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Sample records for animal product preclinical

  1. Preclinical animal anxiety research - flaws and prejudices.

    OpenAIRE

    Ennaceur, A.; Chazot, P L

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The current tests of anxiety in mice and rats used in preclinical research include the elevated plus‐maze (EPM) or zero‐maze (EZM), the light/dark box (LDB), and the open‐field (OF). They are currently very popular, and despite their poor achievements, they continue to exert considerable constraints on the development of novel approaches. Hence, a novel anxiety test needs to be compared with these traditional tests, and assessed against various factors that were identified as a sourc...

  2. Preclinical imaging in animal models of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern radiotherapy benefits from precise and targeted diagnostic and pretherapeutic imaging. Standard imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) offer high morphological detail but only limited functional information on tumors. Novel functional and molecular imaging modalities provide biological information about tumors in addition to detailed morphological information. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) CT or ultrasound-based perfusion imaging as well as hybrid modalities, such as positron emission tomography (PET) CT or MRI-PET have the potential to identify and precisely delineate viable and/or perfused tumor areas, enabling optimization of targeted radiotherapy. Functional information on tissue microcirculation and/or glucose metabolism allow a more precise definition and treatment of tumors while reducing the radiation dose and sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. In the development of new imaging methods for planning individualized radiotherapy, preclinical imaging and research plays a pivotal role, as the value of multimodality imaging can only be assessed, tested and adequately developed in a preclinical setting, i.e. in animal tumor models. New functional imaging modalities will play an increasing role for the surveillance of early treatment response during radiation therapy and in the assessment of the potential value of new combination therapies (e.g. combining anti-angiogenic drugs with radiotherapy). (orig.)

  3. Preclinical Cancer Chemoprevention Studies Using Animal Model of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammation is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is a longstanding inflammatory disease of intestine with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Several molecular events involved in chronic inflammatory process are reported to contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis of CRC in the inflamed colon. They include over-production of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes in arachidonic acid biosynthesis pathway, up-regulation of certain cytokines, and intestinal immune system dysfunction. In this article, firstly I briefly introduce our experimental animal models where colorectal neoplasms rapidly develop in the inflamed colorectum. Secondary, data on preclinical cancer chemoprevention studies of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis by morin, bezafibrate, and valproic acid, using this novel inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis model is described

  4. Preclinical Cancer Chemoprevention Studies Using Animal Model of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is a longstanding inflammatory disease of intestine with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC. Several molecular events involved in chronic inflammatory process are reported to contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis of CRC in the inflamed colon. They include over-production of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes in arachidonic acid biosynthesis pathway, up-regulation of certain cytokines, and intestinal immune system dysfunction. In this article, firstly I briefly introduce our experimental animal models where colorectal neoplasms rapidly develop in the inflamed colorectum. Secondary, data on preclinical cancer chemoprevention studies of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis by morin, bezafibrate, and valproic acid, using this novel inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis model is described.

  5. Preclinical Cancer Chemoprevention Studies Using Animal Model of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji [Cytopatholgy Division, Tohkai Cytopathology Institute, Cancer Research and Prevention (TCI-CaRP), 5-1-2 Minami-uzura, Gifu 500-8285 (Japan); Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)

    2012-07-16

    Inflammation is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is a longstanding inflammatory disease of intestine with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Several molecular events involved in chronic inflammatory process are reported to contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis of CRC in the inflamed colon. They include over-production of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes in arachidonic acid biosynthesis pathway, up-regulation of certain cytokines, and intestinal immune system dysfunction. In this article, firstly I briefly introduce our experimental animal models where colorectal neoplasms rapidly develop in the inflamed colorectum. Secondary, data on preclinical cancer chemoprevention studies of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis by morin, bezafibrate, and valproic acid, using this novel inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis model is described.

  6. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  7. The anxious mouse: implications for preclinical research and animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is an essential emotion that is highly conserved during evolution and is present in animals and humans. Although anxiety is a biological adaptive response, anxiety disorders in humans are common and affect about 10-17% of the world population. To gain more insight in the underlying neurobiol

  8. Accelerating drug discovery for Alzheimer's disease: best practices for preclinical animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shineman, Diana W; Basi, Guriqbal S.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Colton, Carol A.; Greenberg, Barry D.; Hollister, Beth A; Lincecum, John; Leblanc, Gabrielle G.; Lee, Linda H; Luo, Feng; Morgan, Dave; Morse, Iva; Refolo, Lorenzo M; Riddell, David R; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a result, over 300 interventions have been investigated and reported to mitigate pathological phenotypes or improve behavior in AD animal models or both. To date, however, very few of these findings have resulted in target validation in humans or successful translation to disease-modifying therapies. Challenges in translating preclinical studies to clinical...

  9. The importance of pre-clinical animal testing in interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Yeung, Alan C; Ikeno, Fumiaki

    2008-11-01

    The treatment of cardiovascular disease has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, allowing patients to live longer and better quality lives. The introduction of new therapies has contributed much to this success. Nowhere has this been more evident than in interventional cardiology, where percutaneous cardiovascular intervention has evolved in the past 2 decades from a quirky experimental procedure to a therapeutic cornerstone for patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease. The development of these technologies from the earliest stages requires preclinical experiments using animal models. Once introduced into the clinical arena, an understanding of therapeutic mechanisms of these devices can be ascertained through comparisons of animal model research findings with clinical pathological specimens. This review provides an overview of the emerging role, results of preclinical studies and development, and evaluation of animal models for percutaneous cardiovascular intervention technologies for patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease. PMID:19142381

  10. Scaling Pharmacodynamics from In Vitro and Preclinical Animal Studies to Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Mager, Donald E.; Woo, Sukyung; Jusko, William J.

    2009-01-01

    An important feature of mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models is the identification of drug- and system-specific factors that determine the intensity and time-course of pharmacological effects. This provides an opportunity to integrate information obtained from in vitro bioassays and preclinical pharmacological studies in animals to anticipate the clinical and adverse responses to drugs in humans. The fact that contemporary PK/PD modeling continues to evolve and seeks...

  11. Building for animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to limit the radiation dose to persons working with animal husbandry in severe fallout situations, it was considered necessary to make an inventory of the Swedish livestock buildings as to number, location, use and size. These data as well as data on geometry of buildings, building material and thickness of the material in walls and roofs are given in the present work. On the basis of the mentioned data, calculations were made of the shielding factors of different types of livestock buildings. The collected data can also be used in preparedness planning in relation to housing facilities for livestock and location and size of animal production in situations of crises or war. The calculations show shielding factors for different types of livestock buildings of normal ground area within the range of 0.18-0.71. The higher value indicates a fairly poor shielding effect. The inventory and the calculations show that in those regions in Sweden where the main part of the livestock is managed, the types of buildings are, however, characterized by radiation shielding factors of 0.3-0.4. Calculation were also made of the radiation level inside the buildings following decontamination of roofs or of surrounding ground. Ground decontamination only, i.e., removal of the upper contaminated surface layer, will reduce the radiation level inside the building. For most buildings the radius of the surrounding area to be decontaminated has to be 15-30 times larger than the width of the building in order to achieve a 50 percentage reduction of the radiation level inside the building. For buildings of medium or large size and with thick walls the radiation contribution from the roof is greater than the radiation from the ground, and regardless of the size of the ground areas decontaminated the radiation level inside these buildings will only be reduced by 20-30%. 15 refs, 11 figs, 14 tabs

  12. Animal Production in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SARICA, Şenay; Ulutaş, Zafer; ŞAHİN, Aziz

    2004-01-01

    Animal sector in Turkey has changed considerably in the last few years. Although the most significant advancements have occurred in the poultry sector, the cattle and small ruminants sector could not achieve similar improvements. Reasons of the depression in the cattle and small ruminants sector are the lack of breeding animal materials and high quality feed sources, insufficient disease control, disorganized and small size of the animal farms, lack of infrastructure, poor education levels of...

  13. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  14. Porcine Heterotopic Composite Tissue Allograft Transplantation using A Large Animal Model for Preclinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yur-Ren Kuo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composite tissue allograft (CTA transplantation is currently limited by therisks of side effects resulting from long-term high-dose immunosuppression.Therefore, preclinical animal models are essential to help CTA transplantationadvance into clinical reality. Evidence has shown that small-animalmodel (rodents immunotherapy protocols cannot be directly applied tohumans. This study investigated whether a miniature porcine model is reproduciblefor preclinical studies.Methods: Based on the concept of vascularized skeletal tissue allograft transplantation,limb heterotopic allograft tissue from a mismatched donor miniature pig consistingof the distal femur, knee joint, tibia, fibula, and surrounding musclewith a vascularized skin paddle model supplied by the superficial femoralvessels was transplanted into recipient pigs. Swine viability and rejectionsigns of the allograft were monitored postoperatively. Histopathologicalchanges in the allograft tissues were examined using hematoxylin and eosinstaining if the allo-skin flap was rejected.Results: The recipient pigs were ambulatory immediately following surgery. Theflaps showed no visible signs of rejection over the first 4 days of observation.The skin flaps appeared bluish-purple and edematous on postoperative days5~7, and progressed to tissue necrosis and rejection on postoperative days8~13. Histological examination revealed marked mononuclear cell infiltrationand necrotic changes in the all rejected tissues, especial in the allograftskin tissues (skin > muscle > bone > cartilage.Conclusions: The results showed this the porcine CTA model is reproducible and suitablefor preclinical training for human CTA transplantation. Monitoring of theallo-skin flap is a useful strategy to evaluate composite tissue allograft rejection.

  15. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  16. Affective preclinical modeling of psychiatric disorders: taking imbalanced primal emotional feelings of animals seriously in our search for novel antidepressants

    OpenAIRE

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical animal models of psychiatric disorders are of critical importance for advances in development of new psychiatric medicine. Regrettably, behavior-only models have yielded no novel targeted treatments during the past half-century of vigorous deployment. This may reflect the general neglect of experiential aspects of animal emotions, since affective mental states of animals supposedly cannot be empirically monitored. This supposition is wrong—to the extent that the rewarding and puni...

  17. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  18. Radioactivity transfer to animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the behaviour of strontium, caesium, ruthenium, plutonium and americium in a range of domestic animals is reviewed to form a basis for the specification of time-dependent mathematical models describing uptake, distribution and retention in various domestic animals. Transfer factors relating concentration in animal product to daily radioactivity intake are derived after 100 d continuous intake and at equilibrium. These transfer factors are compared with the available published literature and used as a basis for the derivation of feedingstuff conversion factors relating limiting concentrations in animal feedingstuffs to limiting concentrations in human foodstuffs for application to animals receiving commercial feedingstuffs after a nuclear accident. Recommended transfer factors for animal products in conditions of continuous discharge and models for application to field conditions after a nuclear accident are also presented. Transfer of caesium to animal products is more effective than that for the other elements considered here. Transfer to meat of lamb, fattening pig, and chickens is generally more effective than that for other animals and other products

  19. Preclinical Studies with Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Different Animal Models for Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Zucconi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC have been widely investigated for cell-based therapy studies as an alternative source to bone marrow transplantation. Umbilical cord tissue is a rich source of MSCs with potential to derivate at least muscle, cartilage, fat, and bone cells in vitro. The possibility to replace the defective muscle cells using cell therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of progressive muscular dystrophies (PMDs, independently of the specific gene mutation. Therefore, preclinical studies in different models of muscular dystrophies are of utmost importance. The main objective of the present study is to evaluate if umbilical cord MSCs have the potential to reach and differentiate into muscle cells in vivo in two animal models of PMDs. In order to address this question we injected (1 human umbilical cord tissue (hUCT MSCs into the caudal vein of SJL mice; (2 hUCT and canine umbilical cord vein (cUCV MSCs intra-arterially in GRMD dogs. Our results here reported support the safety of the procedure and indicate that the injected cells could engraft in the host muscle in both animal models but could not differentiate into muscle cells. These observations may provide important information aiming future therapy for muscular dystrophies.

  20. Preclinical Studies with Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Different Animal Models for Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, Eder; Vieira, Natassia Moreira; Bueno, Carlos Roberto; Secco, Mariane; Jazedje, Tatiana; Costa Valadares, Marcos; Fussae Suzuki, Miriam; Bartolini, Paolo; Vainzof, Mariz; Zatz, Mayana

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been widely investigated for cell-based therapy studies as an alternative source to bone marrow transplantation. Umbilical cord tissue is a rich source of MSCs with potential to derivate at least muscle, cartilage, fat, and bone cells in vitro. The possibility to replace the defective muscle cells using cell therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of progressive muscular dystrophies (PMDs), independently of the specific gene mutation. Therefore, preclinical studies in different models of muscular dystrophies are of utmost importance. The main objective of the present study is to evaluate if umbilical cord MSCs have the potential to reach and differentiate into muscle cells in vivo in two animal models of PMDs. In order to address this question we injected (1) human umbilical cord tissue (hUCT) MSCs into the caudal vein of SJL mice; (2) hUCT and canine umbilical cord vein (cUCV) MSCs intra-arterially in GRMD dogs. Our results here reported support the safety of the procedure and indicate that the injected cells could engraft in the host muscle in both animal models but could not differentiate into muscle cells. These observations may provide important information aiming future therapy for muscular dystrophies. PMID:21785565

  1. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy in Small Animal Research: Applications in Molecular and Preclinical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Greco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM is a noninvasive multimodality technique that allows high-resolution imaging in mice. It is affordable, widely available, and portable. When it is coupled to Doppler ultrasound with color and power Doppler, it can be used to quantify blood flow and to image microcirculation as well as the response of tumor blood supply to cancer therapy. Target contrast ultrasound combines ultrasound with novel molecular targeted contrast agent to assess biological processes at molecular level. UBM is useful to investigate the growth and differentiation of tumors as well as to detect early molecular expression of cancer-related biomarkers in vivo and to monitor the effects of cancer therapies. It can be also used to visualize the embryological development of mice in uterus or to examine their cardiovascular development. The availability of real-time imaging of mice anatomy allows performing aspiration procedures under ultrasound guidance as well as the microinjection of cells, viruses, or other agents into precise locations. This paper will describe some basic principles of high-resolution imaging equipment, and the most important applications in molecular and preclinical imaging in small animal research.

  2. Scaling pharmacodynamics from in vitro and preclinical animal studies to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Donald E; Woo, Sukyung; Jusko, William J

    2009-01-01

    An important feature of mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models is the identification of drug- and system-specific factors that determine the intensity and time-course of pharmacological effects. This provides an opportunity to integrate information obtained from in vitro bioassays and preclinical pharmacological studies in animals to anticipate the clinical and adverse responses to drugs in humans. The fact that contemporary PK/PD modeling continues to evolve and seeks to emulate systems level properties should provide enhanced capabilities to scale-up pharmacodynamic data. Critical steps in drug discovery and development, such as lead compound and first in human dose selection, may become more efficient with the implementation and further refinement of translational PK/PD modeling. In this review, we highlight fundamental principles in pharmacodynamics and the basic expectations for in vitro bioassays and traditional allometric scaling in PK/PD modeling. Discussion of PK/PD modeling efforts for recombinant human erythropoietin is also included as a case study showing the potential for advanced systems analysis to facilitate extrapolations and improve understanding of inter-species differences in drug responses. PMID:19252333

  3. Mitoapocynin Treatment Protects Against Neuroinflammation and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in a Preclinical Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Langley, Monica R; Harischandra, Dilshan S; Neal, Matthew L; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Joseph, Joy; Brenza, Timothy; Narasimhan, Balaji; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2016-06-01

    cellular and pre-clinical animal models of PD by attenuating oxidative damage and neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:26838361

  4. Affective preclinical modeling of psychiatric disorders: taking imbalanced primal emotional feelings of animals seriously in our search for novel antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-12-01

    Preclinical animal models of psychiatric disorders are of critical importance for advances in development of new psychiatric medicine. Regrettably, behavior-only models have yielded no novel targeted treatments during the past half-century of vigorous deployment. This may reflect the general neglect of experiential aspects of animal emotions, since affective mental states of animals supposedly cannot be empirically monitored. This supposition is wrong-to the extent that the rewarding and punishing aspects of emotion circuit arousals reflect positive and negative affective states. During the past decade, the use of such affective neuroscience-based animal modeling has yielded three novel antidepressants (i) via the alleviation of psychic pain with low doses of buprenorphine; (ii) via the amplification of enthusiasm by direct stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle); and (iii) via the facilitation of the capacity for social joy with play facilitators such as rapastinel (GLYX13). All have progressed to successful human testing. For optimal progress, it may be useful for preclinical investigators to focus on the evolved affective foundations of psychiatrically relevant brain emotional disorders for optimal animal modeling. PMID:26869838

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included

  6. Animal production in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1972, twenty animal scientists from twelve countries, participated in a meeting in Djakarta sponsored by the Joint FAO/IAEA Divsion of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, to discuss the role that isotopes and other nuclear techniques have in alleviating some specific problems in poultry, pig and ruminant production associated with tropical countries. In addition to their applications in the study of environmental factors, nuclear techniques are relevant to the genetic improvement of the livestock populations. They can be used to measure physiological and biochemical functions associated with higher productivity and also to provide indices for the selection of superior individuals for use in breeding programmes, especially where the incorporation of a particular physiological attribute into a particular breed-type is desired

  7. Animating Community: Reflexivity and Identity in Indian Animation Production Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jones,Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Animating Community examines the cultural practices of animators in India, and particularly the role of practitioner testimony in conceiving and negotiating social structures underpinning the nascent Indian animation industry. Recognizing a tendency in practitioner accounts towards theorization of contested industrial discourses, this research takes as its object the reflexive practice of animators in trade texts and interviews. These reveal how local practitioners understand production cultu...

  8. SU-C-BRE-01: 3D Conformal Micro Irradiation Results of Four Treatment Sites for Preclinical Small Animal and Clinical Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S; Yaddanapudi, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Rangaraj, D; Izaguirre, E [Scott and White Hospital, Temple, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Small animal irradiation can provide preclinical insights necessary for clinical advancement. In order to provide clinically relevant data, these small animal irradiations must be designed such that the treatment methods and results are comparable to clinical protocols, regardless of variations in treatment size and modality. Methods: Small animal treatments for four treatment sites (brain, liver, lung and spine) were investigated, accounting for change in treatment energy and target size. Up to five orthovoltage (300kVp) beams were used in the preclinical treatments, using circular, square, and conformal tungsten apertures, based on the treatment site. Treatments were delivered using the image guided micro irradiator (microIGRT). The plans were delivered to a mouse sized phantom and dose measurements in axial and coronal planes were performed using radiochromic film. The results of the clinical and preclinical protocols were characterized in terms of conformality number, CTV coverage, dose nonuniformity ratio, and organ at risk sparing. Results: Preclinical small animal treatment conformality was within 1–16% of clinical results for all treatment sites. The volume of the CTV receiving 100% of the prescription dose was typically within 10% of clinical values. The dose non-uniformity was consistently higher for preclinical treatments compared to clinical treatments, indicating hot spots in the target. The ratios of the mean dose in the target to the mean dose in an organ at risk were comparable if not better for preclinical versus clinical treatments. Finally, QUANTEC dose constraints were applied and the recommended morbidity limits were satisfied in each small animal treatment site. Conclusion: We have shown that for four treatment sites, preclinical 3D conformal small animal treatments can be clinically comparable if clinical protocols are followed. Using clinical protocols as the standard, preclinical irradiation methods can be altered and iteratively

  9. The Usefulness of Systematic Reviews of Animal Experiments for the Design of Preclinical and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Rob B. M.; Wever, Kimberley E; Avey, Marc T.; Stephens, Martin L.; Sena, Emily S.; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The question of how animal studies should be designed, conducted, and analyzed remains underexposed in societal debates on animal experimentation. This is not only a scientific but also a moral question. After all, if animal experiments are not appropriately designed, conducted, and analyzed, the results produced are unlikely to be reliable and the animals have in effect been wasted. In this article, we focus on one particular method to address this moral question, namely systematic reviews o...

  10. Imaging axonal degeneration and repair in pre-clinical animal models of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya S Yandamuri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a central nervous system (CNS disease characterized by chronic neuroinflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. Infiltration of activated lymphocytes and myeloid cells are thought to be primarily responsible for white matter damage and axonopathy. Over time, this neurologic damage manifests clinically as debilitating motor and cognitive symptoms. Existing MS therapies focus on symptom relief and delay of disease progression through reduction of neuroinflammation. However, long-term strategies to remyelinate, protect, or regenerate axons have remained elusive, posing a challenge to treating progressive forms of MS. Preclinical mouse models and techniques such as immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and genomic and proteomic analysis have provided advances in our understanding of discrete time-points of pathology following disease induction. More recently, in vivo and in situ two-photon microscopy (2P has made it possible to visualize continuous real-time cellular behavior and structural changes occurring within the CNS during neuropathology. Research utilizing 2P imaging to study axonopathy in neuroinflammatory demyelinating disease has focused on five areas: (1 axonal morphologic changes (2 organelle transport and health, (3 relationship to inflammation, (4 neuronal excitotoxicity, and (5 regenerative therapies. 2P imaging may also be used to identify novel therapeutic targets via identification and clarification of dynamic cellular and molecular mechanisms of axonal regeneration and remyelination. Here, we review tools that have made 2P accessible for imaging neuropathologies and advances in our understanding of axonal degeneration and repair in preclinical models of demyelinating diseases.

  11. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, Julián Ernesto Nicolás; Rocco, Daniela Marisa; García-Bournissen, Facundo

    2015-11-01

    Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%). Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction. PMID:26587586

  12. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Ernesto Nicolás Gulin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%. Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction.

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The news letter reports workshops and training events in the areas of animal diseases and application of ELISA and radioimmunoassay techniques. It also describes existing and future coordinated research programs in animal production and health

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project reviews and research coordination meetings on milk production, rinderpest diagnosis, animal vaccinations, quality assurance in veterinary diagnostic laboratories and evaluation of animal feeds are the major highlights of this issue of the Newsletter

  15. Carbon dioxide production in animal houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Joergensen, H.;

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with carbon dioxide production from farm animals; more specifically, it addresses the possibilities of using the measured carbon dioxide concentration in animal houses as basis for estimation of ventilation flow (as the ventilation flow is a key parameter of aerial emissions from...... animal houses). The investigations include measurements in respiration chambers and in animal houses, mainly for growing pigs and broilers. Over the last decade a fixed carbon dioxide production of 185 litres per hour per heat production unit, hpu (i.e. 1000 W of the total animal heat production at 20o......C) has often been used. The article shows that the carbon dioxide production per hpu increases with increasing respiration quotient. As the respiration quotient increases with body mass for growing animals, the carbon dioxide production per heat production unit also increases with increased body mass...

  16. Threats to validity in the design and conduct of preclinical efficacy studies: a systematic review of guidelines for in vivo animal experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie C Henderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vast majority of medical interventions introduced into clinical development prove unsafe or ineffective. One prominent explanation for the dismal success rate is flawed preclinical research. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical research guidelines and organized recommendations according to the type of validity threat (internal, construct, or external or programmatic research activity they primarily address. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Google, and the EQUATOR Network website for all preclinical guideline documents published up to April 9, 2013 that addressed the design and conduct of in vivo animal experiments aimed at supporting clinical translation. To be eligible, documents had to provide guidance on the design or execution of preclinical animal experiments and represent the aggregated consensus of four or more investigators. Data from included guidelines were independently extracted by two individuals for discrete recommendations on the design and implementation of preclinical efficacy studies. These recommendations were then organized according to the type of validity threat they addressed. A total of 2,029 citations were identified through our search strategy. From these, we identified 26 guidelines that met our eligibility criteria--most of which were directed at neurological or cerebrovascular drug development. Together, these guidelines offered 55 different recommendations. Some of the most common recommendations included performance of a power calculation to determine sample size, randomized treatment allocation, and characterization of disease phenotype in the animal model prior to experimentation. CONCLUSIONS: By identifying the most recurrent recommendations among preclinical guidelines, we provide a starting point for developing preclinical guidelines in other disease domains. We also provide a basis for the study and evaluation of preclinical research practice. Please see

  17. Validating animal models for preclinical research: a scientific and ethical discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Orsolya E.; Axel K. Hansen; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I Anna S

    2010-01-01

    The use of animals to model humans in biomedical research relies on the notion that basic processes are sufficiently similar across species to allow extrapolation. Animal model validity is discussed in terms of the similarity between the model and human condition it is intended to model, but no formal validation of models is applied. There is a stark contrast here with non-animal alternatives in toxicology and safety studies, for which an extensive validation is required. In the present paper...

  18. Meta-analysis of the turnover of intestinal epithelia in preclinical animal species and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwich, Adam S; Aslam, Umair; Ashcroft, Darren M; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2014-12-01

    Due to the rapid turnover of the small intestinal epithelia, the rate at which enterocyte renewal occurs plays an important role in determining the level of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the gut wall. Current physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models consider enzyme and enterocyte recovery as a lumped first-order rate. An assessment of enterocyte turnover would enable enzyme and enterocyte renewal to be modeled more mechanistically. A literature review together with statistical analysis was employed to establish enterocyte turnover in human and preclinical species. A total of 85 studies was identified reporting enterocyte turnover in 1602 subjects in six species. In mice, the geometric weighted combined mean (WX) enterocyte turnover was 2.81 ± 1.14 days (n = 169). In rats, the weighted arithmetic mean enterocyte turnover was determined to be 2.37 days (n = 501). Humans exhibited a geometric WX enterocyte turnover of 3.48 ± 1.55 days for the gastrointestinal epithelia (n = 265), displaying comparable turnover to that of cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro (0.96-4.33 days). Statistical analysis indicated humans to display longer enterocyte turnover as compared with preclinical species. Extracted data were too sparse to support regional differences in small intestinal enterocyte turnover in humans despite being indicated in mice. The utilization of enterocyte turnover data, together with in vitro enzyme turnover in PBPK modeling, may improve the predictions of metabolic drug-drug interactions dependent on enzyme turnover (e.g., mechanism-based inhibition and enzyme induction) as well as absorption of nanoparticle delivery systems and intestinal metabolism in special populations exhibiting altered enterocyte turnover. PMID:25233858

  19. A review of treatment planning for precision image-guided photon beam pre-clinical animal radiation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Hoof, Stefan van; Granton, Patrick V.; Trani, Daniela [Maastricht University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO)

    2014-07-01

    Recently, precision irradiators integrated with a high-resolution CT imaging device became available for pre-clinical studies. These research platforms offer significant advantages over older generations of animal irradiators in terms of precision and accuracy of image-guided radiation targeting. These platforms are expected to play a significant role in defining experiments that will allow translation of research findings to the human clinical setting. In the field of radiotherapy, but also others such as neurology, the platforms create unique opportunities to explore e.g. the synergy between radiation and drugs or other agents. To fully exploit the advantages of this new technology, accurate methods are needed to plan the irradiation and to calculate the three-dimensional radiation dose distribution in the specimen. To this end, dedicated treatment planning systems are needed. In this review we will discuss specific issues for precision irradiation of small animals, we will describe the workflow of animal treatment planning, and we will examine several dose calculation algorithms (factorization, superposition-convolution, Monte Carlo simulation) used for animal irradiation with kilovolt photon beams. Issues such as dose reporting methods, photon scatter, tissue segmentation and motion will also be discussed briefly.

  20. A review of treatment planning for precision image-guided photon beam pre-clinical animal radiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, precision irradiators integrated with a high-resolution CT imaging device became available for pre-clinical studies. These research platforms offer significant advantages over older generations of animal irradiators in terms of precision and accuracy of image-guided radiation targeting. These platforms are expected to play a significant role in defining experiments that will allow translation of research findings to the human clinical setting. In the field of radiotherapy, but also others such as neurology, the platforms create unique opportunities to explore e.g. the synergy between radiation and drugs or other agents. To fully exploit the advantages of this new technology, accurate methods are needed to plan the irradiation and to calculate the three-dimensional radiation dose distribution in the specimen. To this end, dedicated treatment planning systems are needed. In this review we will discuss specific issues for precision irradiation of small animals, we will describe the workflow of animal treatment planning, and we will examine several dose calculation algorithms (factorization, superposition-convolution, Monte Carlo simulation) used for animal irradiation with kilovolt photon beams. Issues such as dose reporting methods, photon scatter, tissue segmentation and motion will also be discussed briefly.

  1. A review of treatment planning for precision image-guided photon beam pre-clinical animal radiation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; van Hoof, Stefan; Granton, Patrick V; Trani, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Recently, precision irradiators integrated with a high-resolution CT imaging device became available for pre-clinical studies. These research platforms offer significant advantages over older generations of animal irradiators in terms of precision and accuracy of image-guided radiation targeting. These platforms are expected to play a significant role in defining experiments that will allow translation of research findings to the human clinical setting. In the field of radiotherapy, but also others such as neurology, the platforms create unique opportunities to explore e.g. the synergy between radiation and drugs or other agents. To fully exploit the advantages of this new technology, accurate methods are needed to plan the irradiation and to calculate the three-dimensional radiation dose distribution in the specimen. To this end, dedicated treatment planning systems are needed. In this review we will discuss specific issues for precision irradiation of small animals, we will describe the workflow of animal treatment planning, and we will examine several dose calculation algorithms (factorization, superposition-convolution, Monte Carlo simulation) used for animal irradiation with kilovolt photon beams. Issues such as dose reporting methods, photon scatter, tissue segmentation and motion will also be discussed briefly. PMID:24629309

  2. Large animal induced pluripotent stem cells as pre-clinical models for studying human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan R Plews; Gu, Mingxia; Longaker, Michael T.; Joseph C. Wu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The derivation of human embryonic stem cells and subsequently human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has energized regenerative medicine research and enabled seemingly limitless applications. Although small animal models, such as mouse models, have played an important role in the progression of the field, typically, they are poor representations of the human disease phenotype. As an alternative, large animal models should be explored as a potentially better approach for clinica...

  3. Correlating preclinical animal studies and human clinical trials of a multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasof, Scott; Lazarus, Douglas; Peters, Christian G.; Case, Roy I.; Cole, Roderic O.; Hwang, Jungyeon; Schluep, Thomas; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Han, Han; Wiley, Devin T.; Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Davis, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles are currently being investigated in a number of human clinical trials. As information on how nanoparticles function in humans is difficult to obtain, animal studies that can be correlative to human behavior are needed to provide guidance for human clinical trials. Here, we report correlative studies on animals and humans for CRLX101, a 20- to 30-nm-diameter, multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle containing camptothecin (CPT). CRLX101 is currently in phase 2 clinical trials, an...

  4. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN LIVE ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MiĠuko VLAD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of foreign trade, in Romania there were some major changes over the past 20 years. In this paper we have focused on the Romanian external trade. The products which have been taken into account were live animals and animal products. Thus, we have made an analyse on the Romanian imports and exports at the global level and at the European level. Focused on the animal products, on the global level, there were registered major differences during the first seven years in the analysed period. Breaking by branches, we have pointed out huge distinctions between imports and exports, where the balance of trade was completely negative. Meanwhile, to have a good view on the international trade there were made links, based on some indexes between imports, exports, GDP and investments.

  5. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief reviews of the meetings held between September and November, 1991, and a list of the nine co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division is given. A tenth CRP, focussing on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments, is currently being planned. Developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory, Seibersdorf are detailed

  6. Reverse translation of failed treatments can help improving the validity of preclinical animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, Bert A.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in translational research is to reduce the currently high proportion of new candidate treatment agents for neuroinflammatory disease, which fail to reproduce promising effects observed in animal models when tested in patients. This disturbing situation has raised criticism against

  7. A Pre-clinical Animal Model of Trypanosoma brucei Infection Demonstrating Cardiac Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    McCarroll, Charlotte S; Rossor, Charlotte L.; Linda R Morrison; Morrison, Liam J.; Loughrey, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary African trypanosomiasis (AT) is a disease caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. In humans, AT causes neurological problems including sleep disturbances, which give the disease its colloquial name of “sleeping sickness”. Much of the focus of AT research has been on the neurological deficits, but other major organs are also affected, including the heart. Previous studies in humans and animals with AT have identified heart abnormalities such as contrac...

  8. Preclinical imaging and treatment of cancer: the use of animal models beyond rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiak-Bechtel, S M; Maitz, C A; Selting, K A; Bryan, J N

    2015-09-01

    The development of novel radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging and therapy of neoplastic diseases relies on accurate and reproducible animal models. Rodent models are often used to demonstrate the proof-of-principle tracer and therapeutic agent development, but their small size can make tissue sampling challenging. The dosimetry of decay emissions in the much smaller rodent tumors do not model dosimetry in human tumors well. In addition, rodent models of cancer represent a simplified version of a very complex process. Spontaneous tumors are heterogenous and the response to intervention can be unpredictable; tumor cells can adopt alternate signaling pathways and modify their interaction with the microenvironment. These inconsistencies, while present in humans, are difficult to fully reproduce in a genetically-engineered rodent model. Companion animals, primarily dogs and cats, offer translational models that more accurately reflect the intricate nature of spontaneous neoplasia in humans. Their larger size facilitates tissue and blood sampling when needed, and allows radiopharmaceutical tracers to be studied on human-scale imaging systems to better mimic the clinical application of the agent. This article will review the growing body of literature surrounding the use of radiopharmaceutical agents for both imaging and therapy in companion dogs and cats. Previous investigations have been performed both for the advancement of routine, high-level veterinary care, and in the context of translational research from which the results of imaging and treatment can be readily applied to people. Studies utilizing the spontaneously occurring cancer model in companion animals involving positron emission tomography, radiotracers, dosimetry, theranostics, targeted radiopharmaceuticals, brachytherapy, and boron neutron capture therapy are discussed. PMID:26200223

  9. Preclinical imaging and treatment of cancer: the use of animal models beyond rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of novel radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging and therapy of neoplastic diseases relies on accurate and reproducible animal models. Rodent models are often used to demonstrate the proof-of-principle tracer and therapeutic agent development, but their small size can make tissue sampling challenging. The dosimetry of decay emissions in the much smaller rodent tumors do not model dosimetry in human tumors well. In addition, rodent models of cancer represent a simplified version of a very complex process. Spontaneous tumors are heterogenous and the response to intervention can be unpredictable; tumor cells can adopt alternate signaling pathways and modify their interaction with the microenvironment. These inconsistencies, while present in humans, are difficult to fully reproduce in a genetically-engineered rodent model. Companion animals, primarily dogs and cats, offer translational models that more accurately reflect the intricate nature of spontaneous neoplasia in humans. Their larger size facilitates tissue and blood sampling when needed, and allows radiopharmaceutical tracers to be studied on human-scale imaging systems to better mimic the clinical application of the agent. This article will review the growing body of literature surrounding the use of radiopharmaceutical agents for both imaging and therapy in companion dogs and cats. Previous investigations have been performed both for the advancement of routine, high-level veterinary care, and in the context of translational research from which the results of imaging and treatment can be readily applied to people. Studies utilizing the spontaneously occurring cancer model in companion animals involving positron emission tomography, radiotracers, dosimetry, theranostics, targeted radiopharmaceuticals, brachytherapy, and boron neutron capture therapy are discussed.

  10. Threats to Validity in the Design and Conduct of Preclinical Efficacy Studies: A Systematic Review of Guidelines for In Vivo Animal Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Valerie C.; Jonathan Kimmelman; Dean Fergusson; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Dan G Hackam

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background The development process for new drugs is lengthy and complex. It begins in the laboratory, where scientists investigate the causes of diseases and identify potential new treatments. Next, promising interventions undergo preclinical research in cells and in animals (in vivo animal experiments) to test whether the intervention has the expected effect and to support the generalization (extension) of this treatment–effect relationship to patients. Drugs that pass these...

  11. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S;

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG. They...... did not account for the complex interrelated effects on other GHGs or their relation with other aspects of sustainability, such as eutrophication, animal welfare, land use or food security. Current decisions on GHG mitigation in animal production, therefore, are hindered by the complexity and...... uncertainty of the combined effect of GHG mitigation options on climate change and their relation with other aspects of sustainability. There is an urgent need to integrate simulation models at animal, crop and farm level with a consequential life cycle sustainability assessment to gain insight into the...

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the newsletter outlines activities and coordinated research programmes in the areas of animal production and animal health for the year 1999 by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in food and agriculture and FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the newsletter briefs on forthcoming events and on-going activities of the Joint Division. Active Co-ordinated Research Programmes, training workshops, expert meetings in the fields of animal feed supplementation, animal productivity and reproductive efficiency, and diagnostic methodologies in disease control are highlighted

  14. Automation in Animal Housing and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive, controlled environment animal production began modestly in the mid-20th century as poultry were brought indoors. While mankind had utilized structures to provide shelter for their animals for centuries, the availability of relatively inexpensive energy and the electrification of rural are...

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Newsletter presents the staffing, past and forthcoming workshops, status of the existing coordinated research programmes in the area of application of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in animal production and health

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to highlights of research coordination meetings, training events and announcements of upcoming events, this issue of the Newsletter carries editorial note regarding the potential of biotechnology in animal health and production for developing countries

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 9 workshops, research coordination meetings, consultant meetings and training courses held between January-June 1995, the status of 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf, a presentation of 4 forthcoming events (meetings, workshops, training courses) and 3 software programs in the field

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No.21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 7 meetings, workshops and training courses held between september and december 1994, the status of the 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit at the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf and a presentation of 5 forthcoming meetings, workshops and training courses

  19. High throughput static and dynamic small animal imaging using clinical PET/CT: potential preclinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aide, Nicolas [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre and Caen University, Bioticla Team, EA1792, IFR 146 ICORE, GRECAN, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital and Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, PET Unit, Caen (France); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, East Melbourne (Australia); Centre Francois Baclesse, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen cedex 5 (France); Desmonts, Cedric; Agostini, Denis; Bardet, Stephane; Bouvard, Gerard [Caen University Hospital and Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, PET Unit, Caen (France); Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Roselt, Peter; Neels, Oliver [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, East Melbourne (Australia); Beyer, Thomas [cmi-experts GmbH, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Bern, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Kinross, Kathryn [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, East Melbourne (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Sir Donald and Lady Trescowthick Laboratories, East Melbourne (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, East Melbourne (Australia); University of Melbourne, The Department of Medicine, Parkville (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    The objective of the study was to evaluate state-of-the-art clinical PET/CT technology in performing static and dynamic imaging of several mice simultaneously. A mouse-sized phantom was imaged mimicking simultaneous imaging of three mice with computation of recovery coefficients (RCs) and spillover ratios (SORs). Fifteen mice harbouring abdominal or subcutaneous tumours were imaged on clinical PET/CT with point spread function (PSF) reconstruction after injection of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose or [18F]fluorothymidine. Three of these mice were imaged alone and simultaneously at radial positions -5, 0 and 5 cm. The remaining 12 tumour-bearing mice were imaged in groups of 3 to establish the quantitative accuracy of PET data using ex vivo gamma counting as the reference. Finally, a dynamic scan was performed in three mice simultaneously after the injection of {sup 68}Ga-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). For typical lesion sizes of 7-8 mm phantom experiments indicated RCs of 0.42 and 0.76 for ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) and PSF reconstruction, respectively. For PSF reconstruction, SOR{sub air} and SOR{sub water} were 5.3 and 7.5%, respectively. A strong correlation (r {sup 2} = 0.97, p < 0.0001) between quantitative data obtained in mice imaged alone and simultaneously in a group of three was found following PSF reconstruction. The correlation between ex vivo counting and PET/CT data was better with PSF reconstruction (r {sup 2} = 0.98; slope = 0.89, p < 0.0001) than without (r {sup 2} = 0.96; slope = 0.62, p < 0.001). Valid time-activity curves of the blood pool, kidneys and bladder could be derived from {sup 68}Ga-EDTA dynamic acquisition. New generation clinical PET/CT can be used for simultaneous imaging of multiple small animals in experiments requiring high throughput and where a dedicated small animal PET system is not available. (orig.)

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief summaries of the final Research Co-ordination Meetings of Co-ordinated Research Programmes on ''Strengthening Animal Reproduction Research in Asia Through the Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and ''Strengthening Animal Disease Diagnosis in Asia Through Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and of the first Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Milk-Producing Animals in Tropical and Subtropical Environments Through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques''. Developments at the IAEA's Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf, are described

  1. Re-evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in cancer - a preclinical therapeutic small animal model study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Pande

    Full Text Available Tumor hypoxia is a known driver of angiogenesis that also facilitates tumor growth. Moreover, poorly oxygenated central tumor area remains relatively radio or chemo resistant. HBO therapy is known to elevate the levels of dissolved oxygen and eliminates tumor hypoxia. It has been one of the modalities in cancer treatment; therefore its optimization is important. In this experimental study, no cancer enhancing effect was seen during the course of HBO therapy; however, post therapy there was an accelerated growth and progression of tumor. HBO treated mice lived shorter and the response to therapy was dose & tumor volume dependent. HBO therapy probably exert its effect on the cancer proliferating cells through multiple pathways such as increased DNA damage, apoptosis & geno-toxicity leading to slow cancer progression while post therapy tumorigenic effect could be due to impaired DNA repair mechanism, mutagenic effect & aneuploidy as well as altered blood supply & nutrients. Tumor growth reached plateau with time and this finding validated theoretical model predicting tumor reaching an asymptotic limit. While, marked asymmetry observed in tumor volume progression or cancer cell proliferation rate in each of the experimental C3H mouse suggested a need for an alternate small animal pre-clinical cancer therapeutic model.

