yuheng; Yu, Guibo; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Early radiological diagnosis and continual monitoring are of ultimate importance for timely treatment of delayed union, nonunion, and infection after bone fracture surgery. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could provide superior detailed images compared with X-ray and computed tomography (CT) without ionizing radiation, metal implants used for fracture fixation lead to abundant artifacts on MRI and thus prohibit accurate interpretation. The authors develop a novel intramedullary fixation model of rat femoral fracture using polyetheretherketone (PEEK) threaded rods and investigate its feasibility for in vivo MRI monitoring of the fracture healing process without artifact. Methods. Femoral fractures of 3 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed with intramedullary PEEK threaded rods. X-ray and MRI examinations were performed at day 7 postoperatively. Radiological images were analyzed for the existence of artifact interruption and postoperative changes in bone and peripheral soft tissue. Results. Postoperative plain film revealed no loss of reduction. MRI images illustrated the whole length of femur and peripheral tissue without artifact interruption, and the cortical bone, implanted PEEK rod, and soft tissue were clearly illustrated. Conclusion. This preliminary study introduced a novel rat model for in vivo MRI monitoring of the fracture healing process without metal artifact, by using intramedullary fixation of femur with PEEK threaded rod. PMID:27123442

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Postoperative Fracture Healing Process without Metal Artifact: A Preliminary Report of a Novel Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early radiological diagnosis and continual monitoring are of ultimate importance for timely treatment of delayed union, nonunion, and infection after bone fracture surgery. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI could provide superior detailed images compared with X-ray and computed tomography (CT without ionizing radiation, metal implants used for fracture fixation lead to abundant artifacts on MRI and thus prohibit accurate interpretation. The authors develop a novel intramedullary fixation model of rat femoral fracture using polyetheretherketone (PEEK threaded rods and investigate its feasibility for in vivo MRI monitoring of the fracture healing process without artifact. Methods. Femoral fractures of 3 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed with intramedullary PEEK threaded rods. X-ray and MRI examinations were performed at day 7 postoperatively. Radiological images were analyzed for the existence of artifact interruption and postoperative changes in bone and peripheral soft tissue. Results. Postoperative plain film revealed no loss of reduction. MRI images illustrated the whole length of femur and peripheral tissue without artifact interruption, and the cortical bone, implanted PEEK rod, and soft tissue were clearly illustrated. Conclusion. This preliminary study introduced a novel rat model for in vivo MRI monitoring of the fracture healing process without metal artifact, by using intramedullary fixation of femur with PEEK threaded rod.

  15. Reproductive Behaviour Of Timor Deer (Rusa Timorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Sansudewa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timor deer (Rusa timorensis is a newly domesticated animal in Indonesia and other countries in the world. It is a potential source of meat and livelihood. Low birth rate is a problem of deer farming in Indonesia. It happens because of low concern for key aspects of behaviors including reproductive behavior. The aim of this review is to give information about reproductive behavior of Timor deer in natural habitat and captivity breeding. Libido and estrous behaviors of Timor deer in captivity breeding were similar with natural habitat. However, male Timor deer in captivity breeding took longer time to approach the females before mating, compared with those in their natural habitat. Aggressive behavior commonly leads mating. Parturition and maternal behavior of hinds are affected by limitation of space, therefore dividing the area of cage which depends on age and physiological status is needed to improve reproductive management.

  16. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. PMID:21958915

  17. Persistence of cortical sensory processing during absence seizures in human and an animal model: evidence from EEG and intracellular recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Chipaux

    Full Text Available Absence seizures are caused by brief periods of abnormal synchronized oscillations in the thalamocortical loops, resulting in widespread spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs in the electroencephalogram (EEG. SWDs are concomitant with a complete or partial impairment of consciousness, notably expressed by an interruption of ongoing behaviour together with a lack of conscious perception of external stimuli. It is largely considered that the paroxysmal synchronizations during the epileptic episode transiently render the thalamocortical system incapable of transmitting primary sensory information to the cortex. Here, we examined in young patients and in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS, a well-established genetic model of absence epilepsy, how sensory inputs are processed in the related cortical areas during SWDs. In epileptic patients, visual event-related potentials (ERPs were still present in the occipital EEG when the stimuli were delivered during seizures, with a significant increase in amplitude compared to interictal periods and a decrease in latency compared to that measured from non-epileptic subjects. Using simultaneous in vivo EEG and intracellular recordings from the primary somatosensory cortex of GAERS and non-epileptic rats, we found that ERPs and firing responses of related pyramidal neurons to whisker deflection were not significantly modified during SWDs. However, the intracellular subthreshold synaptic responses in somatosensory cortical neurons during seizures had larger amplitude compared to quiescent situations. These convergent findings from human patients and a rodent genetic model show the persistence of cortical responses to sensory stimulations during SWDs, indicating that the brain can still process external stimuli during absence seizures. They also demonstrate that the disruption of conscious perception during absences is not due to an obliteration of information transfer in the thalamocortical system

  18. The Climate Space Concept: Analysis of the Steady State Heat Energy Budget of Animals. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, R. D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Several modules in the thermodynamic series considered the application of the First Law to…

  19. THE TOXIC EFFECT OF 4-NONYLPHENOL ON MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lukáčová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive system influences many environmental toxicants that present the serious risk to the reproduction of human and animals, including hormone-like compounds called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. The interest about EDCs increased during the last 50 years due to their interference with the development and functioning of the endocrine system in aquatic animals. One of these toxic contaminants is nonylphenol that has the negative impact on the reproductive parameters not only on fish, but also on amphibians and mammals. Nonylphenol can decrease male fertility following a disruption of testicular development, a damage of Sertoli and Leydig cells and a reduction of a count and motility of spermatReproductive system influences many environmental toxicants that present the serious risk to the reproduction of human and animals, including hormone-like compounds called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. The interest about EDCs increased during the last 50 years due to their interference with the development and functioning of the endocrine system in aquatic animals. One of these toxic contaminants is nonylphenol that has the negative impact on the reproductive parameters not only on fish, but also on amphibians and mammals. Nonylphenol can decrease male fertility following a disruption of testicular development, a damage of Sertoli and Leydig cells and a reduction of a count and motility of spermatozoa.

  20. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division are carried out through the operation of Co-ordinated Research Programmes and Technical Co-operation projects, both of which aim to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in tropical and subtropical countries to identify and resolve problems connected with livestock development. This particular programme at the outset, it was envisaged that an inter-disciplinary approach would be adopted by each participating institute whereby studies on nutrition, reproduction and health would be integrated into a number of site specific projects. The one discussed in this newsletter covers animal production and focussing on animal reproduction and reproduction-nutrition interactions. This paper contains an outline for the program which encourages scientists from universities and research institutes to provide assistance and solutions to developing countries on the technical difficulties associated with artificial insemination

  2. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  3. The politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  4. Biological studies in animal models using [99mTc](CO)3 recombinant annexin V as diagnostic agent of apoptotic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: There are many diseases associated with variations in the expression of apoptosis such as organ rejection after transplantation, myocardial ischemia or infarct and neurodegenerative diseases. For this reason, the early visualization of this process is relevant to set fast and effective therapeutic strategies. Methods: The precursor was prepared according to the procedure reported by R. Alberto, R. Schibli, P. Schubiger, U. Abram, and T. Kaden [Reactions with the technetium and rhenium carbonyl complexes (NEt4)[MX3(CO)3]. Synthesis and structure of Tc(CN-But)3(CO)3](NO3) and (Net4)[Tc2(μ-SCH2CH2OH)3(CO)3], Polyhedron 1996;15: 1079-89]. Recombinant annexin V was incubated with [99mTc](H2O)3(CO)3+ solution, previously neutralized with buffer. Biodistribution studies were performed in 8-week-old female Wistar rats. Animals were housed and treated in compliance with institutional guidelines related to animal experimentation. Work protocol was previously approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the university. Two groups of rats were defined. One was used as control and the other group was previously injected with 150 mg/kg ip of cyclophosphamide to induce apoptosis. Results: The synthesis of carbonyl precursor achieved yields higher than 90%, and the radiolabeled protein was obtained with 92% of radiochemical purity and high stability in vitro. An important uptake in apoptotic tissues was confirmed by biodistributions, scintigraphic images and histological studies. Conclusions: Biodistribution studies revealed hepatobiliary elimination, high stability in vivo and important uptake in the reticuloendothelial system. In the pathologic model, higher uptake values correspond to the liver, spleen, lungs and femur. Histological studies confirmed the development of apoptosis at 8 and 24 h postinduction in the spleen and lymphocyte bulks in the peribronchial area. Scintigraphic images confirmed high uptake both the spleen and the lungs.

  5. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  6. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  7. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Developmental programming of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L P; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Triennial Reproduction Symposium focused on developmental programming of fertility. The topics covered during the morning session included the role of the placenta in programming of fetal growth and development, effects of feeding system and level of feeding during pregnancy on the annual production cycle and lifetime productivity of heifer offspring, effects of litter size and level of socialization postnatally on reproductive performance of pigs, effects of postnatal dietary intake on maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and onset of puberty in heifers, effects of housing systems on growth performance and reproductive efficiency of gilts, and effects of energy balance on sexual differentiation in rodent models. The morning session concluded with presentation of the American Society of Animal Science L. E. Casida Award for Excellence in Graduate Education to Dr. Michael Smith from the University of Missouri, Columbia, who shared his philosophy of graduate education. The afternoon session included talks on the role of epigenetic modifications in developmental programming and transgenerational inheritance of reproductive dysfunction, effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on fetal development and long-term physiology of the individual, and potential consequences of real-life exposure to environmental contaminants on reproductive health. The symposium concluded with a summary talk and the posing of 2 questions to the audience. From an evolutionary standpoint, programming and epigenetic events must be adaptive; when do they become maladaptive? If there are so many environmental factors that induce developmental programming, are we doomed, and if not, what is or are the solution or solutions?

