WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal materials

  1. 9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals or materials. (a) Animals affected by or exposed to disease, and materials required to...

  2. 9 CFR 53.9 - Mortgage against animals or materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against animals or materials. 53.9 Section 53.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT....9 Mortgage against animals or materials. When animals or materials have been destroyed pursuant...

  3. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  4. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  5. [Animal experimental tests of a new filling material (Isocap)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethe, P; Rotgans, J; Schmalz, G

    1978-09-01

    An experimental investigation with animals (Rhesus monkeys) concerning pulp tolerance to two premeasured dosages of calcium hydroxide cement (Reocap and Reocap-E) as well as a pre-measured dosage of filling material (Isocap) in an injection capsule was carried out (78 class V cavities). As with the negative controls, a very slight reaction, or none at all, developed in response to the two calcium hydroxide cements and the new filling material, with and without application of capping material. When five other accidentally exposed pulpae were dissected, direct capping under the corresponding preconditions (punctate exposed pulpa, longer storage period for calcium hydroxide cement) showed the characteristic formation of reparative dentin. PMID:100305

  6. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  7. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  8. Utilizing Repurposed Materials to Construct Utility Buildings and Small Animal Shelters

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, C. Kim

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet describes how to use repurposed materials such as shipping pallets, scraps from construction sites or other building projects, to construct utility buildings and small animal shelters.

  9. [Integration properties of bone substitute materials. Experimental studies on animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, K P; Scharf, H P; Pesch, H J; Puhl, W

    1998-02-01

    In order to avoid the potential risks of disease transmission in allograft surgery, numerous substitute materials have been described. As the biological response to implant materials is different, we undertook the following study to assess type and amount of bone ingrowth in CaP-ceramics. 105 cylindrical bone defects with a diameter of 5.4 mm were created surgically in the femoral condyles of 53 skeletal mature NZW rabbits. The defects were filled with crushed coralline hydroxyapatite (HA) implants (n = 21), synthetically produced hydroxyapatite (n = 21) and surface-modified alpha-Tricalciumphosphate (TCP) grains (n = 21). 21 defects were left empty and other drill holes were filled with rabbit cancellous bone cylinders (n = 21) after 3 months of cryopreservation at -78 degrees C without sterilization. Following observation periods of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 26 and 52 weeks the femoral condyles were harvested for histological evaluation and quantitative analysis of bone ingrowth. Woven bone formation at implant periphery can be observed in all substances as early as 2 weeks postoperatively. At 4-week-intervals cryopreserved allografts show new bone apposition on surfaces of necrotic trabeculae and graft-host junctions by a predominantly osteoblastic reaction at the periphery of all cylinders, while in HA- and TCP-grains early bone formation in the center of drill holes is detectable as well. There is a direct contact between HA-/TCP-particles and newly formed bone without fibrous tissue formation at the implant surfaces. Central new bone formation in rabbit allografts can be observed after 6 to 8 weeks together with a secondary osteoclastic resorption of necrotic transplant trabeculae. The result of this remodeling process is a complete degradation of transplant cylinders with reorganization of vital trabeculae oriented in a mature pattern after 12 to 26 weeks. In contrast the HA- and TCP-implants did not show any signs of resorption. PMID:9530667

  10. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  11. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  12. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). PMID:26769506

  13. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473).

  14. Animal Hairs as Water-stimulated Shape Memory Materials: Mechanism and Structural Networks in Molecular Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xueliang; Hu, Jinlian

    2016-05-01

    Animal hairs consisting of α-keratin biopolymers existing broadly in nature may be responsive to water for recovery to the innate shape from their fixed deformation, thus possess smart behavior, namely shape memory effect (SME). In this article, three typical animal hair fibers were first time investigated for their water-stimulated SME, and therefrom to identify the corresponding net-points and switches in their molecular and morphological structures. Experimentally, the SME manifested a good stability of high shape fixation ratio and reasonable recovery rate after many cycles of deformation programming under water stimulation. The effects of hydration on hair lateral size, recovery kinetics, dynamic mechanical behaviors and structural components (crystal, disulfide and hydrogen bonds) were then systematically studied. SME mechanisms were explored based on the variations of structural components in molecular assemblies of such smart fibers. A hybrid structural network model with single-switch and twin-net-points was thereafter proposed to interpret the water-stimulated shape memory mechanism of animal hairs. This original work is expected to provide inspiration for exploring other natural materials to reveal their smart functions and natural laws in animals including human as well as making more remarkable synthetic smart materials.

  15. Animal Hairs as Water-stimulated Shape Memory Materials: Mechanism and Structural Networks in Molecular Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xueliang; Hu, Jinlian

    2016-01-01

    Animal hairs consisting of α-keratin biopolymers existing broadly in nature may be responsive to water for recovery to the innate shape from their fixed deformation, thus possess smart behavior, namely shape memory effect (SME). In this article, three typical animal hair fibers were first time investigated for their water-stimulated SME, and therefrom to identify the corresponding net-points and switches in their molecular and morphological structures. Experimentally, the SME manifested a good stability of high shape fixation ratio and reasonable recovery rate after many cycles of deformation programming under water stimulation. The effects of hydration on hair lateral size, recovery kinetics, dynamic mechanical behaviors and structural components (crystal, disulfide and hydrogen bonds) were then systematically studied. SME mechanisms were explored based on the variations of structural components in molecular assemblies of such smart fibers. A hybrid structural network model with single-switch and twin-net-points was thereafter proposed to interpret the water-stimulated shape memory mechanism of animal hairs. This original work is expected to provide inspiration for exploring other natural materials to reveal their smart functions and natural laws in animals including human as well as making more remarkable synthetic smart materials. PMID:27230823

  16. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food...

  17. Histological and molecular evaluation of iron as degradable medical implant material in a murine animal model.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Peter P; Arnold, Sylvia; Badar, Muhammad; Bormann, Dirk; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Drynda, Andreas; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea; Hauser, Hansjörg; Peuster, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    A small animal model was established to evaluate the potential of iron as a degradable implant material. After insertion into the tail of mice, the implants gradually degraded over a clinically relevant time period of several months. Histological analysis and gene expression data from whole-genome microarray analyses indicated a limited inflammatory reaction. No evidence of cellular responses to excess iron ions was detected, suggesting that the iron degradation products were metabolically in...

  18. Effect of roofing materials on micro-climate in loose house for animals during rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bharti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To find out the influence of different types of roofing materials on micro-climate in animal loose housing system during rainy season. Materials and Methods: Different shade materials were used for covered area under each of three treatments. Thatch shading roof (T1 , Agro-net shading roof (T2 , Asbestos with canvas shading roof (T3 . Long axis of the paddock was east-to-west orientation. The covered area floor space was 1.5 ×1 m (excluding manger for each animal and open paddock was 2 × 1 m. Height of shed at eaves was 2 meter. Daily temperature (maximum and minimum and dry bulb and wet bulb temperature of macro and micro- environment under different treatments were recorded at 9:30 AM and 2:00 PM of Indian Standard Time (IST by using maximum and minimum thermometer and dry and wet bulb thermometer. Both inside and outside surface temperatures of shade materials were measured by infrared digital thermometer (ebro, TFI 220. The statistical procedures followed were two way ANOVA and Paired 'T' test. Results: During the experimental period, maximum temperature was recorded under asbestos and lowest temperature was in agro-net and maximum protection from high temperature was given during peak hot hours in agro-net than asbestos. THI was more (P<0.05 under asbestos than agro-net and thatch.The outside surface temperature at 9.30 AM and 2:00 PM (IST was significantly lower (P<0.05 in agro-net than thatch and asbestos. Conclusion: Thatch and agro-net were better in warding off the hot and humid environmental condition in comparison to asbestos. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 482-485

  19. A unique in vivo approach for investigating antimicrobial materials utilizing fistulated animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berean, Kyle J.; Adetutu, Eric M.; Zhen Ou, Jian; Nour, Majid; Nguyen, Emily P.; Paull, David; Mcleod, Jess; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Bansal, Vipul; Latham, Kay; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; McSweeney, Chris; Ball, Andrew S.; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Unique in vivo tests were conducted through the use of a fistulated ruminant, providing an ideal environment with a diverse and vibrant microbial community. Utilizing such a procedure can be especially invaluable for investigating the performance of antimicrobial materials related to human and animal related infections. In this pilot study, it is shown that the rumen of a fistulated animal provides an excellent live laboratory for assessing the properties of antimicrobial materials. We investigate microbial colonization onto model nanocomposites based on silver (Ag) nanoparticles at different concentrations into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). With implantable devices posing a major risk for hospital-acquired infections, the present study provides a viable solution to understand microbial colonization with the potential to reduce the incidence of infection through the introduction of Ag nanoparticles at the optimum concentrations. In vitro measurements were also conducted to show the validity of the approach. An optimal loading of 0.25 wt% Ag is found to show the greatest antimicrobial activity and observed through the in vivo tests to reduce the microbial diversity colonizing the surface. PMID:26098413

  20. A unique in vivo approach for investigating antimicrobial materials utilizing fistulated animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berean, Kyle J.; Adetutu, Eric M.; Zhen Ou, Jian; Nour, Majid; Nguyen, Emily P.; Paull, David; McLeod, Jess; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Bansal, Vipul; Latham, Kay; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; McSweeney, Chris; Ball, Andrew S.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2015-06-01

    Unique in vivo tests were conducted through the use of a fistulated ruminant, providing an ideal environment with a diverse and vibrant microbial community. Utilizing such a procedure can be especially invaluable for investigating the performance of antimicrobial materials related to human and animal related infections. In this pilot study, it is shown that the rumen of a fistulated animal provides an excellent live laboratory for assessing the properties of antimicrobial materials. We investigate microbial colonization onto model nanocomposites based on silver (Ag) nanoparticles at different concentrations into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). With implantable devices posing a major risk for hospital-acquired infections, the present study provides a viable solution to understand microbial colonization with the potential to reduce the incidence of infection through the introduction of Ag nanoparticles at the optimum concentrations. In vitro measurements were also conducted to show the validity of the approach. An optimal loading of 0.25 wt% Ag is found to show the greatest antimicrobial activity and observed through the in vivo tests to reduce the microbial diversity colonizing the surface.

  1. Animals in Latvian Folklore: Aspect of Myth and Magic (According to Latvian Folk-Songs and Materials of Contemporary Folklore)

    OpenAIRE

    Stauga, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    Jolanta Stauga Animals in Latvian Folklore: Aspects of Myth and Magic (According to Latvian Folk-Songs and Materials of Contemporary Folklore) Abstract of doctoral thesis The present doctoral thesis is the first comprehensive research on animals in Latvian folklore, their functions and semantics. The thesis approaches animals in the context of two folklore traditions – namely, classical folklore and contemporary folklore. This approach allows to juxtapose Latvian folks...

  2. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD...

  3. Material decomposition and virtual non-contrast imaging in photon counting computed tomography: an animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutjahr, R.; Polster, C.; Kappler, S.; Pietsch, H.; Jost, G.; Hahn, K.; Schöck, F.; Sedlmair, M.; Allmendinger, T.; Schmidt, B.; Krauss, B.; Flohr, T. G.