  2. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief reports of the five FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meetings held in the first half of 1991, focussing on improving animal reproduction research and animal disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques, improving the productivity of indiginous African livestock using radioimmunoassay and related techniques, improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods, and an inter-regional network for improving the productivity of camelids. The FAO/IAEA International Symposium on ''Nuclear and Related Techniques in Animal Production and Health'' is summarily described (the Symposium Proceedings should be published in October, 1991), and applications are invited for a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments

  3. Mitoapocynin Treatment Protects Against Neuroinflammation and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in a Preclinical Animal Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Langley, Monica R; Harischandra, Dilshan; Neal, Matthew L; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Joseph, Joy; Brenza, Timothy; Narasimhan, Balaji; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2016-01-01

    cellular and pre-clinical animal models of PD by attenuating oxidative damage and neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:26838361

  4. Monitoring residue in animals and primary products of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of control and systematic monitoring of residue is to secure, by the examination of a corresponding number of samples, the efficient monitoring of the residue level in tissues and organs of animals, as well as in primary products of animal origin. This creates possibilities for the timely taking of measures toward the securing of food hygiene of animal origin and the protection of public health. Residue can be a consequence of the inadequate use of medicines in veterinary medicine and pesticides in agriculture and veterinary medicine, as well as the polluting of the environment with toxic elements, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and others. Residue is being monitored in Serbia since 1972, and in 2004, national monitoring was brought to the level of EU countries through significant investments by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management. This is also evident in the EU directives which permit exports of all kinds of meat and primary products of animal origin, covered by the Residue Monitoring Program. The program of systematic examinations of residue has been coordinated with the requirements of the European Union, both according to the type of examined substance, as well as according to the number of samples and the applied analytical techniques. In addition to the development of methods and the including of new harmful substances into the monitoring programme, it is also necessary to coordinate the national regulations that define the maximum permitted quantities of certain medicines and contaminants with the EU regulations, in order to protect the health of consumers as efficiently as possible, and for the country to take equal part in international trade.

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Issue outlines recent activities of the Animal Production and Health Section outstanding among them being the support it provides to the implementation of over 40 Technical Cooperation Projects and eight Coordinated Research Projects. Future activities will focus on the theme of 'Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies (with emphasis on biotechnology) and Capacity Building

  6. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter includes reports of FAO/IAEA-organized meetings held between 17 September 1990 and 23 November 1990, with emphasis on the development and application of radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques to study Foot and Mouth Disease, bluetongue vins and other diseases, and animal reproduction. The status of existing coordinated research programmes is summarized, and a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments is announced. Applications for contracts to participate in this programme are invited. The role of the Section's Animal Production Unit at Seibersdorf is reviewed, and a list of forthcoming events is given

  7. Soil, pasture and animal product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Avondo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of pasture, through the use of appropriate stocking rates and grazing systems, influences the feeding behaviour of the animals. The impact of animal behaviour on vegetation can be of great importance for the sustainability of pastures and mantaining their biodiversity. Indeed, a different response in terms of quality of animal products is mediated by the ability of animals to concentrate or transform grass components, according to the characteristics of the soil. The herbage ingested by animals provides them with compounds with aromatic characteristics, such as terpenes, and with functional properties beneficial for human health, such as carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols and polyunsatured fatty acids. The combination of different ecological conditions on different soils through specific management practices determines the differentiation of several pasture vegetation types, a unique patrimony of great value in terms of biodiversity and capability to sustain local production, also important because of their own high added value. This review deals with pasture management aimed at conserving the soil and reducing gas emissions, and takes into consideration the quality of animal products as a result of such management.

  8. Nuclear techniques in Australian animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the production of domestic animals is frequently depressed by the climatic and ecological conditions. These negative effects can be overcome to a great extent by improved methods of animal and land management. In animal research, nuclear techniques are playing an important role in the study of different aspects of nutrition, metabolism, reproduction and health of domestic animals. In response to the need expressed by Member States for more information on these techniques, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and the IAEA's Division of Technical Assistance organized a study tour to Australia, a country which has developed considerable expertise in agricultural and animal research. The purpose of the study tour was to enable veterinary and animal scientists and administrators from developing countries in Asia and the Far East to observe at first hand the ways in which animal production, particularly meat, milk and wool, can be increased in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Fourteen senior scientists and research directors from seven Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand) participated. The counterpart organizations in Australia were the Australian Development Assistance Agency (ADAA) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO). The chief programmer and co-ordinator of the study tour was John E. Vercoe, officer-in-charge of CSIRO's Tropical Cattle Research Centre in Rockhampton, and a former IAEA staff member. The tour was financed by the United Nations Development Programme. The participants visited research facilities of universities, national and state laboratories and commercial cattle producers. The tour started at Sydney and proceeded north along the east coast of Australia to Townsville. On the way, major stops were made in Armidale, Grafton, Wollongbar, Brisbane and Rockhampton. In Rockhampton, a

  9. A preclinical rodent model of radiation induced lung injury for medical countermeasure screening in accordance with the FDA animal rule

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Isabel L.; Xu, Puting; Hadley, Caroline; Katz, Barry P.; McGurk, Ross; Down, Julian D.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of pre-clinical murine model development is to establish that the pathophysiological outcome of our rodent model of radiation-induced lung injury is sufficiently representative of the anticipated pulmonary response in the human population. This objective is based on concerns that the C57BL/6J strain may not be the most appropriate preclinical model of lethal radiation lung injury in humans. In this study, we assessed this issue by evaluating the relationship between morbidity (pul...

  10. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  11. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 80 years a wide range of diverse organic livestock systems have developed. The driving force behind these developments has mainly been the farmers, consumers and various movements; and it has happened more "despite research" than "because of research." Most production methods have...... developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock production offers the option of establishing a niche product that can be sold at a higher price, e.g. as for milk...

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division are carried out through the operation of Co-ordinated Research Programmes and Technical Co-operation projects, both of which aim to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in tropical and subtropical countries to identify and resolve problems connected with livestock development. This particular programme at the outset, it was envisaged that an inter-disciplinary approach would be adopted by each participating institute whereby studies on nutrition, reproduction and health would be integrated into a number of site specific projects. The one discussed in this newsletter covers animal production and focussing on animal reproduction and reproduction-nutrition interactions. This paper contains an outline for the program which encourages scientists from universities and research institutes to provide assistance and solutions to developing countries on the technical difficulties associated with artificial insemination

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter contains reports on the meetings and training courses held between January and April 1992, including a detailed summary of the final FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meeting on ''Development of Feeding Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity in Areas of Fluctuating Nutrient Supply through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques'', held in Vienna from 30 March to 3 April. Status reports are presented for the existing nine coordinated research programs, and developments at the Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf are described

  14. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 80 years a wide range of diverse organic livestock systems have developed. The driving force behind these developments has mainly been the farmers, consumers and various movements; and it has happened more “despite research” than “because of research.” Most production methods have developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock productio...

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the importance of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) in improving all aspects of human social, economic and cultural life and the role played by the IAEA's Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, in using these technologies to undertake training programmes in Africa. Coordinated research programmes, training and other events are also announced

  16. Environmental aspects of ethical animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegford, J M; Powers, W; Grimes-Casey, H G

    2008-02-01

    Livestock and poultry producers face a number of challenges including pressure from the public to be good environmental stewards and adopt welfare-friendly practices. In response, producers often implement practices beyond those required for regulatory compliance to meet consumer demands. However, environmental stewardship and animal welfare may have conflicting objectives. Examples include pasture-based dairy and beef cattle production where high-fiber diets increase methane emissions compared with grain feeding practices in confinement. Grazing systems can contribute to nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater in some areas of the world where grazing is the predominant land use. Similarly, hoop housing for sows, an alternative to indoor gestation crates, can increase the risk of nutrient leaching into soil and groundwater. Direct air emissions may also increase with unconfined animal production as a result of less opportunity to trap and treat emissions, as well as the result of increased cage space and greater surface area per mass of excreta. Coupling welfare-friendly and organic production practices may require greater nutrient inputs to reach the same production end point, resulting in less efficient nutrient use and greater losses to the environment. Dual systems might additionally increase environmental contamination by pathogens. When swine are housed in welfare-friendly huts, Salmonella may cycle more freely between swine and their environment; however, population numbers of pathogenic bacteria may not be different between the indoor and outdoor systems evaluated. Alternatively, these dual purpose systems may reduce antibiotic and hormonal releases to the environment. Finally, intensity of resource use may be different under welfare-friendly and organic practices. In most situations, welfare-friendly production will require more land area per animal or per unit of product. Energy inputs into such systems, from feed production to rearing to product

  17. Embodied crop calories in animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increases in animal products consumption and the associated environmental consequences have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. Consequences of such increases include rises in greenhouse gas emissions, growth of consumptive water use, and perturbation of global nutrients cycles. These consequences vary spatially depending on livestock types, their densities and their production system. In this letter, we investigate the spatial distribution of embodied crop calories in animal products. On a global scale, about 40% of the global crop calories are used as livestock feed (we refer to this ratio as crop balance for livestock) and about 4 kcal of crop products are used to generate 1 kcal of animal products (embodied crop calories of around 4). However, these values vary greatly around the world. In some regions, more than 100% of the crops produced is required to feed livestock requiring national or international trade to meet the deficit in livestock feed. Embodied crop calories vary between less than 1 for 20% of the livestock raising areas worldwide and greater than 10 for another 20% of the regions. Low values of embodied crop calories are related to production systems for ruminants based on fodder and forage, while large values are usually associated with production systems for non-ruminants fed on crop products. Additionally, we project the future feed demand considering three scenarios: (a) population growth, (b) population growth and changes in human dietary patterns and (c) changes in population, dietary patterns and feed conversion efficiency. When considering dietary changes, we project the global feed demand to be almost doubled (1.8–2.3 times) by 2050 compared to 2000, which would force us to produce almost equal or even more crops to raise our livestock than to directly nourish ourselves in the future. Feed demand is expected to increase over proportionally in Africa, South-Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, putting additional stress on

  18. The transgenic animal platform for biopharmaceutical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, L R; Meade, H; Lazzarotto, C R; Martins, L T; Tavares, K C; Bertolini, M; Murray, J D

    2016-06-01

    The recombinant production of therapeutic proteins for human diseases is currently the largest source of innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. The market growth has been the driving force on efforts for the development of new therapeutic proteins, in which transgenesis emerges as key component. The use of the transgenic animal platform offers attractive possibilities, residing on the low production costs allied to high productivity and quality of the recombinant proteins. Although many strategies have evolved over the past decades for the generation of transgenic founders, transgenesis in livestock animals generally faces some challenges, mainly due to random transgene integration and control over transgene copy number. But new developments in gene editing with CRISPR/Cas system promises to revolutionize the field for its simplicity and high efficiency. In addition, for the final approval of any given recombinant protein for animal or human use, the production and characterization of bioreactor founders and expression patterns and functionality of the proteins are technical part of the process, which also requires regulatory and administrative decisions, with a large emphasis on biosafety. The approval of two mammary gland-derived recombinant proteins for commercial and clinical use has boosted the interest for more efficient, safer and economic ways to generate transgenic founders to meet the increasing demand for biomedical proteins worldwide. PMID:26820414

  19. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from ω3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (ω-6 with relative “deficiency” of ω-3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the ω-6 / ω-3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.Keywords: animal products, polyunsaturated fatty acids, meat, milk, nutrients.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency's programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  1. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Bone Mineral Density: A Meta-Analysis of Preclinical Studies in Animal Models of Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Zhou, Changlin; Xu, Liang; Tao, Shuqing; Zhao, Jingyi; Gu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Background Preclinical studies of the therapeutic role of stem cell based therapy in animal models of osteoporosis have largely yielded inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis to provide an overview of the currently available evidence. Methods Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for relevant controlled studies. A random-effect model was used for pooled analysis of the effect of stem cell based therapy on bone mineral density (BMD). Stratified analyses were performed to explore the effect of study characteristics on the outcomes. Results Pooled results from 12 preclinical studies (110 animals in stem cell treatment groups, and 106 animals in control groups) indicated that stem cell based treatment was associated with significantly improved BMD (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 1.29, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.84–1.74, P 0.05). Egger’s test detected potential publication bias (P = 0.055); however, ‘trim and fill’ analysis yielded similar results after statistically incorporating the hypothetical studies in the analysis (SMD = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.32–2.16, P < 0.001). Conclusions Stem cell transplantation may improve BMD in animal models of osteoporosis. Our meta-analysis indicates a potential therapeutic role of stem cell based therapy for osteoporosis, and serves to augment the rationale for clinical studies. PMID:26882451

  2. Premature culling of production animals; ethical questions related to killing animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Meijboom, F.L.B.; Stassen, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to analyse the importance of longevity in relation to the welfare of production animals. I hypothesize that the concept of longevity helps to support the moral intuition that premature culling of animals is a moral wrong. The analysis shows that the interpretation of the c

  3. Preclinical evaluation of a two-dose vaccination schedule of recombinant Hansenula Polymorpha hepatitis B vaccine in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Deyou; Ma, Rui; Yang, Xuqin; Wang, Xi; Li, Caimei; Zhang, Sucai; Xue, Hesheng; Zhao, Kai; Zhuang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The current 3-dose regimen of hepatitis B vaccination for infants requiring over 6 mo period may pose the poor rate of compliance and later protection from hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This preclinical study is to investigate the feasibility of reducing the number of doses of hepatitis B (HB) vaccine.

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full report on the final research coordination meeting on the long running Coordinated Research Project supporting rinderpest eradication is contained in this Newsletter. It is reported that all the national rinderpest vaccination campaigns have been terminated and except for a very few isolated areas where vaccination continues, the effort is now on disease surveillance to demonstrate freedom from rinderpest. Other research coordination meetings on animal diseases and productivity as well as new projects are highlighted in this issue

  5. Cooperative Marketing of Animal Health Products

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelsang, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    This report uses eight case studies to identify elements of successful cooperative programs for retailing over-the-counter animal health products (AHP). It provides practical information on AHP marketing strategies and methods for cooperative retailers, planners, and researchers. All participating cooperatives except one provided information for fiscal years ending during calendar year 1986. The exception was for 1987. Information. about five AHP suppliers and their marketing programs is incl...

  6. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from ω3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (ω-6 with relative “deficiency” of ω-3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the ω-6 / ω-3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.

  7. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from 3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (-6 with relative “deficiency” of -3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the -6 / -3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.

  8. Challenges in pre-clinical testing of anti-cancer drugs in cell culture and in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    HogenEsch, Harm; Yu Nikitin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Experiments with cultures of human tumor cell lines, xenografts of human tumors into immunodeficient mice, and mouse models of human cancer are important tools in the development and testing of anti-cancer drugs. Tumors are complex structures composed of genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous cancer cells that interact in a reciprocal manner with the stromal microenvironment and the immune system. Modeling the complexity of human cancers in cell culture and in mouse models for preclinic...

  9. Fission products uptake into the body of farm animals and radionuclide transilocation into farm animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects produced by fission products in the organism of dairy cattle are considered. The presence of radionuclides in the animal body leads to the danger of radioactive contamination of milk and may result in the loss of milk productivity and reproductive capacity of the irradiated animals or even in their death. Of greatest practical interest is an experimental evaluation of the intake of fission products, since, on the one hand, milk is one of the basic and valuable foods and, on the other, it is the principal source of biologically dangerous radionuclides in human diet

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the activities of the Animal Production and Health Section and the Sub-programme. Apart from the regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and the customary technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, the personnel were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2005/2006 biennial project cycle. The Section also was also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2006/2007 Work and Budget Programme

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue focuses on the specific biotechnological methods that have the greatest potential for livestock production and health in developing countries, and which of these require nuclear and related techniques? The consultants' meeting that we held during 2001 (http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d3/public/ gene-technologies.pdf) provided us with the answers. We have subsequently discussed these concepts further with FAO, ILRI and other partners, and have planned a series of activities over the next two years to facilitate the transition of our Sub-programme. The first is an FAO/IAEA International Symposium on 'Applications of Gene Based Technologies for Improving Animal Production and Health in Developing Countries' which will be held here in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2003. The official announcement is included in this Newsletter. This will be followed by three inter-regional training courses, to be held during 2004 and 2005, to train scientists in developing countries on the molecular techniques currently being used in the fields of animal nutrition, genetics and disease diagnosis. Subsequently, four new CRPs will be initiated during 2005-2006, dealing with (a) rumen molecular techniques for predicting and enhancing productivity; (b) manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression; (c) characterization of small ruminant genetic resources aimed at selection for parasite resistance; and (d) improvement of diagnostic tests for African Swine Fever to assist in molecular epidemiology. The announcements for the first two have already appeared in previous Newsletters and that for the third will be in the next issue. The projects that have been approved for implementation during the next biennium (2003-2004) are listed in this Newsletter

  12. Pre-clinical in vivo models for the screening of bone biomaterials for oral/craniofacial indications: focus on small-animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Sculean, Anton; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Buser, Daniel; Klinge, Björn

    2015-06-01

    Preclinical in vivo experimental studies are performed for evaluating proof-of-principle concepts, safety and possible unwanted reactions of candidate bone biomaterials before proceeding to clinical testing. Specifically, models involving small animals have been developed for screening bone biomaterials for their potential to enhance bone formation. No single model can completely recreate the anatomic, physiologic, biomechanic and functional environment of the human mouth and jaws. Relevant aspects regarding physiology, anatomy, dimensions and handling are discussed in this paper to elucidate the advantages and disadvantages of small-animal models. Model selection should be based not on the 'expertise' or capacities of the team, but rather on a scientifically solid rationale, and the animal model selected should reflect the question for which an answer is sought. The rationale for using heterotopic or orthotopic testing sites, and intraosseous, periosseous or extraskeletal defect models, is discussed. The paper also discusses the relevance of critical size defect modeling, with focus on calvarial defects in rodents. In addition, the rabbit sinus model and the capsule model in the rat mandible are presented and discussed in detail. All animal experiments should be designed with care and include sample-size and study-power calculations, thus allowing generation of meaningful data. Moreover, animal experiments are subject to ethical approval by the relevant authority. All procedures and the postoperative handling and care, including postoperative analgesics, should follow best practice. PMID:25867979

  13. Krill products: an overview of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Lena; Johnsen, Line

    2015-05-01

    Many animal studies have been performed with krill oil (KO) and this review aims to summarize their findings and give insight into the mechanism of action of KO. Animal models that have been used in studies with KO include obesity, depression, myocardial infarction, chronic low-grade and ulcerative inflammation and are described in detail. Moreover, studies with KO in the form of krill powder (KP) and krill protein concentrate (KPC) as a mix of lipids and proteins are mentioned and compared to the effects of KO. In addition, differences in tissue uptake of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), when delivered in either phospholipid or triglyceride form, are addressed and the differential impact the delivery form has on gene expression profiles is explained. In our outlook, we try to highlight the potential of KO and KP supplementation in clinical settings and discuss health segments that have a high potential of showing krill product specific health benefits and warrant further clinical investigations. PMID:25961320

  14. Krill Products: An Overview of Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Burri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many animal studies have been performed with krill oil (KO and this review aims to summarize their findings and give insight into the mechanism of action of KO. Animal models that have been used in studies with KO include obesity, depression, myocardial infarction, chronic low-grade and ulcerative inflammation and are described in detail. Moreover, studies with KO in the form of krill powder (KP and krill protein concentrate (KPC as a mix of lipids and proteins are mentioned and compared to the effects of KO. In addition, differences in tissue uptake of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, when delivered in either phospholipid or triglyceride form, are addressed and the differential impact the delivery form has on gene expression profiles is explained. In our outlook, we try to highlight the potential of KO and KP supplementation in clinical settings and discuss health segments that have a high potential of showing krill product specific health benefits and warrant further clinical investigations.

  15. USE OF ELECTROLYZED WATER IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Jirotková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility to use the properties of electrolyzed water to disinfect breeding halls and to water animals. The aim of the research was to find out whether elektrolyzed water used for desinfication of breedings hall and watering of animals influences selected indicators of the meat quality. Electrolyzed water is produced in a patent-protected device Envirolyte that produces biocide solution using potable water with added NaCl. The technology of production guarantees the product is entirely ecological, biologically fully degradable, non-toxic that can replace traditional chemical agents. Possibilities of disinfection using this solution have been verified directly in stables at the interval of 20, 40, 60 min. after application. Staphylococci and streptococci and enterococci were inactive always after 60 minutes of effect. There was significant decrease in the number of total number of microorganisms. Further, the solution of electrolyzed water was used to water poultry; and the affect on some of the properties of poultry meat, changes in pH, colour and loss of water (dripping in particular, was observed. Testing was carried out under working conditions in two breeding halls at a time and the technology of electrolyzed water to disinfect premises and to water chickens was used in one of the halls. When the chickens were slaughter mature, the poultry was slaughtered at the standard slaughterhouse and samples (127 pieces were taken in order to measure pH, colour and loss of water (dripping. The values of pH, colour and loss of water (dripping ascertained, processed by the T-test did not confirm the hypothesis of the assumed possible differences in occurrence of critical values of these indicators in both groups observed.

  16. GEMMs as preclinical models for testing pancreatic cancer therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Aarthi Gopinathan; Morton, Jennifer P.; Jodrell, Duncan I.; Owen J. Sansom

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common form of pancreatic tumour, with a very limited survival rate and currently no available disease-modifying treatments. Despite recent advances in the production of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), the development of new therapies for pancreatic cancer is still hampered by a lack of reliable and predictive preclinical animal models for this disease. Preclinical models are vitally important for assessing therapies in the fi...

  17. Excessive aggression as model of violence : a critical evaluation of current preclinical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Haller, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical experimental models of pathological aggressive behavior are a sorely understudied and difficult research area. How valid, reliable, productive, and informative are the most frequently used animal models of excessive aggressive behavior? The rationale, key methodological features, support

  18. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Ernesto Nicolás Gulin; Daniela Marisa Rocco; Facundo García-Bournissen

    2015-01-01

    Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used....

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 42

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC Country Officers) of the 2005/6 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2004/5 midterm performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. 1. The characterization of locally available feed and animal genetic resources and the identification and alleviation of constraints in the management of feeding, breeding and reproduction so as to improve the efficiency of livestock production while conserving the environment. This is done through the transfer of the following technologies: Radioimmunoassays (RIA) for measuring hormones: for identifying and mitigating constraints to efficient livestock production and improving the delivery of national artificial insemination services and providing diagnostic services to farmers

  20. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  1. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  2. The green, blue and grey water footprint of farm animals and animal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The projected increase in the production and consumption of animal products is likely to put further pressure on the globe’s freshwater resources. The size and characteristics of the water footprint vary across animal types and production systems. The current study provides a comprehensive account o

  3. Nanotechnology developments: opportunities for animal health and production

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Manuja; Balvinder Kumar; Raj Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has opened up new vistas for applications in molecular biology, biotechnology and almost all the disciplines of veterinary and animal sciences. Excellence in animal health and production can be achieved by translation of this newer technology to create effective services and products for animals. The ability to manufacture and manipulate matter on the nanoscale has offered opportunities for application in diverse areas of animal sciences. Nanosensors, nanovaccines, adjuvants, g...

  4. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L.A.; Brown, I.H.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Jong, de M.D.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  5. Virtual reality, augmented reality, and robotics applied to digestive operative procedures: from in vivo animal preclinical studies to clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques

    2006-04-01

    Technological innovations of the 20 th century provided medicine and surgery with new tools, among which virtual reality and robotics belong to the most revolutionary ones. Our work aims at setting up new techniques for detection, 3D delineation and 4D time follow-up of small abdominal lesions from standard mecial images (CT scsan, MRI). It also aims at developing innovative systems making tumor resection or treatment easier with the use of augmented reality and robotized systems, increasing gesture precision. It also permits a realtime great distance connection between practitioners so they can share a same 3D reconstructed patient and interact on a same patient, virtually before the intervention and for real during the surgical procedure thanks to a telesurgical robot. In preclinical studies, our first results obtained from a micro-CT scanner show that these technologies provide an efficient and precise 3D modeling of anatomical and pathological structures of rats and mice. In clinical studies, our first results show the possibility to improve the therapeutic choice thanks to a better detection and and representation of the patient before performing the surgical gesture. They also show the efficiency of augmented reality that provides virtual transparency of the patient in real time during the operative procedure. In the near future, through the exploitation of these systems, surgeons will program and check on the virtual patient clone an optimal procedure without errors, which will be replayed on the real patient by the robot under surgeon control. This medical dream is today about to become reality.

  6. Can animal data translate to innovations necessary for a new era of patient-centred and individualised healthcare? Bias in preclinical animal research

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Susan Bridgwood

    2015-01-01

    Background The public and healthcare workers have a high expectation of animal research which they perceive as necessary to predict the safety and efficacy of drugs before testing in clinical trials. However, the expectation is not always realised and there is evidence that the research often fails to stand up to scientific scrutiny and its 'predictive value' is either weak or absent. Discussion Problems with the use of animals as models of humans arise from a variety of biases and systemic f...

  7. Mycotoxin: Its Effect on Animal Health and its Residues in Animal Products and its Control

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaella Widiastuti

    2006-01-01

    Mycotoxins are the toxic metabolites of certain fungi which is able to influence animal health . Five types of the most important mycotoxins are aflatox ns, ochratoksin A . zearalenone, trichotecenes and fumonisin . The effect of mycotoxin on animal health depends on the type and amount of the mycotoxins consumed . The occurrence of mycotoxin causes animal health problem and also leads to the arise of mycotoxin residues in food derived from animal products such as meat, eggs and milk which ca...

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to announcements of forthcoming training and meeting programs, as well as status of coordinated research programs, this issue highlights application of molecular biology in diagnosis of animal diseases in developing countries

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the newsletter highlights coordinated research programs in animal diseases including ELISA and RIA techniques in reproductive studies. Announcement of staff changes and forthcoming events are also covered

  10. Approved Animal Drug Products (Green Book)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On November 16, 1988, the President of the United States signed into law the Generic Animal Drug and Patent Restoration Act (GADPTRA). Among its major provisions,...

  11. Krill Products: An Overview of Animal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lena Burri; Line Johnsen

    2015-01-01

    Many animal studies have been performed with krill oil (KO) and this review aims to summarize their findings and give insight into the mechanism of action of KO. Animal models that have been used in studies with KO include obesity, depression, myocardial infarction, chronic low-grade and ulcerative inflammation and are described in detail. Moreover, studies with KO in the form of krill powder (KP) and krill protein concentrate (KPC) as a mix of lipids and proteins are mentioned and compared t...

  12. A large animal neuropathic pain model in sheep: a strategy for improving the predictability of preclinical models for therapeutic development

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkes D; Li G; Angeles CF; Patterson JT; Huang LY

    2012-01-01

    Denise Wilkes,1 Guangwen Li,2 Carmina F Angeles,3 Joel T Patterson,4 Li-Yen Mae Huang21Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, 3Department of Neurosurgery University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; 4Neurospine Institute, Eugene, OR, USABackground: Evaluation of analgesics in large animals is a necessary step in the development of better pain medications or gene therapy prior to clinical trials. However, chronic neuropathic pain models in large ...

  13. Myelin Abnormalities in Schizophrenia: Insights from Proteomic Investigations of Post-Mortem Schizophrenia and Pre-Clinical Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Farrelly, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from epidemiologic and clinical findings report that both exposure to prenatal inflammation and prenatal iron deficiency significantly increase the risk of developing Schizophrenia in the offspring. Abnormalities in myelin are the most robust neuropathological findings in post-mortem human Schizophrenia, however the exact mechanisms at the protein and pathway levels owing to the myelin deficits are largely unknown. Animal models offer a fruitful approach to study the ...

  14. Radiation Treatment of Meat Products and Animal By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of radiation in food technology can only be considered as an alternative to existing preservation methods when a higher quality product and/or a cheaper product will result, or in cases where no alternative methods exist. With this view in mind, work performed at the Danish Meat Research Institute on sliced bacon, canned hams, luncheon meat, and animal feeding stuffs, i.e. meat and bone meal and blood meal, is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion drawn from the experimental results is that the formation of off-flavours in irradiated meat products is a very serious problem and the most important obstacle to a successful application of irradiation in meat processing. It is, therefore, essential that future research should concentrate on finding means to reduce the irradiation flavour. A number of approaches to solve this problem are mentioned and the Danish work in this field which has been centred mainly on the use of very high dose-rates and of non-equal dose distribution in cans is reviewed, and the concepts briefly described. (author)

  15. Effect of Pharmacological Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System on Opiate Withdrawal: A Review of the Preclinical Animal Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Kiri L.; Parker, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, animal studies have revealed a role for the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of multiple aspects of opiate addiction. The current review provides an overview of this literature in regards to opiate withdrawal. The opiate withdrawal syndrome, hypothesized to act as a negative reinforcer in mediating continued drug use, can be characterized by the emergence of spontaneous or precipitated aversive somatic and affective states following the termination of drug use. The behaviors measured to quantify somatic opiate withdrawal and the paradigms employed to assess affective opiate withdrawal (e.g., conditioned place aversion) in both acutely and chronically dependent animals are discussed in relation to the ability of the endocannabinoid system to modulate these behaviors. Additionally, the brain regions mediating somatic and affective opiate withdrawal are elucidated with respect to their modulation by the endocannabinoid system. Ultimately, a review of these findings reveals dissociations between the brain regions mediating somatic and affective opiate withdrawal, and the ability of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor agonism/antagonism to interfere with opiate withdrawal within different brain sub regions. PMID:27445822

  16. Bioaerosols associated with animal production operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air emissions from animal housing and manure management operations include a complex mixture of biological, microbial, and inorganic particulates along with odorous volatile compounds. This report highlights the state of current issues, technical knowledge, and remaining challenges to be addressed i...

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  20. Spectrogram analysis of animal sound production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elemans, C.P.H.; Heeck, K.; Muller, M.

    2008-01-01

    Spectrograms visualise the time-frequency content of a signal. They are commonly used to analyse animal vocalisations. Here, we analyse how far we can deduce the mechanical origin of sound generation and modulation from the spectrogram. We investigate the relationship between simple mathematical eve

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights forthcoming events including regional workshops, research coordination meetings and training courses on use isotope application in the diagnosis of animal diseases. Status of existing co-ordinated and technical co-operation research projects is also summarized

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  11. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 49, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the upcoming International Symposium on 'Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health' from 8 to 11 June 2009 in Vienna, Austria. The Symposium will address: The early and rapid diagnosis and control methods for transboundary animal diseases including those of a zoonotic nature; Improved reproduction technologies and breeding strategies; The efficient and sustainable use of locally available resources for animal production

  12. Animal and Meat Production in Ghana-An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Adzitey

    2013-01-01

    Animal production is an integral part of Ghana’s agricultural economy and a major source of livelihood for many rural households in the Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions of Ghana. In Ghana, animals are raised under the extensive, semi-intensive and/or intensive system. However, the extensive system is the commonest method and it is practiced most especially in rural communities. Animal production holdings are commercially, family or individually owned. Commercial farm...

  13. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  14. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Kralik; Jasmina Havranek-Lukač; Antun Petričević; I. Jurić

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk) in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from ω3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role ...

  15. A large animal neuropathic pain model in sheep: a strategy for improving the predictability of preclinical models for therapeutic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkes D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Denise Wilkes,1 Guangwen Li,2 Carmina F Angeles,3 Joel T Patterson,4 Li-Yen Mae Huang21Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, 3Department of Neurosurgery University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; 4Neurospine Institute, Eugene, OR, USABackground: Evaluation of analgesics in large animals is a necessary step in the development of better pain medications or gene therapy prior to clinical trials. However, chronic neuropathic pain models in large animals are limited. To address this deficiency, we developed a neuropathic pain model in sheep, which shares many anatomical similarities in spine dimensions and cerebrospinal fluid volume as humans.Methods: A neuropathic pain state was induced in sheep by tight ligation and axotomy of the common peroneal nerve. The analgesic effect of intrathecal (IT morphine was investigated. Interspecies comparison was conducted by analyzing the ceiling doses of IT morphine for humans, sheep, and rats.Results: Peroneal nerve injury (PNI produced an 86% decrease in von-Frey filament-evoked withdrawal threshold on postsurgery day 3 and the decrease lasted for the 8-week test period. Compared to the pre-injury, sham, and contralateral hindlimb, the IT morphine dose that produces 50% of maximum analgesia (ED50 for injured PNI hindlimb was 1.8-fold larger and Emax, the dose that produces maximal analgesia, was 6.1-fold lower. The sheep model closely predicts human IT morphine ceiling dose by allometric scaling. This is in contrast to the approximately 10-fold lower morphine ceiling dose predicted by the rat spinal nerve ligated or spared nerve injury models.Conclusion: PNI sheep model has a fast onset and shows stable and long-lasting pain behavioral characteristics. Since the antinociceptive properties of IT morphine are similar to those observed in humans, the PNI sheep model will be a useful tool for the development of analgesics. Its large size and consistent chronic pain

  16. Optically enhanced blood-brain-barrier crossing of plasmonic-active nanoparticles in preclinical brain tumor animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Wilson, Christy M.; Li, Shuqin; Fales, Andrew M.; Liu, Yang; Grant, Gerald; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-02-01

    Nanotechnology provides tremendous biomedical opportunities for cancer diagnosis, imaging, and therapy. In contrast to conventional chemotherapeutic agents where their actual target delivery cannot be easily imaged, integrating imaging and therapeutic properties into one platform facilitates the understanding of pharmacokinetic profiles, and enables monitoring of the therapeutic process in each individual. Such a concept dubbed "theranostics" potentiates translational research and improves precision medicine. One particular challenging application of theranostics involves imaging and controlled delivery of nanoplatforms across blood-brain-barrier (BBB) into brain tissues. Typically, the BBB hinders paracellular flux of drug molecules into brain parenchyma. BBB disrupting agents (e.g. mannitol, focused ultrasound), however, suffer from poor spatial confinement. It has been a challenge to design a nanoplatform not only acts as a contrast agent but also improves the BBB permeation. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of plasmonic gold nanoparticles as both high-resolution optical contrast agent and focalized tumor BBB permeation-inducing agent. We specifically examined the microscopic distribution of nanoparticles in tumor brain animal models. We observed that most nanoparticles accumulated at the tumor periphery or perivascular spaces. Nanoparticles were present in both endothelial cells and interstitial matrices. This study also demonstrated a novel photothermal-induced BBB permeation. Fine-tuning the irradiating energy induced gentle disruption of the vascular integrity, causing short-term extravasation of nanomaterials but without hemorrhage. We conclude that our gold nanoparticles are a powerful biocompatible contrast agent capable of inducing focal BBB permeation, and therefore envision a strong potential of plasmonic gold nanoparticle in future brain tumor imaging and therapy.

  17. Blender production creating short animations from start to finish

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Blender has become one of the most popular 3D animation tools on the market because it is robust and absolutely free. Blender Production is the definitive resource for anyone who wants to create short animations from scratch. With this book, and Blender, you have the ideal platform to make it happen.  Blender expert and author Roland Hess walks you through the entire process of creating a short animation including: writing, storyboarding, blocking, character creation, animation, rendering, and production. The associated web site includes the full Blender software kit and a compl

  18. Forage based animal production systems and sustainability, an invited keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Forages are essential for the successful operation of animal production systems. This is more relevant to ruminants which are heavily dependant upon forages for their health and production in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. While forages are an economical source of nutrients for animal production, they also help conserve the soil integrity, water supply and air quality. Although the role of these forages for animal production could vary depending upon the regional preferences for the animal and forage species, climate and resources, their importance in the success of ruminant production is acknowledged. However with the increasing global human population and urbanisation, the sustainability of forage based animal production systems is sometimes questioned due to the interrelationship between animal production and the environment. It is therefore vital to examine the suitability of these systems for their place in the future to supply quality food which is safe for human consumption and available at a competitive price to the growing human population. Grassland and forage crops are recognised for their contribution to the environment, recreation and efficiency of meat and milk production,. To maintain sustainability, it is crucial that such farming systems remain profitable and environmentally friendly while producing nutritious foods of high economical value. Thus, it is pertinent to improve the nutritive value of grasses and other forage plants in order to enhance animal production to obtain quality food. It is also vital to develop new forages which are efficiently utilised and wasted less by involving efficient animals. A combination of forage legumes, fresh or conserved grasses, crop residues and other feeds could help develop an animal production system which is economically efficient, beneficial and viable. Also, it is crucial to use efficient animals, improved forage conservation methods, better manure handling, and minimum

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TCPs), the Section evaluated our activities as part of the Agency's 2004/2005 midterm performance evaluation. During this exercise we could identify areas where good performances were achieved as well as those where further improvements were needed and which we then addressed. It became apparent that more proactive measures are needed towards the detection, control and management of emerging diseases, with particular emphasis on transboundary animal diseases and the offering of relevant support to Member States. A particular case in point is the current avian influenza situation. This issue discussed the problem posed by rinderpest and the Agency's effort in eradicating this viral disease

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed accounts of Research coordination Meetings on 'Support for rinderpest surveillance', 'Use of immunoassay for improved diagnosis of trypanosomiasis and monitoring of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control programmes in africa' and meetings related to milk and meat production are presented in this issue. Recent training activities and other meetings are also highlighted

  1. Production and processing of foodstuffs of animal origin in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the situation of the animal productions in Morocco. The author concludes that foodstuffs of animal origin are especially eaten fresh, the level of this consumption is low and the problems related to the food processing and distribution are somewhat elementary: that is particularly question of problems of hygiene, of wholesomeness and of organisation. (F.M.)

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the June 2004 Newsletter, we focused on the topic of molecular diagnostic technologies and the way forward. It is clear from the feedback, that there is a strong desire for having reliable, definitive, sensitive, specific, cost effective and on-site diagnostic tests, in parallel with so-called herd or population surveillance tests. This will allow for the implementation of more effective disease control strategies. It is indeed exciting to consider the current technological explosion and its consequences and what potential advantages might be in store for many of our Member States. This will also help to ensure that we keep abreast of new developments and employ the most appropriate tools.The conclusions and recommendations will be placed on the web as soon as they are available and published in the next Newsletter. The second topic under discussion in this Newsletter will focus on the management of animal genetic resources. Both past and future activities are described in further detail in this issue

  3. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM WASTE TO ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDVAL LUIZ BATISTA DOS SANTOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current issue. Greenhouse gas emissions (GGEs are changing the atmosphere physio-chemical characteristics also affecting biosphere natural balance and life quality on Earth. The search for renewable and clean source is an alternative to reverse, control and attenuate the problems caused by greenhouse gases. Biomass is one of the major energy sources available in rural and agribusiness areas. Anaerobic biological degradation of organic material present in solid agricultural waste generates a gaseous mixture of methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2, called biogas. It is possible to use its energy potential through the burning and obtaining of thermal energy. Biogas generation offers producers a renewable energy source of optimum performance which supports external electric expenses and provides clean energy as well as adequate distribution of generated effluent. Biogas usage is a large energetic potential concerning small and medium-sized farms. This paper aims at observing how this kind of energy can help the control of GGE emissions, adequate animal waste disposal as well dumping and especially the generation of clean and renewable energy. It also intends to answer questions about this technology aiming to help producers to take advantages of such technique by decreasing electric energy costs providing an economical development as well as improvement on local and national energetic area.

  4. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief reports of Research Coordination Meetings held between September and December 1992 and summaries of the status of other Coordinated Research Programmes (CRPs). Two new CRPs are announced, both to be based in the Africa region. One is to focus on food supplementation strategies to improve the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms, and the other will concentrate on the use of immunoassay methods to improve the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis. Applications for participation in these CRPs are included

  5. Improvement of animal production through research using radioisotopes and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High birth rates coupled with greater longevity continue to increase the.world's population, especially in the less developed countries. The prevention of undernutrition and ultimately starvation will only be averted by increased food production and more efficient use of that food. At the same time people who have largely subsisted upon plant food diets and whose standards of living are rising, want to increase the use of animal products in order to upgrade their diets. To provide this high quality food animal scientists must find ways of increasing the supply especially in the less developed countries. Since most of the available pasture lands are presently being fully utilized or overgrazed, improved efficiency of the present herds and use of agroindustrial wastes are the only methods left to increase production significantly. The use of radioisotopes and radiation in research are making major contributions to the understanding of the processes necessary to achieve better animal production. In order to provide a forum for exchange of information in this field, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture organized an international symposium, held in Vienna, from 2?6 February, on the use of nuclear techniques in animal production. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were: Soil-plant-animal relations regarding minerals, Trace elements in animal nutrition, Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism, Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - ruminants Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - non-ruminants Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections Animal endocrinology with special emphasis on radioimmunoassays

  6. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    OpenAIRE

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Coles, David; Houdebine, Louis; Gijs A. Kleter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic review identified 42 English language peer reviewed papers assessing public opinion of GM animals associated with food production. Thematic analysis...

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The editorial of this issue of the Newsletter carries a strong message to its readers how the events of 11 September and the release of anthrax in the USA have affected all those involved in laboratory activities related to infectious agents. In future, it is may be needed to keep detailed records of all dangerous pathogens and account for their production, storage, and use in ways that will prevent, or at least, significantly reduce the risk of their use as bio-weapons. The rest of this issue briefly highlights FAO/IAEA consultants meeting, coordinated research programs and technical cooperation projects

  8. Transfer of radionuclides to animal products following ingestion or inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of animal products forms an important pathway in the transfer of radionuclides from source to man. Simulation of radionuclide transfer via animal products requires an understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in absorption, distribution, turnover and excretion of radionuclides and related elements in animals as well as knowledge of animal grazing habits and husbandry. This paper provides a summary of the metabolism of important radionuclides in typical domestic animals and of the mathematical approaches that have been used to simulate transfer from diet to animal product. The equilibrium transfer factor approach has been used widely but suffers a number of disadvantages when releases or intakes are variable with time or when intakes are short relative to the lifetime of the animal of interest. Dynamic models, especially those of the compartmental type, have been developed and used widely. Both approaches have benefited from experiences obtained after the Chernobyl accident but a number of uncertainties still exist. Whereas there is now extensive knowledge on the behaviour of radiocaesium in both domestic and wild animals, knowledge of the behaviour of other potentially important radionuclides remains limited. Further experimental and metabolic studies will be required to reduce uncertainties associated with the transfer of radionuclides other than radiocaesium and thereby produce a sound basis for radiological assessments. (author)

  9. Radiation hygiene of animal production in normal and emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hazards imposed by contemporary development and peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy have implied the introduction of radiational control in animal production, and radiation-hygienic expertize of animal products and animal foodstuffs. Various treatments in scientific research, education and uses of relevant equipment, undertaken in right time, enabled our Veterinary services to start successfully to solve problems of radiation control and protection of animal production in normal and emergency situations. An important role in this context has the Section of Radiation Hygiene Yugoslav Veterinary Association, as an initiator of many activities that are intended to affirme Radiation Hygiene in the domain of scientific research and in the field of national defence and self-protection

  10. Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2003-04-07

    Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane from the dung. The Knoxville Zoo produces 30 cubic yards (23 m{sup 3}) of herbivore dung per week and cost of disposal of this dung is $105/week. The majority of this dung originates from the Zoo's elephant and rhinoceros population. The estimated weight of the dung is 20 metric tons per week and the methane production potential determined in experiments was 0.033 L biogas/g dung (0.020 L CH{sub 4}/g dung), and the digestion of elephant dung was enhanced by the addition of ammonium nitrogen. Digestion was better overall at 37 C when compared to digestion at 50 C. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated 24 h per day using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric ton herbivore dung per week.