  8. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  9. Animal performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  10. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  11. Membrane progesterone receptors in reproduction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Cosmes, Paulina; Vázquez-Martínez, Edgar Ricardo; Cerbón, Marco; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2016-10-15

    Progesterone is a sexual steroid hormone that has a critical role in reproductive processes in males and females of several species, including humans. Furthermore, progesterone has been associated with pathological diseases such as breast, gynecological and brain cancer, regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. In the past, progesterone actions were thought to be only mediated by its intracellular receptor (PR). However, recent evidence has demonstrated that membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) mediate most of the non-classical progesterone actions. The role of the different mPRs subtypes in progesterone effects in reproduction and cancer is an emerging and exciting research area. Here we review studies to date regarding mPRs role in reproduction and cancer and discuss their functions and clinical relevance, suggesting mPRs as putative pharmacological targets and disease markers in cancer and diseases associated with reproduction. PMID:27368976

  12. 依托工作过程的Flash动画教学主题构思%Conception of the Teaching Themes for Flash Animation Based on Working Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志兰

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of computer application industry, animation and videos bring people visual impact, and they are playing a more and more important role in daily life, therefore, the design idea and technology attract more and more attention. In view of the design of Flash two dimensional anima-tion teaching, this paper, based on working process, mainly inter-prets some ideas on the teaching of Flash two dimensional ani-mation.%  随着计算机应用行业的快速发展,动画视频给人们带来的视觉冲击效果,在日常生活中的影响越来越强大,因此,动画的设计思想和制作技术越来越受到专门行业者的高度注视。本文针对Flash二维动画课程设计,在基于工作过程的教学方面,进行了改革试水,重点阐述了Flash二维动画教学思路的几点探索。

  13. Spermatogonial stem cells: Current biotechnological advances in reproduction and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Pedro Manuel

    2015-05-26

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the germ stem cells of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis. Through the process of spermatogenesis, they produce sperm while concomitantly keeping their cellular pool constant through self-renewal. SSC biology offers important applications for animal reproduction and overcoming human disease through regenerative therapies. To this end, several techniques involving SSCs have been developed and will be covered in this article. SSCs convey genetic information to the next generation, a property that can be exploited for gene targeting. Additionally, SSCs can be induced to become embryonic stem cell-like pluripotent cells in vitro. Updates on SSC transplantation techniques with related applications, such as fertility restoration and preservation of endangered species, are also covered on this article. SSC suspensions can be transplanted to the testis of an animal and this has given the basis for SSC functional assays. This procedure has proven technically demanding in large animals and men. In parallel, testis tissue xenografting, another transplantation technique, was developed and resulted in sperm production in testis explants grafted into ectopical locations in foreign species. Since SSC culture holds a pivotal role in SSC biotechnologies, current advances are overviewed. Finally, spermatogenesis in vitro, already demonstrated in mice, offers great promises to cope with reproductive issues in the farm animal industry and human clinical applications.

  14. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv B; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Bergh, Christina; Aittomäki, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development, coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birthweight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational-age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders, epigenetic modification and ART. PMID:26458360

  15. Reproductive data for groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...

  16. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  17. Gene-environment interaction and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Bonde, Jens Peter; Giwercman, Yvonne L;

    2010-01-01

    As genetic factors can hardly explain the changes taking place during short time spans, environmental and lifestyle-related factors have been suggested as the causes of time-related deterioration of male reproductive function. However, considering the strong heterogeneity of male fecundity between...... that specific genotypes may confer a larger risk of male reproductive disorders following certain exposures. This paper presents a critical review of animal and human evidence on how genes may modify environmental effects on male reproductive function. Some examples have been found that support this mechanism...... of reproduction, namely environmental and lifestyle factors as the cause of sperm DNA damage. It remains to be investigated to what extent such genetic changes, by natural conception or through the use of assisted reproductive techniques, are transmitted to the next generation, thereby causing increased morbidity...

  18. Assessment of auditory sensory processing in a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia-Gating of auditory-evoked potentials and prepulse inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Oranje, Bob; Yding, Birte;

    2010-01-01

    The use of translational approaches to validate animal models is needed for the development of treatments that can effectively alleviate cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia, which are unsuccessfully treated by the current available therapies. Deficits in pre-attentive stages...... of sensory information processing seen in schizophrenia patients, can be assessed by highly homologues methods in both humans and rodents, evident by the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle response and the P50 (termed P1 here) suppression paradigms. Treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist...... PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 reliably induce cognitive impairments resembling those presented by schizophrenia patients. Here we evaluate the potential of early postnatal PCP (20mg/kg) treatment in Lister Hooded rats to induce post-pubertal deficits in PPI and changes, such as reduced gating...

  19. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente;

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...... with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human...... adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders...

  20. Workshop on molecular animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  1. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  2. Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Carol A. Kates

    2004-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence pointing to a looming Malthusian catastrophe, governmental measures to reduce population have been opposed both by religious conservatives and by many liberals, especially liberal feminists. Liberal critics have claimed that 'utilitarian' population policies violate a 'fundamental right of reproductive liberty'. This essay argues that reproductive liberty should not be considered a fundamental human right, or certainly not an indefeasible right. It should, instead...

  3. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  4. Nearby grandmother enhances calf survival and reproduction in Asian elephants

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkka Lahdenperä; Khyne U Mar; Virpi Lummaa

    2016-01-01

    Usually animals reproduce into old age, but a few species such as humans and killer whales can live decades after their last reproduction. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that such life-history evolved through older females switching to invest in their existing (grand)offspring, thereby increasing their inclusive fitness and selection for post-reproductive lifespan. However, positive grandmother effects are also found in non-menopausal taxa, but evidence of their associated fitness effect...

  5. Diet mediates the relationship between longevity and reproduction in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder, Shawn M.; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis posits a negative correlation between longevity and reproduction, presumably because these aspects of fitness compete for a limited pool of nutrients. However, diet, which varies widely among animals, could affect the availability of key nutrients required for both reproduction and longevity, especially protein. We used a comparative database of mammal life history data to test the hypothesis that carnivores experience less of a negative relationship between rep...

  6. The use of rabbits in male reproductive toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, D.

    1988-01-01

    The rabbit is the smallest and least expensive laboratory animal in which serial semen samples can be obtained for morphologic, biochemical, and fertility evaluation. The female rabbit has a predictable reproductive cycle and can be artificially inseminated with a known amount of sperm during fertility testing. These advantages make the rabbit an extremely valuable model for studying the effects of chemicals or other stimuli on the male reproductive system. Quantitative evaluation of the test...

  7. Reproduction and genetic diversity of the swamp buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Yindee, M.

    2011-01-01

    The water buffalo is one of the most important domestic animals in Southeast Asia including Thailand. As the Thai swamp buffalo population declined during the last two decades, the swamp buffalo reproductive performance needs to be improved. Lack of knowledge on swamp buffalo reproduction, improper management and failure to use genetic superior males and females in breeding programs are the major factors to be considered. Artificial insemination was applied in Thailand but is inefficient due ...

  8. A category approach for reproductive effects of phthalates.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabjan, Evelin; Hulzebos, Etje; Mennes, W.; Piersma, Aldert H

    2006-01-01

    In regulatory toxicology, the experimental assessment of reproductive toxicity is one of the most costly endpoints to perform. Categorizing chemicals is an approach that can be used to reduce animal tests in risk assessments of chemicals, for example, via REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals). The category approach was tested for reproductive toxicity with a group of 10 ortho-phthalate esters, with different side chain lengths. Three ortho-phthalates were used for t...

  9. Practical Applications of Sperm Selection Techniques as a Tool for Improving Reproductive Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Morrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern biotechnologies are used extensively in the animal breeding industry today. Therefore, it is essential that sperm handling procedures do not modulate the normal physiological mechanisms occurring in the female reproductive tract. In this paper, the different selection mechanisms occurring in vivo are described briefly, together with their relevance to artificial insemination, followed by a detailed description of the different selection processes used in reproductive biotechnologies. These selection methods included fractionated semen collection, cryopreservation, biomimetic sperm selection, selection based on hyaluronic acid binding, and last, but not least, sperm sex selection. Biomimetic sperm selection for AI or for cryopreservation could improve pregnancy rates and help to reverse the decline in fertility seen in several domestic species over the recent decades. Similarly, selection for hyaluronic acid binding sites may enable the most mature spermatozoa to be selected for IVF or ICSI.

  10. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  11. Facing the Beast Apart Together: Fear in Boys and Girls after Processing Information about Novel Animals Individually or in a Duo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Rijkee, Sanne

    2011-01-01

    In this experimental study, we made an attempt to examine gender-related peer influences on childhood fear. Nine- to 12-year-old boys and girls were provided with ambiguous and positive information about novel animals and then asked to provide a subjective fear rating of the animals under two conditions: fear of one animal was assessed…

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief summaries of the final Research Co-ordination Meetings of Co-ordinated Research Programmes on ''Strengthening Animal Reproduction Research in Asia Through the Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and ''Strengthening Animal Disease Diagnosis in Asia Through Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and of the first Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Milk-Producing Animals in Tropical and Subtropical Environments Through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques''. Developments at the IAEA's Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf, are described

  13. Reducing hazards for animals from humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Pierre Pastoret

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available If animals may be a source of hazards for humans, the reverse is equally true. The main sources of hazards from humans to animals, are the impact of human introduction of transboundary animal diseases, climate change, globalisation, introduction of invasive species and reduction of biodiversity.There is also a trend toward reducing genetic diversity in domestic animals, such as cattle; there are presently around 700 different breeds of cattle many of which at the verge of extinction (less than 100 reproductive females. The impact of humans is also indirect through detrimental effects on the environment. It is therefore urgent to implement the new concept of “one health"....

  14. Biotecnologia animal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  15. CONTROL OF ANIMAL DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIA: PRINCIPLES AND APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ahmad

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available To continue to exist, a bacterial pathogen must reproduce and be disseminated among its hosts. Thus, an important aspect of bacterial disease control is a consideration of how reproduction and dissemination of the organism occur. One must identify components of bacterial dissemination that are primarily responsible for a particular disease. Control measures should be directed toward that part of the cycle which is most susceptible to control the weakest links in the chain of disease process. Reducing or eliminating the source or reservoir of infection, breaking the connection between the source of the infection and susceptible animals and reducing the number of susceptible animals by raising the general level of herd immunity with immunization are three main kinds of control measures against bacterial diseases.

  16. [Distribution of the different patterns of aging over the system of animal world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Since the system of animal world reflects evolutionary trends, an analysis of distribution of patterns of aging over this system provides information on the causes of the formation of differences among them. In this paper the system of the main animal groups in form of a table is presented, and the distribution of patterns demonstrating minimum and maximum of aging is discussed. Meanwhile the colonial animals are considered as a "minimum of aging", the animals demonstrating drastic self-liquidation after reproduction are considered as a "maximum of aging" (the most well-known example is the pink salmon). It is shown, that as far as the degree of difference from the simplest ancestor increases in process of evolution, the increase of the manifestations of aging takes place. Slow aging of relatively simple organisms cannot be a direct source of measures to prevent aging of complex ones. PMID:21957572

  17. A Taxonomy of Technical Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vaněček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT. This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

  18. Features and News: The Importance of Discoveries in Animal Science to Human Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioScience, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Five short notes describe the contributions to human welfare of animal research in reproductive physiology; ruminant nutrition; meat science research; genetics and animal breeding; and recycling food by-products. (AL)

  19. Synergies between assisted reproduction technologies and functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Pasqualino; Toschi, Paola; Zacchini, Federica; Ptak, Grazyna; Scapolo, Pier A; Capra, Emanuele; Stella, Alessandra; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Williams, John L

    2016-01-01

    This review, is a synopsis of advanced reproductive technologies in farm animals, including the discussion of their limiting factors as revealed by the study of offspring derived from embryos produced in vitro and through cloning. These studies show that the problems of epigenetic mis-programming, which were reported in the initial stages of assisted reproduction, still persist. The importance of whole-genome analyses, including the methylome and transcriptome, in improving embryo biotechnologies in farm animals, are discussed. Genome editing approaches for the improvement of economically-relevant traits in farm animals are also described. Efficient farm animal embryo biotechnologies, including cloning and the most recent technologies such as genome editing, will effectively complement the latest strategies to accelerate genetic improvement of farm animals. PMID:27481215

  20. The combined effects of pre- and post-copulatory processes are masking sexual conflict over mating rate in Gerris buenoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devost, E; Turgeon, J

    2016-01-01

    In polygynandrous animals, post-copulatory processes likely interfere with precopulatory sexual selection. In water striders, sexual conflict over mating rate and post-copulatory processes are well documented, but their combined effect on reproductive success has seldom been investigated. We combine genetic parentage analyses and behavioural observations conducted in a competitive reproductive environment to investigate how pre- and post-copulatory processes influence reproductive success in Gerris buenoi Kirkaldy. Precopulatory struggles had antagonistic effects on male and female reproductive success: efficiently gaining copulations was beneficial for males, whereas efficiently avoiding copulations was profitable for females. Also, high mating rates and an intermediate optimal resistance level of females supported the hypothesis of convenience polyandry. Contrary to formal predictions, high mating rates (i.e. the number of copulations) did not increase reproductive success in males or decrease reproductive success in females. Instead, the reproductive success of both sexes was higher when offspring were produced with several partners and when there were few unnecessary matings. Thus, male and female G. buenoi displayed different interests in reproduction, but post-copulatory processes were masking the effects of copulatory mating success on reproductive success. Given the high mating rates observed, sperm competition could easily counter the effect of mating rates, perhaps in interaction with cryptic female choice and/or fecundity selection. Our study presents a complex but realistic overview of sexual selection forces at work in a model organism for the study of sexual conflict, confirming that insights are gained from investigating all episodes in the reproduction cycle of polygynandrous animals.

