WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal nutritional physiological phenomena

  1. Animal Metabolism and Nutritional Requirements Under Physiological Stress Effect of High Altitude

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    K. K. Srivastava

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available Various biochemical and physiological aspects of high altitude exposure and an integrated picture of metabolism of the organism during stress has been reviewed in this paper. This has been further utilised to point out specific nutrient requirement, if any, for survival of the organism during stress and to develop increased resistance towards high altitude exposure. Carbohydrates appear to be the best calorific food material under conditions prevailing at high altitude.

  2. Applications of labelled water in animal nutrition and physiology. I. Measurement of individual intakes of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for measuring individual animal intakes of food or liquid labelled with tritium or deuterium are reviewed. The errors associated with these techniques have been measured and the methods for estimating individual food, water or milk intakes are discussed. (author)

  3. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  4. Research on improving animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to improve animal nutrition, studies have been carried out on the utilization of animal feeds using radioisotopes. Improvement of the nutritive value of straws, digestibility and VFA production by alkali treatment and other treatments has been studied by injecting VFA labelled with C14 and H3. Microbial protein synthesis rates in ruminants were studied using C14 and S35 labelled mixed culture of bacterial protozca. Results obtained are helpful in understanding the metabolism in rumens and the microbial proteins available to the host animals on various dietary regimen. (A.K.)

  5. [Negative effects of anti-nutritional factors in animal feed on nitrogen burden of the environment and possibilities of its reduction. Nutritional physiology effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, J

    1991-04-15

    Antinutritional factors (ANFs) protect the seed against attacks of moulds, bacteria, insects and birds. The defensive effect of ANFs is apparently related to disturbances in digestive processes in insects and microorganisms. When animals consume seeds containing ANFs, the digestive processes and growth may be disturbed in a similar manner. In the present paper, the fact is discussed that all proteins passing undigested through the small intestine will be fermentatively digested in the large intestine. The final products of the protein digested in the large intestine are excreted in the faeces or urine. For investigations into the digestion of protein in pigs and the amounts of N excreted into the environment, it is of importance to measure the ileal digestibility of protein. Studies showed that ANFs such as trypsin inhibitors, lectins and tannins present in legume seeds reduce the ileal digestibility of protein. In the case of Phaseolus beans it was found that more protein passed through the terminal ileum than was ingested with the feed. With peas was shown that ANFs reduce the ileal digestibility of protein. The carbohydrates of peas did not affect the ileal digestibility of protein, although the ileal chyme was more loose. In the case of faba beans, negative correlation of tannins with ileal digestibility of protein was observed. Calculations showed that, when ANFs were removed from peas and faba beans a considerable reduction in excretion of N into the environment can be achieved. These calculations also showed important possibilities of reducing the secretion of N into the environment by elimination of ANFs. PMID:1882367

  6. Biomedical Signals and Sensors I Linking Physiological Phenomena and Biosignals

    CERN Document Server

    Kaniusas, Eugenijus

    2012-01-01

    This two-volume set focuses on the interface between physiologic mechanisms and diagnostic human engineering. Today numerous biomedical sensors are commonplace in clinical practice. The registered biosignals reflect mostly vital physiologic phenomena. In order to adequately apply biomedical sensors and reasonably interpret the corresponding biosignals, a proper understanding of the involved physiologic phenomena, their influence on the registered biosignals, and the technology behind the sensors is necessary. The first volume is devoted to the interface between physiologic mechanisms and arising biosignals, whereas the second volume is focussed on the interface between biosignals and biomedical sensors. The physiologic mechanisms behind the biosignals are described from the basic cellular level up to their advanced mutual coordination level during sleep. The arising biosignals are discussed within the scope of vital physiologic phenomena to foster their understanding and comprehensive analysis.

  7. Animal network phenomena: insights from triadic games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Sherratt, Tom N.

    Games of animal conflict in networks rely heavily on computer simulation because analysis is difficult, the degree of difficulty increasing sharply with the size of the network. For this reason, virtually the entire analytical literature on evolutionary game theory has assumed either dyadic interaction or a high degree of symmetry, or both. Yet we cannot rely exclusively on computer simulation in the study of any complex system. So the study of triadic interactions has an important role to play, because triads are both the simplest groups in which asymmetric network phenomena can be studied and the groups beyond dyads in which analysis of population games is most likely to be tractable, especially when allowing for intrinsic variation. Here we demonstrate how such analyses can illuminate a variety of behavioral phenomena within networks, including coalition formation, eavesdropping (the strategic observation of contests between neighbors) and victory displays (which are performed by the winners of contests but not by the losers). In particular, we show that eavesdropping acts to lower aggression thresholds compared to games without it, and that victory displays to bystanders will be most intense when there is little difference in payoff between dominating an opponent and not subordinating.

  8. The application of biotechnology in animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal food has to incorporate multiple objectives, ie. it should provide good animal health, good production and reproductive performance, reduce pollution of the environment as well as have the impact on food of animal origin, by supplying it, in addition to basic nutrients, with certain useful substances that can act preventively on the occurrence of various diseases in humans in modern living conditions. This complex task implies the application of scientific knowledge concerning biotechnology in the field of animal feed production, and also includes the use of specific nutrients that are the result of the latest developments in specific disciplines such as molecular biology and genetic engineering. As a result of researches in these areas there were created some varieties of cereals and legumes with improved nutritional properties. On the other hand, obtaining a safe food of animal origin product imposes the use of substances of natural origin (such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytobiotics, enzymes, chelating forms .., which provide better digestibility and more complete utilization of certain nutrients from the feedstuff. In this way, the quantity of undigested substances are significantly reduced as well as soil and the atmosphere pollution. The use of specific additives in animal nutrition resulting from biotechnological research is most frequent when a problem concerning certain level of production or animal health has to be overcome. This implies a group of non-nutritional ingredients which are aimed to regulate the digestive tract microflora, pH, weight gain, as well as to modify metabolic processes etc.

  9. Nutrition-Physiology-Gene Interactions in the Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    AKIBA, Yukio; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Sato, Kan

    2004-01-01

    Nutrition entails the sum of processes involved in the ingestion of foods, digestion, absorption, transport of nutrients, intermediary metabolism, underlying anabolism and catabolism, and excretion of unabsorbed nutrients and metabolites. Research at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory is concerned with the identification of nutritional characteristics in several animal species with the aid of comparative biochemistry and molecular biology. This mini-review provides an overview of the nutritional...

  10. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Kralik; Jasmina Havranek-Lukač; Antun Petričević; I. Jurić

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk) in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from ω3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role ...

  11. The use of suspension models and comparison with true weightlessness. [Animal Model Workshop on Gravitational Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Ellis, S.

    1985-01-01

    A resume is presented of various papers concerning the effect of weightlessness on particular physiological and biochemical phenomena in animal model systems. Findings from weightlessness experiments on earth using suspension models are compared with results of experiments in orbit. The biological phenomena considered include muscle atrophy, changes in the endocrine system, reduction in bone formation, and changes in the cardiovascular system.

  12. Probiotics in animal nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Durand, H

    2010-03-01

    The use of probiotics for farm animals has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, can strongly affect the structure and activities of the gut microbial communities, leading to impaired health and performance in livestock animals. In this review, the most important benefits of yeast and bacterial probiotics upon the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in ruminants and monogastric animals (equines, pigs, poultry, fish) reported in the recent scientific literature are described, as well as their implications in terms of animal nutrition and health. Additional knowledge on the possible mechanisms of action is also provided. PMID:21840795

  13. Comprehending emergent systems phenomena through direct-manipulation animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Priscilla Abel

    This study seeks to understand the type of interaction mode that best supports learning and comprehension of emergent systems phenomena. Given that the literature has established that students hold robust misconceptions of such phenomena, this study investigates the influence of using three types of interaction; speed-manipulation animation (SMN), post-manipulation animation (PMA) and direct-manipulation animation (DMA) for increasing comprehension and testing transfer of the phenomena, by looking at the effect of simultaneous interaction of haptic and visual channels on long term and working memories when seeking to comprehend emergent phenomena. The questions asked were: (1) Does the teaching of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool (i.e., SMA, PMA or DMA), improve students' mental model construction of systems, thus increasing comprehension of this scientific concept? And (2) does the teaching of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool, give the students the necessary complex cognitive skill which can then be applied to similar (near transfer) and/or novel, but different, (far transfer) scenarios? In an empirical study undergraduate and graduate students were asked to participate in one of three experimental conditions: SMA, PMA, or DMA. The results of the study found that it was the participants of the SMA treatment condition that had the most improvement in post-test scores. Students' understanding of the phenomena increased most when they used a dynamic model with few interactive elements (i.e., start, stop, and speed) that allowed for real time visualization of one's interaction on the phenomena. Furthermore, no indication was found that the learning of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool, gave the students the necessary complex cognitive skill which could then be applied to similar (near transfer) and/or novel, but different, (far transfer) scenarios

  14. Nutritional systems biology modeling: from molecular mechanisms to physiology.

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, Albert A.; Freidig, Andreas P.; Baukje De Roos; Neema Jamshidi; Matthias Heinemann; Rullmann, Johan A.C.; Hall, Kevin D.; Martin Adiels; Ben van Ommen

    2009-01-01

    The use of computational modeling and simulation has increased in many biological fields, but despite their potential these techniques are only marginally applied in nutritional sciences. Nevertheless, recent applications of modeling have been instrumental in answering important nutritional questions from the cellular up to the physiological levels. Capturing the complexity of today's important nutritional research questions poses a challenge for modeling to become truly integrative in the co...

  15. Nutritional Systems Biology Modeling: From Molecular Mechanisms to Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, A A; Freidig, A.P.; Roos, B.; Jamshidi, N.; M. Heinemann; Rullmann, J.A.C.; Hall, K. D.; Adiels, M.; Ommen, B. van

    2009-01-01

    The use of computational modeling and simulation has increased in many biological fields, but despite their potential these techniques are only marginally applied in nutritional sciences. Nevertheless, recent applications of modeling have been instrumental in answering important nutritional questions from the cellular up to the physiological levels. Capturing the complexity of today's important nutritional research questions poses a challenge for modeling to become truly integrative in the co...

  16. Nutritional Systems Biology Modeling: From Molecular Mechanisms to Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, Albert A.; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Roos, Baukje; Jamshidi, Neema; Heinemann, Matthias; Rullmann, Johan A.C.; Hall, Kevin D.; Adiels, Martin; van Ommen, Ben; Bourne, Philip E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of computational modeling and simulation has increased in many biological fields, but despite their potential these techniques are only marginally applied in nutritional sciences. Nevertheless, recent applications of modeling have been instrumental in answering important nutritional questions from the cellular up to the physiological levels. Capturing the complexity of today’s important nutritional research questions poses a challenge for modeling to become truly integrative in the co...

  17. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from ω3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (ω-6 with relative “deficiency” of ω-3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the ω-6 / ω-3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.Keywords: animal products, polyunsaturated fatty acids, meat, milk, nutrients.

  18. Evaluation of single cell protein for nutrition of farm animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oslage, H.J.; Schulz, E.

    1981-08-01

    For the production of microorganisms with high content of protein technologies on the basis of carbon rich substrates have been developed during the past years. Thus, signification of Single Cell Protein (SCP) for nutrition of farm animals has changed. While, in former times, yeasts were added only in small portions (1-2%) as vitamin supplementation today it is the aim to use microbial biomass as a protein component. The use of SCP as a feedstuff requires a careful physiological and toxicological evaluation as well as extensive investigations of possible use and frontiers of those products for farm animals. Topic of this work were bacteria, bred on methanol as well as yeasts, grown on alcanes and on whey/lactic acid respectively. SCP is preferently used as a feedstuff for poultry, pigs, calves and fishes. Digestibility and utilisation of protein is good till very good, for the a.m. animals, digestibility being between 75-93% and net protein utilisation (NPU) being between 60-76%. In rations of young animals (chicken, piglets and calves) contents of 5-10% SCP have been proved to be without any negative effect on acceptance, body gain, feed utilisation and mortality. For older animals SCP can be used as the only protein source beside the basic feedstuffs.

  19. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from ω3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (ω-6 with relative “deficiency” of ω-3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the ω-6 / ω-3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.

  20. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from 3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (-6 with relative “deficiency” of -3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the -6 / -3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.

  1. Animal reproduction and physiology: from basis to application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI JianFang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Animal reproduction and physiology is one of the traditional subjects in biology, and also one of the most rapidly developing fields because it is related to human food requirements.Along with advances in the life sciences and biotechnology, animal reproduction and physiology has achieved new theoretical developments and potential applications.

  2. Nutritional Systems Biology Modeling: From Molecular Mechanisms to Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Albert A.; Freidig, Andreas P.; De Roos, Baukje; Jamshidi, Neema; Heinemann, Matthias; Rullmann, Johan A.C.; Hall, Kevin D.; Adiels, Martin; van Ommen, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The use of computational modeling and simulation has increased in many biological fields, but despite their potential these techniques are only marginally applied in nutritional sciences. Nevertheless, recent applications of modeling have been instrumental in answering important nutritional questions from the cellular up to the physiological levels. Capturing the complexity of today's important nutritional research questions poses a challenge for modeling to become truly integrative in the consideration and interpretation of experimental data at widely differing scales of space and time. In this review, we discuss a selection of available modeling approaches and applications relevant for nutrition. We then put these models into perspective by categorizing them according to their space and time domain. Through this categorization process, we identified a dearth of models that consider processes occurring between the microscopic and macroscopic scale. We propose a “middle-out” strategy to develop the required full-scale, multilevel computational models. Exhaustive and accurate phenotyping, the use of the virtual patient concept, and the development of biomarkers from “-omics” signatures are identified as key elements of a successful systems biology modeling approach in nutrition research—one that integrates physiological mechanisms and data at multiple space and time scales. PMID:19956660

  3. Nutritional systems biology modeling: from molecular mechanisms to physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert A de Graaf

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational modeling and simulation has increased in many biological fields, but despite their potential these techniques are only marginally applied in nutritional sciences. Nevertheless, recent applications of modeling have been instrumental in answering important nutritional questions from the cellular up to the physiological levels. Capturing the complexity of today's important nutritional research questions poses a challenge for modeling to become truly integrative in the consideration and interpretation of experimental data at widely differing scales of space and time. In this review, we discuss a selection of available modeling approaches and applications relevant for nutrition. We then put these models into perspective by categorizing them according to their space and time domain. Through this categorization process, we identified a dearth of models that consider processes occurring between the microscopic and macroscopic scale. We propose a "middle-out" strategy to develop the required full-scale, multilevel computational models. Exhaustive and accurate phenotyping, the use of the virtual patient concept, and the development of biomarkers from "-omics" signatures are identified as key elements of a successful systems biology modeling approach in nutrition research--one that integrates physiological mechanisms and data at multiple space and time scales.

  4. Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Animal Nutrition and Health: The Role of Protein Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Celi, Pietro; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress (OS), and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism, and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functi...

  5. Nutritional stretegies to prevent Urolithiasis in Animals

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    Lipismita samal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common problem in both ruminants and non-ruminants and nutrition plays a significant role in predisposing urolithiasis. The nutritional factors mainly influence urinary constituents and pH, which affect stone nucleation and growth. While surgery can render a patient stone-free, non-operative treatment modalities are required to prevent and reduce the risk of recurrent urolithiasis. Moreover, long-term pharmacological therapy and its potential side effects often lead to subsequent failure. In this regard, nutritional management is the best preventive strategy against urolithiasis. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 142-144

  6. Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for animal and human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Burghardt, Robert C; Johnson, Gregory A; Kim, Sung Woo; Knabe, Darrell A; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; McKnight, Jason R; Satterfield, M Carey; Spencer, Thomas E

    2011-04-01

    Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate), and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative reactions, and immune responses. On a per-gram basis, proline plus hydroxyproline are most abundant in collagen and milk proteins, and requirements of proline for whole-body protein synthesis are the greatest among all amino acids. Therefore, physiological needs for proline are particularly high during the life cycle. While most mammals (including humans and pigs) can synthesize proline from arginine and glutamine/glutamate, rates of endogenous synthesis are inadequate for neonates, birds, and fish. Thus, work with young pigs (a widely used animal model for studying infant nutrition) has shown that supplementing 0.0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, 1.4, and 2.1% proline to a proline-free chemically defined diet containing 0.48% arginine and 2% glutamate dose dependently improved daily growth rate and feed efficiency while reducing concentrations of urea in plasma. Additionally, maximal growth performance of chickens depended on at least 0.8% proline in the diet. Likewise, dietary supplementation with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.28% hydroxyproline (a metabolite of proline) to a plant protein-based diet enhanced weight gains of salmon. Based on its regulatory roles in cellular biochemistry, proline can be considered as a functional amino acid for mammalian, avian, and aquatic species. Further research is warranted to develop effective strategies of dietary supplementation with proline or hydroxyproline to benefit health, growth, and development of animals and humans. PMID:20697752

  7. Comparative phenomena about phraseology in the animal theme field

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    Lindita Çifçi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Every language has its own history and structure of development and it is in a gradual and continuous process of change moving in an unconscious way from one kind to another, so in different languages we distinguish analogical development. Saphir (1912 was one of the first linguistics and anthropologists who developed the linguistic discipline and in an interlingual comparison he identified that languages differ from one another, but some differ more than others. Phraseological units deriving from a certain language do not remain isolated within the same language. They travel from one language to another due to relationships between people and languages. This happens because during these centennial relationships, people have exchanged not only goods, but even cultural values. As a result in our first steps of research there is a need to know and decide on phraseological types in each language, as well as comparison with other languages, to find out what is common and what is special among them. One of the main reasons of analogies in phraseology stays on similar or approximate concepts of objects and features of everyday life. Having into consideration the fact that the main source of phraseological units is the material world with a great variety and a wide range of clothes, tools, domestic animals, parts of human body, food and cooking, weapons and hunting objects, tribal relationships, job processes etc. we are going to analyse in this manuscript this phraseological phenomena.

  8. Prebiotics in Companion and Livestock Animal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Kathleen A.; Vester, Brittany M.; Fahey, George C.

    Prebiotic supplementation of animal diets began in an attempt to increase concentrations of beneficial intestinal microbiota. It was understood that prebiotics inhibited growth of intestinal pathogens and decreased concentrations of stool odor-causing metabolites. Since the use of prebiotics began, several countries have banned the use of antimicrobials in livestock animal feeds, and several more have placed restrictions on the quantity of antimicrobials that can be used. Prebiotic supplementation has become increasingly popular as the body of evidence supporting its use continues to grow. As this literature expands, the number of potential prebiotic substances has grown beyond those that are naturally occurring, such as those found in chicory and yeast products, to include a large number of synthetic or chemically/enzymatically manufactured prebiotics.

  9. Tannins in the nutrition of wild animals: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Clauss, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    Many free-ranging wild animals consume significant amounts of tannins and other polyphenolics. Historically, attention has focused on their negative effects: Tannins reduce apparent digestibility, impair the use of absorbed nutrients, can be toxic and reduce the palatability of many forages. Thus, tannins act as feeding deterrants. However, recently the antioxidant and cardioprotective potential of tannins/polyphenolics has been emphasized in human nutrition. Wild animals in captivity are ...

  10. Nutritional and non-nutritional food components modulate phenotypic variation but not physiological trade-offs in an insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Williams, Trevor; Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of how food modulates animal phenotypes and mediate trade-offs between life-history traits has benefited greatly from the study of combinations of nutritional and non-nutritional food components, such as plant secondary metabolites. We used a fruit fly pest, Anastrepha ludens, to examine phenotypic variation across larval, pupal and adult stages as a function of larval food with varying nutrient balance and content of chlorogenic acid, a secondary metabolite. Larval insects that fed on carbohydrate-biased diets relative to protein exhibited longer larval and pupal developmental periods, were often heavier as pupae and resisted desiccation and starvation for longer periods in the adult stage than insects fed on highly protein-biased diets. Except for a potential conflict between pupal development time and adult desiccation and starvation resistance, we did not detect physiological trade-offs mediated by the nutritional balance in larval food. Chlorogenic acid affected A. ludens development in a concentration and nutrient-dependent manner. Nutrients and host plant secondary metabolites in the larval diet induced changes in A. ludens phenotype and could influence fruit fly ecological interactions. We provide a unique experimental and modelling approach useful in generating predictive models of life history traits in a variety of organisms. PMID:27406923

  11. Nutritional and non-nutritional food components modulate phenotypic variation but not physiological trade-offs in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Williams, Trevor; Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of how food modulates animal phenotypes and mediate trade-offs between life-history traits has benefited greatly from the study of combinations of nutritional and non-nutritional food components, such as plant secondary metabolites. We used a fruit fly pest, Anastrepha ludens, to examine phenotypic variation across larval, pupal and adult stages as a function of larval food with varying nutrient balance and content of chlorogenic acid, a secondary metabolite. Larval insects that fed on carbohydrate-biased diets relative to protein exhibited longer larval and pupal developmental periods, were often heavier as pupae and resisted desiccation and starvation for longer periods in the adult stage than insects fed on highly protein-biased diets. Except for a potential conflict between pupal development time and adult desiccation and starvation resistance, we did not detect physiological trade-offs mediated by the nutritional balance in larval food. Chlorogenic acid affected A. ludens development in a concentration and nutrient-dependent manner. Nutrients and host plant secondary metabolites in the larval diet induced changes in A. ludens phenotype and could influence fruit fly ecological interactions. We provide a unique experimental and modelling approach useful in generating predictive models of life history traits in a variety of organisms. PMID:27406923

  12. Phytogenic pigments in animal nutrition: potentials and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faehnrich, Bettina; Lukas, Brigitte; Humer, Elke; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-03-01

    Phytogenic pigments are secondary plant compounds responsible for coloring effects in plant tissues. In particular, phenolic flavonoids and terpenoid carotenoids, but also rare compounds like curcumin and betalain, form this group of biochemical agents used in animal nutrition. From the perspective of ecological mutuality between plants and animals, these compounds are of crucial importance because they serve as visual attraction for herbivores but also signal nutritional and/or health-promoting values. This review focuses on the properties of phytogenic pigments which are likely to impact feed intake and preferences of livestock. Also natural prophylactic and/or therapeutic properties and, in particular, the potential of pigments to enhance quality and health value of animal products for human consumption are important issues. Nevertheless, reasonable limits of use due to possible adverse indications have been suggested recently. Pathways of digestion, metabolism and excretion in animals play a crucial role not only in the evaluation of effectiveness but also in the prediction of potential risks for human consumption. The popularity of natural feed additives is growing; therefore, more research work is needed to better understand metabolic pathways in the animal's body and to better estimate the potentials and risks of pigmenting plant compounds used in animal nutrition. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26415572

  13. From physiological psychology to psychological physiology: Postnonclassical approach to ethnocultural phenomena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmolov, A.G.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern science, along with the “classic” and “non-classical” approach to solving fundamental and applied problems, there is an actively developing “postnonclassical” research paradigm. This renovation of general scientific methodology has been accompanied by the emergence of new experimental technologies and new scientific research directions based on them. “Social psychophysiology” is one such direction. It is formed within the frame of postnonclassical methodology at the intersection of neuroscience and psychology. This work is devoted to the analytical review of the methods, achievements and prospects of contemporary social neuroscience and social psychophysiology studying brain structures that are specifically related to the implementation of social forms of behavior and intercultural communication. Physiological studies of brain activity during social interaction processes, which are simulated using virtual reality environments, are analyzed, and the physiological approach to the study of the brain mechanisms associated with social perception, social cognition and social behavior is used. Along with the analysis of psychophysiological studies of the mechanisms of social perception and social cognition, we discuss the theories of “Brain Reading” and “Theory of Mind” and the underlying data concerning “Gnostic neurons recognition of persons and recognition of emotional facial expressions”, “mirror neurons”, “emotional resonance” and “cognitive resonance”. Particular emphasis is placed on the discussion of a fundamentally new trend in the study of the relationship between the brain and culture (i.e., “cultural neuroscience”. Related to this connection, the following topics are raised: physiological mechanisms protecting the “individual distance” in communication between members of a personified community, psychophysiological approaches to the study of cross-cultural differences, physiological

  14. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    George C. Fahey, Jr.; Kerr, Katherine R.; de Godoy, Maria R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More rec...

  15. Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

  16. APP physiological and pathophysiological functions:insights from animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinxi Guo; Zilai Wang; Hongmei Li; Mary Wiese; Hui Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been under intensive study in recent years,mainly due to its critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptides generated from APP proteolytic cleavage can aggregate,leading to plaque formation in human AD brains.Point mutations of APP affecting Aβ production are found to be causal for hereditary early onset familial AD.It is very likely that elucidating the physiological properties of APP will greatly facilitate the understanding of its role in AD pathogenesis.A number of APP loss- and gainof-function models have been established in model organisms including Caenorhabditis elegans,Drosophila,zebrafish and mouse.These in vivo models provide us valuable insights into APP physiological functions.In addition,several knock-in mouse models expressing mutant APP at a physiological level are available to allow us to study AD pathogenesis without APP overexpression.This article will review the current physiological and pathophysiological animal models of APP.

  17. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Huerou-Luron, Le Isabelle; Jager, de Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutam

  18. Some psychological and physiological aspects of enteral nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, S P

    1986-01-01

    This review discusses three main topics: the first relates to the effects of underlying disease, malnutrition, and nutritional support on appetite; the second is concerned with the role of enteral feeding in short bowel syndrome; and the third deals with the clinical benefits of enteral nutrition.

  19. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  20. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Fahey, Jr.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential

  1. Aspects of the animal food nutritional and nutraceutical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Lorenzo Secchiari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper deals in the description of Italian zootechny with regard to animal food production and their quality. The last is well documented by the presence of a large number of certificated origin marks (53 POD e 11 PGI. Firstly, nutritional quality of food has been described, with particular emphasis for Glucides, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins and Mineral elements contents and their metabolic role, in the most important food of animal origin: milk, meat, fish and eggs. After, the presence of nutraceutical substances in the same foods has been discussed. In particular the attention has been focused on the metabolic role of ω-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA and Rumenic Acid (C 18:2 cis 9 trans 11, the most important isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. In conclusion has been underlined the importance of nutraceutical substances of animal origin in human balanced diet. Furthermore the fundamental role of Italian zootechny to assure animal food safety and quality has been confirmed.

  2. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is mandatory on Earth (1 g), in microgravity and also when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Immobilization like in microgravity or bed rest also has a profound effect on different physiological systems, like body fluid regulation, the cardiovascular, the musculoskeletal, the immunological system and others. Up to now there is no countermeasure available which is effective to counteract cardiovascular deconditioning (rf. Chapter 5) together with maintenance of the musculoskeletal system in a rather short period of time. Gravity seems therefore to be one of the main stimuli to keep these systems and application of certain duration of artificial gravity per day by centrifugation has often been proposed as a very potential countermeasure against the weakening of the physiological systems. Up to now, neither optimal intensity nor optimal length of application of artificial gravity has been studied sufficiently to recommend a certain, effective and efficient protocol. However, as shown in chapter 5 on cardiovascular system, in chapter 6 on the neuromuscular system and chapter 7 (bone and connective system) artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any degradation caused by immobilization. But, nutrient supply -which ideally should match the actual needs- will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. It is well known that astronauts beside the Skylab missions- were and are still not optimally nourished during their stay in space (Bourland et al. 2000;Heer et al. 1995;Heer et al. 2000b;Smith et al. 1997;Smith & Lane 1999;Smith et al. 2001;Smith et al. 2005). It has also been described anecdotally that astronauts have lower appetites. One possible explanation could be altered taste and smell sensations during space flight, although in some early

  3. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented. PMID:26333689

  4. Membrane lipid unsaturation as physiological adaptation to animal longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ReinaldPamplona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of oxygen in the terrestrial atmosphere represented an important selective pressure for ancestral living organisms and contributed toward setting up the pace of evolutionary changes in structural and functional systems. The evolution of using oxygen for efficient energy production served as a driving force for the evolution of complex organisms. The redox reactions associated with its use were, however, responsible for the production of reactive species (derived from oxygen and lipids with damaging effects due to oxidative chemical modifications of essential cellular components. Consequently, aerobic life required the emergence and selection of antioxidant defense systems. As a result, a high diversity in molecular and structural antioxidant defenses evolved. In the following paragraphs, we analyze the adaptation of biological membranes as a dynamic structural defense against reactive species evolved by animals. In particular, our goal is to describe the physiological mechanisms underlying the structural adaptation of cellular membranes to oxidative stress and to explain the meaning of this adaptive mechanism, and to review the state of the art about the link between membrane composition and longevity of animal species.

  5. Challenges for Plant Breeders from the View of Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Flachowsky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of how to feed the growing world population is very old, but because of the increase of population and possible climate change, currently it has an explosive impact. Plant breeding can be considered as the starting point for the whole human food chain. Therefore, high, stable and highly digestible yields of phytogenic biomass with low external inputs of non-renewable resources, such as water, fuel, arable land, fertilizers, etc.; low emissions of gases with greenhouse potential during cultivation; and high resistance against biotic and abiotic stressors, including adaptation to potential climate change, and a low concentration of undesirable substances in the plants are real challenges for plant breeders in the future. Virtually unlimited resources such as sunlight, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the air as well as the genetic pool of microbes, plants and animals can be used to breed/develop optimal plants/crops. Biofortification of plants may also be an objective of plants breeders, but it is more important for human nutrition to avoid micronutrient deficiencies. A lower concentration of undesirable substances in the plants can be considered as more important than higher concentrations of micronutrients in plants/feeds. Animal nutritionists have various possibilities for feed additive supplementation to meet animal nutrient requirements. Examples to reduce undesirable substances in feed plants are discussed and shown in the paper. In summary, plant breeding has a large and strategic potential for global feed and food security. All breeding technologies may contribute to solving important global challenges, such as sustainable use of limited global resources, improved use of unlimited resources, adaption to climate change and lowering global greenhouse gas emission. More publically supported research seems to be necessary in this field. All methods of plant breeding that contribute to a more resource-efficient production of high

  6. Does livestock ownership affect animal source foods consumption and child nutritional status ? evidence from rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Azzarri, Carlo; Cross, Elizabeth; Haile, Beliyou; Zezza, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries, consumption of animal source foods among the poor is still at a level where increasing its share in total caloric intake may have many positive nutritional benefits. This paper explores whether ownership of various livestock species increases consumption of animal source foods and helps improve child nutritional status. The paper finds some evidence that food ...

  7. BIOCLAIMS standard diet (BIOsd): a reference diet for nutritional physiology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; van Schothorst, E. M.; Horáková, Olga; Voigt, A.; Rossmeisl, Martin; Pico, C.; Caimari, A.; Kopecký, Jan; Klaus, S.; Keijer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2012), s. 399-404. ISSN 1555-8932 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10059; GA MŠk(CZ) OC08008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : semi-purified diet * nutrient requirements * rat * mouse Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.329, year: 2012

  8. Animal nutrition in a systems context - the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Secondary production (i.e. milk, meat, wool and eggs) in animal production systems is a function of complex interactions between animal potential and the environmental conditions (biotic and abiotic). A major factor limiting secondary production is animal nutrition. Obviously, in the absence of food, the animal will stop producing and eventually die; consequently, the investment in it, to that point, is lost. Supplying only enough nutrients to maintain the animal results in no productive output, and thus the marginal cost of production is infinite, i.e. animal input costs are incurred but no return is harvested. Provision of nutrients in excess of maintenance allows the animal to become productive thus generating a return on the investment. Animals differ in their nutrient requirements according to their inherent genetic potential and the desired level of production. There are multiple combinations of dietary ingredients that can meet an animal's nutrient requirements, which create variation in dietary costs when food resources are finite in supply. Optimization algorithms can be utilized to solve for maximum production or economic return given a set of constraints. For animals, these constraints include nutrient requirements and the availability and accessibility of food supplies. Temporal fluctuations of abiotic environmental conditions may directly impact key components of the primary production systems. For example seasonal drought diminishes and changes the seasonal pattern of herbage growth, altering or limiting the nutrient availability from local sources such as pasture. Thus, it is important that animal performance models are capable of accurately predicting secondary production responses to varying and dynamic feed inputs. The accuracy and precision of current nutrient requirement models for animals has improved over time. Although static in form, these models can and have been utilized to predict secondary production from a set of inputs

  9. Radioisotopic techniques for the study of reproductive physiology in domestic animals: 2. Physiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic techniques have been important for studying endocrinological reproductive function in domestic animals. Normal physiological events in which hormone determination has been useful for elucidation of basic concepts include the ovulatory process, cyclic regression of the corpus luteum, hormone requirements for the manifestation of sexual receptivity, establishment of pregnancy and the termination of gestation (parturition). Hormone assays have been useful for understanding the mechanism by which intra-uterine infusion and/or prostaglandin administration in both the cow and the mare shortens the oestrus cycle, namely, through the initiation of regression of the corpus luteum. Endocrine assay has also been valuable in understanding the physiology of premature parturition (abortion), as well as the abnormal prolongation of gestation. Practical uses for hormone assays include the identification of prolonged luteal syndromes such as occur in the mare, cyclic ovarian activity in the absence of sexual receptivity, and follicular or luteal cysts as well as the determination of pregnancy (progesterone in milk or blood) about three weeks post-breeding. (author)

  10. Trace elements in animal nutrition: Can a great potential be realized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few of the advances in trace element research have found universal application to practical problems of animal nutrition in the field. Environmental or man-made imbalances of trace elements can result in significant reduction of animal performance resulting in substantial economic loss and, indirectly, in a poorer nutritional status of human populations. Extrapolation of existing data suggests that wide areas of the world will be found to have considerable problems of animal trace element nutrition. Once diagnosed, correction of existing imbalances is feasible and inexpensive, with a resulting improvement of animal productivity and of human health. (author)

  11. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovat, L B

    1996-03-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  12. Effects of potassium nutrition on physiological processes and derivative spectrum characteristics of corn plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of potassium nutrition on growth, development and various other physiological processes and the spectrum characteristics of corn. Corn seeds were shown in sand culture using 3.8L pots in SPAR chambers with day/night temperatures of 30/220C and Carbon Di...

  13. Dietary Fibres: Their Analysis in Animal Feeding, and Their Role in Rabbit Nutrition and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Gidenne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries ago Heinrich Einhof developed the so-called Weende method (crude fibre, to first deals with the fibre content of the feeds for ruminants, and proposes to isolate a residue called the "crude fibre". Then, dietary fibre concepts evolve and differ in animal feeding compared to human nutrition and health. Animal nutritionists deal with various fibre sources, often from whole plants (forages, by products of seeds processing, and recover a larger range of polysaccharidic components, including other polymers, such polyphenolic (lignins, tannins or polylipidic compounds (cutins. Dietary fibres are generally defined as polysaccharides and associated substances resistant to mammal enzyme digestion and absorption that can be partially or totally fermented in the gut. However, today this topic is still subjected to very active research, because of the complexity of the physical structure and chemical composition of the plant cell walls, and in the wide and different physiological effects of these different constituents. The importance of dietary fibre in animal feeding is due to its influence on rate of passage, mucosa functionality and its role as substrate for gut microbes performances and digestive health. This review will describe the definition and different structure of fibres and cell wall constituents and their analytical methods.

  14. Nutrition and human physiological adaptations to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Putcha, L.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Space flight provides a model for the study of healthy individuals undergoing unique stresses. This review focuses on how physiological adaptations to weightlessness may affect nutrient and food requirements in space. These adaptations include reductions in body water and plasma volume, which affect the renal and cardiovascular systems and thereby fluid and electrolyte requirements. Changes in muscle mass and function may affect requirements for energy, protein and amino acids. Changes in bone mass lead to increased urinary calcium concentrations, which may increase the risk of forming renal stones. Space motion sickness may influence putative changes in gastro-intestinal-hepatic function; neurosensory alterations may affect smell and taste. Some or all of these effects may be ameliorated through the use of specially designed dietary countermeasures.