  11. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year, the Animal Production and Health Section is 50 years old. The Animal Production and Health Section identifies new areas of interest based on the Member States' needs to improve efficiencies and to control threats to animal production and health. To this effect, several platforms, assays, diagnostic kits and technical procedures have been developed, adapted and transferred to Member States, supported by R&D, expert technical backstopping and guidance from our Animal Production and Health Laboratory. In addition, several nuclear based technologies (such as reproduction and disease related technologies (such as reproduction and disease related radioimmunoassay have been adapted to other types of chemistries (e.g. chemiluminescence instead of isotopes) to be used at the farm level. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, however, still play an important and niche role to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity needed by the livestock community in ensuring secure and safe food, to follow and measure feed and nutritional conversion into usable energy in the animal, to improve animal breeding traits towards more and of better quality animals, to monitor migratory animals and their associated pathogens, to generate safe and protective animal vaccines through the irradiation of pathogens and to develop and transfer early and rapid diagnostic platforms. Looking back at the activities of the past six months, we had several workshops, training courses, research co-ordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings. Activities scheduled for the next half-year include project review meetings, RCMs, inter-regional training courses and regional workshops. Both past and future activities are discussed in further detail in this newsletter and are also further accessible at our website

  12. Combustion of animal or vegetable based liquid waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project experiences from combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products have been compiled. Legal aspects have also been taken into consideration and the potential for this type of fuel on the Swedish energy market has been evaluated. Today the supply of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products for energy production in Sweden is limited. The total production of animal based liquid fat is about 10,000 tonnes annually. The animal based liquid waste products origin mainly from the manufacturing of meat and bone meal. Since meat and bone meal has been banned from use in animal feeds it is possible that the amount of animal based liquid fat will decrease. The vegetable based liquid waste products that are produced in the processing of vegetable fats are today used mainly for internal energy production. This result in limited availability on the commercial market. The potential for import of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products is estimated to be relatively large since the production of this type of waste products is larger in many other countries compared to Sweden. Vegetable oils that are used as food or raw material in industries could also be imported for combustion, but this is not reasonable today since the energy prices are relatively low. Restrictions allow import of SRM exclusively from Denmark. This is today the only limit for increased imports of animal based liquid fat. The restrictions for handle and combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products are partly unclear since this is covered in several regulations that are not easy to interpret. The new directive for combustion of waste (2000/76/EG) is valid for animal based waste products but not for cadaver or vegetable based waste products from provisions industries. This study has shown that more than 27,400 tonnes of animal based liquid waste products and about 6,000 tonnes of vegetable based liquid waste products were used for combustion in Sweden

  13. Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

  14. Antimalarial Chemotherapy: Natural Product Inspired Development of Preclinical and Clinical Candidates with Diverse Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Álvaro, Elena; Hong, W David; Nixon, Gemma L; O'Neill, Paul M; Calderón, Félix

    2016-06-23

    Natural products have played a pivotal role in malaria chemotherapy progressing from quinine and artemisinin to ozonide-based compounds. Many of these natural products have served as template for the design and development of antimalarial drugs currently in the clinic or in the development phase. In this review, we will detail those privileged scaffolds that have guided medicinal chemistry efforts yielding molecules that have reached the clinic. PMID:26791529

  15. A metabolic derivation of tritium transfer factors in animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium is a potentially important environmental contaminant arising from the nuclear industry. Because tritium is an isotope of hydrogen, its behaviour in the environment is controlled by the behaviour of hydrogen. Chronic releases of tritium to the atmosphere, in particular, will result in tritium-to-hydrogen (T/H) ratios in plants and animals that are more or less in equilibrium with T/H ratios in the air moisture. Tritium is thus a potentially important contaminant of plant and animal food products. The transfer of tritium from air moisture to plants is quite well understood. In contrast, although a number of regulatory agencies have published transfer coefficient values for diet tritium transfer for a limited number of animal products, a fresh evaluation of these transfers needs to be made In this paper we present an approach for the derivation of tritium transfer coefficients which is based on the metabolism of hydrogen in animals in conjunction with experimental data on tritium transfer. The derived transfer coefficients separately account for transfer to and from free (i.e. water) and organically bound tritium. The predicted transfer coefficients are compared to available data independent of model development. Agreement is good, with the exception of the transfer coefficient for transfer from tritiated water to organically bound tritium in ruminants, which may be attributable to the particular characteristics of ruminant digestion. We show that transfer coefficients will vary in response to the metabolic status of an animal (e.g. stage of lactation, digestibility of diet, etc.) and that the use of a single transfer coefficient from diet to animal product is not appropriate for tritium. It is possible to derive concentration ratio values which relate the concentration of tritiated water and organically bound tritium in an animal product to the corresponding concentrations in the animals diet. These concentration ratios are shown to be less subject to

  16. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  17. Applications of the thermography in the animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Carlos; Vizcaino, Elena; Morales, Joaquín.; Manso, Alberto; Díaz, Immaculada; Montalvo, Gema

    2015-04-01

    Infrared thermography is a working technology for over decades, which have been applied mainly in the buildings. We want to move this use to the animal production in order to help us to detect problems of energy efficiency in the facilities preventing, for example, the animal's welfare. In animal production it is necessary to provide a suitable microclimate according to age and production stage of the animals. This microclimate is achieved in the facilities through the environment modification artificially, providing an appropriate comfort for the animals. Many of the problems detected in farms are related to a poor environmental management and control. This is where infrared thermography becomes an essential diagnostic tool to detect failures in the facilities that will be related with health and performance of the animals. The use of this technology in energy audits for buildings, facilities, etc. is becoming more frequent, enabling the technician to easily detect and assess the temperature and energy losses, and it can be used as a support to draft reports and to transmit the situation to the owner in a visual format. In this way, both will be able to decide what improvements are required. Until now, there was not an appropriate technology with affordable prices and easy to manage enough in order to allow the use of the thermography like a routine tool for the diagnostic of these problems, but currently there are some solutions which are starting to appear on the market to meet the requirements needed by the industry.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 46, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to many requests from our readers, I will continue to highlight a practical topic related to animal production and health in this section of the newsletter. Increasing the efficiency of animal reproduction is a critical component of a holistic approach to sustainably increase animal productivity in developing Member States. For example, the resources spent to formulate and obtain the ingredients for dairy rations are wasted when a significant proportion of the cows in the herd are dry due to delays in achieving pregnancy. Effective genetic selection to improve productivity is only possible if a regular supply of potential replacements is generated by the females already in the herd or flock. For this reason, improving reproductive efficiency is a key aspect of many of the APH projects

  19. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 50, July 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest event this year was undoubtedly, the successful International Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health that was held from 8 to 11 June 2009, here in Vienna. It was attended by more than 400 participants from about 100 Member States of the IAEA and FAO, including several international organizations, with oral and poster contributions. The most important aspects of the symposium were to renew old and form new acquaintances, to discuss common topics and strategies and to form networks and partnerships to address animal production and health problems. The symposium was indeed topical and designed to address issues of importance to our Member States. The new and emerging areas of interest such as One Heath, Food Security and Safety and our ability to produce more and healthier animals and animal products in an 'environmentally safe, clean and ethical' way were hotly discussed. Some of the conclusions and challenges that animal scientists face, whose primary concern have been improving livestock productivity, are more extensively reported on in this newsletter. In addition, we will publish full length papers of all the oral presentations, and some of the most imminent poster presentations, as symposium proceedings shortly. Both past and future activities are described in further detail in this newsletter

  20. Animal welfare towards sustainability in pork meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Antonio; Fàbrega, Emma; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel; Dalmau, Antoni

    2015-11-01

    Animal welfare is an important pillar of sustainability in meat production and is associated with other aspects of this concept, such as animal health, productivity, food safety, food quality and efficiency from a cost of production perspective. These interactions are present at all stages of the production cycle, from the beginning of the animals' farm life until their slaughter. On farm, some of the main welfare issues are related to neonatal mortality and low level of sensory input, which are likely to engender stereotypes and injurious behaviours, such as tail-biting. Pre-slaughter handling refers to the interaction between humans and animals prior to and during transport and at slaughter. Strategies to reduce pre-slaughter stress will benefit carcass and meat quality, being the training of stockpeople one of the most cost-effective policies to improve animal welfare. These strategies include also the implementation of standard monitoring procedures to detect signs of consciousness after stunning, before sticking and during bleeding until death occurs. PMID:26013042

  1. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline. PMID:26970137

  2. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This past year went particularly fast with many unexpected and emergency food security challenges and it was indeed an asking period for the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. We have some remarkable achievements but also some gaps, such as improved communication and collaboration, where we need to improve our support to Member States. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter. The Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field to optimally serve our Member States

  3. Transport of plutonium via food products of animal origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various plutonium studies have been conducted using domestic animals in an attempt to determine what fraction of a quantified exposure would reach the edible animal products. Following either intravenous or oral plutonium doses to selected livestock species, milk, liver, eggs and skeletal muscle have been considered as critical deposition sites or materials almost irrespective of resulting nuclide concentrations. Milk and eggs received primary attention as their production represents an efficient way of converting dietary crude protein and energy into edible substances. Potential problems concerning the biological availability of plutonium from in vivo labeled food materials and the hazards associated with recycling carcass residues have been considered

  4. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Testing irradiation technology for potential use in trypanosome vaccine development; Strengthening animal disease diagnostic capacities in veterinary laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa; Proficiency testing for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) diagnosis by Nucleic Acid Amplification (RT-PCR). Information on Fellows is also provided

  5. [Gas and particle emissions from housing in animal production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J

    1995-07-01

    Animal agriculture is increasingly regarded as a source of pollutants such as gases, odours and particulates which may be both aggravating and ecologically harmful. An overview of the origin, number and quantity of pollutants emitted from animal housing and from manure stores is presented and possible means of preventing or reducing them are discussed. Of the 136 trace gases in the air of animal houses ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) present the greatest risk to the environment. The gases and particulates are emitted principally from freshly deposited and stored excreta, from animal feed, from litter and from the animals themselves. Total NH3 emissions from animal production in Germany are estimated as approximately 750,000 t/a. It is calculated that the average of which is higher than the average "critical loads" for most natural habitats. However, there is still a shortage of satisfactory information on the extent of emissions, in particular on those from naturally ventilated animal houses. NH3 has a direct effect on the trees in the vicinity of animal houses and is also transported long distances through the air contributing to eutrophication and acidification of water and soil. This frequently results in changes in plant ecology, hence reducing plant diversity. CH4 and N2O contribute to the "greenhouse effect". Emissions of CH4 from animal husbandry in Germany are estimated at about 1.5 Mt/a. This corresponds to 0.2% of the assumed global emission from all sources. There is still little knowledge about the quantities of N2O released from agricultural animals. The concentration of airborne microorganisms in livestock housing is between some 100 and several 1000 per liter of air.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8591757

  6. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction. PMID:26807698

  7. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Animal-Friendly Pig Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kijlstra, A.; Eissen, O.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Munniksma, K.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.; Kortbeek, T.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE. Consumption of undercooked pork meat products has been considered a major risk factor for contracting toxoplasmosis in humans. Indoor farming and improved hygiene have drastically reduced Toxoplasma infections in pigs over the past decades. Whether introduction of animal-friendly production systems will lead to a reemergence of Toxoplasma infections in pigs is not yet known. Investigating this possibility was the purpose of this study. METHODS. Blood was obtained from pigs raised...

  8. Optimizing nitrogen utilization by integrating crop and animal production

    OpenAIRE

    Seuri, Pentti

    2014-01-01

    The farm model was built according to the data from 9 Finnish organic farms. 20% of area produced cash crop and 80% was used as fodder in milk production on the farm. The model indicates that there is high potential (up to 30% compared to Finnish average) to reduce nitrogen losses in agriculture. The key factors are integration between crop and animal production, limited nutrient intensity according to the system itself and BNF. The crop rotation used in model can support milk productio...

  9. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of imp

  10. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Des

  11. Management to reduce nitrogen losses in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of nitrogen loss in animal production requires whole-farm management. Reduced loss from one farm component is easily negated in another if all components are not equally well managed. Animal excretion of manure N can be decreased by improving the balance of protein or amino acids fed to that required by individual animals or animal groups or by improving production efficiency. Management to increase milk, meat, or egg production normally improves efficiency by reducing the maintenance protein required per unit of production. Large losses of manure nitrogen occur through the ammonia and nitrous oxide that are emitted into the atmosphere and the nitrate leached into groundwater. Up to half of the excreted nitrogen is lost from the housing facility, but this loss can be decreased through frequent manure removal and by avoiding deep litter systems and feedlots. Techniques such as acid treatment of manure, scrubbing of ventilation air, and floor designs for separating feces and urine substantially reduce ammonia emissions, but these practices are often impractical or uneconomical for general use. Manure storage units improve nutrient utilization by allowing better timing of nutrient application with crop needs. At least 70% of the nitrogen entering anaerobic lagoons is typically lost, but a less than 10% loss can be maintained using slurry storage with a natural crust or other cover, or by drying poultry manure to at least 50% dry matter. Irrigation and surface spreading of manure without soil incorporation often ensures the loss of all remaining nonorganic nitrogen (typically, 20 to 40% of remaining nitrogen). Rapid incorporation and shallow injection methods decrease this loss by at least 50%, and deep injection into the soil essentially eliminates this loss. For grazing animals, excessive loss can be avoided by not overstocking pastures and avoiding late fall and winter grazing. Reducing emissions between the animal and the soil can lead to greater leaching

  12. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''51Cr, 32P and 35S) and stable (15N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  13. Utility and importance of animal data in drug product labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Information on the use and safety of medicines to assist prescription by healthcare professionals occurs in drug labels (Summary of Product Characteristics in Europe and Package Insert in the USA). Animal data (notably genotoxicity, reproduction toxicity and carcinogenicity and/or repeat dose toxicity testing) comprise an important component of the information (having a vital role in giving assurance that an extensive safety assessment for the medicinal product has occurred) and regulatory guidance is available to help inform on its input into drug labels. However, an evaluation of animal data for the 27 new drugs approved in the USA in 2013 (and the same drugs if available in Europe) shows great variability in detail and level of information presented within and across regions and/or the possibility of confusion on interpretation of some of the presented animal study findings. It is concluded that it may be time to revisit what animal data are presented in drug product labels (although bearing in mind current regional regulatory guidance requirements), not only to allow within and across region consistency on information given but to present it in a way that fully assists healthcare professions when prescribing a medicine. PMID:24928564

  14. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described. (M.G.B.)

  15. Trade in feed grains, animals, and animal products: current trends, future prospects, and main issues

    OpenAIRE

    Guyomard, Herve; Manceron, Stéphane; Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The food transition process is now occurring much more quickly in developing countries than in developed nations, where it took over more than a century to achieve it. Two essential consequences of this process are a switch in the domestic utilization of cereals from human consumption to feeding of livestock and a much greater growth rate of meat and milk production today in developing countries than in developed nations. However, many developing countries continue to consume more animal...

  16. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi;

    from slurry separation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer production from recycling of the ash. Manure fibre has a positive calorific value and may be used as a CO2-neutral fuel for combustion. The ashes from combustion are rich in P, an essential fertilizer compound. The study is based on samples of animal...

  17. Future prospects for SPECT imaging using the radiolanthanide terbium-155 — production and preclinical evaluation in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: We assessed the suitability of the radiolanthanide 155Tb (t1/2 = 5.32 days, Eγ = 87 keV (32%), 105 keV (25%)) in combination with variable tumor targeted biomolecules using preclinical SPECT imaging. Methods: 155Tb was produced at ISOLDE (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland) by high-energy (∼ 1.4 GeV) proton irradiation of a tantalum target followed by ionization and on-line mass separation. 155Tb was separated from isobar and pseudo-isobar impurities by cation exchange chromatography. Four tumor targeting molecules – a somatostatin analog (DOTATATE), a minigastrin analog (MD), a folate derivative (cm09) and an anti-L1-CAM antibody (chCE7) – were radiolabeled with 155Tb. Imaging studies were performed in nude mice bearing AR42J, cholecystokinin-2 receptor expressing A431, KB, IGROV-1 and SKOV-3ip tumor xenografts using a dedicated small-animal SPECT/CT scanner. Results: The total yield of the two-step separation process of 155Tb was 86%. 155Tb was obtained in a physiological L-lactate solution suitable for direct labeling processes. The 155Tb-labeled tumor targeted biomolecules were obtained at a reasonable specific activity and high purity (> 95%). 155Tb gave high quality, high resolution tomographic images. SPECT/CT experiments allowed excellent visualization of AR42J and CCK-2 receptor-expressing A431 tumors xenografts in mice after injection of 155Tb-DOTATATE and 155Tb-MD, respectively. The relatively long physical half-life of 155Tb matched in particular the biological half-lives of 155Tb-cm09 and 155Tb-DTPA-chCE7 allowing SPECT imaging of KB tumors, IGROV-1 and SKOV-3ip tumors even several days after administration. Conclusions: The radiolanthanide 155Tb may be of particular interest for low-dose SPECT prior to therapy with a therapeutic match such as the β--emitting radiolanthanides 177Lu, 161Tb, 166Ho, and the pseudo-radiolanthanide 90Y

  18. Phospho-aspirin (MDC-22) inhibits breast cancer in preclinical animal models: an effect mediated by EGFR inhibition, p53 acetylation and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Liqun; WONG, CHI C.; Mackenzie, Gerardo G; Sun, Yu; Cheng, Ka Wing; Vrankova, Kvetoslava; Alston, Ninche; Ouyang, Nengtai; Rigas, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Background The anticancer properties of aspirin are restricted by its gastrointestinal toxicity and its limited efficacy. Therefore, we synthesized phospho-aspirin (PA-2; MDC-22), a novel derivative of aspirin, and evaluated its chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive efficacy in preclinical models of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods Efficacy of PA-2 was evaluated in human breast cancer cells in vitro, and in orthotopic and subcutaneous TNBC xenografts in nude mice. Mechanistic stud...

  19. A global assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Mekonnen; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of animal products is likely to put further pressure on the world’s freshwater resources. This paper provides a comprehensive account of the water footprint of animal products, considering different production systems and feed composition per animal type and country. Nearly one-third of the total water footprint of agriculture in the world is related to the production of animal products. The water footprint of any animal product is larger than the water footpri...

  20. Uses of radioactive and stable isotopes in animal production research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the fifties, the widespread use of radioactive isotopes and radiation in the metabolic and clinical studies began. Fully coverage of uses of radioactive isotopes and radiation in research on animal health and animal production is a tedious process. This requires a classification of the manifold applications of radioisotopes which is a quantitative classification provides the necessary information about the quantities of the labelled compound or element or corresponding stable compound during metabolic processes. The second classification of applications is a qualitative classification that identifies the location of the labelling or compound. These qualitative and quantitative applications are divided into two types: fixed applications, which include measurements at a specific time, and changing applications, which include the rate of change over time. The aim of this study is to cover the applications of radioactive isotopes in animal studies, and indicate how to benefit from the results of studies of radioactive isotope quantity and its corresponding stable isotope using methods of comparison or mitigation.

  1. Future prospects for SPECT imaging using the radio-lanthanide terbium-155 production and preclinical studies in tumor bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Background: since SPECT continues to be the predominant technology in clinical oncology we propose the radio lanthanide 155Tb (t1/2 = 5.3 d, E = 87 keV (32%); 105 keV (25%) as a new isotope for SPECT imaging purposes [Ref. 1]. The aim of this study was the production and separation of 155Tb and its preclinical application in mice using different 155Tb-labeled tumor targeting agents. Methods: 155Tb was produced at ISOLDE (CERN, Switzerland) by high-energy (1.4 GeV) proton irradiation of a tantalum target followed by an on-line separation according to the mass-charge ratio of the ions [Ref.1]. Collected products of mass number 155 were shipped to PSI and separated from isobar and pseudo-isobar impurities by cation exchange chromatography similar to a previously reported procedure [Refs. 1,2]. Four different biomolecules, based on a peptide (DOTATATE), a folate (cm09 [Ref. 3]) and an antibody (chCE7) were radiolabeled with 155Tb. Imaging studies were performed in mice bearing somatostatin receptor positive AR42J tumors, folate receptor positive KB tumors or L1-CAM expressing SKOV-3 tumors. Results: the total yield of the two-step separation process of 155Tb was 85%. 155Tb was obtained in a physiological L-lactate solution suitable for direct labeling and in vivo application of the biomolecules. Radiolabeling was achieved in an excellent purity of > 98% at specific activities of ∼ 1.8 MBq/nmol (155Tb-DOTATATE) and ∼ 5.6 MBq/nmol (155Tb-folate). The radiolabeling of the antibody was achieved at a specific activity of ∼ 44 MBq/mg (155Tb-CHX-A''-DTPA-chCE7). SPECT/CT experiments revealed an excellent visualization of AR42J tumors in mice 1 h after injection of 155Tb-DOTATATE. The long-circulating 155Tb-cm09 allowed imaging of KB tumors even over several days. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrated the excellent features of 155Tb for SPECT imaging using fast-cleared and a long-circulating biomolecules. 155Tb may be of

  2. The contribution of animal production to agricultural sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Doreau, Michel; Harinder P. S. Makkar; Lecomte, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for animal products for a growing world population, use of a large amount of feed ingredients in competition with human food coup led with the urgent need for mitigating environmental effects, livestock farming has to transform. New mo dels of sustainability, that are acceptable to all stakeholders, must be explored. Reducing negative environmental impacts of various agricultural practices is a major global challenge. However, to avoid making inappropriate decisio...

  3. Definition of animal breeding goals for sustainable production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, I.; Groen, A.F.; GJERDE, B.

    2000-01-01

    What we do is determined by the way we "view" a complex issue and what sample of issues or events we choose to deal with. In this paper, a model based on a communal, cultural, or people-centered worldview, informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology, is considered. Definitions and interpretations of sustainable agriculture are reviewed. Common elements in published definitions of sustainable agriculture and animal production among those who seek long-term and equitable solut...

  4. Use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine and animal production

    OpenAIRE

    João Vinícius Barbosa Roberto; Bonifácio Benício de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary medicine is in a period of innovation with respect to the diagnostic methods, mainly in the field of Diagnostic Imaging. This has considerably developed, leaning on techniques increasingly sophisticated, modern and secure, allowing the veterinarian aid and essential informations for a more complete, secure and efficient diagnostic. Already in animal production, the use of new technologies such as infrared thermography arise, among other applications, as an alternative to define the...

  5. Water for animal products: a blind spot in water policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    We know from land, energy and climate studies that the livestock sector plays a substantial role in deforestation, biodiversity loss and climate change. More recently it has become clear that livestock also significantly contributes to humanity’s water footprint, water pollution and water scarcity. Jalava et al (Environ. Res. Lett. 9 074016) show that considerable water savings can be achieved by reducing the fraction of animal products in our diet. The findings are in line with a few earlier...

  6. Characterization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in rendered animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofacre, C L; White, D G; Maurer, J J; Morales, C; Lobsinger, C; Hudson, C

    2001-01-01

    Antibiotics are used in food animal production to treat diseases and also to improve performance. Antibiotics are not used on all farms, and antibiotic resistance is occasionally found on farms that do not use antibiotics. Rendered animal protein products are often included in poultry feeds and could potentially serve as a source of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One hundred sixty-five rendered animal protein products from cattle, poultry, and fish were aseptically collected from poultry feed mills. Fifty-five percent of the poultry meal samples had detectable levels of gram-negative bacteria ranging from 40 to 10,440 colony-forming units/g of sample. Poultry meal and meat and bone meal had the greatest number of samples with bacteria resistant to five or more antibiotics. A high percentage of feed samples (85%) contained bacteria resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, clavulanic acid, or cephalothin, whereas few samples contained bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter cloacae were the most commonly isolated antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Isolation for Salmonella was also performed, with 14% of the meat and bone meal samples containing Salmonella sp. Only one of the meat and bone meal isolates, Salmonella livingstone, was resistant to five or more antibiotics. Many of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria contained integrons, genetic elements that mediate multiple drug resistance. PMID:11785899

  7. The transfer of radionuclides into domestic animals and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination of animal products, especially milk, with radionuclides, are regarded as the important problem in the food chain, and has been one of the remarkable public concerns in Japan since the nuclear tests in 1954. The transfer of several radionuclides into domestic animals and their products is described. 131I, 90Sr and 137Cs are very important as the radionuclides that transfer into domestic animals and their products. The data of the transfer of several orally administered radionuclides into milk from the references are summarized as follows: (1) 131I transfered into milk was 5 -- 30% of dose (cow), 10 -- 40% (goat). (2) 90Sr(89Sr) transfered into milk was 0.6 -- 1.9% (cow), 0.5 -- 0.6% (goat). (3) 137Cs(134Cs) transfered into milk was 10 -- 13% (cow), 7.0% (goat). (4) 140Ba-140La transfered into milk was 0.6% (cow), 0.1 -- 0.2% (goat). (5) 181W transfered into milk was 0.06% (goat). (author)

  8. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 56, July 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first six months of this year have been a busy time for all personnel in the sub-programme. Apart from our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to on-going national and regional Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC country officers) of the 2014/15 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2010/11 end of cycle programmatic performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States for the present programme cycle 2012-2013. In response to many requests from our readers, I have decided to give a brief overview of our Subprogramme as background to the upcoming 'Scientific Forum' (Food for the Future: Meeting the Challenges with Nuclear Applications) that will take place during he IAEA General Conference in September 2012. The focus of the Animal production and Health Subprogramme activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the sub-programme are animal nutrition, animal reproduction and breeding and animal health. Problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies to: - Characterize and optimally utilize locally available feed and feed resources to enhance maximum energy conversion, whilst minimizing methane and CO2 emissions; - Increase animal production through the characterization of livestock genetic make-up to drive the integration of locally adapted animal breeds with trait selected exotic breeds to satisfy the increasing demand for 'more and of better

  9. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of food products reaching the consumer may be a serious problem following radioactive contamination deposited in the agricultural environment. A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. This paper reviews both literature sources and practice of applying agricultural countermeasures: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. In practice, the most effective countermeasures which can be used to reduce radionuclide contamination of animals in agricultural ecosystems will be obtained by a combination of both management changes and the use of chemical binders to prevent gut absorption. Social, economic, and practical considerations of the countermeasures such as availability, technical feasibility, acceptability and side-effects need to be also taken into account. (authors)

  10. Impact of animal diseases on livestock productivity and economic losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most serious impact of animal disease on livestock productivity in developing countries derives from its effect on overall livestock production and trade development rather than from the direct losses it causes. The global importance of major infectious diseases such as foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and African swine fever is reviewed. The impact of major livestock diseases in tropical Africa on livestock productivity and economic losses is analysed, and the importance of in-depth analysis of the disease impact on livestock and rural development is stressed. Lack of diagnosis facilities that are needed to acquire reliable information on the distribution of disease is often a major constraint to cost-benefit analysis of control options. However, enough evidence exists to substantiate the fact that improved disease control is a prerequisite for progress towards increased productivity based on the adoption of more intensive production systems and use of animals of improved genotype. Veterinary services in developing countries are at various stages of development, and the priority order of infra-structure, manpower and technological development for disease control programmes should be carefully planned and be based on socio-economic, cost-benefit and feasibility studies. (author)

  11. 75 FR 65565 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520, 556, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations by removing...

  12. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Genetic relationship of domestic sheep breeds with primitive Asian wild Urial sheep; Using irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; Peste des petits ruminants (PPR); Technical visit to the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Fellows/interns/consultants

  13. Sperm cells as vectors in the production of transgenic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, R.M.

    1993-04-28

    Transgenic animals are used in industry and in biomedical research in order to provide in vivo experimental model systems. Sperm cells have been reported used as vectors in the production of transgenic animals before, however no approach has of yet proven to be successful. Fertilizing eggs with genetically modified sperm would be advantageous in that sperm are readily accessible and stable, and eggs can be fertilized by modified sperm cells in vivo. Recent elucidations regarding the unique manner of DNA packaging in sperm chromatin by protamines has provided us with the insight for developing a method of introducing foreign DNA into sperm which is likely to succeed where others have failed. We have developed a method for mimicking the in vivo system of sperm chromatin toroid subunits in vitro, concentrating these toroids, and fluorescent visualization. Our present work concerns development of a method to successfully deliver DNA across the cell membranes and into the nucleus.

  14. Production and preclinical evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides in tumor-bearing mice. Recent developments at Paul Scherrer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At PSI we have initiated a close collaboration of the Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry and the Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences to bring novel diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals to the point of clinical trials. Pre-clinical studies using tumor-bearing mice were conducted at PSI and ETH Zürich. At the university hospital in Bern the required infrastructure for clinical trials was established. (author)

  15. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 57, January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2012 Scientific Forum examined the challenges related to the improvement of food production, food protection and food safety through the use of nuclear applications. In the first session on 'Increasing Food Production' it was noted that the world will need to produce 70% more food between now and 2050 to satisfy the demand of a population in excess of 9 billion people. In this regard, the intensification and diversification of more and higher quality food in a climate-smart and sustainable manner whilst protecting the environment is therefore critical to smallholder farmers and is the key to poverty reduction and increased food security. The Forum noted that the increasing global population faces the challenge of substantially increasing food production under conditions of severe land degradation that has led to a significant reduction in the productive capacity of agricultural lands. Sustainable soil management, plant mutation breeding and animal nutrition and production are therefore critical to the improvement of agricultural productivity. The second session on 'Ensuring Food Protection' noted that global food insecurity is inherently linked to pests and diseases that harm or kill livestock and crops, as well as people working in rural agricultural areas. The losses caused by diseases and pests at both the pre- and post-harvest levels average 30-40% of agricultural outputs, making returns on agricultural investments in land, seeds, water, fertilizer, animal feed, labour and other inputs correspondingly inefficient. In addition, the world is currently facing an unprecedented increase of invasive animal and plant diseases and pests that threaten food security by causing serious losses in production and by necessitating costly control measures, including the escalating use of increasingly expensive pesticides. Outbreaks of secondary pests, the development of resistance of pests to pesticides and the increasing threat of zoonotic diseases to public health cause

  16. Pollution by animal production in The Netherlands: solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorburg, J H

    1991-09-01

    Provided that the application rates of manure do not exceed the crop uptake of nutrients, pollution by animal production is mainly caused by nitrogenous substances. Applying manure outside the growing season causes pollution of groundwater and surface water due to leaching and runoff. In regions with a high livestock density, the evaporation of ammonia has a serious impact on the environment. It contributes to acidification and causes a nutrient imbalance in natural vegetation. The prevention of nutrient losses from manure is unprofitable. The environmental impact is not caused by the individual farmer but is a result of the sum of activities in a region. This means that legislation is necessary to impose limits in order to arrive at production without pollution. Within this framework, the farmer should optimise the utilisation of minerals from manure by more efficient animal nutrition and better handling of the manure. One of the most difficult problems is the prevention of ammonia evaporation. A reduction of these losses generally also has a favourable effect on odour emissions. A new development is the processing of manure surpluses into a dried manure of sufficient quality to compete on the fertiliser market. As is usually the case with pollution control, these measures raise the costs of livestock production. PMID:1782422

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 44, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three animal disease issues, amongst others, dominated animal health activities in the world; the near eradication of rinderpest (RP), the continued threat of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) to national and international trade and the ever spreading avian influenza (AI). The importance of early, rapid and sensitive diagnoses of merging diseases, with special reference to AI, can not be overstated and it has prompted our subprogramme to refocus our activities and efforts. The rapid diagnosis and characterization of AI, particularly with respect to molecular tools, are important to determine whether it is H5N1 or another subtype. It is here that the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme can play a role in supporting the actions of the FAO, World organisation for animal health (OIE), WHO and Member States. The subprogramme can provide technical assistance on (1) which tests and protocols to use, (2) technical and laboratory training, (3) expert missions (nominating relevant expert(s) or to perform expert missions by members of the subprogramme), (4) the analysis of AI samples (as primary diagnosis or as confirmation) utilizing the OIE reference status of our Seibersdorf laboratory (i.e. the analysis of translation products of the virus genome) and (5) the provision of technical quality assurance guidelines and support to ensure quality data and reporting

  18. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this newsletter, I want to discuss shortly the effects of climate variations, food security and the expansion of animal and zoonotic diseases within the sphere of what the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme can contribute. My take home message would be: • Globalization and climate change are causing an unprecedented worldwide impact on emerging and reemerging animal and zoonotic diseases. • Vector borne diseases are now spreading to previously non-endemic and cooler areas. A dramatically increased incidence in deadly infectious and zoonotic diseases in wildlife, livestock, and people may be the most immediate serious consequence of global warming, food security or food shortage. Globalization and climate change have had a worldwide impact on emerging and re-emerging animal and zoonotic diseases. Climate change is disrupting natural ecosystems by providing more suitable environments for infectious diseases allowing disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and fungi to move into new areas where they may harm wildlife and domestic species, as well as humans. Diseases that were previously limited only to tropical areas are now spreading to other previously cooler areas e.g. Rift Valley fever. Pathogens that were restricted by seasonal weather patterns can invade new areas and find new susceptible species as the climate warms and/or the winters get milder. There is evidence that the increasing occurrence of tropical infectious diseases in the mid latitudes is linked to either global warming or food security. Vector borne diseases are particularly affected by weather patterns and long-term climatic factors strongly influence the incidence of outbreaks. Most of these diseases are caused by insects and their population dynamics are dependent on the prevailing weather conditions, specifically temperature and humidity. Climate change influences local weather conditions and therefore has a significant impact on the presence of vectors and their geographical

  19. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    .  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk for......  The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production...... transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  20. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 55, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest event in 2011 was the declaration of global freedom from rinderpest by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The IAEA celebrated this momentous occasion on the 20th of September 2011, during the IAEA 55th General Conference. The commitment, dedication and hard work of past and present IAEA staff were commended by all participants as the contribution of the IAEA was a critical and essential component of the eradication success. Building on the success of the rinderpest campaign, technology transfer in the field of animal health continued to be a top priority of the Subprogramme during 2011 and this will continue for the future since our next target disease for eradication is peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Member States received support through Technical Cooperation Projects. In most of the tropics, climatic variation, rainfall patterns and droughts reduce plant growth and feed availability and quality leading to extensive livestock losses and reduced productivity. With the assistance of the IAEA, tremendous improvement has been achieved in terms of quantity and quality of the available feed resource base, particularly, in terms of nutritive value, palatability and/or cold and drought tolerance - vital benefits whose effectiveness can be monitored using nuclear technology. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter and are also accessible at our website (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/aph/index.html); I thus need not mention them in this section. Please contact us if you have any further ideas, comments, concerns or questions. As discussed in previous newsletters, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field, to optimally serve our Member States.

  1. The role and management of herbal pastures for animal health, productivity and product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    This review seeks to address the role and management of herbal pastures for animal health, productivity and product quality. It aims to do this by way of reviewing available Defra funded and other research and identifying key and relevant aspects. In particular the target issues are: •Impact on animal health and growth • Mixtures/varieties • Meat quality • Production/yield; and • Climate change issues. There is however a clear variation in the number of papers focused on these...

  2. Curvas de crescimento na produção animal Growth curves in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram discutidas as propriedades de sete modelos não-lineares, considerando-se o ajuste de curvas de crescimento na produção animal. Os modelos utilizados: Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy e duas alternativas de Gompertz e de Logístico foram ajustados, pelo método de Gauss Newton por meio do procedimento NLIN do SAS, a dados peso-idade de oito espécies: camarão-d'água-doce, rã-pimenta, coelho, frango, ovino, caprino, suíno e bovino. Considerando-se os critérios como: convergência ou não, coeficiente de determinação e interpretabilidade biológica dos parâmetros, concluiu-se que: a o modelo Logístico y= A/(1 + e-ktm estimou o peso em todas as espécies animais, enquanto o de Von Bertalanffy apenas não foi adequado para camarão; b os dois modelos Gompertz foram adequados para camarão, rã, frango, suíno e bovino; c em cada espécie, pelo menos dois dos sete modelos mostraram-se adequados para estimar o crescimento corporal das espécies animais estudadas, pois os coeficientes de determinação foram superiores a 92,0%.The properties of seven nonlinear models were discussed concerning its applications in the fitting of growth curves in animal production. The models used: Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy and two alternatives of Gompertz and Logistic models, were fitted by Gauss Newton method to weight-age data from eight animal species: freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi, pepper frog, rabbit, poultry, sheep, goat, swine and cattle. Considering results of the fitted models such as convergence or not, coefficient of determination and biological interpretation of parameters, it was concluded that: a the Logisticmethod y = A/(1 + e-ktm estimated body weight in all species, while the Von Bertalanffy model was not adequate only for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi; b both Gompertz models were adequate for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi, pepper frog, poultry, swine and cattle; c for each specie, at least two

  3. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products : policy and trade issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Bruckner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  4. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 51, January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As 2010 is dawning on us, I want to look forward and highlight some of the exciting new nuclear and nuclear related areas that we think will play an important role in the near future. The main constraint to livestock production in many tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America is the scarcity and fluctuations in quality and quantity of the year-around supply of feeds. Animal productivity is restricted by the low nitrogen and high fibre content of the native grasses and crop residues, which form the basis of the diets in these regions. An additional consequence of this poor diet in ruminants is the increased production of methane compared with ruminants fed on better quality forages. Studies on rumen metabolism using isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and nitrogen have revealed how the ruminal microbial flora can change depending on the type of forage ingested. In addition, certain plant metabolites reduce the microbial population thereby improving efficiency of feed utilization by up to 10 per cent. The future application of this strategy is that the modulation of fermentation can reduce methane production, hence mitigating greenhouse gas emissions

  5. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  6. Using Rose’s metal alloy as a pinhole collimator material in preclinical small-animal imaging: A Monte Carlo evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mikael, E-mail: Mikael.Peterson@med.lu.se; Strand, Sven-Erik; Ljungberg, Michael [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Science, Lund University, Lund 221 85 (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Pinhole collimation is the most common method of high-resolution preclinical single photon emission computed tomography imaging. The collimators are usually constructed from dense materials with high atomic numbers, such as gold and platinum, which are expensive and not always flexible in the fabrication step. In this work, the authors have investigated the properties of a fusible alloy called Rose’s metal and its potential in pinhole preclinical imaging. When compared to current standard pinhole materials such as gold and platinum, Rose’s metal has a lower density and a relatively low effective atomic number. However, it is inexpensive, has a low melting point, and does not contract when solidifying. Once cast, the piece can be machined with high precision. The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging properties for Rose’s metal and compare them with those of standard materials. Methods: After validating their Monte Carlo code by comparing its results with published data and the results from analytical calculations, they investigated different pinhole geometries by varying the collimator material, acceptance angle, aperture diameter, and photon incident angle. The penetration-to-scatter and penetration-to-total component ratios, sensitivity, and the spatial resolution were determined for gold, tungsten, and Rose’s metal for two radionuclides, {sup 99}Tc{sup m} and {sup 125}I. Results: The Rose’s metal pinhole-imaging simulations show higher penetration/total and scatter/total ratios. For example, the penetration/total is 50% for gold and 75% for Rose’s metal when simulating {sup 99}Tc{sup m} with a 0.3 mm aperture diameter and a 60° acceptance angle. However, the degradation in spatial resolution remained below 10% relative to the spatial resolution for gold for acceptance angles below 40° and aperture diameters larger than 0.5 mm. Conclusions: Extra penetration and scatter associated with Rose’s metal contribute to degradation in the

  7. Game Analysis of Interests Coordination between Grain Production and the Development of Animal Husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qian; Li, Cui-Xia; Wang, Gang-yi

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote the common development of grain production and animal husbandry, and achieve the optimal comprehensive benefit of the entire system of grain production and the development of animal husbandry, we use the method of game theory to research the relations between grain production and the development of animal husbandry, from the perspective of interests cointegration. In accordance with the internal relations between stakeholders in grain production and the development of anim...