  1. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  2. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses the...

  3. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  4. Biological studies in animal models using [{sup 99m}Tc](CO){sub 3} recombinant annexin V as diagnostic agent of apoptotic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teran, Mariella Adriana, E-mail: mteran@fq.edu.u [Catedra de Radioquimica, Departamento Estrella Campos, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, P.O. 11800, Montevideo (Uruguay); Martinez, Elena; Reyes, Ana L.; Paolino, Andrea [Catedra de Radioquimica, Departamento Estrella Campos, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, P.O. 11800, Montevideo (Uruguay); Vital, Marcelo; Esperon, Patricia [Catedra de Biologia Molecular, Departamento de Bioquimica Clinica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Pacheco, Jose P. [Instituto de Patobiologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Savio, Eduardo [Catedra de Radioquimica, Departamento Estrella Campos, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, P.O. 11800, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2011-02-15

    Introduction: There are many diseases associated with variations in the expression of apoptosis such as organ rejection after transplantation, myocardial ischemia or infarct and neurodegenerative diseases. For this reason, the early visualization of this process is relevant to set fast and effective therapeutic strategies. Methods: The precursor was prepared according to the procedure reported by R. Alberto, R. Schibli, P. Schubiger, U. Abram, and T. Kaden [Reactions with the technetium and rhenium carbonyl complexes (NEt{sub 4})[MX{sub 3}(CO){sub 3}]. Synthesis and structure of Tc(CN-But){sub 3}(CO){sub 3}](NO{sub 3}) and (Net{sub 4})[Tc{sub 2}({mu}-SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH){sub 3}(CO){sub 3}], Polyhedron 1996;15: 1079-89]. Recombinant annexin V was incubated with [{sup 99m}Tc](H{sub 2}O)3(CO){sub 3}{sup +} solution, previously neutralized with buffer. Biodistribution studies were performed in 8-week-old female Wistar rats. Animals were housed and treated in compliance with institutional guidelines related to animal experimentation. Work protocol was previously approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the university. Two groups of rats were defined. One was used as control and the other group was previously injected with 150 mg/kg ip of cyclophosphamide to induce apoptosis. Results: The synthesis of carbonyl precursor achieved yields higher than 90%, and the radiolabeled protein was obtained with 92% of radiochemical purity and high stability in vitro. An important uptake in apoptotic tissues was confirmed by biodistributions, scintigraphic images and histological studies. Conclusions: Biodistribution studies revealed hepatobiliary elimination, high stability in vivo and important uptake in the reticuloendothelial system. In the pathologic model, higher uptake values correspond to the liver, spleen, lungs and femur. Histological studies confirmed the development of apoptosis at 8 and 24 h postinduction in the spleen and lymphocyte bulks in the peribronchial area

  5. Full in vitro fertilization laboratory mechanization: toward robotic assisted reproduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meseguer, Marcos; Krühne, Ulrich; Laursen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the current efforts made to standardize different steps of assisted reproductive technology processes by the introduction of new technologies for the nonsubjective sperm selection process, oocyte denudation by mechanical removal of cumulus cells, oocyte positioning, sperm...

  6. Introduction to Reproduction: Online Education for the Millennial Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Megan; Kick, Laura; Haseley, Heather; Wallach, Harlan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2016-07-01

    Despite staggering rates of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies, reproductive health education is not yet standardized across secondary or postsecondary curricula. The Women's Health Research Institute and Northwestern University Information Technology created Introduction to Reproduction, a massive open online course to encourage global students to learn the biological foundations of reproductive health. This digital education experience appeals to the Millennial learner and offers unique opportunities to explore topics in reproductive biology via lectures, animations, and three-dimensional anatomical illustrations. Data were collected anonymously from de-identified learners who elected to self-report on their experiences while completing the course as well as through Coursera datasets. Northwestern University's Institutional Review Board classified this research project as an exempt status due to the de-identified nature of the collected data. Participants from 47 countries report on reproductive health content knowledge, past reproductive health education, and level of engagement with the topic. These data indicate that the Introduction to Reproduction course has a meaningful impact on its participants and presents the information in a concise and accessible format. Distribution of this course to a wider audience is the goal for the program and important to the field of reproductive health. PMID:27335073

  7. Effects of melatonin and prolactin in reproduction: review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Fernanda das Chagas Angelo Mendes; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Teixeira, Valéria Wanderley; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho

    2015-01-01

    The pineal gland is responsible for producing a hormone called melatonin (MEL), and is accepted as the gland that regulates reproduction in mammals. Prolactin (PRL) also exhibits reproductive activity in animals in response to photoperiod. It is known that the concentrations of PRL are high in the summer and reduced during winter, the opposite of what is seen with melatonin in these seasons. In placental mammals, both prolactin and melatonin affect implantation, which is considered a critical point of pregnancy, since a successful pregnancy requires the development of a synchronous interaction between the endometrium and blastocyst for placental development. It is also known that PRL levels during pregnancy are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy, because this hormone induces the corpus luteum to produce progesterone, in addition to stimulating blastocyst implantation to maintain pregnancy and form the placenta. However, melatonin levels in plasma have also been shown to increase during pregnancy, peaking at the end of this period, which suggests that this hormone plays an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, it is clear that treatment with prolactin or melatonin interferes with the processes responsible for the development and maintenance of pregnancy.

  8. Using a Delphi consensus process to develop an acupuncture treatment protocol by consensus for women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assisted reproductive technologies (ART are increasingly utilised for resolving difficulties conceiving. These technologies are expensive to both the public purse and the individual consumers. Acupuncture is widely used as an adjunct to ART with indications that it may assist reducing the time to conception and increasing live birth rates. Heterogeneity is high between treatment protocols. The aim of this study was to examine what fertility acupuncturists consider key components of best practice acupuncture during an ART cycle, and to establish an acupuncture protocol by consensus. Methods Fifteen international acupuncturists with extensive experience treating women during ART interventions participated in 3 rounds of Delphi questionnaires. The first round focused on identifying the parameters of acupuncture treatment as adjunct to ART, the second round evaluated statements derived from the earlier round, and the third evaluated specific parameters for a proposed trial protocol. Consensus was defined as greater than 80% agreement. Results Significant agreement was achieved on the parameters of best practice acupuncture, including an acupuncture protocol suitable for future research. Study participants confirmed the importance of needling aspects relating to the dose of acupuncture, the therapeutic relationship, tailoring treatment to the individual, and the role of co-interventions. From two rounds of the Delphi a consensus was achieved on seven treatment parameters for the design of the acupuncture treatment to be used in a clinical trial of acupuncture as an adjunct to ART. The treatment protocol includes the use of the traditional Chinese medicine acupuncture, use of manual acupuncture, a first treatment administered between day 6–8 of the stimulated ART cycle which is individualised to the participant, two treatments will be administered on the day of embryo transfer, and will include points SP8, SP10, LR3, ST29, CV4

  9. Cost of reproduction in selected species of zooplankton (rotifers and cladocerans)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Nandini, S.; Gulati, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Reproduction is an energetically costly biological process. Among the freshwater zooplankton, rotifers and cladocerans reproduce parthenogenetically and the cost of reproduction can be estimated using the life table data from demographic studies. Reduced probability of future survival or future repr

  10. REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF YELLOW PERCH (PERCA FLAVESCENS): ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENDOCRINOLOGICAL CUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of reproductive processes in yellow perch is fundamental for intensive culture of this commercially important, freshwater, perciform fish. This paper describes the annual reproductive cycle of female and male perch. It...

  11. Animal Health in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal health service policy in Albania represents an integral component of overall governmental, social and economic policy in the field of agricultural and rural development, public health, food processing and import/export of animal products. In order to obtain the necessary political, economic and public support, the animal health service attempts to contribute effectively to the overall development of the country which aims at improving the standards of living of its inhabitants. Practical means of contributing to national development include reducing food loses due to animal morbidity and mortality, increasing the productivity of the livestock population, protecting human health against zoonotic diseases and ensuring humane treatment of animals. An animal health strategy contributes to the creation of conditions necessary for uninterrupted animal disease surveillance and control in the country. The main animal health problem in Albania is brucellosis in ruminants, caused by B. melitensis. This infection currently affects the entire country, reaching a prevalence of 10% in several districts. The latest and most severe outbreaks of classical swine fever were identified on 1996 when 5 515 animals were infected and 3 683 animals died. The circulation of bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected for the first time in Albania in 2002 with a seroprevalence of 15%. The evidence of BTV circulation in Albania and the absence of the main vector C. imicola suggest that other Culicoides species could be implicated in virus transmission. H5N1 avian influenza in Albania was confirmed in March 2006 in backyard flocks in the villages of Cuke and Peze-Helmes. In both villages there were no human cases. Rabies was of concern in Albania from 1928 until 1976. The disease re-emerged in March 2001 in the village of Morine in Kukes district affecting a domestic dog and three persons were bitten. Other cases have been reported in northern Albania. (author)

  12. Reproduction-related genes in the pearl oyster genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshie; Masaoka, Tetsuji; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yoji; Satoh, Nori; Awaji, Masahiko

    2013-10-01

    Molluscan reproduction has been a target of biological research because of the various reproductive strategies that have evolved in this phylum. It has also been studied for the development of fisheries technologies, particularly aquaculture. Although fundamental processes of reproduction in other phyla, such as vertebrates and arthropods, have been well studied, information on the molecular mechanisms of molluscan reproduction remains limited. The recently released draft genome of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata provides a novel and powerful platform for obtaining structural information on the genes and proteins involved in bivalve reproduction. In the present study, we analyzed the pearl oyster draft genome to screen reproduction-related genes. Analysis was mainly conducted for genes reported from other molluscs for encoding orthologs of reproduction-related proteins in other phyla. The gene search in the P. fucata gene models (version 1.1) and genome assembly (version 1.0) were performed using Genome Browser and BLAST software. The obtained gene models were then BLASTP searched against a public database to confirm the best-hit sequences. As a result, more than 40 gene models were identified with high accuracy to encode reproduction-related genes reported for P. fucata and other molluscs. These include vasa, nanos, doublesex- and mab-3-related transcription factor, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors, vitellogenin, estrogen receptor, and others. The set of reproduction-related genes of P. fucata identified in the present study constitute a new tool for research on bivalve reproduction at the molecular level.