  15. Ascites syndrome in broilers: physiological and nutritional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbanzadeh, A; Decuypere, E

    2008-04-01

    Broiler chickens are intensively selected for productive traits. The management of these highly productive animals must be optimal to allow their full genetic potential to be expressed. If this is not done, inefficient production and several metabolic diseases such as ascites become apparent. The causes of the ascites are multifactorial but diet and, particularly, interactions between diet, other environmental and genetic factors play an important role. The relatively high heritability estimates for ascites-related traits and the significance of maternal genetic effects for most of the traits indicate that direct and maternal genetic effects play an important role in development of the ascites syndrome. An imbalance between oxygen supply and the oxygen required to sustain rapid growth rates and high food efficiencies causes ascites in broiler chickens. Because of the relationship to oxygen demand, ascites is affected and/or precipitated by factors such as growth rate, altitude (hypoxia) and environmental temperature. As the high metabolic rate (fast growth) is a major factor contributing to the susceptibility of broilers to ascites, early-age feed or nutrient restriction (qualitative or quantitative) or light restriction in order to slow down the growth rate seem practically viable methods, since final body weight is not compromised. Manipulation of the diet composition and/or feed allocation system can have a major effect on the incidence of ascites. Optimization of the house temperature and ventilation in cold weather seem helpful practices to decrease ascites incidence. PMID:18393088

  16. Animal nutrition and optimized utilization of locally available resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice straw is the most abundant among crop residues. Actually, rice straw is the most important roughage in Myanmar for ruminant feeding. Like other fibrous residues, it is a poor quality feed. The major cause of low productivity of livestock in tropical regions is the inadequate and poor quality of feed. The nutritional limitations of rice straw may be overcome by supplementation with concentrates, urea or green forage. Supplementation of rice straw with concentrate would improve the utilization of rice straw. Supplementation of by-product, which may increase intake and/or digestion, and/or utilization of the basal diet are the condition directly related to microbial activity, which is required to optimize rumen digestion. The microbes within the rumen grow efficiently when ammonia nitrogen in the rumen is adequate. In Myanmar, sesame meal is one of the common feed supplements for the draft cattle and crossbred dairy cows fed rice straw. Sesame meal is highly degradable (88.7%) in the rumen. Therefore, degradation of protein is a considerable factor when the protein sources are supplemented. Several processing treatments (heat, tannin, formaldehyde, etc.) have been used to increase the proportion of dietary protein, which is not degraded in the rumen. Protections of highly degradable feed protein by the heat treatment and formaldehyde have already been reported. However, little information is available about the effect of tannin included in tree foliages for the protein protection. Conventionally, tree foliages have been fed together with agricultural by-products, mainly crop-residues, containing low levels of nitrogen to enhance rumen microbial fermentation and hence the animal productivity. Tanniferous trees and shrubs are important in animal production because they can provide significant protein supplements. Forages containing leucocephala, Ziziphus mauritiana, Albizia chinensis, Manihot esculenta, Terminalia oblongata, etc. Tree legume forages offer a cheap

  17. [Problems in the energy and nutritional requirements of feeding and welfare of food producing animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphues, J

    1998-03-01

    science of animal nutrition gets more and more involved in questions on the species depending requirements that guarantee a physiological development of the animal, health and normal behaviour. There is an increased need to create and evaluate parameters that can be used for characterization animals' well-being related to different feeding strategies. Without any doubts it is a special task to veterinary nutritionists to point out risks, problems, conflicting aims when the feeding intensity is forced continuously. The slogan "back to nature" is too simple and does not correspond to the complexity of efforts which are suitable and necessary to meet animals' energy and nutrient requirements as well as demands of animals' welfare. Eventually it is helpful to remember sometimes the limits set up by the biology and physiology when feeding intensity or techniques are on debate. PMID:9581384

  18. Metabolic depression in animals: physiological perspectives and biochemical generalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy, M; Withers, P

    1999-02-01

    Depression of metabolic rate has been recorded for virtually all major animal phyla in response to environmental stress. The extent of depression is usually measured as the ratio of the depressed metabolic rate to the normal resting metabolic rate. Metabolic rate is sometimes only depressed to approx. 80% of the resting value (i.e. a depression of approx. 20% of resting); it is more commonly 5-40% of resting (i.e. a depression of approx. 60-95% of resting); extreme depression is to 1% or less of resting, or even to an unmeasurably low metabolic rate (i.e. a depression of approx. 99-100% of resting). We have examined the resting and depressed metabolic rate of animals as a function of their body mass, corrected to a common temperature. This allometric approach allows ready comparison of the absolute level of both resting and depressed metabolic rate for various animals, and suggests three general patterns of metabolic depression. Firstly, metabolic depression to approx. 0.05-0.4 of rest is a common and remarkably consistent pattern for various non-cryptobiotic animals (e.g. molluscs, earthworms, crustaceans, fishes, amphibians, reptiles). This extent of metabolic depression is typical for dormant animals with 'intrinsic' depression, i.e. reduction of metabolic rate in anticipation of adverse environmental conditions but without substantial changes to their ionic or osmotic status, or state of body water. Some of these types of animal are able to survive anoxia for limited periods, and their anaerobic metabolic depression is also to approx. 0.05-0.4 of resting. Metabolic depression to much less than 0.2 of resting is apparent for some 'resting', 'over-wintering' or diapaused eggs of these animals, but this can be due to early developmental arrest so that the egg has a low 'metabolic mass' of developed tissue (compared to the overall mass of the egg) with no metabolic depression, rather than having metabolic depression of the entire cell mass. A profound decrease in

  19. Nitrite disrupts multiple physiological functions in aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2003-01-01

    Nitrite is a potential problem in aquatic environments. Freshwater fish actively take up nitrite across the gills, leading to high internal concentrations. Seawater fish are less susceptible but do take up nitrite across intestine and gills. Nitrite has multiple physiological effects. Its uptake is...... at the expense of chloride, leading to chloride depletion. Nitrite also activates efflux of potassium from skeletal muscle and erythrocytes, disturbing intracellular and extracellular K+ levels. Nitrite transfer across the erythrocytic membrane leads to oxidation of haemoglobin to methaemoglobin (met...... nitrite-induced vasodilation (possibly via nitric oxide generated from nitrite) that is countered by increased cardiac pumping to re-establish blood pressure. Nitrite can form and/or mimic nitric oxide and thereby interfere with processes regulated by this local hormone. Steroid hormone synthesis may be...

  20. Zebrafish as Animal Model for Aquaculture Nutrition Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Elizabeth Ulloa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequenced genome allowing the efficient utilization of new technologies, such as RNA-sequencing and genotyping platforms to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the organism’s response to nutrients. Also, biotechnological tools like transgenic lines with fluorescently labeled neutrophils that allow the evaluation of the immune response in vivo, are readily available in this species. Thus, zebrafish provides an attractive platform for testing many ingredients to select those with the highest potential of success in aquaculture. In this perspective aspects related to diet evaluation in which zebrafish can make important contributions to nutritional genomics and nutritional immunity are discussed.

  1. The evolutionary physiology of animal flight: paleobiological and present perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R

    2000-01-01

    Recent geophysical analyses suggest the presence of a late Paleozoic oxygen pulse beginning in the late Devonian and continuing through to the late Carboniferous. During this period, plant terrestrialization and global carbon deposition resulted in a dramatic increase in atmospheric oxygen levels, ultimately yielding concentrations potentially as high as 35% relative to the contemporary value of 21%. Such hyperoxia of the late Paleozoic atmosphere may have physiologically facilitated the initial evolution of insect flight metabolism. Widespread gigantism in late Paleozoic insects and other arthropods is also consistent with enhanced oxygen flux within diffusion-limited tracheal systems. Because total atmospheric pressure increases with increased oxygen partial pressure, concurrently hyperdense conditions would have augmented aerodynamic force production in early forms of flying insects. By the late Permian, evolution of decompositional microbial and fungal communities, together with disequilibrium in rates of carbon deposition, gradually reduced oxygen concentrations to values possibly as low as 15%. The disappearance of giant insects by the end of the Permian is consistent with extinction of these taxa for reasons of asphyxiation on a geological time scale. As with winged insects, the multiple historical origins of vertebrate flight in the late Jurassic and Cretaceous correlate temporally with periods of elevated atmospheric oxygen. Much discussion of flight performance in Archaeopteryx assumes a contemporary atmospheric composition. Elevated oxygen levels in the mid- to late Mesozoic would, however, have facilitated aerodynamic force production and enhanced muscle power output for ancestral birds, as well as for precursors to bats and pterosaurs. PMID:10845087

  2. Potential application of electronic olfaction systems in feedstuffs analysis and animal nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Dell'Orto; Anna Campagnoli

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Olfaction Systems (EOSs) based on a variety of gas-sensing technologies have been developed to simulate in a simplified manner animal olfactory sensing systems. EOSs have been successfully applied to many applications and fields, including food technology and agriculture. Less information is available for EOS applications in the feed technology and animal nutrition sectors. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which are derived from both forages and concentrate ingredients of farm an...

  3. Dietary requirements of synthesizable amino acids by animals: a paradigm shift in protein nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids are building blocks for proteins in all animals. Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids were traditionally classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential for mammals, birds and fish. It was assumed that all the "nutritionally nonessential amino acids (NEAA)" were synthesized sufficiently in the body to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. However, careful analysis of the scientific literature reveals that over the past century there has not been compelling experimental evidence to support this assumption. NEAA (e.g., glutamine, glutamate, proline, glycine and arginine) play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling, antioxidative responses, fertility, neurotransmission, and immunity. Additionally, glutamate, glutamine and aspartate are major metabolic fuels for the small intestine to maintain its digestive function and to protect the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Thus, diets for animals must contain all NEAA to optimize their survival, growth, development, reproduction, and health. Furthermore, NEAA should be taken into consideration in revising the "ideal protein" concept that is currently used to formulate swine and poultry diets. Adequate provision of all amino acids (including NEAA) in diets enhances the efficiency of animal production. In this regard, amino acids should not be classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential in animal or human nutrition. The new Texas A&M University's optimal ratios of dietary amino acids for swine and chickens are expected to beneficially reduce dietary protein content and improve the efficiency of their nutrient utilization, growth, and production performance. PMID:24999386

  4. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; de Jager, Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-06-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems. In relation to appetite regulation, plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 are similar in pigs and humans, while peptide YY in pigs is ten to twenty times higher and ghrelin two to five times lower than in humans. Pigs are an excellent model for human studies for vagal nerve function related to the hormonal regulation of food intake. Similarly, the study of gut barrier functions reveals conserved defence mechanisms between the two species particularly in functional permeability. However, human data are scant for some of the defence systems and nutritional programming. The pig model has been valuable for studying the changes in human microbiota following nutritional interventions. In particular, the use of human flora-associated pigs is a useful model for infants, but the long-term stability of the implanted human microbiota in pigs remains to be investigated. The similarity of the pig and human brain anatomy and development is paradigmatic. Brain explorations and therapies described in pig, when compared with available human data, highlight their value in nutritional neuroscience, particularly regarding functional neuroimaging techniques. PMID:27176552

  5. Lectures Replaced by Prescribed Reading with Frequent Assessment: Enhanced Student Performance in Animal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevins, Peter F. D.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a study of the effects of partial replacement of lectures with a system of prescribed reading, supported by weekly objective testing in a second year animal physiology module. Formative tests with feedback within 24 hours were followed a week later with summative tests on the same material, utilising a proportion of the same…

  6. Nutritional, physiological, physicochemical and sensory stability of gamma irradiated Kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of gamma irradiation on nutritional, physiological, physicochemical and sensory properties of the Korean lactic acid fermented vegetable, Kimchi, were investigated. The composition of amino acids and organic acids in Kimchi were not influenced by gamma irradiation less than 10 kGy. Angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitory, xanthin oxidase inhibitory, electron donating and antimicrobial activity of Kimchi extract were stable up to 10 kGy. There were no significant changes in pH and texture at less than 10 kGy. Color values were influenced at 10 kGy of gamma irradiation, and resulted in the increase of L*- and reduction of a*-value. About 90% of panelists identified a sensory difference between non-irradiated and 10 kGy-irradiated sample, and Kimchi irradiated at 10 kGy had lower scores in acceptability than those of the control or irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy

  7. Plant nutrition between chemical and physiological limitations: is a sustainable approach possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pinton

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of world population growth and the extent of malnutrition problems due to lack of food or to deficit of specific micronutrients bring to light the importance of plant nutrition in the context of a sustainable development. Beside these aspects, which force to use fertilizers, the topic of nutrient use efficiency of by plants is far from being solved: recent estimates of world cereals productions indicate that use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers is not higher than 35%. These values are even smaller for phosphorus fertilizers (estimate of use efficiency between 10 and 30%, worsen by the fact that, with the present technology and on the basis of present knowledge, it is expected that the phosphorus reserves used for fertilizer production will be sufficient for less than 100 years. Efficiency problems have also been recently raised concerning the use of synthetic chelates to alleviate deficiency of micronutrients: these compounds have been shown to be extremely mobile along soil profile and to be only partially utilizable by plants. The low uptake efficiency of nutrients from soil is, in one hand, caused by several intrinsic characteristics of the biogeochemical cycle of nutrients, by the other, seems to be limited by biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrient absorption. Only recently, the complexity of these aspects has been apprehended and it has been realized that the programs of breeding had neglected these problematic. In this review aspects related to the acquisition of a macro- (N and a micro- (Fe nutrient, will be discussed. The aim is to show that improvements of mineral nutrient use efficiency can be achieved only through a scientific approach, considering the whole soil-plant system. Particularly emphasis will be put on aspect of molecular physiology relevant to the improvement of nutrient capture efficiency; furthermore, the role of naturally occurring organic molecules in optimizing the nutritional capacity of

  8. Plant nutrition between chemical and physiological limitations: is a sustainable approach possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pinton

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of world population growth and the extent of malnutrition problems due to lack of food or to deficit of specific micronutrients bring to light the importance of plant nutrition in the context of a sustainable development. Beside these aspects, which force to use fertilizers, the topic of nutrient use efficiency of by plants is far from being solved: recent estimates of world cereals productions indicate that use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers is not higher than 35%. These values are even smaller for phosphorus fertilizers (estimate of use efficiency between 10 and 30%, worsen by the fact that, with the present technology and on the basis of present knowledge, it is expected that the phosphorus reserves used for fertilizer production will be sufficient for less than 100 years. Efficiency problems have also been recently raised concerning the use of synthetic chelates to alleviate deficiency of micronutrients: these compounds have been shown to be extremely mobile along soil profile and to be only partially utilizable by plants. The low uptake efficiency of nutrients from soil is, in one hand, caused by several intrinsic characteristics of the biogeochemical cycle of nutrients, by the other, seems to be limited by biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrient absorption. Only recently, the complexity of these aspects has been apprehended and it has been realized that the programs of breeding had neglected these problematic. In this review aspects related to the acquisition of a macro- (N and a micro- (Fe nutrient, will be discussed. The aim is to show that improvements of mineral nutrient use efficiency can be achieved only through a scientific approach, considering the whole soil-plant system. Particularly emphasis will be put on aspect of molecular physiology relevant to the improvement of nutrient capture efficiency; furthermore, the role of naturally occurring organic molecules in optimizing the nutritional capacity of

  9. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  10. The morphology, physiology and nutritional quality of lettuce grown under hypobaria and hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongkang; Gao, Feng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Li, Fang

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the morphological, physiological and nutritional characteristics of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Rome) under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions. Plants were grown under two levels of total pressures (101 and 30 kPa) and three levels of oxygen partial pressures (21, 6 and 2 kPa) for 20 days. Hypoxia (6 or 2 kPa) not only significantly inhibited the growth of lettuce plants by decreasing biomass, leaf area, root/shoot ratio, water content, the contents of minerals and organic compounds (vitamin C, crude protein and crude fat), but also destroyed the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast. The activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of glutathione and the total antioxidant capacity significantly decreased due to hypoxia. Hypobaria (30 kPa) did not markedly enhance the biomass, but it increased leaf area, root/shoot ratio and relative water content. Hypobaria also decreased the contents of total phenols, malondialdehyde and total carbohydrate and protected the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast under hypoxia. Furthermore, the activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of minerals and organic compounds markedly increased under hypobaria. This study demonstrates that hypobaria (30 kPa) does not increase the growth of lettuce plants, but it enhances plant's stress resistance and nutritional quality under hypoxia.

  11. Winning the war against ICU-acquired weakness: new innovations in nutrition and exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischmeyer, Paul E; San-Millan, Inigo

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years we have significantly reduced hospital mortality from sepsis and critical illness. However, the evidence reveals that over the same period we have tripled the number of patients being sent to rehabilitation settings. Further, given that as many as half of the deaths in the first year following ICU admission occur post ICU discharge, it is unclear how many of these patients ever returned home. For those who do survive, the latest data indicate that 50-70% of ICU "survivors" will suffer cognitive impairment and 60-80% of "survivors" will suffer functional impairment or ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). These observations demand that we as intensive care providers ask the following questions: "Are we creating survivors ... or are we creating victims?" and "Do we accomplish 'Pyrrhic Victories' in the ICU?" Interventions to address ICU-AW must have a renewed focus on optimal nutrition, anabolic/anticatabolic strategies, and in the future employ the personalized muscle and exercise evaluation techniques utilized by elite athletes to optimize performance. Specifically, strategies must include optimal protein delivery (1.2-2.0 g/kg/day), as an athlete would routinely employ. However, as is clear in elite sports performance, optimal nutrition is fundamental but alone is often not enough. We know burn patients can remain catabolic for 2 years post burn; thus, anticatabolic agents (i.e., beta-blockers) and anabolic agents (i.e., oxandrolone) will probably also be essential. In the near future, evaluation techniques such as assessing lean body mass at the bedside using ultrasound to determine nutritional status and ultrasound-measured muscle glycogen as a marker of muscle injury and recovery could be utilized to help find the transition from the acute phase of critical illness to the recovery phase. Finally, exercise physiology testing that evaluates muscle substrate utilization during exercise can be used to diagnose muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and

  12. Winning the war against ICU-acquired weakness: new innovations in nutrition and exercise physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years we have significantly reduced hospital mortality from sepsis and critical illness. However, the evidence reveals that over the same period we have tripled the number of patients being sent to rehabilitation settings. Further, given that as many as half of the deaths in the first year following ICU admission occur post ICU discharge, it is unclear how many of these patients ever returned home. For those who do survive, the latest data indicate that 50-70% of ICU "survivors" will suffer cognitive impairment and 60-80% of "survivors" will suffer functional impairment or ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). These observations demand that we as intensive care providers ask the following questions: "Are we creating survivors ... or are we creating victims?" and "Do we accomplish 'Pyrrhic Victories' in the ICU?" Interventions to address ICU-AW must have a renewed focus on optimal nutrition, anabolic/anticatabolic strategies, and in the future employ the personalized muscle and exercise evaluation techniques utilized by elite athletes to optimize performance. Specifically, strategies must include optimal protein delivery (1.2-2.0 g/kg/day), as an athlete would routinely employ. However, as is clear in elite sports performance, optimal nutrition is fundamental but alone is often not enough. We know burn patients can remain catabolic for 2 years post burn; thus, anticatabolic agents (i.e., beta-blockers) and anabolic agents (i.e., oxandrolone) will probably also be essential. In the near future, evaluation techniques such as assessing lean body mass at the bedside using ultrasound to determine nutritional status and ultrasound-measured muscle glycogen as a marker of muscle injury and recovery could be utilized to help find the transition from the acute phase of critical illness to the recovery phase. Finally, exercise physiology testing that evaluates muscle substrate utilization during exercise can be used to diagnose muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and

  13. Potential Application of Electronic Olfaction Systems in Feedstuffs Analysis and Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell'Orto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Olfaction Systems (EOSs based on a variety of gas-sensing technologies have been developed to simulate in a simplified manner animal olfactory sensing systems. EOSs have been successfully applied to many applications and fields, including food technology and agriculture. Less information is available for EOS applications in the feed technology and animal nutrition sectors. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs, which are derived from both forages and concentrate ingredients of farm animal rations, are considered and described in this review as olfactory markers for feedstock quality and safety evaluation. EOS applications to detect VOCs from feedstuffs (as analytical matrices are described, and some future scenarios are hypothesised. Furthermore, some EOS applications in animal feeding behaviour and organoleptic feed assessment are also described.

  14. Redox physiology in animal function: The struggle of living in an oxidant environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David COSTANTINI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A strong focus of ecological research for several decades has been to understand the factors underlying the variation in animal life-histories. In recent times, ecological studies have begun to show that oxidative stress may represent another important modulator of competitive trade-offs among fitness traits or of positively integrated patterns of traits. Therefore, incorporating mechanisms underlying oxidative physiology into evolutionary ecology has the potential to help understand variation in life-history strategies. In this review, I provide a general overview of oxidative stress physiology, and subsequently focus on topics that have been neglected in previous ecological reviews on oxidative stress. Specifically, I introduce and discuss the adaptations that animals have evolved to cope with oxidative stress; the environmental stressors that can generate changes in oxidative balance; the role of reactive species in transduction of environmental stimuli and cell signaling; and the range of hormetic responses to oxidative stress [Current Zoology 56 (6: 687–702, 2010].

  15. The physiology and biochemistry of total body immobilization in animals: A compendium of research. [bibliographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchak, K. J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Major studies that describe the physiological and biochemical mechanisms which operate during total body restraint (confinement in cages for example) are presented. The metabolism and behavior of various animals used in medical research (dogs, monkeys, rats, fowl) was investigated and wherever possible a detailed annotation for each study is provided under the subheadings: (a) purposes, (b) procedures and methods, (c) results, and (d) conclusions. Selected references are also included.

  16. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Future aspects and perceptions of companion animal nutrition and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P; Swanson, K S

    2015-03-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our lives and are now considered to be and treated as family members in a majority of households in the United States. Because of the high number of pets that now exist, an increasingly stronger pet-human bond, and the importance placed on health and longevity, the pet food industry has realized steady growth over the last few decades. Despite past successes and opportunities that exist in the future, there are also challenges that must be considered. This review will present a brief overview of the current pet food industry and address some of the key issues moving forward. In regards to companion animal research, recent advances and future needs in the areas of canine and feline metabolism, aging, clinical disease, and the gut microbiome using molecular and high-throughput assays; chemical, in vitro, and in vivo testing of feed ingredients; and innovative pet food processing methods is discussed. Training the future workforce for the pet food industry is also of great importance. Recent trends on student demographics and their species and careers of interest, changing animal science department curricula, and technology's impact on instruction are provided. Finally, the sustainability of the pet food industry is discussed. Focus was primarily placed on the disconnect that exists between opinions and trends of consumers and the nutrient recommendations for dogs and cats, the desire for increasing use of animal-based and human-grade products, the overfeeding of pets and the pet obesity crisis, and the issues that involve the evaluation of primary vs. secondary products in terms of sustainability. Moving forward, the pet food industry will need to anticipate and address challenges that arise, especially those pertaining to consumer expectations, the regulatory environment, and sustainability. Given the already strong and increasingly dynamic market for pet foods and supplies, an academic environment primed to supply a

  17. From potential to reality. Yeasts derived from ethanol production for animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high costs of cereals and vegetable protein supplements used for animal nutrition have directed much attention toward non-conventional alternative protein sources. Brazil has a significant potential to provide such material, since it is the world's largest producer of ethanol (13 billion liters per year) derived from fermentation by yeasts (sugar cane being the basic raw material). Distilleries are recovering surplus yeast to produce dry yeast for use in animal food formulations. With regard to the yeast biomass elemental composition, INAA analyses performed on a pool of samples from various different fermentations have shown the presence of various trace elements, e.g. As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Sm, Th, and Zn. This reinforces the need for additional studies concerning the suitability of yeast in terms of maximum tolerable levels of these elements in formulations for domestic animals. (author)

  18. Nutritional sub-fertility in the dairy cow: towards improved reproductive management through a better biological understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friggens, Nic; Disenhaus, C; Petit, H V

    2010-01-01

    for the dairy producer. In this study we focus on understanding the overall biological phenomena associated with nutritional sub-fertility rather than the underlying multiplicity of physiological interactions (already described in a number of recent studies). These phenomena are important because they...... represent the natural adaptations of the animal for dealing with variations in the nutritional environment. They can also be used to monitor and modulate reproductive performance on-farm. There is an underlying trade-off between two aspects of reproduction: investment in the viability of the current calf....... Both delay further reproductive commitment. The relationship between reproductive performance and; milk production as an index of maternal investment, body fatness as an index of ability to safeguard reproductive investment, and body fat mobilisation as an index of the current nutritional environment...

  19. Epidemiology, ethics and managing risks for physiological and behavioural stability of animals during long distance transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Adams

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms to maintain the physiological and behavioural stability of animals during long distance transport are explored according to the epidemiological concept of the risk factor. The purpose is to consider quality assurance and risk management as two practical means of protecting animal health and welfare during long distance transport. The hierarchy of welfare, health and disease is treated as an indivisible whole to ensure that surveillance for welfare will encompass surveillance for infectious disease and that ethical consideration applies to the totality. Disease can have devastating effects on the well-being of both animals and people. Risk factors and epidemiological methods are explained and promoted for use in managing the health and welfare of animals transported over long distances. A 'one medicine' approach is emphasised and the depiction of stress as the cost of adaptation to stressors or the allostatic load is introduced to illuminate the challenges confronting transported animals. Aspects of heat stress in cattle are explored to illustrate how various sources of information, including inference from general biological knowledge, can assist in characterising risk factors that derive from the constitution of animals themselves.

  20. Use of labelled water in studies on the nutrition and physiology of grazing ruminants in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of isotopic water in animal production studies on grazing ruminants in New Zealand are described. These include the seasonal and nutritional effects on water metabolism of dairy cattle and meat breeds of sheep, milk intakes of calves and lambs, and individual intakes of dietary supplements to control diseases such as hypomagnesaemia, bloat and facial eczema. (author)

  1. PHYSIOLOGIC AND GENOMIC ANALYSES OF NUTRITION-ETHANOL INTERACTIONS DURING GESTATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR FETAL ETHANOL TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition-ethanol (EtOH) interactions during gestation remain unclear, primarily due to the lack of appropriate rodent models. In the present report we utilize total enteral nutrition (TEN) to specifically understand the roles of nutrition and caloric intake in EtOH-induced fetal toxicity. Time-impr...

  2. Fruit and Vegetable Co-Products as Functional Feed Ingredients in Farm Animal Nutrition for Improved Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kasapidou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are significant environmental, economic and social factors favoring the reutilization of fruit and vegetable processing co-products in farm animal nutrition. Current evidence shows that fruit and vegetable processing co-products can be effectively used in farm animal nutrition as functional feed ingredients for the production of food products of improved quality. These ingredients comply with consumer requests for the production of “clean,” “natural” and “eco/green” label food products. The main parameters affecting extensive application of fruit and vegetable processing by-/co-products as functional feed ingredients in livestock nutrition are related to animal factors, logistics, and commercial value. Further research is needed to enable the commercial application of these products to livestock nutrition.

  3. Nutritional composition and digestibility by ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) of whole animals and a commercial diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Cynthia L; Booth-Binczik, Susan D; Steele, Suzy R E

    2010-01-01

    Felids are adapted to eat whole prey, but in North American zoos are usually fed processed diets based on muscle meat. We analyzed proximate nutrient composition and digestibility by ocelots of a commercial processed diet and whole animals of five species. The processed diet did not differ significantly from the whole animals in proximate composition, although it was at one end of the range of results for all nutrients. Domestic chicks were significantly lower than all other dietary items tested in digestibility of energy and fat, and lower than rabbits and quail in digestibility of dry matter. There were no other significant differences. These results suggest that the commercial diet tested provides an appropriate nutritional environment for ocelots with respect to proximate constituents. Studies of vitamin and mineral composition and digestibility and comparisons to wild prey species should be conducted to permit a full evaluation. PMID:20024961

  4. Oral physiology, nutrition and quality of life in diabetic patients associated or not with hypertension and beta-blockers therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L J; Foureaux, R C; Pereira, C V; Alves, M C; Campos, C H; Rodrigues Garcia, R C M; Andrade, E F; Gonçalves, T M S V

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between type 2 diabetes oral physiology, nutritional intake and quality of life has not been fully elucidated. We assessed the impact of type 2 diabetes - exclusive or associated with hypertension with beta-blockers treatment - on oral physiology, mastication, nutrition and quality of life. This cross-sectional study was performed with 78 complete dentate subjects (15 natural teeth and six masticatory units minimum; without removable or fixed prostheses), divided into three groups: diabetics (DM) (n = 20; 45·4 ± 9·5 years), diabetics with hypertension and receiving beta-blockers treatment (DMH) (n = 19; 41·1 ± 5·1 years) and controls (n = 39; 44·5 ± 11·7 years) matched for gender, age and socioeconomic status. Blood glucose, masticatory performance, swallowing threshold, taste, food intake, stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow, pH and buffering capacity of saliva were assessed. Glycemia was higher in DM than in controls (P physiology, nutrition or quality of life. However, when hypertension and beta-blockers treatment were associated with diabetes, the salivary flow rate, chewing cycles and number of teeth decreased. PMID:27043215

  5. "The Queen Has Been Dreadfully Shocked": Aspects of Teaching Experimental Physiology Using Animals in Britain, 1876-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, E. M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the impact of legislation on animal experimentation that has been in effect since 1876 in Great Britain. Focuses on the impact of these laws on the teaching of practical physiology to undergraduate students. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  6. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND LOCAL ANIMAL HUSBANDRY: TASKS AND POSSIBILITIES FOR THE HUMAN HEALTHY NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SEREGI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive nutritional effects of PUFA in the human diet nowadays are wellknown. The presence of PUFA in food of animal origin is first of all influenced by the feeding. The animal feeds rich in omega-3 PUFA are considered as basic feeds, such as meadow, grass, hay, green forage, grains etc. In the newly accessed EU countries the traditional breeding methods are typical (housing, lairage, pasture. This tendency is reflected also in the composition of local breeds: the so called indigenous, traditional breeds are characteristic. The development and expansion of local breeding methods is of crucial importance for the viable region, the protection (many times the restoration of environment and for the above mentioned human nutritional advantages. With modern control methods of origin, with adherence of food-safety rules, the local commercialization of the traditional foods can be solved, as many positive examples show in different countries. The need for diverse, tasteful and safe products of special quality is also increasing. Our aim is to support and favour the local, traditional breeding for direct commercialization with ensuring the proper conditions, financial support and legislation.

  7. Radioisotopic techniques for the study of reproductive physiology in domestic animals: 1. Assay procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent introduction of tracer techniques, such as competitive protein binding assay and radioimmunoassay for measuring peripheral blood plasma levels of hormones in the ng and pg range in large domestic animals, has greatly increased our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of these species. The development of these competitive radioassay techniques has allowed assays to be carried out on small amounts of plasma which, in turn, has allowed serial sampling of blood to be done in the same animal; the result has been a better understanding of the dynamics of reproductive endocrine function. The assay procedures have allowed the processing of large numbers of samples which enables the cost of each analysis to be of reasonable price. It is also worth emphasizing that no radioactive material has to be administered to the animal that is undergoing investigation. The application of competitive radioassay techniques for the measurement of oestrone, oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone and prostaglandins is discussed. These hormones are of significance for the understanding of reproductive procedures in large domestic animals. (author)

  8. Nutritional strategies to combat Salmonella in mono-gastric food animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, A C; Wierup, M

    2012-04-01

    Nutritional strategies to minimize Salmonella in food animal production are one of the key components in producing safer food. The current European approach is to use a farm-to-fork strategy, where each sector must implement measures to minimize and reduce Salmonella contamination. In the pre-harvest phase, this means that all available tools need to be used such as implementation of biosecurity measures, control of Salmonella infections in animals at the farm as well as in transport and trade, optimal housing and management including cleaning, disinfection procedures as well as efforts to achieve Salmonella-free feed production. This paper describes some nutritional strategies that could be used in farm control programmes in the major mono-gastric food production animals: poultry and pigs. Initially, it is important to prevent the introduction of Salmonella onto the farm through Salmonella-contaminated feed and this risk is reduced through heat treatment and the use of organic acids and their salts and formaldehyde. Microbiological sampling and monitoring for Salmonella in the feed mills is required to minimize the introduction of Salmonella via feed onto the farm. In addition, feed withdrawal may create a stressful situation in animals, resulting in an increase in Salmonella shedding. Physical feed characteristics such as coarse-ground meal to pigs can delay gastric emptying, thereby increasing the acidity of the gut and thus reducing the possible prevalence of Salmonella. Coarse-ground grains and access to litter have also been shown to decrease Salmonella shedding in poultry. The feed can also modify the gastro-intestinal tract microflora and influence the immune system, which can minimize Salmonella colonization and shedding. Feed additives, such as organic acids, short- and medium-chain fatty acids, probiotics, including competitive exclusion cultures, prebiotics and certain specific carbohydrates, such as mannan-based compounds, egg proteins, essential oils

  9. Acute physiological impacts of CO2 ocean sequestration on marine animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological impacts of ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration must be carefully considered before it is implemented as a mitigation strategy. This paper presented details of a study investigating the effects of high CO2 concentrations on marine fish, lobster, and octopus. The influence of water temperature on the physiological effects of CO2 was also discussed. In the first part of the study, eggs and larvae of red seabream were exposed to both CO2 and HCI-acidified seawater at identical pH levels. Seabream in the CO2 group showed a much higher mortality rate than fish in the HCI group. Other tests showed that Japanese Flounder died after complete recovery of pH in seawater equilibrated with 5 per cent CO2. Cardiac output was rapidly depressed in Yellowtail fish without significant changes in blood oxygen concentrations. Lower temperatures resulted in higher mortality and delayed pH recovery during hypercapnia in all fish. Western rock lobsters were the most tolerant to CO2 among all species tested. The recovery of hemolymph pH was complete at exposure to CO2 concentrations of 1 per cent. Changes in hemolymph bicarbonate concentrations indicated that acid-based regulatory mechanisms differed between fish and lobsters. Mortality rates for octopus were significant at CO2 concentrations of 1 per cent. The results of all tests showed that aquatic animals are more susceptible to increases in ambient CO2 levels than terrestrial animals. It was concluded that even slight elevations in CO2 concentration levels adversely affected physiological functioning in the tested species. It was concluded that CO2 sequestration in deeper, colder waters will have a more pronounced effect on aquatic animals due to the interactions between CO2 and lower temperatures, as well as the fact that most deep-sea fish are less tolerant to environmental perturbations. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  10. A physiological foundation for the nutrition-based efficiency wage model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent research on allometric scaling and energy consumption, the present paper develops a nutrition-based efficiency wage model from first principles. The biologically micro-founded model allows us to address empirical criticism of the original nutrition-based efficiency wage model. By...

  11. Review of Use of Animation as a Supplementary Learning Material of Physiology Content in Four Academic Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Isabel; Tam, Michael; Lam, Shun Leung; Lam, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic concepts are difficult to explain in traditional media such as still slides. Animations seem to offer the advantage of delivering better representations of these concepts. Compared with static images and text, animations can present procedural information (e.g. biochemical reaction steps, physiological activities) more explicitly as they…

  12. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  13. Composition and nutritive value of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes) in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, M E; Murillo, M G

    1984-06-01

    Nutritive assessment of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes) meals included proximal composition of the lipid and nitrogenous fractions. Caloric values obtained as true metabolizable energy (TME) indicate that the pejibaye has a higher content of energy than corn and that it is not necessary to separate the seeds from the fruits in animal feeds; the level of indispensable aminoacids is considerably low, especially methionine, which is lower than in corn; thin layer chromatography shows that most of the free fatty acids are present in a ratio of 2:1 in unsaturated to saturated acids. The predominant fatty acids in whole pejibaye meal are oleic and palmitic acids with adequate levels of linoleic acid. Saturated fatty acids are predominant in the seed, with a very high content of lauric and myristic acids. PMID:6535181

  14. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen. PMID:26476556

  15. A method of remote physiological monitoring of a fully mobile primate in a single animal cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, P C; Halsey, M J; Ross, J A; Luff, N P; Bevilacqua, R A; Maclean, C J

    1989-04-01

    A system was designed to allow the physiological monitoring of a fully mobile, unstressed baboon (Papio anubis) in a single animal cage for the purpose of measuring the changes occurring in a hyperbaric environment. It was required to operate for at least three months, both inside a pressure chamber and outside, and to measure the following parameters: electroencephalogram (EEG, three channels), electrooculogram (EOG), electromyelogram (EMG, two channels), electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure, respiration and body temperature. Also in the system were catheters through which blood samples could be taken and intravenous drugs given. The overall system consisted of a harness and jacket, an umbilical and back pack, a combined electrical and fluid transmission swivel and a monitoring implant and catheters. PMID:2709798

  16. Utilization of tropical crop residues and agroindustrial by-products in animal nutrition. Constraints and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of by-products and crop residues as animal feeds is increasing steadily. This is a consequence of the increasing demand for cereal grains as both human and animal (chiefly poultry) food, and the increasing demand for energy coupled with decreasing availability of fossil fuels. The effects of these two trends are that primary use of land for livestock production (usually grazing systems) will steadily diminish; at the same time, sources of biomass will increase in importance as renewable energy sources, and greater emphasis will be placed on draught animal power. Most by-products and crop residues are fibrous and therefore of only low to moderate nutritive value, or have special physical and chemical characteristics making them difficult to incorporate in conventional ''balanced'' rations. Such feed raw materials may need special processing and/or special forms of supplementation if they are to be used efficiently. It is hypothesized that industrial by-products and crop residues will be more efficiently utilized if they are incorporated in diversified and integrated production systems, i.e. (a) livestock production is integrated with production of cash crops both for food and fuel; (b) different livestock species are utilized in the same enterprise in a complementary way; (c) livestock feeding is based on crop residues (energy) supplemented with protein-rich forages and aquatic plants; and (d) animal wastes are recycled and used for food, fertilizer and fuel. This strategy is particularly suitable for the conditions in (i) tropical countries, whose climate favours high crop/biomass yields per unit area and ease of fermentation of organic wastes, and (ii) family farms, for which diversification means greater opportunity for self-sufficiency and increased possibilities for use of family resources. (author)

  17. Acute physiological impacts of CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration on marine animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimatsu, A.; Hayashi, M.; Lee, K.S.; Murata, K.; Kumagai, E. [Nagasaki Univ., Nagasaki (Japan). Marine Research Inst.; Kikkawa, T. [Marine Ecology Research Inst., Chiba (Japan). Central Laboratory; Kita, J. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The biological impacts of ocean carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration must be carefully considered before it is implemented as a mitigation strategy. This paper presented details of a study investigating the effects of high CO{sub 2} concentrations on marine fish, lobster, and octopus. The influence of water temperature on the physiological effects of CO{sub 2} was also discussed. In the first part of the study, eggs and larvae of red seabream were exposed to both CO{sub 2} and HCI-acidified seawater at identical pH levels. Seabream in the CO{sub 2} group showed a much higher mortality rate than fish in the HCI group. Other tests showed that Japanese Flounder died after complete recovery of pH in seawater equilibrated with 5 per cent CO{sub 2}. Cardiac output was rapidly depressed in Yellowtail fish without significant changes in blood oxygen concentrations. Lower temperatures resulted in higher mortality and delayed pH recovery during hypercapnia in all fish. Western rock lobsters were the most tolerant to CO{sub 2} among all species tested. The recovery of hemolymph pH was complete at exposure to CO{sub 2} concentrations of 1 per cent. Changes in hemolymph bicarbonate concentrations indicated that acid-based regulatory mechanisms differed between fish and lobsters. Mortality rates for octopus were significant at CO{sub 2} concentrations of 1 per cent. The results of all tests showed that aquatic animals are more susceptible to increases in ambient CO{sub 2} levels than terrestrial animals. It was concluded that even slight elevations in CO{sub 2} concentration levels adversely affected physiological functioning in the tested species. It was concluded that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deeper, colder waters will have a more pronounced effect on aquatic animals due to the interactions between CO{sub 2} and lower temperatures, as well as the fact that most deep-sea fish are less tolerant to environmental perturbations. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  18. Neutron activation analysis of alternative phosphate rocks used in animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980's, Bovine Sponghiform Encephalophaty has insidiously created a fierce battleground between farmers, scientists, environmentalists and consumers. The use of meat and bone meals is currently prohibited in ruminant feeds throughout the world. Some inorganic sources offer the combination of high phosphorus content and acceptable animal digestibility make them options as supplemental phosphorus, for instance phosphate rocks, general term applied to minerals valued chiefly for their phosphorus content. However, phosphate rocks are long been known containing hazardous elements, make them sometimes unsuitable for animal nutrition. Neutron Activation Analysis has been supportive to the mineral evaluation of alternative phosphate rocks. This evaluation is subject of on-going doctoral thesis which has been carried-out by the main author. The NAA method has been very efficient due to its highly sensitive and multi-elemental nature. In this paper results of Vanadium content from three different phosphate rocks are presented. Their values have been pointed out that Brazilian phosphate rocks present hazardous elements at the same levels of phosphate rocks from some countries of Africa, North America and Middle East, data from our study (Brazilian data) and FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization (others countries). (author)

  19. The use of animal models to decipher physiological and neurobiological alterations of Anorexia Nervosa patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eMéquinion

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since the chronic refusal to eat leads to severe and sometimes irreversible complications for the whole organism, until death. There is an urgent need to better understand the different aspects of the disease to develop novel approaches complementary to the usual psychological therapies. For this purpose, the use of pertinent animal models becomes a necessity. We present here the various rodent models described in the literature that might be used to dissect central and peripheral mechanisms involved in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptides, neurotransmitter in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur rendering necessary the used of more selective gene strategies. Until now, environmental animal models based on one or several inducing factors like diet restriction, stress or physical activity mimicked more extensively central and peripheral alterations decribed in anorexia nervosa. They bring significant data on feeding behavior, energy expenditure and central circuit alterations. Animal models are described and criticized on the basis of the criteria of validity for anorexia nervosa.