  8. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 59, January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As 2013 draws to a close, we are completing our activities and contributions to the 2012-2013 IAEA and FAO programmes of work and budget, and finalizing our tasks and products and services for the next biennium. We hope that our programme will satisfy Member State needs maximally. I want to mention two events regarding the activities of the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. First, I have the pleasure to inform you that the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme was part of a 'One-House' IAEA team that was awarded an IAEA Superior Achievement Award for its response to Member States requests regarding the H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in several provinces of China. The aggravating factor with this new avian influenza disease was that it was asymptomatic in poultry (i.e. poultry showed no clinical disease), but symptomatic in humans (i.e. humans showed flu like symptoms) causing about 30% mortality in infected humans. This epidemiological character of the disease made it very difficult to trace and search for its origin in poultry, towards protecting human lives. The Chinese authorities, in particular the Beijing Genetics Institute, reacted appropriately to the outbreaks and characterized the virus, isolated from human patients, as an avian influenza H7N9 subtype. Knowing the panzootic potential of avian influenza viruses, the international community has immediately developed response plans on the eventual spread of the Chinese H7N9 strain and called for emergency preparedness. Upon requests of Member States from Europe and the Asia and Pacific Region, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department immediately reacted by taking advantage of the responsiveness of the TC Programme to unforeseen needs of Member States. In addition to the evaluation and validation of diagnostic and surveillance procedures and the transfer of technologies and the diagnostic support, two unplanned

  9. Near infrared spectroscopy in animal science production: principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Riovanto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared (NIR is one of the techniques belonging to vibrational spectroscopy. Its radiation (750 to 2500nm interacts with organic matter, and the absorption spectrum is rich in chemical and physical information of organic molecules. In order to extract valuable information on the chemical properties of samples, it is necessary to mathematically process spectral data by chemometric tools. The most important part in the development of an NIR method is building the predicting model generally called calibration. NIR spectroscopy has several advantages over other analytical techniques: rapidity of analysis, no use of chemicals, minimal or no samples preparation, easily applicable in different work environments (on/in/at line applications. On the other hand, NIR spectroscopy has some disadvantages: low ability to predict compounds at low concentration (<0.1%, necessity of accurate analysis as reference, development of calibration models required high trained personnel, need of a large and up-to-date calibration data set (often difficult to obtain, difficulties to transfer calibration among instruments, initial high financial investments. In the feed industry, NIR spectroscopy is used for: feed composition, digestibility (in vivo, in vitro, in situ, traceability assessment (to avoid possible frauds. As far as animal products are concerned, NIR spectroscopy has been used to determine the main composition of meat, milk, fish, cheese, eggs. Furthermore, it was also used to predict some physical properties (tenderness, WHC (Water Holding Capacity, drip loss, colour and pH in meat; coagulation ability in milk; freshness, flavour and other sensorial parameters in cheese. Interesting applications of NIR spectroscopy regard issues like: determination of animal products’ authenticity and the detection of adulteration (in order to prevent frauds, discrimination PDO (Protected Designation of Origin and PGI (Protected Geographical Indication from other non

  10. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767

  11. Impacts of cereal ergot in food animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops such as wheat, barley and rye, favouring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements which may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety and genotype. Considerable animal to animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome.

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 48, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the formulation (together with our Member State counterparts and TC Country Officers) of projects for the 2009/11 TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2007 programme of work and budget performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. The focus of our activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the subprogramme are animal nutrition, reproduction and breeding and animal health. Within these three components, problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies

  13. A global assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the consumption of animal products is likely to put further pressure on the world’s freshwater resources. This paper provides a comprehensive account of the water footprint of animal products, considering different production systems and feed composition per animal type and country.

  14. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 54, July 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is with great enthusiasm that I address you in a new era - the era of a rinderpest free world. The OIE and FAO have declared the world-wide eradication of Rinderpest recently - but more about this later. The first part of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were involved in the technical planning of projects for the new TC projects by Member States for the 2012/2013 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with finalizing the IAEA's 2012/2013 Work and Budget Programme. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the subprogramme

  15. GRECA Review of Chernobyl Data on Transfer to Animal Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of a review carried out by GRECA of Chernobyl fallout data from the OECD countries relevant to transfer to animal products. Two groups of data are considered: data applicable to a large number of different locations within a country obtained from the national monitoring programmes, and detailed data for a few locations obtained by selected organisations or research institutes for model validation purposes. Origins of the data included in this review are first summarized, and the results of a preliminary evaluation is presented for milk and various kinds of meat (mutton and lamb and others). Conclusions concerning transfer factors and uptakes are given, while an estimation of feed-to-milk transfer factor with temporally variable intake and milk concentration of a radionuclide is presented in appendix

  16. Nanocapsular forms of preparations in preclinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Grinevich

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines preclinical study of nanocapsule deliverysystem, particularly the influence of nanocapsule with a vasodilatorin the process of programmed myocardial cells death. Isosorbidedinitrate was loaded in nanocapsules. To investigate the effectnanocapsule isosorbide dinitrate on the process of apoptosis incardiomyocytes, a series of experimental works wereperformed. For this purpose, a model of coronary insufficiency in 4groups of animals were elaborated. The experimental works onlaboratory animals were conducted in accordance withrequirements of the European Convention for the protection ofvertebrate animals. The first preclinical trials showed the presenceof specific activity of obtained drugs. The basis of nanocapsularsystem was phosphatidylinositol, and the active loading substanceswere alprostadil, interferon alpha.

  17. Establishing reliable production of the PET isotope 89Zr for research use: From target fabrication to preclinical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharli, R. K.; Price, R. I.; Chan, S.; Cryer, D.; Jeffery, C. M.; Asad, A. H.; Morandeau, L.; Eu, P.; Cullinane, C.; Kasbollah, A.; Katsifis, A.

    2012-12-01

    A semi-automated, in-house external beamline, ≤40 μA at 11.7 MeV for 120 min (degraded from 18 MeV to suppress 88Y & 88Zr co-production) produced 89Zr from 89Y(p,n)89Zr. EOB activity (by HPGe γ-spectr.) of 89Zr in target discs, derived from multiple runs, was 1.42 GBq (±0.45 GBq [SD], n=4) which was 67% (±21%, n=4) of the theoretical activity, with a maximum of 1.84 GBq (87% of theory) achieved. Recovery was 88% (±9%, n=4), radionuclidic purity >99% (n=4) and chemical purity 0.2 ppm Zr (±0.3 ppm, n=3, ICP-MS). The Zr:Y ratio improved from 1:10000 in the pre-filtered solution to 1:10 in the product purified by hydroxamate column. Efficiency of radiolabeling to monoclonal antibody (mAb; trastuzumab) was 100% and purified 89Zr did not bind non-specifically to mAb. Chelator:mAb ratio was 1.3:1. No-carrier-added specific activity of purified 89Zr was 408 MBq/μg (±26 MBq/μg, n=2) via the titration-by-chelator method. Minimum ligand concentration for which 100% labeling occurred was 302 nmol/L. Small animal PET imaging (Philips Mosaic; scan acquisition time 10 min; decay & randoms corrected; image reconstructed using a 3-D RAMLA algorithm) demonstrated marked tumor-specific uptake of 89Zr-labeled mAb but nil 'free' 89Zr (as chloride) tumor uptake.

  18. GEMMs as preclinical models for testing pancreatic cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Aarthi; Morton, Jennifer P; Jodrell, Duncan I; Sansom, Owen J

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common form of pancreatic tumour, with a very limited survival rate and currently no available disease-modifying treatments. Despite recent advances in the production of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), the development of new therapies for pancreatic cancer is still hampered by a lack of reliable and predictive preclinical animal models for this disease. Preclinical models are vitally important for assessing therapies in the first stages of the drug development pipeline, prior to their transition to the clinical arena. GEMMs carry mutations in genes that are associated with specific human diseases and they can thus accurately mimic the genetic, phenotypic and physiological aspects of human pathologies. Here, we discuss different GEMMs of human pancreatic cancer, with a focus on the Lox-Stop-Lox (LSL)-Kras(G12D); LSL-Trp53(R172H); Pdx1-cre (KPC) model, one of the most widely used preclinical models for this disease. We describe its application in preclinical research, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages, its potential for predicting clinical outcomes in humans and the factors that can affect such outcomes, and, finally, future developments that could advance the discovery of new therapies for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26438692

  19. GEMMs as preclinical models for testing pancreatic cancer therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarthi Gopinathan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common form of pancreatic tumour, with a very limited survival rate and currently no available disease-modifying treatments. Despite recent advances in the production of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs, the development of new therapies for pancreatic cancer is still hampered by a lack of reliable and predictive preclinical animal models for this disease. Preclinical models are vitally important for assessing therapies in the first stages of the drug development pipeline, prior to their transition to the clinical arena. GEMMs carry mutations in genes that are associated with specific human diseases and they can thus accurately mimic the genetic, phenotypic and physiological aspects of human pathologies. Here, we discuss different GEMMs of human pancreatic cancer, with a focus on the Lox-Stop-Lox (LSL-KrasG12D; LSL-Trp53R172H; Pdx1-cre (KPC model, one of the most widely used preclinical models for this disease. We describe its application in preclinical research, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages, its potential for predicting clinical outcomes in humans and the factors that can affect such outcomes, and, finally, future developments that could advance the discovery of new therapies for pancreatic cancer.

  20. Phospho-aspirin (MDC-22) inhibits breast cancer in preclinical animal models: an effect mediated by EGFR inhibition, p53 acetylation and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anticancer properties of aspirin are restricted by its gastrointestinal toxicity and its limited efficacy. Therefore, we synthesized phospho-aspirin (PA-2; MDC-22), a novel derivative of aspirin, and evaluated its chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive efficacy in preclinical models of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Efficacy of PA-2 was evaluated in human breast cancer cells in vitro, and in orthotopic and subcutaneous TNBC xenografts in nude mice. Mechanistic studies were also carried out to elucidate the mechanism of action of PA-2. PA-2 inhibited the growth of TNBC cells in vitro more potently than aspirin. Treatment of established subcutaneous TNBC xenografts (MDA-MB-231 and BT-20) with PA-2 induced a strong growth inhibitory effect, resulting in tumor stasis (79% and 90% inhibition, respectively). PA-2, but not aspirin, significantly prevented the development of orthotopic MDA-MB-231 xenografts (62% inhibition). Mechanistically, PA-2: 1) inhibited the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and suppressed its downstream signaling cascades, including PI3K/AKT/mTOR and STAT3; 2) induced acetylation of p53 at multiple lysine residues and enhanced its DNA binding activity, leading to cell cycle arrest; and 3) induced oxidative stress by suppressing the thioredoxin system, consequently inhibiting the activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor NF-κB. These molecular alterations were observed in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating their relevance to the anticancer effect of PA-2. Our findings demonstrate that PA-2 possesses potent chemotherapeutic efficacy against TNBC, and is also effective in its chemoprevention, warranting further evaluation as an anticancer agent

  1. Preclinical profile of cabazitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrignaud, Patricia; Semiond, Dorothée; Benning, Veronique; Beys, Eric; Bouchard, Hervé; Gupta, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    First-generation taxanes have changed the treatment paradigm for a wide variety of cancers, but innate or acquired resistance frequently limits their use. Cabazitaxel is a novel second-generation taxane developed to overcome such resistance. In vitro, cabazitaxel showed similar antiproliferative activity to docetaxel in taxane-sensitive cell lines and markedly greater activity in cell lines resistant to taxanes. In vivo, cabazitaxel demonstrated excellent antitumor activity in a broad spectrum of docetaxel-sensitive tumor xenografts, including a castration-resistant prostate tumor xenograft, HID28, where cabazitaxel exhibited greater efficacy than docetaxel. Importantly, cabazitaxel was also active against tumors with innate or acquired resistance to docetaxel, suggesting therapeutic potential for patients progressing following taxane treatment and those with docetaxel-refractory tumors. In patients with tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), and in patients with pediatric tumors, therapeutic success with first-generation taxanes has been limited. Cabazitaxel demonstrated greater antitumor activity than docetaxel in xenograft models of CNS disease and pediatric tumors, suggesting potential clinical utility in these special patient populations. Based on therapeutic synergism observed in an in vivo tumor model, cabazitaxel is also being investigated clinically in combination with cisplatin. Nonclinical evaluation of the safety of cabazitaxel in a range of animal species showed largely reversible changes in the bone marrow, lymphoid system, gastrointestinal tract, and male reproductive system. Preclinical safety signals of cabazitaxel were consistent with the previously reported safety profiles of paclitaxel and docetaxel. Clinical observations with cabazitaxel were consistent with preclinical results, and cabazitaxel is indicated, in combination with prednisone, for the treatment of patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer previously treated

  2. Water for animal products: a blind spot in water policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-09-01

    We know from land, energy and climate studies that the livestock sector plays a substantial role in deforestation, biodiversity loss and climate change. More recently it has become clear that livestock also significantly contributes to humanity’s water footprint, water pollution and water scarcity. Jalava et al (Environ. Res. Lett. 9 074016) show that considerable water savings can be achieved by reducing the fraction of animal products in our diet. The findings are in line with a few earlier studies on water use in relation to diets. As yet, this insight has not been taken forward in national water policies, which focus on ‘sustainable production’ rather than ‘sustainable consumption’. Most studies and practical efforts focus on increasing water-use efficiency in crop production (more crop per drop) and feed conversion efficiency in the livestock sector (more meat with less feed). Water-use efficiency in the food system as a whole (more nutritional value per drop) remains a blind spot.

  3. Research on Three Dimensional Animation Production Combined with Virtual Reality Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Cao; Xuefeng Xing; Xiaoning Zeng

    2013-01-01

    The research investigates and researches the three-dimensional animation production combined with virtual reality technology, in order to provide a reference and help for the underlying business. Traditional three-dimensional animation technique mainly dues to the role of animation production and special post-production effects, etc. and as the three-dimensional animation gradually entering into the vision of the crowd in these years, its application is increasin...

  4. Essential veterinary education in the cultural, political and biological complexities of international trade in animals and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C C

    2009-08-01

    Globalisation has changed the veterinary profession in many ways and academic institutes may need to re-tool to help future professionals deal with the changes in a successful and productive way. The remarkably expanded and expanding volume of trade and traffic in animals and animal products means that to be effective veterinarians must grasp some of the complexities inherent in this trade. Being able to engage productively in cross-cultural dialogue will be important in negotiations over livestock shipments and also within the context of the delivery of medical services to companion animals in societies that are becoming increasingly diverse. Understanding the political landscapes that influence trade decisions will help to expedite agreements and facilitate the transfer of goods and materials that involve animal health. Disease emergence will continue to occur, and an awareness of the factors responsible and the response measures to undertake will help to contain any damage. PMID:20128459

  5. Fuel gas production from animal residue. Dynatech report No. 1551

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wise, D.L.; Wentworth, R.L.

    1977-01-14

    A comprehensive mathematical model description of anaerobic digestion of animal residues was developed, taking into account material and energy balances, kinetics, and economics of the process. The model has the flexibility to be applicable to residues from any size or type of animal husbandry operation. A computer program was written for this model and includes a routine for optimization to minimum unit gas cost, with the optimization variables being digester temperature, retention time, and influent volatile solids concentration. The computer program was used to determine the optimum base-line process conditions and economics for fuel gas production via anaerobic digestion of residues from a 10,000 head environmental beef feedlot. This feedlot at the conditions for minimum unit gas cost will produce 300 MCF/day of methane at a cost of $5.17/MCF (CH/sub 4/), with a total capital requirement of $1,165,000, a total capital investment of $694,000, and an annual average net operating cost of $370,000. The major contributions to this unit gas cost are due to labor (37 percent), raw manure (11 percent), power for gas compression (10 percent), and digester cost (13 percent). A conceptual design of an anaerobic digestion process for the baseline conditions is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the unit gas cost to changes in the major contributions to unit gas cost was performed, and the results of this analysis indicate areas in the anaerobic digestion system design where reasonable improvements could be expected so as to produce gas at an economically feasible cost. This sensitivity analysis includes the effects on unit gas cost of feedlot size and type, digester type, digester operating conditions, and economic input data.

  6. Importância dos estudos pré-clínicos em animais de experimentação para a cardiologia intervencionista The importance of pre-clinical animal testing in interventional cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoriyasu Suzuki

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento da doença cardiovascular mudou radicalmente nas últimas duas décadas, proporcionando aos pacientes uma sobrevida maior e melhor qualidade de vida. Grande parte desse sucesso deve-se à introdução de novas terapias. Em nenhuma outra área essa mudança foi mais evidente do que na cardiologia intervencionista, pois nos últimos vinte anos as intervenções cardiovasculares percutâneas saíram do terreno experimental para formar a base terapêutica dos portadores de doença cardiovascular sintomática. O desenvolvimento dessas tecnologias, desde os primeiros estágios, requer a realização de estudos pré-clínicos com modelos animais. É possível compreender os mecanismos terapêuticos desses dispositivos, uma vez introduzidos na esfera clínica, comparando-se os achados das pesquisas realizadas com modelos animais com amostras de exames anatomopatológicos. Esta análise apresenta uma visão geral do papel emergente dos estudos pré-clínicos, bem como dos resultados, do desenvolvimento e da avaliação de modelos amimais, nas tecnologias de intervenção cardiovascular percutânea para tratamento de pacientes com doença cardiovascular sintomática.The treatment of cardiovascular disease has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, allowing patients to live longer and better quality lives. The introduction of new therapies has contributed much to this success. Nowhere has this been more evident than in interventional cardiology, where percutaneous cardiovascular intervention has evolved in the past 2 decades from a quirky experimental procedure to a therapeutic cornerstone for patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease. The development of these technologies from the earliest stages requires preclinical experiments using animal models. Once introduced into the clinical arena, an understanding of therapeutic mechanisms of these devices can be ascertained through comparisons of animal model research findings with

  7. The New 3D Printed Left Atrial Appendage Closure with a Novel Holdfast Device: A Pre-Clinical Feasibility Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, M.; Bury, K.; Dąbrowski, L.; Holak, P.; Sejda, A.; Pawlak, M.; Jagielak, D.; Adamiak, Z.; Rogowski, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many patients undergoing cardiac surgery have risk factors for both atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke. The left atrial appendage (LAA) is the primary site for thrombi formation. The most severe complication of emboli derived from LAA is stroke, which is associated with a 12-month mortality rate of 38% and a 12-month recurrence rate of 17%. The most common form of treatment for atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention is the pharmacological therapy with anticoagulants. Nonetheless this form of therapy is associated with high risk of major bleeding. Therefore LAA occlusion devices should be tested for their ability to reduce future cerebral ischemic events in patients with high-risk of haemorrhage. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a novel left atrial appendage exclusion device with a minimally invasive introducer in a swine model. Materials and Methods A completely novel LAA device, which is composed of two tubes connected together using a specially created bail, was designed using finite element modelling (FEM) to obtain an optimal support force of 36 N at the closure line. The monolithic form of the occluder was obtained by using additive manufacturing of granular PA2200 powder with the technology of selective laser sintering (SLS). Fifteen swine were included in the feasibility tests, with 10 animals undergoing fourteen days of follow-up and 5 animals undergoing long-term observation of 3 months. For one animal, the follow-up was further prolonged to 6 months. The device was placed via minithoracotomy. After the observation period, all of the animals were euthanized, and their hearts were tested for LAA closure and local inflammatory and tissue response. Results After the defined observation period, all fifteen hearts were explanted. In all cases the full closure of the LAA was achieved. The macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the explanted hearts showed that all devices were securely integrated in the

  8. The New 3D Printed Left Atrial Appendage Closure with a Novel Holdfast Device: A Pre-Clinical Feasibility Animal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Brzeziński

    Full Text Available Many patients undergoing cardiac surgery have risk factors for both atrial fibrillation (AF and stroke. The left atrial appendage (LAA is the primary site for thrombi formation. The most severe complication of emboli derived from LAA is stroke, which is associated with a 12-month mortality rate of 38% and a 12-month recurrence rate of 17%. The most common form of treatment for atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention is the pharmacological therapy with anticoagulants. Nonetheless this form of therapy is associated with high risk of major bleeding. Therefore LAA occlusion devices should be tested for their ability to reduce future cerebral ischemic events in patients with high-risk of haemorrhage.The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a novel left atrial appendage exclusion device with a minimally invasive introducer in a swine model.A completely novel LAA device, which is composed of two tubes connected together using a specially created bail, was designed using finite element modelling (FEM to obtain an optimal support force of 36 N at the closure line. The monolithic form of the occluder was obtained by using additive manufacturing of granular PA2200 powder with the technology of selective laser sintering (SLS. Fifteen swine were included in the feasibility tests, with 10 animals undergoing fourteen days of follow-up and 5 animals undergoing long-term observation of 3 months. For one animal, the follow-up was further prolonged to 6 months. The device was placed via minithoracotomy. After the observation period, all of the animals were euthanized, and their hearts were tested for LAA closure and local inflammatory and tissue response.After the defined observation period, all fifteen hearts were explanted. In all cases the full closure of the LAA was achieved. The macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the explanted hearts showed that all devices were securely integrated in the surrounding tissues. No

  9. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-03-15

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain.

  10. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain

  11. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 58, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first phase of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the Subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical planning of project concepts for new TC projects by Member States for the 2014/2015 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2014/2015 Work and Budget Programme, and the FAO's 2014/2015 Programme of Work and Budget. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States (MS). Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the Subprogramme. A bone of contention is the current avian influenza H7N9 situation. On 1 April 2013, a human case of infection with the avian influenza H7N9 virus was reported in China. Since then this strain has been detected in four provinces of eastern China and has infected 132 people of which 37 have died (situation as of 3 June 2013). The number of cases dropped in May as compared to April, probably because of the control measures taken by Chinese health authorities, which includes closing live bird in markets, but this can also be due to the change climatic conditions or the international contribution

  12. Assessment of animal productivity and methane production using an associative feeding strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane production from ruminants is a loss of digestible energy thereby reducing animal productivity and is contributing to environmental pollution. In order to develop a beneficial strategy for improving animal productivity while conserving the environment the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a concentrate feeding strategy on the animal productivity and rumen methane production. In this experiment two feeding regimes, Diet-1 and Diet-2, were either fodder alone and with a 10% inclusion of concentrates in the forage diet feed as a phased sequence of 45 days of fodder alone and then 45 days of fodder plus concentrate. The diets were fed to four animal groups comprising of 5 animals in each. Throughout the experimental period, a fresh, chopped fodder of similar age (50-65 days age) was offered to the animals. Average dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ash and ether extract contents of the fodder were 21, 9.3, 31.7, 10.1 and 3.1%, respectively. Diet2 included a concentrate containing 88.0, 16.0, 8.1, 10.0, and 12.1% DM, CP, CF, Ash and EE, respectively. A decrease of 8.2 and 39.5% in group A and B with only minor a minor change in group C and D for feed intake was observed when the animals where feed Diet2. Weight gain for the four groups were 133, 422, 111 and 600 g per animal per day on Diet1 and 244, 688, 177 and 888 g per animal per day on Diet2 for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. With supplementation feeding strategy, there was an increase of 45.4, 38.7, 3.7 and 32.4% in weigh gain over fodder alone diet for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. This was associated with an improvement of 49.7, 62.9, 38.5 and 32% in feed to gain ratio for groups A, B, C and D, respectively. The DM digestibility was 22.9, 4.6, 4.7 and 8.4% higher in groups A, B, C and D, respectively when the groups were feed the fodder diets supplemented with concentrates. On fodder alone, the molar concentration of acetate, propionate, butyrate and

  13. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals

  14. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  15. Some bibliometric indexes for members of the Scientific Association of Animal Production (ASPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Pulina; Ana Helena Dias Francesconi

    2007-01-01

    This study calculated several bibliometric indexes to analyze the scientific output of 363 members of the Scientific Association of Animal Production (ASPA) in Italy, based on their publications listed by ISIThompson, Web of Science database (search period from 1989 until 2006). Five main research areas were considered: AGR/17 (Animal genetics and breeding), AGR/18 (Animal nutrition and feeding), AGR/19 (Animal husbandry), AGR/20 (Poultry, rabbits and fish production) and External...

  16. Zoonotic transfer of pathogens from animals to farm products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food animals contain a microbial population that lives on and within them, but this commensal microbial population can be penetrated by foodborne pathogenic bacteria that live asymptomatically in the animal. Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Campylobacte...

  17. Animal derived products may conflict with religious patients’ beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Axelina; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Implants and drugs with animal and human derived content are widely used in medicine and surgery, but information regarding ingredients is rarely obtainable by health practitioners. A religious perspective concerning the use of animal and human derived drug ingredients has not thoroughly been...

  18. Reducing water use for animal production through aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, M.C.J.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Animals fed formulated diets indirectly consume large quantities of water. Globally, about 1.2 m3 of water is needed to produce 1 kg of grain used in animal feeds. Cattle in feedlots consume about 7 kg of feed concentrate to gain 1 kg in weight. For pigs this is close to 4 kg and for poultry slightl

  19. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 52, July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -related technologies that are adapted to more user friendly non-nuclear applications for implementation at field level. Amongst these technologies are the use of 13/14C, 125I, 3H, 32P, 35S to label protein and nucleic acid molecules for specific and sensitive detection, monitoring, and characterization of harmful pathogens that have made a critical contribution towards the development of e.g. ELISA, PCR, real-time PCR and sequencing. The subprogramme, furthermore, ensures the deployment and widespread use of applicable technologies in countries most at risk from climatically influenced infectious diseases. This technical support and guidance to countries (e.g. which test to use, when and for what purpose, equipment needs, staff training and proficiency, and quality management) played a vital role in building developing countries' capacities during recent outbreaks of avian influenza and Rift Valley Fever. The subprogramme has developed, implemented, and transferred immuno and molecular assays that are rapid, inexpensive and capable of being used to process large numbers of samples to detect infectious disease agents that adversely affect livestock productivity and prevent international trade. Four new CRPs started this year: The use of enzymes and nuclear technologies to improve the utilization of fibrous feeds and reduce greenhouse gas emission from livestock, control of foot-and-mouth disease, the use of irradiated vaccines in the control of infectious transboundary diseases of livestock and genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity. Activities of the past six months include several workshops, training courses, research coordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings

  20. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  1. Closer to Nature: the Ethics of ‘Green’ Representations in Animal Product Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune; Kondrup, Sara Vincentzen; Gjerris, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    as welfare-oriented alternatives to conventionally produced animal products, but with only marginal improvements. The rhetoric of both cases specifically manifests a deep coherence between nature, farm, animal and end product, and thereby creates associations of production tied to lives living in nature...

  2. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  3. Preclinical profile of cabazitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrignaud P

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patricia Vrignaud,1 Dorothée Semiond,2 Veronique Benning,2 Eric Beys,2 Hervé Bouchard,3 Sunil Gupta4 1Sanofi Oncology, Vitry-sur-Seine, France; 2Sanofi DSAR, Alfortville, France; 3Sanofi LGCR, Vitry-sur-Seine, France; 4Sanofi Oncology, Cambridge, MA, USA Abstract: First-generation taxanes have changed the treatment paradigm for a wide variety of cancers, but innate or acquired resistance frequently limits their use. Cabazitaxel is a novel second-generation taxane developed to overcome such resistance. In vitro, cabazitaxel showed similar antiproliferative activity to docetaxel in taxane-sensitive cell lines and markedly greater activity in cell lines resistant to taxanes. In vivo, cabazitaxel demonstrated excellent antitumor activity in a broad spectrum of docetaxel-sensitive tumor xenografts, including a castration-resistant prostate tumor xenograft, HID28, where cabazitaxel exhibited greater efficacy than docetaxel. Importantly, cabazitaxel was also active against tumors with innate or acquired resistance to docetaxel, suggesting therapeutic potential for patients progressing following taxane treatment and those with docetaxel-refractory tumors. In patients with tumors of the central nervous system (CNS, and in patients with pediatric tumors, therapeutic success with first-generation taxanes has been limited. Cabazitaxel demonstrated greater antitumor activity than docetaxel in xenograft models of CNS disease and pediatric tumors, suggesting potential clinical utility in these special patient populations. Based on therapeutic synergism observed in an in vivo tumor model, cabazitaxel is also being investigated clinically in combination with cisplatin. Nonclinical evaluation of the safety of cabazitaxel in a range of animal species showed largely reversible changes in the bone marrow, lymphoid system, gastrointestinal tract, and male reproductive system. Preclinical safety signals of cabazitaxel were consistent with the previously reported

  4. 77 FR 22327 - Draft Guidance for Industry on New Animal Drugs and New Animal Drug Combination Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... concerns regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance in human and animal bacterial pathogens when... those products consistent with FDA's GFI 209, ``The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial... of a final guidance entitled ``The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in...

  5. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. In this mini-review, both literature sources and the practice of applying agricultural countermeasures are summarized very shortly: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. (authors)

  6. Nitrogen in global animal production and management options for improving nitrogen use efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oene; Oenema; Seerp; Tamminga

    2005-01-01

    Animal production systems convert plant protein into animal protein. Depending on animal species, ration and management, between 5% and 45 % of the nitrogen (N) in plant protein is converted to and deposited in animal protein. The other 55%-95% is excreted via urine and feces, and can be used as nutrient source for plant (= often animal feed) production. The estimated global amount of N voided by animals ranges between 80 and 130 Tg N per year, and is as large as or larger than the global annual N fertilizer consumption. Cattle (60%), sheep (12%) and pigs (6%) have the largest share in animal manure N production.The conversion of plant N into animal N is on average more efficient in poultry and pork production than in dairy production, which is higher than in beef and sheep production. However, differences within a type of animal production system can be as large as differences between types of animal production systems, due to large effects of the genetic potential of animals, animal feed and management. The management of animals and animal feed, together with the genetic potential of the animals, are key factors to a high efficiency of conversion of plant protein into animal protein.The efficiency of the conversion of N from animal manure, following application to land, into plant protein ranges between 0 and 60%, while the estimated global mean is about 15%. The other 40%- 100% is lost to the wider environment via NH3 volatilization, denitrification, leaching and run-off in pastures or during storage and/or following application of the animal manure to land. On a global scale, only 40%-50% of the amount of N voided is collected in barns, stables and paddocks, and only half of this amount is recycled to crop land. The N losses from animal manure collected in barns, stables and paddocks depend on the animal manure management system. Relative large losses occur in confined animal feeding operations, as these often lack the land base to utilize the N from animal

  7. The Bleu Blanc Cœur path: impacts on animal products and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourot Jacques

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this article takes stock of the interest of incorporating extruded linseed into animal feed. The α-linolenic fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid long chain n-3 derivative content of various animal products are explained and compared with products from animals receiving feed with no linseed. The second part of the article shows the interest of providing products for human consumption from the Bleu Blanc Cœur path. Clinical studies have been carried out. These products lower cholesterol, circulating triglycerides, weight and blood pressure. All in all, these products are of interest for human health.

  8. Consumer perceptions of food products from cloned animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaskell, George; Kronberger, Nicole; Fischler, Claude;

    2007-01-01

    In the view of the authors of this report converging lines of theoretical and empirical research suggest that cloned meat is likely to be a controversial issue with the European public, sitting as it does at the nexus of sensitivities around food, animals and the life sciences. If, as appears pro...

  9. Impacts of Cereal Ergot in Food Animal Production

    OpenAIRE

    Coufal-Majewski, Stephanie; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim; Blakley, Barry; McKinnon, John; Chaves, Alexandre Vieira; Wang, Yuxi

    2016-01-01

    The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the fifth century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (

  10. Impacts of cereal ergot in food animal production

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski; Kim eStanford; Tim eMcAllister; Barry eBlakley; John eMcKinnon; Alexandre Vieira Chaves; Yuxi eWang

    2016-01-01

    The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (

  11. Utilization and environmental management of residues from intensive animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manures are traditional sources of nutrients in agriculture. Under proper management, manures provide nutrients to soil, reducing or eliminating the use of commercial fertilizers, as well as organic carbon that improves soil physical properties and soil health. However, excessive application ...

  12. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An a...

  13. Animal welfare in organic egg production - Emphasis on Mortality and Helminth Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2015-01-01

    The consumers’ motivation to buy organic products includes animal welfare aspects, and even though the retail market share for organic eggs in Denmark is relative high, there are a number of welfare issues in the organic egg production compared to other production systems, like higher mortality and prevalence of helminth infections, that are not in agreement with the consumers’ expectation. The aim of this PhD study was to investigate animal welfare in organic egg production in Denmark, wi...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine...

  15. Animal husbandry and food production in China and Europe: A shared moral problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijboom, F.L.B.; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    In China and Europe many millions of animals are used for food production. For both regions animal food production is considered to be important for both the internal market, but also for export. In spite of these similarities there are many differences. First, while in Europe there currently is a l

  16. Transmission of Salmonella between wildlife and meat-production animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M. N.; Madsen, J. J.; Rahbek, C.; Lodal, J.; Jespersen, J. B.; Jørgensen, J. C.; Dietz, H. H.; Chriél, Mariann; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2008-01-01

    pigs and cattle and surrounding wildlife. Salmonella was detected in wildlife on farms carrying Salmonella-positive production animals and only during the periods when Salmonella was detected in the production animals. The presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in wild birds significantly correlated to...

  17. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production: towards an integrated life cycle sustainability assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.; Cederberg, C.; Eady, S.; Gollnow, S.; Kristensen, T.; Macleod, M.; Meul, M.; Nemecek, T.; Phong, L.T.; Thoma, G.; Werf, H.M.G.; Williams, A.G.; Zonderland-Thomassen, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG. They d

  18. Nuclear techniques in animal production and veterinary medicine. Present state and future tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear methods in animal production and veterinary science are reviewed with emphasis laid on the application of radiotracers. By means of representative examples the use of most different variants of methods in research and practice are demonstrated. Conclusions for future application of nuclear methods in basic and clinical research, routine diagnostics and animal production are drawn and trends are pointed out. 239 refs. (author)

  19. Ruminal fungi for increasing forage intake and animal productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In grazing ruminants and in ruminants fed low-quality fodder productivity is usually limited by the amount of feed an animal is able to ingest (intake). Forage is the primary source of energy, so the greater the intake the greater the production. Unfortunately, during digestion in the rumen large and recalcitrant fibrous particles are digested only slowly. These prevent further intake until they are reduced to a small size and released from the rumen. Fibre-breakdown and fibre-clearance are the outcome of two processes: physical disruption of plant tissues by chewing and rumination, and fibre degradation during digestion. The fibre-degrading microbes in the rumen consist of fibrolytic bacteria such as Ruminococcus albus, R. flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes, fungi and some protozoa. The ruminal fungi promising targets for improving fibre degradation, are associated with increased intake in sheep and with improved growth rates in buffalo calves. This paper describes results from studies on two ruminal fungi; one, which digests recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, and one which has an unusual capacity to physically disrupt fibrous plant tissues. The aim was to carry out a detailed examination of fungus/plant cell-wall interactions and obtain new information on the modes of action of the two species. P. tremuloides tissues, resistant to ruminal fibrolytic bacteria but readily degraded by the fungus Neocallimastix frontalis, are an ideal substrate for studying the fibre-degrading properties of this fungus. Large fragments of P. tremuloides were incubated with N. frontalis and examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that cell-wall degradation in fragments progressed in a sequential manner from outer cells to inner cells. Mature fungal fruiting bodies (sporangia), part of the fungal life cycle, and inter-cell fungal transfer via pit apertures were observed. The initial step in fungal attack involved direct contact

  20. Method of treating human and animal waste products and products so obtained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taluntais, A.F.

    1977-08-17

    Animal slurry was complexed with an aldehyde and a nitrogenous substance with free amine or amide groups to give a substantially sterile and odorless fertilizer which slowly released nutrients into the soil when spread. For example, 11.3 kg 37% HCHO was mixed with 45 g pig slurry and 9 kg urea added. The mixture was adjusted to pH 2.5 with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, allowed to stand overnight, neutralized with CaCO/sub 3/, and mixed with 8 kg peat moss. The product was a compost-like controlled release fertilizer of 32.2% dry matter content.

  1. The animal-human interface and infectious disease in industrial food animal production: rethinking biosecurity and biocontainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; Leibler, Jessica H; Price, Lance B; Otte, Joachim M; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Tiensin, T; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2008-01-01

    Understanding interactions between animals and humans is critical in preventing outbreaks of zoonotic disease. This is particularly important for avian influenza. Food animal production has been transformed since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Poultry and swine production have changed from small-scale methods to industrial-scale operations. There is substantial evidence of pathogen movement between and among these industrial facilities, release to the external environment, and exposure to farm workers, which challenges the assumption that modern poultry production is more biosecure and biocontained as compared with backyard or small holder operations in preventing introduction and release of pathogens. An analysis of data from the Thai government investigation in 2004 indicates that the odds of H5N1 outbreaks and infections were significantly higher in large-scale commercial poultry operations as compared with backyard flocks. These data suggest that successful strategies to prevent or mitigate the emergence of pandemic avian influenza must consider risk factors specific to modern industrialized food animal production. PMID:19006971

  2. Optimizing selection of large animals for antibody production by screening immune response to standard vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary K; Fridy, Peter C; Keegan, Sarah; Chait, Brian T; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies made in large animals are integral to many biomedical research endeavors. Domesticated herd animals like goats, sheep, donkeys, horses and camelids all offer distinct advantages in antibody production. However, their cost of use is often prohibitive, especially where poor antigen response is commonplace; choosing a non-responsive animal can set a research program back or even prevent experiments from moving forward entirely. Over the course of production of antibodies from llamas, we found that some animals consistently produced a higher humoral antibody response than others, even to highly divergent antigens, as well as to their standard vaccines. Based on our initial data, we propose that these "high level responders" could be pre-selected by checking antibody titers against common vaccines given to domestic farm animals. Thus, time and money can be saved by reducing the chances of getting poor responding animals and minimizing the use of superfluous animals. PMID:26775851

  3. Impacts of Cereal Ergot in Food Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coufal-Majewski, Stephanie; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim; Blakley, Barry; McKinnon, John; Chaves, Alexandre Vieira; Wang, Yuxi

    2016-01-01

    The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the fifth century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine, and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety, and genotype. Considerable animal-to-animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors, such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome. PMID:26942186

  4. Fruit and Vegetable Co-Products as Functional Feed Ingredients in Farm Animal Nutrition for Improved Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kasapidou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are significant environmental, economic and social factors favoring the reutilization of fruit and vegetable processing co-products in farm animal nutrition. Current evidence shows that fruit and vegetable processing co-products can be effectively used in farm animal nutrition as functional feed ingredients for the production of food products of improved quality. These ingredients comply with consumer requests for the production of “clean,” “natural” and “eco/green” label food products. The main parameters affecting extensive application of fruit and vegetable processing by-/co-products as functional feed ingredients in livestock nutrition are related to animal factors, logistics, and commercial value. Further research is needed to enable the commercial application of these products to livestock nutrition.

  5. Animal manure for biogas production - what happens to the soil?

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riley, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing animal slurry to produce biogas may reduce fossil fuel usage and emissions of greenhouse gases. However, there is limited information on how the recycling of digested slurry as a fertilizer impacts soil fertility in the long run. This is of concern because organic matter in the slurry is converted to methane, which escapes the on-farm carbon cycle. In 2010, a study of this question was initiated on the organic research farm in Tingvoll, Norway. So far, a biogas plant has been built,...

  6. Dissolution DNP for in vivo preclinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comment, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    The tremendous polarization enhancement afforded by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be taken advantage of to perform preclinical in vivo molecular and metabolic imaging. Following the injection of molecules that are hyperpolarized via dissolution DNP, real-time measurements of their biodistribution and metabolic conversion can be recorded. This technology therefore provides a unique and invaluable tool for probing cellular metabolism in vivo in animal models in a noninvasive manner. It gives the opportunity to follow and evaluate disease progression and treatment response without requiring ex vivo destructive tissue assays. Although its considerable potential has now been widely recognized, hyperpolarized magnetic resonance by dissolution DNP remains a challenging method to implement for routine in vivo preclinical measurements. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art technology for preclinical applications and the challenges that need to be addressed to promote it and allow its wider dissemination in the near future.

  7. [Effect of increasing the omega-3 fatty acid in the diets of animals on the animal products consumed by humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    As shown by huge amount of assays in human as well as in animal models, w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids play important role in the development and maintenance of different organs, primarily the brain, and could be useful in the prevention of different pathologies, mainly the cardiovascular diseases, and, as proposed recently, some psychiatric, dermatological or rheumatological disorders. For ALA, the major and cheapest source for human is rapeseed oil (canola oil), and walnut "noix de Grenoble" oil). The actual goal is first to identify which foods are naturally rich in w-3 fatty acids, and, second, to determine the true impact of the formulations (enriched in w-3 fatty acids) in chows used on farms and breeding centres on the nutritional value of the products and thus their effect on the health of consumers, thanks to quantities of either ALA, or EPA or DHA or both. This concern fish (in proportion of their lipid content, mainly mackerel, salmon, sardine and herring), eggs (wildly naturally rich in w-3 fatty acids, both ALA and DHA, or from laying hen fed ALA from linseed or rapeseed), meat from birds, mammals (from the highest concentration : rabbit, then pig and monogastrics, then polygastrics such as beef, mutton and goat) \\; in butter, milk, dairy products, cheese (all naturally poor in w-3 fatty acids)... Indeed, the nature of fatty acids of reserve triglycerides (found in more or less large amounts depending on the anatomical localisation, that is to say the butcher's cuts) can vary mainly as a function of the food received by the animal. EPA and DHA are mainly present in animal's products. The impact (qualitative and quantitative) of alterations in the lipid composition of animal foods on the nutritional value of derived products (in terms of EPA and DHA content) eaten by humans are more important in single-stomach animals than multi-stomach animals (due to their hydrogenating intestinal bacteria). The intestinal physiology of birds results in the

  8. Study on the Problems and Countermeasure in the Animal Products Quality and Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shishan; WANG

    2013-01-01

    As the supply chain of animal products is long,there are many factors which would influence the quality safety of animal production.Therefore,by focusing on the present and having a vision for future,Jiaozuo government promulgated Ten Polices on the Food Safety in Jiaozuo City,which pushed forward the technological development,intensified measures to monitor the quality of animal products,set up a series of mechanism,and provided reference for the food quality and safety monitoring.

  9. Identifying and understanding consumers of wild animal products in Hanoi, Vietnam: implications for conservation management

    OpenAIRE

    Drury, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Vietnam is an established thoroughfare for illegal wildlife trade, and rapidly growing urban prosperity is increasing domestic demand for wild animal products. Consumer-targeted interventions, including awareness campaigns and social marketing, and supply-side approaches such as wildlife farming to reduce demand for wild animals, are increasingly being used alongside regulatory measures to curb illegal trade. These approaches are based on limited information about wild animal consumers and co...

  10. Activities of the Animal Production Unit (APU) at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Animal Production Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory and the Animal Production and Health Section of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division work together through the FAO/IAEA Animal Production and Health Subprogramme to assist in the development and use of these methods for improving livestock productivity. The main roles of the Animal Production Unit are to: Provide adaptive research in support of Coordinated Research Programmes (CRP) and Technical Cooperation Projects of the Subprogramme. Provide other services in support of the objectives of the Subprogramme such as technical support and external quality assurance. Provide training for Member State scientists and technicians (individual or group training programmes on the application of molecular techniques in Animal disease diagnosis and animal genetics). Currently, the Animal Production Unit is using nuclear and related techniques in: The development of tests (ELISA and Nucleic Acid Detection/PCR): In support of the global rinderpest eradication programme, the APU is developing new ELISA tests for specific diagnosis of Peste des Petits Ruminants and its differentiation from rinderpest, test based on the use of recombinant antigens expressed in the baculovirus vector system

  11. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971,in the Meadows report (1972 and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987. The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In such conditions we are obliged to follow a twin-track strategy: (1livestock systems with high productivity potentials; (2traditional pastoral systems and organic agriculture, on marginal lands, which allow the utilisation of extensive grazing lands, the conservation of environment, genetic resources, landscape, the minimisation of the use of non-renewable resources and the production of "natural foods".