  13. Animal models of contraception: utility and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Liechty ER; Bergin IL; Bell JD

    2015-01-01

    Emma R Liechty,1 Ingrid L Bergin,1 Jason D Bell2 1Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2Program on Women's Health Care Effectiveness Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Appropriate animal modeling is vital for the successful development of novel contraceptive devices. Advances in reproductive biology have identified novel pathways for contraceptive intervention. Here we review species-specific anatomic and physiologic co...

  14. Animal models of contraception: utility and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Emma R Liechty,1 Ingrid L Bergin,1 Jason D Bell2 1Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2Program on Women's Health Care Effectiveness Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Appropriate animal modeling is vital for the successful development of novel contraceptive devices. Advances in reproductive biology have identified novel pathways for contraceptive intervention. Here we review species-specific anatomic and physiologi...

  15. Speeding the reproductive revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, B; Upadhyay, U

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, the international community set the goal of ensuring universal access to reproductive health care by 2015 and agreed to finance its costs. Few governments and donor countries, however, have made good on commitments made at the ICPD. Reproductive health is not improving and may actually be getting worse. Specific goals to be reached by 2015 include meeting all unmet need for family planning, reducing maternal mortality by 75% compared with 1990 levels, and reducing infant mortality to lower than 35 deaths/1000 births. Reaching these and the related reproductive health goals of the ICPD was calculated to cost about US$17 billion/year until 2000, then to increase to $22 billion/year by 2015 (in constant 1993 US dollars). Developing countries agreed to pay 66% of the cost, while donor countries paid the remainder. Immediately after the ICPD, reproductive health funding increased substantially, then declined again, with most donor countries failing to meet their funding commitments. Failure to deliver on the promised financial support for the ICPD goals will result in higher levels of unintended pregnancies, induced abortions, cases of maternal mortality, and infant deaths. Governments need to be convinced that paying for reproductive health programs is an urgent priority and that developing countries, donor countries, and multilateral institutions all have much to gain from reaching the ICPD goals. PMID:12322000

  16. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  17. Experimental Embryology of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Mammals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dayuan Chen

    2006-01-01

    This research was carried out in the area of experimental embryology, which covers from animal fertilization to cloning. Two achievements in the field of reproductive biology have created major influence in the past 50 years. One is the discovery of sperm capacitation and the establishment of in vitro fertilization technology, and the other is the birth of somatic cell nuclear transfer animals. Although researches in reproductive biology have developed very quickly and a lot of literatures have been published, many basic theoretical questions are still remained illusive. This paper gives a brief description of our researches during the past decade.

  18. Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Gianluca; Bertapelle, Carla; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory system in any animal is the primary sensory system that responds to chemical stimuli emanating from a distant source. In aquatic animals "Odours" are molecules in solution that guide them to locate food, partners, nesting sites, and dangers to avoid. Fish, crustaceans and aquatic molluscs possess sensory systems that have anatomical similarities to the olfactory systems of land-based animals. Molluscs are a large group of aquatic and terrestrial animals that rely heavily on chemical communication with a generally dispersed sense of touch and chemical sensitivity. Cephalopods, the smallest class among extant marine molluscs, are predators with high visual capability and well developed vestibular, auditory, and tactile systems. Nevertheless they possess a well developed olfactory organ, but to date almost nothing is known about the mechanisms, functions and modulation of this chemosensory structure in octopods. Cephalopod brains are the largest of all invertebrate brains and across molluscs show the highest degree of centralization. The reproductive behaviour of Octopus vulgaris is under the control of a complex set of signal molecules such as neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and sex steroids that guide the behaviour from the level of individuals in evaluating mates, to stimulating or deterring copulation, to sperm-egg chemical signalling that promotes fertilization. These signals are intercepted by the olfactory organs and integrated in the olfactory lobes in the central nervous system. In this context we propose a model in which the olfactory organ and the olfactory lobe of O. vulgaris could represent the on-off switch between food intake and reproduction.

  19. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  20. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  1. Spermatogonial stem cells from domestic animals: progress and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Yaqing; Qu, Rongfeng; He, Ying; Tian, Xiue; Zeng, Wenxian

    2014-03-01

    Spermatogenesis, an elaborate and male-specific process in adult testes by which a number of spermatozoa are produced constantly for male fertility, relies on spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). As a sub-population of undifferentiated spermatogonia, SSCs are capable of both self-renewal (to maintain sufficient quantities) and differentiation into mature spermatozoa. SSCs are able to convert to pluripotent stem cells during in vitro culture, thus they could function as substitutes for human embryonic stem cells without ethical issues. In addition, this process does not require exogenous transcription factors necessary to produce induced-pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells. Moreover, combining genetic engineering with germ cell transplantation would greatly facilitate the generation of transgenic animals. Since germ cell transplantation into infertile recipient testes was first established in 1994, in vivo and in vitro study and manipulation of SSCs in rodent testes have been progressing at a staggering rate. By contrast, their counterparts in domestic animals, despite the failure to reach a comparable level, still burgeoned and showed striking advances. This review outlines the recent progressions of characterization, isolation, in vitro propagation, and transplantation of spermatogonia/SSCs from domestic animals, thereby shedding light on future exploration of these cells with high value, as well as contributing to the development of reproductive technology for large animals.

  2. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  3. Reproductive prognosis in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis...... until the end of 2009. To explore changes over time, the endometriosis cohorts were followed for 15 years from the years 1980, 1986, 1992 and 1998, with the corresponding control cohorts. All pregnancy outcomes were categorized into naturally or artificially conceived pregnancies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...

  4. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study. PMID:26521666

  5. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  18. Adult neurogenesis and reproductive functions in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaud, Martine; Butruille, Lucile; Duittoz, Anne; Pillon, Delphine; Batailler, Martine

    2016-07-01

    During adulthood, the mammalian brain retains the capacity to generate new cells and new neurons in particular. It is now well established that the birth of these new neurons occurs in well-described sites: the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, as well as in other brain regions including the hypothalamus. In this review, we describe the canonical neurogenic niches and illustrate the functional relevance of adult-born neurons of each neurogenic niche in the reproductive physiology. More specifically, we highlight the effect of reproductive social stimuli on the neurogenic processes and conversely, the contributions of adult-born neurons to the reproductive physiology and behavior. We next review the recent discovery of a novel neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamus and the median eminence and the compelling evidence of the link existing between the new-born hypothalamic neurons and the regulation of metabolism. In addition, new perspectives on the possible involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of photoperiodic reproductive physiology in seasonal mammals are discussed. Altogether, the studies highlighted in this review demonstrate the potential role of neurogenesis in reproductive function and emphasize the importance of increasing our knowledge on the regulation processes and the physiological relevance of these adult-born neurons. This constitutes a necessary step toward a potential manipulation of these plasticity mechanisms. PMID:27177964

  19. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  20. Reproductive rights under attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, K

    1995-01-01

    Women's groups, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, funding groups, and donor countries must all be lobbied with the message that sexual and reproductive health issues are inextricably linked to women in development, education, and future economic strength of nations worldwide. In the Beijing Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum the draft Plan of Action had 35% of its language bracketed and subject to negotiation in Beijing. The previous International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo had only 15% of its language bracketed. Much of the language bracketed for Beijing had already been fully agreed upon before the Cairo conference. The bracketed language was in the health and human rights sections, and most of the language pertained to sexual and reproductive health. The increase in controversy is due to an opposition better organized in Beijing than it had been in Cairo, due to the opposition's failure to recognize the implications of the Cairo declarations on women, men, and children, and due to the opposition's general intolerance of sexual and reproductive issues. The major factor, however, was the linking of women's rights with sexual and reproductive health issues. Family planners joined with women's rights groups, which had always promoted women's control over their bodies as the cornerstone of equality. This connection was interpreted as a threat to the social order by conservative societies. NGO participants included 1400 people representing 170 countries. The NGO anti-abortion contingent was well-funded, well-organized, and large. Lobbying was conducted in an effort to convince people to oppose any language pertaining to gender, sexual and reproductive health, and adolescent rights. Anti-abortion lobbyists also rifled through documents of pro-choice participants. In Canada and the United States anti-abortion groups are lobbying hard to overturn the Cairo Plan of Action and to expand their efforts internationally among

  1. Weighing the options for limiting surplus animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Cheryl

    2016-05-01

    The unsustainability of many animal programs managed by zoos and aquariums has brought renewed attention to unresolved questions about various management strategies. Solving the "sustainability crisis" for many species will require housing more adults and producing more offspring than there are existing spaces in accredited zoos and aquariums. Careful reproductive management is central to addressing this challenge, but opinions differ about which management strategies are best for an individual, for a species, for an institution, or for a country or region. The primary options for limiting the number of animals that would be surplus to the population are to prevent reproduction or to euthanize. However, there is much misunderstanding about methods for controlling reproduction, in particular about contraceptives and species differences in their effects. Careful weighing of all the options is called for. Lifetime Reproductive Planning may help increase breeding success through careful reproductive management but cannot eliminate production of surplus animals. Limiting reproduction does not address the problem of animals already in the population. Despite best efforts and planning, consistently hitting target numbers for a population may never be achieved. Increasing capacity provides a temporary patch when targets are exceeded, but is not a long-term solution, since each generation potentially produces even more individuals needing even more space. Welfare considerations should be included in discussions of management euthanasia and its alternatives. Such discussions will be most productive if based on full awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of all the options. Zoo Biol. 35:183-186, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27187931

  2. [Ethical considerations on new developments in reproductive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph; Wienroth, Matthias

    2009-12-01

    Reproduction and the family are central elements in the lives of people, and in the narratives and practices of diverse cultures and societies. In the development of ever more powerful techniques of assisted reproduction a number of questions have emerged. They lie at the heart of what it means to reproduce, to be a parent, to be a human being. Reproductive technologies and their consideration influence perceptions and practices in regard to reproduction and beyond, thus embodying anthropological implications for the understanding of family, motherhood, health, offspring, responsibility and others. Technological capabilities and socio-cultural perceptions are strongly intertwined. The role of bioethics in this context is to explore human nascency as a process. To better understand this process and its implications for human life both medical and social, we suggest considering different perspectives on reproductive technologies to widen our understanding. These perspectives range from the potential child and its parents to health care professionals and the state. In expanding our perception of reproduction, social scientific methods can help to situate philosophical and ethical issues, thus rendering bioethical examination of reproductive technologies more socially robust. In this paper, we provide an overview of several bioethical key themes in assisted reproduction: methodological questions in regard to providing better understanding of this field, selective and inclusive social aspects of assisted reproduction, financial and governance considerations, and an applied consideration of the IVF research interface. PMID:19950059