    2016-03-01

    The energy resolving capabilities of Photon Counting Detectors (PCD) in Computed Tomography (CT) facilitate energy-sensitive measurements. The provided image-information can be processed with Dual Energy and Multi Energy algorithms. A research PCD-CT firstly allows acquiring images with a close to clinical configuration of both the X-ray tube and the CT-detector. In this study, two algorithms (Material Decomposition and Virtual Non-Contrast-imaging (VNC)) are applied on a data set acquired from an anesthetized rabbit scanned using the PCD-CT system. Two contrast agents (CA) are applied: A gadolinium (Gd) based CA used to enhance contrasts for vascular imaging, and xenon (Xe) and air as a CA used to evaluate local ventilation of the animal's lung. Four different images are generated: a) A VNC image, suppressing any traces of the injected Gd imitating a native scan, b) a VNC image with a Gd-image as an overlay, where contrast enhancements in the vascular system are highlighted using colored labels, c) another VNC image with a Xe-image as an overlay, and d) a 3D rendered image of the animal's lung, filled with Xe, indicating local ventilation characteristics. All images are generated from two images based on energy bin information. It is shown that a modified version of a commercially available dual energy software framework is capable of providing images with diagnostic value obtained from the research PCD-CT system.

  4. Animating Instructional Materials in Computer Education: An Approach to Designing and Teaching Concepts in Data Structures Using LATEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Osikoya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Animation gives a different perception on what is being visually presented. Research has shown that students are likely to understand what is being taught from the combination of animation and text than just with text. Students easily understand scientific concepts in narrative and animated forms. Data structure is a way of storing and arranging data. The efficacy of searching these stored data is very important, so is it vital that they are stored with the right algorithm. This paper presents animations designed to support teaching in computer education. Our main focus is to present controlled animated instructional materials in teaching topics in data structures. We have created three scientifically animated instructional materials in data structures consisting of the Stacks, Queues and Trees. These scientific spheres have been chosen to demonstrate the basic ideas of this work, because of its simplicity in representing the animations. We hope to develop reasonable sets of instructional material of different subject areas that will be stored in a database repository. These are intended to be delivered to students through an e-learning website and/or Mobile phones to support them with additional learning opportunities.

  5. Role of cage material, working style and hearing sensitivity in perception of animal care noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voipio, H-M; Nevalainen, T; Halonen, P; Hakumäki, M; Björk, E

    2006-10-01

    During daily care, laboratory animals are exposed to a variety of sounds which may have effects on welfare and also cause physiological and behavioural changes. So far, almost no attention has been paid to individual sounds or the sound level caused by animal care or the sound level inside the animal cage. In this study, sounds from selected rat care procedures were recorded: pulling cage out of the rack, placing it onto a table and replacing the cage back into the rack; with measurements made inside the rat cage and in the adjacent cage. Diet was poured into the food hopper and sounds were recorded inside the cage and also the adjacent cage. The work was repeated in a calm and also in a hurried style, using stainless steel and polycarbonate cages. Finally, the sounds produced by running tap water were recorded. Differences between rat and human hearing were compared using novel species-specific sound level weightings: R-weighting for rats dB(R) and H-weighting for human dB(H). Hurried work with steel caused sound exposure levels exceeding 90 dB(R) when the cages were placed into the rack and about 80 dB(R) when pulling them out of the rack or placing onto a table. With polycarbonate, the levels were 10-15 dB(R) lower. Unhurried calm working produced lower sound exposure levels than hurried working in many procedures. When the procedures were repeated with measurements in the adjacent cage, the sound exposure levels were lower, but the results were similar. Pouring food pellets into a hopper above the rat's head caused 15 dB(R) higher sound exposure levels than pouring food to an adjacent cage. In general, humans hear these sounds about 10-15 dB louder than rats. In conclusion, cage material, working style and hearing sensitivity all have an impact on the sound exposure level in the rodent cage. With correct working methods, high sound levels can be efficiently avoided in most cases. PMID:17018211

  6. ARIES: an expert system supporting legislative tasks. Identifying animal materials using the Linnaeus II software

    OpenAIRE

    van Raamsdonk, Leo W.D.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad cow disease) is generally considered to be caused by recycling animal by-products as ingredient in animal, especially ruminant, feed. Feed bans were enforced to minimize the risk on infections, and monitoring programs are effectuated for controlling the ban. The only official detection method is visual (microscopic) examination of the presence of primarily bone fragments, but muscle fibres, hairs, feather filaments, and fish bones a...

  7. 9 CFR 94.15 - Animal products and materials; movement and handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED... Act (7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.). (d) Meat and other products of ruminants or swine from regions listed in... part are met. (e) Any meat or other animal products not otherwise eligible for entry into the...

  8. Assessment of the interaction of Portland cement-based materials with blood and tissue fluids using an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri Wismayer, P.; Lung, C. Y. K.; Rappa, F.; Cappello, F.; Camilleri, J.

    2016-01-01

    Portland cement used in the construction industry improves its properties when wet. Since most dental materials are used in a moist environment, Portland cement has been developed for use in dentistry. The first generation material is mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), used in surgical procedures, thus in contact with blood. The aim of this study was to compare the setting of MTA in vitro and in vivo in contact with blood by subcutaneous implantation in rats. The tissue reaction to the material was also investigated. ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) was implanted in the subcutaneous tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats in opposite flanks and left in situ for 3 months. Furthermore the material was also stored in physiological solution in vitro. At the end of the incubation time, tissue histology and material characterization were performed. Surface assessment showed the formation of calcium carbonate for both environments. The bismuth was evident in the tissues thus showing heavy element contamination of the animal specimen. The tissue histology showed a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate associated with the MTA. MTA interacts with the host tissues and causes a chronic inflammatory reaction when implanted subcutaneously. Hydration in vivo proceeds similarly to the in vitro model with some differences particularly in the bismuth oxide leaching patterns. PMID:27683067

  9. A New Laboratory Animal Bedding and Padding Material%新型实验动物垫料--蒲草垫料的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪岩; 岳秉飞

    2003-01-01

    Objective Small-scale laboratory Animal to rodents breeding used bedding and padding that rely mainly on wooden bedding and padding more, This needs to consume a large amount of timber , very unfavorable protecting the natural environment. Studies have shown , a lot of kinds of timber because contain the harmful to animal material without suitable for making bedding and padding. So the work of research and develop new-type animal used as test bedding and padding very meaningful.

  10. Gold concentrations in abiotic materials, plants, and animals: a synoptic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    Gold (Au) is ubiquitous in the environment and mined commercially at numerous locations worldwide. It is also an allergen that induces dermatitis in sensitive individuals. Gold concentrations were comparatively elevated in samples collected near gold mining and processing facilities, although no data were found for birds and non-human mammals. Maximum gold concentrations reported in abiotic materials were 0.001 ug/L in rainwater; 0.0015 ug/L in seawater near hydrothermal vents vs. rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving gold thiol drugs to reduce inflammation (chrysotherapy) vs. a normal range of 0.2-2.0 ug/L; and 60.0 to 233.0 mg/kg fresh weight (FW) in kidneys of rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing active chrysotherapy vs. <42.0 mg/kg FW kidney 140 months posttreatment.

  11. Optimization of the scan protocols for CT-based material extraction in small animal PET/CT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ching-Ching [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Tzu Chi College of Technology, 880, Sec 2, Chien-Kuo Rd., Hualien, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jhih-An [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Bang-Hung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tung-Hsin, E-mail: tung@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-11

    We investigated the effects of scan protocols on CT-based material extraction to minimize radiation dose while maintaining sufficient image information in small animal studies. The phantom simulation experiments were performed with the high dose (HD), medium dose (MD) and low dose (LD) protocols at 50, 70 and 80 kV{sub p} with varying mA s. The reconstructed CT images were segmented based on Hounsfield unit (HU)-physical density (ρ) calibration curves and the dual-energy CT-based (DECT) method. Compared to the (HU;ρ) method performed on CT images acquired with the 80 kV{sub p} HD protocol, a 2-fold improvement in segmentation accuracy and a 7.5-fold reduction in radiation dose were observed when the DECT method was performed on CT images acquired with the 50/80 kV{sub p} LD protocol, showing the possibility to reduce radiation dose while achieving high segmentation accuracy.

  12. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org . PMID:27083180

  13. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org.

  14. [Animal Reproduction and Breeding.] Student Materials. V.A. III. [II-A-1 through II-A-8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Part of a series of eight student learning modules in vocational agriculture, this booklet deals with animal reproduction and breeding. The topics covered are genetics, animal reproduction, breeding methods, artificial insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, and parturition care. Each section ends with a glossary and a quiz. (PLB)

  15. Review of Use of Animation as a Supplementary Learning Material of Physiology Content in Four Academic Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Isabel; Tam, Michael; Lam, Shun Leung; Lam, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic concepts are difficult to explain in traditional media such as still slides. Animations seem to offer the advantage of delivering better representations of these concepts. Compared with static images and text, animations can present procedural information (e.g. biochemical reaction steps, physiological activities) more explicitly as they…

  16. Education System Using Interactive 3D Computer Graphics (3D-CG) Animation and Scenario Language for Teaching Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Shindo, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    The 3D computer graphics (3D-CG) animation using a virtual actor's speaking is very effective as an educational medium. But it takes a long time to produce a 3D-CG animation. To reduce the cost of producing 3D-CG educational contents and improve the capability of the education system, we have developed a new education system using Virtual Actor.…

  17. Situations and Countermeasures on Veterinary drug residues and Detection to Animal Material Food of Entry-Exit Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; YU; Yanbin; QI; Yubao; YAN; Jianqiang; YE; Hua; WU; Diqin; CHEN; Yang; FEI

    2013-01-01

    With the people’s lives improving,the demands of livestock products on the import and export aspects were growing. Veterinary drug residues as the important factor which might influence animal products safety has become a major concern. In this paper,the status quo and inspection of the veterinary drug residue and the corresponding control measures were put forward.

  18. 医院中药房动物类药材的质量管理%Quality management of hospital pharmacy animal medicinal materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪姣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the quality control method of animal drugs in the hospital pharmacy.Method The existence of quality management research hospital pharmacy animal me-dicinal materials problems.Result Comprehensive management measures to establish a mature system of hospital pharmacy.Conclusion Strengthen quality management of pharmacy animal medi-cine hospitals should take various ef ective measures,loss and improve the quality of animal drugs to reduce the medicine,so as to improve the curative ef ects of the tcm.%目的:探讨医院中药房的动物类药材的质量管理方法。方法调查研究医院中药房动物类药材的质量管理存在的问题。结果医院中药房建立成熟的系统的综合管理措施。结论医院应该加强中药房动物类药材的质量管理,采取各种有效措施提高动物类药材的质量以减小药材的损耗,提高药材的疗效。

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL SECONDARY RAW MATERIAL MARKET AS A FACTOR OF DIVERSIFICATION OF KAZAKHSTAN’S EXPORT POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Konurbaeva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Products of the recycling of livestock should become the most important part of the Kazakhstani export potential. Using recycled materials in the finished production cycle would significantly diversify the export component of national agro-industrial sector of the Republic.The article proposes an approach to the placement of industries, processing secondary raw materials in order to obtain market product with high added value, which will result in implementing the existing potential of the agricultural sector of the state.