  12. Safety of Animal Fats for Biodiesel Production: A Critical Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, A.; Dawson, P.; Nixon, D.; Atkins, J.; Pearl, G. [Clemson University, SC (United States)

    2007-05-15

    An in-depth review of available literature was conducted on the safety of using animal fats for biodiesel. The review indicated little or no known risk to human and animal health and to the environment relative to inherent microbial, organic or inorganic agents in animal fats destined for biodiesel production. Animal by-products are generated from the inedible tissues derived from meat, poultry and fish production. This material is thermally processed by the rendering industry to generate a number of industrial materials including use of the fat portion to produce biodiesel. As the biodiesel industry continues to develop, questions have emerged about the safety of animal versus vegetable fats for biodiesel production and utilization. The following report is the result of a detailed literature search into the potential microbial, organic, and inorganic contaminants that may be present in animal fats and the potential for human or environmental safety issues associated with each. The potential safety risks associated with prions are discussed in a separate report, 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction'. In certain instances, very little was reported about the potential contaminating moiety and its fate in biodiesel production and usage. Establishing an absolute zero risk assessment is impossible on any fat utilized for biodiesel production. Among the potential microbial contaminants, bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast, parasites, and microbial toxins were considered. In each instance, the nature of the production process and usage of biodiesel via combustion reduce the possibility that microbial contaminants would be a cause for concern to humans, animals, or the environment. Potential organic moieties contaminating the fat should meet a similar fate. Current evidence suggests that metals and metalloids within animal fats will not cause significant safety issues in the production and use of rendered fat

  13. Potential contribution of genomics and biotechnology in animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of the book chapter is to define the potential contribution of genomics in livestock production in Latin American countries. A brief description on what is genomics, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection (GS) is provided. Genomics has been rapidly adopte...

  14. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, W.R.; Berg, K.J. van den; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data

  15. Measuring and monitoring animal welfare: Transparency in the food product quality chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Jones, R.B.; Geers, R.; Miele, M.; Veissier, I.

    2003-01-01

    Animal welfare is of increasing significance for European consumers and citizens. Previously, agricultural production focused mainly on supply, price and competition but consumers now expect their food to be produced and processed with greater respect for the welfare of the animals. Food quality is

  16. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  17. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 53, January 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this newsletter I want to highlight the biggest event on the animal calendar - Rinderpest is no longer a threat to livestock farmers' world wide. It is expected that FAO and OIE will jointly declare the world to be free from Rinderpest in 2011. In commemoration of this, I want to pay tribute to the members that made this possible such as regional organizations (EC, AU/IBAR CG-Centres etc), international organizations (FAO, OIE, IAEA etc), individual countries (France, Japan, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States of America, Italy etc) and the Member States that suffered from this disease and worked towards its eradication. Together with all the role players, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department's contribution to the development, evaluation and validation of nuclear and nuclear related immunological and molecular diagnostic technologies was a niche and critical area. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has two mechanisms of technical support to Member States - the development, evaluation and validation of nuclear and nuclear related technologies through the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) mechanism, and the transfer and sustainable implementation of the CRP developed technologies through the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) mechanism. The development of nuclear and nuclear related immunological and molecular diagnostic technologies were jointly developed between CRPs of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and TCPs of the Technical Cooperation Department

  18. Cats on the Couch: The Experimental Production of Animal Neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Alison

    2016-03-01

    Argument In the 1940s-50s, one of the most central questions in psychological research related to the nature of neurosis. In the final years of the Second World War and the following decade, neurosis became one of the most prominent psychiatric disorders, afflicting a high proportion of military casualties and veterans. The condition became central to the concerns of several psychological fields, from psychoanalysis to Pavlovian psychology. This paper reconstructs the efforts of Chicago psychiatrist Jules Masserman to study neurosis in the laboratory during the 1940s and 1950s. Masserman used Pavlovian techniques in a bid to subject this central psychoanalytic subject to disciplined scientific experimentation. More generally, his project was an effort to bolster the legitimacy of psychoanalysis as a human science by articulating a convergence of psychoanalytic categories across multiple species. Masserman sought to orchestrate a convergence of psychological knowledge between fields that were often taken to be irreconcilable. A central focus of this paper is the role of moving images in this project, not only as a means of recording experimental data but also as a rhetorical device. The paper argues that for Masserman film played an important role in enabling scientific observers (and then subsequent viewers) to see agency and emotion in the animals they observed. PMID:26903373

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 47, December 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Agency's 2006/7 Programme of Work and Budget, we evaluated our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Co-operation projects (TCPs) and focussed our activities for the Agency's 2008/9 cycle. During this exercise we could identify areas where good performance was achieved as well as those where further improvements were needed ? and which we then addressed. We also had time to reflect on our past performance in order to serve the best interests of our Member States. It became apparent that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has to be more proactive towards the detection, control and management of emerging diseases, with particular emphasis on transboundary animal diseases and the offering of relevant and effective support to MS. Attention was given to increasing our collaboration with other International Organisations (such as OIE, WHO and CGIAR Centres) as well as our Joint FAO/IAEA divisional activities. The clear advantage that we as a Joint FAO/IAEA programme have is a very proficient laboratory (and expertise) that focuses on our direct support to MS. To this effect this Issue want to highlight our activities related to small ruminant reproduction and breeding in this section of the newsletter

  20. Biodrying of animal slaughterhouse residues and heat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Y. [Centre de recherche industrielle, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Animal carcasses from slaughterhouses are usually composted on farms, but the composting process is not optimized and a large volumes of carbonaceous residues are needed. This type of composting takes place over a period of 6 to 9 months in a nonaerated static pile. Quebec's industrial research centre (CRIQ) developed an organic biodrying process (BIOSECO) adapted to large-scale operations in order to optimize the treatment of slaughterhouse residues. Biodrying is a form of composting, in which the thermophilic phase is optimized, making it possible to evaporate large amounts of water. Biodrying is done inside a building and reduces the amount of carbonaceous residues considerably. The process is optimized by the sequence in which the slaughterhouse residues are added, the choice of input and the aeration flow. Slaughterhouse residues can be treated non-stop throughout the entire year. Since the odours are nearly completed limited to the building, the biodrying can be done near the slaughterhouse. A large amount of heat was produced by the process during the pilot project. It was concluded that the BIOSECO biodrying process is suitable for treating slaughterhouse residues in an effective and economic manner, and has the added advantage of producing heat that could be used for various purposes.

  1. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  2. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-01-01

    The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971),in the Meadows report (1972) and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987). The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In...

  3. Game Analysis of Interests Coordination between Grain Production and the Development of Animal Husbandry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qian; LI Cui-xia; WANG Gang-yi

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote the common development of grain production and animal husbandry, and achieve the optimal comprehensive benefit of the entire system of grain production and the development of animal husbandry, we use the method of game theory to research the relations between grain production and the development of animal husbandry, from the perspective of interests cointegration. In accordance with the internal relations between stakeholders in grain production and the development of animal husbandry, we focus on researching the interests-sharing game behavior of the government and planting subject collectives, the planting subject collectives and planting subject individuals, the breeding subject and planting subject. The results show that there is inequality between various stakeholders, and they seek not only the price-based benefit, but also some intangible interests difficult to calculate and quantify.

  4. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them......Animal health and welfare is an important part of organic husbandry, both in terms of the organic principles and owing to the consumer interest. But problems in the organic egg production resulting in high mortality and feather pecking, have led to the need for management tools in order to secure...... animal health and welfare. The aim of the project is to develop management tools for the organic egg production, aimed to secure animal health and welfare in the flocks. In the first part of the project a welfare assessment system for organic egg production was developed and tested on 10 fl ocks during...

  5. Four stories of superwomen - Manifestation of feminine characteristics in successful leading of animation productions

    OpenAIRE

    Tenhunen, Ella-Roosa

    2014-01-01

    This thesis gives a perspective of what it takes to lead animation productions through the perspective of four female leaders. My research questions were in the areas of feminine characteristics, if and how they are used in leading animation productions and whether or not they are successful. Additionally I researched how they became the leaders they are today. I drew from existing literature on gender theories and various leadership theories such as transformational leadership, contingen...

  6. Using data collected for production or economic purposes to research production animal welfare: an epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Cate; Haley, Charles; Widowski, Tina; Friendship, Robert; Sunstrum, Janet; Richardson, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiologists use the analyses of large data sets collected for production or economic purposes to research production nonhuman animal welfare issues in the commercial setting. This approach is particularly useful if the welfare issue is rare or hard to reproduce. However, to ensure the information is accurate, it is essential to carefully validate these data. The study used economic data to research in-transit deaths of finishing pigs. The most appropriate model to fit the distribution of the outcome must be selected. A negative binomial model fit these data because the prevalence was low and most lots of pigs had no deaths. The study used hierarchical dummy variables to identify thresholds of temperature and humidity above which in-transit losses increased. Multiple variable modeling provides the foundation for the strength of epidemiological research. The model identifies the association between each factor and the outcome after controlling for the other factors in the model. The study evaluated confounding and interaction. Bias may be introduced when data are limited to one farm system, one abattoir, or one season. Census data enable us to understand the entire industry. PMID:19319713

  7. Modelling H-3 and C-14 transfer to farm animals and their products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A; Beresford, N; Crout, N; Peterson, R; Takeda, H

    2006-06-23

    The radionuclides {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H may both be released from nuclear facilities. These radionuclides differ from most others in that they are isotopes of macro-elements which form the basis of animal tissues, feed and, in the case of {sup 3}H, water. There are few published values describing the transfer of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C from feed to animal derived food products. Approaches are described which enable the prediction of {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H transfer parameter values from readily available information on the stable H or C concentration of animal feeds, tissues and milk, water turnover rates, and feed intakes and digestibilities. It is recommended that the concentration ratio between feed and animal product activity concentrations be used as it is less variable than the transfer coefficient (ratio between radionuclide activity concentration in animal milk or tissue to the daily intake of a radionuclide).

  8. Use of animal waste for the production of pet food for dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kubáčková, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The reason why I have chosen the topic named “Use of animal waste for the production of pet food for dogs“ was mainly the fact that I am interested in pet food for dogs its composition and use of animal waste for its prepare. Literature research is focused on the use of animal waste, such as slaughter waste, uneaten leftovers from the store, etc., to the production of feed dogs as pets. It can be industry food, which has three sections dry food, semi-dry food and canned or homemade BARF di...

  9. FAO/IAEA international symposium on sustainable improvement of animal production and health. Synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The on-going 'Livestock Revolution', a demand-driven increase in livestock production, especially in developing countries, presents both opportunities and risks. The shift in the human diet from plant-based protein sources to animal-based protein sources, consumer demand for safe and quality animal products, and expanding markets for livestock products have raised several challenges such as; cost-effective production of safe and quality animal products, control of emerging and zoonotic diseases, and efficient management of impact of livestock on the environment. However, these changes have also provided many opportunities to benefit the local economy and producers, and reduce poverty. New challenges and opportunities demand innovative ideas and approaches, and mechanisms to take this knowledge to potential users. Many of the approaches will be multidisciplinary in nature and require collaboration with specialists in areas other than animal scientists. Livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of animals, poor nutrition, poor husbandry and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify critical points in these areas that can be targeted for cost-effective improvements and interventions. Thus the challenge is to use such technologies to enhance food security and alleviate poverty by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries through strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. Topics addressed at the symposium: - Interactions among nutrition, reproduction and genotype; - Livestock-environment interaction / productivity/ climate (water/ land/ plants/heat/ altitude); - Detection and control of transboundary animal diseases, including zoonoses; - Animal product safety and food quality. Each of the papers published in this book of synopses has been indexed separately

  10. The Impact of Animal Rights on the Use of Animals for Biomedical Research, Product Testing and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    Clarifies the issues of animal rights as they effect animal use in research and education through an examination of the current use of animals, a historical look at animal use, and a consideration of the philosophical underpinnings of the animal rights and pro-use viewpoints. (PR)

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 45, December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once again the year is at end and a new exciting year lies ahead of us. The past year has been a busy time for all staff in the subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2007/2008 biennial project cycle. We have also prepared the IAEA's 2008/2009 Work and Budget Programme. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. As with previous newsletters, I want to introduce a topic to hopefully stimulate discussion and debate and encourage interactions between all. It has been well discussed in previous newsletters that the trend towards intensification of livestock production in developing countries presents both opportunities and risks. The potential opportunities are the flow-on benefits to the local economy and producers and the potential risks are the flow-on costs to the environment, livestock health and welfare and human health, through increased chemical and nutrient pollution, disease transmission and centralization of feed resources. Understanding nutrition is one of the keys to taking advantage of the opportunities and minimizing the risks

  12. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  13. I-124 production using nanomaterials and its biodistribution in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-124 is a positron emitter with physical half-life of 4.2 days. Its decay occurs by positron emission (23.3%) and electron capture (76.7%). Their physical and chemical characteristics make it an attractive isotope for medical applications. The development of new imaging techniques, improvements in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the development of new detectors and computational methods of signal processing, open new perspectives for its application. The increasing use of PET technology in medical oncology, pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, make the radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 124I a tool of great interest and usefulness. The use of 124I - labeled molecules stands out particularly due to the convenient half-life of 124I. This feature enables diagnostic imaging in PET centers far away from the radionuclides producing center. Within this context, this work presents a method for the production and separation of 124I. This method is innovative and pioneering in the country. It is based on the development and use of nanostructured targets of natTeO2. These targets are irradiated in a charged particles accelerator, with variable energy, the IEN's CV-28 cyclotron. The irradiations are performed with 24 MeV, initial energy, proton beams. In the preparation of nanoparticulated targets the highlight was the simplicity of the method that uses the sol-gel technique for obtaining nanoparticles, TeCl4 as precursor and water as solvent. The produced 124I was separated from the target material by dry distillation and trapped in a NaOH solution (0.02 M), in an automated system. The thick target yield was 6.81 MBq/μAh, and the synthesis yield was 90%. The 124I obtained was then used in preliminary biodistribution studies. These studies were performed on a micro PET, model Lab PET 4 of the CDTN, in Swiss type mice. The results of the application of Na124I showed high quality PET imaging of the thyroid, with the maximum uptake at 6 h after injection. (author)

  14. The impact of broiler production system practices on consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-12-01

    This research explores the extent to which different farm management practices influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that were described on the basis of 7 animal welfare-related practices. It was found that practices in the area of outdoor access, stocking density, and day-night rhythm were overall perceived to have a larger impact on perceptions of animal friendliness than other practices, such as transport duration or the type of breed used. However, individuals differed regarding the extent to which they believed the different farm management practices influenced the animal friendliness of the production system. Differences between individuals regarding their knowledge about and familiarity with livestock farming, degree of anthropomorphism, and their moral beliefs regarding animal welfare partly explained the relative importance individuals attached to farm management practices. The obtained insight into which welfare-related farm management practices, in consumers' minds, most strongly contribute to animal welfare, and the existence of differences between consumers, can be helpful in the development of animal welfare-based certification schemes that are appealing to consumers, as well as the positioning of welfare concepts in the market. PMID:24235215

  15. Combustion of animal or vegetable based liquid waste products; Foerbraenning av flytande animaliska/vegetabiliska restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    In this project experiences from combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products have been compiled. Legal aspects have also been taken into consideration and the potential for this type of fuel on the Swedish energy market has been evaluated. Today the supply of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products for energy production in Sweden is limited. The total production of animal based liquid fat is about 10,000 tonnes annually. The animal based liquid waste products origin mainly from the manufacturing of meat and bone meal. Since meat and bone meal has been banned from use in animal feeds it is possible that the amount of animal based liquid fat will decrease. The vegetable based liquid waste products that are produced in the processing of vegetable fats are today used mainly for internal energy production. This result in limited availability on the commercial market. The potential for import of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products is estimated to be relatively large since the production of this type of waste products is larger in many other countries compared to Sweden. Vegetable oils that are used as food or raw material in industries could also be imported for combustion, but this is not reasonable today since the energy prices are relatively low. Restrictions allow import of SRM exclusively from Denmark. This is today the only limit for increased imports of animal based liquid fat. The restrictions for handle and combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products are partly unclear since this is covered in several regulations that are not easy to interpret. The new directive for combustion of waste (2000/76/EG) is valid for animal based waste products but not for cadaver or vegetable based waste products from provisions industries. This study has shown that more than 27,400 tonnes of animal based liquid waste products and about 6,000 tonnes of vegetable based liquid waste products were used for combustion in Sweden

  16. Organic Farming in the Nordic Countries – Animal Health and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamsborg SM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming (or ecological agriculture is of growing importance in the agricultural sector worldwide. In the Nordic countries, 1–10% of the arable land was in organic production in 1999. Organic farming can be seen as an approach to agriculture where the aim is to create integrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural production systems. Principles like nutrient recycling, prevention rather than treatment and the precautionary principle are included in aims and standards. Animal welfare is another hallmark of organic livestock production but despite this, several studies have indicated severe health problems e.g. in organic poultry production in Denmark. Also the quality of animal food products in relation to human health, particularly the risk of zoonotic infections, has been debated. For these reasons there is a need for improvement of production methods and animal health status. Vets play an important role in this development through work in clinical practice and in research. On-farm consultancy should be tailored to the individual farmers needs, and the practitioner should be willing to take up new ideas and when needed, to enter a critical dialogue in relation to animal welfare. Better base line data on animal health and food safety in organic food systems are needed.

  17. Pain and depression comorbidity: a preclinical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun-Xu

    2014-01-01

    Pain and depression are two highly prevalent and deleterious disorders with significant socioeconomic impact to society. Clinical observations have long recognized the co-existence and interactions of pain and depression. However, the underlying mechanisms of pain-depression comorbidity and their dynamic interactions remain largely unknown. Preclinical animal studies may provide critical information for the understanding of this important comorbidity. This review analyzed the current preclini...

  18. Thai pigs and cattle production, genetic diversity of livestock and strategies for preserving animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kesinee Gatphayak

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation of livestock production in Thailand, genetic diversity and evaluation, as well as management strategies for animal genetic resources focusing on pigs and cattle. Sustainable conservation of indigenous livestock as a genetic resource and vital components within the agricultural biodiversity domain is a great challenge as well as an asset for the future development of livestock production in Thailand.

  19. 9 CFR 94.15 - Animal products and materials; movement and handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED... Act (7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.). (d) Meat and other products of ruminants or swine from regions listed in... part are met. (e) Any meat or other animal products not otherwise eligible for entry into the...

  20. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower me

  1. The Economics of Reproducibility in Preclinical Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard P Freedman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low reproducibility rates within life science research undermine cumulative knowledge production and contribute to both delays and costs of therapeutic drug development. An analysis of past studies indicates that the cumulative (total prevalence of irreproducible preclinical research exceeds 50%, resulting in approximately US$28,000,000,000 (US$28B/year spent on preclinical research that is not reproducible-in the United States alone. We outline a framework for solutions and a plan for long-term improvements in reproducibility rates that will help to accelerate the discovery of life-saving therapies and cures.

  2. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tysen E

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91, followed by S. Dublin (n = 82. There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97.

  3. Analysis of Tetracyclines in Medicated Feed for Food Animal Production by HPLC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Elvira Gavilán; Carolina Nebot; Jose Manuel Miranda; Yolanda Martín-Gómez; Beatriz Vázquez-Belda; Carlos Manuel Franco; Alberto Cepeda

    2015-01-01

    The use of medicated feed is a common practice in animal food production to improve animal health. Tetracyclines and β-Lactams are the groups that are most frequently added to this type of feed. The measurement of the concentration of the analytes in these types of samples is sometimes due to the matrix characteristic, and manufacturers are demanding fast, precise and reproducible methods. A rapid confirmatory method based on a simple extraction protocol using acidified methanol and followed ...

  4. • An Animated Instructional Module for Teaching Production Economics with the Aid of 3-D Graphics

    OpenAIRE

    Debertin, David L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper pushes beyond past efforts in employing computer graphics in a number of ways. In this paper, the capabilities of the SAS for drawing surfaces and contours of three-dimensional functional forms are combined with the drawing, annotation and sequential animation features of Harvard Graphics in order to obtain animated sequences containing both three-dimensional production surfaces and two-dimensional contour maps. In essence, key features of the two software packages have been combin...

  5. Animals and their products utilized as medicines by the inhabitants surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroli DP; Mahawar Madan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The present ethnozoological study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the inhabitants of villages surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park of India (Bawaria, Mogya, Meena), which is well known for its very rich biodiversity. The field survey was conducted from May to July 2005 by performing interviews through structured questionnaires with 24 informants (16 men and 8 women), who provided information...

  6. Trends in greenhouse gas emissions from consumption and production of animal food products - implications for long-term climate targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, C; Hedenus, F; Wirsenius, S; Sonesson, U

    2013-02-01

    To analyse trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and consumption of animal products in Sweden, life cycle emissions were calculated for the average production of pork, chicken meat, beef, dairy and eggs in 1990 and 2005. The calculated average emissions were used together with food consumption statistics and literature data on imported products to estimate trends in per capita emissions from animal food consumption. Total life cycle emissions from the Swedish livestock production were around 8.5 Mt carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in 1990 and emissions decreased to 7.3 Mt CO2e in 2005 (14% reduction). Around two-thirds of the emission cut was explained by more efficient production (less GHG emission per product unit) and one-third was due to a reduced animal production. The average GHG emissions per product unit until the farm-gate were reduced by 20% for dairy, 15% for pork and 23% for chicken meat, unchanged for eggs and increased by 10% for beef. A larger share of the average beef was produced from suckler cows in cow-calf systems in 2005 due to the decreasing dairy cow herd, which explains the increased emissions for the average beef in 2005. The overall emission cuts from the livestock sector were a result of several measures taken in farm production, for example increased milk yield per cow, lowered use of synthetic nitrogen fertilisers in grasslands, reduced losses of ammonia from manure and a switch to biofuels for heating in chicken houses. In contrast to production, total GHG emissions from the Swedish consumption of animal products increased by around 22% between 1990 and 2005. This was explained by strong growth in meat consumption based mainly on imports, where growth in beef consumption especially was responsible for most emission increase over the 15-year period. Swedish GHG emissions caused by consumption of animal products reached around 1.1 t CO2e per capita in 2005. The emission cuts necessary for meeting a global temperature

  7. livestock Farming with Care: towards sustainable production of animal-source food

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, M.C.T.; de Boer; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Lokhorst, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept for sustainable production of animal-source food. This concept of “Livestock Farming with Care” is founded on care ethics with an integrated approach based on four principles: One Health (i.e. healthy and safe for animals and humans); Customized Care (i.e. from the individual animal's perspective and integrity); No Nuisance (i.e. from an environmental and societal perspective) and Credible Performance (i.e. from an economic and public prospect). It is acknowled...

  8. ECONOMIC UNITY OF PRODUCTION AND TRADE OF SLAUGHTER ANIMALS AND MEAT (PATHS OF INITIATION OF LONG TERM SOLUTIONS IN CROATIAN ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsto Benčević

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available For starting a long term programmes in Croatian animal production, formation of "economic unities" is necessary. Presentation and explanation of production and trade unity for animal production and marketing with subjects and phases is given here. It is pointed out that production of slaughter animals and meat is key interest of market and economic policy as well as of development of agricultural country. It seems that production and trade of meat in Croatia is not organized enough in overall market competition and in meat processing. Creating the economic unity of production and trade of slaughter animals can help in relative fast and efficient solving of problems accumulated in agriculture, especialy in meat production (PIK Vrbovec, Danica, Bejle etc. For initiating and getting in function the phases of production and trade of slaughter animals and meat, proper legislation should be introduced. This legislation should comprehencively define the idea of agricultural economy as a subject of legislative and normisation acts for overall, process and market oriented functioning of multidisciplinary agricultural systems. Additionaly, law on trade of slaughter animals, meat and agricultural products should be introduced in order to form a market and determine the share and obligations of certain participants in structure of such market.

  9. An animal component free medium that promotes the growth of various animal cell lines for the production of viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourou, Samia; Ben Ayed, Yousr; Trabelsi, Khaled; Majoul, Samy; Kallel, Héla

    2014-05-19

    IPT-AFM is a proprietary animal component free medium that was developed for rabies virus (strain LP 2061) production in Vero cells. In the present work, we demonstrated the versatility of this medium and its ability to sustain the growth of other cell lines and different virus strains. Here, three models were presented: Vero cells/rabies virus (strain LP 2061), MRC-5 cells/measles virus (strain AIK-C) and BHK-21 cells/rabies virus (strain PV-BHK21). The cell lines were first adapted to grow in IPT-AFM, by progressive reduction of the amount of serum in the culture medium. After their adaptation, BHK-21 cells grew in suspension by forming clumps, whereas MRC-5 cells remained adherent. Then, kinetics of cell growth were studied in agitated cultures for both cell lines. In addition, kinetics of virus replication were investigated. PMID:24583007

  10. A Brave New Animal for a Brave New World: The British Laboratory Animals Bureau and the Constitution of International Standards of Laboratory Animal Production and Use, circa 1947—1968

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Robert G W

    2010-01-01

    In 1947 the Medical Research Council of Britain established the Laboratory Animals Bureau in order to develop national standards of animal production that would enable commercial producers better to provide for the needs of laboratory animal users. Under the directorship of William Lane-Petter, the bureau expanded well beyond this remit, pioneering a new discipline of “laboratory animal science” and becoming internationally known as a producer of pathogenically and genetically standardized la...

  11. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl; Skrede, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed...... ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink...... Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors...

  12. Simulated production losses in reindeer herds caused by accidental death of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Petersson

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic age-structured model was used to simulate the consequences on herd production if an extra animal from a particular age class and season was lost. Herd size was adjusted to 1000 animals and a sex ratio of .75/.25 via slaughter in late autumn. Three harvest strategies were applied, ranging from extreme calf to adult harvest. Equilibrium herd structure was disturbed with the loss of an extra animal and the consequences in terms of the number of animals slaughtered and kilogram of carcasses produced were followed over a simulation period of 15 years. The loss of a male corresponded largely to 0.70 to 0.90 times its own carcass weight. Loss of a female decreased herd production by 1.2 to 1.7 times the carcass weight of the lost animal. The highest losses were observed for 4-6 year old females. Loss of a calf reduced herd production by 0.3 to 1.6 times the calf's carcass weight, depending on season of loss and harvest strategy. In general, a loss during winter decreased herd production 10 to 20 percent more than a loss during autumn.

  13. Preclinical Assessment of Inflammatory Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muley, Milind M; Krustev, Eugene; McDougall, Jason J

    2016-02-01

    While acute inflammation is a natural physiological response to tissue injury or infection, chronic inflammation is maladaptive and engenders a considerable amount of adverse pain. The chemical mediators responsible for tissue inflammation act on nociceptive nerve endings to lower neuronal excitation threshold and sensitize afferent firing rate leading to the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia, respectively. Animal models have aided in our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the generation of chronic inflammatory pain and allowed us to identify and validate numerous analgesic drug candidates. Here we review some of the commonly used models of skin, joint, and gut inflammatory pain along with their relative benefits and limitations. In addition, we describe and discuss several behavioral and electrophysiological approaches used to assess the inflammatory pain in these preclinical models. Despite significant advances having been made in this area, a gap still exists between fundamental research and the implementation of these findings into a clinical setting. As such we need to characterize inherent pathophysiological pathways and develop new endpoints in these animal models to improve their predictive value of human inflammatory diseases in order to design safer and more effective analgesics. PMID:26663896

  14. Preclinical studies of concomitant chemoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal models are widely used in preclinical studies in order to explain the mechanisms of action of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and concomitant chemoradiation, to analyze pathophysiology of tumors and to evaluate the treatment of choice for malignant tumors. The choice of murine tumor or human tumor xenograft system is still debated. Xenografted human tumors have two main advantages: their human origin and wanted pathological type, which is necessary for future clinical studies. There are a lot of disadvantages of xenografted tumors: the stroma and vascular network of transplanted tumors have murine origin, the graft is mostly ectopic, the volume of transplanted tumors at the time of chemoradiotherapy is much smaller than that of the tumor in man; due to residual immunity it is difficult to determine response to cytotoxic treatment. It is still impossible to extrapolate the results obtained in a tumor model in animal to man. These investigations are useful for interpretation of clinical results and for proposing the less empirical method of chemoradiation for phase II clinical trials. (author)

  15. Animals and their products utilized as medicines by the inhabitants surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroli DP

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present ethnozoological study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the inhabitants of villages surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park of India (Bawaria, Mogya, Meena, which is well known for its very rich biodiversity. The field survey was conducted from May to July 2005 by performing interviews through structured questionnaires with 24 informants (16 men and 8 women, who provided information regarding therapeutic uses of animals. A total of 15 animals and animal products were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including tuberculosis, asthma, paralysis, jaundice, earache, constipation, weakness, snake poisoning. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the collared dove (Streptopelia sp., hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as important medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources in the investigated area.

  16. Co-ordinated Interdisciplinary Efforts on Research in Animal Production and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS, the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL, the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL. CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision

  17. Electronic identification of animals, what are the applicability of these methods in meat production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica Cirqueira Nazareno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern with safe food and its quality has been achieving great growth worldwide. For those attributes to be secured, electronic identification is the first step to ensure animal products traceability. This research aimed to study invasive and non-invasive electronic identification methods, and the benefits and drawbacks of these mechanisms in meat productive chain, since 1983 to date. By means of this bibliographic survey, it was observed there are several tools available that may be useful to farmers to attain the electronic identification, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method should be considered to choose the best one for each situation. Invasive methods have been subject of many studies, which reflects the broad commercial use of these identifiers, however, issues related to animal welfare and specific disadvantages may restrict their use. Non-invasive methods are more aligned to the practices of animal welfare, but they are more expensive, less practical, and less studied than others.

  18. AIR POLLUTION FROM ANIMAL AND MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER: ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCTION AND RELEASE OF NOXIOUS GASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Xiaorong

    Airborne contaminants and odor from animal manure and municipal wastewater can affect human physical and psychological health, and the environment. The estimation of gas emission rates and development of technologies to reduce the release of noxious gases from wastewater is limited by current...... knowledge on the production pathways of gases and the release mechanisms from various sources. The overall objective of this PhD project was to assess the production and release of noxious gases from animal manure and municipal wastewater by giving emphasis on the effects of waste management (such as......, surface disturbances during storage, acidification and aeration), the hydrolysis of urea by bacteria, the waste types and wastes physicochemical characteristics. Animal wastewater stored in under-floor deep pit is characterized by the frequent occurrence of surface liquid disturbances caused by the urine...

  19. The Estimation of Conversion Capacity of Permanent Grassland Production in Caraş- Severin County in Animal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Văcariu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The permanent productions in Caraş- Severin county take the second place in terms of surface on national level and represent over 70% of the county surface. The natural potential is little exploited as compared to the economic value of the products that can be obtained. The estimation of conversion capacity of permanent grassland production in animal production has been made according to some studies based on the research in the field of grasslands, on areas similar to the ones in this county. At a medium level of production, its conversion in the meat production would lead to achieving an average increase of kg/ha, at the unfertilized grassland and of 125 kg/ha, at the fertilized grassland. The efficiency in milk production would amount to 1154 l/ha, at unfertilized grasslands and to 2500 l/ha at the fertilized ones.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products : pre-treatments and co-digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Abalde, Ángela

    2013-01-01

    The meat sector is one of the most important industrial sectors in Europe and it is associated with the generation of large quantities of animal by-products not intended for human consumption (ABPs). The increasing demand of renewable energy sources and reuse of wastes require good technological solutions for energy production such as anaerobic digestion (AD), which is included in the current European regulation as one of the allowed methods to valorize ABPs. Due to their composition, with hi...

  1. Sustainable, efficient livestock production with high biodiversity and good welfare for animals

    OpenAIRE

    BROOM, D.M.; Galindo, F. A.; E. Murgueitio

    2013-01-01

    What is the future for livestock agriculture in the world? Consumers have concerns about sustainability but many widely used livestock production methods do not satisfy consumers' requirements for a sustainable system. However, production can be sustainable, occurring in environments that: supply the needs of the animals resulting in good welfare, allow coexistence with a wide diversity of organisms native to the area, minimize carbon footprint and provide a fair lifestyle for the people work...

  2. Electronic identification of animals, what are the applicability of these methods in meat production?

    OpenAIRE

    Aérica Cirqueira Nazareno; Leonardo Parenti Roncada; Iran José Oliveira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the concern with safe food and its quality has been achieving great growth worldwide. For those attributes to be secured, electronic identification is the first step to ensure animal products traceability. This research aimed to study invasive and non-invasive electronic identification methods, and the benefits and drawbacks of these mechanisms in meat productive chain, since 1983 to date. By means of this bibliographic survey, it was observed there are several tools available that...

  3. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, C. H.; Triolo, J. M.; Cu, T. T. T.; Pedersen, L; Sommer, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journal...

  4. AIR POLLUTION FROM ANIMAL AND MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER: ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCTION AND RELEASE OF NOXIOUS GASES

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Xiaorong

    2014-01-01

    Airborne contaminants and odor from animal manure and municipal wastewater can affect human physical and psychological health, and the environment. The estimation of gas emission rates and development of technologies to reduce the release of noxious gases from wastewater is limited by current knowledge on the production pathways of gases and the release mechanisms from various sources. The overall objective of this PhD project was to assess the production and release of noxious gases from ani...

  5. Environmental and Public Health Issues of Animal Food Products Delivery System in Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu; Okorondu Ugochukwu Victor; Okoli Ifeanyi Charles; Okoli Chidi Grace

    2006-01-01

    Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from ...

  6. Effects of animal productivity on the costs of complying with environmental legislation in Dutch dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentsen, P.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of animal productivity on the costs of complying with environmental legislation in Dutch dairy farming P. B. M. Berentsen, Farm Management Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands Available online 20 November 2003. Abstract Dutch dairy farmers have to

  7. Use of Gamagrass as Hay or Silage in animal Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of native grasses to improve wildlife habitat is receiving consideration by conservation and wildlife interests. The potential use of native grasses in animal production systems, and particularly as conserved forage, has received little attention. Two experiments in each of 2 yr were condu...

  8. ANIMAL MODELS FOR STUDYING MISCARRIAGE: ILLUSTRATION WITH STUDY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models for studying miscarriage: Illustration with study of drinking water disinfection by-productsAuthors & affiliations:Narotsky1, M.G. and S. Bielmeier Laffan2.1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tri...

  9. GCSE Students' Attitudes to Dissection and Using Animals in Research and Product Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Questionnaires from students passing the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) that explored attitudes to dissection and using animals in product testing administered to (n=469) students ages 14-15 showed a high level of support for peers who object to dissection, although objectors are likely to be met with derogatory comments,…

  10. Environmental footprints of beef production at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental footprints of beef produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, Nebraska were determined to quantify improvements achieved over the past 40 years. Relevant information for MARC operations was gathered and used to represent their production system with the...

  11. The content of nutrients, preservatives and contaminants in selected animal-origin products from different manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Surma-Zadora M.; Sadowska-Rociek A.; Cieślik E.; Walczycka M.; Sieja K.; Wałkowska L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quality of animal - origin products from different leading manufacturers. The research material were kabanos, black pudding, sausage, luncheon meat, homogenized sausage, liverwurst, headcheese, ham, bacon and minced meat. A dry matter, nutrient content, preserwatives (nitrates, phosphates and salt) and contaminants (heavy metals and pesticides) were determined in all samples. The total phosphorus content (expressed a...

  12. Techno-economic feasibility of animal feed production from empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown in our laboratory that EFB has the potential to be converted into animal feeds through the process of fermentation; and also use as media for mushroom growing (1). Irradiation of EFB at doses above 10 kGy followed by fermentation can reduce crude fibre (CF) content to almost 20-30% and crude protein (CP) content elevated to 10-15% from 50% and 2% respectively (2)(3). The end-product of fermentation displayed all the characteristics of animal feed, and at these levels of CF and CP can be utilised for feeding ruminants. Further reduction of CF and raising of CP can result in the products suitable for feeding non-ruminants such as poultry and pigs. Following the successful conversion of raw EFB into foodstuff for ruminant in the laboratory, there is an urgent need to evaluate whether such products could be mass-produced economically at larger scale for further feeding-trials. Pilot plant has to be set up to simulate the actual commercial production process before any technology transfer can be undertaken. The main objective of this paper is to report firstly, the economic and financial feasibility of the production process at pilot level. Secondly, preliminary evaluation on the cost of production of animal feed from EFB

  13. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE PROBLEM OF A NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to approach the topic of a new strategy for the sustainable and competitive development of Romanian agriculture and especially for animal husbandry. In this purpose, a large variety of studies was investigated and the opinions of well-known personalities were used to present in a critical manner the history of sustainable development concept, principles, causes, reasons, moments, events, institutions involved at international, European and national level, achievements. The study is focused on Romania, starting from the actual situation of animal husbandry and learning from the country own and others experience. During the last centuries, the scientific studies noticed that the growth trends of the world population and resources utilization which could determine complications for survival of human society. The first Report of The Club of Rome (1972 concluded mathematically that " if the present growth trends in world population, industrialization, pollution, food production, and resources depletion continue to remain unchanged, the limits to growth on this planet will be reached sometime in the next hundred years",..that is in the 21 century. As a reply, the international and national bodies adopted recommendations for a sustainable development. This study analyzed the problems of sustainable development of animal production in Romania, taking into consideration that the conversion rate of energy provided by plants to animal products is about 20%, and this decrease of the number of population is supported by agricultural food production. Two production systems are proposed: (1. Intensive production systems, with high forage conversion, in favorable agricultural country area; (2. extensive (free-ranging, transhumance, pendulation, sustainable, biological production in not or less favorable agricultural area (mountain area, etc.

  14. PRODUCTS OF PROCESSING OF RAPESEED IN FEEDING OF FARM ANIMALS AND POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коnоnеnко S. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions of the import substitution, special importance is given to the search for new feed sources, methods of preparing them for feeding, the use of biologically active substances and enzymes. At the forefront of feed production is rape as breeding work with this culture has showed positive results. Currently, selectionists have bred yellow double-zero "00" varieties of rapeseeds free of erucic acid of "Canole" type, that have low glucosinolate level. The development of new and modern technology standards are required for preparation them for feeding, since they are fundamentally different from the previously used rapeseed varieties and have fewer restrictions for feeding to different types of farm animals and poultry. The article presents a fairly lengthy and reasoned review of the literature of a large number of authors on the topic, as well as given rapeseed market analysis, rational and advanced methods of preparing rapeseed processed products for feeding to young and adult animals. Much attention is paid to the use of a variety of biologically active substances and enzymes, which improve digestion and absorption of nutrients from rations with rapeseed processingproducts, increase productivity and reduce feed costs per unit of production. The use of processing products of rapeseed improves the profitability of livestock production. Feeding of rapeseedcake to cattle increases the protein content and volatile fatty acids in the rumen content, increases the number of infusoria and decreases ammonia levels. The inclusion of rape forage in diets of farm animals and poultry improves hematological parameters. Products of rapeseed processing of the varieties with low glucosinolatesa1re recommended for the rations of farm animals and poultry depending on the species, age and physiological state

  15. Utilization of tropical crop residues and agroindustrial by-products in animal nutrition. Constraints and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of by-products and crop residues as animal feeds is increasing steadily. This is a consequence of the increasing demand for cereal grains as both human and animal (chiefly poultry) food, and the increasing demand for energy coupled with decreasing availability of fossil fuels. The effects of these two trends are that primary use of land for livestock production (usually grazing systems) will steadily diminish; at the same time, sources of biomass will increase in importance as renewable energy sources, and greater emphasis will be placed on draught animal power. Most by-products and crop residues are fibrous and therefore of only low to moderate nutritive value, or have special physical and chemical characteristics making them difficult to incorporate in conventional ''balanced'' rations. Such feed raw materials may need special processing and/or special forms of supplementation if they are to be used efficiently. It is hypothesized that industrial by-products and crop residues will be more efficiently utilized if they are incorporated in diversified and integrated production systems, i.e. (a) livestock production is integrated with production of cash crops both for food and fuel; (b) different livestock species are utilized in the same enterprise in a complementary way; (c) livestock feeding is based on crop residues (energy) supplemented with protein-rich forages and aquatic plants; and (d) animal wastes are recycled and used for food, fertilizer and fuel. This strategy is particularly suitable for the conditions in (i) tropical countries, whose climate favours high crop/biomass yields per unit area and ease of fermentation of organic wastes, and (ii) family farms, for which diversification means greater opportunity for self-sufficiency and increased possibilities for use of family resources. (author)

  16. Influence of spatial variation on countermeasures with special regards to animal food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of SAVE, soil and animal based countermeasures have been considered as well as human based ones: In this technical deliverable we have considered the following countermeasures: - Soil-plant transfer: The effectiveness of Ca, K, fertilisers and substances with a high cation exchange capacity on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plant for different soil types within Europe have been considered. In addition, the fertility status of soils will give an indication of the potential effectiveness of fertilisation. In this report the effect of K application in a specified area and a given contamination scenario is evaluated and demonstrated. - Plant-animal transfer: A wide range of countermeasures is available to directly reduce transfer of radionuclides to animals, and thereby animal products. The preferred option will always be the most cost effective and practically acceptable one, for both producers and consumers. In this report collection of animal based countermeasures for Cs, Sr and I with special respect to their acceptability, effectiveness and spatial variation is presented. The contribution and importance of countries in import and export of feedstuff used for animals is estimated based on trading information. (orig.)