  20. The use of animal models to decipher physiological and neurobiological alterations of anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since the chronic refusal to eat leads to severe, and sometimes, irreversible complications for the whole organism, until death. There is an urgent need to better understand the different aspects of the disease to develop novel approaches complementary to the usual psychological therapies. For this purpose, the use of pertinent animal models becomes a necessity. We present here the various rodent models described in the literature that might be used to dissect central and peripheral mechanisms involved in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter) in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur rendering necessary the use of more selective gene strategies. Until now, environmental animal models based on one or several inducing factors like diet restriction, stress, or physical activity mimicked more extensively central and peripheral alterations decribed in anorexia nervosa. They bring significant data on feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and central circuit alterations. Animal models are described and criticized on the basis of the criteria of validity for anorexia nervosa. PMID:26042085

  1. Introduction to Animal Nutrition. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 28, Number 7 [and] Volume 28, Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiter, Andrea; And Others

    This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain five lessons about animal science for inclusion in Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) agricultural education courses. The lessons cover these topics: the monogastric digestive system, the ruminant digestive system, the importance of meeting nutritional needs, how…

  2. Palm oil: biochemical, physiological, nutritional, hematological, and toxicological aspects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, D O

    2002-01-01

    The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular diseases has necessitated a growing research interest in palm oil, the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Palm oil, obtained from a tropical plant, Elaeis guineensis contains 50% saturated fatty acids, yet it does not promote atherosclerosis and arterial thrombosis. The saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid ratio of palm oil is close to unity and it contains a high amount of the antioxidants, beta-carotene, and vitamin E. Although palm oil-based diets induce a higher blood cholesterol level than do corn, soybean, safflower seed, and sunflower oils, the consumption of palm oil causes the endogenous cholesterol level to drop. This phenomenon seems to arise from the presence of the tocotrienols and the peculiar isomeric position of its fatty acids. The benefits of palm oil to health include reduction in risk of arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis, inhibition of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, platelet aggregation, and reduction in blood pressure. Palm oil has been used in the fresh state and/or at various levels of oxidation. Oxidation is a result of processing the oil for various culinary purposes. However, a considerable amount of the commonly used palm oil is in the oxidized state, which poses potential dangers to the biochemical and physiological functions of the body. Unlike fresh palm oil, oxidized palm oil induces an adverse lipid profile, reproductive toxicity and toxicity of the kidney, lung, liver, and heart. This may be as a result of the generation of toxicants brought on by oxidation. In contrast to oxidized palm oil, red or refined palm oil at moderate levels in the diet of experimental animals promotes efficient utilization of nutrients, favorable body weight gains, induction of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, adequate hemoglobinization of red cells and improvement of immune function. Howerer, high palm oil levels in the diet induce toxicity to the liver as shown by

  3. Applications of labelled water in animal nutrition and physiology. II. Measurement of milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application and validity of isotopic water to measure the milk intake of suckling lambs and calves are discussed. A method using two isotopes of iodine is described. Partitioning the intake of water in the offspring into that from milk and that from other sources, using a double-labelled technique (tritium and deuterium), is also presented. (author)

  4. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  5. Nutrition, Exercise, and Sleep: Physiological Considerations in the Classroom for Alternative Certification Teachers. Editor's Perspective Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Proper nutrition, adequate amounts of physical activity, and sufficient amounts of sleep are three important variables for healthy children. Alternative certification teachers quickly enter the classroom at the beginning of their programs and may encounter disengaged students who lack the energy needed for quality learning and achievement.…

  6. Protocol: optimising hydroponic growth systems for nutritional and physiological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants

    OpenAIRE

    Conn, Simon J; Hocking, Bradleigh; Dayod, Maclin; Xu, Bo; Athman, Asmini; Henderson, Sam; Aukett, Lucy; Conn, Vanessa; Shearer, Monique K; Fuentes, Sigfredo; TYERMAN, STEPHEN D.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroponic growth systems are a convenient platform for studying whole plant physiology. However, we found through trialling systems as they are described in the literature that our experiments were frequently confounded by factors that affected plant growth, including algal contamination and hypoxia. We also found the way in which the plants were grown made them poorly amenable to a number of common physiological assays. Results The drivers for the development of this hydroponic s...

  7. "The queen has been dreadfully shocked": Aspects of teaching experimental physiology using animals in Britain, 1876-1986

    OpenAIRE

    Tansey, E M

    1998-01-01

    Animal experimentation has been subject to legislative control in the United Kingdom since 1876. This paper reviews the impact of that legislation, which was replaced in 1986, on the teaching of practical physiology to undergraduate students. Highlights and case studies are also presented, drawing on Government reports and statistics, published books and papers, and unpublished archival data.

  8. The nutrition of the chinchilla as a companion animal--basic data, influences and dependences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P; Schröder, A; Wenger, A; Kamphues, J

    2003-04-01

    This contribution is meant to obtain basic data for feeding chinchillas (ingestion behaviour, feed and water intake) kept as companion animals. The chinchillas ingested more than 70% of their total feed intake during the dark phase (highest level of activity between 9:00 pm and 7:00 am). Daily amounts of feed intake varied between 2.5 (fresh grass) or 2.6 (hay) and 5.5 (pelleted complete diet) g of dry matter per 100 g of body weight. An offered mixed feed based on native components led to a selection of individual ingredients (high palatability: carob, beet pulp, sunflower seeds). The chinchillas' daily water intake varied between 30 (mixed feed in briquette form) and 40 ml (alfalfa cubes) and amounted on average between 1.5 and 3 ml/g of dry matter. Compared with rabbits or guinea-pigs, the chinchillas generally showed noticeable differences (rhythm of feed intake, palatability of individual ingredients, capacity for digestion, etc.) which must be considered in order to optimize the nutrition of this species. PMID:14511138

  9. Physiological responses in roots of the grapevine rootstock 140 Ruggeri subjected to Fe deficiency and Fe-heme nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Rodrigues Moreira, Erica; Donnini, Silvia; Bombai, Giuseppe; Filippini, Gianfranco; Pisi, Annamaria; Rombolà, Adamo D

    2015-11-01

    Iron (Fe)-heme containing fertilizers can effectively prevent Fe deficiency. This paper aims to investigate root physiological responses after a short period of Fe-heme nutrition and Fe deficiency under two pH conditions (with or without HEPES) in the Fe chlorosis-tolerant grapevine rootstock 140 Ruggeri. Organic acids in root exudates, Fe reduction capacity, both roots and root exudates contributions, together with other physiological parameters associated to plant Fe status were evaluated in plants grown in hydroponics. Analyses of root tips by SEM, and Raman and IR spectra of the precipitates of Fe-heme fertilizers were performed. The physiological responses adopted by the tolerant 140 Ruggeri to the application of Fe-heme indicated an increased Fe reduction capacity of the roots. This is the first report showing oxalic, tartaric, malic and ascorbic as major organic acids in Vitis spp. root exudates. Plants reacted to Fe deficiency condition exuding a higher amount of ascorbic acid in the rhizosphere. The presence of HEPES in the medium favoured the malic acid exudation. The lowest concentration of oxalic acid was found in exudates of plants subjected to Fe-heme and could be associated to a higher accumulation in their root tips visualized by SEM analysis. PMID:26276277

  10. Plant nutrition between chemical and physiological limitations: is a sustainable approach possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Pinton; Nicola Tomasi; Rossella Monte; Stefano Cesco; Zeno Varanini

    2008-01-01

    The estimate of world population growth and the extent of malnutrition problems due to lack of food or to deficit of specific micronutrients bring to light the importance of plant nutrition in the context of a sustainable development. Beside these aspects, which force to use fertilizers, the topic of nutrient use efficiency of by plants is far from being solved: recent estimates of world cereals productions indicate that use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers is not higher than 35%. These val...

  11. Features and News: The Importance of Discoveries in Animal Science to Human Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioScience, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Five short notes describe the contributions to human welfare of animal research in reproductive physiology; ruminant nutrition; meat science research; genetics and animal breeding; and recycling food by-products. (AL)

  12. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  13. Comparing the Physiological, Socio-economic and Nutritional Status among Male and Female Undergraduate College Students of Metropolitan City of Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present days, increasing trend of eating disorders are noticed among college students (both male and female) which can disturb their overall physiological and health status. It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of the undergraduate college students of Kolkata is insufficient. Aim: Thus, the objective of this small-scale cross-sectional study is to report and compare the prevale...

  14. Correlations between blood lead levels and some physiological and biochemical parameters of nutritional importance in some Nigerian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is one of the common toxic materials widely occurring in the Nigerian environment. Even with the change to unleaded petrol, other significant sources still remain to be addressed. The deleterious impact of lead on human health, is well documented. The effects range from attention-grabbing mass mortality - as happened in Zamfara State recently, to no less serious but grossly neglected neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental effects, including lowered intelligence quotient scores. All these impacts are most serious in children, especially fetuses who receive their burden from their mothers. Ninety percent of lead in most adults resides in the bones with a half-life measured in decades. Therefore, fetuses and breast-fed children in this generation will remain seriously at risk of exposure to damaging lead levels no matter the efforts to rid our external environment of lead in the years to come. In this work, we have investigated the correlation between Blood Lead Levels (BLL) and up to 35 physiological and biochemical parameters of nutritional importance in 62 women of child-bearing age from lIe-lfe, Nigeria. BLL was determined in venous blood using Inductively- coupled plasma Mass Spectrometry. Our results show that BLL significantly correlates with Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Creatine Clearance, and the ratio of Low-density Lipids to High density Lipids in these women. When the subjects were stratified into different Nutritional Status group based on their Body Mass Index, significant correlation was found between BLL and Age but only in Obese subjects.

  15. Lipid metabolism, adipocyte depot physiology and utilization of meat animals as experimental models for metabolic research

    OpenAIRE

    Michael V. Dodson, Gary J. Hausman, LeLuo Guan, Min Du, Theodore P. Rasmussen, Sylvia P. Poulos, Priya Mir, Werner G. Bergen, Melinda E. Fernyhough, Douglas C. McFarland, Robert P. Rhoads, Beatrice Soret, James M. Reecy, Sandra G. Velleman, Zhihua Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Meat animals are unique as experimental models for both lipid metabolism and adipocyte studies because of their direct economic value for animal production. This paper discusses the principles that regulate adipogenesis in major meat animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs), the definition of adipose depot-specific regulation of lipid metabolism or adipogenesis, and introduces the potential value of these animals as models for metabolic research including mammary biology and the ontogeny...

  16. Lipid metabolism, adipocyte depot physiology and utilization of meat animals as experimental models for metabolic research

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, Michael V.; Hausman, Gary J.; Guan, Leluo; Du, Min; Rasmussen, Theodore P.; Poulos, Sylvia P; Mir, Priya; Bergen, Werner G.; Fernyhough, Melinda E.; McFarland, Douglas C.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Soret Lafraya, Beatriz; Reecy, James M.; Velleman, Sandra G; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    Meat animals are unique as experimental models for both lipid metabolism and adipocyte studies because of their direct economic value for animal production. This paper discusses the principles that regulate adipogenesis in major meat animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs), the definition of adipose depot-specific regulation of lipid metabolism or adipogenesis, and introduces the potential value of these animals as models for metabolic research including mammary biology and the onto...

  17. Isolation, purification and studies on radiation induced biochemical and physiological changes of bovine growth hormone in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth hormone has a great importance in the field of animal physiology. Bovine growth hormone was extracted by alteration of the hydrogen ion concentration of phosphate buffer extract of frozen pituitary glands. The extracted bovine growth hormone has similar absorption peaks at UV and infrared spectra, bands of the same location on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plate and had a molecular weight exactly as the standard bovine growth hormone and equal to 20.9 KD. Labelling of bovine growth hormone with 131 I was carried out with fast and least expensive method. The biological and physiological effects of labelled and non labelled bovine growth hormone were studied on rabbits. The labelled bovine growth hormone decreased the biological and physiological effects of the hormone. Bovine growth hormone (unlabelled) and different effects on growth performance traits, body chemical composition (water, fat,protein and ash), and also on the serum biochemical parameters. We conclude that the bovine growth hormone affects on the biological and physiological properties but this depends on the dose, type of delivery of hormone, time of treatment, and the diet content of the animal. 6 tabs., 13.2 figs., 110 refs

  18. Buffalo milk and cheese from animal to human nutrition. Part 1: the unsaponifiable fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattera

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to evaluate nutritional quality, samples of milk and Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO have been studied analyzing cholesterol, alfa tocopherol and trans retinol, functional components of the unsaponifiable fraction. Dairy products of experimental and commercial origin have been sampled. A large variability has been observed among the products but, regarding the nutrients studied, commercial and experimental farms produce mozzarella cheeses of comparable nutritional quality.

  19. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of cyclohexane as a tool for integrating animal and human test data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hissink, A.M.; Kulig, B.M.; Kruse, J.; Freidig, A.P.; Verwei, M.; Muijser, H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Mckee, R.H.; Owen, D.E.; Sweeney, L.M.; Salmon, F.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for cyclohexane and its use in comparing internal doses in rats and volunteers following inhalation exposures. Parameters describing saturable metabolism of cyclohexane are measured in rats and used along with experimentally determi

  20. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  1. Physiological strategies during animal diapause: lessons from brine shrimp and annual killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrabsky, Jason E; Hand, Steven C

    2015-06-01

    Diapause is a programmed state of developmental arrest that typically occurs as part of the natural developmental progression of organisms that inhabit seasonal environments. The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus share strikingly similar life histories that include embryonic diapause as a means to synchronize the growth and reproduction phases of their life history to favorable environmental conditions. In both species, respiration rate is severely depressed during diapause and thus alterations in mitochondrial physiology are a key component of the suite of characters associated with cessation of development. Here, we use these two species to illustrate the basic principles of metabolic depression at the physiological and biochemical levels. It is clear that these two species use divergent molecular mechanisms to achieve the same physiological and ecological outcomes. This pattern of convergent physiological strategies supports the importance of biochemical and physiological adaptations to cope with extreme environmental stress and suggests that inferring mechanism from transcriptomics or proteomics or metabolomics alone, without rigorous follow-up at the biochemical and physiological levels, could lead to erroneous conclusions. PMID:26085666

  2. Molecular nutrition: Interaction of nutrients, gene regulations and performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kan

    2016-07-01

    Nutrition deals with ingestion of foods, digestion, absorption, transport of nutrients, intermediary metabolism, underlying anabolism and catabolism, and excretion of unabsorbed nutrients and metabolites. In addition, nutrition interacts with gene expressions, which are involved in the regulation of animal performances. Our laboratory is concerned with the improvement of animal productions, such as milks, meats and eggs, with molecular nutritional aspects. The present review shows overviews on the nutritional regulation of metabolism, physiological functions and gene expressions to improve animal production in chickens and dairy cows. PMID:27110862

  3. Nutritional Physiology of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Fed on Various Barley Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, S; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J

    2016-02-01

    The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is known as one of the mostserious pests of grains in many parts of the world. In this study, the effect of nine barley cultivars (‘Bahman’,‘CB-84-10’, ‘Fajr 30’, ‘Makuyi’, ‘Nosrat’, ‘Yousof’, ‘13A1’, ‘18A1’, and ‘19 A1’) and a wheat cultivar (‘MV17’, as a control) was determined on the nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. granarium at 33 6 1C,relative humidity of 6565%, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest and lowest values of larval weight gain of sixth instar were detected on wheat (0.757±0.068 mg) and cultivar Bahman (0.342±0.071 mg). Also, T. granarium larvae fed on cultivar Bahman had the lowest value of efficiency of conversion of ingested food(10.90±2.09%) as compared with wheat and other barley cultivars. Also, the highest midgut amylolytic and proteolytic activities of sixth instar were on cultivar Bahman (0.364±0.024 mU/mg and 80.54±1.73 U/mg, respectively)and the lowest activities were on cultivar Nosrat (0.043±0.004 mU/mg and 7.15±0.01 U/mg, respectively).It is concluded that barley cultivar Bahman was the most unsuitable host for feeding of T. granarium. PMID:26612893

  4. Epithelial Ion Transporters: A Physiological Model for Ion Effects on Freshwater Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical ions in freshwater animals are regulated in part by uptake from water through ionocytes on the gills or other epithelia. An ionoregulation literature review suggests a mechanism for adverse effects on freshwater animals is ion uptake inhibition associated with either ex...

  5. 苹果的营养与功能%Nutritional Components of Apple and Their Physiological Functions to Human Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂继云

    2013-01-01

    苹果的果实和种子含有多种营养成分,是苹果加工业的主要原料和人们果篮子中的重要水果。本文综述了苹果果实和种子中主要营养成分的种类、含量及其对人体健康的生理功能,并阐述了苹果鲜食的适宜方法和苹果渣的利用方向与价值。%Apple is the main material for apple process and the main part of Chinese diet. There are many nutritional components in fruit and seed of apple. This paper reviews the sorts, levels of the main nutrients of apple fruits and seeds, as well as their physiological functions to human health, and expounds the suitable method to eat fresh apple and the direction and value of using apple pomace.

  6. Production of Chlorella biomass enriched by selenium and its use in animal nutrition: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucha, Jiří; Lívanský, Karel; Kotrbáček, V.; Zachleder, Vilém

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 6 (2009), s. 1001-1008. ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OE 221; GA MŠk OE09025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Chlorella * Heterotrophic production * Nutrition Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2009

  7. Effect of the sunlight on biochemical and physiological parameters of animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal perception of the sunlight spectrum with 450, 540, 680 nm wave lengths and the same intensity has been studied. The effect of a sunlight action on rats has been evaluated from some functional and biochemical factors both in vivo and in vitro. A totality of the results obtained allows one to make an assumption that a sunlight energy redistribution in animal tissues as a function of spectral composition of incident light plays a leading role in metabolism regulation

  8. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilliard, Y; Ferlay, A; Rouel, J; Lamberet, G

    2003-05-01

    Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses of milk yield and composition (fat and protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content increases with almost all studied fat supplements in goats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats and cows supplemented with either protected or unprotected lipid supplements. Goat milk CLA content increases sharply after either vegetable oil supplementation or fresh grass feeding, but does not change markedly when goats receive whole untreated oilseeds. Important interactions are observed between the nature of forages and of oil supplements on trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1 and CLA. Peculiarities of goat milk FA composition and lipolytic system play an important role in the development of either goat flavor (release of branched, medium-chain FA) or rancidity (excessive release of butyric acid). The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, although lower in goat than in cow milk, is more bound to the fat globules and better correlated to spontaneous lipolysis in goat milk. The regulation of spontaneous lipolysis differs widely between goats and cows. Goat milk lipolysis and LPL activity vary considerably and in parallel across goat breeds or genotypes, and are low during early and late lactation, as well as when animals are underfed or receive a diet supplemented with protected or unprotected vegetable oils. This could contribute to decreases in the specific flavor of goat dairy products with diets rich in fat. PMID:12778586

  9. New insight into oseophageal injury and protection in physiologically relevant animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayachkivska, O; Pshyk-Titko, I; Hrycevych, N; Savytska, M

    2014-04-01

    Chronic diseases of lifestyle (CDL), the most common chronic group of non-infectious and non-transmissible diseases worldwide, which share the similar risk factors of unhealthy lifestyle, have become most recognized as a serious trigger in the genesis of oesophageal injury. Non-erosive oesophageal lesions (NEOL) are found more frequently than erosive or ulcer lesions in patients with reflux oesophagitis (RO) related to CDL. They also have restricted healing options, which often leads to carcinogenesis. Therefore, developing a physiologically relevant animal model of NEOL remains an urgent priority. One of triggers of CDL, postprandial hyperglycemia (PHG), which is characterized by hyperglycemic spikes, and overloading nitro-compounds leading to oxidative stress that may predispose to NEOL. The present study was designed to set up a model of RO related to CDL in rodents to understand mechanisms of oesophageal preulcerogenic injury under such conditions as food-associated long-term PHG, restrained water-immersion stress (WIS), and imbalance of entero-salivary nitrites recirculation (ESNR). Beneficial effects of L-tryptophan (L-Try) have already been described by many activities in kynurenine and melatonin (Mel) synthesis, redox reactions, which play a key role for cytoprotection and proliferation. Nevertheless, the effect of L-Try and Mel on NEOL under PHG is still unknown. An extract of Cucurbita maxim sweet seed (eCMS), which contains a high amount of antioxidants, also appear to play an important role in foregut cytoprotection. Thus, the second aim was to observe the effects of eCSE on oesophageal mucosa (OEM) in modification of ESNR (mESNR). Rats were used with without/with pre-treatment L-Try, Mel during WIS and PHG. In the second series of experiments rats were used with without/with CSE pre-treatment in mESNR; oral and OEM lesions were determined by histology; inflammation of OEM by lectin histochemistry; esophageal NO2(-), cNOS and iNOS via bioassays

  10. Regulation of lipid deposition in farm animals: Parallels between agriculture and human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Werner G; Brandebourg, Terry D

    2016-06-01

    For many years, clinically oriented scientists and animal scientists have focused on lipid metabolism and fat deposition in various fat depots. While dealing with a common biology across species, the goals of biomedical and food animals lipid metabolism research differ in emphasis. In humans, mechanisms and regulation of fat synthesis, accumulation of fat in regional fat depots, lipid metabolism and dysmetabolism in adipose, liver and cardiac tissues have been investigated. Further, energy balance and weight control have also been extensively explored in humans. Finally, obesity and associated maladies including high cholesterol and atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and health outcomes have been widely studied. In food animals, the emphasis has been on regulation of fatty acid synthesis and lipid deposition in fat depots and deposition of intramuscular fat. For humans, understanding the regulation of energy balance and body weight and of prevention or treatment of obesity and associated maladies have been important clinical outcomes. In production of food animals lowering fat content in muscle foods while enhancing intramuscular fat (marbling) have been major targets. In this review, we summarize how our laboratories have addressed the goal of providing lean but yet tasty and juicy muscle food products to consumers. In addition, we here describe efforts in the development of a new porcine model to study regulation of fat metabolism and obesity. Commonalities and differences in regulation of lipid metabolism between humans, rodents and food animals are emphasized throughout this review. PMID:27302175

  11. Effect of Different Salinity and Ration Levels on Growth Performance and Nutritive Physiology of Milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal) – Field and Laboratory Studies

    OpenAIRE

    UK Barman

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of inland groundwater salinity, and two ration levels on growth performance and nutrition physiology in milkfish, Chanos chanos, two experiments (Experiment 1 and 2) were conducted. In the first experiment (Expt. 1), a 100-day monoculture of Chanos chanos at two different salinities (10 and 25‰) was carried out in ponds andthe fish were fed on two different (4% and 6% BW d-1) ration levels. Irrespective of the salinity treatment, low ration favored high growth i...

  12. Soil degradation phenomena in Roman hill continuous grazing systems. 3: Study of areas degraded by animals [Latium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size and distribution of barren areas were evaluated in four continuous grazing models by means of aerial infrared photographs. The extent of degraded areas was low in all models (0.9% as a mean). The surface of the areas in which the sward had been removed by animal trampling was inversely correlated with the distance from the manger, and positively correlated with average soil slope, in plots without a manger and with total animal load in the other plots. Principal component analysis showed that the extent of degraded areas in models without a manger was affected by the average weighted distance of the plots from the manger, by the soil slope and the presence of forest inside the plots

  13. Status and future developments in plant iron for animal and human nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant foods play a critical role in providing dietary iron to humans and other animals. Much of the world's human population subsists on diets that are predominantly vegetarian, while for those who eat limited to excessive amounts of animal food products, most of these foods come from livestock who...

  14. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...

  15. 77 FR 71750 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide for the safe use of... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...

  16. Physiological Regulation of Gut Peptide Hormone (PYY) Levels by Age, Sex, Hormonal and Nutritional Status in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peptide YY hormone (PYY) was recently appreciated as an important gut hormonal regulator of appetite. PYY is produced by the gut and released into the circulation after food intake and is found to decrease appetite. The main form of PYY, both stored and circulated, is PYY(3-36), the N-terminal truncated form of the full length peptide so, peripheral injections of PYY(3-36) in rats inhibit food intake in experimental animals as well as in lean and obese human subjects. Also, this hormone has been suggested to be an attractive therapeutic option for obesity. PYY levels are influenced by age and the highest hormone level is achieved in early postnatal life (day 30) and is decreased thereafter. PYY levels were also dependent on thyroid hormone status and being decreased in hyperthyroid rats. The PYY levels observed in acute and chronic food restricted rats indicated that, in situations of decreased energy intake, the lower PYY levels could serve to regulate central pathways and facilitate food intake. Contrary, in pregnant rats, PYY levels were enhanced at late gestation. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, sex, thyroid status, pregnancy and food restriction on PYY levels in rats. The underling mechanisms through which PYY levels alternated as a result of sex, age, pregnancy, thyroidal and nutritional status were discussed in the light of recent research outcomes

  17. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of physiological variations between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots under different nutritional regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Moura Romao

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and metabolism. There is sparse understanding of the molecular regulation at the protein level of bovine adipose tissues, especially within different fat depots under different nutritional regimes. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences in protein expression between bovine subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in steers fed different diets and to identify the potential regulatory molecular mechanisms of protein expression. Subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were collected from 16 British-continental steers (15.5 month old fed a high-fat diet (7.1% fat, n=8 or a control diet (2.7% fat, n=8. Protein expression was profiled using label free quantification LC-MS/MS and expression of selected transcripts was evaluated using qRT-PCR. A total of 682 proteins were characterized and quantified with fat depot having more impact on protein expression, altering the level of 51.0% of the detected proteins, whereas diet affected only 5.3%. Functional analysis revealed that energy production and lipid metabolism were among the main functions associated with differentially expressed proteins between fat depots, with visceral fat being more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat as proteins associated with lipid and energy metabolism were upregulated. The expression of several proteins was significantly correlated to subcutaneous fat thickness and adipocyte size, indicating their potential as adiposity markers. A poor correlation (r=0.245 was observed between mRNA and protein levels for 9 genes, indicating that many proteins may be subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 8 miRNAs were predicted to regulate more than 20% of lipid metabolism proteins differentially expressed between fat depots, suggesting that miRNAs play a role in adipose tissue regulation. Our results show that proteomic changes support the distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics

  18. Neural plasticity in hypocretin neurons: the basis of hypocretinergic regulation of physiological and behavioral functions in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bing eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal system that resides in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus (Pf/LH and synthesizes the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin participates in critical brain functions across species from fish to human. The hypocretin system regulates neural activity responsible for daily functions (such as sleep/wake homeostasis, energy balance, appetite, etc and long-term behavioral changes (such as reward seeking and addiction, stress response, etc in animals. The most recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin system undergoes substantial plastic changes in response to both daily fluctuations (such as food intake and sleep-wake regulation and long-term changes (such as cocaine seeking in neuronal activity in the brain. The understanding of these changes in the hypocretin system is essential in addressing the role of the hypocretin system in normal physiological functions and pathological conditions in animals and humans. In this review, the evidence demonstrating that neural plasticity occurs in hypocretin-containing neurons in the Pf/LH will be presented and possible physiological behavioral, and mental health implications of these findings will be discussed.

  19. Computed chest tomography in an animal model for decompression sickness: radiologic, physiologic, and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to investigate the early pulmonary effects of acute decompression in an animal model for human decompression sickness by CT and light microscopy. Ten test pigs were exposed to severe decompression stress in a chamber dive. Three pigs were kept at ambient pressure to serve as controls. Decompression stress was monitored by measurement of pulmonary artery pressure and arterial and venous Doppler recording of bubbles of inert gas. Chest CT was performed pre- and postdive and in addition the inflated lungs were examined after resection. Each lung was investigated by light microscopy. Hemodynamic data and bubble recordings reflected severe decompression stress in the ten test pigs. Computed tomography revealed large quantities of ectopic gas, predominantly intravascular, in three of ten pigs. These findings corresponded to maximum bubble counts in the Doppler study. The remaining test pigs showed lower bubble grades and no ectopic gas by CT. Sporadic interstitial edema was demonstrated in all animals - both test and control pigs - by CT of resected lungs and on histologic examination. A severe compression-decompression schedule can liberate large volumes of inert gas which are detectable by CT. Despite this severe decompression stress, which led to venous microembolism, CT and light microscopy did not demonstrate changes in lung structure related to the experimental dive. Increased extravascular lung water found in all animals may be due to infusion therapy. (orig.)

  20. Computed chest tomography in an animal model for decompression sickness: radiologic, physiologic, and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, M.; Struck, N.; Heller, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Christian Albrechts Univ., Kiel (Germany); Tetzlaff, K. [Dept. of Medicine, Christian Albrechts Univ., Kiel (Germany); Brasch, F.; Mueller, K.M. [Inst. of Pathology, Hospital Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany); Gerriets, T. [Dept. of Neurology, Medical Univ. at Luebeck (Germany); Weiher, M.; Hansen, J. [Dept. of Anaesthesiology and Hyperbaric Centre Northern Germany, Friedrich Ebert Hospital, Neumuenster (Germany); Hirt, S. [Dept. of Medicine, Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the early pulmonary effects of acute decompression in an animal model for human decompression sickness by CT and light microscopy. Ten test pigs were exposed to severe decompression stress in a chamber dive. Three pigs were kept at ambient pressure to serve as controls. Decompression stress was monitored by measurement of pulmonary artery pressure and arterial and venous Doppler recording of bubbles of inert gas. Chest CT was performed pre- and postdive and in addition the inflated lungs were examined after resection. Each lung was investigated by light microscopy. Hemodynamic data and bubble recordings reflected severe decompression stress in the ten test pigs. Computed tomography revealed large quantities of ectopic gas, predominantly intravascular, in three of ten pigs. These findings corresponded to maximum bubble counts in the Doppler study. The remaining test pigs showed lower bubble grades and no ectopic gas by CT. Sporadic interstitial edema was demonstrated in all animals - both test and control pigs - by CT of resected lungs and on histologic examination. A severe compression-decompression schedule can liberate large volumes of inert gas which are detectable by CT. Despite this severe decompression stress, which led to venous microembolism, CT and light microscopy did not demonstrate changes in lung structure related to the experimental dive. Increased extravascular lung water found in all animals may be due to infusion therapy. (orig.)

  1. Buffalo milk and cheese from animal to human nutrition. Part 2: tracing parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pizzoferrato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Specific tracing parameters, also useful as quality indicators, have been utilized to evaluate if quality changes occur, due to farm, cheese production, and environmental variables, in milk and Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO samples of commercial and experimental origin. In particular, observing the 13 cis retinol levels it is interesting to note that, even if nutritional quality is comparable for all the studied products (see also Part 1, the analyzed experimental products seem to be handled with slightly less care than commercial products.

  2. Assessing inorganic contaminants in alternative phosphorus sources used in animal nutrition - A particular feature for the agricultural policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since feed and fodder are the major limiting factors in enhancing animal husbandry productivity, improvements in feeding and nutrition should aid in making animal production more profitable. Phosphorus is one of the most important elements in man and animal nutrition, especially in tropical conditions. There are many phosphorus-containing products to satisfy any P recommendation in animal diets. It is mandatory to predict the presence of any hazardous element before indicate phosphate as supplemental phosphorus in animal nutrition, as long their hazardous contents are quite variable and these elements may cause several problems in animal and man health and nutrition. The first goal of this study was to assess inorganic and radiological aspects of eight different phosphorus sources: calcinated bone meal (FAR), dicalcium phosphate (BIC), super triple phosphate (FST), super simple phosphate (FSS), monoammonium phosphate (FMA), sulphur ammonium phosphate (FSA), ammoniated calcium polyphosphate (POLI) and a bovine mineral supplement (SMB). The multielemental analysis of P sources and muscle tissues were carried out using the nuclear technique named Neutron Activation Analysis. Irradiations took place at the IPR-R1 Triga Reactor from the CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Some toxic elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Mg, Mn, Th and U) were identified in some products, especially in the sulphur ammonium phosphate. Natural radiation from the following radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, and 40K present in the products were assessed by the Gamma Spectrometry technique using a hyper pure germanium detector (HPGe). The results are examined in the light of standards for exposure adopted in some countries including from Brazil. Some products present radioactivity in high levels, especially super simple phosphate. The second aim of this project was to evaluate the zootecnic responses of using these products in feeding growing rabbits. To accomplish this goal, it was undertaken an

  3. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. PMID:26185248

  4. Animal milk sustains micronutrient nutrition and child anthropometry among pastoralists in Samburu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora; Lesorogol, Carolyn

    2014-09-01

    Milk has been integral to pastoralist nutrition for thousands of years, but as communities move toward settled livelihoods, milk consumption is dropping with only minimal evidence for the health and nutrition implications. This longitudinal study aimed to first test whether increased dependency on agriculture reduced household milk production and consumption, and ultimately, nutrient adequacy among the Samburu pastoralists. Second, we investigated whether household milk availability affected child milk intakes and anthropometry. Socioeconomic and dietary intake data were collected from households (n = 200) in 2000, 2005, and 2010, and anthropometric measures and individual child milk intakes in 2012. Nutrient intakes were assessed by the probability of nutrient adequacy method, and generalized least-squared regression modeling with mixed effects was applied to identify predictors of milk consumption. Milk contributed 10% of energy intakes, below maize (52%) and sugar (11%), but over one-half of critical micronutrients, vitamins A, B12 , and C. Livestock holdings and income increased the likelihood of higher milk intakes (overall adj R(2)  = 0.88, P pastoralists could provide insight into leaner and taller anthropometrics for other populations globally. PMID:24942144

  5. Clinical and physiological study of the phenomenon of blindness after local irradiaton of animal heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of radiobiological, ophtalmological, pharmacological, biochemical, neurobistological, and electron microscopic methods has been used to study certain likey mechanisms of sight disturbance arising after gamma-irradiation of animal head. The radiobiological effect observed is a complicated polyethiological phenomenon, reflecting multiple structural and functional effects in central nervous system. The main of these effects are the disturbance in integrative activity of neural structures resulting from damaging the synapses of nervous cells, changes in hydratation and electrolythic profile of brain as a result of shift in hematoencephalic barrier permeability, and, finally, disturbance in functioning of cholinereactive structures of central nervous system

  6. Abstracts of the 9. Brazilian Congress of Biophysics, 2. Brazilian Congress of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and 19. Brazilian Congress of Physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts about biophysics, pharmacology, experimental therapeutics and physiology are presented. The use of radioisotopes in radioassays involve topics like biophysics and renal physiology; central nervous system; endocrinology; animal and comparative physiology; general physiology, digestion and nutrition; general pharmacology. (M.A.C.)

  7. Psychological and physiological effects of an animal-assisted intervention with unsecurely and desorganizedly attached children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Kotrschal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with insecure/disorganized attachment become less stressed and more prosocial in the presence of a guinea pig during an empathy training. This hypothesis is based on studies that show that insecure attachment representations, which are associated with low abilities to regulate stress and social relations, are transferred to human figures but not to pets. 12 boys and 4 girls (age 7-9, selected via the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT for insecure/disorganized attachment representation, were randomly assigned to the intervention and control group. The children of the intervention group attended an empathy training, in which every child received a guinea pig during every session while the controls got the same training without a guinea pig. In comparsion to controls the children of the animal assisted intervention group showed less aggression towards their peers as well as more prosocial behavior towards their teachers and peers. In addition the strongest decrease of cortisol levels were obtained in the animal-assisted intervention group. The more these children stroked the guinea pig, the more their cortisol levels decreased. These data suggest that children with insecure/disorganized attachment can better regulate stress and become less aggressive as well as more prosocial in the presence of a guinea pig. The authors discuss if these results can be interpreted as oxytocin mediated effects.

  8. Metabolism and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of flumioxazin in pregnant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to predict the concentration of flumioxazin, in the blood and fetus of pregnant humans during a theoretical accidental intake (1000 mg/kg). The data on flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats (30 mg/kg po) was used to develop the PBPK model in pregnant rats using physiological parameters and chemical specific parameters. The rat PBPK model developed was extrapolated to a human model. Liver microsomes of female rats and a mixed gender of humans were used for the in vitro metabolism study. To determine the % of flumioxazin absorbed after administration at a dose of 1000 mg/kg assuming maximum accidental intake, the biliary excretion study of [phenyl-U-14C]flumioxazin was conducted in bile duct-cannulated female rats (Crl:CD (SD)) to collect and analyze the bile, urine, feces, gastrointestinal tract, and residual carcass. The % of flumioxazin absorbed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg in rats was low (12.3%) by summing up 14C of the urine, bile, and residual carcass. The pregnant human model that was developed demonstrated that the maximum flumioxazin concentration in the blood and fetus of a pregnant human at a dose of 1000 mg/kg po was 0.86 μg/mL and 0.68 μg/mL, respectively, which is much lower than Km (202.4 μg/mL). Because the metabolism was not saturated and the absorption rate was low at a dose of 1000 mg/kg, the calculated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was thought to be relatively low, considering the flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg. For the safety assessment of flumioxazin, these results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of flumioxazin in pregnant humans was developed. • Simulated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was relatively low. • The results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments

  9. Metabolism and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of flumioxazin in pregnant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaku, Tomoyuki, E-mail: takakut@sc.sumitomo-chem.co.jp; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Sogame, Yoshihisa

    2014-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to predict the concentration of flumioxazin, in the blood and fetus of pregnant humans during a theoretical accidental intake (1000 mg/kg). The data on flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats (30 mg/kg po) was used to develop the PBPK model in pregnant rats using physiological parameters and chemical specific parameters. The rat PBPK model developed was extrapolated to a human model. Liver microsomes of female rats and a mixed gender of humans were used for the in vitro metabolism study. To determine the % of flumioxazin absorbed after administration at a dose of 1000 mg/kg assuming maximum accidental intake, the biliary excretion study of [phenyl-U-{sup 14}C]flumioxazin was conducted in bile duct-cannulated female rats (Crl:CD (SD)) to collect and analyze the bile, urine, feces, gastrointestinal tract, and residual carcass. The % of flumioxazin absorbed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg in rats was low (12.3%) by summing up {sup 14}C of the urine, bile, and residual carcass. The pregnant human model that was developed demonstrated that the maximum flumioxazin concentration in the blood and fetus of a pregnant human at a dose of 1000 mg/kg po was 0.86 μg/mL and 0.68 μg/mL, respectively, which is much lower than K{sub m} (202.4 μg/mL). Because the metabolism was not saturated and the absorption rate was low at a dose of 1000 mg/kg, the calculated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was thought to be relatively low, considering the flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg. For the safety assessment of flumioxazin, these results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of flumioxazin in pregnant humans was developed. • Simulated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was relatively low. • The results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments.