  3. Ethics and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    2000-06-01

    In vitro fertilization and assisted reproductive technology have made great progress during the last 20 years. Genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and surrogacy are currently practiced in many countries. On the other hand, embryo research is practiced only in a small number of nations, whereas human cloning has thus far been universally condemned. The rapid evolution and progress of all these techniques of assisted reproduction has revealed certain ethical issues that have to be addressed. PMID:10825637

  4. Zebrafish: A Versatile Animal Model for Fertility Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, Jing Ying; Kumari, Yatinesh; Shaikh, Mohd Farooq; Hue, Seow Mun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of zebrafish in biomedical research is very common in the research world nowadays. Today, it has emerged as a favored vertebrate organism for the research in science of reproduction. There is a significant growth in amount numbers of scientific literature pertaining to research discoveries in reproductive sciences in zebrafish. It has implied the importance of zebrafish in this particular field of research. In essence, the current available literature has covered from the very specific brain region or neurons of zebrafish, which are responsible for reproductive regulation, until the gonadal level of the animal. The discoveries and findings have proven that this small animal is sharing a very close/similar reproductive system with mammals. More interestingly, the behavioral characteristics and along with the establishment of animal courtship behavior categorization in zebrafish have laid an even stronger foundation and firmer reason on the suitability of zebrafish utilization in research of reproductive sciences. In view of the immense importance of this small animal for the development of reproductive sciences, this review aimed at compiling and describing the proximate close similarity of reproductive regulation on zebrafish and human along with factors contributing to the infertility, showing its versatility and its potential usage for fertility research.

  5. RLMS Micro-File: Current State of Catalog Card Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitecki, Joseph Z., Comp.

    Intended as a working tool for the administrators of library reprographic processes, this compilation includes 22 papers dealing with the technology of card reproduction for library catalogs. Among the reproduction devices discussed are the Copy Cat camera, the Cataloger's Camera, the Olivetti Enlarging Copier, and the IBM Magnetic Tape Selectric…

  6. REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY OF CONTAMINANTS IN OVIPAROUS ANIMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological risk assessments can utilize endpoints at any of a number of biological levels of organization. Except in the case of rare and endangered species, assessment endpoints of most concern in ecological risk assessment typically are at the population and community levels. ...

  7. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  8. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment. PMID:25541541

  9. Polyamines on the reproductive landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Pavine L C; Palin, Marie-France; Murphy, Bruce D

    2011-10-01

    The polyamines are ubiquitous polycationic compounds. Over the past 40 yr, investigation has shown that some of these, namely spermine, spermidine, and putrescine, are essential to male and female reproductive processes and to embryo/fetal development. Indeed, their absence is characterized by infertility and arrest in embryogenesis. Mammals synthesize polyamines de novo from amino acids or import these compounds from the diet. Information collected recently has shown that polyamines are essential regulators of cell growth and gene expression, and they have been implicated in both mitosis and meiosis. In male reproduction, polyamine expression correlates with stages of spermatogenesis, and polyamines appear to function in promoting sperm motility. There is evidence for polyamine involvement in ovarian follicle development and ovulation in female mammals, and polyamine synthesis is required for steroidogenesis in the ovary. Studies of the embryo indicate a polyamine requirement that can be met from maternal sources before implantation, whereas elimination of polyamine synthesis abrogates embryo development at gastrulation. Polyamines play roles in embryo implantation, in decidualization, and in placental formation and function, and polyamine privation during gestation results in intrauterine growth retardation. Emerging information implicates dietary arginine and dietary polyamines as nutritional regulators of fertility. The mechanisms by which polyamines regulate these multiple and diverse processes are not yet well explored; thus, there is fertile ground for further productive investigation. PMID:21791568

  10. Modelling the effects of environmental and individual variability when measuring the costs of first reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Barbraud, C.; Weimerskirch, H

    2004-01-01

    How do animals balance their investment in young against their own chances to survive and reproduce in the future? This life–history trade–off, referred to as the cost of reproduction (Williams, 1966), holds a central place in life–history theory (Roff, 1992; Stearns, 1992; McNamara & Houston, 1996). Because individuals can only acquire a limited amount of energy, reproduction and survival as well as current and future reproduction are considered as functions competing for the same resources....

  11. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  12. Androgenic endocrine disruptors in wastewater treatment plant effluents in India: Their influence on reproductive processes and systemic toxicity in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are linked to human health and diseases as they mimic or block the normal functioning of endogenous hormones. The present work dealt with a comparative study of the androgenic potential of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents and effluents in Northern region of India, well known for its polluted water. Water samples were screened for their androgenic potential using the Hershberger assay and when they were found positive for androgenicity, we studied their mode of action in intact rats. The data showed a significant change in the weight and structure of sex accessory tissues (SATs) of castrated and intact rats. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a significant change in the expression patterns of the major steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal and testis: cytochrome P450SCC, cytochrome P450C17, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This was further supported by increased enzymatic activities measured in vitro spectrophotometrically. Serum hormone profile showed a decreased level of gonadotrophic hormones and increased testosterone level. Further, increase in the serum level of alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and SGOT and histopathological changes in kidney and liver of treated animals, confirmed the toxic effects of contaminating chemicals. Analysis of water samples using HPLC and GC-MS showed the presence of various compounds and from them, four prominent aromatic compounds viz. nonylphenol, hexachlorobenzene and two testosterone equivalents, were identified. Our data suggest that despite rigorous treatment, the final treated effluent from WWTP still has enough androgenic and toxic compounds to affect general health

  13. Platelet-rich plasma and skeletal muscle healing: a molecular analysis of the early phases of the regeneration process in an experimental animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dimauro

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has received increasing interest in applied medicine, being widely used in clinical practice with the aim of stimulating tissue healing. Despite the reported clinical success, there is still a lack of knowledge when considering the biological mechanisms at the base of the activity of PRP during the process of muscle healing. The aim of the present study was to verify whether the local delivery of PRP modulates specific molecular events involved in the early stages of the muscle regeneration process. The right flexor sublimis muscle of anesthetized Wistar rats was mechanically injured and either treated with PRP or received no treatment. At day 2 and 5 after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and the muscle samples evaluated at molecular levels. PRP treatment increased significantly the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, and TGF-β1. This phenomenon induced an increased expression at mRNA and/or protein levels of several myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD1, Myf5 and Pax7, as well as the muscular isoform of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF-1Eb. No effect was detected with respect to VEGF-A expression. In addition, PRP application modulated the expression of miR-133a together with its known target serum response factor (SRF; increased the phosphorylation of αB-cristallin, with a significant improvement in several apoptotic parameters (NF-κB-p65 and caspase 3, indexes of augmented cell survival. The results of the present study indicates that the effect of PRP in skeletal muscle injury repair is due both to the modulation of the molecular mediators of the inflammatory and myogenic pathways, and to the control of secondary pathways such as those regulated by myomiRNAs and heat shock proteins, which contribute to proper and effective tissue regeneration.

  14. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades...

  15. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  16. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  17. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  18. Application of IOT in animal slaughter and process management system%动物屠宰加工管理系统中物联网技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温希军; 陈新文; 王琼; 龙伊; 李天斗; 合斯莱提; 王田田

    2013-01-01

    Taking the animal slaughter and process management subsystem as a case, which is based on the animal husbandry comprehensive information service platform of Department of Animal Husbandry of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the application of IOT in animal slaughter and process management system is elaborated in this paper, through the introduction of general content of the animal slaughter and process such as the main business processes, the operational module of the management system and its key technology.%  以新疆维吾尔自治区畜牧厅建设的新疆畜牧综合信息服务平台下屠宰加工管理子系统为案例,通过对屠宰加工主要业务流程、屠宰加工管理系统中业务模块与涉及的关键技术等通用内容的介绍,阐述了物联网技术在动物屠宰加工管理系统中的应用。

  19. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user......This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... makes the life manifestations of the users in context visible. We present and discuss how animation- based sketching can support the elaboration and examination of different ethical stances towards the user in the product and service development process. Finally we present a framework for creating...

  20. The More the Merrier?. Entropy and Statistics of Asexual Reproduction in Freshwater Planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, Sofia; Thomas, Michael A.; Dunkel, Jörn; Schötz, Eva-Maria

    2011-04-01

    The trade-off between traits in life-history strategies has been widely studied for sexual and parthenogenetic organisms, but relatively little is known about the reproduction strategies of asexual animals. Here, we investigate clonal reproduction in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, an important model organism for regeneration and stem cell research. We find that these flatworms adopt a randomized reproduction strategy that comprises both asymmetric binary fission and fragmentation (generation of multiple offspring during a reproduction cycle). Fragmentation in planarians has primarily been regarded as an abnormal behavior in the past; using a large-scale experimental approach, we now show that about one third of the reproduction events in S. mediterranea are fragmentations, implying that fragmentation is part of their normal reproductive behavior. Our analysis further suggests that certain characteristic aspects of the reproduction statistics can be explained in terms of a maximum relative entropy principle.

  1. Transgenesis may affect farm animal welfare: a case for systematic risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reenen, C G; Meuwissen, T H; Hopster, H; Oldenbroek, K; Kruip, T H; Blokhuis, H J

    2001-07-01

    This paper considers (potentially) harmful consequences of transgenesis for farm animal welfare and examines the strategy of studying health and welfare of transgenic farm animals. Evidence is discussed showing that treatments imposed in the context of farm animal transgenesis are by no means biologically neutral and may compromise animal health and welfare. Factors posing a risk for the welfare of transgenic farm animals include integration of a transgene within an endogenous gene with possible loss of host gene function (insertional mutations), inappropriate transgene expression and exposure of the host to biologically active transgene-derived proteins, and in vitro reproductive technologies employed in the process of generating transgenic farm animals that may result in an increased incidence of difficult parturition and fetal and neonatal losses and the development of unusually large or otherwise abnormal offspring (large offspring syndrome). Critical components of a scheme for evaluating welfare of transgenic farm animals are identified, related to specific characteristics of transgenic animals and to factors that may interact with the effects of transgenesis. The feasibility of an evaluation of welfare of transgenic farm animals in practice is addressed against the background of the objectives and conditions of three successive stages in a long-term transgenic program. Concrete steps with regard to breeding and testing of transgenic farm animals are presented, considering three technologies to generate transgenic founders: microinjection, electroporation and nuclear transfer, and gene targeting including gene knockout. The proposed steps allow for unbiased estimations of the essential treatment effects, including hemi- and homozygous transgene effects as well as effects of in vitro reproductive technologies. It is suggested that the implementation of appropriate breeding and testing procedures should be accompanied by the use of a comprehensive welfare