  17. A brave new animal for a brave new world: The British Laboratory Animals Bureau and the constitution of international standards of laboratory animal production and use, circa 1947-1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Robert G W

    2010-03-01

    In 1947 the Medical Research Council of Britain established the Laboratory Animals Bureau in order to develop national standards of animal production that would enable commercial producers better to provide for the needs of laboratory animal users. Under the directorship of William Lane-Petter, the bureau expanded well beyond this remit, pioneering a new discipline of "laboratory animal science" and becoming internationally known as a producer of pathogenically and genetically standardized laboratory animals. The work of this organization, later renamed the Laboratory Animals Centre, and of Lane-Petter did much to systematize worldwide standards for laboratory animal production and provision--for example, by prompting the formation of the International Committee on Laboratory Animals. This essay reconstructs how the bureau became an internationally recognized center of expertise and argues that standardization discourses within science are inherently internationalizing. It traces the dynamic co-constitution of standard laboratory animals alongside that of the identities of the users, producers, and regulators of laboratory animals. This process is shown to have brought into being a transnational community with shared conceptual understandings and material practices grounded in the materiality of the laboratory animal, conceived as an instrumental technology. PMID:20575490

  18. Balance of the Sexes: Addressing Sex Differences in Preclinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Potenza, Marc N.; Mazure, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical research is fundamental for the advancement of biomedical sciences and enhancing healthcare. Considering sex differences in all studies throughout the entire biomedical research pipeline is necessary to adequately inform clinical research and improve health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of information to date on sex differences in preclinical work. As of 2009, most (about 80 percent) rodent studies across 10 fields of biology were still conducted with only male animals. In 2016, the National Institutes of Health implemented a policy aimed to address this concern by requiring the consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research grant applications. This perspective piece aims to (1) provide a brief history of female inclusion in biomedical research, (2) describe the importance of studying sex differences, (3) explain possible reasons for opposition of female inclusion, and (4) present potential additional solutions to reduce sex bias in preclinical research. PMID:27354851

  19. Control tools to detect processed animal proteins in feed and in animal by-products: specificity and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodgate SL.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper reviews the current situation with regard to a total feed ban on the use of processed animal proteins in feed for meat producing animals within the EU. The scientific aspects surrounding the development of control tools are discussed. In particular, focus is given to methods for marking those materials prohibited in animal feeds and for the determination of species specificity in those proteins that are potentially allowed in animal feeds. The overall objective is that the advancements in science are utilized to achieve a partial relaxation of the total feed ban in the near future.

  20. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915 and semi-structured interviews (n=78 to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported consumed-predominantly by successful, high-income, high-status males of all ages and educational levels-and is used as a medium to communicate prestige and obtain social leverage. As Vietnam′s economy grows and its population ages, demand for wildmeat and medicinal products is likely to rise. Given the difficulties of acting on personal rather than collective interests and the symbolic role of wildmeat in an extremely status-conscious society, reducing demand is challenging. Influencing consumer behaviour over the long term requires social marketing expertise and has to be informed by an in-depth understanding, achieved using appropriate methods, of the social drivers of consumer demand for wild animal products. In the meantime, strengthened enforcement is needed to prevent the demand being met from consumers prepared to pay the rising costs of finding the last individuals of a species.

  1. Important Regulatory Aspects in the Receipt of Animal Products by Food Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mesquita, Marizete Oliveira; de Freitas Saccol, Ana Lúcia; Mesquita, Marilise Oliveira; Fries, Leadir Lucy Martins; Cesar Tondo, Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current legislation and rules in Brazil that involve quality assurance of animal products during food service reception. Published federal legislation and technical regulations were verified to present a broad general approach to raw material reception. Food service determinations included specifications of the criteria for evaluating and selecting suppliers, verifying the transport system, reception area requirements, and inspecting raw material. For product approval, the packaging, labeling, and temperature should be evaluated. However, periodic microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory support assessment analyses are not required for receiving animal products. For the safety of the raw material, it was concluded that the largest impacts came from the regulation and supervision of the food sector provider because of the challenges of food service and a lack of requirements to use more complex evaluation methods during the reception of raw materials. PMID:25875352

  2. Estimation of potassium and magnesium flows in animal production in Dianchi Lake basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachika, Yuta; Anzai, Hiroki; Wang, Lin; Oishi, Kazato; Irbis, Chagan; Li, Kunzhi; Kumagai, Hajime; Inamura, Tatsuya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate and evaluate potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) budgets and flows of animal production in the basin of Dianchi Lake, China. Feed sampling and farmer interviews were conducted in field surveys. The supplies of K and Mg from local and external feeds and the retention, production and excretion of animals were calculated individually for dairy cows, fattening pigs, breeding sows, and broilers and laying hens. The K and Mg flows on a regional level were estimated using the individual budgets. At the individual level, in dairy cattle, the K and Mg supplied from local feeds accounted for large parts of the total nutrient intakes, whereas in the other animal categories most of the K and Mg in the feeds depended on external resources. Our findings also suggested that excessive Mg intake resulted in high Mg excretion and low use efficiency in dairy cattle and fattening pigs. At the regional level, the K and Mg amounts of manure produced and applied in the area (K: 339 and Mg: 143 t/year) exceeded those used as local feeds. Our results imply the animal production potentially increased the K and Mg loads in the regional agriculture system. PMID:26420449

  3. VETSTAT - the Danish system for surveillance of the veterinary use of drugs for production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Bager, Flemming; Jacobsen, Erik;

    2003-01-01

    of drugs for use in animal production is reported on a monthly basis. Pharmacies provided 95% of the total weight antimicrobial compounds used in Denmark in 2001. More than 80% of the antimicrobial compounds reported by pharmacies were sold on prescription to end-users (owners) and included information...... on animal species, age-group and diagnostic grouping; >90% of the total amount of antimicrobials sold on prescription was used for pigs. In 2001, sales of 96,500 kg of antimicrobials were reported....

  4. Review on Sources and Handling Method of Pesticide Residues in Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies and literature search showed that some pesticide residues either organochlorines (OC or organophosphates (OP were detected in animal products (meat and milk . Pesticide residues in meat collected from West Java were detected at the level of 0 .8 ppb lindane and 62 ppb diazinon . While in meat from Lampung was detected at the level of 7 ppb lindane . 2 .7 heptachlor, 0 .8 endosulfan and 0 .5 ppb aldrin . Furthermore, pesticide residues were also detected in the milk collected from West, Central and East Java . The levels of lindane were 2,3 ; 15,9 ; 0,2 ppb ; heptachlor 8 ; 0 .4 and 0,05 ppb; diazinon 8 ; 0 and 1,8 ppb; CPM 0,4 ; 0,8 and 0 ppb ; endosulfan 0,1 ; 0,04 and 0,05 ppb for West, Central and East Java, respectively . The source of pesticide contamination in animal products is generally originated from feed materials, fodders . contaminated soils and water around the farm areas . Minimalization approach of pesticide residues in animal products could be conducted integratedly, such as through chemical process, biodegradation using microorganisms . Organic farming system is recognised as an alternative that may be applied to minimise contamination on agricultural land, eventually reducing pesticide residues in the agricultural products . Feeding with organic agricultural by-products with low pesticide residues appears to reduce pesticide residues in animal products . In order to eliminate pesticide contamination in soil, it has to be conducted progressively by implementing sustainable organic farming .

  5. Hormone Use in Food Animal Production: Assessing Potential Dietary Exposures and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Keeve E; Smith, Tyler J S

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the role of hormones in breast cancer etiology, following reports that heightened levels of endogenous hormones and exposure to exogenous hormones and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals through food and the environment are associated with increased breast cancer risk. Seven hormone drugs (testosterone propionate, trenbolone acetate, estradiol, zeranol, progesterone, melengestrol acetate, and bovine somatotropin) are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food animals. There is concern that these drugs or their biologically active metabolites may accumulate in edible tissues, potentially increasing the risk of exposure for consumers. To date, the potential for human exposure to residues of these compounds in animal products, as well as the risks that may result from this exposure, is poorly understood. In this paper, we discuss the existing scientific evidence examining the toxicological significance of exposure to hormones used in food animal production in relation to breast cancer risk. Through a discussion of U.S. federal regulatory programs and the primary literature, we interpret the state of surveillance for residues of hormone drugs in animal products and discuss trends in meat consumption in relation to the potential for hormone exposure. Given the lack of chronic bioassays of oral toxicity of the seven hormone compounds in the public literature and the limitations of existing residue surveillance programs, it is not currently possible to provide a quantitative characterization of risks that result from the use of hormonal drugs in food animal production, complicating our understanding of the role of dietary hormone exposure in the population burden of breast cancer. PMID:26231238

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  8. Feeding strategies for improving milk production from milch animals owned by small farmers in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade the National Dairy Development Board of India has researched and developed feeding strategies for lactating cattle and buffaloes fed on basal forage diets. Depending on the season and climate, these diets are largely mature forage from tropical pastures or crop residues, which are generally low in protein and of relatively low digestibility. Supplementation of the rumen microbial ecosystem with essential nutrients by providing each animal with a urea/molasses block stimulates production by improving feed digestibility, intake and the balance of nutrients available from the feed. Supplementation with a bypass protein to supply the animal directly with additional amino acids stimulates the efficiency of feed utilization by reducing the heat increment of feeding. In hot environments this reduces heat stress and allows feed intake to be maintained. These feeding strategies are now being applied to a large number of milch animals in the herds of small farmers in India. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  9. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil using waste animal bone and solar heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corro, Grisel; Sánchez, Nallely; Pal, Umapada; Bañuelos, Fortino

    2016-01-01

    A two-step catalytic process for the production of biodiesel from waste frying oil (WFO) at low cost, utilizing waste animal-bone as catalyst and solar radiation as heat source is reported in this work. In the first step, the free fatty acids (FFA) in WFO were esterified with methanol by a catalytic process using calcined waste animal-bone as catalyst, which remains active even after 10 esterification runs. The trans-esterification step was catalyzed by NaOH through thermal activation process. Produced biodiesel fulfills all the international requirements for its utilization as a fuel. A probable reaction mechanism for the esterification process is proposed considering the presence of hydroxyapatite at the surface of calcined animal bones. PMID:25708407

  10. Cadmium in animal production and its potential hazard on Beijing and Fuxin farmlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A random sample of pairs of animal feeds and manures were collected from 215 animal barns in Beijing and Fuxin regions of China. The concentrations of Cd in manures and feeds ranged from non-detectable to 129.8 mg/kg dry weight and non-detectable to 31 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The concentrations of Cd in pig, dairy cow and chicken manures were positively correlated to those in their feeds. About 30% of the manure samples contained Cd concentrations higher than the upper limit for use in farmlands, and pig and chicken manures might be the primary contributors of Cd to farmlands. The farmlands in Beijing and around the Fuxin Downtown areas would exceed the soil quality criteria within several decades according to current manure Cd loading rates. Undoubtedly, more scientific animal production and manure management practices to minimize soil pollution risks are necessary for the two regions.

  11. Development of a Rabbit Model for a Preclinical Comparison of Coronary Stent Types In-Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joo Myung; Lee, Jaewon; Jeong, Heewon; Choe, Won Seok; Seo, Won-Woo; Lim, Woo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Chan; Hur, Jin; Lee, Sang Eun; Yang, Han-Mo; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Along with the development of innovative stent designs, preclinical trials in animal models are essential. Many animal models have been used and appear to yield comparable results to clinical trials despite substantial criticisms about their validity. Among the animal models, porcine coronary artery models have been the standard models for the preclinical evaluation of endovascular devices. However, rapid growth rate, high body weight potential, and the propensity to develop granulomatous inf...

  12. The future trends for research on quality and safety of animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel D. Scollan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality must now be considered as a convergence between consumers' wishes and needs and the intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of food products. The increasing number of quality attributes which must be considered, increasing globalisation and the heterogeneity in consumption habits between countries are making this convergence progressively more difficult. In parallel, science is rapidly evolving (with the advent of genomics for instance, and a growing number of applications is thus expected for the improvement of food safety and quality. Among the meat and fish quality attributes, colour is very important because it determines, at least in part, consumer choice. The key targets to ensure a satisfactory colour are animal nutrition and management for fish, processing and product conditioning for meat. Tenderness and flavour continue to be important issues for the consumer because eating remains a pleasure. They both determine quality experience which itself influences repetitive purchase. Meat tenderness is a very complex problem which can be solved only by a holistic approach involving all the factors from conception, animal breeding and production, muscle biology and slaughter practice to carcass processing and meat preparation at the consumer end. Today, safety and healthiness are among the most important issues. Unfortunately, animal products can potentially be a source of biological and chemical contamination for consumers. The introduction of both control strategies along the food chain and the development of a food safety management system, from primary production to the domestic environment, are key issues that must be achieved. Despite a high dietary supply of saturated fats by dairy and meat products, it is imperative that professionals involved in animal research and in the associated industry convey the positive nutritional contributions of animal products to both consumers and health professionals. The latter include protein

  13. Young fission products biological effect on the lactic cattle and young fission products translocation into farm animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ways and quantitative aspects of the passage of artificial radionuclides to the organism of farm animals are discussed, as well as data on the effect of various natural factors favouring or hindering the passage of radionuclides from fodder to animals and to the agricultural produce

  14. CO2 production in animals: analysis of potential errors in the doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory validation studies indicate that doubly labeled water (3HH18O and 2HH18O) measurements of CO2 production are accurate to within +-9% in nine species of mammals and reptiles, a bird, and an insect. However, in field studies, errors can be much larger under certain circumstances. Isotopic fraction of labeled water can cause large errors in animals whose evaporative water loss comprises a major proportion of total water efflux. Input of CO2 across lungs and skin caused errors exceeding +80% in kangaroo rats exposed to air containing 3.4% unlabeled CO2. Analytical errors of +-1% in isotope concentrations can cause calculated rates of CO2 production to contain errors exceeding +-70% in some circumstances. These occur: 1) when little decline in isotope concentractions has occured during the measurement period; 2) when final isotope concentrations closely approach background levels; and 3) when the rate of water flux in an animal is high relative to its rate of CO2 production. The following sources of error are probably negligible in most situations: 1) use of an inappropriate equation for calculating CO2 production, 2) variations in rates of water or CO2 flux through time, 3) use of H2O-18 dilution space as a measure of body water volume, 4) exchange of 0-18 between water and nonaqueous compounds in animals (including excrement), 5) incomplete mixing of isotopes in the animal, and 6) input of unlabeled water via lungs and skin. Errors in field measurements of CO2 production can be reduced to acceptable levels (< 10%) by appropriate selection of study subjects and recapture intervals

  15. Environmental and Public Health Issues of Animal Food Products Delivery System in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from 2001 to 2004 were used to investigate the environmental and public health issues of animal food products delivery system in state. Majority of trade animals supplied to the state originated from the northern states of the country and were brought in with trucks by road. Only two veterinary control posts served the whole state thus resulting in non-inspection and taxing of a large proportion of trade animals. Official record of trade animals supplied to the state from 2001 to 2004 ranged from 45000 – 144000 for cattle, 23000 – 96000 for goats and 11000 – 72000 for sheep per annum, with supplies increasing steadily across the years. Official slaughter points in the state were principally low-grade quality slaughter premises consisting of a thin concrete slab. Meat handling was very unhygienic with carcasses dressed beside refuse heaps of over 2 years standing. Carcasses were dragged on the ground and transported in taxi boots and open trucks. Meat inspection at these points was not thorough because of stiff resistance of butchers to carcass condemnation. Official meat inspection records for the state from 2001 to 2004 revealed that overall totals of 159,000 cattle, 101,000 goats and 67,000 sheep were slaughtered. This accounted for about 56, 57 and 57% shortfall of cattle, goat and sheep respectively supplied to the state and represents the volume of un-inspected animals during the study period. Fascioliasis and tuberculosis were the most common

  16. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  17. Challenges of sanitary compliance related to trade in products of animal origin in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudakwashe Magwedere

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the existence of potentially pathogenic organisms carried by animals, foods of animal origin remain the prime nutrition of humans world-wide. As such, food safety continues to be a global concern primarily to safeguard public health and to promote international trade. Application of integrated risk-based quality assurance procedures on-farm and at slaughterhouses plays a crucial role in controlling hazards associated with foods of animal origin. In the present paper we examine safety assurance systems and associated value chains for foods of animal origin based on historical audit results of some Southern African countries with thriving export trade in animal products, mainly to identify areas for improvement. Among the key deficiencies identified were: i failure to keep pace with scientific advances related to the ever-changing food supply chain; ii lack of effective national and regional intervention strategies to curtail pathogen transmission and evolution, notably the zoonotic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; and iii a lack of effective methods to reduce contamination of foods of wildlife origin. The introduction of foods of wildlife origin for domestic consumption and export markets seriously compounds already existing conflicts in legislation governing food supply and safety. This analysis identifies gaps required to improve the safety of foods of wildlife origin.

  18. Rapid production of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies from a variety of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurosawa Nobuyuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a variety of animals have been used to produce polyclonal antibodies against antigens, the production of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies from animals remains challenging. Results We propose a simple and rapid strategy to produce monoclonal antibodies from a variety of animals. By staining lymph node cells with an antibody against immunoglobulin and a fluorescent dye specific for the endoplasmic reticulum, plasma/plasmablast cells were identified without using a series of antibodies against lineage markers. By using a fluorescently labeled antigen as a tag for a complementary cell surface immunoglobulin, antigen-specific plasma/plasmablast cells were sorted from the rest of the cell population by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Amplification of cognate pairs of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes followed by DNA transfection into 293FT cells resulted in the highly efficient production of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies from a variety of immunized animals. Conclusions Our technology eliminates the need for both cell propagation and screening processes, offering a significant advantage over hybridoma and display strategies.

  19. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    on human health and ecosystem health. Thus, alternative technologies for recycling manure and utilising it as a nutrient source for crop production, while minimising the environmental costs, are important for the sustainability of the livestock and poultry sectors. Composting of animal manure and other......, but information on its effect on GHG emissions, especially nitrous oxide (N2O), is still limited. This thesis investigated the main processes and factors affecting the physicochemical composition of the compost and emissions of GHG and NH3 during composting of animal manure and other organic waste products......, within the range of flow rates and composting mixtures tested. This indicates that temperature is an important factor influencing GHG emissions during composting. Composting of nitrogen-rich manure materials with carbon-rich bulking agents proved to be an effective means of conserving nitrogen in manures...

  20. Solar energy project and biogas for animal feed production and jelly; Projeto de energia solar e biogas para producao de racao animal e geleia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, J.P. de; Selvam, P.V.P.; Silva, R.T. da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mails: johnsonmoura@yahoo.com.br, tatianesil@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a study for utilization of surplus of horticulture industry for the production of jam and sweet from the fruit pulp and the manufacture of animal feed, organic fertilizer and biogas from the waste of this production. It also presents the equipment development of low-cost construction and operation that enables high energy efficiency (without heat loss) and can then be traded with greater advantage over other products on the market.

  1. Planning the marketing activities in the animal production sector in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Sekovska Blagica; Bunevski Gjoko; Adamov Mihajlo; Adamov Nikola

    2007-01-01

    Although the marketing and marketing planning are considered as the main conditions for achieving successful management of the animal production farms, a great number of the farmers in Republic of Macedonia do not have their own plan for marketing solutions. Planning of the marketing activities is necessary for contemporary farm management because they have a great impact on the farmer’s final profit. To achieve an effective management of the farm, the marketing planning should be viewed in s...

  2. Metabolic rate and environmental productivity: Well-provisioned animals evolved to run and idle fast

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Pamela; Diamond, Jared

    2001-01-01

    Even among vertebrate species of the same body mass and higher-level taxonomic group, metabolic rates exhibit substantial differences, for which diverse explanatory factors—such as dietary energy content, latitude, altitude, temperature, and rainfall—have been postulated. A unifying underlying factor could be food availability, in turn controlled by net primary productivity (NPP) of the animal's natural environment. We tested this possibility by studying five North American species of Peromys...

  3. INTERCEPTION OF ANIMAL-ORIGIN PRODUCTS AT LAND BORDERS IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Janice Eidt; Marcos Eielson Pinheiro de Sá; Concepta Margareth McManus; Cristiano Barros de Melo

    2015-01-01

    Infectious agents and veterinary diseases can be disseminated across borders and contribute to change the country sanitary status. The aim of this study was to identify the main animal products intercepted and seized by the agricultural surveillance units. This paper studied three Agricultural Surveillance Units located at land borders in the North region of Brazil: Assis Brasil and Epitaciolândia (Acre State) and Pacaraima (Roraima State), respectively borders with Peru, Bolivia and Venezuel...

  4. Animal Use and Lessons Learned in the U.S. High Production Volume Chemicals Challenge Program

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Patricia L.; Manuppello, Joseph R.; Willett, Catherine E.; Sandler, Jessica T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Launched by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1998, the High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program was developed to address the perceived gap in basic hazard information for the 2,800 chemicals produced or imported into the United States in quantities of ≥ 1 million pounds per year. Health and environmental effects data obtained from either existing information or through new vertebrate animal testing were voluntarily submitted by chemical companies (sponsors) ...

  5. Monoclonal antibodies in animal production; their use in diagnostics and passive immunization.

    OpenAIRE

    Booman, P.

    1989-01-01

    One of the landmarks in immunology was the invention and development of monoclonal antibody-secreting hybridomas by Milstein and his coworkers. The enormous promise of monoclonal antibody technology, which became apparent soon after its discovery, may explain the unusual speed with which monoclonal antibodies have been applied to biological and medical sciences.In animal production monoclonal antibodies are increasingly finding application in the areas of diagnostics, passive immunization and...

  6. Some bibliometric indexes for members of the Scientific Association of Animal Production (ASPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study calculated several bibliometric indexes to analyze the scientific output of 363 members of the Scientific Association of Animal Production (ASPA in Italy, based on their publications listed by ISIThompson, Web of Science database (search period from 1989 until 2006. Five main research areas were considered: AGR/17 (Animal genetics and breeding, AGR/18 (Animal nutrition and feeding, AGR/19 (Animal husbandry, AGR/20 (Poultry, rabbits and fish production and External researcher (Ere. Position groups were: FP (Full Professor, AP (Associate Professor, Re (Researcher, EReUni (scientists working temporarily at the University or professors of an area different from AGR/17-20, and EReInst (scientists working at other institutions. Each institution was classified according to three geographical areas of Italy: North, Centre and South. Main calculated bibliometric indexes were: Ni = total number of papers published by member i over yi years; yi = number of years publishing of member i; Ci. = total number of citations of member i; IFpersonal. = Ci./Ni, Personal Impact factor of member i; Total IFjournal. = Sum of impact factor reported by the ISI-Thompson database of the journal in which a paper of member i was published (Journal Citation Reports Science Edition, 2004; Mean IFjournal. = Mean impact factor of all papers published in journals having a recognized IFjournal. by the ISI-Thompson database for member i; h = number of papers with at least h citations; m = h/y, i.e. average increase of h over the yi years publishing; and a = Ci./h2. Among the studied bibliometric indexes, Ni, Ci., Total IFjournal. and h are reliable, while IFpersonal. and Mean IFjournal. are not, to evaluate the scientific career of Animal Scientists in Italy. FP and members of AGR/17 tend to show the highest values of bibliometric indexes. Most ASPA members work in the North of Italy, which shows the highest median and highest percentage of scientists with maximum values

  7. Importancia del bienestar animal en las unidades de producción animal en México - Importance of animal welfare in units of animal production in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdova Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la actualidad, el bienestar animal (BA, es un tema de vitalimportancia a tomar en cuenta en las Unidades de Producción Animal(UPAS, cuya importancia está relacionado con el trato que el hombrele proporciona a los animales, tanto en la movilización para el manejoen las UPAS y el transporte para el sacrificio, en cualquier parte delmundo. Mediante el uso de conocimientos científicos, relacionadoscon la importancia que tienen el BA para el buen desempeñoreproductivo y productivo de los animales de granja; estosconocimientos, deben estar enfocados a proporcionar mejorpreparación y concientización del personal que está en contactodirecto con los animales, cuyos beneficios están enfocados paraobtener mejores resultados de importancia económica para losproductores ganaderos, sin perjudicar el BA los animales, así como elcuidado al medio ambiente en donde se encuentran ubicadas las UPAS. En este trabajo, se describen los puntos más importantes aconsiderar que se deben llevar a cabo en las UPAS en todo el mundo;medidas que se están tomando para legislar en relación al BA ycuidado del medio ambiente. Se describen los siguientes puntos:factores que determinan el bienestar animal, tales como manejo,instalaciones, clima y transporte. También se menciona situacionesque pueden conducir al fracaso del BA; efectos del BA sobre losanimales, como: comportamiento reproductivo, ciclo estral ypubertad; mecanismos fisiológicos del estrés ante el BA; postuladosde BA en los animales de granja; importancia del Médico Veterinariopara el BA y la situación del BA en México.SummaryAt present, animal welfare (AW, is a topic of vital importance to take into account in the Animal Production Units (APUS, whoseimportance is related to the treatment that the man gives theanimals, both in mobilization for the managing APUS and transportfor slaughter, anywhere in the world. Through the use of scientificknowledge related to the importance of AW for the

  8. [Multiresidue determination of quinolones in animal and fishery products by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, Takao; Fujimoto, Toru; Inoue, Maki; Tazawa, Teijiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    A simple and rapid multiresidue method was developed for the determination of twelve quinolones (ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, marbofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, orbifloxacin, oxolinic acid and sarafloxacin) in muscle, liver, chicken eggs, milk, prawn and rainbow trout. The quinolones were extracted from a sample with acetonitrile-water (95 : 5). A fifth part of the filtered extract was diluted with water to keep the acetonitrile ratio at ca. 60%, and passed through a C18 mini-column. The eluate was evaporated to dryness, and the residues were dissolved in methanol-water (30 : 70) for HPLC analysis. The quinolones were separated on a Inertsil ODS-3V column (4.6 mm i.d.x250 mm) with a gradient system of 0.1% phosphoric acid-acetonitrile as the mobile phase, with fluorescence detection.No interfering peak was found on the chromatograms of animal and fishery products, except for milk. The recoveries of the quinolones were over 60% from the animal and fishery products fortified at 0.1 microg/g, and the quantification limits of the quinolones were 0.005 microg/g. This proposed method was found to be effective and suitable for the screening of the quinolones in animal and fishery products. PMID:18633210

  9. Combined production of free-range pigs and energy crops – animal behaviour and crop damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Jørgensen, Uffe;

    2012-01-01

    Intensive free-range pig production on open grasslands has disadvantages in that it creates nutrient hotspots and little opportunity for pigs to seek shelter from the sun. Combining a perennial energy crop and pig production might benefit the environment and animal welfare because perennial energy...... crops like willow (Salix sp.) and Miscanthus offer the pigs protection from the sun while reducing nutrient leaching from pig excrements due to their deep rooting system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how season and stocking density of pigs in a free-range system with zones of willow...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF CO-PRODUCTS OF THE PILOT DIGESTERS TO ANIMAL BIOMASS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work consists in evaluating the Co-products of the biomethanisation applied to the animal biomass on the level of various types of digesters (experimental I, II, III and IV, rural and industrial.This work made it possible to arise certain number of observations: The energy performances are more interesting in the case of the digesters powered with the avicolous droppings; the reduction of the polluting load as of SM is more important in the case of the industrial digester, whereas for the BDO5, it is in favor of the experimental digester II; The agronomic use of the secondary by-products proves very encouraging and powerful.

  11. El bienestar animal en la reproducción y producción de cerdos - The animal welfare in the reproduction and production of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl bienestar animal es una condición ideal, resultado de la aplicación de normas específicas, adecuadas y posibles, sobre los sistemas y procesos involucrados a lo largo de toda la cadenaproductiva, que permiten a los animales vivir en las mejores condiciones posibles, sin padecer sufrimientos físicos o psicológicos innecesarios. Para todos los animales y en especial para aquellos cuyo destino será servir de fuente de alimentos al hombre, se antensifica el compromiso ético de brindarles a lo largo de su vida productiva las mejores condiciones posibles de hábitat, sanidad, manejo, alimentación y cuidados en general. En la actualidad,conceptos de bienestar animal, son cuestión de interés público complejo y multifacético que incluye importantes dimensiones científicas, éticas, económicas y políticas. Por ser un temade importancia creciente en la sociedad, el bienestar animal ha de abordarse sobre bases científicas verdaderas. Las causas de los problemas de bienestar animal, se deben a la percepción errónea acerca de los animales, como seres que no sienten y que por lo tanto, no son capaces de sufrir. Es fácil que se desarrollen actitudes negativas hacia los animales, lo cual se refleja en conductas de negligencia, crueldad o trato irrespetuoso. Los productores,médicos veterinarios, así como la sociedad en general, concientes del cuidado de los animales, saben la importancia de conocer los aspectos del confort de los animales ya que la fisiología, el desarrollo y el comportamiento del animal, son afectados por las malas condiciones ambientales, de producción y de manejo en general. En esta revisión, se presentan aspectos relacionados con el bienestar animal en la reproducción y producción de cerdos.ABSTRACTThe animal wefare is an ideal condition, result of the application of specific, appropriate and possible norms, on the systems and processes involved along the whole productive chain thatyou/they allow to the

  12. Mid-term financial impact of animal welfare improvements in Dutch broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocsik, E; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-12-01

    This study used a stochastic bioeconomic simulation model to simulate the business and financial risk of different broiler production systems over a 5-yr period. Simulation analysis was conducted using the @Risk add-in in MS Excel. To compare the impact of different production systems on economic feasibility, 2 cases were considered. The first case focused on the economic feasibility of a completely new system, whereas the second examined economic feasibilities when a farm switches from a conventional to an animal welfare-improving production system. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the key drivers of economic feasibility and to reveal systematic differences across production systems. The study shows that economic feasibility of systems with improved animal welfare predominantly depends on the price that farmers receive. Moreover, the study demonstrates the importance of the level and variation of the price premium for improved welfare, particularly in the first 5 yr after conversion. The economic feasibility of the production system increases with the level of welfare improvements for a sufficiently high price level for broiler meat and low volatility in producer prices. If this is not the case, however, risk attitudes of farmers become important as well as the use of potential risk management instruments. PMID:24235244

  13. Passive immunisation, an old idea revisited: Basic principles and application to modern animal production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2016-06-01

    Immunisation by administration of antibodies (immunoglobulins) has been known for more than one hundred years as a very efficient means of obtaining immediate, short-lived protection against infection and/or against the disease-causing effects of toxins from microbial pathogens and from other sources. Thus, due to its rapid action, passive immunisation is often used to treat disease caused by infection and/or toxin exposure. However immunoglobulins may also be administered prior to exposure to infection and/or toxin, although they will not provide long-lasting protection as is seen with active immunisation (vaccination) in which an immunological memory is established by controlled exposure of the host to the pathogen in question. With multi-factorial infectious diseases in production animals, especially those that have proven hard to control by vaccination, the potential of passive immunisation remains big. This review highlights a number of examples on the use of passive immunisation for the control of infectious disease in the modern production of a range of animals, including pigs, cattle, sheep, goat, poultry and fish. Special emphasis is given on the enablement of passive immunisation strategies in these production systems through low cost and ease of use as well as on the sources, composition and purity of immunoglobulin preparations used and their benefits as compared to current measures, including vaccination (also comprising maternal vaccination), antibiotics and feed additives such as spray-dried plasma. It is concluded that provided highly efficient, relatively low-price immunoglobulin products are available, passive immunisation has a clear role in the modern animal production sector as a means of controlling infectious diseases, importantly with a very low risk of causing development of bacterial resistance, thus constituting a real and widely applicable alternative to antibiotics. PMID:27185263

  14. The Optimum Mesophilic Temperature of Batch Process Biogas Production from Animal-based Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osita Obineche Obiukwu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimum mesophilic temperature of biogas production from blends The optimum temperature of biogas production from blends of animal-based wastes was determined under controlled heat supply to the digester in a batch digestion process. Cow Dung (CD and Poultry Droppings (PD were blended in the ratio of CD: PD: 1:3. The digester was operated at average ambient temperature of 30°C as baseline. Biogas production from the waste blends was monitored under the temperatures of 32 to 45°C. Results obtained indicate maximum cumulative gas yield was observed at the temperature of 40°C. The 40°C temperature gave the highest biogas yield of 2685 mL followed by the 35°C temperature with the cumulative yield of 2535 mL. The ambient temperature of 30°C had the least cumulative biogas yield of 185 mL. These results indicate that increased and steady biogas production can be achieved under the optimum mesophilic temperature of 40°C when these animal-based wastes are digested in batch digestion process.

  15. Biogas production from animal manure and agri-organic by-products. An analysis of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing interest in sustainable energy has been directed to the production of biogas from organic matter in animal manure and agri-organic by-products. The technology of biogas production by anaerobic digestion of organic materials is used in several parts of the world. Based on this experience and on positive results in a Novem study for the Netherlands situation in 1995, an actor survey has been carried out. The introduction of combined digestion of animal manure and agri-organic by-products has been discussed with companies, business associations and governmental organisations in the energy, agricultural and waste sectors. The survey has revealed that commercial exploitation of biogas plants with a capacity of 100 kton per year is possible under the following conditions: (1) costs of investment should not be higher than 100 Dutch Guilders (45 ECU) per ton processing capacity; (2) yield demands on investment capital, both equity and debt, should not be higher than 8%; (3) selling price for biogas should be around 0,30 Dutch Guilders (0,135 ECU) per mo3 natural gas equivalents; (4) supply for processing of agri-organic by-products with a received minimum fee of 35 Dutch Guilders (15,7 ECU) per ton should be guaranteed; (5) dairy, pig and arable farmers involved in the biogas plant should have both financial and quality incentives to participation; (6) environmental legislation on the level of heavy metals in animal manure mixed with agri-organic byproducts should not be different from the accepted levels in 'normal' animal manure; and finally (7) the site of the biogas plant accepted by local authorities should be suitable by logistic standards for the transports of animal manure, agri-organic by-products, the digested mixture and biogas. It has been concluded that these conditions are not unrealistic, although there is no absolute certainty that they will be fulfilled. However, circumstances for the implementation of biogas plants have improved in recent years

  16. Modeling mania in preclinical settings: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Fries, Gabriel R; Galvez, Juan F; Valvassori, Samira S; Soares, Jair C; Carvalho, André F; Quevedo, Joao

    2016-04-01

    The current pathophysiological understanding of mechanisms leading to onset and progression of bipolar manic episodes remains limited. At the same time, available animal models for mania have limited face, construct, and predictive validities. Additionally, these models fail to encompass recent pathophysiological frameworks of bipolar disorder (BD), e.g. neuroprogression. Therefore, there is a need to search for novel preclinical models for mania that could comprehensively address these limitations. Herein we review the history, validity, and caveats of currently available animal models for mania. We also review new genetic models for mania, namely knockout mice for genes involved in neurotransmission, synapse formation, and intracellular signaling pathways. Furthermore, we review recent trends in preclinical models for mania that may aid in the comprehension of mechanisms underlying the neuroprogressive and recurring nature of BD. In conclusion, the validity of animal models for mania remains limited. Nevertheless, novel (e.g. genetic) animal models as well as adaptation of existing paradigms hold promise. PMID:26545487

  17. Preclinical Research Unit at CENTIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The description of the CENTIS Preclinical Research Unit. It has two purposes: Quality assurance system, and the Accreditation facing current national and international standards according with the competent authority

  18. Animal Health and Productivity Status of Cattle After The Eruption of Mount Merapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Merapi from October 26th to November 6th, 2010 has affected social life and environment around the Merapi. The eruption has caused destruction of land and water resources, plants, death of animals and human casualities. The lava, dust and stones released from the eruption of Merapi had caused residential destruction, casualities, agricultural land and plants destruction, and contamination of water. The eruption has directly affected 4 districts including Sleman (Yogyakarta, Magelang, Boyolali and Klaten (Central Java categorized as Disaster Risk Area (DRA. The purpose of this assessment is to analyse the impacts of Merapi eruption in animal health and productivity in particular for dairy and beef cattle. A total of 2.828 heads of cattle was reported died during the eruption of Merapi, and 1.962 heads died at the time of eruption and 36 heads at the arrival on evacuation areas. Animal that found died including 423 heads of beef cattle (0.13% and 2.405 heads of dairy cattle (3.2%. Clinical sains noted after the eruption were reduction of milk production, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, respiratory disturbances, mastitis and collapse. The main problems for livestock were reduction of milk production, collapse of dairy milk corporation activities and contamination of water resources. Other than dairy cattle mortality, the reduction of milk production may be caused by subclinical mastitis and environmental distress due to temperature and noise of eruption for few days. The subclinical mastitis should be further investigated to establish rehabilitation programme for dairy milk agribussiness activity in particular around the DRA of Merapi.

  19. 75 FR 24394 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... medicated article was voluntarily withdrawn (60 FR 37651, July 21, 1995) and approved conditions of use for... NADA 45-738, were removed (60 FR 39847, July 21, 1995). At this time, the tolerances for residues of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 556 and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and...

  20. Efforts to slacken antibiotic resistance: Labeling meat products from animals raised without antibiotics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J

    2016-09-01

    As bacteria and diseases spread due to climatic change, greater amounts of antibiotics will be used thereby exacerbating the problem of antibiotic resistance. To help slacken the development of resistant bacteria, the medical community is attempting to reduce unnecessary and excessive usage of antibiotics. One of the targets is the use of antibiotics for enhancing animal growth and promoting feed efficiency in the production of food animals. While governments can adopt regulations prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals and strategies to reduce antibiotic usage, another idea is to publicize when antibiotics are used in food animal production by allowing labeled meat products. This paper builds upon existing labeling and marketing efforts in the United States to show how a government can develop a verified antibiotic-free labeling program that would allow consumers to purchase meat products from animals that had never received antibiotics. PMID:27236477

  1. Studies on chicks fed irradiated animal protein by-products. Pt. 2. Biochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilali, E.A.; El-Hakeim, N.F. (El-Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Animal Production); Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.; Diaa El-Din, M.; Farag, H. (National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-01-01

    In three separate 9-weeks experiments, broiler chicks were supplemented with either unirradiated or irradiated (10 Gy) animal protein by-products. Irradiated blood meal induced insignificant changes in total plasma protein, albumin, globuline or A/G ratio during the 5th and 7th week of age. A decrease in total plasma protein was remarked by the 9th week. This trend was observed with fish meal. Irradiated meat-bone meal caused slight changes in total plasma protein by the 5th week. Chicks fed on irradiated animal protein byproducts did not affect blood transaminases level which reveal no impairment in liver function and/or myocardial infarction. Also, blood uric acid concentration, creatine and creatinine indicate that the experimental chicks neither suffered degenerative diseases in skeletal muscles nor renal function injury. (orig.).

  2. Genetic opportunities to enhance sustainability of pork production in developing countries: A model for food animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently there is a shortage of food and potable water in many developing countries. Superimposed upon this critical situation, because of the increasing urban wealth in these countries, there is a strong trend of increased consumption of meat, and pork in particular. The consequence of this trend will be increased agricultural pollution, resulting not only from greater use of chemical fertilizer, but also from manure spread on land as fertilizer that may enter freshwater and marine ecosystems causing extensive eutrophication and decreased water quality. The application of transgenic technologies to improve the digestive efficiency and survival of food animals, and simultaneously decreasing their environmental impact is seen as an opportunity to enhance sustainability of animal agriculture without continued capital inputs. Transgenes expressed in pigs that have potential include, for example, genes coding for phytase, lactalbumin and lactoferrin. At the University of Guelph, Escherichia coli phytase has been expressed in the salivary glands of the pig. Selected lines of these pigs utilize plant phytate phosphorus efficiently as a source of phosphorus and excrete faecal material with more than a 60 percent reduction in phosphorus content. Because of their capacity to utilize plant phytate phosphorus and to produce less polluting manure they have a valuable trait that will contribute to enhanced sustainability of pork production in developing countries, where there is less access to either high quality phosphate supplement or phytase enzyme to include in the diet. Issues that require continued consideration as a prelude to the introduction of transgenic animals into developing countries include food and environmental safety, and consumer acceptance of meat products from genetically modified animals. (author)

  3. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  4. Comparative sensory analysis of products with low animal fat meat compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia DIMA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Public concern for a healthy diet led to significant changes in the approach to food composition and nutritional principles by specialists in nutrition processed foods. In recent years researches in the meat industry were aimed at replacing animal fats with vegetable fats (oils, rich in essential fatty acids mono-and polyunsaturated. It was found that the existence of equilibrium in the human diet is some correlations between macronutrients and biologically active substances in food, which ensures the normal functioning of the body. In these experiment we observed how it was affected the sensory quality of compositions of chicken mincemeat in which the fat was gradually replaced by vegetable oil, sunflower oil, canola oil and walnut oil. In parallel the color parameters (CIELAB method of the low fat meat compositions were analyzed to determine how the animal fat replacement procedure affects the color of chicken minced. Sensory acceptability of the products was medium for the compositions in which the replacement of fat with oils was up to 60%, the best results being recorded for sunflower oil. The brightness value initially increased, but color parameters decreased, and acceptability of products decreased with increasing of oil amount. The correlation between the two types of measurements led to clear conclusions regarding the consumers’ acceptability of these products, obtained by adding varying amounts of oils.

  5. Quantifying the transfer of radionuclides to food products from domestic farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Databases have been compiled to derive parameter values relevant to the transfer of radionuclides from feedstuffs to domestic animal products to provide a revision to the IAEA Handbook on transfer parameters TRS 364. Significant new data inputs have been incorporated into the databases from an extensive review of Russian language information and inclusion of data published since the early 1990s. Fractional gastrointestinal absorption in adult ruminants presented in the revised handbook are generally similar to those recommended for adult humans by the ICRP. Transfer coefficient values are presented in the handbook for a range of radionuclides to farm animal products. For most animal products, transfer coefficient values for elements additional to those in TRS 364 are provided although many data gaps remain. Transfer coefficients generally vary between species with larger species having lower values than smaller species. It has been suggested that the difference is partly due to the inclusion of dietary dry matter intake in the estimation of transfer coefficient and that whilst dietary intake increases with size nutrient concentrations do not. An alternative approach to quantifying transfer by using concentration ratios (CR), which do not consider dietary intake, has been evaluated. CR values compiled for the handbook vary considerably less between species than transfer coefficient values. The advantage of the CR approach is that values derived for one species could be applied to species for which there are no data. However, transfer coefficients will continue to be used as few studies currently report CR values or give data from which they can be estimated.