  10. Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on (Marine) Animals: Physiological Underpinnings and Evolutionary Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörtner, Hans O; Gutt, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Understanding thermal ranges and limits of organisms becomes important in light of climate change and observed effects on ecosystems as reported by the IPCC (2014). Evolutionary adaptation to temperature is presently unable to keep animals and other organisms in place; if they can these rather follow the moving isotherms. These effects of climate change on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems have brought into focus the mechanisms by which temperature and its oscillations shape the biogeography and survival of species. For animals, the integrative concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has successfully characterized the sublethal limits to performance and the consequences of such limits for ecosystems. Recent models illustrate how routine energy demand defines the realized niche. Steady state temperature-dependent performance profiles thus trace the thermal window and indicate a key role for aerobic metabolism, and the resulting budget of available energy (power), in defining performance under routine conditions, from growth to exercise and reproduction. Differences in the performance and productivity of marine species across latitudes relate to changes in mitochondrial density, capacity, and other features of cellular design. Comparative studies indicate how and why such mechanisms underpinning OCLTT may have developed on evolutionary timescales in different climatic zones and contributed to shaping the functional characteristics and species richness of the respective fauna. A cause-and-effect understanding emerges from considering the relationships between fluctuations in body temperature, cellular design, and performance. Such principles may also have been involved in shaping the functional characteristics of survivors in mass extinction events during earth's history; furthermore, they may provide access to understanding the evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds. Accordingly, an understanding is emerging how climate changes and

  11. Toward an animal model of extinction-induced despair: focus on aging and physiological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Joseph P; Schulz, Daniela; Topic, Bianca

    2009-08-01

    Behaviors that are under the control of positive or negative reinforcers undergo extinction when the anticipated reward/reinforcer is withheld. Despair, an important symptom of environmentally determined depression in humans, can be generated by extinction, or the failure of expected reward to accrue. Although well known to clinicians dealing with depressive patients, an animal model has not been available for extinction-induced depression. We have made a beginning towards validating such a model, based on the extinction of negatively reinforced behavior in the rat, i.e., upon removal of the possibility to escape onto a safety platform in the water maze. As a marker for despair, we employed behavioral immobility, i.e., the cessation of swimming in the attempt to find safety from the water, presumably, a type of learned helplessness. This measure was sensitive to antidepressants and correlated with neurotransmitter contents, neurotrophins and hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis markers in selected sites of the brain. Given that some cases of depression in the elderly may be biologically distinct from others and from early-onset depression, and since particularly the aged are prone to experience extinction-induced despair, we compared aged (ca. 24 months old) animals with adults in most of our studies. We found a number of distinct differences in behavioral and biological measures, indicative of differences in propensity to, as well as response to, extinction-induced despair between aged and adults. Our results add to the body of evidence for differences in the neurobiological substrates of depressive disorders between aged and adults, with the implication for the requirement of different treatment strategies in these two populations. PMID:19350220

  12. Radioimmunoassay (RIA), radioreceptorassay (RRA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) applied to studies on animal nutrition and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, our group began working in the development of a sensitive method to measure the active principle (1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D3-glycoside) of Solanum glaucophyllum, a plant that grows wild in our country causing calcinosis of breeding cattle. RIA and RRA have been applied to determine this glycoside in the aqueous extracts of the plant leaves and the free vitamin D metabolite in animal plasma samples, respectively. AAS was also used to determine calcium, together with phosphorus determined by colorimetric methods, in blood and tissues of experimental animals in order to study the relationship between the active principle kinetics and its effects. More recently, this plant has been proposed as a source of vitamin D activity (VDA) that might contribute with environment care improving calcium and phosphorus utilization by animals. Our group is by now, as a first step, studying the effects of different diet levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) [covering the range between commercial recommendations and half of NRC requirements (1994)], as well as different sources of those minerals, upon productive, nutritional, skeletal and biochemical parameters, in a series of experiments covering either a part or the entire breeding cycle of broilers. We think that the high levels of vitamin D3 employed in commercial farms (4 times NRC recommendations) could enable birds fed on basal diets to enhance the synthesis of the active metabolite of the vitamin in order to overcome partially these minerals deficiency. These methods of analysis have been applied successfully in our research projects contributing to the improvement of animal health and production and our approach has been considered adequate for the study of this additive and therefore has been required by the private industry of foreign countries. (author)

  13. Recent advances in bio-logging science: Technologies and methods for understanding animal behaviour and physiology and their environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K.; Lea, M.-A.; Patterson, T. A.

    2013-04-01

    The deployment of an ever-evolving array of animal-borne telemetry and data logging devices is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movement, behaviour and physiology of a variety species and the complex, and often highly dynamic, environments they use and respond to. The rapid rate at which new technologies, improvements to current technologies and new analytical techniques are being developed has meant that movements, behaviour and physiological processes are being quantified at finer spatial and temporal scales than ever before. The Fourth International Symposium on Bio-logging Science, held on 14-18 March in Hobart, Australia, brought together scientists across multiple disciplines to discuss the latest innovations in technology, applications and analytical techniques in bio-logging science, building on research presented at three previous conferences. Here we present an update on the state of bio-logging research and provide some views on the future of this field of research. Papers were grouped into five theme areas: (i) Southern Ocean ecosystems; (ii) fishery and biodiversity management applications; (iii) from individuals to populations—inferences of population dynamics from individuals; (iv) conservation biology and (v) habitat modelling. Papers reflected wider uptake of newer technologies, with a greater proportion of studies utilising accelerometry and incorporating advances in statistical modelling of behaviour and habitats, especially via state space modelling methods. Environmental data collected by tags at increasing accuracies are now having wider application beyond the bio-logging community, providing important oceanographic data from regions difficult to sample using traditional methodologies. Partnerships between multiple organisations are also now enabling regional assessments of species movements, behaviour and physiology at population scales and will continue to be important for applying bio-logging technologies to species

  14. Pre-Assessment of Environmental Impact of Zinc and Copper Used in Animal Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Sara C.; Lofts, Steve; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Copper and zinc are routinely used as additives in feed for livestock and aquaculture farming. During their use as feed additives, it is inevitable that Cu and Zn will be released to the environment. This project therefore assessed the environmental impact of Cu and Zn arising from use as additives in feed for livestock and aquaculture animals. The environmental risks of Cu and Zn arising from aquaculture were assessed using simple exposure models recommended by EFSA. Predicted concentra...

  15. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  16. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Pasteurization on the Nutritive Composition of Commercially Available Animal Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, Catherine D; Cassidy, Joseph P.; Kelly, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma radiation is used to sterilize diets for specific pathogen-free (SPF) animals. Because a gamma-irradiated diet was linked to leukoencephalomyelopathy in SPF cats, we investigated the effects of ‘typical’ (28.9–34.3 kGy) and ‘high-end’ (38.4–48.7 kGy) doses of gamma irradiation and of pasteurization (at 107 °C for 15 min) on the amounts of fat; protein; carbohydrate (and taurine in cat diet); vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, and B12; and peroxide in commercially available dry cat, dog, and rod...

  17. Essentiality of the ultra trace element lithium to the nutrition of animals and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lithium content below 1.7 mg/kg diet dry matter (DM) had a particular effect on the growth, reproduction performance, wellness and mortality of goats. The significant shift of the sex ratio of kinds toward females, reduced monoaminooxidase activity in the liver, and increased creatine kinase activity (a stress indicator) are also interesting results. The normative lithium requirement of animals (goats, pigs) amounts to <2.5 mg/kg diet DM, while that of adult humans might amount to <200 μg/day. (authors)

  18. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  19. Nutritional quality of rice bran protein in comparison to animal and vegetable protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung-Wook; Chee, Kyu-Man; Cho, Seong-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Rice bran protein (RBP) was prepared by alkali extraction and isoelectric precipitation from defatted rice bran. The protein quality of RPB was evaluated and compared to two vegetable proteins [soy protein (ISP) and rice endosperm protein (REP)] and two animal proteins [whey protein (WPI) and casein]. RPB contained 74.93% of protein and its pepsin digestibility and KOH solubility were 89.8% and 91.5%, respectively. In Sprague-Dawley rats, RBP showed protein efficiency ratio, net protein ratio, net protein utilisation, and biological value of 2.39, 3.77, 70.7, and 72.6, which were comparable to the qualities of animal proteins. The true digestibility of RBP (94.8%) was significantly higher than that of REP (90.8%), ISP (91.7%) and WPI (92.8%) and the same as that of casein. Protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of RBP was 0.90. These results suggest that rice bran protein appears to be a promising protein source with good biological values and digestibility. PMID:25442618

  20. The importance of interactions among nutrition, seasonality and socio-sexual factors in the development of hormone-free methods for controlling fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzi, R J; Martin, G B

    2008-07-01

    Around the world, consumers are demanding animal products that are produced to agreed standards for human health, environmental management and animal welfare. This has led to the development in Australia of the concept of 'clean, green and ethical' (CGE) animal production based on the manipulation of nutrition ('focus feeding') and the application of phenomena, such as the 'male effect', to provide 'natural' methods for managing small ruminant production systems. With respect to the management of fertility, CGE involves utilization of the inherited responses of animals to environmental factors to manipulate their reproductive processes. The successful development and implementation of this new generation of management tools depends on a thorough yet holistic understanding of the interactions among environmental factors and the ways these interactions affect reproductive physiology and behaviour of the animal. For sheep and goats, a central aspect of CGE management is the way in which ovarian function is affected by three major factors (nutrition, photoperiod and socio-sexual signals) and by interactions among them. Nutrition can exert two profound yet contrasting types of effect on ovarian activity: (i) the complete inhibition of reproduction by undernutrition through the hypothalamic mechanism that controls ovulation and (ii) the enhancement of fecundity by nutritional supplementation, through a direct ovarian mechanism, in females that are already ovulating. A similarly profound control over ovarian function in female sheep and goats is exerted by the well-known endocrine responses to photoperiod (seasonality) and to male socio-sexual signals. The 'male effect' already has a long history as a valuable technique for inducing a synchronized fertile ovulation during seasonal and post-partum anoestrus in sheep and goats. Importantly, experimentation has shown that these three major environmental factors interact, synergistically and antagonistically, but the precise

  1. Usefulness of radioisotopes in animal nutrition research on health and disease aspects of livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioisotopes in India commenced in seventies under international programmes to investigate certain aspects of metabolic disorders at 4 to 5 centres in the country. In due course of time, many universities and institutes also started using nuclear techniques in animal science research because such techniques are more sensitive, accurate, fast and there is every possibility of estimating micro quantities otherwise not possible by gravimetric methods. Their use is also helpful to understand and trace the biochemical mechanisms of certain nutrients in tissues both from deficiency or toxicity point of view. Literature has thus accumulated in a number of developing countries to establish the causes of some important metabolic diseases which are discussed along with utilization of nutrients for production traits under normal conditions

  2. Valor nutritivo da forragem e produção animal em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha Forage nutritive value and animal production in Brachiaria brizantha pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção animal e sua relação com as características dos pastos de Brachiaria brizantha cultivares Marandu, Xaraés e Piatã. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos e duas repetições. Os piquetes com 2 ha foram subdivididos em dois e submetidos ao pastejo alternado, com 28 dias de utilização e 28 dias de descanso. Foram utilizados três novilhos teste, por piquete, e novilhos reguladores para manter resíduos pós pastejo em torno de 3 Mg ha-1 de matéria seca. Mensalmente, os pastos foram avaliados para se estimar o valor nutritivo da forragem. Os animais foram pesados, e as taxas de lotação foram ajustadas duas vezes por semana. No pasto da cv. Xaraés, apesar do menor ganho médio diário (GMD dos animais, a taxa de lotação foi maior, o que resultou em maior produtividade da cv. Xaraés, em comparação às cvs. Marandu e Piatã. No pasto da cv. Piatã, houve aumento do GMD, o que indica que as cvs. Xaraés e Piatã são novas alternativas para a diversificação dos pastos no Cerrado. Assim, a escolha da forragem deve se dar em razão da meta do sistema de produção, ou seja, a produção por animal ou por área.The objectives of this work were to evaluate animal production and its relationship with pasture characteristics of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars Marandu, Xaraés and Piatã. The experiment had a randomized complete block design, with three treatments and two replicates. Two-ha paddocks were divided into two and submitted to alternated grazing, with 28 days of grazing and 28 days of rest. Three tester steers were kept in each paddock; additional steers were placed in each paddock by the put and take technique, to assure post grazing residues of about 3 Mg ha-1 of dry matter. The pastures were sampled monthly to estimate the nutritive value of the forage. The animals were weighted, and the stocking rate was adjusted twice a week. Despite the

  3. Fast food diet mouse: novel small animal model of NASH with ballooning, progressive fibrosis, and high physiological fidelity to the human condition

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, Michael; Krishnan, Anuradha; Viker, Kimberly; Sanderson, Schuyler; Cazanave, Sophie; McConico, Andrea; Masuoko, Howard; Gores, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Although there are small animal platforms that recapitulate some of the histological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, there are no small animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with consistent hepatocellular ballooning and progressive fibrosis that also exhibit fidelity to the human condition physiologically. We examined the metabolic and histological effects of a diet on the basis of the composition of “fast food” (high saturated fats, cholesterol, and fructose). Mi...

  4. Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes are associated with household food diversity and children's animal source food intake across different agro-ecological zones in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Aaron K; Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Lartey, Anna; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Ahunu, Ben K; Butler, Lorna M

    2016-01-28

    Caregivers' nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children's diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers' (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2-5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children's animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2-3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (Pcaregivers belonging to the highest tertile of nutrition knowledge and attitude scores consumed more diverse diets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); Pcaregivers' nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children's ASF intakes (Pcaregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children's ASF diversity (Pchild nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions. PMID:26560016

  5. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  6. Nutritional Aspect of Tryptophan Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutomu Fukuwatari; Katsumi Shibata

    2013-01-01

    Mammals, including humans, can synthesize the vitamin nicotinamide from tryptophan in the liver. The resultant nicotinamide is distributed to non-hepatic tissues. We have studied the effects of changes in tryptophan–nicotinamide metabolism on niacin nutritional status. The liver plays a critical role in nicotinamide supply. Animal studies showed that the tryptophan–nicotinamide pathway is affected by physiological conditions, the presence of disease, nutrients, hormones, and chemicals. Human ...

  7. A review of nutritional and toxicological implications of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) meal in animal feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, T O; Odunsi, A A; Akinfala, E O

    2016-04-01

    The nutrient-rich defatted castor meal has been tested as a potential source of protein in diets of many livestock species but has limitation due to challenges of toxins. This review was conducted to compile the relevant research information on advances in the use of raw and differently processed castor seed meal in animal feed. In this article, distribution and uses of castor and its products were identified. Research findings on the nutrients profile, principal toxins, various detoxification strategies, nutritional value and toxicity on common livestock species were compiled and reviewed. The defatted seed meal had crude protein range of 32-48%, gross energy of about 3200 kcal/kg. Ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, and the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g. The meal had high activity of lectin, which produced agglutination at about 4.70 mg/ml minimum assays. Reports of detoxification strategies showed varying degrees of success but high pH, moist heating and microbial techniques appeared to exert greater effect on deactivating ricin. Detoxification strategy for the allergen component is inconclusive. Tannins and the phenolic contents were present at trace level and did not constitute notable threat. It was concluded that castor seed holds great potential as feedstuff when upgraded but such upgrading must be safe, cost-effective and labour efficient for commercial acceptability. PMID:26150062

  8. In vivo multitracer analysis technique. Screening of radioactive probes for noninvasive measurement of physiological functions in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel screening experiment, to find radioactive probes for non-invasive measurements of physiological functions in experimental animals, was tested using the in vivo multitracer analysis technique. The details of the efficiency of the detector settings used in the in vivo multitracer analysis technique were examined by both computer simulations and practical measurements. Multiple radioactive isotopes, i.e. multitracer, were prepared by irradiating a silver foil target with a heavy ion beam at the RIKEN ring cyclotron. After chemical separation of the silver target, the multitracer was finally dissolved in isotonic citrate buffer. The multitracer solution was intravenously injected into rats. Using a γ-ray detector equipped with a well-defined slit, the collimated γ-rays from the upper abdomen of living rats were measured. After correction of detection efficiencies, it was possible to compare the distribution of radioactive elements between two groups of rats different in body weight. The in vivo measurement showed that the tissue substantial volume of the selenium-deficient (SeD) rat liver increased compared to normal rats. The possibility of a functional estimation of tissue/blood volume for living rats was proposed based on the characteristic in vivo distribution of 74As, 83Rb and 103Ru. (author)

  9. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  10. The Combination of In vivo 124I-PET and CT small animal imaging for evaluation of thyroid physiology and dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ali, Henrik H.; Eckerwall, Martin; Skovgaard, Dorthe Charlotte;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A thyroid rat model combining functional and anatomical information would be of great benefit for better modeling of thyroid physiology and for absorbed dose calculations. Our aim was to show that 124I-PET and CT small animal imaging are useful as a combined model for studying thyroid...... physiology and dose calculation. Methods: Seven rats were subjects for multiple thyroid 124I-imaging and CT-scans. S-values [mGy/MBqs] for different thyroid sizes were simulated. A phantom with spheres was designed for validation of performances of the small animal PET and CT imaging systems. Results: Small...... animal PET/CT based measurements of the activity amount and the volumes of the spheres with a priori known volumes showed a good agreement with their corresponding actual volumes. The CT scans of the rats showed thyroid volumes from 34 – 70 mL. Conclusions: The wide span in volumes of thyroid glands...

  11. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  12. Physiological basis for high CO2 tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bleich

    2009-10-01

    efficient compensation of pH disturbances during exposure to elevated environmental pCO2. Compensation of extracellular acid-base status in turn may be important in avoiding metabolic depression. So far, maintained "performance" at higher seawater pCO2 (>0.3 to 0.6 kPa has only been observed in adults/juveniles of active, high metabolic species with a powerful ion regulatory apparatus. However, while some of these taxa are adapted to cope with elevated pCO2 during their regular embryonic development, gametes, zygotes and early embryonic stages, which lack specialized ion-regulatory epithelia, may be the true bottleneck for ecological success – even of the more tolerant taxa. Our current understanding of which marine animal taxa will be affected adversely in their physiological and ecological fitness by projected scenarios of anthropogenic ocean acidification is quite incomplete. While a growing amount of empirical evidence from CO2 perturbation experiments suggests that several taxa might react quite sensitively to ocean acidification, others seem to be surprisingly tolerant. However, there is little mechanistic understanding on what physiological traits are responsible for the observed differential sensitivities (see reviews of Seibel and Walsh, 2003; Pörtner et al., 2004; Fabry et al., 2008; Pörtner, 2008. This leads us to the first very basic question of how to define general CO2 tolerance on the species level.

  13. Physiological basis for high CO2 tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzner, F.; Gutowska, M. A.; Langenbuch, M.; Dupont, S.; Lucassen, M.; Thorndyke, M. C.; Bleich, M.; Pörtner, H.-O.

    2009-10-01

    pH disturbances during exposure to elevated environmental pCO2. Compensation of extracellular acid-base status in turn may be important in avoiding metabolic depression. So far, maintained "performance" at higher seawater pCO2 (>0.3 to 0.6 kPa) has only been observed in adults/juveniles of active, high metabolic species with a powerful ion regulatory apparatus. However, while some of these taxa are adapted to cope with elevated pCO2 during their regular embryonic development, gametes, zygotes and early embryonic stages, which lack specialized ion-regulatory epithelia, may be the true bottleneck for ecological success - even of the more tolerant taxa. Our current understanding of which marine animal taxa will be affected adversely in their physiological and ecological fitness by projected scenarios of anthropogenic ocean acidification is quite incomplete. While a growing amount of empirical evidence from CO2 perturbation experiments suggests that several taxa might react quite sensitively to ocean acidification, others seem to be surprisingly tolerant. However, there is little mechanistic understanding on what physiological traits are responsible for the observed differential sensitivities (see reviews of Seibel and Walsh, 2003; Pörtner et al., 2004; Fabry et al., 2008; Pörtner, 2008). This leads us to the first very basic question of how to define general CO2 tolerance on the species level.

  14. Short-lived radionuclides in nutritional physiology. A model study with L-[Me-11C]methionine in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. A 'new' carbon radioisotope, 11C, for use in nutritional studies is presented. It has a 20 min half-life, and decays by positron emission giving annihilation photons of 511 keV energy (Wolf and Redvanly, 1977). Thus repeated studies can be made with short time intervals and the distribution of radioactivity in the experimental animal can be detected externally. 2. 11C was produced with a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and L-[Me-11C]methionine was synthesized and used in model experiments in the pig. The tracer was administered intravenously through a catheter in the jugular vein of pigs weighing between 40 and 100 kg. In a series of experiments, one pig received a low-methionine diet supplemented with DL-methionine to give three different levels of methionine intake. 3. The radioactivity distribution between liver and muscle was measured as a function of time by external detectors for 2-3h after administration. Blood and exhaled CO2 were sampled and measured for radioactivity. 4. The results indicate that 11C is a useful radionuclide in nutritional studies in intact large domestic animals. (author)

  15. Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced. It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct

  16. Effect of four varieties of mulberry on biochemistry and nutritional physiology of mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oftadeh, M.; J.J. Sendi; A Zibaee1; B. Valizadeh

    2014-01-01

    The effects of four mulberry varieties (Kenmochi, Ichinose, Shin Ichinose, Mahalii) on nutritional indices and digestive proteolytic and amylolytic activities of Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were determined at 24±1°C, 75±5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. Fifth instar larvae reared on Shin Ichinose showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (3.82±0.16% and 3.11±0.07%, respectively). Approximate digestibili...

  17. Growth hormone secretion during space flight and evaluation of the physiological responses of animals held in the research animal holding facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Thomas N.; Grindeland, Richard; Mehler, William; Oyama, Jiro

    1987-01-01

    The spaceflight of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) on the Space Laboratory 3 (SL 3) provided the opportunity to evaluate the suitability of the RAHF for housing and maintaining experimental animals during spaceflight, and to determine changes in the secretion of growth hormone during spaceflight. Using ground-based studies the following were investigated: the optimum conditions for creating gravitational force on space flight animals; neural pathways that may play a role in the space flight syndrome; and the time course of muscle atrophy due to hypodynamia and hypokenesia in hindlimb-suspended animals and the role of growth hormone in these processes.

  18. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  19. The Combination of In vivo 124I-PET and CT Small Animal Imaging for Evaluation of Thyroid Physiology and Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H. El-Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A thyroid rat model combining functional and anatomical information would be of great benefit for better modeling of thyroid physiology and for absorbed dose calculations. Our aim was to show that 124I-PET and CT small animal imaging are useful as a combined model for studying thyroid physiology and dose calculation. Methods: Seven rats were subjects for multiple thyroid 124I-imaging and CT-scans. S-values [mGy/MBqs] for different thyroid sizes were simulated. A phantom with spheres was designed for validation of performances of the small animal PET and CT imaging systems. Results: Small animal image-based measurements of the activity amount and the volumes of the spheres with a priori known volumes showed a good agreement with their corresponding actual volumes. The CT scans of the rats showed thyroid volumes from 34–70 mL. Conclusions: The wide span in volumes of thyroid glands indicates the importance of using an accurate volume-measuring technique such as the small animal CT. The small animal PET system was on the other hand able to accurately estimate the activity concentration in the thyroid volumes. We conclude that the combination of the PET and CT image information is essential for quantitative thyroid imaging and accurate thyroid absorbed dose calculation.

  20. Effect of four varieties of mulberry on biochemistry and nutritional physiology of mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oftadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four mulberry varieties (Kenmochi, Ichinose, Shin Ichinose, Mahalii on nutritional indices and digestive proteolytic and amylolytic activities of Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae were determined at 24±1°C, 75±5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. Fifth instar larvae reared on Shin Ichinose showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (3.82±0.16% and 3.11±0.07%, respectively. Approximate digestibility values of the fourth instar larvae were highest (95.23±0.73% and lowest (91.77±1.45% on Kenmochi and Shin Ichinose, respectively. The fifth instar larvae fed on Kenmochi had the highest consumption index (4.6±0.73 and lowest relative growth rate (0.03±0.10, respectively. Our results showed that the highest protease activity in optimal pH was on Malalii variety (0.97 U/mg and the lowest was on Kenmochi (0.75 U/mg. In addition, the highest amylase activity in optimal pH was on Mahalii (0.17 U/mg and lowest on Kenmochi (0.103 U/mg. Specific proteolytic analysis showed that larvae feeding on Mahalii had the highest activity of trypsin and elastase (2.30 and 2.13 U/mg, respectively. This research showed that plasticity in food utilization and enzyme activity is functionally relevant to host plant cultivars. The results of nutritional indices and activity of digestive enzymes indicated that Kenmochi was an unsuitable host for feeding of Glyphodes pyloalis.

  1. Nutritional Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  2. Anaesthesia and physiological monitoring during in vivo imaging of laboratory rodents: considerations on experimental outcomes and animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Tremoleda, Jordi L.; Kerton, Angela; Gsell, Willy

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of imaging technologies has dramatically increased the efficiency of preclinical studies, enabling a powerful, non-invasive and clinically translatable way for monitoring disease progression in real time and testing new therapies. The ability to image live animals is one of the most important advantages of these technologies. However, this also represents an important challenge as, in contrast to human studies, imaging of animals generally requires anaesthesia to restrain t...

  3. Physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.) grown in soil with interaction of high doses of copper and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Tiecher, Tales; Ceretta, Carlos A; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Tassinari, Adriele; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; De Conti, Lessandro; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Vineyard sandy acid soils from South Brazil have experienced heavy metal contamination due to replacement of copper (Cu)-based by zinc (Zn)-based products to control foliar diseases. Thus, we evaluate physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), a common interrow crop in vineyards from this region. Soil was collected in a natural field from Santana do Livramento, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Black oat was cultivated for 30 days in a greenhouse with application of 0, 30, and 60 mg Cu kg(-1) combined with 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mg Zn kg(-1). After the trial period, dry matter accumulation of roots and shoots, Cu and Zn contents in roots and shoots, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity were determined. Cu and Zn toxicity was evidenced by the decrease in plant growth of black oat as well as by the decrease of photochemical efficiency associated with the decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, especially with the highest doses of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and POD) was increased in intermediate doses of Zn, indicating the activation of the antioxidant system, but the stress condition in treatments with high levels of Cu and Zn was not reversed. PMID:27209215

  4. Interaction Effect of CO2 Enrichment and Nutritional Conditions on Physiological Characteristics, Essential Oil and Yield of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud SHOOR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide enrichment and nutritional improvement can increase photosynthesis and growth of different crops. The aim of the present study was to assess interaction effects of CO2 enrichment and fertilizer on physiological characteristics and lemon balm essential oil. Experimental units were composed of CO2 at 380, 700, and 1050 ppm with and without manure and N fertilizer application. A continuous increasing trend of individual plant leaf area, total dry weight accumulation and relative growth ratio were recorded with CO2 enrichment. When CO2 was elevated from 380 to 1050 ppm, the values of height (24.3%, SPAD reading (2.7%, essential oil yield (26.3% and final yield (65.3% were increased, unlike, stomatal conductance (35.2% and essential oil percentage (53% were decreased. The highest and the lowest values (except for oil percentage were obtained under N and no fertilizer application, respectively. Except for SPAD, interaction between CO2 enrichment and each fertilizer on all measured characteristics had a significant effect, so that CO2 effect was intensified by applying each fertilizer. Therefore, it can be concluded that when temperature increase caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not a limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will improve lemon balm biomass and essential oil yield.

  5. Fluctuation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluctuation phenomena are the ''tip of the iceberg'' revealing the existence, behind even the most quiescent appearing macroscopic states, of an underlying world of agitated, ever-changing microscopic processes. While the presence of these fluctuations can be ignored in some cases, e.g. if one is satisfied with purely thermostatic description of systems in equilibrium, they are central to the understanding of other phenomena, e.g. the nucleation of a new phase following the quenching of a system into the co-existence region. This volume contains a collection of review articles, written by experts in the field, on the subject of fluctuation phenomena. Some of the articles are of a very general nature discussing the modern mathematical formulation of the problems involved, while other articles deal with specific topics such as kinetics of phase transitions and conductivity in solids. The juxtaposition of the variety of physical situations in which fluctuation phenomena play an important role is novel and should give the reader an insight into this subject

  6. 维生素E对动物营养调控的研究进展%Research Progress of Vitamin E on the Regulation of Animal Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方福平; 夏先林; 顾明

    2012-01-01

    Vitmnin E is a major nutrition - regulating liposoluble vitamin in nutritions of animals with a biological function of biological antioxidation, better immunization, anti - irritability and stable reproductive function of animals. Therefore, this article collects and arranges some materials of vitamin E such as function principle, method and effect of nutritionregulating only for reference.%维生素E是一种脂溶性维生素,在动物体内具有生物抗氧化、增强免疫、抗应激及维持动物正常生殖机能等生物学功能,是动物营养中的重要营养调控剂。文章就维生素E的作用原理、营养调控方法及效果等方面综述了维生素E对动物营养调控的研究进展。

  7. Equilíbrio nutricional e distúrbios fisiológicos em manga 'Tommy Atkins' Nutritional balance and physiological disorders in mango 'Tommy Atkins'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joston Simão de Assis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do equilíbrio nutricional sobre a incidência de distúrbios fisiológicos em manga 'Tommy Atkins' cultivada no Vale do São Francisco, realizou-se um ensaio com frutos coletados no estádio de maturação fisiológica, classificados em frutos sem sintomas e com sintomas de distúrbio fisiológico. Os frutos das duas classes foram separados em casca, polpa e caroço, e levados para secagem em estufa a 65 °C. Este material foi submetido a mineralização para a determinação das concentrações de N, K, Ca, Mg e B. Antes da desidratação, uma parte da polpa foi separada para as determinações do teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e da acidez total titulável (ATT. Os resultados permitem concluir que, tanto as concentrações elevadas de Ca e Mg, como as baixas relações N/Ca e K/Ca, tanto na polpa quanto na casca, foram eficientes na prevenção de distúrbios fisiológicos nos frutos de mangueira; a concentração de nutrientes obtida na casca pode refletir melhor a condição da fisiopatia do que a concentração dos nutrientes na polpa dos frutos; os valores de SST e a relação SST/ATT determinada nos frutos com sintomas foram muito mais elevados do que nos frutos sem sintomas, devido a uma sobrematuração desordenada dos tecidos da polpa.With the objective of evaluating the effect of the nutritional balance on the incidence of physiological disorders in mango cv. Tommy Atkins, grown in São Francisco River Valley, a trial was carried out with fruits harvested at physiological ripening stage, classified as fruits without and with physiological disorder symptoms. From all of them, skin, flesh and pit were separated and dried in a stove at 65ºC. This material was mineralized in order to determine N, K, Ca, Mg and B contents. Before dehydration, part of the flesh was taken for estimation of the total soluble solids (TSS and total titrable acidity (TTA. The results allow to conclude that: high

  8. Regulatory physiology discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program is twofold. First, to determine and study how microgravity and associated factors of space flight affect the regulatory mechanisms by which humans adapt and achieve homeostasis and thereby regulate their ability to respond to internal and external signals; and, second, to study selected physiological systems that have been demonstrated to be influenced by gravity. The Regulatory Physiology discipline, as defined here, is composed of seven subdisciplines: (1) Circadian Rhythms, (2) Endocrinology, (3) Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation, (4) Hematology, (5) Immunology, (6) Metabolism and Nutrition, and (7) Temperature Regulation. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the area of regulatory physiology. It covers the research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in regulatory physiology. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  9. Replacing animal experiments in developmental toxicity testing of phenols by combining in vitro assays with physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwold, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Many efforts have been undertaken over the past decades to develop in vitro tests for a wide range of toxicological endpoints as an alternative to animal testing. The principle application of in vitro toxicity assays still lies in the hazard assessment and the prioritisation of chemicals for further

  10. Plant physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Duca, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of plant physiology: plant cell physiology, water regime of plants, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, plant respiration, plant growth and development, movements in plants, signal perception and transduction etc. It focuses on the fundamental principles of plant physiology and biochemistry from the molecular level to whole plants, on the mechanisms of plant-environment interactions. The book is intended for students (biologists, physiologists, biochemists, biophysicists, ecologists, geneticists), teachers and researchers. Particular emphasis is given to recent research advances made on national and international levels, as well as to personal experimental results of the author that are relevant for a deeper understanding of processes and for practical implementation of gained knowledge. An essential amount of illustrative material (graphics, images, schemes, illustrations) completes the text and supplies additional information in an accessible manner. At the end of each chapter...

  11. Biological consilience of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in plants: Gases of primordial earth linking plant, microbial and animal physiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hideo; Cohen, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced in the mammalian body through the enzymatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). A growing number of studies have revealed that biogenic H2S produced in tissues is involved in a variety of physiological responses in mammals including vasorelaxation and neurotransmission. It is now evident that mammals utilize H2S to regulate multiple signaling systems, echoing the research history of the gaseous signaling molecules nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) that had previously only been recognized for their cytotoxicity. In the human diet, meats (mammals, birds and fishes) and vegetables (plants) containing cysteine and other sulfur compounds are the major dietary sources for endogenous production of H2S. Plants are primary producers in ecosystems on the earth and they synthesize organic sulfur compounds through the activity of sulfur assimilation. Although plant H2S-producing activities have been known for a long time, our knowledge of H2S biology in plant systems has not been updated to the extent of mammalian studies. Here we review recent progress on H2S studies, highlighting plants and bacteria. Scoping the future integration of H2S, NO and O2 biology, we discuss a possible linkage between physiology, ecology and evolutional biology of gas metabolisms that may reflect the historical changes of the Earth's atmospheric composition. PMID:27083071

  12. Toward an appreciation of hydrothennal-vent animals: Their environment, physiological ecology, and tissue stable isotope values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles R.

    In the last few years several comprehensive reviews of the biology of hydrothermal vent organisms and communities have been published. In this contribution I will not attempt to exhaustively review the literature, list the fauna, or the known sites, but rather present a conceptual basis for understanding the relation between the dominant metazoan "primary producers" in hydrothermal vent communities and their environment. In addition to the other chapters in this volume, interested readers are encouraged to consult the following reviews for a more detailed discussion of particular aspects of vent biology. The community ecology of hydrothermal vents is reviewed by Grassle [1986], Tunnicliffe [1991], and Lutz and Kennish [1993]. Tunnicliffe [1991] contains the most complete species lists and general site descriptions currently available. Fisher [1990] reviews the literature on chemoautotrophic symbioses and presents species lists of the hosts to chemoautotrophic symbionts known at that time. Those lists are updated in Nelson and Fisher [1995] and the physiology of the associations reviewed from a distinctly bacterial (symbiont) viewpoint. The 1992 review by Childress and Fisher takes a detailed look at the physiology of vent fauna, with a full coverage of subjects such as rate processes, blood function, and chemical composition, which are not covered in depth in the other reviews, but are of special relevance to this contribution. Uses (and abuses) of stable isotopes are discussed in several of the above reviews, and are also reviewed specifically by Conway et al. [1994], Fiala-Médioni et al. [1993], and Kennicutt et al. [1992].

  13. Use of biodiesel co-products (Glycerol as alternative sources of energy in animal nutrition: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VO Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent surge in the use of biodiesel in Brazil and abroad, coupled with the availability of large amounts of glycerol, are generating interest in the use of this co-product in several ways, such as its use in animal feed. The use of glycerol in the formulation of diets caused immediate interest to obtain a highly efficient energy rich product to use in animal production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the use of glycerol resulting from biodiesel production as an energy supplement in animal feed, as well as establishing appropriate protocols for each species based on previous studies. Most of them using pigs, cows, bulls, sheep, laying hens and broilers. It was possible to infer from these studies that glycerol was a food ingredient suitable for replacement in diets of different animal species.

  14. Neural plasticity in hypocretin neurons: the basis of hypocretinergic regulation of physiological and behavioral functions in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Bing Gao; Gretchen Hermes

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal system that resides in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus (Pf/LH) and synthesizes the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin participates in critical brain functions across species from fish to human. The hypocretin system regulates neural activity responsible for daily functions (such as sleep/wake homeostasis, energy balance, appetite, etc.) and long-term behavioral changes (such as reward seeking and addiction, stress response, etc.) in animals. The most recent evidence suggest...

  15. Replacing animal experiments in developmental toxicity testing of phenols by combining in vitro assays with physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Strikwold, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Many efforts have been undertaken over the past decades to develop in vitro tests for a wide range of toxicological endpoints as an alternative to animal testing. The principle application of in vitro toxicity assays still lies in the hazard assessment and the prioritisation of chemicals for further toxicity testing. The in vitro toxicity outcomes are hardly used in quantitative risk assessment of chemicals, for example to predict health-based guidance values like an acceptable or tolerable d...

  16. Effect of Different Salinity and Ration Levels on Growth Performance and Nutritive Physiology of Milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal – Field and Laboratory Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UK Barman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of inland groundwater salinity, and two ration levels on growth performance and nutrition physiology in milkfish, Chanos chanos, two experiments (Experiment 1 and 2 were conducted. In the first experiment (Expt. 1, a 100-day monoculture of Chanos chanos at two different salinities (10 and 25‰ was carried out in ponds andthe fish were fed on two different (4% and 6% BW d-1 ration levels. Irrespective of the salinity treatment, low ration favored high growth in fish grown at 25 ppt salinity. Carcass composition revealed high accumulation of protein, fat, energy and phosphorus in fish fed at low ration level and maintained at 25 ppt salinity. Irrespective of the salinity treatment, DO, BOD, pH and nutrients remained significantly (P<0.05 higher in ponds where the fish were fed at low ration level.Multivariate analysis revealed a significant positive correlation of nutrients and productivity indicating parameters with fish weight gain. The second experiment (Expt. 2 was conducted under laboratory conditions and the milkfish fry were exposed to five different salinity levels (10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0 ‰ for 100 days. A control in fresh water (0.0 ppt was also maintained. Irrespective of the salinity treatment, significantly (P<0.05 high growth, feed conversion efficiency and intestinal enzyme activity were observed in fish maintained at low (4% ration level. Carcass composition, muscle and liver glycogen levels, muscle protein, viscero-somatic index (VSI and hepato-somatic index (HSI values were also significantly (P<0.05 affected not only by the salinity treatment but also by the ration level. Studies indicated that low ration level and high salinity favored high growth in milkfish.