  20. Identification of Animal Derived Material in Vegetarian Foods%素食中动物源性成分的PCR检测方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩平; 顾文佳; 曲勤凤; 胡雪莲; 俞漪; 陈欣钦

    2011-01-01

    A specific and sensitive real-time PCR method of animal-derived material in vegetarian toods was developed. The method could determine whether animal- derived material was contained in vegetarian foods by detecting one gene site. The detection limits of the method were respectively 0.01%, 0.05%, and 0.1% as to livestock, poultry and fish. Twenty-two different types of vegetarian food products were tested by the method and two products were detected to contain animal-derived ingredients. The method was easy to operate and suitable for detection of animal-derived ingredients in vegetarian food.%建立了素食产品中动物源性成分的实时荧光PCR检测方法,该方法特异、灵敏,仅通过检测一个基因位点即可判断素食产品中是否含有动物源性成分,对来源于畜类、禽类及鱼类动物源性成分的检出限分别为0.01%,0.05%,0.1%。运用该方法对市场上22份不同类型的素食产品进行了检测,检出2份产品中含有动物源性成分。该方法操作方便快捷,适用于素食中动物源性成分的定性检测。

  1. Geography and Dynamics of the Industries Processing Raw Materials of Animal Origin in the Villages of Kharkiv Region during the NEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lapchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background research related to the lack of researches in the given topic historiography. Territorial boundaries cover a large region — Kharkiv region, which until 1925 largely coincide with the boundaries of Kharkov province. And in 1925, it was divided into several provinces — Kharkov, Sumy, Kupiansk, Izyumskogo, Romney. The chronological boundaries article dated from 1921–1929’s, during which was implemented new economic polityka.Osnovnu attention paid to the article features geographically-sectoral design small-scale production of animal products in the region in 20 years of the twentieth century. On the basis of the detected and studied complex of sources the author analyzes the source base peasant industries in Kharkiv in this period. Found total number of farmers who were engaged in crafts processing animal products. Also revealed the specific industry Kharkov peasantry during nepu. Isnuvav number of factors that pushed the peasant engage in crafts: surplus agricultural products and raw materials; meet a wide range of numerous industrial, domestic and cultural needs; urgent need to replenish the family budget; surplus labor; free time from agricultural work (especially in winter and others. The development of rural industries processing animal products in the years 1921–1929 in the Kharkiv region characterized by strength and diversity. Village artisans representing an original way of small private commodity production. Basically crafts processing animal products involved in two socio-professional groups: lone artisan and peasant host of crafts. The social basis of industrial employment accounted malozemelni without sowing without Traction economy, which crafts were an important source of household income. The attention is focused on characteristic features of the state policy on «small business » peasants. Attention is paid to co-operation and effects of these industries on the further development rozvytok. Kooperatyvna form

  2. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, or another method equivalent in accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to AOCS.... (6) Tallow derivative means any product obtained through initial hydrolysis, saponification, or trans-esterification of tallow; chemical conversion of material obtained by hydrolysis, saponification, or...

  3. The multi-residue determination of coumarin-based anticoagulant rodenticides in animal materials by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, D E; Machin, A F

    1982-01-15

    The rodenticides brodifacoum, difenacoum, coumatetralyl and warfarin are determined in animal relicta by high-performance exclusion chromatography on porous silica. The first three compounds are not separated, but are subsequently differentiated by adsorption or reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of the appropriate eluate fraction collected from the exclusion column. The method is rapid, and clean-up (on Sep-Pak silica cartridges) is simple. Mean recoveries from spiked substrates were generally above 80% at levels of 0.1-1.0 mg/kg. Routine limits of determination are about 0.05-0.1 mg/kg for warfarin and about 0.02 mg/kg for the other compounds. If analysis for warfarin is not required, the latter limit can be lowered to about 1 microgram/kg by a slight modification to the clean-up step. PMID:7056833

  4. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  5. Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Safari; Philip Rowe; Arjan Buis

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silico...

  6. Simultaneous determination of major type B trichothecenes and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in animal feed and raw materials using improved DSPE combined with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Rao, Qinxiong; Song, Suquan; Liu, Na; Han, Zheng; Hou, Jiafa; Wu, Aibo

    2014-07-15

    A simple and reliable method for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and major type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fusarenon X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol) in animal feed and raw materials has been developed and validated in this study. The method was based on an improved dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) followed by analysis using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Also, matrix-matched calibration curve (R(2)>0.99) was employed to minimize matrix effects and ensure accurate quantification. The recoveries during sample preparation process (including extraction and clean-up) ranged from 79.03% to 118.39%, with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 20% for all the analytes. The limit of quantification ranged from 5.0 μg/kg for deoxynivalenol to 13.6 μg/kg for fusarenon X. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of animal feed and corn. The pilot study showed that 37 out of 41 samples were contaminated with deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside at the levels of 6.0-121.0 μg/kg. Most of the type B trichothecenes were also found with the exception of fusarenon X, at the contaminated levels of 10.0-1,382 μg/kg. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first scientific report on the co-occurrence of masked deoxynivalenol and type B trichothecenes in animal feed and raw materials.

  7. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  8. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...

  9. Material Performance and Animal Clinical Studies on Performance-Optimized Hwangtoh Mixed Mortar and Concrete to Evaluate Their Mechanical Properties and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon-Min Koo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the amount of cement used in a concrete mix is minimized to reduce the toxic effects on users by adjusting the concrete mixture contents. The reduction of cement is achieved by using various admixtures (ground granulated blast-furnace slag, flyash, ordinary Portland cement, and activated Hwangtoh powder. To apply the mix to construction, material property tests such as compressive strength, slump, and pH are performed. Preliminary experimental results showed that the Hwangtoh concrete could be used as a healthy construction material. Also, the health issues and effects of Hwangtoh mortar are quantitatively evaluated through an animal clinical test. Mice are placed in Hwangtoh mortar and cement mortar cages to record their activity. For the test, five cages are made with Hwangtoh and ordinary Portland cement mortar floors, using Hwangtoh powder replacement ratios of 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of the normal cement mortar mixing ratio, and two cages are made with Hwangtoh mortar living quarters. The activity parameter measurements included weight, food intake, water intake, residential space selection, breeding activity, and aggression. The study results can be used to evaluate the benefits of using Hwangtoh as a cement replacing admixture for lifestyle, health and sustainability.

  10. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  11. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  12. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  13. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  14. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  15. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  16. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  17. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  18. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  19. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    -acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric...... reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement of subjectivity and materiality.The “Becoming Sheep” project produced a variety of visual...... practice.Continuing explorations of how to undo authorship, activate multiple subject positions and animate the very resources through which we practice and continuously become, for this conference artist Charlotte Grum has invited Connie Svabo, Associate Professor in Performance-Design at Roskilde...

  20. Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Safari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  1. Accuracy verification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for lower-limb prosthetic research: utilising animal soft tissue specimen and common socket casting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  2. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  3. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  4. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  5. 动物源性生物材料残留DNA的定量检测法%Quantification of Residues DNA in Animal-derived Biological Scaffold Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽明; 邵安良; 赵艳红

    2012-01-01

    动物源性生物材料的残留DNA定量检测是产品脱细胞处理过程是否彻底,以及免疫原性风险是否得到有效控制的重要产品技术指标之一.目前,国际上还没有针对这类材料的残留DNA检测方法.本研究设计了动物源性生物材料的残留DNA定量检测三步法,即固体生物材料的蛋白酶K消化,DNA纯化和荧光染色法DNA测定,在整个实验过程中增加了回收率实验,经过回收率曲线方程校正后得到最终检测结果.实验过程中的磁珠法DNA纯化步骤的优化设计保证了较好的回收率,同时满足了准确性和精密度.该实验方法经验证,其检测灵敏度达到6.25 ng/每份样品,回收率样品DNA含量在3.125~100 ng以及25~400 ng范围内线性良好,其回收率曲线R2>0.99.此方法保证了生物材料中微量或痕量DNA检测的科学性和可信性.%Quantification of residual DNA in animal-derived biological scaffold materials is one of technical specifications for evaluating decellularization process and immunotoxicity risk. Up to now, there have been no standard methods available for quantification of residues DNA in animal-derived biological scaffold materials. In this study, a three-step method, including proteinase K digestion, DNA purification and determination of DNA using fluorescence assay, was designed for residual DNA quantification. A parallel recovery experiment of standard DNA using the same protocol to test article determination was used for adjusting final results of residuul DNA amount. DNA purification based on magnetic beads enabled the experiments to get high accuracy and repeatability. The validation experiment showed that the three-step method had high sensitivity up to 6. 25ng of DNA per sample with good linearity (recover-y curve R2>0. 99) in the concentration range of 3. 125-100ng, and 25-400ng per sample. This method is useful for determining micro or trace amount DNA remained in the biomaterials.

  6. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind.......This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  7. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  8. THE USAGE OF ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE ORIGIN RAW MATERIALS COMBINATORICS IN MEAT PRODUCTS OF “HALAL” CATEGORY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan F. Gorlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated researches aimed to develop technologies and recipes for meat products of “Halal” category using seed fat and Milk Protein-Carbohydrate Concentrate (MPCC represent a new generation of scientific and practical interest. In this connection, the authors propose technologies and recipes for meat products of “Halal” category, designed on the basis of rational combinatorics of animal and vegetable origin raw materials, that let us to expand the range of halal meat products and to develop cost-effective technologies. The results of the research have provided expanding the range of functional meat products, including Halal products for muslims, that meet the quality standards of the finished product in the category «Halal». Practical feasibility of using a vegetable fats complex and Milk Protein-Carbohydrate Concentrate (MPCC «Lactobel-ED» in sausage production has been found. The levels of adding to the formula have been proved. Thermodenaturation of milk and whey proteins during thickening and drying of “Lactobel-ED” increases the availability of peptide chains and ionized amino acid residues. Solubility study showed that the concentrate is highly soluble in aqueous solutions, but this has a high dispersion degree, which increases the overall adsorption surface. Analysis of the results of structural and mechanical changes in the characteristics of minced model systems indicates a decline in YV of prototypes with sunflower oil on average 99.5 Pa.

  9. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  10. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  11. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Staczek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  12. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  13. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Proposal for Performance Research, in response to the call Turning Animal: As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a week......, for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site......-specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement...