  6. Safety assessment of biotechnology used in animal production, including genetically modified (GM) feed and GM animals - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kleter, G.A.; Kok, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the large-scale commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the mid-nineties, it has continuously increased. This has occurred in particular in non-European countries from which these crops may be exported as commodities to Europe and other markets. Before genetically modified organisms (GMO) are allowed onto the market as animal feed and/or food, they have to undergo a regulatory safety assessment as required by the law in many nations, including that ...

  7. Model for transfer of cesium and strontium to domestic animal products as a consequence of accidental deposition on ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study the contamination of domestic animal products (milk, beef, pork) and grain is predicted applying a compartment model approach to simulate the dynamic behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere after an accidental atmospheric deposition. Further, the radionuclide intakes into human body by consumption of the contaminated domestic animal products and the arising internal doses, are studied. The contamination of domestic animal products and grain are predicted by considering three representative deposition cases. The considered deposition timepoints are: spring (1st of May), summer (1st of July) and autumn (1st of September). The nuclides considered are 137Cs, 134Cs and 90Sr. (18 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.)

  8. Animal health and welfare in production systems for organic fattening pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Kristina; Bochicchio, Davide; Hegelund, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    respiratory problems, skin lesions (including abscesses and hernias) and tail wounds compared to conventional pigs. On the other hand, remarks because of joint lesions and white spot livers were more common among organic pigs. The risk of parasitic infections in organic fattening pigs has been confirmed...... and aggression. Minimizing negative environmental impact may conflict with animal welfare, i.e. raising the pigs indoors may not only reduce plant nutrient losses but also reduce the pigs’ activity options. With an increasing number of specialized organic units, implementation of age-segregated production...

  9. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; R. A. Goldbohm

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58 279 men aged 55–69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 642 prostate cancer cases were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer ...

  10. The impact of information on consumer preferences for different animal food production methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal food production and to study how preferences are influenced by information. To do this, we carried out a choice experiment. In the analysis, we focus on chickens reared indoors and outdoors and chicken labelled...... campylobacter had both positive and negative effects on respondents' WTP. The highest increase in WTP for campylobacter-free labelled chicken was found for one of the high risk groups, individuals with poor kitchen hygiene....

  11. Safety Evaluations Under the Proposed US Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013 : Animal Use and Cost Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Jean; Rovida, Costanza

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013 calls for a new evaluation program for cosmetic ingredients in the US, with the new assessments initially dependent on expanded animal testing. This paper considers possible testing scenarios under the proposed Act and estimates the number of test animals and cost under each scenario. It focuses on the impact for the first 10 years of testing, the period of greatest impact on animals and costs. The analysis suggests the first ...

  12. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Jolien B.; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J.; Faulkner, Catherine L.; Moorby, Jon M.; Perdok, Hink B.; Newbold, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; Pmethane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations. PMID:26509835

  13. Diet authentication in sheep from the composition of animal tissues and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Prache

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an increased consumer demand for information on herbivore production factors, particularly animal diet. To meet these demands, producers and commercial entities develop specifications via quality certifications. There is therefore a need for analytical tools that may guarantee that the specification commitments have been fully met or to help with constructing them. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning diet authentication in sheep meat and milk, the different approaches that have been investigated, some leading examples concerning the discrimination of contrasting feeding situations, together with the persistence of some diet markers in the event of changes in animals' diet. The nature of the diet strongly influences the composition of the animal tissues and products, which is due to specific compounds that are directly transferred from the feed to the end product or that are transformed or produced by rumen micro-organisms or the animal's metabolism under the effect of specific diets. Some of these compounds can therefore be used as diet markers. Compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, volatile compounds and ratios of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope are potential tracers in meat and milk or animal tissues of animal feeding diets. Moreover, differences in meat and milk composition induce differences in their optical properties, and therefore in their spectral features, which can also be used for diet authentication. These techniques have already allowed discrimination among products obtained in contrasting feeding conditions. Intermediate situations, for example in case of modification of the animal's diet, may be less easily recognized and may require a combination of tracing methods. In particular, the persistence of tracers when animals are stall-fed a concentrate-based diet after pasture and its implications for traceability are discussed. Finally

  14. Dietary Maillard reaction products and their fermented products reduce cardiovascular risk in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N S; Park, M R; Lee, K W; Kim, S H; Kim, Y

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) and MRP fermented by lactic acid bacteria on antioxidants and their enhancement of cardiovascular health in ICR mouse and rat models. In previous in vitro studies, the selected lactic acid bacteria were shown to significantly affect the activity of MRP. The expression of genes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) related to antioxidant activity was upregulated by Maillard-reacted sodium caseinate (cMRP), and cMRP fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum H9 (F-cMRP) synergistically increased the expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase when compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. Bleeding time, the assay for determination of antithrombotic activity, was significantly prolonged by Maillard-reacted whey protein concentration (wMRP) and wMRP fermented by Lactobacillus gasseri H10 (F-wMRP), similar to the bleeding time of the aspirin group (positive control). In addition, the acute pulmonary thromboembolism-induced mice overcame severe body paralysis or death in both the wMRP and the F-wMRP groups. In the serum-level experiment, cMRP and F-cMRP significantly reduced the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and triglycerides but had only a slight effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase also declined in the cMRP and F-cMRP intake groups compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. In particular, F-cMRP showed the highest reducing effects on triglycerides, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Moreover, the expression of cholesterol-related genes in the F-cMRP group demonstrated greater effects than for the cMRP group in the level of cholesterol 7 α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), and low-density lipoprotein receptors compared with the high-cholesterol-diet group. The protective role of cMRP and F-cMRP in the high

  15. Nutritional strategies to combat Salmonella in mono-gastric food animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, A C; Wierup, M

    2012-04-01

    Nutritional strategies to minimize Salmonella in food animal production are one of the key components in producing safer food. The current European approach is to use a farm-to-fork strategy, where each sector must implement measures to minimize and reduce Salmonella contamination. In the pre-harvest phase, this means that all available tools need to be used such as implementation of biosecurity measures, control of Salmonella infections in animals at the farm as well as in transport and trade, optimal housing and management including cleaning, disinfection procedures as well as efforts to achieve Salmonella-free feed production. This paper describes some nutritional strategies that could be used in farm control programmes in the major mono-gastric food production animals: poultry and pigs. Initially, it is important to prevent the introduction of Salmonella onto the farm through Salmonella-contaminated feed and this risk is reduced through heat treatment and the use of organic acids and their salts and formaldehyde. Microbiological sampling and monitoring for Salmonella in the feed mills is required to minimize the introduction of Salmonella via feed onto the farm. In addition, feed withdrawal may create a stressful situation in animals, resulting in an increase in Salmonella shedding. Physical feed characteristics such as coarse-ground meal to pigs can delay gastric emptying, thereby increasing the acidity of the gut and thus reducing the possible prevalence of Salmonella. Coarse-ground grains and access to litter have also been shown to decrease Salmonella shedding in poultry. The feed can also modify the gastro-intestinal tract microflora and influence the immune system, which can minimize Salmonella colonization and shedding. Feed additives, such as organic acids, short- and medium-chain fatty acids, probiotics, including competitive exclusion cultures, prebiotics and certain specific carbohydrates, such as mannan-based compounds, egg proteins, essential oils

  16. Animal versus human oral drug bioavailability: Do they correlate?

    OpenAIRE

    Musther, Helen; Olivares-Morales, Andrés; Hatley, Oliver J. D.; Liu, Bo; Rostami Hodjegan, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Oral bioavailability is a key consideration in development of drug products, and the use of preclinical species in predicting bioavailability in human has long been debated. In order to clarify whether any correlation between human and animal bioavailability exist, an extensive analysis of the published literature data was conducted. Due to the complex nature of bioavailability calculations inclusion criteria were applied to ensure integrity of the data. A database of 184 compounds was assemb...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  18. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, C. H.; Triolo, J. M.; Cu, T. T. T.; Pedersen, L.; Sommer, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4) production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) (CH4 NL kg−1 VS) of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05). The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP) was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr) for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%), while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR) varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM) were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC). This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC. PMID:25049861

  19. Validation and recommendation of methods to measure biogas production potential of animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, C H; Triolo, J M; Cu, T T T; Pedersen, L; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4) production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) (CH4 NL kg(-1) VS) of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05). The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP) was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr) for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%), while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR) varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM) were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC). This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC. PMID:25049861

  20. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea. PMID:27433102

  1. A methodology for optimisation of countermeasures for animal products after a nuclear accident and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for the optimisation of the countermeasures associated with the contamination of animal products was designed based on cost-benefit analysis. Results are discussed for the hypothetical deposition of radionuclides on 15 August, when pastures are fully developed in Korean agricultural conditions. A dynamic food chain model, DYNACON, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the countermeasures for reducing the ingestion dose. The countermeasures considered were: (1) a ban on food consumption; and (2) the substitution of clean fodder. These are effective in reducing the ingestion dose as well as simple and easy to carry out in the first year after deposition. The net benefit of the countermeasures was quantitatively estimated in terms of avertable doses and monetary costs. The benefit depends on a variety of factors, such as radionuclide concentrations on the ground, starting time and duration of the countermeasures. It is obvious that a fast reaction after deposition is important in maximising the cost effectiveness of the countermeasures. In most cases, the substitution of clean fodder is more cost effective than a ban on food consumption. The methodology used in this study may serve as a basis for rapid decision-making on the introduction of countermeasures relating to the contamination of animal products after a nuclear accident

  2. The Pig PeptideAtlas: A resource for systems biology in animal production and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselager, Marianne O; Codrea, Marius C; Sun, Zhi; Deutsch, Eric W; Bennike, Tue B; Stensballe, Allan; Bundgaard, Louise; Moritz, Robert L; Bendixen, Emøke

    2016-02-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within the veterinary proteomics domain, and this article demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM assays, which are equally important for progress in research that supports farm animal production and veterinary health, as for developing pig models with relevance to human health research. PMID:26699206

  3. High-level production of animal-free recombinant transferrin from saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg Hans

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal-free recombinant proteins provide a safe and effective alternative to tissue or serum-derived products for both therapeutic and biomanufacturing applications. While recombinant insulin and albumin already exist to replace their human counterparts in cell culture media, until recently there has been no equivalent for serum transferrin. Results The first microbial system for the high-level secretion of a recombinant transferrin (rTf has been developed from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originally engineered for the commercial production of recombinant human albumin (Novozymes' Recombumin® USP-NF and albumin fusion proteins (Novozymes' albufuse®. A full-length non-N-linked glycosylated rTf was secreted at levels around ten-fold higher than from commonly used laboratory strains. Modification of the yeast 2 μm-based expression vector to allow overexpression of the ER chaperone, protein disulphide isomerase, further increased the secretion of rTf approximately twelve-fold in high cell density fermentation. The rTf produced was functionally equivalent to plasma-derived transferrin. Conclusions A Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system has enabled the cGMP manufacture of an animal-free rTf for industrial cell culture application without the risk of prion and viral contamination, and provides a high-quality platform for the development of transferrin-based therapeutics.

  4. Use of biodiesel co-products (Glycerol as alternative sources of energy in animal nutrition: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VO Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent surge in the use of biodiesel in Brazil and abroad, coupled with the availability of large amounts of glycerol, are generating interest in the use of this co-product in several ways, such as its use in animal feed. The use of glycerol in the formulation of diets caused immediate interest to obtain a highly efficient energy rich product to use in animal production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the use of glycerol resulting from biodiesel production as an energy supplement in animal feed, as well as establishing appropriate protocols for each species based on previous studies. Most of them using pigs, cows, bulls, sheep, laying hens and broilers. It was possible to infer from these studies that glycerol was a food ingredient suitable for replacement in diets of different animal species.

  5. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kleen, Joachim L; Atkinson, Owen; Noordhuizen, Jos PTM

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production anima...

  6. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kleen Joachim L; Atkinson Owen; Noordhuizen Jos PTM

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in product...

  7. Preclinical models in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the incidence of cancer continues to rise, the use of radiotherapy has emerged as a leading treatment modality. Preclinical models in radiation oncology are essential tools for cancer research and therapeutics. Various model systems have been used to test radiation therapy, including in vitro cell culture assays as well as in vivo ectopic and orthotopic xenograft models. This review aims to describe such models, their advantages and disadvantages, particularly as they have been employed in the discovery of molecular targets for tumor radiosensitization. Ultimately, any model system must be judged by its utility in developing more effective cancer therapies, which is in turn dependent on its ability to simulate the biology of tumors as they exist in situ. Although every model has its limitations, each has played a significant role in preclinical testing. Continued advances in preclinical models will allow for the identification and application of targets for radiation in the clinic

  8. Gene-based vaccine development for improving animal production in developing countries. Possibilities and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For vaccine production, recombinant antigens must be protective. Identifying protective antigens or candidate antigens is an essential precursor to vaccine development. Even when a protective antigen has been identified, cloning of its gene does not lead directly to vaccine development. The fimbrial protein of Dichelobacter nodosus, the agent of foot-rot in ruminants, was known to be protective. Recombinant vaccines against this infection are ineffective if expressed protein subunits are not assembled as mature fimbriae. Antigenic competition between different, but closely related, recombinant antigens limited the use of multivalent vaccines based on this technology. Recombinant antigens may need adjuvants to enhance response. DNA vaccines, potentiated with genes for different cytokines, may replace the need for aggressive adjuvants, and especially where cellular immunity is essential for protection. The expression of antigens from animal pathogens in plants and the demonstration of some immunity to a disease like rinderpest after ingestion of these, suggests an alternative approach to vaccination by injection. Research on disease pathogenesis and the identification of candidate antigens is specific to the disease agent. The definition of expression systems and the formulation of a vaccine for each disease must be followed by research to establish safety and efficacy. Where vaccines are based on unique gene sequences, the intellectual property is likely to be protected by patent. Organizations, licensed to produce recombinant vaccines, expect to recover their costs and to make a profit. The consequence is that genetically-derived vaccines are expensive. The capacity of vaccines to help animal owners of poorer countries depends not only on quality and cost but also on the veterinary infrastructure where they are used. Ensuring the existence of an effective animal health infrastructure in developing countries is as great a challenge for the developed world as

  9. Historic role of nuclear techniques in solving problems of animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reflecting on the role nuclear techniques have played in resolving the needs of developing country livestock keepers I have taken a slightly different approach to previous presentations in this area. I will view developments to date from the perspective of the user and beneficiary of such new knowledge. The paper will also attempt to put the work of the Animal Production and Health Section (APHS) into historical context, thus giving its future strategy a place in the development marathon. Efforts to assess the value of previous investments in nuclear techniques for the benefit of livestock farmers have been few and far between. Most of the earlier work focused on the contribution to new knowledge - the elaboration of metabolic pathways, unravelling the complexity of disease transmission or understanding the endocrine system feedbacks in relation to reproductive and metabolic hormones. Hence the products originally had more intellectual than economic/practical values. It is only relatively recently (last 20-30 years) that the more applied consequences of such knowledge have been used to help resolve some of the difficult problems facing third-world animal agriculture. This paper elaborates some of the past and present successes and future challenges in: Nutrition and feeding -from the use of isotopes (deuterium) in the investigation of metabolism in the rat in the 1930s to the use of stable (N15) and radio-isotopes (P32 and S35) in assessing new diet formulations and feeding standards for livestock in marginal environments. New 'political' targets in Africa to increase livestock productivity by 6% per annum provide new challenges to the livestock feed sector - for which the foregoing technologies are uniquely placed to address. Reproduction - from the use of competitive protein-binding assays (based on 3H) for various steroid and protein hormones to the use of rapid (I125 based) radioimmunoassay kits for quantifying progesterone levels -and thereby to detect

  10. Gene-based vaccine development for improving animal production in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The cloning and expression of microbial genes in alternate hosts to enhance production of antigens for animal vaccines against all disease is theoretically achievable. It is essential, however, that antigens expressed in this way are known to be protective. Many years of costly research usually precedes the identification of such antigens or combinations of antigens. Thus, while conventional vaccines based on living, attenuated or inactivated microorganisms may be effective, the protective components contained in them i.e. the candidates for cloning, have yet to be found. The principal protective antigen in vaccines against foot rot of sheep and goats is fimbrial protein of Dichelobacter nodosus. Recombinant vaccines against this infection are ineffective if the protein subunits are not assembled and presented to the host in a manner morphologically indistinguishable from those of the natural fimbriae. Availability of recombinant antigen does not necessarily avoid the need for the use of adjuvants to potentiate response. Oil emulsion vaccines, while enhancing immune response, almost inevitably cause a marked reaction at the site of injection. Livestock owners in developing countries are as likely as those elsewhere to object to these reactions. The need to find an acceptable and effective formulation adds to the cost of recombinant vaccines and their application in countries with limited resources for disease control. Another costly feature of recombinant vaccines has been the patenting of processes involving gene technology and licencing agreements for production under the protection of these patents. In some systems antigenic competition between similar and disparate antigens limits the usefulness of even recombinant antigens that, administered individually, are highly potent. In the case of programs for the control and eventual eradication of footrot in sheep and goats in Nepal this problem was overcome by the prior identification of causal serotypes

  11. Growing duckweed to recover nutrients from wastewaters and for production of fuel ethanol and animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jay J. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Stomp, Anne M. [Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Lemnaceae or duckweed is an aquatic plant that can be used to recover nutrients from wastewaters. The grown duckweed can be a good resource of proteins and starch, and utilized for the production of value-added products such as animal feed and fuel ethanol. In the last eleven years we have been working on growing duckweed on anaerobically treated swine wastewater and utilizing the duckweed for fuel ethanol production. Duckweed strains that grew well on the swine wastewater were screened in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The selected duckweed strains were then tested for nutrient recovery under laboratory and field conditions. The rates of nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by the duckweed growing in the laboratory and field systems were determined in the study. The mechanisms of nutrient uptake by the duckweed and the growth of duckweed in a nutrient-limited environment have been studied. When there are nutrients (N and P) available in the wastewater, duckweed takes the nutrients from the wastewater to support its growth and to store the nutrients in its tissue. When the N and P are completely removed from the wastewater, duckweed can use its internally stored nutrients to keep its growth for a significant period of time. A modified Monod model has been developed to describe nitrogen transport in a duckweed-covered pond for nutrient recovery from anaerobically treated swine wastewater. Nutrient reserve in the duckweed biomass has been found the key to the kinetics of duckweed growth. Utilization of duckweed for value-added products has a good potential. Using duckweed to feed animals, poultry, and fish has been extensively studied with promising results. Duckweed is also an alternative starch source for fuel ethanol production. Spirodela polyrrhiza grown on anaerobically treated swine wastewater was found to have a starch content of 45.8% (dry weight). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the duckweed biomass with amylases yielded a hydrolysate with a reducing sugar content

  12. Quantitative modeling of the Water Footprint and Energy Content of Crop and Animal Products Consumption in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    felichesmi Selestine lyakurwa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of the link between water footprint and energy content of crop and animal products is vitally important for the sound management of water resources. In this study, we developed a mathematical relationship between water content, and energy content of many crops and animal products by using an improved LCA approach (water footprint. The standard values of the water and energy contents of crops and animal products were obtained from the databases of Agricultural Research Service, UNESCO Institute for water education and Food, and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The water footprint approach was applied to analyze the relationship between water requirement and energy of content of crop and animal products, in which the uncertainty and sensitivity was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation technique that is contained in the Oracle Crystal Ball Fusion Edition v11.1.1.3.00. The results revealed significant water saving due to changes in food consumption pattern i.e. from consumption of more meat to vegetables. The production of 1kcal of crop and animal products requires about 98% of green, 4.8% blue water and 0.4% of gray water. In which changes in consumption pattern gave annual blue water saving of about 1605 Mm3 that is equivalent to 41.30m3/capita, extremely greater than the standard drinking water requirement for the whole population. Moreover, the projected results indicated, triple increase of dietary water requirement from 30.9 Mm3 in 2005 to 108 Mm3 by 2050. It was also inferred that, Tanzania has a positive virtual water balance of crop and animal products consumption with net virtual water import of 9.1 Mm3 that is the contribution margin to the water scarcity alleviation strategy. Therefore, developed relationship of water footprint and energy content of crops and animal products can be used by water resource experts for sustainable freshwater and food supply.

  13. Presence of nitrate NO 3 a ects animal production, photocalysis is a possible solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Molina, Heli; Barba-Ortega, J.; Joya, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Farmers and ranchers depend on the successful combination of livestock and crops. However, they have lost in the production by nitrate pollution. Nitrate poisoning in cattle is caused by the consumption of an excessive amount of nitrate or nitrite from grazing or water. Both humans and livestock can be affected. It would appear that well fertilised pasture seems to take up nitrogen from the soil and store it as nitrate in the leaf. Climatic conditions, favour the uptake of nitrate. Nitrate poisoning is a noninfectious disease condition that affects domestic ruminants. It is a serious problem, often resulting in the death of many animals. When nitrogen fertilizers are used to enrich soils, nitrates may be carried by rain, irrigation and other surface waters through the soil into ground water. Human and animal wastes can also contribute to nitrate contamination of ground water. A possible method to decontaminate polluted water by nitrates is with methods of fabrication of zero valent iron nanoparticles (FeNps) are found to affect their efficiency in nitrate removal from water.

  14. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products. PMID:27109117

  15. Wholesomeness and toxicological safety of irradiated animal feed by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the wholesomeness and toxicological safety of irradiated animal feed by-products after eliminating the pathogenic microorganisms by using gamma irradiation. Five groups of Dokki-4 chicks each group consists of 60 one-day old cockerels were fed for 24 weeks on a ration containing irradiated fish, meat, and blood meals by dose level 0.5, 10.0, 20.0, and 50,0 KGY for 24 weeks. The ratio of animal proteins to the total protein of ration fed was 56% for non-irradiated or irradiated meals. The effects of consumption of irradiated meals on live body weight and internal organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys) were studied. The observation gave an indication that body weight of all group as well as organs weight were normal and similar for the control group. Also, there was no clinically significant differences among the groups regarding red and white blood cells counts, haemoglobin contents, haematocrite value, and ESR for all groups. The results also showed no differences in total plasma protein, alkaline phosphatase activity and plasma Na, K, Mg, and Zn ions between the five groups studied

  16. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM PASTAGEM DE MILHETO SOB DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE NITROGÊNIO ANIMAL PRODUCTION IN PEARL MILLET PASTURE UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO LONDERO MOOJEN

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em área da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos de três níveis de adubação nitrogenada (0, 150 e 300 kg/ha de N em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke cv. Comum, sobre a produção animal. Foram utilizados novilhos de corte e avaliados o desempenho por animal, o número de animais.dia/ha e o ganho de peso vivo por área. O sistema de pastejo adotado foi o contínuo, com ajustes de carga para manter uma pressão de pastejo de 10%, caracterizando um resíduo médio de 3.168 kg de matéria seca/ha. As variáveis dependentes mostraram relação linear positiva com os níveis de adubação nitrogenada, o que denota o alto potencial do milheto.An experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effects of three N levels (0, 150 and 300 kg/ha, in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke cv. Comum, on animal production. Beef steers were assayed through daily liveweigh gain, gain per hectare and animals.day/hectare. A continuous grazing system was used, with stocking rate adjustments to maintain a 10% grazing pressure that characterized a medium residue of 3,168 kg of DM/ha. The dependent variables showed a positive linear relationship with the N levels, denoting the high animal production potential of pearl millet.

  17. [Analysis of spinosad in animal and fishery products by LC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Eiji; Ohno, Haruka; Watanabe, Minae; Oshima, Harumi; Mikami, Eiichi; Nemoto, Satoru; Matsuda, Rieko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the determination of spinosyn A and spinosyn D, the active ingredients of spinosad, in animal and fishery products by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The sample was homogenized with 1 mol/L dipotassium hydrogenphosphate aqueous solution and extracted with acetone-n-hexane under mildly alkaline conditions. After n-hexane-acetonitrile partitioning using an EXtrelut(®) column, the extract was cleaned up on a tandem SAX/PSA mini-column, and examined by means of fragmenter-voltage-switching ESI-SIM mode LC-MS. Mean recoveries (n=5) of spinosyn A and spinosyn D from eleven kinds of fortified samples at the analyte concentration of 0.01 µg/g and 0.05 µg/g ranged from 76.1% to 93.8% (RSD≤8.7%) and from 75.1% to 104.1% (RSD≤8.6%), respectively. PMID:22200799

  18. Reform in Teaching Preclinical Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Yu; Li, Kun; Yao, Hong; Xu, Xiao-Juan; Cai, Qiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Pathophysiology is a scientific discipline that studies the onset and progression of pathological conditions and diseases, and pathophysiology is one of the core courses in most preclinical medical curricula. In China, most medical schools house a Department of Pathophysiology, in contrast to medical schools in many developed countries. The staff…

  19. How to assess the mutagenic potential of cosmetic products without animal tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speit, Günter

    2009-08-01

    Animal experiments (in vivo tests) currently play a key role in genotoxicity testing. Results from in vivo tests are, in many cases, decisive for the assessment of a mutagenic potential of a test compound. The Seventh Amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive will, however, ban the European marketing of cosmetic/personal care products that contain ingredients that have been tested in animal experiments. If genotoxicity testing is solely based on the currently established in vitro tests, the attrition rate for chemicals used in cosmetic products will greatly increase due to irrelevant positive in vitro test results. There is urgent need for new and/or improved in vitro genotoxicity tests and for modified test strategies. Test strategies should consider all available information on chemistry of the test substance/the chemical class (e.g. SAR, metabolic activation and dermal adsorption). Test protocols for in vitro genotoxicity tests should be sensitive and robust enough to ensure that negative results can be accepted with confidence. It should be excluded that positive in vitro test results are due to high cytotoxicity or secondary genotoxic effects which may be thresholded and/or only occur under in vitro test conditions. Consequently, further research is needed to establish the nature of thresholds in in vitro assays and to determine the potential for incorporation of mode of action data into future risk assessments. New/improved tests have to be established and validated, considering the use of (metabolically competent) primary (skin) cells, 3D skin models and cells with defined capacity for metabolic activation (e.g. genetically engineered cell lines). The sensitivity and specificity of new and improved genotoxicity tests has to be determined by testing a battery of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals. New or adapted international guidelines will be needed for these tests. The establishment of such a new genotoxicity testing strategy will take time and the

  20. Application of near infrared spectroscopy to improve animal production in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an analytical technique measuring light absorption in the 780-2 500 nm region which is closely related to important chemical bonds (OH, NH and CH). NIR can be used to measure many nutritionally important constituents of concentrate and forage feeds, and from NIR spectra of faeces (i.e. dung) many constituents of the diet of grazing livestock. NIR depends on the development, in representative sets of samples, of mathematical relationships (calibration equations) between spectra and the constituents or attributes measured by conventional chemistry, and then application of these calibrations to estimate the constituents in unknown samples. These NIR calibration equations tend to be specific to the circumstances of the data used for their development. Application of NIR technology to livestock nutrition allows rapid, routine and economical analysis of feedstuffs and ingredients for compounded diets or supplements, thus improving stockfeed manufacture. Also NIR analysis of faeces allows estimation of the diet selected by grazing livestock and in small holder farming systems; this is not possible with any other technology. However, NIR instrumentation requires substantial capital investment, and considerable technical skills are required to develop and maintain calibration equations. Application of NIR technology allows established knowledge of the science of animal nutrition to be readily and objectively applied to improve productivity and cost-effectiveness of livestock production systems. Widespread use of this technology in developing countries would greatly improve quality control in manufacturing livestock feeds and application of existing nutritional knowledge to increase productivity and cost-effectiveness of livestock production. (author)

  1. Mass cultivation of microalgae on animal wastewater: a sequential two-stage cultivation process for energy crop and omega-3-rich animal feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenguang; Hu, Bing; Li, Yecong; Min, Min; Mohr, Michael; Du, Zhenyi; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2012-09-01

    In this study, 97 microalgal strains purchased from algae bank and 50 microalgal strains isolated from local waters in Minnesota were screened for their adaptability growing on a 20-fold diluted digested swine manure wastewater (DSMW). A pool of candidate strains well adapted to the DSMW was established through a high-throughput screening process. Two top-performing facultative heterotrophic strains with high growth rate (0.536 day(-1) for UMN 271 and 0.433 day(-1) for UMN 231) and one strain with high omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid (EPA, 3.75 % of total fatty acids for UMN 231) were selected. Subsequently, a sequential two-stage mixo-photoautotrophic culture strategy was developed for biofuel and animal feed production as well as simultaneous swine wastewater treatment using above two strains. The maximal biomass concentration and lipid content at the first and second stages reached 2.03 g/L and 23.0 %, and 0.83 g/L and 19.0 % for UMN 271 and UMN 231, respectively. The maximal nutrient removals for total phosphorus and ammonia after second-stage cultivation were 100 and 89.46 %, respectively. The experiments showed that this sequential two-stage cultivation process has great potential for economically viable and environmentally friendly production of both renewable biofuel and high-value animal feed and at the same time for animal wastewater treatment. PMID:22798164

  2. Preclinical testing for teratogenicity and developmental toxicity: methods and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, P C

    2002-01-01

    With regard to the risk of reproductive or developmental toxicity, the regulatory decisions to allow clinical trials in humans or the marketing of a new drug are based almost entirely on animal data. This is not the case for other types of toxicity for which the preclinical data are supported by data from clinical trials. Whilst animal studies have been remarkably successful in the detection of reproductive toxicology over the last 40 years, they are not infallible. The efficacy of animal experimentation is largely dependent on the selection of appropriate animal models. Progress in the study of teratogenic mechanisms, comparative physiology, developmental biology and pharmacokinetics will hopefully continue to bring about more economical and effective uses of animals. Nevertheless, owing to the limitations of animal models, the monitoring of human births unfortunately remains an essential defence in the detection and early prevention of chemical-induced birth defects. PMID:12185956

  3. 78 FR 70307 - Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy... and Gene Therapies (OCTGT). The product areas covered by this guidance are cellular therapy,...

  4. ANIMAL WELFARE AS AN ELEMENT OF RETARDATION REVERSING THE TRANSFORMATION OF RESOURCES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz R. Mroczek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animals well-being today is a sign of the progressing civilization of humanity. This ethical and philosophical concept is strongly linked with and makes reference to empathy for animals used by human beings. Situating the welfare in the area of connected action is a purpose of the work from retardation. The welfare is determined as the medical condition of the physical and psychological animal achieved in optimal conditions of the farm environment. This system meets the basic needs of breeding animals, especially in the field: nutrition, access to water, ensuring the company of other animals and living space, and treatment. Animal welfare is a significant part of the process of retardation the transformation of resources natural and the most significant element contributing to its growth is the individual person directly involved in taking care of animals. Their duty resulting from ethical standards is to provide protection for animals.

  5. Early Determination of Animals with Favorable Genes in Milk Production for Profitable Private Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela E. Ilie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of dairy industry has been to identify an efficient and economical way of increasing milk production and its constituents without increasing the size of the dairy herd. The use of milk protein polymorphisms as detectable molecular markers has been studied intensively because of their effect on the yield and processing properties of milk and its products. Thus, molecular markers are promising alternative to the current methods of trait selection once these genes are proven to be associated with traits of interest in animals. Kappa-casein (CSN3 and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG are two of the most important proteins in the milk of mammals that play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation, an essential process for cheese and butter. The A and B variant of k-casein and β-lactoglobulin were distinguished by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in 108 Romanian Simmental and 60 Holstein Friesian cattle.

  6. Modeling the dynamics of radionuclide concentration in animal derived products after an accident in tropical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere with the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed to estimate radiological consequences and optimize decisions to the protection of the public. The German model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM - Integrated Emergency System, developed by IRD/CNEN to assess the doses to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The use the model demands a considerable effort in adapting scenarios to fit the specific conditions of a location, considering the differences related to climate, environmental characteristics, agricultural calendar and practices, along with population diet. The area selected to start this adaptation considers the characteristics of the 50 km radius area surrounding the nuclear power plants at Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. At a first stage, the concentration on vegetal food products has been studied. This work describes the methodology used to select scenarios and presents results of the dynamics of the predicted concentration of radionuclides in different kinds of animal derived food products. The work provides guidance to the need of radioecological research needed to improve the adequacy of the estimates to actual Brazilian scenarios. (author)

  7. Mathematical model of adherent Vero cell growth and poliovirus production in animal component free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Ramona V; Thomassen, Yvonne E; van Eikenhorst, Gerco; Verheijen, Peter J T; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2015-03-01

    Sabin-IPV (or sIPV, inactivated polio vaccine based on attenuated Sabin strains) is anticipated to replace the oral polio vaccine for the endgame in polio eradication. Optimization of sIPV production will lead to a better economically feasible vaccine. To assist process optimization, we studied Sabin type 1 poliovirus (PV) infection kinetics on Vero cells in controlled bioreactor vessels. The aim of our study was to develop a descriptive mathematical model able to capture the dynamics of adherent Vero cell growth and PV infection kinetics in animal component free medium. The model predicts the cell density, metabolites profiles, and viral yields in time. We found that the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and the time of infection (TOI) within the investigated range did not affect maximal PV yields, but they did affect the process time. The latter may be reduced by selecting a low TOI and a high MOI. Additionally, we present a correlation between viral titers and D-antigen, a measure for immunogenicity, of Sabin type 1 PV. The developed model is adequate for further studies of the cell metabolism and infection kinetics and may be used to identify control strategies to increase viral productivity. Increased viral yields reduce costs of polio vaccines with large implications on public health. PMID:25294335

  8. Performance analysis of draught animal-implement system to improve productivity and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bobobee, Emmanuel Y. H.

    2007-01-01

    Draught animal technology is a reliable and popular farm power resource in most developing countries. However, despite its growing popularity, animal traction farmers face several constraints such as rapid ploughshare wear, high draught forces and poor design of harnesses and other implements. Also, farmers and researchers have placed little emphasis on the importance of draught animal welfare issues. The main objective of the thesis was to study the performance of draught animal-implement sy...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of Salmonella Rissen from animals, food products, and patients in Thailand and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat;

    2008-01-01

    detected in tetracycline-resistant isolates. Statistical analysis and molecular subtyping identified the combination of travel to Thailand and consumption of imported pig or pork products as well consumption of as pig or pork products produced in Denmark as risk factors for Salmonella Rissen infection...... Rissen isolates recovered from humans, food products, and animals in Denmark and Thailand. Additionally, risk factors due to travel and consumption of specific food products were analyzed and evaluated. A total of 112 Salmonella Rissen isolates were included in this study from Thailand and Denmark. Thai...... isolates were recovered from humans, uncooked food, and ready-to-eat food. Danish isolates were obtained from humans (with and without a history of travel to Thailand prior to the infection), Danish pig or pork products, imported pig or pork products, turkeys, and animal feed. A total of 63 unique Xba...

  10. Completion of the swine genome will simplify the production of swine as a large animal biomedical model

    OpenAIRE

    Walters Eric M; Wolf Eckhard; Whyte Jeffery J; Mao Jiude; Renner Simone; Nagashima Hiroshi; Kobayashi Eiji; Zhao Jianguo; Wells Kevin D; Critser John K; Riley Lela K; Prather Randall S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Anatomic and physiological similarities to the human make swine an excellent large animal model for human health and disease. Methods Cloning from a modified somatic cell, which can be determined in cells prior to making the animal, is the only method available for the production of targeted modifications in swine. Results Since some strains of swine are similar in size to humans, technologies that have been developed for swine can be readily adapted to humans and vice ver...

  11. The application and development of animal SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal SPECT is an important research approach for translating preclinical to clinical study. It has been widely applied in drug development and the researches of physiology and diseases in small animal models. With the rapid progresses of hardware technology and algorithm of image reconstruction, the systemic sensitivity,spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of animal SPECT have been greatly improved. Animal SPECT has great advantages over animal PET with the feasibility of study, the convenience acquisition of radiopharmaceuticals and relative low cost. In a certain period, animal SPECT will still be a main approach for preclinical researches of molecular imaging. (author)

  12. Preparation of a Chicken scFv to Analyze Gentamicin Residue in Animal Derived Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui; He, Jinxin; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoying; Du, Enqi; Li, Xinping

    2016-04-01

    Chicken is an ideal model for simplified recombinant antibody library generation. It has been rarely been reported to apply chicken single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) in immunoassays for the detection of antibiotic and chemical contaminants in animal food products. In this study, the scFvs (S-1 and S-5) were isolated from a phage display library derived from a hyperimmunized chicken. The checker board titration revealed that the optimum concentrations of S-1 and S-5 were 0.78 μg/mL and 0.44 μg/mL respectively, to obtain OD450 around 1.0 at 5 μg/mL of Gent-OVA coating concentration. Both S-1 and S-5 exhibited negligible cross reactivity with kanamycin and amikacin. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of S-1 and S-5 were 12.418 ng/mL and 14.674 ng/mL respectively. In the indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA), the limits of detection for S-1 and S-5 were 0.147 ng/mL and 0.219 ng/mL respectively. The mean recovery for Gent ranged from 60.91% to 118.09% with no more than 10.35% relative standard deviation (RSD) between the intra-assay and the inter-assay. These results indicate the chicken scFv based ic-ELISA method is suitable for the detection of Gent residue in animal derived edible tissues and milk. PMID:26980703

  13. The focus and investigation challenges for influence of animal and plant products downstream from tailing dam SASA

    OpenAIRE

    Mitevska-Georgievska, Vesna; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar; Golomeova, Mirjana; Golomeov, Blagoj; Zajkova-Paneva, Vesna; Danevski, Tome

    2013-01-01

    The current activity in the Sasa mine and flotation of useful galena and sphalerite producing metallic lead and zinc for market, are reason for possible troubles from tailing dam-pond and surrounding river for influence of animal and plant products. Specially for milk, potato, tomato, paprika, lentil, carrot and other product very important for human needs. In this paper will be present results of investigations for heavy metal presence in these products. Statistical analysis and other ...

  14. The impact of increased natural background of soil on the animal production of ruminants in the region of Livno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the impact of increased levels of uranium and radium in soil on the levels of activity and radiation-hygienic validity of animal products of ruminants was investigated. Region around Livno town is placed on coal layer with the increased levels of uranium and radium compared with other coals used in Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a result of mixing between coal matrix and soil, increased value of average absorbed dose rate at 1 m above the ground (144 nGy/h) was measured. The highest average value of 238U and 226Ra in the samples of animal products of ruminants was measured in the samples of sheep cheese (0.070 Bq/kg for 238U and 0.207 Bq/kg for 226Ra). The levels of these two radionuclides in the rest of animal product of ruminants were approximately similar and ranged 0.016–0.046 Bq/kg for 238U and 0.028–0.080 Bq/kg for 226Ra. Levels of 40K were in the range of average values for animal products (31.2–86.4 Bq/kg). Calculated annual effective dose by ingestion of the animal products of ruminants were approximately 0.064 mSv with the highest dose contribution of 40K (96.4%). On the base of obtained results, animal products of ruminants produced in observed region, can be considered as valid for human consumption from radiation- hygienic aspect

  15. Update on the state of play of Animal Health and Welfare and Environmental Impact of Animals derived from SCNT Cloning and their Offspring, and Food Safety of Products Obtained from those Animals

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) received in December 2011, a request from the European Commission for an update on the possible scientific developments for cloning of farmed animals for food production purposes. The present Statement follows the EFSA 2009 and 2010 Statements and the EFSA 2008 Scientific Opinion, and is based on peer reviewed scientific literature published since the EFSA 2010 Statement, information made available to EFSA following a call for data, and discu...

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  17. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category

  18. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  19. Organization of crop and animal production in dairy farms localised in three chosen regions of lubelskie voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Bojarszczuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of organization of crop and animal production in dairy farms localised in three regions in Lubelskie voivodeship was presented in the paper. The data source was questionnaire research. The study was trained in 145 farms. The provided analysis showed that cereals had significantly share in pattern system in tested farms. Researched farms are differentiated of occupied differentiation of cropping pattern and density livestock between farms localised in different regions of Lubelskie voivodeship caused different level of intensity of organization animal and crops production. The differentiation of indicators was especially significant between farms in Krasnystaw and Ryki.

  20. General principles of rating fission products uptake into the body of farm animals and radionuclide concentration [n the forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some principles of establishing norms for the content of main fission products such as Sr89, Sr90, I131 and Cs137 in fodders for farm animals are described. These norms are established on the bases of the norms of radionuclide contents in human foods. It is emphasized that no generally applicable norms of radionuclide contents in the diets of farm animals can be worked out because of the great diversity of possible radiation situations, of geographical zones, and of conditions of agricultural production

  1. PRECLINICAL DRUG TRIALS IN THE mdx MOUSE: ASSESSMENT OF RELIABLE AND SENSITIVE OUTCOME MEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    SPURNEY, CHRISTOPHER F.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Alfredo D Guerron; Sali, Arpana; Gouri S Pandey; Rawat, Rashmi; van der Meulen, Jack H; Cha, Hee-Jae; Pistilli, Emidio E.; Partridge, Terence A.; Hoffman, Eric P; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2009-01-01

    The availability of animal models for Duchenne muscular dystrophy has led to extensive preclinical research on potential therapeutics. Few studies have focused on reliability and sensitivity of endpoints for mdx mouse drug trials. Therefore, we sought to compare a wide variety of reported and novel endpoint measures in exercised mdx and normal control mice at 10, 20, and 40 weeks of age. Statistical analysis as well as power calculations for expected effect sizes in mdx preclinical drug trial...

  2. Preclinical Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo:; María Boffill Cárdenas; Emoe Betancourt Morgado; Raylen Escobar Román; Ignacio Igualada Correa; Bennia Alonso Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Background: finding natural treatments designed to protect the liver from the damaging effects of hepatotoxins is an important topic in medical and pharmaceutical research. Objective: to pre-clinically evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativum L. in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Methods: a preclinical pharmacological study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the species Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium ...