  17. Preoperative Combinative Nutrition Assessment with Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 and Physiological-biochemical Indicators for Patients with Colorectal Cancer%营养风险筛查2002与生理生化指标联合评估大肠癌术前营养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤姣; 黄明君; 张小艳; 刘寒雪; 汪晓东; 李卡

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨使用营养风险筛查(nutritional risk screening,NRS)2002与生理生化指标联合评估大肠癌患者术前营养及二者的定量关系.方法 对2008年4月-2009年3月收治的367例大肠癌患者,用NRS 2002与生理生化指标分别评估其术前营养风险和营养状况,对其进行相关性分析.结果 有28%的大肠癌患者术前即存在营养风险,各评价指标对营养不良状况的检出率存在差异(9.3%~31.6%),且NRS 2002营养风险评分与血红蛋白(r=-0.117,P=0.025)、血清前白蛋白(r=-0.205,P=0.046)、血清白蛋白(r=-0.175,P=00.001)、体量质指数(r=-0.231,P=0.000)均呈负相关.结论 大肠癌患者术前即存在较高的营养风险和营养不良,且营养风险与术前营养状况有关.%Objective To assess the preoperative nutritional risks and status of patients with colorectal cancer by nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS 2002) combined with physiological-biochemical indicators, and explore their quantitative relationship. Methods NRS 2002 combined with physiological-biochemical indicators were applied on the 367 patients with colorectal cancer in Gastrointestinal Surgery Center in West China Hospital between April 2008 and March 2009 to assess their nutritional risks and status, and correlation analysis was done to explore their quantitative relationship. Results Among all the patients, 28% had preoperative nutritional risks. Different physiological-biochemical indicators detected different rates of malnutrition (9. 3% to 31. 6%), and there was a negative correlation between NRS 2002 and such physiological-biochemical indicators as hemoglobin (r=-0. 117,P=0. 025), pre-albumin (r=-0.205, P = 0. 046), albumin (r=-0. 175,P=0. 001), and body mass index nutritional risks and malnurtrion, and the nutritional risks are correlated with preoperative nutritional status.

  18. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years' project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability within the context of DEB theory for metabolic organisation, and (ii) to evaluate the inter-relationships between different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). AquaDEB phase I focussed on quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species ( e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) and phase II on: (i) comparing of energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and identifying the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; (ii) considering different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) scaling up the models for a few species from the individual level up to the level of evolutionary processes. Apart from the three special issues in the Journal of Sea Research — including the DEBIB collaboration (see vol. 65 issue 2), a theme issue on DEB theory appeared in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (vol 365, 2010); a large number of publications were produced; the third edition of the DEB book appeared (2010); open-source software was substantially expanded (over 1000 functions); a large open-source systematic collection of ecophysiological data and DEB parameters has been set up; and a series of DEB

  19. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  20. Impact of microbial inoculation on biomass accumulation by Sulla carnosa provenances, and in regulating nutrition, physiological and antioxidant activities of this species under non-saline and saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidri, R; Barea, J M; Mahmoud, O Metoui-Ben; Abdelly, C; Azcón, Rosario

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria (Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp.) and/or the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus intraradices were able to improve growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of four Sulla carnosa Desf. provenances (Sidi khlif, Thelja, Kalbia and Kerker) from Tunisia under both saline and non-saline conditions. S. carnosa is a salt-tolerant legume plant, native from North Africa. The intrinsic bacterial characteristics evidenced the fitness of these bacteria to support salt stress and to stimulate plant growth. Bacillus sp. produced more indol acetic acid (IAA) than Pseudomonas sp. and showed a great surviving capacity under salt conditions supporting its capacity to improve plant growth under stress conditions. The microorganisms applied also have a different potential to increase the nutritional and related plant growth parameters. It is noticeable that some provenances reached the highest level of growth when inoculated with Bacillus sp. in Sidi khlif or by Bacillus plus AMF in Kalbia, which increased shoot by 318% and root by 774%. In contrast, in Thelja and Kerker the impact of the test microorganisms was mainly evidenced at increasing nutritional and physiological functions. Salinity reduced some growth and physiological variables as stomatal conductance, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic efficiency and increased electrolyte leakage. However, the microbial inoculants compensated these detrimental effects in a degree depending on the S. carnosa provenance. These microorganisms also orchestrate antioxidant activities involved in adaptative responses in S. carnosa provenances. The intrinsic ability of inoculants allow us to select the provenance/microorganism combination which maximizes S. carnosa growth, nutrition and physiological/biochemical responses under salt and non-salt conditions. The results obtained support that the target microbial inocula are beneficial for the ecological stability if this Mediterranean legume. PMID:27393918

  1. Fast food diet mouse: novel small animal model of NASH with ballooning, progressive fibrosis, and high physiological fidelity to the human condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anuradha; Viker, Kimberly; Sanderson, Schuyler; Cazanave, Sophie; McConico, Andrea; Masuoko, Howard; Gores, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Although there are small animal platforms that recapitulate some of the histological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, there are no small animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with consistent hepatocellular ballooning and progressive fibrosis that also exhibit fidelity to the human condition physiologically. We examined the metabolic and histological effects of a diet on the basis of the composition of “fast food” (high saturated fats, cholesterol, and fructose). Mice (n = 8 in each group) were assigned to diets as follows: 1) standard chow (SC), i.e., 13% energy as fat [1% saturated fatty acids (SFA)], 2) high fat (HF), i.e., 60% energy as fat (1% SFA), and 3) fast food (FF), i.e., 40% energy as fat (12% SFA, 2% cholesterol). All three diets were supplemented with high fructose. All diets produced obesity. The HF and FF diets produced insulin resistance. Liver histology was normal in animals fed the SC diet. Steatohepatitis with pronounced ballooning and progressive fibrosis (stage 2) was observed in mice fed the FF diet. Although the HF diet produced obesity, insulin resistance, and some steatosis; inflammation was minimal, and there was no increase in fibrosis. The FF diet produced a gene expression signature of increased fibrosis, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipoapoptosis. A diet based on high cholesterol, high saturated fat, and high fructose recapitulates features of the metabolic syndrome and NASH with progressive fibrosis. This represents a novel small animal model of fibrosing NASH with high fidelity to the human condition. These results highlight the contribution of dietary composition to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and NASH. PMID:21836057

  2. Development of new metal chelates for animal nutrition and of analytical methods for their quantitative determination and quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrami, Diego

    2009-01-01

    The growing interest for mineral integration to increase mineral bioavalability brought researchers to re-examine accurately the impact that complexes and chelates can have for food industry. In fact, the so-called organic or chelate mineral forms, in particular those associated with amino acids, peptides or other organic molecules, afforded encouraging results in different in vivo tests on animals of economic interest fed with fodder containing minerals in the form of chelates. Moreover, it ...

  3. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  4. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  5. Physiological basis for high CO2 tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bleich

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Future ocean acidification has the potential to adversely affect many marine organisms. A growing body of evidence suggests that many species could suffer from reduced fertilization success, decreases in larval- and adult growth rates, reduced calcification rates, metabolic depression and even mortality when being exposed to near-future levels (year 2100 scenarios of ocean acidification. Little research focus is currently placed on those organisms/taxa that might be less vulnerable to the anticipated changes in ocean chemistry; this is unfortunate, as the comparison of more vulnerable to more tolerant physiotypes could provide us with those physiological traits that are crucial for ecological success in a future ocean. Here, we attempt to summarize some ontogenetic and lifestyle traits that lead to an increased tolerance towards high environmental pCO2. In general, marine ectothermic metazoans with an extensive extracellular fluid volume may be less vulnerable to future acidification as their cells are already exposed to much higher pCO2 values (0.1 to 0.4 kPa, 1000 to 4000 μatm than those of unicellular organisms and gametes, for which the ocean (0.04 kPa, 400 μatm is the extracellular space. A doubling in environmental pCO2 therefore only represents a 10% change in extracellular CO2 in some marine teleosts. High extracellular pCO2 values are to some degree related to high metabolic rates, as diffusion gradients need to be high in order to excrete an amount of CO2 that is directly proportional to the amount of O2 consumed. In active metazoans, such as teleost fish, cephalopods and many brachyuran crustaceans, exercise induced increases in metabolic rate require an efficient ion-regulatory machinery for CO2 excretion and acid-base regulation, especially when anaerobic metabolism is involved and metabolic protons leak into the extracellular space. These ion-transport systems, which are located in highly developed gill epithelia, form the basis

  6. Flow phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few aspects of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are as potentially confusing as the effect of motion on the MR image. While the MR image is anatomically similar to the image produced by CT, the MR appearance of flowing blood has no correlate in CT. Flowing blood can appear bright or dark, depending on the velocity and direction of flow. To a first approximation, rapidly flowing blood appears dark ('flow void') and slowly flowing blood appears bright. This phenomenon is illustrated. This appearance is markedly influenced by factors related to the imaging sequence and to the MR imager itself. The signal from flowing blood depends on the position of the slice relative to the rest of the multislice imaging volume. It depends on the repetition time TR, the echo-delay time TE, the echo number, and the slice thickness. In fast scanning techniques with short repetition times, gradient echoes, and flip angles less than 90 degrees, flow has a different appearance than on standard 90 degrees/180 degrees spin-echo images. The principles which affect the appearance of flowing blood also affect the appearance of flowing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Examples of CSF flow phenomena are given

  7. Produção animal e valor nutritivo da forragem de pastagem de coastcross consorciada com amendoim forrageiro Animal production and nutritive value of a coastcross pasture mixed with forage peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Barbero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram utilizados os tratamentos: coastcross + amendoim forrageiro + 200kg/ha de N; coastcross + amendoim forrageiro + 100kg/ha de N; coastcross + 200kg/ha de N e coastcross + amendoim forrageiro (parcelas no inverno, primavera, verão e outono (sub parcelas, delineados em blocos ao acaso. Novilhas foram manejadas sob lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável em pastagem mantida a 17cm de altura. Amostras foram coletadas a cada 28 dias para determinar o valor nutritivo da forragem. Foram avaliados: ganho médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso vivo (GPV, taxa de lotação (TL e número de animais dia (NAD. Quanto ao valor nutritivo da forragem, os piores resultados ocorreram nas pastagens sem adubação, 16,9% e 6,0% de PB de folha e colmo, respectivamente, e 70,1 % de FDN de folha. Na primavera e no verão, o GMD foi mais alto, 0,518 e 0,515kg/animal do que no inverno e outono, 0,396 e 0,293kg/animal, respectivamente. A TL foi superior nas pastagens que receberam a maior dose de nitrogênio, 5,38UA/ha em média, e no verão, 6,81UA/ha. O GPV foi mais elevado nas áreas com adubação, 1341kg de PV/ha, em relação aos pastos não adubados, 735kg/ha.In this study, the following treatments were used: coastcross + forage peanut + 200kg/ha of N; coastcross + forage peanut + 100kg/ha of N; coastcross + 200kg/ha of N and coastcross + forage peanut (plots in the winter, spring, summer, and autumn (subplots, designed in randomized blocks. Heifers were managed under continuous stocking and variable stocking rate on pasture maintained at 17cm height. Samples were collected every 28 days determining the nutritional value of forage. Average daily gain (ADG, weight gain (WG, stocking rate (SR, and number of animals/day (NAD were evaluated. As for forage nutritional value, the worst results were found in pasture without fertilization, 16.9% and 6.0% CP of leaf and stem, respectively, and 70.1% NDF in leaves. In the spring and summer, animals

  8. The nutritional significance of endogenous N-losses along the gastro-intestinal tract of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, S; Schulze, H; Van Bruchem, J; Huisman, J

    1995-01-01

    In animal production, endogenous protein losses associated with the digestion process are important losses, but difficult to measure. Measuring methods include feeding N-free diets, regression techniques based on amino acid profiles, and separating feed protein and endogenous protein by markers like homoarginine, hydrolysed casein or stable isotopes like 15N. Endogenous losses arise from saliva, digestive enzymes, bile, shedded epithelial cells and mucins and may be extra stimulated by the presence in feeds of antinutritional factors (ANF) such as lectins, trypsin inhibitors (TI), tannins and fibre. The impact of such factors may differ between non-ruminants and ruminants. The magnitude of the effect of the different factors is quantified and some of the consequences for protein deposition and nitrogen losses to the environment are discussed. PMID:8526736

  9. Nutrition, feeding, and behavior of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Santosh P; Tibbetts, Sean M

    2009-05-01

    Nutrition and feeding influence growth, reproduction, and health of fish and their response to physiologic and environmental stressors and pathogens. The basics of fish metabolism are similar to those of warm-blooded animals in that they involve food intake, digestion, absorption, and transport of nutrients to the various tissues. Fish, however, being the most primitive form of vertebrates, possess some distinguishing features which will be discussed. Unlike warm-blooded animals, which are homoeothermic, fish are poikilothermic, so their body temperature and metabolic rate depends on the water temperature and this has practical implications for the nutrition, feeding and health of fish. Several behavioral responses have been linked to methods of feeding, feeding habits, frequency of feeding, mechanisms of food detection, and food preferences. Fish are also unique among vertebrates in their ability to absorb minerals not only from their diets but also from water through their gills and skin. PMID:19341962

  10. Human and animal physiology experiments curriculum educational reform exploration and practice%“人体及动物生理学实验”教学改革的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Introduces the importance of human and animal physiology experiment teaching; From Strengthening the teaching management, reforming of teaching contents and changing the traditional teaching method , cultivating creative talents, exs to explore human and animal physiology experimental teaching new direction.%阐述了人体及动物生理学实验教学的重要性,并从加强教学管理,改革教学内容,改变传统教学方法及培养创新人才等方面探究了人体及动物生理学实验教学的新路子。

  11. Psychosocial predator-based animal model of PTSD produces physiological and behavioral sequelae and a traumatic memory four months following stress onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Park, Collin R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2015-08-01

    We have a well-established animal model of PTSD composed of predator exposure administered in conjunction with social instability that produces PTSD-like behavioral and physiological abnormalities one month after stress initiation. Here, we assessed whether the PTSD-like effects would persist for at least 4months after the initiation of the psychosocial stress regimen. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 2 or 3 predator-based fear conditioning sessions. During each session, rats were placed in a chamber for a 3-min period that terminated with a 30-s tone, followed by 1h of immobilization of the rats during cat exposure (Day 1). All rats in the stress groups received a second fear conditioning session 10days later (Day 11). Half of the stress rats received a third fear conditioning session 3weeks later (Day 32). The two cat-exposed groups were also exposed to daily unstable housing conditions for the entire duration of the psychosocial stress regimen. The control group received stable (conventional) housing conditions and an equivalent amount of chamber exposure on Days 1, 11 and 32, without cat exposure. Behavioral testing commenced for all groups on Day 116. The stress groups demonstrated increased anxiety on the elevated plus maze, impaired object recognition memory and robust contextual and cued fear conditioned memory 3months after the last conditioning session. Combined data from the two stress groups revealed lower post-stress corticosterone levels and greater diastolic blood pressure relative to the control group. These findings indicate that predator-based psychosocial stress produces persistent PTSD-like physiological and behavioral abnormalities that may provide insight into the neurobiological and endocrine sequelae in traumatized people with PTSD. PMID:25911267

  12. Spaceflight Nutrition Research: Platforms and Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding human adaptation to weightlessness requires research in either the true microgravity environment or iii a ground-based model. Over the years, many flight platforms have been available, and many ground models have emerged for both human and animal studies of the effects of spaceflight on physiology. In this review, we provide a brief description of these models and the main points to be considered when choosing a model. We do not intend to provide a comprehensive overview of each platform or model, but rather to provide the reader with an overview of the options available for space nutrition research, and the relative merits and/or drawbacks of each.

  13. Nutrition and the circadian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Gregory D M; Cade, Janet E; Grant, Peter J; Hardie, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    The human circadian system anticipates and adapts to daily environmental changes to optimise behaviour according to time of day and temporally partitions incompatible physiological processes. At the helm of this system is a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN are primarily synchronised to the 24-h day by the light/dark cycle; however, feeding/fasting cycles are the primary time cues for clocks in peripheral tissues. Aligning feeding/fasting cycles with clock-regulated metabolic changes optimises metabolism, and studies of other animals suggest that feeding at inappropriate times disrupts circadian system organisation, and thereby contributes to adverse metabolic consequences and chronic disease development. 'High-fat diets' (HFD) produce particularly deleterious effects on circadian system organisation in rodents by blunting feeding/fasting cycles. Time-of-day-restricted feeding, where food availability is restricted to a period of several hours, offsets many adverse consequences of HFD in these animals; however, further evidence is required to assess whether the same is true in humans. Several nutritional compounds have robust effects on the circadian system. Caffeine, for example, can speed synchronisation to new time zones after jetlag. An appreciation of the circadian system has many implications for nutritional science and may ultimately help reduce the burden of chronic diseases. PMID:27221157

  14. Functional genomics and microbiome profiling of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) reveal insights into the digestive physiology and nutritional ecology of wood feeding beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gut microbial communities associated with xylophagous beetles are taxonomically rich and predominately comprised of taxa that are poised to promote survival in woody tissue, which is devoid of nitrogen and essential nutrients. However, the contributions of gut microbes to digestive physiology a...

  15. Nutritional strategies to combat physiological imbalance of dairy cows during early lactation: The effect of changes in dietary protein to starch-ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Friggens, Nic; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2010-01-01

    the low, control and high diets, respectively. Besides milk urea nitrogen, no other production or metabolic parameters were affected by treatment. In conclusion, manipulation of dietary protein to starch is not a potential strategy to combat physiological imbalance during early lactation...

  16. Calcium and magnesium physiology and nutrition in relation to the prevention of milk fever and tetany (dietary management of macrominerals in preventing disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Tereso, Javier; Martens, Holger

    2014-11-01

    Dairy cows may suffer events of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, commonly known as milk fever and tetany. Milk fever is characterized by hypocalcemia at parturition as a consequence of a sudden increase in Ca demand and an unavoidable delay in Ca metabolism adaptation. Tetany is due to impaired Mg absorption from the rumen that cannot be compensated by absorptive or excretory adaptation, resulting in a net nutritional shortage of Mg and culminating in hypomagnesemia. Prevention strategies require triggering the activation of Ca gastrointestinal absorption and avoiding factors limiting ruminal Mg absorption. PMID:25245611

  17. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  18. An Overview of the Role of Fat in Nutrition and Formulation and Its Measurement in the Live Animal, Meat Carcass and Processed Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Paul B.

    1993-01-01

    The role of fat in nutrition and health is complex but one about which consumers have only recently become aware. As a consequence of changing consumer attitudes and because fat affects many physical attributes in food, raw material suppliers and food manufacturers have attempted to improve the range and nutritional composition of available foodstuffs. However, with a substantial price difference between fat and lean, and ever-increasing demands for improved throughputs and operational cost p...

  19. A study of the physiological changes and the nutritional qualities of irradiated apples and the effect of irradiation on apples stored at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of γ-irradiation on the metabolism and nutritional qualities of Golden Delicious apples and on the lethality of pathogenic fungi have been studied. The storage effect of irradiation on apples at room temperature has been observed. Results showed that the respiratory intensity of irradiated apple at 0.3-0.5 kGy was near or lower than that of unirradiated apple after 15 days irradiation. The amount of ethylene release was obviously inhibited when fruits were irradiated with 0.3-0.7 kGy. The flesh firmness of apples irradiated with 0.3-0.9 kGy was higher than that of unirradiated apple with increased storage time. The negative correlations between the flesh firmness and the activities of pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) were observed when the dosage was lower than 1.5 kGy. The 2.0 kGy irradiation damaged the ultrastructure of cells, induced the softening of apple. When apples were irradiated with 0.7-2.0 kGy, the contents of 4 important volatile components of apple would be decreased. However, this dose had no effects on the pure chemicals. Studies showed that there was no significant effect of irradiation with 0.3-2.0 kGy on the nutritional qualities of apples and this dose range could effectively control the verticillate pathogenic fungi. The result of storage experiment showed that rotting of fruits decreased by 0.3-0.9 kGy irradiation. (author)

  20. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  1. CONCEPTS IN HUMAN NUTRITION AND ANIMAL FEEDING New Reference Values for nutrient intake in Germany, Austria and Switzerland (DACH-reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Günther

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance to their very good collaboration through decades especially at the “3 Countries Meetings” the Nutrition Societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (D, A, CH decided to prepare new Reference Values for nutrient intake as a joint edition in the year 2000. The Reference Values consist of two parts: Part 1, Nutritive aspects of nutrients. Part 2, Preventive aspect of nutrient and food components. The Reference Values presented should protect almost all individuals of the respective group against potential damage to health from their diet and provide a basis for full functional capacity. In detail recommendations, estimates or guideline values are presented for the different nutrients. Total fat should not exceed 30% of energy, saturated fatty acids should not provide more than 10% of energy and polyunsaturated fatty acids 7% of energy with n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 5:1. Preventive aspect concern the prophylaxis of nutrition-related diseases.

  2. Nutrition, ecology and nutritional ecology: towardan integrated framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    minimal requirements: it should be nutritionally explicit, organismally explicit, and ecologically explicit. 4. We evaluate against these criteria four existing frameworks (Optimal Foraging Theory, Classical Insect Nutritional Ecology, the Geometric Framework for nutrition, and Ecological Stoichiometry......1. The science of nutritional ecology spans a wide range of fields, including ecology, nutrition, behaviour, morphology, physiology, life history and evolutionary biology. But does nutritional ecology have a unique theoretical framework and research program and thus qualify as a field of research...... in its own right? 2. We suggest that the distinctive feature of nutritional ecology is its integrative nature, and that the field would benefit from more attention to formalizing a theoretical and quantitative framework for developing this. 3. Such a framework, we propose, should satisfy three...

  3. Synchronization Phenomena and Epoch Filter of Electroencephalogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matani, Ayumu

    Nonlinear electrophysiological synchronization phenomena in the brain, such as event-related (de)synchronization, long distance synchronization, and phase-reset, have received much attention in neuroscience over the last decade. These phenomena contain more electrical than physiological keywords and actually require electrical techniques to capture with electroencephalography (EEG). For instance, epoch filters, which have just recently been proposed, allow us to investigate such phenomena. Moreover, epoch filters are still developing and would hopefully generate a new paradigm in neuroscience from an electrical engineering viewpoint. Consequently, electrical engineers could be interested in EEG once again or from now on.

  4. Progresso científico sobre nutrição de animais de companhia na primeira década do século XXI Scientific progress on companion animal nutrition on the first decade of the Century XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulus Cavalieri Carciofi

    2010-07-01

    the importance that dogs and cats taken in people's lives, making that the decisions of the owners about the nutrition of their animals resembled those which adopt for themselves. The publication of the new revision of Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats in 2006 was perhaps the most significant recent development, bringing new understanding of energy and nutrient needs at different developmental stages and physiological states. Despite these advances, further research is needed in the area of physical-chemical characterization and use of ingredients, effects of the extrusion process and even nutritional needs, which has a small base of available articles, many of them quite old. Perhaps the most important scientific challenge in nutrition of dogs and cats are carbohydrate metabolism, the importance of lean body mass in health, gerontology, the relationship between intestinal microbiota and health, immunonutrition and the nutritional management of important clinical conditions specific to these animals.

  5. Innovations in Canine and Feline Nutrition: Technologies for Food and Nutrition Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Hervera, Marta; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

    2016-01-01

    Pet owners have increasing concerns about the nutrition of their pets, and they desire foods and treats that are safe, traceable, and of high nutritive value. To meet these high expectations, detailed chemical composition characterization of ingredients well beyond that provided by proximate analysis will be required, as will information about host physiology and metabolism. Use of faster and more precise analytical methodology and novel technologies that have the potential to improve pet food safety and quality will be implemented. In vitro and in vivo assays will continue to be used as screening tools to evaluate nutrient quality and adequacy in novel ingredients prior to their use in animal diets. The use of molecular and high-throughput technologies allows implementation of noninvasive studies in dogs and cats to investigate the impact of dietary interventions by using systems biology approaches. These approaches may further improve the health and longevity of pets. PMID:26884104

  6. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  7. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided for all poultry products...

  8. 9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged poultry product shall appear...

  9. 9 CFR 381.500 - Exemption from nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from nutrition labeling. 381... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.500 Exemption from nutrition labeling. (a) The following poultry products are exempt from nutrition labeling:...

  10. 9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged meat or meat...

  11. 固态发酵豆粕营养价值及其应用研究%Research on Nutritional Value of Solid-state fermented Soybean Meal and its Application on Animals Feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝耿; 胡婷; 马桢; 彭子欣; 艾布什; 陈童; 王安如; 王洪彬

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation resulted in improved nutritional value of soybean meal. Soybean meal is the most commonly used protein source in the animal feed industry. However, use of soybean meal is mostly limited to adult animals because of inefficient digestibility of soy proteins by young animals. And fermented soybean meal would have valuable functional benefits available for animals. The paper reviewed the recent research on evaluating the value of fermented soybean meal and its application in animal feeding.%固态发酵法是一种切实可行的提高豆粕营养价值的方法.豆粕是畜禽最重要的植物性蛋白源,但其含有的抗营养因子限制了幼龄动物对蛋白质的有效利用.研究结果表明,发酵豆粕对动物的生长性能、消化和免疫功能具有积极的影响.作者就固态发酵豆粕的营养价值研究及其在动物饲养中的应用进行了综述.

  12. Experimental Modification of Interpretation Bias about Animal Fear in Young Children: Effects on Cognition, Avoidance Behavior, Anxiety Vulnerability, and Physiological Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Field, Andy P.; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation…

  13. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Section 3 of this annual report the Environmental Physiology Group reports progress in several areas of research: a study of erythropoietin biogenesis and regulation of hematopoesis; the in vitro production of erythropoietin by cloned lines of erythroleukemic cells; endocrine interactions with lung tissue, and hormonal changes in response to ozone exposure; an in vitro cell culture technique for the detection and enumeration of thymic lymphocyte progenitors in the bone marrow of experimental animals; the study of magnetic field bioeffects; the study of actinide element distribution and retention in primates; and a comparison of the efficiencies of various chelating agents in facilitating the removal of Pu-238 from the skeleton, the liver, and the whole body

  14. Adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma HSP70 level, and PBMC HSP70 mRNA expression in Osmanabadi goats subjected to combined (heat and nutritional) stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilja, Shaji; Sejian, V.; Bagath, M.; Mech, A.; David, C. G.; Kurien, E. K.; Varma, Girish; Bhatta, Raghavendra

    2015-12-01

    A study was conducted to assess the impact of heat and nutritional stress simultaneously on the adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) level, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) HSP70 gene expression in goats. Twenty-four adult Osmanabadi bucks (average body weight (BW) 16.0 kg) were used in the present study. The bucks were divided into four groups viz., C (n = 6; control), HS (n = 6; heat stress), NS (n = 6; nutritional stress), and CS (n = 6; combined stress). The study was conducted for a period of 45 days. C and HS bucks had ad libitum access to their feed while NS and CS bucks were under restricted feed (30 % intake of C bucks) to induce nutritional stress. The HS and CS bucks were exposed to solar radiation for 6 h a day between 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. to induce heat stress. The data was analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The standing time differed significantly (P groups (C and HS) and restricted feeding groups (NS and CS). The highest (P group while the lowest in the C and HS groups. The highest (P group. Water intake recorded was significantly (P groups. The highest respiration rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and rectal temperature (RT) during the afternoon were also recorded in the CS group. Further, skin temperature of the head, flank, and scrotum during the afternoon was also higher (P group. In addition, both plasma HSP70 concentration and PBMC HSP70 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript expression were also significantly (P group. It can be concluded from this study that when two stressors occur simultaneously, they may have severe impact on adaptive capabilities of Osmanabadi bucks as compared to that would occur individually. Further, the study indicated that lying time, drinking frequency, RR, RT, plasma HSP70, and PBMC HSP70 gene expression may act as ideal biological markers for assessing the impact of CS on adaptive capabilities in bucks.

  15. Geriatric nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, R W; Hodgkins, E M

    1989-01-01

    In recent decades, veterinary medicine has become more successful in prolonging the healthy, useful lives of pets. As a result, the practitioner spends a greater part of each practice day caring for the geriatric animal, both healthy and unhealthy. Because of their longevity, older pets are typically regular family members, with owners who seek the finest health care possible for their pets. The practice of geriatric medicine most properly should begin not when the dog or cat reaches some specific "golden" age, but rather when the wiggly, robust puppy or kitten receives its first examination. Like all parts of a sound preventive program, geriatric nutrition best follows from a well-considered juvenile and adult nutrition program. Furthermore, once it becomes senior, the "well" geriatric is as much a candidate for a diet designed especially to accommodate old age changes as is his unhealthy contemporary. In fact, evidence suggests that appropriate dietary management of the healthy, but often subclinical, patient may help postpone the signs of dysfunction and increase quality and length of life. A knowledge of the most significant nutrients and the impact of each on aging systems is now, and will become increasingly more, important to the progressive, skillful veterinarian. PMID:2646815

  16. Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of iron compounds (E1 as feed additives for all species: iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, as source of iron is considered safe for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iron in complete feed, with the exception of bovines and poultry for which the maximum tolerated level is 450 mg/kg complete feed, and pets, for which the maximum tolerated level is 600 mg/kg complete feed. The FEEDAP Panel is not in the position to derive a maximum safe iron concentration in feed for horses or fish. Consumption surveys include iron-containing foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with iron-containing compounds has not essentially changed during the last decades, it is reasonable to assume that the iron levels in food of animal origin used in exposure scenarios originated from animals fed iron-supplemented diets. Since iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, will be used as a substitute for other iron compounds, its use in animal nutrition would not modify consumer exposure to iron. The additive should be considered as a skin, eye and respiratory irritant and, owing to its residual peptide component, as a skin/respiratory sensitiser. Considering the high background concentration of iron in soil and water, the supplementation of feed with iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, is not expected to pose an environmental risk. Iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, is an effective source of iron for all animal species and categories. The FEEDAP Panel recommends that the maximum iron contents in complete feed be reduced as follows: bovines and poultry, 450 mg Fe/kg; and pets, 600 mg Fe/kg.

  17. Discussion on 'Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed Science' Teaching Experience%浅谈水产专业“水生动物营养与饲料学”教学体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷宇杰; 伦峰; 彭新亮; 龚静

    2012-01-01

    'Aquatic animal nutrition and feed science' is a professional foundation course in higher vocational education of aquiculture specialty.The teaching reformation and exploration were condncted from the positioning of the course,students' interest,theory teaching,practice teaching and assessment examination and other aspects of teaching experience to develop students' learning initiative,stimulate students interest in learning,train students thinking and independent problem solving skills,improve aquatic animal nutrition and feed science teaching effect.%水生动物营养与饲料学是高职高专水产专业的一门专业基础课。从课程定位、学生兴趣、理论教学、实践教学以及考核检查等方面进行了教学改革与探索,从而发挥学生的学习能动性,激发学生的学习兴趣,培养学生思考和独立解决问题的能力,提高水产动物营养与饲料学的教学效果。

  18. Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review ...

  19. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 4: the "nutritional systems biology level"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Cavallieri, D.; Roche, H.M.; Klein, U.I.; Daniel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional systems biology may be defined as the ultimate goal of molecular nutrition research, where all relevant aspects of regulation of metabolism in health and disease states at all levels of its complexity are taken into account to describe the molecular physiology of nutritional processes. T

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper compounds (E4 as feed additives for all species: cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is safe for all animal species/categories up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feed. Consumption surveys include copper from foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with copper-containing compounds has not essentially changed over the last decade, no change in the contribution of foodstuffs originating from supplemented animals to the overall copper intake of consumers is expected. No concerns for consumer safety are expected from the use of cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate in animal nutrition, which would substitute for other copper sources. The additive should be considered as a skin and eye irritant and, owing to its amino acid/peptide component, as a skin/respiratory sensitiser. Potential risks to soil organisms have been identified as a result of the application of piglet manure. Levels of copper in other types of manure are too low to create a potential risk within the timescale considered. There might also be a potential environmental concern related to the contamination of sediment resulting from drainage and the run-off of copper to surface water. In order to draw a final conclusion, further model validation is needed and some further refinement to the assessment of copper-based feed additives in livestock needs to be considered, for which additional data would be required. The use of copper-containing additives in aquaculture up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feeds is not expected to pose an appreciable risk to the environment. The extent to which copper-resistant bacteria contribute to the overall antibiotic resistance situation cannot be quantified at present. Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is recognised as an efficacious source of copper to meet animal requirements.

  1. Roles of phytochemicals in amino acid nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yinlong

    2011-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is often used as dietary supplements to maintain good health in animals and humans. Here, we review the current knowledge about effects of CHM (including ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder, Acanthopanax senticosus extracts, Astragalus polysaccharide, and glycyrrhetinic acid) as dietary additives on physiological and biochemical parameters in pigs, chickens and rodents. Additionally, we propose possible mechanisms for the beneficial effects of CHM on the animals. These mechanisms include (a) increased digestion and absorption of dietary amino acids; (b) altered catabolism of amino acids in the small intestine and other tissues; (c) enhanced synthesis of functional amino acids (e.g., arginine, glutamine and proline) and polyamines; and (d) improved metabolic control of nutrient utilization through cell signaling. Notably, some phytochemicals and glucocorticoids share similarities in structure and physiological actions. New research findings provide a scientific and clinical basis for the use of CHM to improve well-being in livestock species and poultry, while enhancing the efficiency of protein accretion. Results obtained from animal studies also have important implications for human nutrition and health. PMID:21196382

  2. Albert Renold Memorial Lecture: Molecular Background of Nutritionally Induced Insulin Resistance Leading to Type 2 Diabetes – From Animal Models to Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Shafrir, Eleazar

    2001-01-01

    Albert Renold strived to gain insight into the abnormalities of human diabetes by defining the pathophysiology of the disease peculiar to a given animal. He investigated the Israeli desert-derived spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus), which became obese on fat-rich seed diet. After a few months hyperplasia and hypertrophy of β-cells occurred leading to a sudden rupture, insulin loss and ketosis. Spiny mice were low insulin responders, which is probably a characteristic of certain desert animals, pro...

  3. Historical background and development of applied nutrition and community nutrition in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Sumi

    2007-01-01

    This paper overviews the historical background and development of applied nutrition and community nutrition in Korea. The nutrition studies in the early years focused on animal experiments, human metabolism, and food analysis and therefore were limited to classrooms and research laboratories in universities without spreading into the lives of people. Korean specialists trained through the UN International Course of Applied Nutrition initiated the Applied Nutrition Program (ANP) in Korea in th...

  4. Evaluation palm empty fruit bunch and its fermented products as feed for ruminant animal by nutritional values characterisation and in-vitro dry matter digestibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermented by Pleurotus sajor caju as ruminant feed has been investigated extensively. This paper evaluates products obtained from several manipulation. The manipulation includes pretreatment (soaked and mixed) of EFB with lime, variation of fermentation conditions: prolonged incubation period, varied incubation temperature and addition Palm Oil Sludge (POS) as additive; and post-fermentation manipulation such as harvesting mushroom out of the substratum. The fermented products from each of those manipulation were evaluated based on nutritional values and the pertinent in-vitro dry matter digestibility, whenever appropriate. The evaluated products were compared and discussed. 8 tabs

  5. Use of the Pyrithiamine-Induced Thiamine Deficient Animal Model of Korsakoff’s Syndrome for Exploratory Research Activities in Undergraduate Physiological Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, Robert W.; Hill, Jonathan E.; Sandusky, Leslie A.; Marino, Christina L.

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate neuroscience laboratory activities frequently focus on exercises that build student’s wet/dry laboratory skills, foster critical thinking, and provide opportunities for hands-on experiences. Such activities are, without a doubt, extremely important, but sometimes fall short of modeling actual research and often lack the ‘unknown’ hypothetical nature accompanying empirical studies. In this article we report a series of research activities using an animal model of Korsakoff’s synd...

  6. Yield Traits, Physico-chemical Characteristics and Nutritional Composition of MR219 M3 Generation and its Effect on Glycemic Index and Responses in Animal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation technique is a conventional breeding technique and it is very effective in improving of main crop characteristics such as yield traits, resistance to diseases and pests and nutritional qualities. In this study, MR219 seeds were treated with Carbon ion radiation (60 Gy) by AVF-Cyclotron at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Takasaki, Japan and were planted at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency up to third mutant generation (M3). Thirty one M3 mutant lines (ML1 to ML31) were evaluated on morphological, yield and yield components, and were compared to the parental variety, MR219. Analysis of variance revealed that there was a significant difference among mutant lines in culm height, days to flowering, number of tillers, number of panicles, 1000 grain weight, total grain weight, total of dry matter, alkaline spreading value, gel consistency, amylose content, ash, crude protein, fat, dietary fibre, carbohydrate and energy. Mutant line ML21 had the best performance in majority of yield components and vegetative traits as compared to others mutant lines and parental variety. For nutritional composition, mutant lines namely ML31, ML21, ML10, ML19 were improved in crude protein content, dietary fibre and carbohydrate content. The estimation of glycemic index revealed that two mutant lines namely ML3 and ML30 can be consumed by diabetics. (author)

  7. 体外产气法在动物营养学中应用的研究进展%Research Progress on the Application of in vitro Gas Production Technology on Animal Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金恩望; 周凌云; 卜登攀; 孙鹏; 姜雅慧; 李发弟

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional value of feedstuff has a direct impact on the animal performance and the quality of animal products. In vitro methods for laboratory estimations of feed degradation are important tools for ruminant nutritionist. These methods are measured either substrate disappearance by quantifying incubation residues or they record fermentation products such as microbial biomass, volatile fatty acid or gas production. In vitro gas production technology, which is based on the relationship between rumen fermentation and gas production, is a in vitro rumen simulation technique. It is simple, economic, quick and low cost, and wildly used to evaluate the nutritional value of feedstuff in ruminant production. The aim of this study is to describe the application and research advances of in vitro gas production technology on animal nutrition and classic mathematics models in this area.%动物生产中饲料营养价值的高低直接影响动物的生产性能及畜产品的品质,实验室常用体外法来评价和估测饲料降解率.体外法主要通过测定底物如饲料降解后的残余量和发酵产物生成量(微生物数量、挥发性脂肪酸)或气体的产量来评价饲料营养价值.体外产气法是基于瘤胃发酵与产气高度相关的一种瘤胃体外模拟技术,该法具有简便、经济、快速、费用低等优点,目前在国内外多用于评价反刍动物饲草的饲用价值.作者主要综述了体外产气法在反刍动物生产中的应用及体外产气法中较为经典的发酵动力学模型.