  14. Workshop on molecular animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  15. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  16. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  17. [Biotechnology and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmettre, P

    1993-06-01

    The development of the first vaccines for use in animals, by Louis Pasteur at the end of the 19th Century, was an initial step in applying biotechnology to animal health. However, it is only much more recently that decisive progress has been made in finding applications for biotechnology, in both detecting and preventing infectious and parasitic diseases. This progress has shown the way to developing a range of procedures, the application of which will benefit the health of domestic and wild animals, enhance the well-being of companion animals, develop the performance of sporting animals and improve the productivity of farm animals, while also serving to protect human health. Such progress results from the increasingly rapid application of knowledge gained in the material and life sciences, all of which contribute to the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. Similarly, reagents and diagnostic techniques have been made more specific, sensitive, reproducible, rapid and robust by updating them through recent discoveries in immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology (monoclonal antibodies, nucleic probes, deoxyribonucleic acid amplification and many more). The development of new vaccines which combine efficacy, duration of protection, innocuity, stability, multivalence and ease of use (subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, synthetic vaccines and anti-idiotype vaccines) has resulted from recent progress in immunology, immunochemistry, molecular biology and biochemistry. Finally, the availability of new anti-infective, anti-parasitic agents and immunomodulatory therapeutic agents (capable of stimulating the specific and non-specific defence mechanisms of the body) demonstrates that biotechnology is continuing to find new applications in the field of animal health. New diagnostic techniques, vaccines and therapeutic substances are the most immediate applications of knowledge which may, in the future, extend to the development of transgenic animals of revised

  18. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  19. Animal performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  20. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  1. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adverse reaction, you should tell your doctor about: allergies to contrast materials, food, drugs, dyes, preservatives, or animals medications ... These include: previous adverse reactions to iodine-based contrast materials history of ... disease dehydration sickle cell anemia , polycythemia and ...

  2. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  3. Biotecnologia animal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  4. Development of PC-based Electronic Teaching and Learning Materials for De-scriptive Geometry (Attempt to Make the Most Use of Animation Creator Flash® and 3D-CAD SolidWorks®)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-jing; Soichiroh INOUE; Tohru KANADA

    2013-01-01

    Descriptive geometry is very important and recognized as a basic skill and knowledge for mechanical engineering student. In this study, PC-based electronic teaching/learning materials for descriptive geometry are created using Flash®, which is a typical animation creator. Furthermore, several axonometric representations, created by 3D-CAD, SolidWorks®, for 3D objects are auxiliary materials to promote understanding of descriptive geometry. The axonometric representations in 3D-CAD are also dynamic, in other words, a viewpoint can be moved free. The movement of 3D model in a PC monitor can be recorded using a normal function of SolidWorks and replayed by typical animation software. The developed materials are excellent at accuracy of drawing, repeatability of self-study and visual attraction in comparison to oral presentation using still image and inaccurate drawing on a textbook or blackboard in a classroom. Actually, questionnaire survey results present favorable impressions from student-users, although they point out the further improvement in the replaying speed. The replaying speed can be controlled easily by using a normal function of Flash®. In addition, usual playback software for animation has functions of pause and replay on demand and, thus, it is not contro-versial.

  5. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  6. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses the...

  7. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  8. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  9. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  10. The Research and Practice of the Construction of the Teaching Material of the Animation Specialty in the University-- Interpretation of the Teaching Material of "Cartoon Character Design"%高等学校动画专业基础课程教材建设的研究与实践--解读《动画人物造型设计》教材

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玥

    2015-01-01

    本文通过对动画专业基础课程教材《动画人物造型设计》分析,提出了注重教材的专业性,强调对动画基础理论阐释,将理论讲解与实际制作紧密结合,同时注重对学生创造性思维培养的教材建设研究理论。%In this paper, through analysis of animation professional course materials based on the animation character modelling design, proposed focused on teaching professional, emphasizing on the interpretation of the basic theory of the animation, the theory explanation and practice closely, at the same time pay attention to the cultivation of students' creative thinking teaching material construction study theory.

  11. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  12. Seamless Merging of Hypertext and Algorithm Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavirta, Ville

    2009-01-01

    Online learning material that students use by themselves is one of the typical usages of algorithm animation (AA). Thus, the integration of algorithm animations into hypertext is seen as an important topic today to promote the usage of algorithm animation in teaching. This article presents an algorithm animation viewer implemented purely using…

  13. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  14. Effect of surrounding materials on iterative reconstruction-based line-source response function, and annihilations outside the source assessed by a small animal PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the effect of surrounding materials on the iterative reconstruction-based line-source response function (IR-RF) of 18F, 11C, 13N, and 15O using a preclinical PET system, and (2) to determine whether and how annihilation outside the source can be visualized experimentally. We performed all the measurements using the LabPET-8 PET/CT subsystem built-in the Triumph II platform (TriFoil Imaging, Inc., Northridge, CA, USA). IR-RF was measured for 18F, 11C, 13N, and 15O, and was expressed as full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) using a glass capillary phantom mounted in materials of various densities, which were chosen to cover the wide range of real tissues. To determine whether and how annihilation outside the source can be visualized, we designed a concentric ring paper phantom, which consisted of a source at the center with 4 ring-like paper layers. When the radionuclides were placed in air (material density 0 g/cm3), IR-RFs were similar among the radionuclides tested. As the surrounding material density increased, IR-RFs for higher energy-emitting radionuclides (11C, 13N, and 15O) became worse, whereas those of 18F remained relatively constant over the range of surrounding material densities (0-2.17 g/cm3). Both FWHM and FWTM values were closely correlated with mean energy of radionuclides at middle to high material densities (material density 0.94-2.17 g/cm3). The FWTM/FWHM ratio of high energy-emitting radionuclides such as 15O increased as a function of material density, which was followed by subsequent decrease at high material densities (1.2-2.17 g/cm3). Using a concentric ring paper phantom, annihilations outside the source were visible and measurable. The innermost layer was visible with all radionuclides, whereas the outer layers only with high energy positron emitters. The results indicate that surrounding material affects IR-RF particularly for high energy positron emitters

  15. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  16. Plant-availability to barley of phosphorus in ash from thermally treated animal manure in comparison to other manure based materials and commercial fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Rubæk, Gitte Holton;

    2010-01-01

     kg P ha-1 in both soils had no significant effect on barley DM yield and P uptake. The overall efficiency for liquid fertilizers was much higher than for solid ones and relative effectiveness (RE) of ExL was comparable to RE of DSP. Despite the low P level in soils, the ryegrass crop grew very well......Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient and a limited resource, yet excess P is applied to agricultural land and can cause environmental problems in areas with intensive animal farming. In this study, the fertilizing effects of P in several animal manure-based products (including thermal treatment......), thermally gasified SS (GAs), thermally gasified poultry manure (GAp), crushed triple super phosphate (TSP) and disodium phosphate (DSP) was used as reference P fertilizer. For application of 20 kg P ha-1 mineral P fertilizer replacement value (RV) in the second year in the sandy soil was 76% and 99% for GA...

  17. Potential of Glutathione Antioxidant in the Hippocampus Repair: Preliminary Study on Bioactive Materials Antiaging of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata in Animal Models of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Snakehead fish meat contains active ingredients with anti-aging potential that serves as a precursor of glutathione. The ability of glutathione as an antiaging opportunities in the utilization of fish meat, especially snakehead fish. Snakehead fish meat contains several important amino acids, such as glutamine, cysteine​​, and glycine so the potential to be developed for the production of food that is nutritious and healthy. This study examines the essential amino acid composition of the antioxidant glutathione precursors found in snakehead fish from Rawa Pening Central Java to increase glutathione in the body and brain. The results showed that every 100g of snakehead fish meat from Rawa Pening containing glutamine (32.39%, cysteine ​​(6.61%, and glycine (9.69%. Snakehead fish meat extract given at a dose of 30 ml/kg/day in both types of animal models of aging effect on the increase in the content of glutathione and glutathione precursors, both in blood and hippocampus. Increased glutathione precursor of the most high to low, respectively glutamine, glycine, and cysteine​​. Availability of essential amino acids can support increased glutathione in the brain. This is indicated by an increase in glutathione hippocampus in both animal models, both on chronological aging or aging due to oxidative stress, respectively (0.822 and 0.359 mol/g bb compared to control tissue.

  18. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  19. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  20. Evaluation of the effect of 4 types of knots on the mechanical properties of 4 types of suture material used in small animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoine, Xytilis; Lussier, Bertrand; Brailovski, Vladimir; Inaekyan, Karine; Beauchamp, Guy

    2016-04-01

    The influence of the type of material used, knot configuration, and use of an additional throw on the tensile force at failure, the elongation, and the mode of failure of different configurations of linear sutures and knotted suture loops was evaluated in this in-vitro mechanical study. We hypothesized that all types of knots would significantly influence the initial force and elongation of suture materials and would influence the force and elongation at which the knotted loops break, but not their mode of failure. A total of 432 samples of 4 types of size 3-0 suture material (polydioxanone, polyglecaprone 25, polyglactin 910, and nylon), representing 9 configurations, were tested in a tensiometer. The configurations were 1 linear suture without a knot and the following loops: square (SQ) knot; surgeon's (SU) knot; granny (GR) knot; and sliding half-hitch (SHH) knot using either 4 and 5 or 3 and 4 throws, depending on the material. For polydioxanone, SQ and SU knots did not decrease the initial force at failure of the suture. Granny (GR) and SHH knots decreased the tensile force at failure and elongation by premature failure of the loop. For polyglecaprone 25, all knots decreased the initial force at failure of the suture, with SHH being weaker than the other knots. For coated polyglactin 910, all knots decreased the initial force at failure of the suture and slippage increased significantly compared with the other 3 sutures. The use of SQ knots with 3 throws did not result in a safe knot. For nylon, knots did not alter the original mechanics of the suture. In conclusion, all knots and types of suture material do not necessarily have the same effect on the initial tensile force at failure of suture materials.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of 4 types of knots on the mechanical properties of 4 types of suture material used in small animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoine, Xytilis; Lussier, Bertrand; Brailovski, Vladimir; Inaekyan, Karine; Beauchamp, Guy

    2016-04-01

    The influence of the type of material used, knot configuration, and use of an additional throw on the tensile force at failure, the elongation, and the mode of failure of different configurations of linear sutures and knotted suture loops was evaluated in this in-vitro mechanical study. We hypothesized that all types of knots would significantly influence the initial force and elongation of suture materials and would influence the force and elongation at which the knotted loops break, but not their mode of failure. A total of 432 samples of 4 types of size 3-0 suture material (polydioxanone, polyglecaprone 25, polyglactin 910, and nylon), representing 9 configurations, were tested in a tensiometer. The configurations were 1 linear suture without a knot and the following loops: square (SQ) knot; surgeon's (SU) knot; granny (GR) knot; and sliding half-hitch (SHH) knot using either 4 and 5 or 3 and 4 throws, depending on the material. For polydioxanone, SQ and SU knots did not decrease the initial force at failure of the suture. Granny (GR) and SHH knots decreased the tensile force at failure and elongation by premature failure of the loop. For polyglecaprone 25, all knots decreased the initial force at failure of the suture, with SHH being weaker than the other knots. For coated polyglactin 910, all knots decreased the initial force at failure of the suture and slippage increased significantly compared with the other 3 sutures. The use of SQ knots with 3 throws did not result in a safe knot. For nylon, knots did not alter the original mechanics of the suture. In conclusion, all knots and types of suture material do not necessarily have the same effect on the initial tensile force at failure of suture materials. PMID:27127344

  2. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prohibition of dumping dredged and domestic sewage sludge (DSS) materials in streams and oceans, diminishing land fill space, skyrocketing landfill costs, and concerns over air pollution from incineration of wastes have contributed to a strong public interest in finding alternative, environmenta...