  2. Telomeres and reproductive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Infertility, miscarriage and aneuploid offspring increase with age in women, and meiotic dysfunction underlies reproductive aging. How aging disrupts meiotic function in women remains unclear, but as women increasingly delay having children, solving this problem becomes an urgent priority. Telomeres consist of a (TTAGGG)(n) repeated sequence and associated proteins at chromosome ends, mediate aging in mitotic cells and may also mediate aging during meiosis. Telomeres shorten both during DNA replication and from the response to oxidative DNA damage. Oocytes do not divide in adult mammals, but their precursors do replicate during fetal oogenesis; eggs ovulated from older females have traversed more mitotic cell cycles before entering meiosis during fetal oogenesis than eggs ovulated from younger females. Telomeres also would be expected to shorten from inefficient DNA repair of oxidative damage, because the interval between fetal oogenesis and ovulation is exceptionally prolonged in women. We have tested the hypothesis that telomere shortening disrupts meiosis by shortening telomeres experimentally in mice, which normally do not exhibit age-related meiotic dysfunction. Interestingly, mouse telomeres are much longer than human telomeres, but genetic or pharmacological shortening of mouse telomeres recapitulates in mice the human reproductive aging phenotype as the mouse telomeres reach the length of telomeres from older women. These observations led us to propose a telomere theory of reproductive aging. Moreover, chronological oxidative stress increases with reproductive aging, leading to DNA damage preferentially at (TTAGGG)(n) repeats. Finally, if telomeres shorten with aging, how do they reset across generations? Telomerase could not play a significant role in telomere elongation during early development, because this enzyme is not active until the blastocyst stage, well after the stage when telomere elongation takes place. Rather, telomeres lengthen during the

  3. Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and male reproductive function in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Vermeulen, Roel;

    2014-01-01

    Animal and a few human studies suggest that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may affect male reproductive function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if male reproductive function was associated with serum level of PBDEs. We evaluated, in a cross-sectional study, the effects of e...

  4. Environmental color affects Nile tilapia reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpato G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of environmental color on the reproductive behavior of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Two environmental colors were tested by covering the aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm with white (12 groups or blue (13 groups cellophane and observing reproductive behavior in groups of 2 males (10.27 ± 0.45 cm and 3 females (10.78 ± 0.45 cm each. After assignment to the respective environmental color (similar luminosity = 100 to 120 Lux, the animals were observed until reproduction (identified by eggs in the female's mouth or up to 10 days after the first nest building. Photoperiod was from 6:00 h to 18:00 h every day. Food was offered in excess once a day and water quality was similar among aquaria. Daily observations were made at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00 and 17:00 h regarding: a latency to the first nest, b number of nests, c gravel weight removed (the male excavates the nest in the bottom of the aquarium, d nest area, and e mouthbrooding incubation (indication of reproduction. The proportion of reproducing fish was significantly higher (6 of 13 in the group exposed to the blue color compared the group exposed to the white color (1 of 12; Goodman's test of proportions. Moreover, males under blue light removed significantly larger masses of gravel (blue = 310.70 ± 343.50 g > white = 130.38 ± 102.70 g; P = 0.01 and constructed wider nests (blue = 207.93 ± 207.80 cm² > white = 97.68 ± 70.64 cm²; P = 0.03 than the control (white. The other parameters did not differ significantly between light conditions. We concluded that reproduction in the presence of blue light was more frequent and intense than in the presence of white light.

  5. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Developmental programming of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L P; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Triennial Reproduction Symposium focused on developmental programming of fertility. The topics covered during the morning session included the role of the placenta in programming of fetal growth and development, effects of feeding system and level of feeding during pregnancy on the annual production cycle and lifetime productivity of heifer offspring, effects of litter size and level of socialization postnatally on reproductive performance of pigs, effects of postnatal dietary intake on maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and onset of puberty in heifers, effects of housing systems on growth performance and reproductive efficiency of gilts, and effects of energy balance on sexual differentiation in rodent models. The morning session concluded with presentation of the American Society of Animal Science L. E. Casida Award for Excellence in Graduate Education to Dr. Michael Smith from the University of Missouri, Columbia, who shared his philosophy of graduate education. The afternoon session included talks on the role of epigenetic modifications in developmental programming and transgenerational inheritance of reproductive dysfunction, effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on fetal development and long-term physiology of the individual, and potential consequences of real-life exposure to environmental contaminants on reproductive health. The symposium concluded with a summary talk and the posing of 2 questions to the audience. From an evolutionary standpoint, programming and epigenetic events must be adaptive; when do they become maladaptive? If there are so many environmental factors that induce developmental programming, are we doomed, and if not, what is or are the solution or solutions? PMID:27482657

  6. A multi-oscillatory circadian system times female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eSimonneaux

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhythms in female reproduction are critical to insure that timing of ovulation coincides with oocyte maturation and optimal sexual arousal. This fine tuning of female reproduction involves both the estradiol feedback as an indicator of oocyte maturation, and the master circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nuclei as an indicator of the time of the day. Herein we are providing an overview of the state of knowledge regarding the differential inhibitory and stimulatory effects of estradiol at different stages of the reproductive axis, and the mechanisms through which the two main neurotransmitters of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, arginine vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal peptide, convey daily time cues to the reproductive axis. In addition we will report the most recent findings on the putative functions of peripheral clocks located throughout the reproductive axis (kisspeptin neurons, GnRH neurons, gonadotropic cells, the ovary and the uterus. This review will point to the critical position of the kisspeptin neurons of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, which integrate both the stimulatory estradiol signal, and the daily arginine vasopressinergic signal, while displaying a circadian clock. Finally, given the critical role of the light/dark cycle in the synchronization of female reproduction, we will discuss the impact of circadian disruptions observed during shift work conditions on female reproductive performance and fertility in both animal model and humans.

  7. Investigating Climate Change and Reproduction: Experimental Tools from Evolutionary Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Y. Martin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now generally acknowledged that climate change has wide-ranging biological consequences, potentially leading to impacts on biodiversity. Environmental factors can have diverse and often strong effects on reproduction, with obvious ramifications for population fitness. Nevertheless, reproductive traits are often neglected in conservation considerations. Focusing on animals, recent progress in sexual selection and sexual conflict research suggests that reproductive costs may pose an underestimated hurdle during rapid climate change, potentially lowering adaptive potential and increasing extinction risk of certain populations. Nevertheless, regime shifts may have both negative and positive effects on reproduction, so it is important to acquire detailed experimental data. We hence present an overview of the literature reporting short-term reproductive consequences of exposure to different environmental factors. From the enormous diversity of findings, we conclude that climate change research could benefit greatly from more coordinated efforts incorporating evolutionary approaches in order to obtain cross-comparable data on how individual and population reproductive fitness respond in the long term. Therefore, we propose ideas and methods concerning future efforts dealing with reproductive consequences of climate change, in particular by highlighting the advantages of multi-generational experimental evolution experiments.

  8. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter includes reports of FAO/IAEA-organized meetings held between 17 September 1990 and 23 November 1990, with emphasis on the development and application of radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques to study Foot and Mouth Disease, bluetongue vins and other diseases, and animal reproduction. The status of existing coordinated research programmes is summarized, and a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments is announced. Applications for contracts to participate in this programme are invited. The role of the Section's Animal Production Unit at Seibersdorf is reviewed, and a list of forthcoming events is given

  9. 75 FR 76995 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... established the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) in 1998 (63 FR 68782) to... reported in humans and experimental animals for certain environmental chemicals including arsenic,...

  10. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development: Profiling 774 Chemicals for Molecular Targets and Adverse Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male...

  11. Cellular reprogramming in farm animals: an overview of iPSC generation in the mammalian farm animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorevc, J; Orehek, S; Dovč, P

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines has been successful in mouse and human, but not in farm animals. Development of direct reprogramming technology offers an alternative approach for generation of pluripotent stem cells, applicable also in farm animals. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent practically limitless, ethically acceptable, individuum-specific source of pluripotent cells that can be generated from different types of somatic cells. iPSCs can differentiate to all cell types of an organism's body and have a tremendous potential for numerous applications in medicine, agriculture, and biotechnology. However, molecular mechanisms behind the reprogramming process remain largely unknown and hamper generation of bona fide iPSCs and their use in human clinical practice. Large animal models are essential to expand the knowledge obtained on rodents and facilitate development and validation of transplantation therapies in preclinical studies. Additionally, transgenic animals with special traits could be generated from genetically modified pluripotent cells, using advanced reproduction techniques. Despite their applicative potential, it seems that iPSCs in farm animals haven't received the deserved attention. The aim of this review was to provide a systematic overview on iPSC generation in the most important mammalian farm animal species (cattle, pig, horse, sheep, goat, and rabbit), compare protein sequence similarity of pluripotency-related transcription factors in different species, and discuss potential uses of farm animal iPSCs. Literature mining revealed 32 studies, describing iPSC generation in pig (13 studies), cattle (5), horse (5), sheep (4), goat (3), and rabbit (2) that are summarized in a concise, tabular format. PMID:26900466

  12. Animal Models of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey S Getz; Reardon, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular disease. Both cells of the vessel wall and cells of the immune system participate in atherogenesis. This process is heavily influenced by plasma lipoproteins, genetics and the hemodynamics of the blood flow in the artery. A variety of small and large animal models have been used to study the atherogenic process. No model is ideal as each has its own advantages and limitations with respect to...

  13. Reproductive Disorder Studies Using Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Progesterone Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five dairy cattle, cattle A: 6th parity; cattle B: 7th parity; cattle C: 2nd parity; cattle D and F: 3rd parity, were used in this study. According to Health Extension and Artificial Insemination Technicians anamneses and according to farmers who own the animals, these cattle were showing reproductive failure, and RIA technique was used to study the symptoms. For this purpose, milk progesterone sample were collected twice a week for five weeks to follow the biological reproductive status of every animal. Result from the analysis were plotted for each individual animal and shows that cattle A and B were acyclic, which indicated that no reproductive activity post partum have occurred in both animals; cattle C in the status of prolonged oestrus cycle post partum; and cattle D and F were in the status of recovery of oestrus cycle post partum. With the availability of historical record of the cattle and confirmation of biological status by Health Technicians, the reproductive disorder, which leads to the failure of AI in dairy cattle, can be monitored by RIA Progesterone technique. (author)

  14. A category approach for reproductive effects of phthalates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabjan, Evelin; Hulzebos, Etje; Mennes, W; Piersma, Aldert H

    2006-01-01

    In regulatory toxicology, the experimental assessment of reproductive toxicity is one of the most costly endpoints to perform. Categorizing chemicals is an approach that can be used to reduce animal tests in risk assessments of chemicals, for example, via REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authori

  15. Non-photoperiodic regulation of reproductive physiology in the flexibly breeding pine siskin (Spinus pinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Heather E.; Hahn, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    In order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable conditions, animals use environmental cues to up- and down-regulate the reproductive axis appropriately. Although photoperiodic cues are one of the best studied of such environmental cues, animals also attend to others such as temperature, food availability, rainfall and social cues. Such non-photic cues are expected to be particularly important for tropical species and temperate-zone species that exhibit flexible or opportunistic breed...

  16. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  17. Can chemical structure predict reproductive toxicity?