  8. Organic Food and Health: A new project to study the effects of plant cultivation methods (organic and conventional) on nutritional value, health and reproduction in an animal experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Kirsten; Nygaard Larsen, Hanne; Andersen, Jens-Otto; Mølgaard, Jens-Peter; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Henry; Gundersen, Vagn; Larsen, Erik; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2001-01-01

    Many consumers believe that food from plants grown under certain conditions, such as organic agriculture, will benefit health more than conventional food. This cannot be determined simply by analysing the material, since our understanding of the connections between food components and health is still to imprecise for such a purpose. Rather than waiting until basic research provides the knowledge needed for this approach, in the spring of 2001 we have initiated a project to study physiological...

  9. Nutrition Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  10. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  11. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  12. Características fisiológicas, nutricionais e rendimento de forrageiras fertigadas com água residuária de bovinocultura Physiological, nutritional and yield characteristics of forages fertigated with cattle wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio J. T. Erthal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A disposição de águas residuárias no sistema solo-planta, feita sem critérios agronômico e ambiental, pode causar problemas de contaminação do solo, das águas superficiais e subterrâneas e toxicidade às plantas. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da fertigação com água residuária de bovinocultura (ARB sobre as características fisiológicas, nutricionais e de produtividade do capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. e da aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, realizou-se um experimento utilizando-se quatro taxas de aplicação da ARB (25, 50, 75 e 100 kg ha-1 de K em condições de lisímetros de drenagem em casa de vegetação. As variáveis fisiológicas, nutricionais e de rendimento avaliadas foram: taxa fotossintética, taxa transpiratória, condutância estomática, teor de clorofila na folha, rendimento forrageiro, teor de proteína bruta (PB e teor de nutrientes na matéria seca (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn e Cu. Os resultados indicaram que a utilização da ARB não causou estresse osmótico nem toxicidade pelos elementos químicos analisados mas propiciou absorção de nutrientes e rendimento forrageiro em níveis próximos aos recomendados podendo, portanto, substituir parcialmente a adubação mineral para o cultivo dessas forrageiras.When accomplished without agronomic and environmental criteria, the disposal of the wastewaters in the soil-plant system can cause contamination problems in the soil, to both surface and subsurface waters as well as toxicity to the plants. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects from the fertigation with cattle wastewater (ARB on the physiologic, nutritional and yield characteristics of the Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp. and the black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. The experiment was performed with four ARB application rates (25, 50, 75 and 100 kg ha-1 of K using drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions. The following physiologic, nutritional and yield variables were evaluated: photosynthetic

  13. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  14. Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune;

    Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible...... evidence found in the research field comprised by the three review questions to be addressed. The aims of this systematic review can, thus, be summarized like this: Which answers can be offered from research in relation to the following questions: What is dropout from university studies? Why do such...... dropout phenomena occur at universities? What can be done by the universities to prevent or reduce such dropout phenomena?...

  15. The Effect of Probiotics on Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Corcionivoschi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria and their effect in combating digestive disorders in humans and animals has been demonstrated and supported in numerous scientific studies. Probiotic bacteria are used in a wide range of nutritional techniques in order to support the host organism during physiological strain, to reduce stress due to technology and to combat diarrheal syndromes (occurring naturally or pharmacologically induced. Based on a rich bibliographic material, this paper presents the role of probiotic bacteria to equilibrate the beneficial microbial population and in bacterial turnover by stimulating the host immune response via specific secretions (eg. bacteriocins and competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic germs in the digestive tract (Salmonella, E. coli. In the same context, this review presents the basic studies on the effect of probiotic bacteria in health maintenance for the main species of farm animals: pigs, poultry, cattle and sheep.

  16. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale

  17. Nutrition for Tennis: Practical Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Ranchordas, Mayur K.; David Rogerson; Alan Ruddock; Sophie, C. Killer; Winter, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is p...

  18. Introduction to wetting phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures the field of wetting phenomena is introduced from the point of view of statistical physics. The phase transition from partial to complete wetting is discussed and examples of relevant experiments in binary liquid mixtures are given. Cahn's concept of critical-point wetting is examined in detail. Finally, a connection is drawn between wetting near bulk criticality and the universality classes of surface critical phenomena. (author)

  19. Complex fission phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W

    2005-01-01

    Complex fission phenomena can be studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle-point) nuclear shapes, may be obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in cold fission phenomena can be explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined. Predictions of two alpha accompanied fission are experimentally confirmed.

  20. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  1. Reduced cortisol and metabolic responses of thin ewes to an acute cold challenge in mid-pregnancy: implications for animal physiology and welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Verbeek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low food availability leading to reductions in Body Condition Score (BCS; 0 indicates emaciation and 5 obesity in sheep often coincides with low temperatures associated with the onset of winter in New Zealand. The ability to adapt to reductions in environmental temperature may be impaired in animals with low BCS, in particular during pregnancy when metabolic demand is higher. Here we assess whether BCS affects a pregnant animal's ability to cope with cold challenges. METHODS: Eighteen pregnant ewes with a BCS of 2.7±0.1 were fed to attain low (LBC: BCS2.3±0.1, medium (MBC: BCS3.2±0.2 or high BCS (HBC: BCS3.6±0.2. Shorn ewes were exposed to a 6-h acute cold challenge in a climate-controlled room (wet and windy conditions, 4.4±0.1°C in mid-pregnancy. Blood samples were collected during the BCS change phase, acute cold challenge and recovery phase. RESULTS: During the BCS change phase, plasma glucose and leptin concentrations declined while free fatty acids (FFA increased in LBC compared to MBC (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively and HBC ewes (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively. During the cold challenge, plasma cortisol concentrations were lower in LBC than MBC (P<0.05 and HBC ewes (P<0.05, and FFA and insulin concentrations were lower in LBC than HBC ewes (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively. Leptin concentrations declined in MBC and HBC ewes while remaining unchanged in LBC ewes (P<0.01. Glucose concentrations and internal body temperature (T(core increased in all treatments, although peak T(core tended to be higher in HBC ewes (P<0.1. During the recovery phase, T4 concentrations were lower in LBC ewes (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Even though all ewes were able to increase T(core and mobilize glucose, low BCS animals had considerably reduced cortisol and metabolic responses to a cold challenge in mid-pregnancy, suggesting that their ability to adapt to cold challenges through some of the expected pathways was reduced.

  2. Nutritional plans for boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kiefer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate nutritional plans for boars. Four hundred animals of 67 to 135 days of age and initial weight of 27.75±1.61 kg were distributed in a randomized block design with seven nutritional plans for boars (9.0-8.0; 9.0-9.0; 10.0-9.0; 10.0-10.0; 11.0-10.0; 11.0-11.0 and 12.0-11.0 g/kg of digestible lysine from 67 to 107 days and from 108 to 135 days, respectively with four repetitions and a control plan for barrows (11.0-10.0 g/kg of digestible lysine with eight repetitions and ten animals each. Uncastrated male swine presented better feed conversion; however they showed a lower marbling degree in relation to barrows, regardless of the nutritional plan. The nutritional plan that corresponds to the sequence of 11.0-10.0 g/kg of digestible lysine from the 67 to the 107 days and from the 108 to the 135 days, respectively, meets the nutritional needs of boars.

  3. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  4. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  5. Major acute phase protein and its application progress in animal nutrition and health%MAP及其在动物营养与健康中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许美芳; 齐珂珂; 胡向东

    2013-01-01

    Major acute phase protein (MAP) is one of the acute phase reactive proteins synthetized in liver,is a new plasma glycoprotein of 120 kDa belonging to inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (ITI) family.With close relation to animal nutrition and health,MAP can provide valuable diagnostic information about animal diseases and severity.Since muscular catabolism is associated to acute phase process,the determination of serum MAP concentration could be an effective parameter in meat inspection and animal welfare.The paper summarized the MAP classification,structural feature and synthetic process,also put emphasis on its application value in animal production field.%MAP(major acute phase protein)是一种肝脏合成的急性期反应蛋白,分子量约为120 kDa,属于ITI(inter-α-trypsin inhibitor)家族.MAP与动物的营养和健康状态密切相关,研究表明机体MAP水平可反映动物的疾病状态及其严重程度,还可作为肉质与常规管理中动物福利的有效监测指标.文章综述了MAP的种类与结构特征及其合成过程,并进一步介绍了其在动物的营养与健康中的应用,就MAP在动物生产领域中的应用和研究重点及发展方向作了展望.

  6. Animal Model of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus with Pathophysiological Resemblance to the Human Condition Induced by Multiple Factors (Nutritional, Pharmacological, and Stress) in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Aziz, Siti Hajar; John, Cini Mathew; Mohamed Yusof, Nur Intan Saidaah; Nordin, Massita; Ramasamy, Rajesh; Adam, Aishah; Mohd Fauzi, Fazlin

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to develop an experimental gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) animal model in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were fed with high fat sucrose diet, impregnated, and induced with Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide on gestational day 0 (D0). Sleeping patterns of the rats were also manipulated to induce stress, a lifestyle factor that contributes to GDM. Rats were tested for glycemic parameters (glucose, C-peptide, and insulin), lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglycerides,...

  7. Social interactions affecting caste development through physiological actions in termites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaiWatanabe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A colony of social insects is not only an aggregation of individuals but also a functional unit. To achieve adaptive social behavior in fluctuating environmental conditions, in addition to coordination of physiological status in each individual, the whole colony is coordinated by interactions among colony members. The study on the regulation of social-insect colonies is termed “social physiology”. Termites, a major group of social insects, exhibit many interesting phenomena related to social physiology, such as mechanisms of caste regulation in a colony. In their colonies, there are different types of individuals, i.e., castes, which show distinctive phenotypes specialized in specific colony tasks. Termite castes comprise reproductives, soldiers and workers, and the caste composition can be altered depending on circumstances. For the regulation of caste compositions, interactions among individuals, i.e. social interactions, are thought to be important. In this article, we review previous studies on the adaptive meanings and those on the proximate mechanisms of the caste regulation in termites, and try to understand those comprehensively in terms of social physiology. Firstly, we summarize classical studies on the social interactions. Secondly, previous studies on the pheromone substances that mediate the caste regulatory mechanisms are overviewed. Then, we discuss the roles of a physiological factor, juvenile hormone (JH in the regulation of caste differentiation. Finally, we introduce the achievements of molecular studies on the animal sociality (i.e. sociogenomics in terms of social physiology. By comparing the proximate mechanisms of social physiology in termites with those in hymenopterans, we try to get insights into the general principles of social physiology in social animals.

  8. Physiological factors in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeWinn, E B

    1980-08-01

    The identification and correction of adverse physiological changes that lead to seizures in children can improve the effectiveness of current therapeutic practices in epilepsy. It is proposed that various circadian rhythms (respiration, hormones, water balance, electrolytes, intracranial pressure, blood pressure), meteorological phenomena (barometric presure, ambient environmental temperature, relative humidity), and developmental processes can profoundly influence the precipitation or prevention of seizures through their physiological effects. PMID:7190490

  9. 人体及动物生理学理论课探究式课堂教学实践探索%Pctical exploration of inquiry-based classroom teaching theory courses for human and animal physiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖艳娟; 钟华; 李晓平

    2012-01-01

    文章以"探究式"课堂教学方式为思想基础,通过小组合作学习模式,充分利用多媒体教学手段进行人体及动物生理学的教学实践,从而为建立优势探究式课堂教学模型建立提供依据。%The purpose of this study was to establish the advantages of inquiry-based classroom teaching model.And the ideological basis for teaching is inquiry-based classroom teaching,furthermore the well teaching results was through group cooperative learning model,and make full use of multimedia teaching methods to the teaching practice of human and animal physiology.

  10. Nutrigenomics in honey bees: digital gene expression analysis of pollen's nutritive effects on healthy and varroa-parasitized bees.

    OpenAIRE

    Parrinello Hughes; Dantec Christelle; Alaux Cédric; Le Conte Yves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Malnutrition is a major factor affecting animal health, resistance to disease and survival. In honey bees (Apis mellifera), pollen, which is the main dietary source of proteins, amino acids and lipids, is essential to adult bee physiological development while reducing their susceptibility to parasites and pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pollen's nutritive impact on honey bee health remained to be determined. For that purpose, we investigated the inf...

  11. 9 CFR 317.400 - Exemption from nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption from nutrition labeling. 317... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.400 Exemption from nutrition labeling. (a) The following meat or meat food products are exempt from...

  12. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1991-11-01

    The two major aims of our lab are as follows: First, to develop and field-test general mechanistic models that predict animal life history characteristics as influenced by climate and the physical, physiological behavioral characteristics of species. This involves: understanding how animal time and energy budgets are affected by climate and animal properties; predicting growth and reproductive potential from time and energy budgets; predicting mortality based on climate and time and energy budgets; and linking these individual based models to population dynamics. Second to conduct empirical studies of animal physiological ecology, particularly the effects of temperature on time and energy budgets. The physiological ecology of individual animals is the key link between the physical environment and population-level phenomena. We address the macroclimate to microclimate linkage on a broad spatial scale; address the links between individuals and population dynamics for lizard species; test the endotherm energetics and behavior model using beaver; address the spatial variation in climate and its effects on individual energetics, growth and reproduction; and address patchiness in the environment and constraints they may impose on individual energetics, growth and reproduction. These projects are described individually in the following section. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Studies on food in experimental animal and possible role of irradiation detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeseed is one of the important oilseed crops in the far east and in the northern parts of europe and north america (daun and bushuk 1983). It was introduce to egypt during 1980 by the agriculture research center, ministry of agriculture, egypt (moharam et al., 1982). rapeseed is mainly used as a source of oil and its meal used as animal feed and it could be used as a potential source of a protein. The oil content ranges from 33.2 to 476% and protein content from 29.5 to 57.5% (Anjou et al., 1977). Rapeseed contains some biologically active substances, which act as anti nutritional factors glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products have presented a major obstacle to the utilization of rapeseed meal in animal or human nutrition. They have been implicated in several physiological disorders in animal including goiter and haemorrhagic liver syndrome

  14. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  15. Animal Model of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus with Pathophysiological Resemblance to the Human Condition Induced by Multiple Factors (Nutritional, Pharmacological, and Stress) in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Siti Hajar; Nordin, Massita; Ramasamy, Rajesh; Adam, Aishah

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to develop an experimental gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) animal model in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were fed with high fat sucrose diet, impregnated, and induced with Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide on gestational day 0 (D0). Sleeping patterns of the rats were also manipulated to induce stress, a lifestyle factor that contributes to GDM. Rats were tested for glycemic parameters (glucose, C-peptide, and insulin), lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL), genes affecting insulin signaling (IRS-2, AKT-1, and PCK-1), glucose transporters (GLUT-2 and GLUT-4), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), and antioxidants (SOD, CAT, and GPX) on D6 and D21. GDM rats showed possible insulin resistance as evidenced by high expression of proinflammatory cytokines, PCK-1 and CRP. Furthermore, low levels of IRS-2 and AKT-1 genes and downregulation of GLUT-4 from the initial to final phases indicate possible defect of insulin signaling. GDM rats also showed an impairment of antioxidant status and a hyperlipidemic state. Additionally, GDM rats exhibited significantly higher body weight and blood glucose and lower plasma insulin level and C-peptide than control. Based on the findings outlined, the current GDM animal model closely replicates the disease state in human and can serve as a reference for future investigations. PMID:27379252

  16. Animal Model of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus with Pathophysiological Resemblance to the Human Condition Induced by Multiple Factors (Nutritional, Pharmacological, and Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Abdul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to develop an experimental gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM animal model in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were fed with high fat sucrose diet, impregnated, and induced with Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide on gestational day 0 (D0. Sleeping patterns of the rats were also manipulated to induce stress, a lifestyle factor that contributes to GDM. Rats were tested for glycemic parameters (glucose, C-peptide, and insulin, lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL, genes affecting insulin signaling (IRS-2, AKT-1, and PCK-1, glucose transporters (GLUT-2 and GLUT-4, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and antioxidants (SOD, CAT, and GPX on D6 and D21. GDM rats showed possible insulin resistance as evidenced by high expression of proinflammatory cytokines, PCK-1 and CRP. Furthermore, low levels of IRS-2 and AKT-1 genes and downregulation of GLUT-4 from the initial to final phases indicate possible defect of insulin signaling. GDM rats also showed an impairment of antioxidant status and a hyperlipidemic state. Additionally, GDM rats exhibited significantly higher body weight and blood glucose and lower plasma insulin level and C-peptide than control. Based on the findings outlined, the current GDM animal model closely replicates the disease state in human and can serve as a reference for future investigations.

  17. Nutritional surveillance*

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, John B.; Mitchell, Janice T.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means “to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations”. Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for i...

  18. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  19. Nutrition Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  20. Effect of barley green on nutritional physiological functions of growing rats%麦绿素对生长期大鼠营养生理功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵堂; 赵立艳; 綦国红; 李博; 王海翔; 杨志萍; 王岁楼

    2012-01-01

    为研究麦绿素对生长期大鼠生理功能的影响,将20只生长期雄性SD大鼠随机分为两组,分别饲喂含20%酪蛋白(酪蛋白组)和14%酪蛋白加6%麦绿素蛋白(麦绿素组)的人工半合成饲料,采用对喂技术饲养6周,观察大鼠营养生理指标的变化。结果表明,麦绿素对大鼠的正常生长发育无不良影响,而且能够促进粪便排泄,降低血清中肌酐和尿酸浓度,增加血清中高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平,同时降低血清中低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)和甘油三酯(TG)水平,并且能够显著降低血清中丙二醛(MDA)的含量。表明麦绿素在大鼠粪便代谢、脂代谢、增强肝功能以及抗氧化方面都起到了有益作用,预示麦绿素可能对人体健康具有特殊功能。%To research the nutritional physiological function of barley green,20 male sprague dawley rats were divided into two groups,they were fed semi-synthetic diet contained 20% casein(casein group) and 14% casein add 6% barley green protein(barley green group) individually.All rats were pair-fed for 6 weeks.The results showed that barley green had no undesirable impact on growing and developing of rats,furthermore,it promoted the feces excretion,reduced the levels of blood creatinine(Cr) and uric acid(UA),increased the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),and in the same time,reduced the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) and triglyceride(TG).Moreover,the serum MDA content in barley green group was significantly lower than that in casein group.It showed that barley green were benefit the feces metabolism,lipids metabolism,liver function and antioxidant system of rat,so it might be a kind of healthy food for human.

  1. Sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of experimental and theoretical investigaions of sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks is presented. Different types of sawtooth oscillations, scaling laws and methods of interanl disruption stabilization are described. Theoretical models of the sawtooth instability are discussed. 122 refs.; 4 tabs

  2. Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro­ chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special­ ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...

  3. Stress, nutrition and parental care in a teleost fish: exploring mechanisms with supplemental feeding and cortisol manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolderdo, A J; Algera, D A; Lawrence, M J; Gilmour, K M; Fast, M D; Thuswaldner, J; Willmore, W G; Cooke, S J

    2016-04-15

    Parental care is an essential life-history component of reproduction for many animal species, and it entails a suite of behavioural and physiological investments to enhance offspring survival. These investments can incur costs to the parent, reducing their energetic and physiological condition, future reproductive capabilities and survival. In fishes, relatively few studies have focused on how these physiological costs are mediated. Male smallmouth bass provide parental care for developing offspring until the brood reaches independence. During this energetically demanding life stage, males cease active foraging as they vigorously defend their offspring. Experimental manipulation of cortisol levels (via implantation) and food (via supplemental feeding) in parental males was used to investigate the fitness consequences of parental care. Improving the nutritional condition of nest-guarding males increased their reproductive success by reducing premature nest abandonment. However, supplemental feeding and cortisol treatment had no effect on parental care behaviours. Cortisol treatment reduced plasma lymphocyte numbers, but increased neutrophil and monocyte concentrations, indicating a shift in immune function. Supplemental feeding improved the physiological condition of parental fish by reducing the accumulation of oxidative injury. Specifically, supplemental feeding reduced the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) on DNA nucleotides. Increasing the nutritional condition of parental fish can reduce the physiological cost associated with intensive parental activity and improve overall reproductive success, illustrating the importance of nutritional condition as a key modulator of parental fitness. PMID:26896551

  4. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  5. [Community nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  6. Rowing Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, W. L.

    This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…

  7. Blood biochemistry reflects seasonal nutritional and reproductive constraints in the eurasian badger (Meles meles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Roura, X; Newman, C; Calafell, F; Macdonald, D W

    2001-01-01

    Physiological responses to nutritional and reproductive constraints were explored in a wild population of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) inhabiting Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. We compared seasonal blood levels of lipid and protein compounds to variables describing the sex, age, body condition, wounds, testes position, and flea abundance of the badgers. We found seasonal variations in albumin/globulins and urea/creatinine ratios matched by differences in body condition. High creatinine, urea, and triglycerides levels were obtained in animals in poor nutritional condition and with low levels of body fat. The maintenance of urea/creatinine ratios indicates that the badger does not demonstrate a stage of protein conservation in periods of food scarcity during the summer or periods of cold weather. Hypercholesterolaemia, especially in fat animals, was confirmed. We also offer baseline levels of metabolites commonly used in clinical biochemistry for their further use in the analysis of the status and the management of wild badger populations. PMID:11331518

  8. 9 CFR 317.343 - Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... voluntary nutrition labeling. 317.343 Section 317.343 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.343 Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling. (a) In evaluating significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling, FSIS will consider only the major cuts of...

  9. 9 CFR 381.443 - Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... voluntary nutrition labeling. 381.443 Section 381.443 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 381.443 Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling. (a) In evaluating significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling, FSIS will consider only the major cuts of...

  10. 2011 Nutritional Assessment Guidelines : information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Freeman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximise the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA, following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. Routinely doing a brief screening evaluation of the nutritional status during history taking and the physical examination can be seamlessly performed as part of every patient exam. Nutrition-related risk factors that can be easily identified from the history and physical examination include age (growing or old, suboptimal body condition score (overweight or thin, muscle loss, atypical or homemade diet, medical conditions, or changes in appetite. An extended evaluation would follow, if one or more risk factors is identified on screening. These guidelines provide criteria to evaluate the animal and the diet, as well as key feeding and environmental factors. In addition, recommendations for interpretation, analysis, and action are included so that a plan for optimising the animal's nutritional status can be instituted. Client compliance with nutritional recommendations requires input from the veterinarian, veterinary technicians/nurses, and the hospital staff. A team approach to continuous nutritional education, implementation of appropriate protocols, and focused client communication, utilising these WSAVA Nutritional Guidelines, are key components to reach this 5VA goal.

  11. Epigenetics: new concepts of old phenomena in vascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Bernardo; Sobrevia, Luis; Casanello, Paola

    2009-10-01

    The hypothesis of 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) relies on the presence of mechanisms sensing and signalling a diversity of stimuli during fetal development. The mechanisms that have been broadly suggested to be involved in these processes are the epigenetic modifications that could 'record' perinatal stimuli. Since the definition of epigenetic and the associated mechanisms are conflictive, in this review epigenetic was defined as 'chromosome-based mechanisms that can change the phenotypic plasticity in a cell or organism'. The most understood epigenetic mechanisms (i.e. DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications (PTM), ATP-dependent chromatin modifications and non-coding RNAs) and reported evidence for their role in fetal programming were briefly reviewed. The development of the vascular system is strongly influenced by epigenetic mechanisms. For that reason vascular cells are good candidates to be explored regarding epigenetic programming since its proved susceptibility to be imprinted. This has been described in pregnancy diseases such as intra-uterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, where changes in vascular function are preserved in vitro. PMID:19485890

  12. Nutritional value of selected macroalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Patarra, Rita F.; Paiva, Lisete S.; Neto, Ana I.; Lima, Elisabete M. C.; Baptista, José A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Macroalgae are traditionally used in human and animal nutrition. Their protein and fiber content have been widely studied and differ according to the species, their geographic origin and their seasonal conditions. In addition to their value for human nutrition, seaweeds have multiple therapeutically applications (e.g., weight control, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant and antitumor activities, others) and, in general, contribute and promote human health. In the archipelago of the Azores, the c...

  13. Physiological benefits from low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive literature indicates that minute doses of ionizing radiation benefit animal growth and development, fecundity, health and longevity. Specific improvements appear in neurologic function, growth rate and survival of young, wound healing, immune competence, and resistance to infection, radiation morbidity, and tumor induction and growth. Decreased mortality from these debilitating factors results in increased average life span following exposure to minute doses of ionizing radiation. The above phenomena suggest the possibility that ionizing radiation may be essential for life. Limited data with protozoa suggest that reproduction rates decrease when they are maintained in subambient radiation environments. This may be interpreted to be a radiation deficiency. Evidence must now be obtained to determine whether or not ionizing radiation is essential for growth, development, nutrient utilization, fecundity, health and longevity of higher animals. Whether or not ionizing radiation is found to be essential for these physiologic functions, the evidence reviewed indicates that the optimal amount of this ubiquitous agent is imperceptibly above ambient levels. (author)

  14. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases for......Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  15. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The third semi-annual period of the MTP project has been involved with performing experiments using the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA), development of analysis techniques for the experiment results, analytical modeling of the osmotic transport phenomena, and completion of a DC-9 microgravity flight to test candidate fluid cell geometries. Preparations were also made for the MTP Science Concept Review (SCR), held on 13 June 1997 at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver. These activities are detailed in the report.

  16. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  17. Complex fission phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Poenaru, Dorin N.; Gherghescu, Radu A.; Greiner, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Complex fission phenomena are studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle point) nuclear shapes are obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in binary cold fission of Th and U isotopes is explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are ou...

  18. Blood Flow Multiscale Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Agić, Ante; Mijović, Budimir; Nikolić, Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease is one of most frequent cause deaths in modern society. The objective of this work is analyse the effect of dynamic vascular geometry (curvature, torsion,bifurcation) and pulsatile blood nature on secondary flow, wall shear stress and platelet deposition. The problem was examined as multi-scale physical phenomena using perturbation analysis and numerical modelling. The secondary flow determined as influence pulsatile pressure, vascular tube time-dependen...

  19. 小肠上皮细胞的培养及在动物营养上的研究进展%Cultivation and research progress of small intestine epithelium in animal nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清静; 张恒; 龙民慧; 王蕾; 张金凤

    2012-01-01

    Small intestine is the main place for digestion and absorption of feed. The culture of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in vitro provided an important tool to study the digestion, absorption, transport of nutrient and intestinal immunity and other biological functions of the IEC. This article overviewed the relevant progress in the culture of IEC in vitro, identification method and the study on animal nutrition.%小肠是动物消化吸收的主要场所,体外分离培养小肠黏膜上皮细胞(intestinal epithelialcells,IEC)为研究小肠消化吸收、物质转运及肠道免疫等生物学功能提供了重要手段,文章综述了体外培养小肠上皮细胞的有关方法及鉴定,简要介绍了小肠上皮细胞培养在动物研究中的应用概况.

  20. Experimental evidence for nutrition regulated stress resistance in Drosophila ananassae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sisodia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The amount and quality of nutrients consumed by organisms have a strong impact on stress resistance, life-history traits and reproduction. The balance between energy acquisition and expenditure is crucial to the survival and reproductive success of animals. The ability of organisms to adjust their development, physiology or behavior in response to environmental conditions, called phenotypic plasticity, is a defining property of life. One of the most familiar and important examples of phenotypic plasticity is the response of stress tolerance and reproduction to changes in developmental nutrition. Larval nutrition may affect a range of different life-history traits as well as responses to environmental stress in adult. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigate the effect of larval nutrition on desiccation, starvation, chill-coma recovery, heat resistance as well as egg to adult viability, egg production and ovariole number in Drosophila ananassae. We raised larvae on either protein rich diet or carbohydrate rich diet. We found that flies consuming protein rich diet have higher desiccation and heat shock resistance whereas flies developed on carbohydrate rich diet have higher starvation and cold resistance. Egg production was higher in females developed on protein rich diet and we also found trade-off between egg production and Egg to adult viability of the flies. Viability was higher in carbohydrate rich diet. However, sex specific viability was found in different nutritional regimes. Higher Egg production might be due to higher ovariole number in females of protein rich diet. CONCLUSION: Thus, Drosophila ananassae adapts different stress tolerance and life-history strategies according to the quality of the available diet, which are correlated with phenotypic adjustment at anatomical and physiological levels.

  1. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  2. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in MS is growing. Resources Find a dietician / nutritionist Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics – Provides an online search tool to locate registered dietician nutritionists (RDNs). Offers many consumer-geared resources. Food assistance ...

  3. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  4. Human plasma concentrations of tolbutamide and acetaminophen extrapolated from in vivo animal pharmacokinetics using in vitro human hepatic clearances and simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling for radio-labeled microdose clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the current study was to extrapolate the pharmacokinetics of drug substances orally administered in humans from rat pharmacokinetic data using tolbutamide and acetaminophen as model compounds. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from rat studies based on reported plasma concentrations were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors. In this extrapolation, in vitro metabolic clearance data were obtained using liver preparations. Rates of tolbutamide elimination were roughly similar in rat and human liver microsome experiments, but acetaminophen elimination by rat liver microsomes and cytosolic preparations showed a tendency to be faster than those in humans. Using a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, estimated human plasma concentrations of tolbutamide and acetaminophen were consistent with reported concentrations. Tolbutamide cleared in a roughly similar manner in humans and rats, but medical-dose levels of acetaminophen cleared (dependent on liver metabolism) more slowly from plasma in humans than it did in rats. The data presented here illustrate how pharmacokinetic data in combination with a simple PBPK model can be used to assist evaluations of the pharmacological/toxicological potential of new drug substances and for estimating human radiation exposures from radio-labeled drugs when planning human studies. (author)

  5. Nutrition and orthomolecular supplementation in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Diana; Austerlitz, Carlos; Allison, Ron R; Póvoa, Helion; Sibata, Claudio

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews updates and provides some data related to nutritional and orthomolecular supplementation in oncology patients with an emphasis on lung cancer, a commonly diagnosed tumor with significant nutritional disturbances. Cancer and its treatment play a significant role in nutritional imbalance which likely has negative impact on the patient both in terms of quality and quantity of life. Nutritional supplementation may correct these imbalances with significant clinical benefit both physiologically and psychologically. This review will help assist in providing clinically useful data to assess the cancer patient's nutritional status and to guide nutritional intervention to assist these patients' recovery. PMID:20042413

  6. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  7. Quantification of natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The science is like a great spider's web in which unexpected connections appear and therefore it is frequently difficult to already know the consequences of new theories on those existent. The physics is a clear example of this. The Newton mechanics laws describe the physical phenomena observable accurately by means of our organs of the senses or by means of observation teams not very sophisticated. After their formulation at the beginning of the XVIII Century, these laws were recognized in the scientific world as a mathematical model of the nature. Together with the electrodynamics law, developed in the XIX century, and the thermodynamic one constitutes what we call the classic physics. The state of maturity of the classic physics at the end of last century it was such that some scientists believed that the physics was arriving to its end obtaining a complete description of the physical phenomena. The spider's web of the knowledge was supposed finished, or at least very near its termination. It ended up saying, in arrogant form, that if the initial conditions of the universe were known, we could determine the state of the same one in any future moment. Two phenomena related with the light would prove in firm form that mistaken that they were, creating unexpected connections in the great spider's web of the knowledge and knocking down part of her. The thermal radiation of the bodies and the fact that the light spreads to constant speed in the hole, without having an absolute system of reference with regard to which this speed is measured, they constituted the decisive factors in the construction of a new physics. The development of sophisticated of measure teams gave access to more precise information and it opened the microscopic world to the observation and confirmation of existent theories

  8. Phylogeny of Aging and Related Phenoptotic Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertini, G

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of aging as adaptive, i.e. as a phenomenon genetically determined and modulated, and with an evolutionary advantage, implies that aging, as any physiologic mechanism, must have phylogenetic connections with similar phenomena. This review tries to find the phylogenetic connections between vertebrate aging and some related phenomena in other species, especially within those phenomena defined as phenoptotic, i.e. involving the death of one or more individuals for the benefit of other individuals. In particular, the aim of the work is to highlight and analyze similarities and connections, in the mechanisms and in the evolutionary causes, between: (i) proapoptosis in prokaryotes and apoptosis in unicellular eukaryotes; (ii) apoptosis in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes; (iii) aging in yeast and in vertebrates; and (iv) the critical importance of the DNA subtelomeric segment in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. In short, there is strong evidence that vertebrate aging has clear similarities and connections with phenomena present in organisms with simpler organization. These phylogenetic connections are a necessary element for the sustainability of the thesis of aging explained as an adaptive phenomenon, and, on the contrary, are incompatible with the opposite view of aging as being due to the accumulation of random damages of various kinds. PMID:26638678

  9. Birefringence phenomena revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Dante D; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves is investigated in the context of the isotropic and nonlinear dielectric media at rest in the eikonal limit of the geometrical optics. Taking into account the functional dependence $\\varepsilon=\\varepsilon(E,B)$ and $\\mu=\\mu(E,B)$ for the dielectric coefficients, a set of phenomena related to the birefringence of the electromagnetic waves induced by external fields are derived and discussed. Our results contemplate the known cases already reported in the literature: Kerr, Cotton-Mouton, Jones and magnetoelectric effects. Moreover, new effects are presented here as well as the perspectives of its experimental confirmations.

  10. Transport phenomena I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con

  11. Thermal Wave Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This map from the MGS Horizon Sensor Assembly (HORSE) shows middle atmospheric temperatures near the 1 mbar level of Mars between Ls 170 to 175 (approx. July 14 - 23, 1999). Local Mars times between 1:30 and 4:30 AM are included. Infrared radiation measured by the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly was used to make the map. That device continuously views the 'limb' of Mars in four directions, to help orient the spacecraft instruments to the nadir: straight down. The map shows thermal wave phenomena that are caused by the large topographic variety of Mars' surface, as well the latitudinally symmetric behavior expected at this time of year near the equinox.

  12. Solid state phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, R

    1972-01-01

    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista

  13. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  14. MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. BISHOP

    2000-09-01

    This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.

  15. Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  16. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  17. Physiological breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  18. Effects of ocean acidification on phytoplankton physiology and nutrition for fishery-based food webs from laboratory experiment studies from 2011-05-31 to 2013-02-07 (NODC Accession 0121255)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains laboratory experiment data that were collected to examine the effects of elevated levels of CO2 on phytoplankton physiology and...

  19. Crystallization phenomena in slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrling, Carl Folke

    2000-09-01

    The crystallization of the mold slag affects both the heat transfer and the lubrication between the mold and the strand in continuous casting of steel. In order for mold slag design to become an engineering science rather than an empirical exercise, a fundamental understanding of the melting and solidification behavior of a slag must be developed. Thus it is necessary to be able to quantify the phenomena that occur under the thermal conditions that are found in the mold of a continuous caster. The double hot thermocouple technique (DHTT) and the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope used in this study are two novel techniques for investigating melting and solidification phenomena of transparent slags. Results from these techniques are useful in defining the phenomena that occur when the slag film infiltrates between the mold and the shell of the casting. TTT diagrams were obtained for various slags and indicated that the onset of crystallization is a function of cooling rate and slag chemistry. Crystal morphology was found to be dependent upon the experimental temperature and four different morphologies were classified based upon the degree of melt undercooling. Continuous cooling experiments were carried out to develop CCT diagrams and it was found that the amount and appearance of the crystalline fraction greatly depends on the cooling conditions. The DHTT can also be used to mimic the cooling profile encountered by the slag in the mold of a continuous caster. In this differential cooling mode (DCT), it was found that the details of the cooling rate determine the actual response of the slag to a thermal gradient and small changes can lead to significantly different results. Crystal growth rates were measured and found to be in the range between 0.11 mum/s to 11.73 mum/s depending on temperature and slag chemistry. Alumina particles were found to be effective innoculants in oxide melts reducing the incubation time for the onset of crystallization and also extending

  20. The XIIIth International Physiological Congress in Boston in 1929: American Physiology Comes of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    In the 19th century, the concept of experimental physiology originated in France with Claude Bernard, evolved in Germany stimulated by the teaching of Carl Ludwig, and later spread to Britain and then to the United States. The goal was to develop a physicochemical understanding of physiological phenomena. The first International Physiological…

  1. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  2. Fast fission phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted

  3. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

  4. Modelos animales para el estudio de la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y de nutrición parenteral Animal models for the study of systemic inflammatory response and parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Morán Penco

    2007-04-01

    seems to be due to the activation of the toll-like receptors, specific of the inflammatory response cells, through concrete cytosolic signals which lead to a cascade of reactions acting cytokins, growing factors and others inflammatory mediators. This kind of work revewes and discusses several classifications of animals models to study the SRIS, and propose to divide these models according to concrete goals, which can be the following ones: 1º To study innate and adaptative receptors of regulatory gens in the SRIS. 2º To study signals receptors (cytokines and growing factors. 3º To study the answer to signals. 4º To study treatments through specifics antinflammatory blockage. 5º Specific models of sepsis. 6º Others inducing models of SRIS. 7º Others therapeutical models. -Antinflammatories.-Antiacoagulans: Coagulations inhibition in human assays.-Phase II Anticoagulans: Antitrombine III, PCA y TFPI. -Antibiotics. -Replacing Volume Treatments.-Surgical Treatments. As to the animals models to study Parenteral Nutrition, we could make the next classifications and sum it up: 1. Animal models to study the parenteral via of administration. 2. Models to study viability, absorption and local tolerance of the administration via. 3. Study models for complications. 4. Animal models to study pharmacodynamic, metabolization and to investigate the tolerance of new molecules or substrates.

  5. Nutrition and immunity in ruminant animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The immune system can be generally separated into three broad components; natural immunity, innate immunity, and acquired immunity, all of which must be fully developed and functioning properly to provide adequate immunological protection. Natural and innate immunity are typically grouped together u...