  3. Design principles of interactive animated models for electronic learning tools

    OpenAIRE

    Дайняк, И. В.; Баев, В. С.; Карпович, С. Е.

    2013-01-01

    The design principles of interactive animated models for multimedia representation of educational materials were described. The interface of animated model was presented; it consists of header, border, scene, text message area, animation control panel, list of episodes. The animation effects for the applying to animated objects were developed, and templates of animated models were presented.

  4. Using Rose’s metal alloy as a pinhole collimator material in preclinical small-animal imaging: A Monte Carlo evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mikael, E-mail: Mikael.Peterson@med.lu.se; Strand, Sven-Erik; Ljungberg, Michael [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Science, Lund University, Lund 221 85 (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Pinhole collimation is the most common method of high-resolution preclinical single photon emission computed tomography imaging. The collimators are usually constructed from dense materials with high atomic numbers, such as gold and platinum, which are expensive and not always flexible in the fabrication step. In this work, the authors have investigated the properties of a fusible alloy called Rose’s metal and its potential in pinhole preclinical imaging. When compared to current standard pinhole materials such as gold and platinum, Rose’s metal has a lower density and a relatively low effective atomic number. However, it is inexpensive, has a low melting point, and does not contract when solidifying. Once cast, the piece can be machined with high precision. The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging properties for Rose’s metal and compare them with those of standard materials. Methods: After validating their Monte Carlo code by comparing its results with published data and the results from analytical calculations, they investigated different pinhole geometries by varying the collimator material, acceptance angle, aperture diameter, and photon incident angle. The penetration-to-scatter and penetration-to-total component ratios, sensitivity, and the spatial resolution were determined for gold, tungsten, and Rose’s metal for two radionuclides, {sup 99}Tc{sup m} and {sup 125}I. Results: The Rose’s metal pinhole-imaging simulations show higher penetration/total and scatter/total ratios. For example, the penetration/total is 50% for gold and 75% for Rose’s metal when simulating {sup 99}Tc{sup m} with a 0.3 mm aperture diameter and a 60° acceptance angle. However, the degradation in spatial resolution remained below 10% relative to the spatial resolution for gold for acceptance angles below 40° and aperture diameters larger than 0.5 mm. Conclusions: Extra penetration and scatter associated with Rose’s metal contribute to degradation in the

  5. Animal Intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  6. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  7. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  8. Animated nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  9. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  10. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  11. 21 CFR 211.173 - Laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory animals. 211.173 Section 211.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory animals. Animals used in testing components, in-process materials, or drug products for...

  12. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  13. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  17. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  18. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  19. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  20. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M.; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  1. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  2. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  3. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  7. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichm...

  8. Optimization of parameters for cerium(III) biosorption onto biowaste materials of animal and plant origin using 5-level Box-Behnken design:Equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic and regeneration studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaya Sre Varsihini C; Devlina Das; Nilanjana Das

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) employing 5-level Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the biosorption of ce-rium(III) onto biowaste materials of animal and plant origin viz. prawn carapace (PC) and corn style (CS). Various process parame-ters viz. pH (A:3.0-9.0), biomass dosage (B:0.05-0.35 g/L), initial metal concentration (C:50-350 mg/L), contact time (D:2-6 h) and temperature (E:20-60 °C) were chosen for optimization. A log transformation was suggested by the Box-Cox plot in the present case. A low p-value of<0.0001 validated the significance of the model. Maximum Ce(III) uptake of 218.3 mg/g for PC and 180.2 mg/g for CS was noted under optimum conditions. Among the equilibrium isotherms, Freundlich model was found to be the best fit-ted one suggesting a heterogeneous mode of biosorption on PC whereas Langmuir model showed the best fit suggesting homogene-ous mode of cerium biosorption on CS. This was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Kinetic studies showed better applicability of pseudo-first order model suggesting physisorption as phenomena underlying the process. Film-diffusion was suggested by the non-linearity of the Boyd plot. Thermodynamic studies showed that the process was endothermic and spontaneous. FTIR analysis confirmed a major involvement of the participation of amide, amines, ketones and primary alcohol groups during Ce(III) biosorption. EDAX analysis confirmed the major participation of carbon group during Ce(III) biosorption. This was the first report on parameter optimization of Ce(III) biosorption onto biowaste materials using 5-level Box-Behnken experimental design which might be helpful for the recovery of Ce(III) from aqueous environment.

  9. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  10. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  11. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  12. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Sun

    2015-01-01

    In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified ani...

  13. Building for animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to limit the radiation dose to persons working with animal husbandry in severe fallout situations, it was considered necessary to make an inventory of the Swedish livestock buildings as to number, location, use and size. These data as well as data on geometry of buildings, building material and thickness of the material in walls and roofs are given in the present work. On the basis of the mentioned data, calculations were made of the shielding factors of different types of livestock buildings. The collected data can also be used in preparedness planning in relation to housing facilities for livestock and location and size of animal production in situations of crises or war. The calculations show shielding factors for different types of livestock buildings of normal ground area within the range of 0.18-0.71. The higher value indicates a fairly poor shielding effect. The inventory and the calculations show that in those regions in Sweden where the main part of the livestock is managed, the types of buildings are, however, characterized by radiation shielding factors of 0.3-0.4. Calculation were also made of the radiation level inside the buildings following decontamination of roofs or of surrounding ground. Ground decontamination only, i.e., removal of the upper contaminated surface layer, will reduce the radiation level inside the building. For most buildings the radius of the surrounding area to be decontaminated has to be 15-30 times larger than the width of the building in order to achieve a 50 percentage reduction of the radiation level inside the building. For buildings of medium or large size and with thick walls the radiation contribution from the roof is greater than the radiation from the ground, and regardless of the size of the ground areas decontaminated the radiation level inside these buildings will only be reduced by 20-30%. 15 refs, 11 figs, 14 tabs

  14. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  15. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  17. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  18. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment. PMID:25541541

  19. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  20. 48 CFR 1523.303-72 - Care of laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Care of laboratory animals... Material and Material Safety Data 1523.303-72 Care of laboratory animals. Contracting officers shall insert the clause at 1552.223-72, Care of Laboratory Animals, in all contracts involving the use...

  1. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  2. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  3. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  4. Exotic Animals in Eighteenth-Century Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, Christopher Jonathan Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Exotic animals are conspicuously absent in economic histories and discussions of material culture in eighteenth-century Britain, even though they were highly sought-after luxury goods. As a response, this cultural history is a step towards a fuller understanding of the broad yet related meanings that a range of exotic animals held in Georgian Britain. A study is structured around four themes of meaning. The significance of exotic animals is explored, in turn, through their function as commodi...

  5. Mechanisms of temporary adhesion in benthic animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.; Winter, J.C.F.; Dankelman, J.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Adhesive systems are ubiquitous in benthic animals and play a key role in diverse functions such as locomotion, food capture, mating, burrow building, and defence. For benthic animals that release adhesives, surface and material properties and external morphology have received little attention compa

  6. Allometry of animal-microbe interactions and global census of animal-associated microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Thomas L; Simmons, Karen A

    2015-07-01

    Animals live in close association with microorganisms, mostly prokaryotes, living in or on them as commensals, mutualists or parasites, and profoundly affecting host fitness. Most animal-microbe studies focus on microbial community structure; for this project, allometry (scaling of animal attributes with animal size) was applied to animal-microbe relationships across a range of species spanning 12 orders of magnitude in animal mass, from nematodes to whales. Microbial abundances per individual animal were gleaned from published literature and also microscopically counted in three species. Abundance of prokaryotes/individual versus animal mass scales as a nearly linear power function (exponent = 1.07, R(2) = 0.94). Combining this power function with allometry of animal abundance indicates that macrofauna have an outsized share of animal-associated microorganisms. The total number of animal-associated prokaryotes in Earth's land animals was calculated to be 1.3-1.4 × 10(25) cells and the total of marine animal-associated microbes was calculated to be 8.6-9.0 × 10(24) cells. Animal-associated microbes thus total 2.1-2.3 × 10(25) of the approximately 10(30) prokaryotes on the Earth. Microbes associated with humans comprise 3.3-3.5% of Earth's animal-associated microbes, and domestic animals harbour 14-20% of all animal-associated microbes, adding a new dimension to the scale of human impact on the biosphere. This novel allometric power function may reflect underlying mechanisms involving the transfer of energy and materials between microorganisms and their animal hosts. Microbial diversity indices of animal gut communities and gut microbial species richness for 60 mammals did not indicate significant scaling relationships with animal body mass; however, further research in this area is warranted. PMID:26108631

  7. Biosynthesis of Plant and Animal Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, C. Patrick

    1984-01-01

    Presents a biochemical overview of the synthesis of food biopolymers that constitute macronutrients in the plant or animal cell. Emphasizes involvement of enzymes in steps characterized by accumulation of materials, activation, polymerization, postpolymerization conversion, and formation of structural components. (JN)

  8. Animal Exposure During Burn Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    An animal exposure test system (AETS) was designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The AETS consisted of an open wire mesh, two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, and the other containing one rat instrumented externally for electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration. Cage temperature is measured by a thermistor located in the upper portion of the rat compartment. Animal activity is monitored by the ECG and the records indicate an increase in EMG (electromyograph) noise super-imposed by the increased activity of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are presented and discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire gases and specific events occurring during the test. The AETS was shown to be a useful tool in screening materials for the relative toxicity of their outgassing products during pyrolysis and combustion.

  9. 肉及肉制品中动物源性成分核酸检测方法研究进展%Research Progress in Nucleic Acid Test for Animal-derived Material in Meat and Meat Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石盼盼; 李旭; 吴昊; 陈蕾

    2016-01-01

    民以食为天,食以安为先。肉类为人类的生命活动提供了丰富的蛋白质、脂肪和B族维生素等,是人们生活的重要食品。但在利益的驱动下肉制品行业内掺假事件时有发生,严重侵害了消费者权益,并造成了不良的经济和社会影响。因此加强研究肉类产品动物源性成分的检测技术,广泛开展肉及肉制品中动物源性成分的检验意义重大。本文综合论述了目前已有的肉及肉制品中动物源性成分的核酸检测技术,并对有应用前景的新技术做了简要介绍。%Food is the first thing for people and safety is the first thing for food. Meat is of great importance in people's life,which provide rich protein,fat and vitamin B for people's life. Earnings driven, food adulteration often occurs in the meat industry,which seriously undermined interests of consumers and the adverse impact for social and economic loss is very serious. So it is of great significance to carry on tests and studies about meat and meat products. This article analysed the nucleic acid inspection technique about animal-derived material in meat and meat product deeply and gave a brief introduction to some new technique which is showing extensive prospect.

  10. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  11. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO

    2011-01-01

    The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted...

  12. Animals in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  14. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  15. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the transmission of serious illnesses. Read more » Morris Animal Foundation Receives $750,000 Grant for Cancer Studies. ... Give Partners Become a Partner Meet Our Partners Animal Lovers Our Work Ways to Give Pet Health ...