    OpenAIRE

    Maslankiewicz L; Hulzebos EM; Vermeire TG; Muller JJA; Piersma AH; SEC

    2005-01-01

    Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs), including Quantitative SARs, are applied to the hazard assessment of chemicals. This need is all the more urgent considering the proposed new EU policy on chemicals in REACH, which stresses the need for non-animal testing. DEREKfW and the TSCA Chemical Category List of the New Chemicals Program of the US-EPA were chosen to predict reproductive toxicity for REACH purposes. DEREKfW is a software program predicting the toxicological properties using the l...

  18. Investigation on Melting and Reproduction Process of Aluminum Scrap Cans%废铝易拉罐熔炼及其再生工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁灏; 白培康; 杨晶; 张文达

    2013-01-01

    In the renewable industry aluminum cans recycling and reuse occupy a more important position.The effect of flux components,melting temperature on recovery ratio and impurity content was analyzed.The best combination of optimal purification process obtained by orthogonal experiment is 3# flux components,melting temperature (740 ℃) and flux addition (4%).It can makes recovery ratio increase to 88.6% and impurity content reduce to 0.1065%.The tensile strength and elongation is 193 MPa and 21.04%.%在铝的再生产业中,易拉罐的回收与再利用占有了比较重要的位置.实验研究了熔剂配比、熔炼温度和熔剂加入量对废铝易拉罐再生利用的回收率、含杂量的影响.通过正交试验得到了最优的净化工艺:3#配方熔剂、熔炼温度740℃、熔剂加入量4%的组合,在此条件下废铝易拉罐的回收率为88.6%,含杂量为0.106 5%.其抗拉强度达到193 MPa,伸长率为21.04%.

  19. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AXIS OF JAPANESE MEDAKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a ubquitous element and a significant inorganic pollutant that has previously been found to bioaccumulate in reproductive organs of fish and disrupt important endocrine processes, especially those involved in synthesis, release and metabolism of hormones. Clearly,...

  20. Animal cloning: advances and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuaire Lilian

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Few recent advances have revolutionized the developmental biology as the animal cloning has. Since the birth of Dolly, the sheep, in 1996, which was the first derived clone of a mature animal, a new scientific era began. It has been characterized by growing demystification that differentiated cells are unalterable entities in its nuclear organization and chromatin structure, and by a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the development. Throughout this paper, we will review some of the achievements and limitations of the techniques used, both in therapeutic and in the reproductive cloning, as well as the perspectives that its application allows to glimpse within a close future. At the same time, we will point out some considerations regarding the ethical debate that surrounds such a controversial issue.

  1. Genomics of reproduction in nematodes: prospects for parasite intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Alasdair J; Cottee, Pauline A; Gasser, Robin B

    2008-02-01

    Understanding reproductive processes in parasitic nematodes has the potential to lead to the informed design of new anthelmintics and control strategies. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms underlying sex determination, gametogenesis and reproductive physiology for most parasitic nematodes. Together with comparative analyses of data for the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, molecular investigations are beginning to provide insights into the processes involved in reproduction and development in parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent developments, focusing on technological aspects and on molecules associated with sex-specific differences in adult nematodes. PMID:18182326

  2. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  3. A Perspective on the Importance of Reproductive Mode in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doninck, Karine; Schön, Isa; Martens, Koen

    2003-12-01

    Reproduction is a vital characteristic of life, and sex is the most common reproductive mode in the eukaryotic world. Sex and reproduction are not necessarily linked mechanisms: Sexuality without reproduction exists, while several forms of asexual reproduction are known. The occurrence of sexuality itself is paradoxical, as it is very costly in evolutionary terms. Most of the hypotheses (more than 20) attempting to explain the prevalence of sex fall into two categories: Sex either creates good gene combinations for adaptation to environments or eliminates bad gene combinations counteracting the accumulation of mutations. In spite of this apparent wealth of beneficial effects of sex, asexuality is not rare. Most eukaryotic, asexual lineages are short-lived and can only persist through the presence of sexual roots, but at least two animal groups, bdelloid rotifers and darwinulid ostracods, seem to claim the status of ancient asexuals. Research on (a)sexuality is relevant to astrobiology in a number of ways. First, strong relationships between the origin and persistence of life in extreme environments and reproductive mode are known. Second, the "habitability" of nonterrestrial environments to life greatly depends on reproductive mode. Whereas asexuals can do equally well or better in harsh environments, they fail to adapt fast enough to changing abiotic and biotic environments. Third, it has been shown that plants reproduce mainly asexually in space, and sperm production and motility in some vertebrates are hampered. Both findings indicate that extraterrestrial life under conditions different from Earth might be dominated by asexual reproduction. Finally, for exchange of biological material between planets, the choice of reproductive mode will be important.

  4. Stochastic modelling of animal movement

    OpenAIRE

    Smouse, Peter E.; Focardi, Stefano; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Kie, John G.; Forester, James D.; Morales, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern animal movement modelling derives from two traditions. Lagrangian models, based on random walk behaviour, are useful for multi-step trajectories of single animals. Continuous Eulerian models describe expected behaviour, averaged over stochastic realizations, and are usefully applied to ensembles of individuals. We illustrate three modern research arenas. (i) Models of home-range formation describe the process of an animal ‘settling down’, accomplished by including one or more focal poi...

  5. Animated nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  6. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  7. Behavioural reproductive isolation and speciation in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Punita Nanda; Bashisth Narayan Singh

    2012-06-01

    The origin of premating reproductive isolation continues to help elucidate the process of speciation and is the central event in the evolution of biological species. Therefore, during the process of species formation the diverging populations must acquire some means of reproductive isolation so that the genes from one gene pool are prevented from dispersing freely into a foreign gene pool. In the genus Drosophila, the phenomenon of behavioural reproductive isolation, which is an important type of premating (prezygotic) reproductive isolating mechanisms, has been extensively studied and interesting data have been documented. In many cases incomplete sexual isolation has been observed and the pattern and degree of isolation within and between the species have often been used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships. The present review documents an overview of speciation mediated through behavioural incompatibility in different species groups of Drosophila with particular reference to the models proposed on the basis of one-sided ethological isolation to predict the direction of evolution. This study is crucial for understanding the mechanism of speciation through behavioural incompatibility and also for an understanding of speciation genetics in future prospects.

  8. Peptides: Basic determinants of reproductive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Onder; Aydin, Suleyman; Celik, Nilufer; Yilmaz, Musa

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian reproduction is a costly process in terms of energy consumption. The critical information regarding metabolic status is signaled to the hypothalamus mainly through peripheral peptides from the adipose tissue and gastrointestinal tract. Changes in energy stores produce fluctuations in leptin, insulin, ghrelin and glucose signals that feedback mainly to the hypothalamus to regulate metabolism and fertility. In near future, possible effects of the nutritional status on GnRH regulation can be evaluated by measuring serum or tissue levels of leptin and ghrelin in patiens suffering from infertility. The fact that leptin and ghrelin are antagonistic in their effects on GnRH neurons, their respective agonistic and antagonistic roles make them ideal candidates to use instead of GnRH agonist and antagonist. Similarly, kisspeptin expressing neurons are likely to mediate the well-established link between energy balance and reproductive functions. Exogenous kisspeptin can be used for physiological ovarian hyperstimulation for in-vitro fertilization. Moreover, kisspeptin antagonist therapy can be used for the treatment of postmenapousal women, precocious puberty, PCOS, endometriosis and uterine fibroids. In this review, we will analyze the central mechanisms involved in the integration of metabolic information and their contribution to the control of the reproductive function. Particular attention will be paid to summarize the participation of leptin, kisspeptin, ghrelin, NPY, orexin, urocortin, VIP, insulin, galanin, galanin like peptide, oxytocin, agouti gene-related peptide, and POMC neurons in this process and their possible interactions to contribute to the metabolic control of reproduction. PMID:26074346

  9. The peculiarity of animal complexes of chernozem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zhukov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The genetic connection of animal complexes and soil cover is in the basis of diagnostic ability of animals to indicate and quantity assessment of soil processes. The ecoiGgical view and peculiarity of soil animal complexes has the most impotent value. The soil animal complexes of steppe and their trans-formation under artificial forest are discussed

  10. The peculiarity of animal complexes of chernozem

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Zhukov

    2005-01-01

    The genetic connection of animal complexes and soil cover is in the basis of diagnostic ability of animals to indicate and quantity assessment of soil processes. The ecoiGgical view and peculiarity of soil animal complexes has the most impotent value. The soil animal complexes of steppe and their trans-formation under artificial forest are discussed

  11. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  12. Globalization and reproductive tourism in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Shrivastav, Pankaj

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 2 decades, the discipline of anthropology has been deeply concerned with the processes and effects of globalization around the world. One of the major anthropological theorists of globalization, Arjun Appadurai, has delineated a "global cultural economy" in which global movements operate through 5 pathways, which he famously called "scapes." This article uses the language of "scapes" to examine the global flows involved in so-called "reproductive tourism," or the search for assisted reproductive technologies across national and international borders. Reproductive tourism entails a complex "reproscape" of moving people, technologies, finance, media, ideas, and gametes, pursued by infertile couples in their "quests for conception." This article examines reproductive tourism to and from the United Arab Emirates, which is now the site of intense globalization and global flows, including individual and population movements for the purposes of reproductive and other forms of medical care.

  13. Bienestar y reproducción animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It can be defined Animal welfare (AW, as the stage of complete physical and mental health of the animals where is in complete harmony with their atmosphere. The correct well-being should fulfill appropriate requirements as: I manage, food and transport, treatment, prevention of illnesses, appropriate facilities for their development and their comfort. The general objective of the BW, is to avoid the pain or unnecessary suffering above all and to force as much to the proprietors as to the caretakers of animals, torespect minimum requirements of welfare. In this work, aspects related with the strss are approached - answer of the animals in the face of any factor of the environment - that rebound with the welfare and reproductive acting of the domestic mammals in the Units of Animal Production (UAP.

  14. Animal science: Isotopes and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many regions of the world, animal production is limited by poor growth, reproductive performance and milk output of livestock, thus limiting the availability of animal products such as meat, milk, leather, etc., for use by man. Reduced animal production results from inadequate or unbalanced nutrition, lack of adaptation to climatic conditions, and parasitic and other diseases The production from animals can be improved on the one hand by improving genotypes (the breeds and strains within a given species) to make them better suited to the environment to which they are exposed, and on the other hand by modifying the components of the environment which are limiting the production. In practice, a combination of these two strategies is usually desirable but the relative importance of each is determined by short- and long-term economic considerations and the likely environmental consequences. Isotopes and radiation play an important part in identifying and alleviating the genetic and environmental limitations to animal production

  15. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

  16. EFFECT OF PHYTOADDITIVES ON SOW REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rolinec

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytoadditives are characterized as herbal products to use in nutrition to increase the productivity of animals. At present, the really assumed potential of fecundity is 15.0 piglets born alive, 2.4 litters/year, 10% losses and 32.5 piglets per sow/year. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of phytogenic additive in sows feed rations on reproductive efficiency. In control group were 12 sows Large white (between2nd and 5th farrows and in experimental group were the same sows as in control group, but they were on the next farrowing (between 3rd and 6th farrows. Sows in experimental group were fed with the same feed ratio, but with phytogenic additive supplementation.We studied in both groups number of all born, live born and weaned piglets in litter. We found out that reproductive efficiency of sows in control group was: 10.17 all born piglets, 8.67 live born piglets, 8.17 weaned piglets. Reproductive efficiency of sows fed with phytogenic additive was: 13.00 all born piglets,10.67 live born piglets, 10.17 weaned piglets. However we did not find statistically significant effect of the addition of phytogenic additive to the feed onreproductive efficiency of sows between control and experimental group.