  6. [Nutrition for diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Karin; Brix, Johanna; Dämon, Sabine; Hoppichler, Friedrich; Kruschitz, Renate; Toplak, Hermann; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Evidence demonstrates that medical diabetes treatment has to be accompanied by lifestyle modifications. Structured nutrition interventions and increased physical activity will help patients to normalise, respectively maintain their body weight. The main target of a diabetes therapy is aimed at achieving normal or nearly normal blood glucose levels. Reaching this goal may be facilitated by the following nutritional patterns: Using mainly carbohydrates from vegetables, whole grains, legumes and fruits, Restriction of mono- and disaccharides are often important factors in normalising body weight and blood glucose, Reduction of dietary fat could be indicated. However, the primary goal is the limitation of saturated fatty acids which to high percentage are consumed with animal products. There is not sufficient evidence to recommend a dietary protein consumption of more than 20% of energy intake. Individuals with diabetes should be aware of the importance of acquiring daily vitamin and mineral requirements. Natural food sources should be preferred. PMID:27052240

  7. Role of the Small Intestine in Developmental Programming: Impact of Maternal Nutrition on the Dam and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Allison M; Caton, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    Small-intestinal growth and function are critical for optimal animal growth and health and play a major role in nutrient digestion and absorption, energy and nutrient expenditure, and immunological competence. During fetal and perinatal development, the small intestine is affected by the maternal environment and nutrient intake. In ruminants, altered small-intestinal mass, villi morphology, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, vascularity, and gene expression have been observed as a result of poor gestational nutrition or intrauterine growth restriction. Although many of these data come from fetal stages, data have also demonstrated that nutrition during mid- and late gestation affects lamb small-intestinal growth, vascularity, digestive enzyme activity, and gene expression at 20 and 180 d of age as well. The small intestine is known to be a highly plastic tissue, changing with nutrient intake and physiological state even in adulthood, and the maternal small intestine adapts to pregnancy and advancing gestation. In ruminants, the growth, vascularity, and gene expression of the maternal small intestine also adapt to the nutritional plane and specific nutrient intake such as high selenium during pregnancy. These changes likely alter both pre- and postnatal nutrient delivery to offspring. More research is necessary to better understand the role of the offspring and maternal small intestines in whole-animal responses to developmental programming, but programming of this plastic tissue seems to play a dynamic role in gestational nutrition impacts on the whole animal. PMID:27180380

  8. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss....... Objective: We wanted to investigate taste preferences and sensoric characteristics among three usually used ONS in patients with malignant haematological disease during cytotoxic treatment. Design: Tested drinks were: Protin® (protein-enriched-milk, ARLA), Nutridrink® (NUTRICIA) and hospital-produced drink...

  9. Are Migratory Animals Superspreaders of Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche McKay, Alexa; Hoye, Bethany J

    2016-08-01

    Migratory animals are simultaneously challenged by the physiological demands of long-distance movements and the need to avoid natural enemies including parasites and pathogens. The potential for animal migrations to disperse pathogens across large geographic areas has prompted a growing body of research investigating the interactions between migration and infection. However, the phenomenon of animal migration is yet to be incorporated into broader theories in disease ecology. Because migrations may expose animals to a greater number and diversity of pathogens, increase contact rates between hosts, and render them more susceptible to infection via changes to immune function, migration has the potential to generate both "superspreader species" and infection "hotspots". However, migration has also been shown to reduce transmission in some species, by facilitating parasite avoidance ("migratory escape") and weeding out infected individuals ("migratory culling"). This symposium was convened in an effort to characterize more broadly the role that animal migrations play in the dynamics of infectious disease, by integrating a range of approaches and scales across host taxa. We began with questions related to within-host processes, focusing on the consequences of nutritional constraints and strenuous movement for individual immune capability, and of parasite infection for movement capacity. We then scaled-up to between-host processes to identify what types, distances, or patterns of host movements are associated with the spread of infectious agents. Finally, we discussed landscape-scale relationships between migration and infectious disease, and how these may be altered as a result of anthropogenic changes to climate and land use. We are just beginning to scratch the surface of the interactions between infection and animal migrations; yet, with so many migrations now under threat, there is an urgent need to develop a holistic understanding of the potential for migrations to

  10. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  11. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources > Diet and Nutrition Go Back Diet and Nutrition Email Print + Share Diet and nutrition concerns of ... you. NEW!! Test your knowledge of diet and nutrition by taking this self-assessment for an opportunity ...

  12. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    SunaoUchida; NorikoTakeda

    2012-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS) physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. The research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960s, with a focus primarily on sleep related EEG changes (CN...

  13. Nutritional aspects applied to grazing cattle in the tropics: a review based on Brazilian results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review presents and discusses the nutritional and physiological aspects of cattle production under grazing in the tropics. The critical evaluations were based on Brazilian experimental results as well as on basic literature concerning ruminant nutrition. Several associations between the characteristics of the grazed forage, the composition of the supplements and animal and microbial requirements were established. The adopted approach was divided according to two different climatic seasons observed in the tropics: dry and rainy seasons. During the dry season, the main nutritional constraints on animal performance are associated with inherent requirements of the rumen fibrolytic microorganisms. An overall deficiency of nitrogenous compounds is observed in the forage, which compromises forage intake and digestibility. Supplementation with nitrogenous compounds must be a priority in this season to increase forage intake and energy extraction from forage fiber. However, during the rainy season, no constraints on microbial growth are observed. The usual pasture composition presents an unbalanced and high ratio of energy to protein when compared to animal requirements. In such cases, protein supplementation is needed to equilibrate the basal diet and improve the utilization of metabolizable energy and protein.

  14. Nutritional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. An understanding of the patterns of growth and the changes in body composition during childhood, as well as a working knowledge of the methods used to assess the nutr...

  15. Nutrition marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  16. Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Katoh, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants. PMID:26732322

  17. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  18. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  19. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  20. A brief history of bacterial growth physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Schaechter, Moselio

    2015-01-01

    Arguably, microbial physiology started when Leeuwenhoek became fascinated by observing a Vorticella beating its cilia, my point being that almost any observation of microbes has a physiological component. With the advent of modern microbiology in the mid-19th century, the field became recognizably distinctive with such discoveries as anaerobiosis, fermentation as a biological phenomenon, and the nutritional requirements of microbes. Soon came the discoveries of Winogradsky and his followers o...

  1. Reproductive Disorders in Cattle due to Nutritional Status

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Rajani; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu

    2008-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview on nutrition and incidences of reproductive problems in cattle. Overfeeding and underfeeding are equally detrimental to normal reproductive function. The exact mechanism of nutrition on reproduction is still not clear, but it is clear that the primary target area for sensing and reacting to nutritional status is the hypothalamus. Nutrition or perhaps more specifically certain food nutrients can influence the hormonal status of animals at several levels. G...

  2. Sports Nutrition: What the Future may Bring

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Bill; Kalman Douglas S

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The field of sports nutrition is a dynamic one. Core competencies in exercise physiology, psychology, integrated metabolism and biochemistry are the initial parameters for a successful career in sports nutrition. In addition to the academic fundamentals, it is imperative that the sports nutritionist understand the sport in which our client participates. This sport specific understanding should manifest itself in fuel utilization, mechanics of movement, as well as psychological proces...

  3. Nutrition in neonatal congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan CT; Shine AM; McMahon CJ

    2013-01-01

    Conall T Morgan,1 Anne Marie Shine,2 Colin J McMahon1 1Department of Pediatric Cardiology, 2Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Our Lady's Children's Hospital Crumlin, Dublin, Republic of Ireland Abstract: There are 40,000 infants born in the USA with congenital heart disease annually. Achievement of adequate oral nutrition is difficult in this population. Malnutrition is common. Single ventricle physiology, the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, and cardiopulmonary bypass...

  4. Nutrition in neonatal congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Conall T Morgan,1 Anne Marie Shine,2 Colin J McMahon1 1Department of Pediatric Cardiology, 2Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Our Lady's Children's Hospital Crumlin, Dublin, Republic of Ireland Abstract: There are 40,000 infants born in the USA with congenital heart disease annually. Achievement of adequate oral nutrition is difficult in this population. Malnutrition is common. Single ventricle physiology, the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, and cardiopulmona...

  5. Additives in swine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To attain better feed utilization, longer preservation, easier manipultion and higher production and better quality of food of animal orgin as the final goal, besides raw materials, feed mixes contain numerous pronutrients (additives, added to perform different effects, in a narrower sense, the term pronutrient implies heterogenous substances, which have no diverse effects and have to be efficient in the manner of use. Basically, all pronutrients have to reach the goal of keeping optimal animal health status and to increase production of food of animal origin without adverse and negative effects. The development of biotechnology had a great part in the appearance of natural alternatives which are able to fulfil and satisfy the high demands of highly productive animals, as well as those of the consumer lobby and environmental protection movements. Growth promoters based upon physiological mechanisms and production potential of the animal have an unquestionable adventage, not only because of the lack of residues in food of animal origin; but also because of their ecological safety and decrease of envirnomental pollution by undigested materials. Demand continues to grow for "all natural", non-pharmaceutical feed additives with growth enhancing effects in food animals. Special attention is paid to minerals (anorganic and organic sources, growth stimulators (antibiotics, probiotics prebiotics, substances for better feed utilization (enzymes, acidifers adsorbents.

  6. Design of Nutrition Catering System for Athletes Based on Access Database

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjiang Wu,; Haiyan Zhao; Xugang Liu; Mingshun Xing

    2015-01-01

    In order to monitor and adjust athletes' dietary nutrition scientifically, Active X Data Object (ADO) and Structure Query Language (SQL) were used to produce program under the development environment of Visual Basic 6.0 and Access database. The consulting system on food nutrition and dietary had been developed with the two languages combination and organization of the latest nutrition information. Nutrition balance of physiological characteristics, assessment for nutrition intake, inquiring n...

  7. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  8. Nuclear RNA silencing and related phenomena in animals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Radek; Svoboda, Petr

    Chichester: Wiley, 2012 - (Sahu, S.), s. 297-315 ISBN 9781119976097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : nuclear RNA silencing * small RNAs * Dicer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  9. Public Health Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hillger

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970 has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. Of those that are considered to be basic physiological needs hunger, thirst as well as bodily comforts are considered to be the most important. Physiological needs are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived on all needs it is these physiological needs that would take the highest priority. As food is characterized as a basic need, we should have a special view on our daily food and our handling of it. Most people do not act careful with their daily intake of food. In the last decades, the increases of nutrition-associated diseases such as overweight and obesity and on the other hand underweight have been recorded. From a life-span approach, the problem has its offset point in the early age of development, namely in children and adolescents. Malnutrition, overweight and obesity limit children’s personal quality of life in terms of unhappiness with their own body, opposition or even rejection in peer group communication and general difficulties in day-to-day social interaction. A close connection between physical stature and the development of a negative self-concept and a low self-esteem is postulated.

  10. From physiological psychology to psychological physiology: postnonclassical approach to ethnocultural phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    CHERNORIZOV ALEKSANDR M.; ASMOLOV ALEKSANDR G.; SCHECHTER EUGENIYA D.

    2015-01-01

    In modern science, along with the “classic” and “non-classical” approach to solving fundamental and applied problems, there is an actively developing “postnonclassical” research paradigm. This renovation of general scientific methodology has been accompanied by the emergence of new experimental technologies and new scientific research directions based on them. “Social psychophysiology” is one such direction. It is formed within the frame of postnonclassical methodology at the intersection of ...

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for all animal species or categories based on a dossier submitted by Lohmann Animal Health GmbH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum authorised content of vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs and fish, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. The FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D for target animals but considers the current maximum contents temporarily acceptable pending a review of the recent scientific literature. The two vitamin sources under application are considered safe for the target animals provided the current maximum contents in feed are respected. Any administration of vitamin D3 via water for drinking could exceed the safe amounts of vitamin D and therefore represents a safety concern. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed, and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes, and as a dermal sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful. No environmental risk resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.

  12. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...... Kiens, who is both a colleague of Bengt’s and a Consulting Editor for the Journal, was asked to write it. Thanks to Bente and her colleagues for the impossible task of distilling an enormous body of work into about 1,000 words. Peter Wagner, Editor...

  13. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  14. Publications of the space physiology and countermeasures program, regulatory physiology discipline: 1980 - 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace-Robinson, Janice; Dickson, Katherine J.; Hess, Elizabeth; Powers, Janet V.

    1992-01-01

    A 10-year cumulative bibliography of publications resulting from research supported by the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program of NASA's Life Sciences Division is provided. Primary subjects included in this bibliography are circadian rhythms, endocrinology, fluid and electrolyte regulation, hematology, immunology, metabolism and nutrition, temperature regulation, and general regulatory physiology. General physiology references are also included. Principal investigators whose research tasks resulted in publication are identified by asterisk. Publications are identified by a record number corresponding with their entry in the Life Sciences Bibliographic Database, maintained at the George Washington University.

  15. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  16. Cultivating nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Carol E.; Long, Jennifer; Simler, Kenneth R.; Johnson-Welch, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    "Over the past decade, donor-funded policies and programs designed to address undernutrition in the Global South have shifted away from agriculture-based strategies toward nutrient supplementation and food fortification programs. Given the potential benefits resulting from agriculture-based nutrition interventions, this study uses Q methodology to explore the views of a range of stakeholders from both developed and developing countries on the value of—and constraints related to—gender-sensiti...

  17. Nutritional Rickets

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Behzat

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional rickets (NR) is still the most common form of growing bone disease despite the efforts of health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR ranges from isolated vitamin D deficiency (VDD) to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR cases result from VDD. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to its short− or long−term effects on skeletal development, VDD during infancy may predispose the patient to diseas...

  18. Nutrition in neurocritical care

    OpenAIRE

    Afzal Azim; Armin Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Adequate nutritional therapy is essential for recovery from critical illness. Nutritional requirement varies in different patients and varies daily in a single patient. Both under and over feeding are associated with complications. Besides this, not all patients behave in a similar way to nutritional therapy. Appropriate nutritional therapy requires identification of patients “at nutritional risk” and providing aggressive nutritional support to them. The current article deals with nutritional...

  19. Pathological anxiety in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2008-01-01

    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a co

  20. Nutritional Epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Preston Mercer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Questions concerning the fundamental effects of nutrition on gene function are now being elucidated as the human genome project has been completed. Nutritional genomics seeks to expand the use of foods to achieve human genetic potential, while reducing the risk of diseases. As issues such as nutrigenomics (dietary influence on gene function and nutrigenetics (genomic reaction to diet are unraveled, thepotential for personalized nutrition becomes attainable. It has been stated that “genomics is to the 21st century what infectious disease was to the 20th century”. The nucleotide sequence of DNA was once seen as the only mechanism by which genetic information could be transmitted between generations. Phenotypic variation resulted from recombination and, occasionally, genetic mutation. This widely accepted concept is now undergoing modification as evidence builds to support the idea that reversible, heritable changes in gene function - termed “epigenetics”- can occur without a change in the sequence of nuclear DNA (i.e., non-Mendelian inheritance. The word epigenetics is of Greek origin and literallymeans over and above (epi the genome. The terminology“same genome, different epigenome” has been demonstrated in several experiments. As research and understanding advances, dietary advice based on the human genome will become more prevalent and new pharmacological interventions may be developed.

  1. Relaxation phenomena in disordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciortino, F.; Tartaglia, P.

    1997-02-01

    In this article we discuss how the assumptions of self-similarity imposed on the distribution of independently relaxing modes, as well as on their amplitude and characteristic times, manifest in the global relaxation phenomena. We also review recent applications of such approach to the description of relaxation phenomena in microemulsions and molecular glasses.

  2. Teaching Optical Phenomena with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a…

  3. 反刍动物蛋白质营养价值的评定方法研究%Research on Evaluation Technology for the Nutritive Value of Protein in Ruminant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冬生; 彭小兰

    2011-01-01

    蛋白质是动物的必需营养素,对单胃动物而言,蛋白质营养实质上是氨基酸(小肽)营养;反刍动物由于具有瘤胃特殊消化生理结构和微生物消化方式,蛋白质营养更加复杂。蛋白质营养价值的评定方法是研究动物蛋白质营养的基础和前提,针对反刍动物消化生理特点,综述了尼龙袋技术、微生物标记技术、同位素法、嘌呤衍生物法和人工瘤胃等反刍动物蛋白质营养价值评定方法,这对于理论研究和实践生产具有一定参考与指导作用。%Protein is an essential nutrient for animal. For non-ruminant animals,protein nutrition is virtual amino acid/small peptide nutrition. Because of the special digestive physiological stucture and microbial digestion for ruminant, the protein nutrition is more complicated than non-ruminant animals. The evaluation technology for the nutritive value of protein is the basis and prerequisite for studying the protein nutrition of animals. Aim at the digestive physiological characteristics of ruminant, some valuation technologies for the nutritive value of protein in ruminant like nylon bag technology, microbial labeling technique, isotopic method, purine derivatives and artificial rumen, etc. were reviewed in this paper. This review is helpful to theoretical research and productive practice.

  4. Nutrition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, J E; Mooradian, A D; Silver, A J; Heber, D; Alfin-Slater, R B

    1988-12-01

    Nutritional modulation is one approach to successful aging. In animals, dietary restriction increases life span. Alterations in the macronutrient and micronutrient constituent of the diet can modulate gene expression. Anorexia is common in elderly persons. The results of studies in animals suggest that aging is associated with a decrease in the opioid feeding drive and an increase in the satiating effect of cholecystokinin. Unrecognized depression is a common, treatable cause of anorexia and weight loss in elderly persons. Protein synthesis decreases in elderly persons; nevertheless, nitrogen balance can be maintained in patients with fairly low intakes of protein. Carbohydrate intolerance is common and may be modulated by nutritional intervention and physical activity. The role of cholesterol in the development of heart disease in very old persons is controversial. Homebound and institutionalized elderly persons often do not expose their skin to sunlight; because the skin of older persons has a decreased ability to form vitamin D, the vitamin D status in these persons is precarious and they are at risk for osteopenia. Vitamins are often abused by elderly persons. Drug administration alters the vitamin requirements of persons. Borderline zinc state has been associated with deteriorating immune function, especially in persons who have diabetes mellitus or who abuse alcohol. Zinc administration appears to protect against the deteriorating vision associated with age-related macular degeneration. Selenium deficiency seems to be associated with an increased prevalence of cancer. PMID:3056165

  5. Nutritional regulation of the anabolic fate of amino acids within the liver in mammals: concepts arising from in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, T J; Kraft, G; Dardevet, D; Polakof, S; Ortigues-Marty, I; Rémond, D; Savary-Auzeloux, I

    2015-06-01

    At the crossroad between nutrient supply and requirements, the liver plays a central role in partitioning nitrogenous nutrients among tissues. The present review examines the utilisation of amino acids (AA) within the liver in various physiopathological states in mammals and how the fates of AA are regulated. AA uptake by the liver is generally driven by the net portal appearance of AA. This coordination is lost when demands by peripheral tissues is important (rapid growth or lactation), or when certain metabolic pathways within the liver become a priority (synthesis of acute-phase proteins). Data obtained in various species have shown that oxidation of AA and export protein synthesis usually responds to nutrient supply. Gluconeogenesis from AA is less dependent on hepatic delivery and the nature of nutrients supplied, and hormones like insulin are involved in the regulatory processes. Gluconeogenesis is regulated by nutritional factors very differently between mammals (glucose absorbed from the diet is important in single-stomached animals, while in carnivores, glucose from endogenous origin is key). The underlying mechanisms explaining how the liver adapts its AA utilisation to the body requirements are complex. The highly adaptable hepatic metabolism must be capable to deal with the various nutritional/physiological challenges that mammals have to face to maintain homeostasis. Whereas the liver responds generally to nutritional parameters in various physiological states occurring throughout life, other complex signalling pathways at systemic and tissue level (hormones, cytokines, nutrients, etc.) are involved additionally in specific physiological/nutritional states to prioritise certain metabolic pathways (pathological states or when nutritional requirements are uncovered). PMID:26156215

  6. An interdisciplinary approach for the transport of tritium in animals and human dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further development of nuclear energy needs robust radioecological models for predicting the transfer of radionuclides in the environment and robust dose conversion coefficients. Concerns of increased risk from tritium intakes by humans have been raised in the past years, from both tritiated water and organically bound tritium. In the last few years we have concentrated on modelling tritium (and carbon) transfer in mammals, aquatic flora and fauna and birds. We use basic processes from environmental physics, animal physiology, nutrition and metabolism. Recent progresses are reported, in conjunction with international cooperation within IAEA programmes and other organisations. (author)

  7. Wave phenomena in sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhner-Böttcher, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Context: The dynamic atmosphere of the Sun exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, most spectacular and powerful waves evolve in the sunspot atmosphere. Allover the sunspot area, continuously propagating waves generate strong oscillations in spectral intensity and velocity. The most prominent and fascinating phenomena are the 'umbral flashes' and 'running penumbral waves' as seen in the sunspot chromosphere. Their nature and relation have been under intense discussion in the last decades. Aims: Waves are suggested to propagate upward along the magnetic field lines of sunspots. An observational study is performed to prove or disprove the field-guided nature and coupling of the prevalent umbral and penumbral waves. Comprehensive spectroscopic observations at high resolution shall provide new insights into the wave characteristics and distribution across the sunspot atmosphere. Methods: Two prime sunspot observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in New Mexico and with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife. The two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were performed with the interferometric spectrometers IBIS and TESOS. Multiple spectral lines are scanned co-temporally to sample the dynamics at the photospheric and chromospheric layers. The time series (1 – 2.5 h) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution are analyzed according to their evolution in spectral intensities and Doppler velocities. A wavelet analysis was used to obtain the wave power and dominating wave periods. A reconstruction of the magnetic field inclination based on sunspot oscillations was developed. Results and conclusions: Sunspot oscillations occur continuously in spectral intensity and velocity. The obtained wave characteristics of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves strongly support the scenario of slow-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagation along

  8. Nutritional support of children in the intensive care unit.

    OpenAIRE

    Seashore, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Nutritional support is an integral and essential part of the management of 5-10 percent of hospitalized children. Children in the intensive care unit are particularly likely to develop malnutrition because of the nature and duration of their illness, and their inability to eat by mouth. This article reviews the physiology of starvation and the development of malnutrition in children. A method of estimating the nutritional requirements of children is presented. The techniques of nutritional su...

  9. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  10. Eliminating Animal Facility Light-at-Night Contamination and Its Effect on Circadian Regulation of Rodent Physiology, Tumor Growth, and Metabolism: A Challenge in the Relocation of a Cancer Research Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Dauchy, Robert T; Dupepe, Lynell M; Ooms, Tara G; Dauchy, Erin M; Hill, Cody R; Mao, Lulu; Belancio, Victoria P; Slakey, Lauren M; Hill, Steven M.; Blask, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate laboratory animal facility lighting and lighting protocols are essential for maintaining the health and wellbeing of laboratory animals and ensuring the credible outcome of scientific investigations. Our recent experience in relocating to a new laboratory facility illustrates the importance of these considerations. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that animal room contamination with light-at-night (LAN) of as little as 0.2 lx at rodent eye level during an otherwise ...

  11. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper compounds (E4) as feed additives for all species: cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2013-01-01

    Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is safe for all animal species/categories up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feed. Consumption surveys include copper from foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with copper-containing compounds has not essentially changed over the last decade, no change in the contribution of foodstuffs originating from supplemented animals to the overall copper intake of consumers is expected. No concerns for ...

  13. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  14. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Téllez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals’ health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs. This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health.

  15. [Nutrition and stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappy, L; Berger, M M; Chiolero, R L

    2000-11-01

    Acute illness induces major physiological responses, which favor the adaptation of the organism to stress and injury. The metabolic response plays key roles in maintenance of vital functions and promotion of the healing mechanisms. All the components of energy expenditure are modified, particularly the resting metabolism. The regulation of carbohydrate metabolism is also markedly altered. Such patients are characterized by fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and by a stimulation of the hepatic glucose production in fasted and fed states. Lipolysis and increased fat oxidation are typically observed. Ketogenesis processes are inhibited, concurring to alter the adaptation to starvation. Protein turnover is stimulated with a preponderance of the catabolic processes, even during full nutritional support. This induces a state of resistance to feeding, leading to a progressive depletion of the fat free mass. Such progressive tissue catabolism cannot be reversed by hypercaloric nutrition or growth factors. Specific nutrients (aminoacids, micronutrients, PUFA) may offer interesting perspectives in stimulating immunity, improving the antioxidant balance or modulating the inflammatory response. PMID:11139659

  16. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    . Application of multiple analytical strategies may provide comprehensive information to reach a valid answer to these research questions. In this thesis, I investigated several analytical technologies and data handling strategies in order to evaluate their effects on the biological answer. In metabolomics, one...... strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data...

  17. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  18. Nutrition.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Help Contact Us FAQ En Espanol Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Search Tips Browse by Subject What's In Food Smart Nutrition 101 Life Stages Weight Management Nutrition and Health ...

  19. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreas Foundation > Patient Information > Nutrition Advice & Recipes test Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  20. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... display title no content is required Programs and Services Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Women, Infants, and Children ... Assistance State Systems Offices Food, Nutrition and Consumer Services (FNCS) Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP) ...

  1. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get nutrition from a special formula through a vein in the ... you can also eat and drink while getting nutrition from TPN. Your nurse will teach you how ...

  2. The phenomena of social reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kumelj

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Social reality originates from social interaction in a social group. It is consolidated with social consensus. It is transcendent and relatively stable. Social reality is maintained in relatively isolated, balanced social environment. Majority of members in a social group spontaneously reacts to deviations. These are characteristics which many authors contribute to social reality. If social reality is to be understood as a collection of social-psychological phenomena, of which the important factor is structuring of environment, then these phenomena have to have similar characteristics as social reality itself. In this article various definitions of selected phenomena are presented, such as social norms, group values, stereotypes, prejudice, social representations, etc. The article contends that despite of lack of clear definitions, we can find views that connect the aforementioned characteristics to social-psychological phenomena.

  3. Resonant phenomena in colloidal crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Palberg, Thomas; Würth, Mathias; König, Peter; Simnacher, Erwin; Leiderer, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Colloidal crystals of completely deionized suspensions of latex speres are subjected to oscillatory and steady shear, as well as to homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields. Various resonant phenomena observed in such experiments are reported.

  4. Autoregressive description of biological phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Morariu, Vasile V; Pop, Alexadru; Soltuz, Stefan M; Buimaga-Iarinca, Luiza; Zainea, Oana

    2008-01-01

    Many natural phenomena can be described by power-laws. A closer look at various experimental data reveals more or less significant deviations from a 1/f spectrum. We exemplify such cases with phenomena offered by molecular biology, cell biophysics, and cognitive psychology. Some of these cases can be described by first order autoregressive (AR) models or by higher order AR models which are short range correlation models. The calculations are checked against astrophysical data which were fitted to a an AR model by a different method. We found that our fitting method of the data give similar results for the astrhophysical data and therefore applied the method for examples mentioned above. Our results show that such phenomena can be described by first or higher order of AR models. Therefore such examples are described by short range correlation properties while they can be easily confounded with long range correlation phenomena.

  5. Bifurcation phenomena in control flows

    OpenAIRE

    Colonius, Fritz; Fabbri, Roberta; Johnson, Russell; Spadini, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We study bifurcation phenomena in control flows and the bifurcation of control sets. A Mel'nikov method and the Conley index together with exponential dichotomy theory and integral manifold theory are used.

  6. New perspective for nutritional support of cancer patients: Enteral/parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    AKBULUT, GAMZE

    2011-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Cancer-related malnutrition may evolve into cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the host metabolism. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative), the clinical condition of the patient and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be presc...

  7. Electroosmotic Phenomena in Organic Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin Asadi; Bujang B.K. Huat; M. M. Hassim; Mohamed, Thamer A.; Hanafi, M. M.; Nader Shariatmadari

    2009-01-01

    Organic soils or peat represent an accumulation of disintegrated plant remains which have been preserved under condition of incomplete aeration and high water content. In order to develop a fundamental understanding of electroosmotic phenomena in peat, initially microelectrophoresis studies were carried out to conceptualize the electrokinetic phenomena. Then electroosmosis experiments were conducted on rigid cube samples containing 0.0001 M NaCl-water saturated peat. The open-anode and open-c...

  8. Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Liquid Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Bechhoefer, John

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes a talk presented at the April NATO ASI on Spatiotemporal Chaos in Complex Fluids, in Santa Fe, NM. The paper gives reasons that make complex fluids good material systems for conducting experiments on pattern formation and other nonequilibrium phenomena. Much of the discussion focuses on the different phenomena observed in solidification and how the increasing complexity of fluid systems decreases the velocity scale for achieving "rapid" solidification. Five systems are c...

  9. A model for the description of feeding regulation by mesozooplankton under different conditions of temperature and prey nutritional status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, Emmanuel; Hense, Inga; St. John, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    behaviour of individual mesozooplankton that can be used to derive acclimative food ingestion, assimilation, and respiration under different temperature and food conditions. In the model, animals first evaluate the nutritional value of prey organisms based on their temperature-specific demand for energy and...... structural biochemical substances. They then regulate their feeding behaviour as well as metabolic physiology in order to satisfy their specific biochemical requirements for maintenance and growth. The approach is applicable to all heterotrophic plankton. In the example presented here the model has been...

  10. Vegetarian nutrition: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2014-07-01

    Early human food cultures were plant-based. Major religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism have recommended a vegetarian way of life since their conception. The recorded history of vegetarian nutrition started in the sixth century bc by followers of the Orphic mysteries. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras is considered the father of ethical vegetarianism. The Pythagorean way of life was followed by a number of important personalities and influenced vegetarian nutrition until the 19th century. In Europe, vegetarian nutrition more or less disappeared during the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance era and in the Age of Enlightenment, various personalities practiced vegetarianism. The first vegetarian society was started in England in 1847. The International Vegetarian Society was founded in 1908 and the first vegan society began in 1944. Prominent vegetarians during this time included Sylvester Graham, John Harvey Kellogg, and Maximilian Bircher-Benner. A paradigm shift occurred at the turn of the 21st century. The former prejudices that vegetarianism leads to malnutrition were replaced by scientific evidence showing that vegetarian nutrition reduces the risk of most contemporary diseases. Today, vegetarian nutrition has a growing international following and is increasingly accepted. The main reasons for this trend are health concerns and ethical, ecologic, and social issues. The future of vegetarian nutrition is promising because sustainable nutrition is crucial for the well-being of humankind. An increasing number of people do not want animals to suffer nor do they want climate change; they want to avoid preventable diseases and to secure a livable future for generations to come. PMID:24898226

  11. Nutrition: the new world map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    The map of nutrition, evident in the structure of any course or textbook, derives from theses that framed a science begun in the 1840s, developed until the 1940s, and consolidated until now. Nutritionists now are as perplexed as the explorers of half a millennium ago, who continued to use maps that did not fit the wider world they found. Until the 1600s, alternatives to Ptolemaic cosmology remained unthinkable despite its obvious inadequacy, because it was of a universe with the earth, and man made in the divine image, at its centre. Nutritionists now are inhibited for similar reasons. Two determining principles of nutrition science, the identification of health with growth and the belief that animal food is superior to plant food, have a deep origin; they derive from the materialist ideology that asserts a manifest destiny of humans to exploit and consume the living and natural world. In response, a new nutrition is emerging, with a global perspective, whose ideology places humans within nature, and whose theses make a wider frame, able to fit the world as we can discern it now. The new nutrition gives equal value to personal, population and planetary health, with all that implies, including the concept that the world is best perceived as a whole. The Copernican revolution changed the meaning of movement on earth. The new nutrition can change the meaning of life on earth. Now is the time to draw its map. PMID:12492639

  12. Laboratory Indices of Nutritional Status in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This report reviews the current state of knowledge regarding laboratory indices of nutritional and metabolic status during normal pregnancy in order to provide normative data with respect to such indices in healthy pregnant women. The report contains seven chapters: Physiologic Adjustments in General; Hematologic Indices; Electrolytes in Normal…

  13. Fucoxanthin: A Promising Medicinal and Nutritional Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhang; Yibo Tang; Ying Zhang; Shuofeng Zhang; Jing Qu; Xu Wang; Ran Kong; Chunchao Han; Zhenquan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Fucoxanthin, an allenic carotenoid, can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds. Recent studies have reported that fucoxanthin has many physiological functions and biological properties, such as antiobesity, antitumor, antidiabetes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities, as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protective effects. Therefore, fucoxanthin can be used as both medicinal and nutritional ingredient to prevent and treat chronic diseases. Although fucoxa...

  14. Nutritional support for acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisters, P W; Ranson, J H

    1992-09-01

    The current review has summarized current data relevant to the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis. Selection of the most appropriate form of nutritional support for patients with acute pancreatitis is intimately linked to a thorough understanding of the effects of various forms of enteral and parenteral nutrition on physiologic exocrine secretory mechanisms. Two basic concepts have emerged from the multiple studies that have addressed these issues to date: 1, enteral feeds should have low fat composition and be delivered distal to the ligament of Treitz to minimize exocrine pancreatic secretion and 2, parenteral substrate infusions, alone or in combinations similar to those administered during TPN, do not stimulate exocrine pancreatic secretion. From a practical standpoint, most patients with acute pancreatitis are diagnosed by nonoperative means and will manifest some degree of paralytic ileus during the early phase of the disease. Therefore, jejunal feeds are usually not a therapeutic option early in the course of this disease. On the basis of the clinical studies reviewed herein we propose general guidelines for the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis: 1, most patients with mild uncomplicated pancreatitis (one to two prognostic signs) do not benefit from nutritional support; 2, nutritional support should begin early in the course of patients with moderate to severe disease (as soon as hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory stability permit); 3, initial nutritional support should be through the parenteral route and include fat emulsion in amounts sufficient to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency (no objective data exist to recommend specific amino acid formulations); 4, patients requiring operation for diagnosis or complications of the disease should have a feeding jejunostomy placed at the time of operation for subsequent enteral nutrition using a low fat formula, such as Precision HN (Sandoz, 1.3 percent calories as fat

  15. Epigenetics: a new bridge between nutrition and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrients can reverse or change epigenetic phenomena such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, thereby modifying the expression of critical genes associated with physiologic and pathologic processes, including embryonic development, aging, and carcinogenesis. It appears that nutrients and b...

  16. Nutrition of the Fetus and Newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Kennaugh, Jan M.; Hay, William W.

    1987-01-01

    Both the successful development of healthy, long-term animal models to study fetal nutrition and metabolism and the improved survival of low-birth-weight, preterm infants have focused interest and research on fetal and neonatal nutrition and metabolism. Such a focus is important, given the recent emphasis on promoting neonatal growth in preterm infants at “normal” in utero growth rates. Estimates of nutrient requirements for growth in a human fetus remain ill defined, however. Body compositio...

  17. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  18. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S.

    2012-12-01

    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  19. Tool use by aquatic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool ...

  20. 2013 Nutrition Risk Evidence Review Panel. Evidence Review for: The Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 20 - 21, 2013. The SRP reviewed the new Evidence Report for the Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition (from here on referred to as the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plan for this Risk. Overall, the SRP thinks the well-qualified research team has compiled an excellent summary of background information in the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report. The SRP would like to commend the authors in general and particularly note that while the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report has been written using a single nutrient approach, the research plan takes a much more integrated and physiologically based approach.

  1. Ultrashort Phenomena in Biochemistry and Biological Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In biological phenomena there are indications that within the long pulse-length of the action potential on millisecond scale, there is additional ultrashort perturbation encoding that provides the brain with detailed information about the origin (location) and physiological characteristics. The objective is to identify the mechanism-of-action providing the potential for encoding in biological signal propagation. The actual molecular processes involved in the initiation of the action potential have been identified to be in the femtosecond and pico-second scale. The depolarization process of the cellular membrane itself, leading to the onset of the actionpotential that is transmitted to the brain, however is in the millisecond timeframe. One example of the femtosecond chemical interaction is the photoresponse of bacteriorhodopsin. No clear indication for the spatial encoding has so far been verified. Further research will be required on a cellular signal analysis level to confirm or deny the spatial and physiological encoding in the signal wave-trains of intercellular communications and sensory stimuli. The pathological encoding process for cardiac depolarization is however very pronounced and validated, however this electro-chemical process is in the millisecond amplitude and frequency modulation spectrum

  2. Ultrashort Phenomena in Biochemistry and Biological Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, Robert

    2014-11-01

    In biological phenomena there are indications that within the long pulse-length of the action potential on millisecond scale, there is additional ultrashort perturbation encoding that provides the brain with detailed information about the origin (location) and physiological characteristics. The objective is to identify the mechanism-of-action providing the potential for encoding in biological signal propagation. The actual molecular processes involved in the initiation of the action potential have been identified to be in the femtosecond and pico-second scale. The depolarization process of the cellular membrane itself, leading to the onset of the actionpotential that is transmitted to the brain, however is in the millisecond timeframe. One example of the femtosecond chemical interaction is the photoresponse of bacteriorhodopsin. No clear indication for the spatial encoding has so far been verified. Further research will be required on a cellular signal analysis level to confirm or deny the spatial and physiological encoding in the signal wave-trains of intercellular communications and sensory stimuli. The pathological encoding process for cardiac depolarization is however very pronounced and validated, however this electro-chemical process is in the millisecond amplitude and frequency modulation spectrum.

  3. Developmental programming in response to maternal over-nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eAlfaradhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders have seen an increased prevalence in recent years in developed as well as developing countries. While it is clear lifestyle choices and habits have contributed to this epidemic, mounting evidence suggests the nutritional milieu during critical stages of development in early life can ‘program’ individuals to develop the metabolic syndrome later in life. Extensive epidemiological data presents an association between maternal obesity and nutrition during pregnancy and offspring obesity, and a number of animal models have been established in order to uncover the underlying mechanisms contributing to the programming of physiological systems. It is hard to distinguish the causal factors due to the complex nature of the maternal-fetal relationship; however, in order to develop adequate prevention strategies it is vital to identify which maternal factor(s – be it the diet, diet-induced obesity or weight gain – and at which time during early development instigate the programmed phenotype. Curtailing the onset of obesity at this early stage in life presents a promising avenue through which to stem the growing epidemic of obesity.