  3. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in swine: implications for animal production and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Astiz, S; Ovilo, C; Lopez-Bote, C J; Torres-Rovira, L; Barbero, A; Ayuso, M; Garcia-Contreras, C; Vazquez-Gomez, M

    2016-07-01

    The concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) addresses, from a large set of epidemiological evidences in human beings and translational studies in animal models, both the importance of genetic predisposition and the determinant role of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on adult morphomics and homeostasis. Compelling evidences suggest that both overnutrition and undernutrition may modify the intrauterine environment of the conceptus and may alter the expression of its genome and therefore its phenotype during prenatal and postnatal life. In fact, the DOHaD concept is an extreme shift in the vision of the factors conditioning adult phenotype and supposes a drastic change from a gene-centric perspective, only modified by lifestyle and nutritional strategies during juvenile development and adulthood, to a more holistic approach in which environmental, parental, and prenatal conditions are strongly determining postnatal development and homeostasis. The implications of DOHaD are profound in all the mammalian species and the present review summarizes current knowledge on causes and consequences of DOHaD in pigs, both for meat production and as a well-recognized model for biomedicine research. PMID:27238437

  4. The Quality of Liquid Fermented Products for Alternative Use of Antibiotics for Animal Raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical properties of liquid fermented products (LFP) as probiotics substance for alternative uses of antibiotic were studied. The LFP of 235 were sampling from markets and farmers during 2005-2006. The total count of bacteria, fungi, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Actinomyces and coliform bacteria were conducted. Chemical analysis of LFP showed medium nitrogen (0.01- 0.55%), maximum sugar contents (0.02 - 19.40%), high lactic acid contents (0.34 - 13.01%) and low pH (2.9-5.0). LFPs were free from fecal coliform and Escherichia coil (Ec); but in LAB (1.0 - 1.25x107 cfu/ml) and high Actinomyces (1.0 - 7.5 x 106 cfu/ml). LFPs inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Samonella typhimurium (STM), Escherichia coil (Ec) and Ec 0157 at maximum yield by using Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC). But Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) could medium inhibited. Therefore LFP samples are suitable as probiotics for alternative use of antibiotic for animal raising.

  5. ANIMAL WELFARE AS AN ELEMENT OF RETARDATION REVERSING THE TRANSFORMATION OF RESOURCES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz R. Mroczek

    2014-01-01

    Animals well-being today is a sign of the progressing civilization of humanity. This ethical and philosophical concept is strongly linked with and makes reference to empathy for animals used by human beings. Situating the welfare in the area of connected action is a purpose of the work from retardation. The welfare is determined as the medical condition of the physical and psychological animal achieved in optimal conditions of the farm environment. This system meets the basic needs of breedin...

  6. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten,

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  7. Safety evaluations under the proposed US Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013: animal use and cost estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jean; Rovida, Costanca

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013 calls for a new evaluation program for cosmetic ingredients in the US, with the new assessments initially dependent on expanded animal testing. This paper considers possible testing scenarios under the proposed Act and estimates the number of test animals and cost under each scenario. It focuses on the impact for the first 10 years of testing, the period of greatest impact on animals and costs. The analysis suggests the first 10 years of testing under the Act could evaluate, at most, about 50% of ingredients used in cosmetics. Testing during this period would cost about $ 1.7-$ 9 billion and 1-11.5 million animals. By test year 10, alternative, high-throughput test methods under development are expected to be available, replacing animal testing and allowing rapid evaluation of all ingredients. Given the high cost in dollars and animal lives of the first 10 years for only about half of ingredients, a better choice may be to accelerate development of high-throughput methods. This would allow evaluation of 100% of cosmetic ingredients before year 10 at lower cost and without animal testing. PMID:24468774

  8. The importance of grasslands for animal production and other functions: a review on management and methodological progress in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boval, M; Dixon, R M

    2012-05-01

    The global importance of grasslands is indicated by their extent; they comprise some 26% of total land area and 80% of agriculturally productive land. The majority of grasslands are located in tropical developing countries where they are particularly important to the livelihoods of some one billion poor peoples. Grasslands clearly provide the feed base for grazing livestock and thus numerous high-quality foods, but such livestock also provide products such as fertilizer, transport, traction, fibre and leather. In addition, grasslands provide important services and roles including as water catchments, biodiversity reserves, for cultural and recreational needs, and potentially a carbon sink to alleviate greenhouse gas emissions. Inevitably, such functions may conflict with management for production of livestock products. Much of the increasing global demand for meat and milk, particularly from developing countries, will have to be supplied from grassland ecosystems, and this will provide difficult challenges. Increased production of meat and milk generally requires increased intake of metabolizable energy, and thus increased voluntary intake and/or digestibility of diets selected by grazing animals. These will require more widespread and effective application of improved management. Strategies to improve productivity include fertilizer application, grazing management, greater use of crop by-products, legumes and supplements and manipulation of stocking rate and herbage allowance. However, it is often difficult to predict the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of such strategies, particularly in tropical developing country production systems. Evaluation and on-going adjustment of grazing systems require appropriate and reliable assessment criteria, but these are often lacking. A number of emerging technologies may contribute to timely low-cost acquisition of quantitative information to better understand the soil-pasture-animal interactions and animal management in

  9. High field MRI in preclinical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High fields magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments on humans have been historically limited by the so called 'penetration effect' of B1 and by the power deposition in living tissues. The first effect refers to the non-homogeneous value of B1 field inside the sample (important when the wavelength of the r.f. field approaches the dimension of the sample i.e. when the Larmor frequency increase above 10-20 MHz) and the second refers to the increase in the power deposition in tissues when the Larmor frequency increases. Both phenomena are less important in animals, because of the smaller dimensions of animal bodies and the less stringent safety requirements. As a result, animal instruments were developed at high fields earlier compared with human ones. Today the great majority of imagers designed for animal studies operate at fields of 4.7 T or higher. The main advantages in high fields stand in higher signal to noise ratio (and consequent increase in space resolution or decrease in acquisition time) and higher frequency separation between metabolite peaks in in vivo spectroscopy. Disadvantages are in the higher cost of magnets and electronics, in shortening of T2 relaxation time, paralleled by a lengthening in T1 relaxation time, and in greater importance of susceptibility and chemical shift artefacts. Recent developments in applications of MRI (and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MRS) in preclinical studies, as for example functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), microscopy, diffusion-weighted (DW) spectroscopy and molecular imaging, pose increasing requirements to technical aspects of MRI instruments (increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), space resolution and chemical shift) and consequently push toward higher magnetic fields. In this paper the above mentioned developments are reviewed and discussed

  10. Evaluation of different techniques to control hydrogen sulfide and greenhouse gases from animal production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    The livestock manure management sector is one of the prime sources for the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutant gases such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which may affect the human health, animal welfare, and the environment. So, worldwide investigations are going on to mitigate these gaseous emissions. The overall objective of this research was to investigate different approaches (dietary manipulation and nanotechnology) for mitigating the gaseous emissions from livestock manure system. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary proteins (12 and 16%) and fat levels (3 to 5.5%) fed to beef cattle on gaseous emission (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO 2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S) from the pen surface. To evaluate the effects of different nanoparticles (zinc oxide-nZnO; and zirconium-nZrO 2) on these gaseous emissions from livestock manure stored under anaerobic conditions, laboratory studies were conducted with different treatments (control, bare NPs, NPs entrapped alginate beads applying freely and keeping in bags, and used NPs entrapped alginate beads). Field studies showed no significant differences in the GHG and H2S emissions from the manure pen surface. Between nZnO and nZrO2, nZnO outperformed the nZrO2 in terms of gases production and concentration reduction from both swine and dairy liquid manure. Application of nZnO at a rate of 3 g L-1 showed up to 82, 78, 40 and 99% reduction on total gas production, CH 4, CO2 and H2S concentrations, respectively. The effectiveness of nZnO entrapped alginate (alginate-nZnO) beads was statistically lower than the bare nZnO, but both of them were very effective in reducing gas production and concentrations. These gaseous reductions were likely due to combination of microbial inhibition of microorganisms and chemical conversion during the treatment, which was confirmed by microbial plate count, SEM-EDS, and XPS analysis. However

  11. 网页动画设计与制作方法%Methods of Design and Production of Web Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄂晶晶

    2012-01-01

    针对多个软件制作网页动画的方法分别进行了介绍,包括Adobe Imageready,Flash,Fireworks,Dream-weaver,对动画在不同开发环境下的制作方法和技巧进行了比较,分析了在这些软件中制作动画的优缺点。%In this paper,methods of producting Web animation by several software are described respectively.It includes Adobe Imageready,Flash,Fireworks,Dreamweaver.This article compares the production methods and techniques of animation in different development environments and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of making animation by them.

  12. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...

  13. 77 FR 71750 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide for the safe use of... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...

  14. Entrepreneurial Study Cases using animation as an emotional learning tool for film production and entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    Animation is a communication media and artistic expression which can foster emotional intelligence and creativity within different fields, besides the film industry and the entrepreneurial world. Such a concept, animation as an emotional learning tool, is presented and developed within the...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  16. Multi-omic data integration and analysis using systems genomics approaches: methods and applications in animal production, health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suravajhala, Prashanth; Kogelman, Lisette J A; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2016-01-01

    In the past years, there has been a remarkable development of high-throughput omics (HTO) technologies such as genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics across all facets of biology. This has spearheaded the progress of the systems biology era, including applications on animal production and health traits. However, notwithstanding these new HTO technologies, there remains an emerging challenge in data analysis. On the one hand, different HTO technologies judged on their own merit are appropriate for the identification of disease-causing genes, biomarkers for prevention and drug targets for the treatment of diseases and for individualized genomic predictions of performance or disease risks. On the other hand, integration of multi-omic data and joint modelling and analyses are very powerful and accurate to understand the systems biology of healthy and sustainable production of animals. We present an overview of current and emerging HTO technologies each with a focus on their applications in animal and veterinary sciences before introducing an integrative systems genomics framework for analysing and integrating multi-omic data towards improved animal production, health and welfare. We conclude that there are big challenges in multi-omic data integration, modelling and systems-level analyses, particularly with the fast emerging HTO technologies. We highlight existing and emerging systems genomics approaches and discuss how they contribute to our understanding of the biology of complex traits or diseases and holistic improvement of production performance, disease resistance and welfare. PMID:27130220

  17. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives in

  18. Phage types of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from production animals and humans in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1994-01-01

    S. Typhimurium is one of the 2 most common salmonella serotypes causing human salmonellosis in Denmark. In order to illustrate the significance of different production animals as a source of infection, 1461 isolates were characterized by phage typing. The isolates originated from human patients a...

  19. Surveillance model for environmental contaminants through their monitoring in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Scaramozzino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The aim of this paper is to propose a risk based surveillance model for environmental pollutants, monitoring the presence and the quantity of toxic contaminants in cattle and sheep products.

    Methods: The province of Latina was chosen as study area. The official list of polluted sites was provided by the Province. This was then integrated into a Geographic Informative System together with geographical, hydrographic, and geological data along with information regarding the farms that was obtained from the National Livestock Registry. In order to identify the monitoring priority of polluted sites, a semi-quantitative risk assessment was then set up. A score for each of the attributes considered in the risk evaluation was given to each site, based on two main criteria: the environmental hazard characterization and the quantification of the exposed animal population. The sample of farms to be monitored was defined according to statistical criteria.

    Results: 12 polluted sites were chosen as “at major risk” among the 58 identified therefore, inside the respective surrounding risk areas, 24 farms were chosen to be monitored. Biological materials to be sampled were also defined. As a result, it was determined that 104 samples collected throughout a year would be sufficient to detect any contamination in the territory of the Province, with an admitted prevalence of 10% among farms at risk (CL 95%.

    Conclusions: Risk based surveillance is more sensitive in detecting environmental pollution than surveillance that is randomly performed, based on the same allocation of financial resources.

  20. Forensic DNA barcoding and bio-response studies of animal horn products used in traditional medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal horns (AHs have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. We believe that to strengthen the identification for threatened animals, to prevent the circulation of them, and to seek fertile animals of corresponding bioactivities as substitutes are effective strategies to solve this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A powerful technique of DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI was used to identify threatened animals of Bovidae and Cervidae, as well as their illegal adulterants (including 10 species and 47 specimens. Meanwhile, the microcalorimetric technique was used to characterize the differences of bio-responses when those animal specimens acted on model organism (Escherichia coli. We found that the COI gene could be used as a universal primer to identify threatened animals and illegal adulterants mentioned above. By analyzing 223 mitochondrial COI sequences, a 100% identification success rate was achieved. We further found that the horns of Mongolian Gazelle and Red Deer could be exploited as a substitute for some functions of endangered Saiga Antelope and Sika Deer in traditional medicine, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Although it needs a more comprehensive evaluation of bioequivalence in order to completely solve the problem of substitutes for threatened animals, we believe that the identification (DNA barcoding of threatened animals combined with seeking substitutions (bio-response can yet be regarded as a valid strategy for establishing a balance

  1. Valor nutritivo da forragem e produção animal em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha Forage nutritive value and animal production in Brachiaria brizantha pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção animal e sua relação com as características dos pastos de Brachiaria brizantha cultivares Marandu, Xaraés e Piatã. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos e duas repetições. Os piquetes com 2 ha foram subdivididos em dois e submetidos ao pastejo alternado, com 28 dias de utilização e 28 dias de descanso. Foram utilizados três novilhos teste, por piquete, e novilhos reguladores para manter resíduos pós pastejo em torno de 3 Mg ha-1 de matéria seca. Mensalmente, os pastos foram avaliados para se estimar o valor nutritivo da forragem. Os animais foram pesados, e as taxas de lotação foram ajustadas duas vezes por semana. No pasto da cv. Xaraés, apesar do menor ganho médio diário (GMD dos animais, a taxa de lotação foi maior, o que resultou em maior produtividade da cv. Xaraés, em comparação às cvs. Marandu e Piatã. No pasto da cv. Piatã, houve aumento do GMD, o que indica que as cvs. Xaraés e Piatã são novas alternativas para a diversificação dos pastos no Cerrado. Assim, a escolha da forragem deve se dar em razão da meta do sistema de produção, ou seja, a produção por animal ou por área.The objectives of this work were to evaluate animal production and its relationship with pasture characteristics of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars Marandu, Xaraés and Piatã. The experiment had a randomized complete block design, with three treatments and two replicates. Two-ha paddocks were divided into two and submitted to alternated grazing, with 28 days of grazing and 28 days of rest. Three tester steers were kept in each paddock; additional steers were placed in each paddock by the put and take technique, to assure post grazing residues of about 3 Mg ha-1 of dry matter. The pastures were sampled monthly to estimate the nutritive value of the forage. The animals were weighted, and the stocking rate was adjusted twice a week. Despite the

  2. Review of animal models used to study effects of bee products on wound healing: findings and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananeh Wael M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-healing wounds are associated with high morbidity and might greatly impact a patient’s well-being and economic status. For many years, scientific research has focused on developing and testing several natural and synthetic materials that enhance the rate of wound healing or eliminate healing complications. Honey has been used for thousands of years as a traditional remedy for many ailments. Recently, honey has reemerged as a promising wound care product especially for infected wounds and for wounds in diabetic patients. In addition to its proposed potent broad-spectrum antibacterial properties, honey has been claimed to promote wound healing by reducing wound hyperaemia, oedema, and exudate, and by stimulating angiogenesis, granulation tissue formation and epithelialisation. Several animal models, including large animals, dogs and cats, and different species of laboratory animals have been used to investigate the efficacy and safety of various natural and synthetic agents for wound healing enhancement. Interpreting the results obtained by these studies is, however, rather difficult and usually hampered by many limiting factors including great variation in types and origins of honey, the type of animal species used as models, the type of wounds, the number of animals, the number and type of controls, and variation in treatment protocols. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the most recent findings and applications of published experimental and clinical trials using honey as an agent for wound healing enhancement in different animal models.

  3. The Profitability of Animal Husbandry Activities on Farms in Dry Farming Areas and the Interaction between Crop Production and Animal Husbandry: The Case of Ankara Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tanrıvermis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between livestock and crop farming activities and provides a comparative analysis of the profitability of different livestock activities in the highlands of Ankara. The data was collected from 52 sample farms in the Nallıhan, Aya¸s, Güdül and Beypazarı districts of Ankara by way of a questionnaire, where the farms have, on average, 20.7 ha of land and are thus regarded as small family farms. Insufficient irrigated land and working capital, weak market relations and the pressure of high population brings about a requirement to strengthen crop-livestock interaction. Production on the farms is generally carried out in extensive conditions, with goat, sheep and cattle husbandry in addition to crop production. Crop production makes up for 20.8% of the total gross production value on the farms. Of this figure, the entire yields of wheat, barley, pulses, straw and fodder crops are used for own consumption by the households, along with 74% of the wheat and 77% of the barley produced. The research results indicate that the current management systems may be defined as mixed farms in terms of crop–livestock linkages. The average total income of the households surveyed is 9,412.0 USD, of which 63.4% comes from farming activities. Every 1 USD invested in animal husbandry provides an income of 1.12 USD from dairy cattle breeding, 1.13 USD from Angora goat breeding, 1.16 USD from sheep breeding and 1.27 USD from ordinary goat breeding. It has been found that ordinary goat breeding, which provides the greatest relative profitability for the farms, offers many advantages, and that the transition from Angora goat breeding to ordinary goat breeding through the breeding of ordinary male goats into the Angora herd has occurred in recent years. The results of the survey indicate that supporting crop production with animal husbandry is considered a requirement in order to maintain economic and social sustainability in the farms

  4. Carbon nanotube based X-ray sources: Applications in pre-clinical and medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field emission offers an alternate method of electron production for Bremsstrahlung based X-ray tubes. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) serve as very effective field emitters, allowing them to serve as electron sources for X-ray sources, with specific advantages over traditional thermionic tubes. CNT derived X-ray sources can create X-ray pulses of any duration and frequency, gate the X-ray pulse to any source and allow the placement of many sources in close proximity. We have constructed a number of micro-CT systems based on CNT X-ray sources for applications in small animal imaging, specifically focused on the imaging of the heart and lungs. This paper offers a review of the pre-clinical applications of the CNT based micro-CT that we have developed. We also discuss some of the current and potential clinical applications of the CNT X-ray sources.

  5. Is experience on a farm an effective approach to understanding animal products and the management of dairy farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Osada, Masahiro; Ishioka, Katsumi; Matsubara, Takako; Momota, Yutaka; Yumoto, Norio; Sako, Toshinori; Kamiya, Shinji; Yoshimura, Itaru

    2014-03-01

    The understanding of animal products and dairy farming is important for the promotion of dairy farming. Thus, to examine the effects of farm experience on the understanding of animal products and the management of dairy farming, the interaction between students and dairy cows was investigated in groups of first-year veterinary nursing students in 2011 and 2012 (n = 201). These students included 181 women and 20 men. Nine items about dairy cows were presented in a questionnaire. The survey was performed before and after praxis on the educational farm attached to the authors' university. After praxis on the farm, increases occurred in the number of positive responses to the items involving the price of milk, dairy farming and the taste of milk. For these items, a significant difference (P products and dairy farming. PMID:23981006

  6. What is the form of the productivity-animal-species-richness relationship? A critical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusens, Jarrod; Wright, Shane D; McBride, Paul D; Gillman, Len N

    2012-10-01

    The nature of the relationship between productivity and species richness has remained controversial for at least two decades. Recently authors have favored the suggestion that the form of this relationship is highly variable and scale dependent. However, this conclusion is not universally accepted. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of animal productivity-species-richness relationships (PSRR) in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Initially, 374 separate cases from 273 published studies were identified as potential tests of the animal PSRR. After critically assessing each study, 115 cases were accepted as robust tests of the relationship, and of these 95 had data available for formal meta-analysis. Contrary to expectation, we found no support for the form of the relationship being scale dependent; positive relationships predominated at all scales (geographical extents and grains). Furthermore, positive relationships were the most common form of the animal PSRR in both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and among vertebrates, invertebrates, homeotherms and poikilotherms. Therefore, our results also contrast with previous reviews that suggest no particular form of the PSRR is predominant. We demonstrate that the method used for classifying the form of PSRRs is critical to the result and that previous reviews may have been too liberal toward classifying the form of relationships as unimodal. The tendency for positive relationships between productivity and species richness across diverse animal taxa has important implications for understanding the mechanisms behind the latitudinal gradient in species richness. PMID:23185885

  7. Preclinical research in cardiac repair

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen of Lorkeers, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    In medical research, animal models serve as surrogates for human disease which has both advantages and disadvantages. Importantly, it prevents human suffering. Further advantages are mainly financial, since animal studies are cheaper and less time consuming than clinical research and logistical, since animals are more easily accessible compared to healthy volunteers or patients. Also, the (genetic) propinquity of animals, diminishes the ‘noise’ within one study leading to a decline in the num...

  8. Valuing Animal Welfare with Choice Experiments: An Application to Swedish Pig Production

    OpenAIRE

    Liljenstolpe, Carolina

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the demand for animal welfare attributes when buying pork fillet is investigated among Swedish respondents. More specifically, the coefficients of an indirect utility function and willingness to pay for animal welfare attributes are estimated. The utility function is estimated using a multinomial logit and a random parameter logit model. A realistic scenario when modeling consumer choices is to allow for heterogeneity in preferences. The random parameter logit model departs fro...

  9. Welfare and housing in animal production: airquality evaluation and new experimental device in different species

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The research has been divided into two step: the first one concerning the evaluation of ventilation in cattle and broilers houses, the second one concerning the study of a new experimental device for pigs breeding. Ventilation flow in livestock buildings can determine the indoor climate and air quality and so it affects directly the welfare of the reared animals. The realization of the animal houses in many cases, has not allowed the correct activation of the plants caused by the objective...

  10. Immunomodulation of cytokine and chemokine production in animal models of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ahmed M. Gadeh EL Dum, Nagat

    2003-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that can be actively induced in susceptible animal species and strains by active immunization with heterogeneous peripheral nerve myelin or its component P2 or PO proteins or their peptides emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant. EAN represents an animal model for studying the immunopathogenesis and therapy of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS ) which is ...

  11. Cannabinoids and Dementia: A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Halpern

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system has been shown to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases and dementia. We review the preclinical and clinical data on cannabinoids and four neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Huntington’s disease (HD, Parkinson’s disease (PD and vascular dementia (VD. Numerous studies have demonstrated an involvement of the cannabinoid system in neurotransmission, neuropathology and neurobiology of dementias. In addition, several candidate compounds have demonstrated efficacy in vitro. However, some of the substances produced inconclusive results in vivo. Therefore, only few trials have aimed to replicate the effects seen in animal studies in patients. Indeed, the literature on cannabinoid administration in patients is scarce. While preclinical findings suggest causal treatment strategies involving cannabinoids, clinical trials have only assessed the suitability of cannabinoid receptor agonists, antagonists and cannabidiol for the symptomatic treatment of dementia. Further research is needed, including in vivo models of dementia and human studies.

  12. The basics of preclinical drug development for neurodegenerative disease indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Karen L; Spack, Edward G

    2009-01-01

    Preclinical development encompasses the activities that link drug discovery in the laboratory to initiation of human clinical trials. Preclinical studies can be designed to identify a lead candidate from several hits; develop the best procedure for new drug scale-up; select the best formulation; determine the route, frequency, and duration of exposure; and ultimately support the intended clinical trial design. The details of each preclinical development package can vary, but all have some common features. Rodent and nonrodent mammalian models are used to delineate the pharmacokinetic profile and general safety, as well as to identify toxicity patterns. One or more species may be used to determine the drug's mean residence time in the body, which depends on inherent absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties. For drugs intended to treat Alzheimer's disease or other brain-targeted diseases, the ability of a drug to cross the blood brain barrier may be a key issue. Toxicology and safety studies identify potential target organs for adverse effects and define the Therapeutic Index to set the initial starting doses in clinical trials. Pivotal preclinical safety studies generally require regulatory oversight as defined by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Good Laboratory Practices and international guidelines, including the International Conference on Harmonization. Concurrent preclinical development activities include developing the Clinical Plan and preparing the new drug product, including the associated documentation to meet stringent FDA Good Manufacturing Practices regulatory guidelines. A wide range of commercial and government contract options are available for investigators seeking to advance their candidate(s). Government programs such as the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer grants and the National Institutes of Health Rapid Access to Interventional Development Pilot Program provide funding and

  13. The basics of preclinical drug development for neurodegenerative disease indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spack Edward G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preclinical development encompasses the activities that link drug discovery in the laboratory to initiation of human clinical trials. Preclinical studies can be designed to identify a lead candidate from several hits; develop the best procedure for new drug scale-up; select the best formulation; determine the route, frequency, and duration of exposure; and ultimately support the intended clinical trial design. The details of each preclinical development package can vary, but all have some common features. Rodent and nonrodent mammalian models are used to delineate the pharmacokinetic profile and general safety, as well as to identify toxicity patterns. One or more species may be used to determine the drug's mean residence time in the body, which depends on inherent absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties. For drugs intended to treat Alzheimer's disease or other brain-targeted diseases, the ability of a drug to cross the blood brain barrier may be a key issue. Toxicology and safety studies identify potential target organs for adverse effects and define the Therapeutic Index to set the initial starting doses in clinical trials. Pivotal preclinical safety studies generally require regulatory oversight as defined by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA Good Laboratory Practices and international guidelines, including the International Conference on Harmonisation. Concurrent preclinical development activities include developing the Clinical Plan and preparing the new drug product, including the associated documentation to meet stringent FDA Good Manufacturing Practices regulatory guidelines. A wide range of commercial and government contract options are available for investigators seeking to advance their candidate(s. Government programs such as the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer grants and the National Institutes of Health Rapid Access to Interventional Development Pilot

  14. Preclinical dose number and its application in understanding drug absorption risk and formulation design for preclinical species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuelfing, W Peter; Daublain, Pierre; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Templeton, Allen; McGregor, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    In the drug discovery setting, the ability to rapidly identify drug absorption risk in preclinical species at high doses from easily measured physical properties is desired. This is due to the large number of molecules being evaluated and their high attrition rate, which make resource-intensive in vitro and in silico evaluation unattractive. High-dose in vivo data from rat, dog, and monkey are analyzed here, using a preclinical dose number (PDo) concept based on the dose number described by Amidon and other authors (Pharm. Res., 1993, 10, 264-270). PDo, as described in this article, is simply calculated as dose (mg/kg) divided by compound solubility in FaSSIF (mg/mL) and approximates the volume of biorelevant media per kilogram of animal that would be needed to fully dissolve the dose. High PDo values were found to be predictive of difficulty in achieving drug exposure (AUC)-dose proportionality in in vivo studies, as could be expected; however, this work analyzes a large data set (>900 data points) and provides quantitative guidance to identify drug absorption risk in preclinical species based on a single solubility measurement commonly carried out in drug discovery. Above the PDo values defined, >50% of all in vivo studies exhibited poor AUC-dose proportionality in rat, dog, and monkey, and these values can be utilized as general guidelines in discovery and early development to rapidly assess risk of solubility-limited absorption for a given compound. A preclinical dose number generated by biorelevant dilutions of formulated compounds (formulated PDo) was also evaluated and defines solubility targets predictive of suitable AUC-dose proportionality in formulation development efforts. Application of these guidelines can serve to efficiently identify compounds in discovery that are likely to present extreme challenges with respect to solubility-limited absorption in preclinical species as well as reduce the testing of poor formulations in vivo, which is a key

  15. Choosing co-substrates to supplement biogas production from animal slurry - A life cycle assessment of the environmental consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croxatto Vega, Giovanna Catalina; Ten Hoeve, Marieke; Birkved, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    Biogas production from animal slurry can provide substantial contributions to reach renewable energy targets, yet due to the low methane potential of slurry, biogas plants depend on the addition of co-substrates to make operations profitable. The environmental performance of three underexploited co...... nutrient content and high methane potential, straw yields the lowest impacts for eutrophication and the highest climate change and fossil depletion savings. Co-substrates diverted from incineration to biogas production had fewer environmental benefits, due to the loss of energy production, which is then...

  16. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  17. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  18. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector. PMID:27215411

  19. Optimized design and analysis of preclinical intervention studies in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laajala, Teemu D; Jumppanen, Mikael; Huhtaniemi, Riikka; Fey, Vidal; Kaur, Amanpreet; Knuuttila, Matias; Aho, Eija; Oksala, Riikka; Westermarck, Jukka; Mäkelä, Sari; Poutanen, Matti; Aittokallio, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have called into question the reproducibility, validity and translatability of the preclinical animal studies due to limitations in their experimental design and statistical analysis. To this end, we implemented a matching-based modelling approach for optimal intervention group allocation, randomization and power calculations, which takes full account of the complex animal characteristics at baseline prior to interventions. In prostate cancer xenograft studies, the method effectively normalized the confounding baseline variability, and resulted in animal allocations which were supported by RNA-seq profiling of the individual tumours. The matching information increased the statistical power to detect true treatment effects at smaller sample sizes in two castration-resistant prostate cancer models, thereby leading to saving of both animal lives and research costs. The novel modelling approach and its open-source and web-based software implementations enable the researchers to conduct adequately-powered and fully-blinded preclinical intervention studies, with the aim to accelerate the discovery of new therapeutic interventions. PMID:27480578

  20. Effect of dietary protein content on animal production and blood metabolites of dairy cows during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, R A; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Kilpatrick, D J; Wylie, A R G; Mayne, C S

    2009-03-01

    Ninety autumn-calving Holstein dairy cows [45 primiparous and 45 multiparous (mean parity, 3.1)] were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) concentrations: 173, 144, or 114 g of CP/kg of DM, from calving until d 150 of lactation. On d 151, half of the animals in each treatment were allocated an alternative dietary protein concentration. Half of the animals receiving 114 g of CP/kg of DM went onto 144 g of CP/kg of DM; half of the animals receiving 144 g of CP/kg of DM went onto 173 g of CP/kg of DM; and half of the animals receiving 173 g of CP/kg of DM went onto 144 g of CP/kg of DM, with the remaining animals staying on their original treatment. This resulted in 6 treatments in the mid to late lactation period: 114/114, 144/144, 173/173, 114/144, 144/173, and 173/144 g of CP/kg of DM. An increase in dietary CP concentration significantly increased milk, fat, and protein yield in early lactation (d 1 to 150). Dry matter intake was also increased with increased dietary protein concentration; however, this was not significant between 144 and 173 g of CP/kg of DM. Increased dietary CP significantly increased plasma urea, albumin, and total protein concentrations but had no significant effect on NEFA, leptin, or IGF-1 concentrations. Decreasing the dietary CP concentration in mid-late lactation (d 151 to 305) from 173 to 144 g/kg of DM had no significant effect on milk yield, dry matter intake, or milk fat and protein yield, compared with animals that remained on 173 g of CP/kg of DM throughout lactation. Increasing dietary CP concentration from 144 to 173 g/kg of DM significantly increased dry matter intake compared with animals that remained on the 144 g of CP/kg of DM throughout lactation. There were no significant dietary treatment effects on live weight or body condition score change throughout the experiment. Results of this study indicate that high protein diets (up to 173 g of CP/kg of DM) improved feed intake and animal performance in early lactation

  1. Selection of new markers for animal by-products characterization by classical microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Savoini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify possible markers to distinguish differences between land animals by using the microscopic method in association with computer image analysis. For this purpose bone fragments from poultry and mammals were obtained and analysed by microscopic method. Through a digital camera and an image analysis software 85 bone lacunae images have been processed and elaborated in order to obtain for each lacuna a monochrome mask on which several measurements were performed. Data were analysed by ANOVA and LDA. Results obtained in the present study indicated that of 32 descriptors processed by image analysis software, only 12 were significantly (P<0.001 different between mammalian and poultry. However, when morphometric measurements were analysed by LDA, 86% of lacunae were correctly classified into the animal class of origin (i.e. mammalian as mammalian and poultry as poultry. By contrast 14% of lacunae were incorrectly classified. In conclusion, data here presented indicate that some of descriptors used by image analysis appears promising not only for a reliable distinction between the different origins of animal meal at the level of vertebrate classes, but also for further characterisation and identification of processed animal proteins in animal feeds.

  2. From potential to reality. Yeasts derived from ethanol production for animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high costs of cereals and vegetable protein supplements used for animal nutrition have directed much attention toward non-conventional alternative protein sources. Brazil has a significant potential to provide such material, since it is the world's largest producer of ethanol (13 billion liters per year) derived from fermentation by yeasts (sugar cane being the basic raw material). Distilleries are recovering surplus yeast to produce dry yeast for use in animal food formulations. With regard to the yeast biomass elemental composition, INAA analyses performed on a pool of samples from various different fermentations have shown the presence of various trace elements, e.g. As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Sm, Th, and Zn. This reinforces the need for additional studies concerning the suitability of yeast in terms of maximum tolerable levels of these elements in formulations for domestic animals. (author)

  3. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, substituted-fat and the traditional formulations for mortadella-type products were analyzed. Both substitution and reduction of animal fat decreased the saturated fatty acids percentage from 40% down to 31%. A texture profile analysis showed differences between the formulations. Furthermore, lipid oxidation values were not significant for treatments as regards the type and quantity of fat used while the use of sodium alginate and guar gum reduced the amounts of liquid released after cooking. Animal fat substitution does cause, however, a difference in overall sensorial perception compared with non-substituted products. The results confirm the viability of substituting vegetal fat for animal fat.

  4. Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Wierup, Martin; Kristoffersen, Thor

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a “crushing plant” which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. We report the successful control of Salmonella from 1994 to 2012 in a Norwegian crushing plant producing soybean meal from imported soy b...

  5. Recycling technology of sugar industry by-products for animal feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Yadira Suárez Rodríguez; Arael Martínez Teruel; Luis B. Ramos Sánchez; María Caridad Julián

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de una tecnología de reciclaje y enriquecimiento proteico mediante fermentación en estado sólido de los subproductos de la industria azucarera para su posterior utilización como alimento animal. A partir de un estudio bibliográfico sobre los aspectos más importantes de las tecnologías actuales de fabricación de alimentos para el consumo animal y las herramientas para el desarrollo de tecnologías de fermentaci ón en medios sólidos se ha desarrollado un...

  6. Narrative overview of animal and human brucellosis in Morocco: intensification of livestock production as a driver for emergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Marie J; Ammary, Khaoula; Ait Lbacha, Hicham; Zouagui, Zaid; Mick, Virginie; Prevost, Laura; Bryssinckx, Ward; Welburn, Susan C; Benkirane, Abdelali

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world caused by several species of the genus Brucella. The disease, eradicated in many developed countries, is a re-emerging neglected zoonosis endemic in several zones especially in the Mediterranean region, impacting on human health and livestock production. A One Health approach could address brucellosis control in Morocco but scarcity of reliable epidemiological data, as well as underreporting, hinders the implementation of sustainable control strategies. Surveillance and control policies implemented by the Moroccan government in domestic animals (cattle and small ruminants) in the last few decades are assessed for disease impact. This study considers the origins of animal brucellosis in Morocco and the potential for emergence of brucellosis during a shift from extensive to intensive livestock production. PMID:26690090

  7. Quetiapine: recent developments in preclinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Orsetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (QTP is an atypical antipsychotic labelled for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar mania and bipolar depression. Nevertheless, QTP has been tried across multiple diagnosis categories and seems to be used, among other atypical antipsychotics, in clinical practice for an expanding range of disorders such as major depression, substance abuse disorders, anxiety disorders, and borderline personality disorders. The present review focuses on papers which investigated the molecular mechanism(s of QTP antidepressant effect. In particular, preclinical studies performed by coupling the chronic mild stress, an animal model of human depression with Affymetrix microarray technology, revealed that chronic QTP administration prevented the stress-induced up- or down-regulation of 42 genes involved in the central nervous system development or having a crucial role for viability of neural cells, like regulation of signal transduction, inorganic ion transport, membrane organisation, and neurite morphogenesis. Among these, Ptgs2, Hes5, Plcb1, Senp2, Gad1, and Marcks are presumably the effectors of the QTP clinical efficacy.

  8. Ethical Considerations of Preclinical Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenthal, Allen

    2015-01-01

    The numbers of animal tests being conducted are on a sharp incline. Much of this increase is directly due to our ability to generate transgenic models and knock-outs, thereby increasing the validity of the animal model but not necessarily correlating directly with any translational medical benefits to the human counterpart. In spite of our best efforts, there still exist species differences that prevent the application directly from animal to human, and in some examples having a completely di...

  9. An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Itterbeeck, Van, J.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Brand, van den, MGJ Mark; Loon, van, E.E.; Huis, van, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH3), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. Methodology/Principal Findings An experiment was cond...

  10. An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis G A B Oonincx; Joost Van Itterbeeck; Marcel J W Heetkamp; Henry van den Brand; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Arnold van Huis

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3)), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An experiment was ...

  11. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. National training course on ELISA for seradiagnosis of animal diseases (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the content of a three-week national training course for 16 participants from regional Disease Investigation Centres and other agencies in Indonesia. The subject of the course was the use of ELISA for the diagnosis of animal diseases in Indonesia, with particular emphasis placed on bovine brucellosis

  12. Radio frequency identification of animals, the quality of products in the field.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewerf, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    In several parts of the world livestock animals (sheep, goats and cattle) are identified with radiofrequency identification (RFID) devices. These transponders can be read with handheld and stationary readers. The reading can be performed on the farm, during transport, in the sales yard and in the sl

  13. COASTAL AND TIFTON 44' BERMUDAGRASS AVAILABILITY ON ANIMAL AND PASTURE PRODUCTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid cultivars of bermudagrass are a major feed source for ruminants across the Southeastern USA. This 4-yr experiment compared animal and pasture performance of ‘Coastal’ and ‘Tifton 44’ Bermudagrasses [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] over three canopy heights designated as short (5.8 cm), medium (...

  14. Combustible gas and biochar production from co-pyrolysis of agricultural plastic wastes and animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers report that manure-derived biochar has considerable potential both for improving soil quality and reducing water pollution. One of obstacles in obtaining manure biochar is its high energy requirement for pyrolyzing wet and low-energy-density animal manures. The combustible gas produced f...

  15. [Preclinical study of noopept toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, L P; Smol'nikova, N M; Alekseeva, S V; Nemova, E P; Sorokina, A V; Miramedova, M G; Kurapova, S P; Sidorina, E I; Kulakova, A V; Daugel'-Dauge, N O

    2002-01-01

    Within the framework of a preclinical investigation, the new nootrope drug noopept (N-phenyl-acetyl-L-propyl-glycine ethylate) was tested for chronic toxicity upon peroral administration in a dose of 10 or 100 mg/kg over 6 months in both male and female rabbits. The results of observations showed that noopept administered in this dose range induced no irreversible pathologic changes in the organs and systems studied and exhibited no allergenic, immunotoxic, and mutagen activity. The drug affected neither the generative function nor the antenatal or postnatal progeny development. Noopept produced a dose-dependent suppression of inflammation reaction to concanavalin A and stimulated the cellular and humoral immune response in mice. PMID:12025790

  16. Biosimilars for psoriasis: preclinical analytical assessment to determine similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauvelt, A; Cohen, A D; Puig, L; Vender, R; van der Walt, J; Wu, J J

    2016-02-01

    Biosimilars, sometimes called 'generic biologics', are no longer a vision for the future but a present-day reality. Drug manufacturers and regulatory authorities are charged with ensuring that these products are safe and effective. Because biologically produced medications are large, complex proteins, many factors affect the quality of the end product, including glycosylation and presence of impurities, and thus many factors need to be compared between an emerging biosimilar and its originator biologic. Indeed, preclinical analytical assessments to determine similarity to an originator biologic are critical and are considered to be the foundation for regulatory approval of biosimilars. Here, the science behind the preclinical development of biosimilars is discussed by members of the International Psoriasis Council, and suggestions are put forth to try to ensure that future biosimilars are produced in a high quality and standardized manner. PMID:26522054

  17. Greenhouse gas life cycle assessment of products arising from the rendering of mammalian animal byproducts in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Angel D; Humphries, Andrea C; Woodgate, Stephen L; Wilkinson, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Animal byproducts (ABP) are unavoidable byproduct of meat production that are categorized under EU legislation into category 1, 2, and 3 materials, which are normally treated by rendering. Rendering is a thermal process that produces rendered fat and protein. Heat is provided from the combustion of natural gas and self-produced rendered fat. The main objectives of the study were (i) to assess energy intensity in the UK rendering industry, and (ii) to quantify the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of mammalian rendered products using life cycle assessment. Thermal energy requirements were 2646 and 1357 kJ/kg, whereas electricity requirements were 260 and 375 kJ/kg for category 1 and 3 ABP respectively. Fossil CO(2) emissions were -0.77 and 0.15 kg CO(2)e/kg category 1 and 3 mammalian rendered fat respectively and 0.15 kg CO(2)e/kg processed animal protein. These were low relative to vegetable products such as palm oil and soya bean meal because (i) ABP were considered wastes that do not incur the environmental burden of their production, and (ii) the rendering process produces biofuels that can be used to generate energy that can be used to offset the use of fossil fuels in other systems. PMID:22129062

  18. Preclinical research in cardiac repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen of Lorkeers, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    In medical research, animal models serve as surrogates for human disease which has both advantages and disadvantages. Importantly, it prevents human suffering. Further advantages are mainly financial, since animal studies are cheaper and less time consuming than clinical research and logistical, sin

  19. DNA vaccination for rabies: Evaluation of preclinical safety and toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Rajni Garg; Manpreet Kaur; Ankur Saxena; Rakesh Bhatnagar

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of rabies and high rates of therapy failure, despite availability of effective vaccines indicate the need for timely and improved prophylactic approaches. DNA vaccination based on optimized formulation of lysosome-targeted glycoprotein of the rabies virus provides potential platform for preventing and controlling rabies. As per the pre-clinical requirements, listed in guidelines of Schedule Y, FDA and that of The European Agency for evaluation of Medicinal Products; we...

  20. An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Greenhouse gas (GHG production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3, leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂ and average daily gain (ADG as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄ and nitrous oxide (N₂O as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.