  17. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  18. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  19. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 49, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the upcoming International Symposium on 'Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health' from 8 to 11 June 2009 in Vienna, Austria. The Symposium will address: The early and rapid diagnosis and control methods for transboundary animal diseases including those of a zoonotic nature; Improved reproduction technologies and breeding strategies; The efficient and sustainable use of locally available resources for animal production

  20. Sense and Nonsense in Metabolic Control of Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eSchneider

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An exciting synergistic interaction occurs among researchers working at the interface of reproductive biology and energy homeostasis. Reproductive biologists benefit from the theories, experimental designs, and methodologies used by experts on energy homeostasis, and bring context and meaning to the study of energy homeostasis. There is a growing recognition that identification of candidate genes for obesity is little more than meaningless reductionism unless those genes and their expression are placed in a developmental, environmental, and evolutionary context. Reproductive biology provides this context because 1 metabolic energy is the most important factor that controls reproductive success, 2 gonadal hormones affect energy intake, storage and expenditure, 3 reproductive hormone secretion changes during development, and 4 reproductive success is key to evolutionary adaptation, the process that most likely molded the mechanisms that control energy balance. It is likely that by viewing energy intake, storage, and expenditure in the context of reproductive success, we will gain insight into human obesity, eating disorders, diabetes, and other pathologies related to fuel homeostasis.This review emphasizes the metabolic hypothesis: A sensory system monitors the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels and orchestrates behavioral motivation to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates or is unpredictable.

  1. The role of genomics in conservation and reproductive sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Warren E; Koepfli, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    maintaining functional ecosystems, evolutionary process and will impact future food supplies, human health, biomaterial development and geopolitics (Myers and Knoll Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:5389-5392, 2001; Templeton et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:5426-5432, 2001). Therefore, conservation of genetic diversity is a social, cultural, scientific, and economic prerogative and is the key to adaptation in the uncertain future of a human-dominated environment. Once lost, genetic resources are nearly impossible to regain, increasing the urgency of fundamental global approaches (e.g. www.cbd.int/sp/targets ).In this chapter we provide a review of current research and recent advances in biotechnology and genomic approaches for animal conservation and the management of genetic resources, with an emphasis on reproductive sciences. It is intended to provide information and insights for research and to provoke thoughts on how to take advantage of these opportunities. PMID:25091907

  2. Sperm Dynamics in Spiders (Araneae): Ultrastructural Analysis of the Sperm Activation Process in the Garden Spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Vöcking; Gabriele Uhl; Peter Michalik

    2013-01-01

    Storage of sperm inside the female genital tract is an integral phase of reproduction in many animal species. The sperm storage site constitutes the arena for sperm activation, sperm competition and female sperm choice. Consequently, to understand animal mating systems information on the processes that occur from sperm transfer to fertilization is required. Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that...

  3. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  4. Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody: technetium-99m labeling and the validation process of a scintigraphic animal model with a non-cellular antigenic implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Marques, Fabio Luiz Navarro; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Hironaka, Fausto Haruki; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2002-07-01

    Animal models are currently used to verify the biodistribution of different radiopharmaceuticals before its clinical application in Nuclear Medicine; however, there may be some limitations. The utilization of labelled anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) in experimental models often requires implant of human antigens (usually a cellular implant), which cannot be achieved in immunocompetent animals. Our purpose was to label an anti-CEA MoAb with technetium-99m (99Tc) and to validate a simplified animal model using a noncellular antigenic implant. MoAb was directly labelled with 99mTc, after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. Labeling efficiency was checked by ascending chromatography and immunoreactive fraction was measured in plastic wells sensitized with the antigen. Radiopharmaceutical biodistribution was evaluated by dissection and scintigraphy in 5 mice groups; following the subcutaneous administration of Al(OH)3, CEA adsorbed Al(OH)2 and a control group evaluation. Labeling efficiency was 94+/-3%, which showed to be stable for 24 hr, with immunoreactive fraction above 50%. Invasive biodistribution evaluation showed prolonged blood retention, hepatic and renal uptake. A significant increase in uptake was observed in scintigraphic studies of animals with CEA-adsorbed Al(OH)3 implants compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The non-cellular antigenic implant model simplifies the pre-clinical evaluation of labelled MoAb. PMID:12146705

  5. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Gutleb, Arno C; Bergman, Ake; Eriksen, Gunnar S; Murk, AlberTinka J; Ropstad, Erik; Saunders, Margaret; Skaare, Janneche U

    2009-04-01

    The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubiquitous and constant exposure of humans to these chemicals. Phthalates were postulated to produce endocrine-disrupting effects in rodents, where fetal exposure to these compounds was found to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. The adverse effects observed in rodent models raised concerns as to whether exposure to phthalates represents a potential health risk to humans. At present, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) have been demonstrated to produce reproductive and developmental toxicity; thus, this review focuses on these chemicals. For the general population, DEHP exposure is predominantly via food. The average concentrations of phthalates are highest in children and decrease with age. At present, DEHP exposures in the general population appear to be close to the tolerable daily intake (TDI), suggesting that at least some individuals exceed the TDI. In addition, specific high-risk groups exist with internal levels that are several orders of magnitude above average. Urinary metabolites used as biomarkers for the internal levels provide additional means to determine more specifically phthalate exposure levels in both general and high-risk populations. However, exposure data are not consistent and there are indications that secondary metabolites may be more accurate indicators of the internal exposure compared to primary metabolites. The present human toxicity data are not sufficient for evaluating the occurrence of reproductive effects following phthalate exposure in humans, based on existing relevant animal data. This is especially the case for data on female reproductive toxicity, which are

  6. Reproduction or opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard; Karen, David; Nielsen, Jens Christian;

    2016-01-01

    what key experiences and relationships lead students to abandon or sustain their interest in careers related to sports and how this differs for boys and girls. By applying Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and types of capital, we conclude that there are elements of both reproduction......) with a follow-up survey in 2015. In this paper, we explore the social backgrounds and experiences of students in order to examine their likelihood of retention during the first few years of the program. Focusing on socioeconomic status, the role of having parents in elite sports, and type of sport, we study...

  7. Nearby grandmother enhances calf survival and reproduction in Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Usually animals reproduce into old age, but a few species such as humans and killer whales can live decades after their last reproduction. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that such life-history evolved through older females switching to invest in their existing (grand)offspring, thereby increasing their inclusive fitness and selection for post-reproductive lifespan. However, positive grandmother effects are also found in non-menopausal taxa, but evidence of their associated fitness effects is rare and only a few tests of the hypothesis in such species exist. Here we investigate the grandmother effects in Asian elephants. Using a multigenerational demographic dataset on semi-captive elephants in Myanmar, we found that grandcalves from young mothers (grandmother resided with her grandcalf compared to grandmothers residing elsewhere. Resident grandmothers also decreased their daughters' inter-birth intervals by one year. In contrast to the hypothesis predictions, the grandmother's own reproductive status did not modify such grandmother benefits. That elephant grandmothers increased their inclusive fitness by enhancing their daughter's reproductive rate and success irrespective of their own reproductive status suggests that fitness-enhancing grandmaternal effects are widespread, and challenge the view that grandmother effects alone select for menopause coupled with long post-reproductive lifespan. PMID:27282468

  8. Nearby grandmother enhances calf survival and reproduction in Asian elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Mar, Khyne U.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Usually animals reproduce into old age, but a few species such as humans and killer whales can live decades after their last reproduction. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that such life-history evolved through older females switching to invest in their existing (grand)offspring, thereby increasing their inclusive fitness and selection for post-reproductive lifespan. However, positive grandmother effects are also found in non-menopausal taxa, but evidence of their associated fitness effects is rare and only a few tests of the hypothesis in such species exist. Here we investigate the grandmother effects in Asian elephants. Using a multigenerational demographic dataset on semi-captive elephants in Myanmar, we found that grandcalves from young mothers (<20 years) had 8 times lower mortality risk if the grandmother resided with her grandcalf compared to grandmothers residing elsewhere. Resident grandmothers also decreased their daughters’ inter-birth intervals by one year. In contrast to the hypothesis predictions, the grandmother’s own reproductive status did not modify such grandmother benefits. That elephant grandmothers increased their inclusive fitness by enhancing their daughter’s reproductive rate and success irrespective of their own reproductive status suggests that fitness-enhancing grandmaternal effects are widespread, and challenge the view that grandmother effects alone select for menopause coupled with long post-reproductive lifespan. PMID:27282468

  9. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    OpenAIRE

    G. William Skinner

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869) to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir), coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reprodu...

  10. Gender and Women's Reproductive Health

    OpenAIRE

    Aygul Akyuz; Gonul Sahiner

    2010-01-01

    AIM: According to the “rights to equality” in reproductive and sexual rights, “no persons should be discriminated against their sexual and reproductive lives, in their access to health care and/or services on the grounds of race, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family position, age, language, religion, political, or other opinion; national or social origin, property, birth, or other status” In this context, health professionals devoted to reproductive health are r...

  11. Male reproductive health and yoga

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice cel...

  12. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  13. Companion animal adoption study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhart, Laura; Boyd, Renee

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption. PMID:12578739

  14. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  15. Nanotechnology developments: opportunities for animal health and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Manuja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has opened up new vistas for applications in molecular biology, biotechnology and almost all the disciplines of veterinary and animal sciences. Excellence in animal health and production can be achieved by translation of this newer technology to create effective services and products for animals. The ability to manufacture and manipulate matter on the nanoscale has offered opportunities for application in diverse areas of animal sciences. Nanosensors, nanovaccines, adjuvants, gene delivery and smart drug delivery methods have the potential to revolutionize animal health and production. There can be numerous applications of the nanomaterials for disease diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, animal nutrition, animal breeding, reproduction, tissue engineering and value addition to animal products. This paper reviews the recent developments in nanotechnology research and opportunities for application in animal sciences.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  18. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  19. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analog...

  20. Regulatory assessment of reproductive toxicology data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This chapter outlines a regulator's personal approach to the assessment of reproductive toxicology data in the context of the assessment of the overall nonclinical data package for pharmaceutical agents. Using as a framework the International Conference on Harmonisation Common Technical Document headings, guidance is provided on the expectations of regulators for the presentation and discussion of the data by the applicant to facilitate the risk assessment process. Consideration is given to the use of reproductive toxicology data in the assessment process for both clinical trial applications (CTAs) and marketing authorization applications (MAAs). Suggestions for some guiding principles in drafting of the various product information documents (for example the Investigator's Brochure (IB) for CTAs and the Nonclinical Overview and Summary of Product Characteristics for MAAs) are included. PMID:23138923