  4. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  5. Impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the response to an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole goats and Black Belly sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceï, W; Salah, N; Paut, C; Dumoulin, P-J; Arquet, R; Félicité, Y; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2016-03-15

    In small ruminants, the response against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections is influenced not only by the host genotype and the physiological stage but also by environmental factors, particularly the nutritional status at the time of infection. In this study we evaluated the long-term effect and the interaction between the host species and the nutritional history on the response to GIN infection in two animal models differing in their phenotypic growth and their level of GIN resistance: Black Belly sheep and Creole goats. Lambs and kids were subjected to three distinct nutritional conditions at weaning: low dietary conditions (100% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance, corresponding to 548v. 484KJ/Kg BW(0.75) for lambs and kids respectively and 6% of crude protein, CP), medium dietary conditions (150% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 13% CP) and high dietary conditions (200% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 20% CP). This 3-months period was followed by a 1-month period on the medium dietary conditions for all the animals before an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection. We monitored the impact of the nutritional history (nutritional condition after weaning), on the intensity of the GIN infection by measuring individual faecal egg counts (FEC), growth rate (ADG), blood eosinophil counts and other pathophysiological parameters. The FEC, growth rate and blood eosinophil counts were significantly affected by the nutritional history in lambs but not in kids. The lowest FEC was found for lambs placed in high dietary conditions, however during the same period body weight loss was observed in this group. In low dietary conditions, kids were more resistant than lambs and the ADG was higher in lambs. However, the anaemia and the level of serum pepsinogen, marker of the abomasal mucosa integrity, were higher in kids. Our data suggest that the impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the

  6. Critical Phenomena in Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundlach Carsten

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As first discovered by Choptuik, the black hole threshold in the space of initial data for general relativity shows both surprising structure and surprising simplicity. Universality, power-law scaling of the black hole mass, and scale echoing have given rise to the term 'critical phenomena'. They are explained by the existence of exact solutions which are attractors within the black hole threshold, that is, attractors of codimension one in phase space, and which are typically self-similar. This review gives an introduction to the phenomena, tries to summarize the essential features of what is happening, and then presents extensions and applications of this basic scenario. Critical phenomena are of interest particularly for creating surprising structure from simple equations, and for the light they throw on cosmic censorship and the generic dynamics of general relativity.

  7. Modeling animal landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W P; Ostrowski, S; Williams, J B

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need to assess the effects of climate and land-use change on habitat quality, ideally from a mechanistic basis. The symposium "Molecules to Migration: Pressures of Life" at the Fourth International Conference in Africa for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, 2008, illustrated how the principles of biophysical ecology can capture the mechanistic links between organisms, climate, and other habitat features. These principles provide spatially explicit assessments of habitat quality from a physiological perspective (i.e., "animal landscapes") that can be validated independently of the data used to derive and parameterize them. The contents of this symposium showcased how the modeling of animal landscapes can be used to assess key issues in applied and theoretical ecology. The presentations included applications to amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The rare Arabian oryx on the Arabian Peninsula is used as an example for energetic calculations and their implications for behavior on the landscape. PMID:20670170

  8. Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Helliwell, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    The investigation of whistlers and related phenomena is a key element in studies of very-low-frequency propagation, satellite communication, the outer ionosphere, and solar-terrestrial relationships. This comprehensive text presents a history of the study of the phenomena and includes all the elements necessary for the calculation of the characteristics of whistlers and whistler-mode signals.An introduction and brief history are followed by a summary of the theory of whistlers and a detailed explanation of the calculation of their characteristics. Succeeding chapters offer a complete atlas of

  9. Complex Phenomena in Nanoscale Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Casati, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscale physics has become one of the rapidly developing areas of contemporary physics because of its direct relevance to newly emerging area, nanotechnologies. Nanoscale devices and quantum functional materials are usually constructed based on the results of fundamental studies on nanoscale physics. Therefore studying physical phenomena in nanosized systems is of importance for progressive development of nanotechnologies. In this context study of complex phenomena in such systems and using them for controlling purposes is of great practical importance. Namely, such studies are brought together in this book, which contains 27 papers on various aspects of nanoscale physics and nonlinear dynamics.

  10. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and contribution to softening of stools pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to...... physiological effect for infants. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that, out of two human intervention studies with important methodological limitations, one suggested a stool-softening effect of beta-palmitate whereas the second did not, that one animal study did not support a stool...

  11. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  12. Exercise effects on sleep physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Sunao; Shioda, Kohei; Morita, Yuko; Kubota, Chie; Ganeko, Masashi; Takeda, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS) physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. The research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960s, with a focus primarily on sleep related EEG changes (CNS sleep). Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. However, more recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. Sleep should be affected by daytime exercise, as physical activity alters endocrine, autonomic nervous system (ANS), and somatic functions. Since endocrinological, metabolic, and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, evaluated by standard polysomnographic (PSG) techniques. Additional measures of somatic physiology have provided enough evidences to conclude that the auto-regulatory, global regulation of sleep is not the exclusive domain of the CNS, but it is heavily influenced by inputs from the rest of the body. PMID:22485106

  13. Unplanned Alternatives For Enteral Nutrition In Postsurgical Patients: Three Individual Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Yürüker, S. Savaş; Topgül, Koray; Anadol, A. Ziya

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Enteral nutrition in surgical patients is not only physiological but also cheap. On the contrary, parenteral nutrition is more expensive and has several complications. In this report, we present three different cases in which we had to administer long term parenteral nutrition but somehow could be managed by unique applications of enteral nutrition. Patients and Methods: Three patients (one with pancreas cancer, one with gunshot wound and one with mesenteric vascular disease) were ad...

  14. The Healthy Core Metabolism: A New Paradigm for Primary Preventive Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond

    2016-01-01

    Research in preventive nutrition aims at elucidating mechanism by which our diet helps us to remain in good health through optimal physiological functions. However, despite decades of accumulated data in human nutrition and regular subsequent nutritional recommendations, obesity and type 2 diabetes epidemics continue to progress worldwide each year leading to a regular decrease of the Healthy Life Years, notably in Western countries. Such a paradox may be explained by the Nutrition Transition...

  15. Design of Nutrition Catering System for Athletes Based on Access Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjiang Wu,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to monitor and adjust athletes' dietary nutrition scientifically, Active X Data Object (ADO and Structure Query Language (SQL were used to produce program under the development environment of Visual Basic 6.0 and Access database. The consulting system on food nutrition and dietary had been developed with the two languages combination and organization of the latest nutrition information. Nutrition balance of physiological characteristics, assessment for nutrition intake, inquiring nutrition of common food and recommended of functional nourishing food could be achieved for different events and different level of athletes.

  16. Medical nutrition therapy planning

    OpenAIRE

    Torović Ljilja; Grujičić Maja; Pavlović-Trajković Ljiljana; Jovičić Jelena; Novaković Budimka; Balać Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Diet has vital, preventive and therapeutic functions. Medical nutrition therapy is a part of the Standardized Nutrition Care Process integrated in health care systems. Material and methods. An overview of the Nutrition Care Process model and the application of nutrition guidelines based on literature, reports, documents and programmes of international health, food and physical activity authorities was done. Results. The Nutrition Care Process model requires registered diet...

  17. Nutritional and feeding ecology in the Cory"s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea).

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Bernabé, Joan; González-Solís, Jacob; Viscor Carrasco, Ginés

    2007-01-01

    In birds, parents adjust their feeding behaviour according to breeding duties, which ultimately may lead to seasonal adjustments in nutritional physiology and hematology over the breeding season. Although avian physiology has been widely investigated in captivity, few studies have integrated individual changes in feeding and physiological ecology throughout the breeding season in wild birds. To study relationships between feeding ecology and nutritional ecophysiology in Cory"s shearwater Calo...

  18. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  19. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  20. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  1. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  2. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  3. Nursing phenomena in inpatient psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frauenfelder, F.; Muller-Staub, M.; Needham, I.; Achterberg, T. van

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the question if the nursing diagnosis classification of North American Nursing Association-International (NANDA-I) describes the adult inpatient psychiatric nursing care. The present study aimed to identify nursing phenomena mentioned in journal articles about the psychiatric i

  4. Collective Phenomena in Kidney Autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2004-01-01

    nephron. However, a variety of cooperative phenomena arising through interactions between the nephrons may also be important. We prescut experimental evidence for a coupling between nephrons that are connected via a common piece of afferent arteriole. We also develop a mathematical model that call account...

  5. Strings, fields and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The connection between field theory and critical phenomena is reviewed. Emphasis is put on the use of Monte Carlo methods in the study of non-perturbative aspects of field theory. String theory is then described as a statistical theory of random surfaces and the critical behaviour is analyzed both by analytical and numerical methods. (orig.)

  6. Graphene tests of Klein phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    De Leo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is characterized by chiral electronic excitations. As such it provides a perfect testing ground for the production of Klein pairs (electron/holes). If confirmed, the standard results for barrier phenomena must be reconsidered with, as a byproduct, the accumulation within the barrier of holes.

  7. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  8. Quadruped Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Skrba, Ljiljana; Reveret, Lionel; Hétroy, Franck; Cani, Marie-Paule; O'Sullivan, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation of realistic animals in the computer graphics area. In...

  9. Thin Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, D.

    1998-01-01

    Lattice animals provide a discretized model for the theta transition displayed by branched polymers in solvent. Exact graph enumeration studies have given some indications that the phase diagram of such lattice animals may contain two collapsed phases as well as an extended phase. This has not been confirmed by studies using other means. We use the exact correspondence between the q --> 1 limit of an extended Potts model and lattice animals to investigate the phase diagram of lattice animals ...

  10. The aging gut. Nutritional issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, J R; Russell, R M

    1998-06-01

    With improvements in health care, living standards, and socioeconomic status, more adults are living to old age. As the population ages, it is increasingly important to understand the factors that affect the nutritional status and thus the health status of older adults. Many factors contribute to inadequate nutrition, including health status, financial capacities, mobility, exercise, and physiologic needs. This article considered only the potential changes in nutritional needs because of alterations in the gastrointestinal tract owing to aging. One of the most remarkable changes with aging is the frequent development of atrophic gastritis and the inability to secrete gastric acid. This process affects approximately a third of older adults in the United States and only recently was recognized to be due to infection by H. pylori in the majority of cases. The lack of gastric acid in atrophic gastritis may lead to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and influences the absorption of a variety of micronutrients, including iron, folate, calcium, vitamin K, and vitamin B12. Lactose maldigestion is a frequent condition in older adults and is extremely common worldwide. The intolerance of dairy products leads to avoidance of these foods and likely contributes to the development of osteopenia. Overall, the small intestine and pancreas undergo astonishingly few clinically significant changes with aging. The relative preservation of overall gastrointestinal function with aging is likely due to the large reserve capacity of this multiorgan system. Further research is needed to define the precise nutritional needs for older adults because simple extrapolation of values from younger adults is now recognized to be insufficient. In addition, it is no longer acceptable to define adequate nutriture in terms of amounts of vitamins needed to maintain serum levels of a nutrient. Further RDAs must consider the functional implications of adequate nutrition. Nutrients in the elderly will

  11. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  12. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  13. Physiology and physiopathology at CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although CT is essentially a morphological technique, it should theoretically enable investigation of certain physiological and physiopathological phenomena to be made, for example by the study of (i) CT numbers and (ii) the nature and evolution of enhancements. Intravenous injection of iodine contrast agent increases the attenuation coefficients of cerebral parenchyma, which is theoretically due only to the enhancement of the vascular compartment and in direct correlation with the cerebral blood volume (CBV). The authors have measured the attenuation coefficients of the blood and the parenchyma at varying times after contrast injection. Two contrast agents with differing osmolarities were studied. Two scanners were used - an ACTA scanner and an ND 8000. Twenty CTs were performed on five patients after a bolus injection of a solution of 38% iodine: sodium ioxithalamate 25.69 g; methylglucamine oxithalamate 51.3 osmolarity 1800 mosmol/12 ml/kg were injected. Leakage of the iodine contrast agent, however, considerably increases the density coefficient of cerebral parenchyma and rules out any accurate measurement of the CBV. CT study of cerebral physiopathology is also discussed. This is dependent on two techniques - measurement of attenuation coefficients and observation of enhancements - neither of which are shown to give results characteristic of any one physiopathology. The application of CT in physiological and physiopathological cerebral phenomena is currently extremely limited. (Auth.)

  14. The Nutritional Balancing Act of a Large Herbivore: An Experiment with Captive Moose (Alces alces L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Annika M; Felton, Adam; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Krizsan, Sophie J; Hedwall, Per-Ola; Stolter, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF). The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat), interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during periods of dietary imbalance. Using the moose (Alces alces L.), a model species in the development of herbivore foraging theory, we conducted a feeding experiment guided by the GF, combining continuous observations of six captive moose with analysis of the macronutritional composition of foods. We identified the moose's self-selected macronutrient target by allowing them to compose a diet by mixing two nutritionally complementary pellet types plus limited access to Salix browse. Such periods of free choice were intermixed with periods when they were restricted to one of the two pellet types plus Salix browse. Our observations of food intake by moose given free choice lend support to the nutrient balancing hypothesis, as the moose combined the foods in specific proportions that provided a particular ratio and amount of macronutrients. When restricted to either of two diets comprising a single pellet type, the moose i) maintained a relatively stable intake of non-protein energy while allowing protein intakes to vary with food composition, and ii) increased their intake of the food item that most closely resembled the self-selected macronutrient intake from the free choice periods, namely Salix browse. We place our results in the context of the nutritional strategy of the moose, ruminant physiology and the categorization of food quality. PMID:26986618

  15. The Nutritional Balancing Act of a Large Herbivore: An Experiment with Captive Moose (Alces alces L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika M Felton

    Full Text Available The nutrient balancing hypothesis proposes that, when sufficient food is available, the primary goal of animal diet selection is to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet. This hypothesis can be tested using the Geometric Framework for nutrition (GF. The GF enables researchers to study patterns of nutrient intake (e.g. macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, fat, interactions between the different nutrients, and how an animal resolves the potential conflict between over-eating one or more nutrients and under-eating others during periods of dietary imbalance. Using the moose (Alces alces L., a model species in the development of herbivore foraging theory, we conducted a feeding experiment guided by the GF, combining continuous observations of six captive moose with analysis of the macronutritional composition of foods. We identified the moose's self-selected macronutrient target by allowing them to compose a diet by mixing two nutritionally complementary pellet types plus limited access to Salix browse. Such periods of free choice were intermixed with periods when they were restricted to one of the two pellet types plus Salix browse. Our observations of food intake by moose given free choice lend support to the nutrient balancing hypothesis, as the moose combined the foods in specific proportions that provided a particular ratio and amount of macronutrients. When restricted to either of two diets comprising a single pellet type, the moose i maintained a relatively stable intake of non-protein energy while allowing protein intakes to vary with food composition, and ii increased their intake of the food item that most closely resembled the self-selected macronutrient intake from the free choice periods, namely Salix browse. We place our results in the context of the nutritional strategy of the moose, ruminant physiology and the categorization of food quality.

  16. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments. PMID:26858671

  17. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  18. Remarkable changes in behavior and physiology of laboratory mice after the massive 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Yanai

    Full Text Available A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011, followed by several long and intense aftershocks. Laboratory mice housed in the Tokyo, located approximately 330 km south of this earthquake's epicenter, displayed remarkable changes in a variety of behaviors and physiological measures. Although unusual pre-earthquake behaviors have been previously reported in laboratory animals, little is known about behavioral and physiological changes that occur after a great earthquake. In the present study, the effects of Tohoku earthquake on mice behavior were investigated. "Earthquake-experienced" mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gaining body weight in response to the earthquake. They also displayed enhanced anxiety, and in a formal fear memory task, showed significantly greater tone- and context-dependent conditioned freezing. Water maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed the quicker acquisition of the task, faster swim speed and longer swim distance than the naive mice. Serum corticosterone levels were elevated compared to the naive mice, indicating that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice. These results demonstrate that great earthquakes strongly affect mouse behaviors and physiology. Although the effects of a variety of experimental manipulations on mouse behaviors in disease models or in models of higher cognitive functions have been extensively examined, researchers need to be aware how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and perhaps other natural environmental factors, influence laboratory animal behaviors and physiology.

  19. Culture, Diet, and Nutrition: Selected Themes and Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivetti, Louis Evan

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: How do nutritious diets develop? What is the antiquity of nutritional disease? Why do humans consume nonfood items? What impact do religious prohibitions and practices have on nutritional status? And why are some toxic plants and animals consumed and desired by man? (Author/BB)

  20. Food quality and human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W P

    1993-01-01

    New nutritional analyses suggest that current trends in the production of food are inappropriate for the health of most of the world's populations. Four deficiency problems now dominate analyses of the nutritional disorders of developing countries: the risks from iodine, vitamin A and iron deficiencies and protein energy malnutrition now affect over two billion children and adults. Chronic energy deficiency affects half of Indian adults, with similar rates in Pakistan and Ethiopia. India will need to increase food production two- to three-fold by 2020 to cope with the predicted population explosion and desirable increases in food consumption. As erosion, salination and environmental degradation further limit land availability, current problems will overwhelm agricultural demand. Societies increase their meat, milk and fat consumption as they become affluent, and suffer from heart disease, diabetes, obesity, cancers and a variety of other 'Western' public health problems. Agricultural production is then regeared inappropriately. The Second World has an agriculture system geared to 1940s Western concepts of high animal production. Russia now vies with Scotland and Northern Ireland for the highest heart disease rates in the world and has the fattest adults in Europe. Most major non-infective public health issues throughout the world are nutritionally related. Global warming will exacerbate these problems, but effective dietary change with less animal production could release land which could be used more efficiently. PMID:7693404

  1. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  2. Importance of toxigenic Fusarium species in animal food

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja V.; Lević J.; Stanković S.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous plant species, which are main components of various mixtures used in animal nutrition, can be contaminated by mycotoxins created by large number of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi (moulds). From the aspect of animal nutrition, most important are cereals and oil crops (in form of meals) because they constitute the highest share in preparation of animal food, and on the other hand, they are especially sensitive to toxigenic fungi and can contain mycot...

  3. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in science (as in any other human use that is not also in the animals’ best interest). These views are not compatible, and since all three views in more or less pure form are found in modern Western societies, use of animals for research is bound to cause controversy. However, there may be room for some kind......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  4. Food Safety and Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Kids & Teens ... More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Food Safety & Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens Fun & ...

  5. Minireview: Epigenetic programming of diabetes and obesity: animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yoshinori; Williams, Lyda; Vuguin, Patricia M; Charron, Maureen J

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the intrauterine (IU) environment has a significant and lasting effect on the long-term health of the growing fetus and the development of metabolic disease in later life as put forth in the fetal origins of disease hypothesis. Metabolic diseases have been associated with alterations in the epigenome that occur without changes in the DNA sequence, such as cytosine methylation of DNA, histone posttranslational modifications, and micro-RNA. Animal models of epigenetic modifications secondary to an altered IU milieu are an invaluable tool to study the mechanisms that determine the development of metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Rodent and nonlitter bearing animals are good models for the study of disease, because they have similar embryology, anatomy, and physiology to humans. Thus, it is feasible to monitor and modify the IU environment of animal models in order to gain insight into the molecular basis of human metabolic disease pathogenesis. In this review, the database of PubMed was searched for articles published between 1999 and 2011. Key words included epigenetic modifications, IU growth retardation, small for gestational age, animal models, metabolic disease, and obesity. The inclusion criteria used to select studies included animal models of epigenetic modifications during fetal and neonatal development associated with adult metabolic syndrome. Experimental manipulations included: changes in the nutritional status of the pregnant female (calorie-restricted, high-fat, or low-protein diets during pregnancy), as well as the father; interference with placenta function, or uterine blood flow, environmental toxin exposure during pregnancy, as well as dietary modifications during the neonatal (lactation) as well as pubertal period. This review article is focused solely on studies in animal models that demonstrate epigenetic changes that are correlated with manifestation of metabolic disease, including diabetes

  6. Statistical phenomena in particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle beams are subject to a variety of apparently distinct statistical phenomena such as intrabeam scattering, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, coherent instabilities, and radiofrequency noise diffusion. In fact, both the physics and mathematical description of these mechanisms are quite similar, with the notion of correlation as a powerful unifying principle. In this presentation we will attempt to provide both a physical and a mathematical basis for understanding the wide range of statistical phenomena that have been discussed. In the course of this study the tools of the trade will be introduced, e.g., the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, noise theory, correlation functions, and beam transfer functions. Although a major concern will be to provide equations for analyzing machine design, the primary goal is to introduce a basic set of physical concepts having a very broad range of applicability

  7. Transport phenomena in multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a thorough presentation of the phenomena related to the transport of mass, momentum and energy.  It lays all the basic physical principles, then for the more advanced readers, it offers an in-depth treatment with advanced mathematical derivations and ends with some useful applications of the models and equations in specific settings. The important idea behind the book is to unify all types of transport phenomena, describing them within a common framework in terms of cause and effect, respectively represented by the driving force and the flux of the transported quantity. The approach and presentation are original in that the book starts with a general description of transport processes, providing the macroscopic balance relations of fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer, before diving into the mathematical realm of continuum mechanics to derive the microscopic governing equations at the microscopic level. The book is a modular teaching tool and can be used either for an introductory...

  8. New phenomena searches at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soha, Aron; /UC, Davis

    2006-04-01

    The authors report on recent results from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment, which is accumulating data from proton-antiproton collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The new phenomena being explored include Higgs, Supersymmetry, and large extra dimensions. They also present the latest results of searches for heavy objects, which would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model.

  9. Critical phenomena in complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2007-01-01

    The combination of the compactness of networks, featuring small diameters, and their complex architectures results in a variety of critical effects dramatically different from those in cooperative systems on lattices. In the last few years, researchers have made important steps toward understanding the qualitatively new critical phenomena in complex networks. We review the results, concepts, and methods of this rapidly developing field. Here we mostly consider two closely related classes of t...

  10. Wetting phenomena in electrolyte solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ibagon, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyzes wetting phenomena in electrolyte solutions. They are investigated by means of classical density functional theory. First, the wetting of a charged substrate by an electrolyte solution is studied with emphasis on the influence of the substrate charge density and of the ionic strength on the wetting transition temperature and on the order of the wetting transition. The corresponding models consist of solvent particles, anions, and cations. Two mean field approaches ar...

  11. Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megías Fernández, Eugenio; Pena-Benítez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficie...

  12. Foot Anthropometry and Morphology Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Agić, Ante; NIKOLIĆ, VASILIJE; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-01-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in ...

  13. Review on Ruminant Nutrition Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research works in ruminant nutrition have been widely published, especially those related to the energy and protein utilization. The energy and protein requirements for maintenance and production in tropical regions may be different from those in the subtropical areas. Responses of different species of ruminants to energy and protein supplements were also observed. The synchronization of energy and protein availability has been considered as an important strategy in affecting the microbial fermentative process in the rumen and in affecting the animal performance. The inclusion of long-chained unsaturated fatty acids in the diets has been successfully affecting milk production with higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. Feedstuffs characteristics in terms of their degradability and fermentation by rumen microbial enzymes have been intensively studied; however, further experimentations are still needed to elucidate the specific fate of its nutritive components in the rumen and tissue levels.

  14. Requirements for laboratory animals in health programmes*

    OpenAIRE

    Held, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory animals are essential for the successful execution of many health programmes. A wide variety of animal models is used in the worldwide efforts to improve the control of various diseases, and in the basic research needed to improve health care. Biomedical programmes require specially-bred animals reared under controlled conditions, with close attention given to such factors as physical environment, nutrition, microbiological status, and genetic background. The need for a regular sup...

  15. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  16. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  17. MedlinePlus: Toddler Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toddler Nutrition -- see more articles Reference Desk Toddler Nutrition and Health Resource List (Department of Agriculture) - PDF Find an ... Related Health Topics Child Nutrition Infant and Newborn Nutrition National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Toddler ...

  18. Nutritional studies in native, Thai Kadon pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasupen, K

    2007-01-01

    In the North-East of Thailand native, so-called Kadon pigs are typically kept on small-holder farms. Kadon pig is believed to be on the edge of extinction and in 2003 it was designated as a protected species of production animals. The main objective of this thesis was to study various nutritional as

  19. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tapanee Hongratanaworakit

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow pot...

  20. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  1. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get ...

  2. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  3. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002458.htm Nutrition and athletic performance To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle ...

  4. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. Function Pots, pans, and other tools used in ...

  5. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Fluids are given into a vein to ... babies. It can provide a better level of nutrition than regular intravenous (IV) feedings, which provide only ...

  6. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... exposure to toxic substances or take nutritional supplements. Causes Toxic amblyopia may be caused by a nutritional ...

  7. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating well, is ... al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2009 ...

  8. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Clinician Press Room Career Center Advertising and Sponsorship Join / Renew Donate Online Store Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What Is Enteral Nutrition ...

  9. Nutritional Status Assessment of Tea Garden Women Workers (18-35 Years) In Darjeeling District From A View Point of Nutrition Parameters Hemoglobin Level and Disease Susceptibility : Impact of Nutritional Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Prabir Kumar Manna; De, Debasis; Debidas Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed for assessing the nutrition level on different physiological parameters and disease susceptibility of the adult tea garden women worker belong to poor economic group of Darjeeling district.Methods: The study was made on one hundred women (18-35 yrs) of Phansidewa block. The subjects were divided into control and experimental groups. Nutritional awareness was given to the experimental group for six month. Physiological parameters and disease susceptibility we...

  10. Contribution of large animal models to the development of clinical intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirenne, J

    1999-01-01

    The intestine has long been seen as a "forbidden" organ to transplant and even nowadays it remains the most challenging abdominal organ to transplant. Large animal experiments have been pivotal, first in developing reproducible and clinically applicable surgical techniques for transplanting the intestine and second, in revealing the unique physiological, immunological, and microbiological challenge that intestinal transplantation (ITx) represents. More recently, large animal models have been used to test new immunosuppressive drugs (FK 506) that have been then successfully used clinically. ITx is no more an experimental endeavor and survival figures of about 70% can be reached at one year, justifying routine application of ITx to patients who do not tolerate total parenteral nutrition. However, ITx remains in 1999 an "unfinished product" and further research will need to be done to allow wider application of ITx to patients without total parenteral nutrition (TPN) related complications. Further research will focus on the following aspects: (1) refined understanding of the factors accounting for the high immunogenicity of the intestine; (2) development of immunomodulatory strategies to reduce graft immunogenicity and to induce specific hyporesponsiveness; (3) development of new immunosuppressants, and their usage in combination, to act more specifically on the immune response, and at the price of less toxicity; (4) development of surgical alternatives to alleviate the organ shortage: graft size reduction, live related ITx. Importantly these questions will need to be addressed in clinically relevant animal models before they are applied to man. PMID:10427786

  11. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  12. Symptomatic animal models for dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Bethany K.; Hess, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic animal models have clinical features consistent with human disorders and are often used to identify the anatomical and physiological processes involved in the expression of symptoms and to experimentally demonstrate causality where it would be infeasible in the patient population. Rodent and primate models of dystonia have identified basal ganglia abnormalities, including alterations in striatal GABAergic and dopaminergic transmission. Symptomatic animal models have also establish...

  13. Leptin in human physiology and pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Mantzoros, Christos S.; Magkos, Faidon; Brinkoetter, Mary; Sienkiewicz, Elizabeth; Dardeno, Tina A.; Kim, Sang-Yong; Hamnvik, Ole-Petter R.; Koniaris, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Leptin, discovered through positional cloning 15 years ago, is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with pleiotropic effects in the physiology and pathophysiology of energy homeostasis, endocrinology, and metabolism. Studies in vitro and in animal models highlight the potential for leptin to regulate a number of physiological functions. Available evidence from human studies indicates that leptin has a mainly permissive role, with leptin administration being effective in states of leptin deficiency, ...

  14. Biological underpinnings of breastfeeding challenges: the role of genetics, diet, and environment on lactation physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeon; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2016-08-01

    Lactation is a dynamic process that has evolved to produce a complex biological fluid that provides nutritive and nonnutritive factors to the nursing offspring. It has long been assumed that once lactation is successfully initiated, the primary factor regulating milk production is infant demand. Thus, most interventions have focused on improving breastfeeding education and early lactation support. However, in addition to infant demand, increasing evidence from studies conducted in experimental animal models, production animals, and breastfeeding women suggests that a diverse array of maternal factors may also affect milk production and composition. In this review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of the role of maternal genetics and modifiable factors, such as diet and environmental exposures, on reproductive endocrinology, lactation physiology, and the ability to successfully produce milk. To identify factors that may affect lactation in women, we highlight some information gleaned from studies in experimental animal models and production animals. Finally, we highlight the gaps in current knowledge and provide commentary on future research opportunities aimed at improving lactation outcomes in breastfeeding women to improve the health of mothers and their infants. PMID:27354238

  15. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth > For Parents > Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  16. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Staczek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  17. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  18. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  19. SIMULATED ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS IN TEACHING AND RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Chirag B. Mistry, Shreya M. Shah, Jagatkumar D. Bhatt

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments are of paramount importance in the pre-clinical screening of new chemical entity. On the other hand, various regulatory guidelines for animal experiments are becoming more stringent in the face of worldwide protests by animal rights activists. Moreover, simulated animal experiments’ softwares are being developed and they can be implemented in the postgraduate and graduate students’ curriculum for demonstration of standard physiological and pharmacolog...

  20. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  1. Nutrition in neonatal congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan CT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conall T Morgan,1 Anne Marie Shine,2 Colin J McMahon1 1Department of Pediatric Cardiology, 2Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Our Lady's Children's Hospital Crumlin, Dublin, Republic of Ireland Abstract: There are 40,000 infants born in the USA with congenital heart disease annually. Achievement of adequate oral nutrition is difficult in this population. Malnutrition is common. Single ventricle physiology, the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, and cardiopulmonary bypass prevent the establishment of normal oral feeding patterns. Improved nutrition results in improved surgical outcomes, lower mortality, and shorter hospital stay. In this review, we discuss the challenges this population faces. Keywords: necrotizing enterocolitis, malnutrition, growth failure, hypoplastic left heart

  2. Measurements design and phenomena discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of measurements suitable for discriminating signal components produced by phenomena of different types is considered. The required measurements should be capable of cancelling out those signal components which are to be ignored when focusing on a phenomenon of interest. Under the hypothesis that the subspaces hosting the signal components produced by each phenomenon are complementary, their discrimination is accomplished by measurements giving rise to the appropriate oblique projector operator. The subspace onto which the operator should project is selected by nonlinear techniques in line with adaptive pursuit strategies

  3. Measurements design and phenomena discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura [Department of Mathematics, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-24

    The construction of measurements suitable for discriminating signal components produced by phenomena of different types is considered. The required measurements should be capable of cancelling out those signal components which are to be ignored when focusing on a phenomenon of interest. Under the hypothesis that the subspaces hosting the signal components produced by each phenomenon are complementary, their discrimination is accomplished by measurements giving rise to the appropriate oblique projector operator. The subspace onto which the operator should project is selected by nonlinear techniques in line with adaptive pursuit strategies.

  4. Measurements design and phenomena discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The construction of measurements suitable for discriminating signal components produced by phenomena of different types is considered. The required measurements should be capable of cancelling out those signal components which are to be ignored when focusing on a phenomenon of interest. Under the hypothesis that the subspaces hosting the signal components produced by each phenomenon are complementary, their discrimination is accomplished by measurements giving rise to the appropriate oblique projector operator. The subspace onto which the operator should project is selected by nonlinear techniques in line with adaptive pursuit strategies.

  5. Flooding phenomena in inclined pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flooding phenomena for air-water counter-current two-phase flow in inclined pipes were investigated experimentally. The inner diameter was 16 mm. The examined pipe inclination were 30deg, 45deg and 60deg from horizontal and the pipe length ranged from 0.5 to 5.5 m respectively. The present results indicate that the pipe length affects the flooding mechanism and the onset of flooding velocity. Finally, a simple correlation to predict the void fraction at the onset of flooding is proposed. (author)

  6. Quantum theory of collective phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Sewell, G L

    2014-01-01

    ""An excellent and competent introduction to the field … [and] … a source of information for the expert."" - Physics Today""This a book of major importance…. I trust that this book will be used as a basis for the teaching of a balanced, modern and rigorous course on statistical mechanics in all universities."" - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society""This is one of the best introductions to the subject, and it is strongly recommended to anyone interested in collective phenomena."" - Physics Bulletin ""The book may be recommended for students as a well-balanced introduction to this rich s

  7. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2000-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m

  8. Precursor films in wetting phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, M. N.; Oshanin, G.; Dietrich, S.; Cazabat, A. -M.

    2012-01-01

    The spontaneous spreading of non-volatile liquid droplets on solid substrates poses a classic problem in the context of wetting phenomena. It is well known that the spreading of a macroscopic droplet is in many cases accompanied by a thin film of macroscopic lateral extent, the so-called precursor film, which emanates from the three-phase contact line region and spreads ahead of the latter with a much higher speed. Such films have been usually associated with liquid-on-solid systems, but in t...

  9. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2000-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in

  10. Strange phenomena in Cuban sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several unusual phenomena that occur in certain Cuban sands flows (and some other parts of the world) are presented . First, the phenomenon occurs revolving rivers, explained by a phenomenological model. Several open questions were discussed on the 'microscopic' causes of the phenomenon. Uphill lonely waves are shown in second, in streams of the same type of sand that occur in a cell in Hele-Shaw. The 'microscopic' necessary conditions are explored for these waves emerge as solution of Saint-Venant equations modified hydrodynamic type. (author)

  11. Violent phenomena in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Jayant V

    2007-01-01

    The serenity of a clear night sky belies the evidence-gathered by balloons, rockets, satellites, and telescopes-that the universe contains centers of furious activity that pour out vast amounts of energy, some in regular cycles and some in gigantic bursts. This reader-friendly book, acclaimed by Nature as ""excellent and uncompromising,"" traces the development of modern astrophysics and its explanations of these startling celestial fireworks.This lively narrative ranges from the gravitational theories of Newton and Einstein to recent exciting discoveries of such violent phenomena as supernova

  12. Nonlinear Dynamic Phenomena in Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Warminski, Jerzy; Cartmell, Matthew P

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena should play a crucial role in the design and control of engineering systems and structures as they can drastically change the prevailing dynamical responses. This book covers theoretical and applications-based problems of nonlinear dynamics concerned with both discrete and continuous systems of interest in civil and mechanical engineering. They include pendulum-like systems, slender footbridges, shape memory alloys, sagged elastic cables and non-smooth problems. Pendulums can be used as a dynamic absorber mounted in high buildings, bridges or chimneys. Geometrical nonlinear

  13. What Does Change with Nutrition Team in Intensive Care Unit?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Fatih Yılmaz; Ertuğrul Kılıç; Sema Gürsel; Nazlı Tiryaki

    2016-01-01

    Intrroduction: Clinical nutrition is the nutrition support therapy provided to patients under medical supervision at the hospital or home setting. It is a multidisciplinary task performed under the control of the physician, dietician, pharmacist and nurse. In this study, the changes in the patient admission statistics to the general intensive care unit (GICU), the exitus ratios, decubitus ulcer formation rates, albumin use rates, duration of the hospital stay, Acute Physiology and Chronic Hea...

  14. Hkat, a novel nutritionally regulated transmembrane protein in adipose tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Zhang

    2012-01-01

    White adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ regulating many aspects of whole body physiology and pathology. Adipogenesis, a process in which premature cells differentiate into adipocytes, is a complex process that includes orchestrated changes in gene expression and cell morphology in response to various nutritional and hormonal stimuli. To profile transcriptome changes in response to nutritional stimulation, we performed RNA-seq on fat in mice treated with either a high-fat diet or fas...

  15. The nutritional significance of cheese in the UK diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, Anthony; Wilbey, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Cheese currently suffers from an adverse nutritional image largely due to a perceived association between saturated fatty acid, cholesterol and the salt content of cheese with cardiovascular disease. However, cheese is also a rich source of essential nutrients such as, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals that play an integral part of a healthy diet. This review outlines the composition, structure and physiological characteristics of the nutritionally significant components of cheese, whil...

  16. Animal Enclosure Module (AEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research project is to test the hypothesis that corticosteroids contribute to the adverse skeletal effects of space flight. To achieve this objective, serum corticosteroids, which are known to increase during space flight, must be maintained at normal physiologic levels in flight rats by a combination of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid supplementation via implanted hormone pellets. Bone analyses in these animals will then be compared to those of intact flight rats that, based on past experience, will undergo corticosteroid excess and bone loss during space flight. The results will reveal whether maintaining serum corticosteroids at physiologic levels in flight rats affects the skeletal abnormalities that normally develop during space flight. A positive response to this question would indicate that the bone loss and decreased bone formation associated with space flight are mediated, at least in part, by corticosteroid excess.

  17. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  18. Electroosmotic Phenomena in Organic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Asadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic soils or peat represent an accumulation of disintegrated plant remains which have been preserved under condition of incomplete aeration and high water content. In order to develop a fundamental understanding of electroosmotic phenomena in peat, initially microelectrophoresis studies were carried out to conceptualize the electrokinetic phenomena. Then electroosmosis experiments were conducted on rigid cube samples containing 0.0001 M NaCl-water saturated peat. The open-anode and open-cathode systems were employed to the soil samples. Distilled Water (DW were used as anolyte and catholyte. The experiments were carried out via applications of diffrent DC electrical potentials. The results of microelectrophoresis study showed changes of zeta potential due to the effect of HCl and NaOH. The correlations between zeta potential and pH were found. The negative charge of peat is high pH dependent and the surface charge was dropped to zero at pH around 3. The high degree of decomposition resulted in the higher zeta potential in peat. It was also experimentally found that the electroosmotic flow in peat is feasible. The direction of electroosmotic flows were from the anode to cathode.

  19. Nonstationary Phenomena in the Heliosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Borovikov, S. N.; Ebert, R. W.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Kim, T. K.; Kryukov, I.; Richardson, J. D.; Suess, S. T.; Zank, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    As Voyagers (V1 and V2) are approaching the heliopause (HP), they keep delivering important information about the solar wind (SW) behavior which sometimes appears to be substantially different at V1 and V2 locations. We argue that the observed differences may be attributed to SW variations. In particular, negative values of the radial velocity component derived from V1 observations may be due to the presence of time-dependent magnetic barriers formed due to the slow/fast wind interactions in the vicinity of solar cycle minima. The inner heliosheath is the venue of wave interaction, MHD instabilities, and turbulence. We further investigate these phenomena in the HP vicinity using a new, based on the Ulysses observations, solar cycle model. We show that some puzzling observational data, such as the difference in the heliocentric distances at which V1 and V2 crossed the termination shock, may be attributed to time-dependent effects. We also use other time-dependent sets of observational boundary conditions, e.g., interplanetary scintillation and OMNI data. Phenomena affecting the stability and shape of the HP are also discussed in the context of our time-dependent simulations. The satisfaction of the 2-3 kHz radio emission criteria beyond the HP is analyzed. Numerical results are validated by their comparison with observational data.

  20. Radiography atlas of domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 370 radiographs presented in the atlas together with notes and explanations give information on normal roentgenographic findings, physiological variations, and important pathological findings observed in small mammals, birds, reptilia and amphibia. Introductory notes to each chapter explain the principles of exposure techniques and the handling of the animals. (VHE)