  16. Generic Face Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Renato; Hitschfeld-Kahler, Nancy; Terissi, Lucas; Gomez, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience In computer vision, the animation of objects has attracted a lot attention, specially the animations of 3D face models. The animation of face models requires in general to manually adapt each generic movement (open/close mouth) to each specific head geometry. In this work we propose a technique for the animation of any face model avoiding most of the manual intervention. In order to achieve this we assume that: (1) faces, despite obvious differences are quite similar...

  17. Biopolitics: Animals, meat, food

    OpenAIRE

    Janović Nikola

    2009-01-01

    The general idea of this text is to reflect biopolitical constitution of the society and its implications related to the issues of animal welfare. Since animal in biopolitical formation is technically reduced to an object - commodity for contentment of the industry and of the people needs - critical public advisories are calling from moral, ethical and legal standpoint for attention to the fact that is necessary to protect animals from the unnecessary exploitation. It is obvious that animal p...

  18. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Popa V.I.; Lascar I.; Valcu M.; Sebe Ioana Teona; Caraban B.; Margina Arina Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  19. Animal Models for imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Barbara Y.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models can be used in the study of disease. This chapter discusses imaging animal models to elucidate the process of human disease. The mouse is used as the primary model. Though this choice simplifies many research choices, it necessitates compromises for in vivo imaging. In the future, we can expect improvements in both animal models and imaging techniques.

  20. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  1. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  2. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  3. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  4. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  5. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  6. Are ticks venomous animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; James J Valdés

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many...

  7. The representative animal

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  8. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  9. Animal Violence Demystified

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (char...

  10. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Shimamura; Nobuo Kubota; Kazutoshi Shibuya

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the presen...

  11. Thinking with animals

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    they also enlist them to symbolize, dramatize, and illuminate aspects of humans' experience and fantasy. Humans merge with animals in stories, films, philosophical speculations, and scientific treatises. In their performance on many stages and in different ways, animals move us to think." "Essays in the book investigate the changing patterns of anthropomorphism across different time periods and settings, as well as their transformative effects, both figuratively and literally, upon animals, h...

  12. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  13. Political Communication with Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, E

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka present in Zoopolis (2011). I will argue their political theory is an important step forward in the debate about animal rights, because it proposes to see animals as po...

  14. 'Snow Queen' Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation consists of two close-up images of 'Snow Queen,' taken several days apart, by the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Snow Queen is the informal name for a patch of bright-toned material underneath the lander. Thruster exhaust blew away surface soil covering Snow Queen when Phoenix landed on May 25, 2008, exposing this hard layer comprising several smooth rounded cavities beneath the lander. The RAC images show how Snow Queen visibly changed between June 15, 2008, the 21st Martian day, or sol, of the mission and July 9, 2008, the 44th sol. Cracks as long as 10 centimeters (about four inches) appeared. One such crack is visible at the left third and the upper third of the Sol 44 image. A seven millimeter (one-third inch) pebble or clod appears just above and slightly to the right of the crack in the Sol 44 image. Cracks also appear in the lower part of the left third of the image. Other pieces noticeably shift, and some smooth texture has subtly roughened. The Phoenix team carefully positioned and focused RAC the same way in both images. Each image is about 60 centimeters, or about two feet, wide. The object protruding in from the top on the right half of the images is Phoenix's thermal and electrical conductivity probe. Snow Queen and other ice exposed by Phoenix landing and trenching operations on northern polar Mars is the first time scientists have been able to monitor Martian ice at a place where temperatures are cold enough that the ice doesn't immediately sublimate, or vaporize, away. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) ... FEAR Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  18. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  19. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  20. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  1. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  2. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  3. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  4. Ode to an Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelken, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    People know little about the non-domesticated animals that live around them. Somehow, they seem remote. In stories they hear about them, animals are often acting, speaking, and dressing like people. This article presents a lesson where students learn about the native species of their area while exploring the concept of interdependence through…

  5. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  6. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  7. Interaction between animal personality and animal cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio CARERE, Charles LOCURTO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of animal personality has attracted considerable attention, as it has revealed a number of similarities in personality between humans and several nonhuman species. At the same time the adaptive value and evolutionary maintenance of different personalities are the subject of debate. Since Pavlov’s work on dogs, students of comparative cognition have been aware that animals display vast individual differences on cognitive tasks, and that these differences may not be entirely accounted for differences in cognitive abilities. Here, we argue that personality is an important source of variation that may affect cognitive performance and we hypothesise mutual influences between personality and cognition across an individual’s lifespan. In particular, we suggest that: 1 personality profiles may be markers of different cognitive styles; 2 success or failure in cognitive tasks could affect different personalities differently; 3 ontogenetic changes of personality profiles could be reflected in changes in cognitive performance. The study of such interplay has implications in animal welfare as well as in neuroscience and in translational medicine [Current Zoology 57 (4: 491–498, 2011].

  8. Cupper in animal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Huerta Bravo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cupper is an essential element for plants, animals and humans. Under certain circumstances, cupper excessive consumption could result in animal and human intoxication. In order to ensure safe and innocuous and safe foods for Mexicans, government create legislation as Norma Oficial Mexicana to establish the maximum levels of residues, particularly cupper in liver, kidney and muscle of human consumption animals. Liver in Mexico ruminant animals regularly contain 60 mg Cu/kg, which is the legal limit for this metal. This demands a review of the actual legislation. The strict application of this Norma will limit the commercialization of these viscera, since approximately 50% will exceed the legal limit for cupper. A potential hazard for human health, especially young people, is found in the constant ovine liver consumption feed with animal excretes with higher amount of supplementary cupper.

  9. Animal Health in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal health service policy in Albania represents an integral component of overall governmental, social and economic policy in the field of agricultural and rural development, public health, food processing and import/export of animal products. In order to obtain the necessary political, economic and public support, the animal health service attempts to contribute effectively to the overall development of the country which aims at improving the standards of living of its inhabitants. Practical means of contributing to national development include reducing food loses due to animal morbidity and mortality, increasing the productivity of the livestock population, protecting human health against zoonotic diseases and ensuring humane treatment of animals. An animal health strategy contributes to the creation of conditions necessary for uninterrupted animal disease surveillance and control in the country. The main animal health problem in Albania is brucellosis in ruminants, caused by B. melitensis. This infection currently affects the entire country, reaching a prevalence of 10% in several districts. The latest and most severe outbreaks of classical swine fever were identified on 1996 when 5 515 animals were infected and 3 683 animals died. The circulation of bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected for the first time in Albania in 2002 with a seroprevalence of 15%. The evidence of BTV circulation in Albania and the absence of the main vector C. imicola suggest that other Culicoides species could be implicated in virus transmission. H5N1 avian influenza in Albania was confirmed in March 2006 in backyard flocks in the villages of Cuke and Peze-Helmes. In both villages there were no human cases. Rabies was of concern in Albania from 1928 until 1976. The disease re-emerged in March 2001 in the village of Morine in Kukes district affecting a domestic dog and three persons were bitten. Other cases have been reported in northern Albania. (author)

  10. Kinect driven facial animation

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda Noda, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Kinect es un dispositivo que se presenta en el ámbito de la industria de la animación como una alternativa económica. Haciendo uso de él, este proyecto desarrolla una aplicación de animación facial que aplique las expresiones faciales del usuario a un modelo 3D. Nowadays, facial animation is a core part of the character animation industry. From movies to video games, facial animation is done by most companies with the help of expensive equipment that capture real people's facial expression...

  11. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  12. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  13. Women Protecting Endangered Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ON the Yongding River, 40 kilometers south of Beijing lies the Beijing Center for Breeding Endangered Animals.Built more than 10 years ago it is the only rare and endangered animal base in China, incorporating such functions as Scientific research, raising, breeding and medical treatment. There are more than 30 national and international rare species, with a total of more than 1,000 animals. Among them, the snub-nosed golden monkey, Chinese monal pheasant and eared pheasant account for the largest number of man-bred species in the world.

  14. Standing for Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    1999-01-01

    From the legal point of view, there is nothing at all new or unfamiliar in the idea of "animal rights;" on the contrary, it is entirely clear that animals have legal rights. Indeed, the rise of legal rights for animals has been one of the most distinctive features of the last thirty years of federal statutory law. An investigation of the question of standing helps show that the real issues involve problems of enforcement and scope. Human beings often do and should have standing to protect ani...

  15. Precision animal breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, A.P.F.; WOOLLIAMS, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predi...

  16. Animals eponyms in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of Dermatology is flooded with inflexions among clinical conditions and signs and syndromes; making it interesting, but a tougher subject to remember. Signs and syndromes have always fascinated residents, but simultaneously burdened their minds, as these attractive names are difficult to remember. This work was undertaken to review dermatological conditions and signs based on commonly encountered daily words and objects like animals, etc. Fifty dermatological conditions were found to be based on animal eponyms. For example, the usage of animal terminology in dermatology like leonine facies is present in leprosy, sarcoidosis, mycosis fungoides (MF, and airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD.

  17. Trimethylamine emissions in animal husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of plant material by animals is an important transformation pathway in the nitrogen (N cycle. During the involved processes, volatile reduced alkaline nitrogen compounds, mainly ammonia (NH3 and aliphatic amines such as trimethylamine (TMA, are formed. Today, animal husbandry is estimated to constitute a main source of aliphatic amines into the atmosphere with TMA being the main emitted compound. Here, we show how the interaction between faeces and urine in animal production systems provides the primary source for agricultural TMA emissions. Excreted urine contains large quantities of urea and TMA-N-oxide, which are transformed into NH3 and TMA, respectively, via enzymatic processes provided by microbes present in faeces. TMA emissions from areas polluted with urine-faeces mixture are on average in the order of 10 to 50 nmol m−2s−1. Released amines promote secondary aerosol particle formation in the agricultural emission plume. The atmospheric lifetime of TMA, which was estimated to be in the order of 30 to 1000 s, is determined by the condensation on aerosol particles.

  18. Trimethylamine emissions in animal husbandry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintermann, J.; Schallhart, S.; Kajos, M.; Jocher, M.; Bracher, A.; Münger, A.; Johnson, D.; Neftel, A.; Ruuskanen, T.

    2014-09-01

    Degradation of plant material by animals is an important transformation pathway in the nitrogen (N) cycle. During the involved processes, volatile reduced alkaline nitrogen compounds, mainly ammonia (NH3) and aliphatic amines such as trimethylamine (TMA), are formed. Today, animal husbandry is estimated to constitute a main source of aliphatic amines in the atmosphere with TMA being the main emitted compound. Here, we show how the interaction between faeces and urine in animal production systems provides the primary source for agricultural TMA emissions. Excreted urine contains large quantities of urea and TMA-N-oxide, which are transformed into NH3 and TMA, respectively, via enzymatic processes provided by microbes present in faeces. TMA emissions from areas polluted with urine-faeces mixtures are on average of the order of 10 to 50 nmol m-2s-1. Released amines promote secondary aerosol particle formation in the agricultural emission plume. The atmospheric lifetime of TMA, which was estimated to be of the order of 30 to 1000 s, is determined by the condensation onto aerosol particles.

  19. Animal transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research.

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  1. Retrospectives: Animal Spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Koppl

    1991-01-01

    John Maynard Keynes argued that when the conditions for rational action are not present, people are driven by "animal spirits." This article briefly considers Keynes' argument, and the history of the term.

  2. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  4. Animal models of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  5. A northern animal kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RainerThomm

    2005-01-01

    I began photographing wild animals at Baiquan in 2002,what is really propelling me to go back time and time again,though,is the unforgettable experience of tracking down and getting shots of red foxes and shika.

  6. Computer animation of clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  7. Experimental Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-01-01

    It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals...

  8. Animal models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rod...

  9. On Animal Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡凡

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays it is common to talk about metaphor. In fact, metaphor is a kind of comparison. Because of comparison and association,familiar objects become strange and glamorous. Animal metaphors can involve either nominal form or verb forms. A person's crying may be called barking. A woman may be called a cat, or a goose, etc. Animal metaphor is connected tightly with our life and helps language development. We can utilize them to make our life and languages more colorful.

  10. Whole animal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be us...

  11. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal ...

  12. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  13. Animal Models of Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Nagakura, Yukinori; Ito, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Yasuaki

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of disease states are valuable tools for developing new treatments and investigating underlying mechanisms. They should mimic the symptoms and pathology of the disease and importantly be predictive of effective treatments. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain with associated co-morbid symptoms that include fatigue, depression, anxiety and sleep dysfunction. In this review, we present different animal models that mimic the signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia. T...

  14. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Laboratory animal allergy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, A

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers at 8 laboratory animal facilities. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing with common and occupational allergens. Total and specific IgE measures were obtained....

  16. Animal, animalité, devenir-animal

    OpenAIRE

    Viennet, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Question de regard Nous regardons les animaux et les animaux nous regardent. Nous faisons signe à un chat, par la voix, par le geste, le chat nous regarde et cligne des yeux. Il n’a pas la capacité d’exprimer des paroles selon le modèle humain, mais à sa manière il nous répond, par un clin d’œil. Que se passe-t-il dans ce clin d’œil ? Une communication s’établit, un échange a lieu. Nous regardons l’animal qui nous regarde. Que voyons-nous alors ? Le clin d’œil énigmatique nous pousse à regard...

  17. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live-animal official test, an official genotype test, the culling and postmortem examination and testing of genetically susceptible animals in the flock that cannot be evaluated by a live animal test... designation from an animal that tested positive on a live-animal screening test based on an...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material appears abstract and is complex. This video was ... can develop and spread. All FDA CVM produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long ...

  19. Animal models of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  20. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  1. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user......This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... makes the life manifestations of the users in context visible. We present and discuss how animation- based sketching can support the elaboration and examination of different ethical stances towards the user in the product and service development process. Finally we present a framework for creating...

  3. Testing Alternative Hypotheses about Animal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Lang, Michael; Lawson, Anton E.

    Research indicates that the effectiveness of instruction in the elementary classroom is enhanced when it incorporates materials that actively engage students in the generation of scientific explanations. To this end, this document describes an exercise that allows Kindergarten students to explore the basic principles of animal behavior in an…

  4. Basic Principles of Animal Science. Reprinted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The reference book is designed to fulfill the need for organized subject matter dealing with basic principles of animal science to be incorporated into the high school agriculture curriculum. The material presented is scientific knowledge basic to livestock production. Five units contain specific information on the following topics: anatomy and…

  5. Companion animal adoption study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhart, Laura; Boyd, Renee

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption. PMID:12578739

  6. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  7. The experiments on healthy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author describes the experiments on leukotitin influence on hematosis which was held on :1. healthy animals received the preparation; 2. irradiated animals received the preparation; 3. irradiated animals didn't receive the preparation

  8. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure...

  9. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. COMPAIXÃO ANIMAL

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Seligmann Silva

    2011-01-01

    O trabalho estuda a questão da compaixão, que na história do pensamento foi ora tratada como uma marca da humanidade, ora pensada como uma marca de nossa origem natural e animal. Para Lactâncio, por exemplo, sem piedade o homem é um animal. O texto parte de uma discussão de Buffon, que falava de uma compaixão como uma de nossas “affections naturelles”. Para ele, “a alma tem menos a ver do que o corpo nesse sentimento de piedade natural e os animais, assim como o homem, sã...

  11. L’animal

    OpenAIRE

    Rongier, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    On sait que l’amitié entre Maurice Blanchot et Emmanuel Lévinas est dense, complète et exigeante. À partir de quelques textes (et des lignes de fuite), je voudrais souligner ce lien amical et intellectuel, la constance avec laquelle les deux hommes ont mutuellement nourri leur réflexion, leur écriture. Et, au fil des lectures, s’est progressivement dégagée l’idée de l’animal comme espace d’interrogation, l’animal et l’animalité comme enjeu pour lire le lien, mais aussi la distance. Trois text...

  12. Animal models of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  13. Transgenic animal bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdebine, L M

    2000-01-01

    The production of recombinant proteins is one of the major successes of biotechnology. Animal cells are required to synthesize proteins with the appropriate post-translational modifications. Transgenic animals are being used for this purpose. Milk, egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma and silk worm cocoon from transgenic animals are candidates to be the source of recombinant proteins at an industrial scale. Although the first recombinant protein produced by transgenic animals is expected to be in the market in 2000, a certain number of technical problems remain to be solved before the various systems are optimized. Although the generation of transgenic farm animals has become recently easier mainly with the technique of animal cloning using transfected somatic cells as nuclear donor, this point remains a limitation as far as cost is concerned. Numerous experiments carried out for the last 15 years have shown that the expression of the transgene is predictable only to a limited extent. This is clearly due to the fact that the expression vectors are not constructed in an appropriate manner. This undoubtedly comes from the fact that all the signals contained in genes have not yet been identified. Gene constructions thus result sometime in poorly functional expression vectors. One possibility consists in using long genomic DNA fragments contained in YAC or BAC vectors. The other relies on the identification of the major important elements required to obtain a satisfactory transgene expression. These elements include essentially gene insulators, chromatin openers, matrix attached regions, enhancers and introns. A certain number of proteins having complex structures (formed by several subunits, being glycosylated, cleaved, carboxylated...) have been obtained at levels sufficient for an industrial exploitation. In other cases, the mammary cellular machinery seems insufficient to promote all the post-translational modifications. The addition of genes coding for enzymes

  14. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichment. They need to be evaluated for use by taking into account the following: the species of an animal, its needs, habits and capabilities, the type of an enrichment device, the device's ability to stimulate the animal's interest and the safety of the device. Enrichment programmes should always include two forms of enrichment: behavioral enrichment and environmental enrichment. Enrichment comes in many forms such as structural or physical enrichment, sensory enrichment (auditory and olfactory stimulation, dietary enrichment, manipulatable enrichment and social enrichment.

  15. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  16. Pathological anxiety in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2008-01-01

    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a co

  17. Holographic Animation Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

  18. Freeing Captive Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Even though theymight not haveenough food intheir own stom-achs,Tibetan peasantswould feed their draughtcattle with the best food,asthey depended on them forplowing. Such good treat-ment lasted until the ani-mals died,after which,some peasants would burythem in their own fields,

  19. Decerebrate rigidity in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R A; Davis, L

    1981-07-01

    Decerebrate rigidity (DR) in animals is caused by a release of spinal neurons from supraspinal inhibition, which results in a caricature of reflex standing and includes tonic neck and labyrinthine reflexes. The reticular formation, cerebellum, vestibular complex, spinal cord, and muscle spindle system and their neurophysiological interaction are critical to DR. Its discovery and investigation were essential to Sherrington's concept of the integrative action of the nervous system. There are two types of DR with different anatomical and physiological bases. Intercollicular decerebration yields rigidity in extensor muscles that results from bilateral destruction of the central tegmental tracts, is abolished by posterior root section, and is due to a facilitation of gamma motoneuron discharge (gamma animal). Anemic decerebration is characterized by excessive extensor rigidity, depends upon the release of tonic labryinthine reflexes from cerebellar inhibition, is independent of posterior root section, and is caused by excessive alpha motoneuron discharge (alpha animal). DR has provided an insight into the mechanisms of posture and standing, but the correlation of laboratory observations and results from animals to humans must be made with caution.

  20. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    ) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  1. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  2. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  3. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of recombinant DNA technology has enabled scientists to isolate single genes, analyze and modify their nucleotide structure(s), make copies of these isolated genes, and insert copies of these genes into the genome of plants and animals. The transgenic technology of adding genes to li...

  4. In and Out (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation links two images taken by the front hazard avoidance camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. The rover is stowing and unstowing its robotic arm, or instrument deployment device. The device is designed to hold and maneuver the various instruments on board that will help scientists get up-close and personal with martian rocks and soil.

  5. Animals that Live Longest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶扬志

    2000-01-01

    Reptiles(爬行类) are animals that live longest. The turtle's(海龟)long life is legendary(传奇的), no one has ever been able to calculate the exact age of the turtle, and for good reason, tortoises live a lot longer than humans do.

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  7. Do Animals Have Memes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imitation has been put forward as a defining feature of memetic transmission. Since there is currently poor evidence for imitation in non-human animals, such definitions have been interpreted as restricting meme theory to the study of human behaviour patterns and birdsong. We believe this is a mista

  8. Reatividade animal Confinement reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsiara Estanislau Maffei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A reatividade é definida como a reação do animal quando contido num ambiente de contenção móvel. Ela é quantificada por meio do teste de reatividade animal em ambiente de contenção móvel - REATEST®. Este teste consiste num dispositivo eletrônico acoplado à balança e num software específico. O dispositivo capta a movimentação que o animal provoca na balança, durante 20 segundos e a envia para o software que a processa determinando a reatividade do animal numa escala contínua de pontos. Pontuações maiores são de animais mais reativos (mais agressivo. A reatividade foi criada com os objetivos de solucionar os problemas até então existentes na seleção para temperamento e de permitir estimação de parâmetros genéticos mais confiáveis. Ela é uma característica objetiva que tem grande variabilidade fenotípica e é de quantificação rápida, fácil e segura, além de poder ser quantificada em qualquer tipo de balança, o que permite maior aplicabilidade. Ela não interfere nas práticas de manejo das fazendas porque é quantificada no momento da pesagem dos animais. Sua herdabilidade na raça Nelore é de 0,39 ao ano e 0,23 ao sobreano e suas correlações genéticas com ganho de peso diário são de -0,28 do nascimento até desmama e de -0,49 do desmame até ano. Já suas correlações genéticas com desenvolvimento do perímetro escrotal do ano ao sobreano variam de -0,25 e -0,41.The confinement reactivity (CR has been used as a measure of temperament in Brazil and it is defined as the animal reaction when contained in the scale. It is quantified through the animal reactivity test - REATEST®. This test consists of an electronic device coupled to the scale and of specific software. The device captures the movement that the animal provokes in the scale, during 20 seconds and sends it for the software that processes this movement and determines the animal CR in a continuous scale of points. Higher punctuations belong to

  9. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  10. People vs. animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engram, S

    1992-07-12

    Animal rights activists demonstrated against physicians in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who had transplanted a baboon liver into a man. They complained that baboons should not serve as spare parts for humans, but the complaint misfired when another man with liver disease challenged them. Nevertheless the rapidly growing population in the world is threatening animal species such as elephants. In Zimbabwe where a severe drought exists and which has been somewhat able to protect animals from poachers, the government now allows people to kill elephants and other animals for their meat. The great numbers of wildlife have placed considerable population pressure on Gonarezhou National Park. The government hopes the good will plan will reduce the number of illegal poachings in the future. This illustrates the need for population stability to protect the environment. Yet the 1992 UN environment conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, did not address population growth as a threat to biodiversity and the environment. Indeed if population continues to grow at its present rate, the population in 2100 will stand at 19 billion and each year before that the Earth will lose more farmland and forests and witness more days of smog, polluted water, political instabilities, and environmental refugees. Viruses like HIV may afflict the population. Most of the population growth will be in developing countries where drought and economic and political instabilities are common. In 2100 with such a hugh population, a national park for wildlife will most likely only be a luxury. We can no longer be complacent and must take action now to prevent this disaster. It will soon be clear that a growing population does not produce more prosperity as many economists would like us to believe, and discussions about using animals for spare parts will be ludicrous. PMID:12286283

  11. Can the material properties of regenerate bone be predicted with non-invasive methods of assessment? Exploring the correlation between dual X-ray absorptiometry and compression testing to failure in an animal model of distraction osteogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Monsell, Fergal; Hughes, Andrew William; Turner, James; Bellemore, Michael C.; Bilston, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the material properties of regenerate bone is of fundamental importance to a successful outcome following distraction osteogenesis using an external fixator. Plain radiographs are in widespread use for assessment of alignment and the distraction gap but are unable to detect bone formation in the early stages of distraction osteogenesis and do not quantify accurately the structural properties of the regenerate. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a widely available non-invasive im...

  12. Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliedner Theodor M.; Feinendegen Ludwig E.; Meineke Viktor; Fritz Thomas E.

    2005-02-28

    First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could

  13. Biomimetic multifunctional surfaces inspired from animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yin, Wei; Li, Wen; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2016-08-01

    Over millions of years, animals have evolved to a higher intelligent level for their environment. A large number of diverse surface structures on their bodies have been formed to adapt to the extremely harsh environment. Just like the structural diversity existed in plants, the same also applies true in animals. Firstly, this article provides an overview and discussion of the most common functional surface structures inspired from animals, such as drag reduction, noise reduction, anti-adhesion, anti-wear, anti-erosion, anti-fog, water capture, and optical surfaces. Then, some typical characteristics of morphologies, structures, and materials of the animal multifunctional surfaces were discussed. The adaptation of these surfaces to environmental conditions was also analyzed. It mainly focuses on the relationship between their surface functions and their surface structural characteristics. Afterwards, the multifunctional mechanisms or principles of these surfaces were discussed. Models of these structures were provided for the development of structure materials and machinery surfaces. At last, fabrication techniques and existing or potential technical applications inspired from biomimetic multifunctional surfaces in animals were also discussed. The application prospects of the biomimetic functional surfaces are very broad, such as civil field of self-cleaning textile fabrics and non-stick pots, ocean field of oil-water separation, sports field of swimming suits, space development field of lens arrays. PMID:27085632

  14. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  15. Analysis of Animal Metaphorical Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晴川

    2016-01-01

    Animal metaphor, as a kind of metaphor, refers to a cognitive process in which some aspects of human beings are understood or experienced through the aspects of animals. The meanings of animal metaphor are based on people's experience, cultural background, custom and the ways of thinking. Animal metaphorical expression is an important part of human's language expressions and communication.

  16. Animal bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  17. Animal Gaits and Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubitsky, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.

  18. Animals:Country symbols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明

    2005-01-01

    A nim als have always been used to represent cer-tain hum an characteristics.Countries also use anim alsas sym bols.From eagles to lions,m any countries usean anim al to show its national spirit and character.1.U S:T he bald eagleThe im age of an eagle is on the U SPresident’s flag,and on the one-dollarbill.The bald eagle is a large,pow erful,brow n bird with a white head and tail.The term“bald”does not m ean that thisbird lacks feathers.Instead,it com es fromthe old word piebald,that m eans,“m arked w ith ...

  19. Animals, Humans and Sociability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Tedeschi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses animal studies from the point of view of sociability as an “inter-subjective field of action” and as an agent and builder of society (“doing society”. In sociology, the zoological connection has availed of the theory of borders and critical realism, but, above all, of constructionism, in its interactionist and ethno-methodological sense and both focused on social micro-interaction. The construction of the identity of social actors (both human and animal is especially evident in interaction regarding play, games, sport, daily life and work. In these spheres, analyses shed light on ambivalent and contradictory human experiences that clash with the dominant culture, while highlighting practical resistance against speciesism, which it is well worth to bring to the attention of future research, using open, mixed methodologies.

  20. Spectral Animation Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Yang Liu; Xiaohu Guo; Zichun Zhong; Binh Le; Zhigang Deng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a spectral approach to compress dynamic animation consisting of a sequence of homeomor-phic manifold meshes. Our new approach directly compresses the field of deformation gradient defined on the surface mesh, by decomposing it into rigid-body motion (rotation) and non-rigid-body deformation (stretching) through polar decompo-sition. It is known that the rotation group has the algebraic topology of 3D ring, which is different from other operations like stretching. Thus we compress these two groups separately, by using Manifold Harmonics Transform to drop out their high-frequency details. Our experimental result shows that the proposed method achieves a good balance between the reconstruction quality and the compression ratio. We compare our results quantitatively with other existing approaches on animation compression, using standard measurement criteria.

  1. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix Animation Looking North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth. The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Instant Silverlight 5 animation

    CERN Document Server

    Polyak, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in simple, easy to understand format with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations. If you are a developer looking forward to create great user experience for your Silverlight applications with cool animations or create Silverlight banner ads, then this is the guide for you. It is assumed that the readers have some previous exposure to Silverlight or WPF.

  4. Animal traction in Ghana:

    OpenAIRE

    Houssou, Nazaire; Kolavalli, Shashidhara; Bobobee, Emmanuel; Owusu, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The recent interest of the government of Ghana in agricultural mechanization has largely focused on the provision of tractors and imported machinery to the farming population. Animal traction has not received much attention from the country’s policymakers. The strong demand for mechanization services (Houssou et al., 2012; Benin et al., 2012) and inadequate number of tractors to meet the demand in the country call for more effective use of other power sources for the agriculture sector. Usi...

  5. Animal models of sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Mitchell P.

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis remains a common, serious, and heterogeneous clinical entity that is difficult to define adequately. Despite its importance as a public health problem, efforts to develop and gain regulatory approval for a specific therapeutic agent for the adjuvant treatment of sepsis have been remarkably unsuccessful. One step in the critical pathway for the development of a new agent for adjuvant treatment of sepsis is evaluation in an appropriate animal model of the human condition. Unfortunately, ...

  6. Animal Models of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey S Getz; Reardon, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular disease. Both cells of the vessel wall and cells of the immune system participate in atherogenesis. This process is heavily influenced by plasma lipoproteins, genetics and the hemodynamics of the blood flow in the artery. A variety of small and large animal models have been used to study the atherogenic process. No model is ideal as each has its own advantages and limitations with respect to...

  7. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    OpenAIRE

    Piers Beirne

    2014-01-01

    In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rear...

  8. Metacognition in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Foote, Allison L.

    2009-01-01

    Metacognition is thinking about thinking. There is considerable interest in developing animal models of metacognition to provide insight about the evolution of mind and a basis for investigating neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive impairments in people. Formal modeling of low-level (i.e., alternative) mechanisms has recently demonstrated that prevailing standards for documenting metacognition are inadequate. Indeed, low-level mechanisms are sufficient to explain data from existing methods...

  9. AnimalChange

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Pol-van Dasselaar, Agnes; Bellocchi, Gianni; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Saetnan, Eli Rudinow

    2014-01-01

    The EU-FP7 project AnimalChange (AN Integration of Mitigation and Adaptation options for sustainable Livestock production under climate CHANGE, http://www.animalchange.eu, 2011-2015) addresses mitigation and adaptation options and provides scientific guidance for their integration in sustainable development pathways for livestock production under climate change in Europe, Northern and Sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America. The project provides insights, innovations, tools and models for lives...

  10. Animal transgenesis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama Sosa, Miguel A; De Gasperi, Rita; Elder, Gregory A

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic animals are extensively used to study in vivo gene function as well as to model human diseases. The technology for producing transgenic animals exists for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. The mouse is the most utilized organism for research in neurodegenerative diseases. The most commonly used techniques for producing transgenic mice involves either the pronuclear injection of transgenes into fertilized oocytes or embryonic stem cell-mediated gene targeting. Embryonic stem cell technology has been most often used to produce null mutants (gene knockouts) but may also be used to introduce subtle genetic modifications down to the level of making single nucleotide changes in endogenous mouse genes. Methods are also available for inducing conditional gene knockouts as well as inducible control of transgene expression. Here, we review the main strategies for introducing genetic modifications into the mouse, as well as in other vertebrate and invertebrate species. We also review a number of recent methodologies for the production of transgenic animals including retrovirus-mediated gene transfer, RNAi-mediated gene knockdown and somatic cell mutagenesis combined with nuclear transfer, methods that may be more broadly applicable to species where both pronuclear injection and ES cell technology have proven less practical.

  11. History of animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  12. Transfer to animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data have been compiled to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides to update the values given in Technical Reports Series No. 364. Significant new data inputs have been incorporated from an extensive review of Russian language information and inclusion of data published since the early 1990s. The resultant database has been used to provide reference transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used are given. For most animal products, transfer coefficient values for elements additional to those in Technical Reports Series No. 364 are provided, although some elements were considered in the earlier evaluation which were not included in this review. Differences between the Technical Reports Series No. 364 'expected' values and the reference values from this document, which will be incorporated into the revised transfer parameter handbook, are discussed. An alternative approach to quantifying transfer by using concentration ratios is evaluated and CR values which could be applied across animal species have been provided for milk and meat. Information on fractional gastrointestinal absorption in adult ruminants has been compiled and reference values presented. Despite these improvements many data gaps remain. (author)

  13. Slaughter - not only about animals

    OpenAIRE

    Wiberg, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    In order to get meat for human consumption animals have to be slaughtered. In Sweden, about 450,000 cattle are slaughtered every year; in 2011 93% of these were slaughtered at the 16 largest slaughter plants. Maintaining acceptable animal welfare standards in the industrial slaughter of animals places great demands on the management and staff. Good animal welfare means that consideration has been given to the animals' biology and subjective experience and to its possibilities to adapt to the ...

  14. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  15. [The diversity of animal ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmer, J B Jeangène

    2013-01-01

    Animal ethics is not a set of rules telling humans how to behave when interacting with animals, but an area for research into the moral responsibility of humans towards animals as individuals. The present article studies the subject by examining a number of dichotomies: French humanism and Anglo-Saxon animal ethics, justice vs. compassion, welfarism and abolitionism, and the divide between proponents of animal rights and those who prefer to speak of "interests".

  16. Rabbit as an animal model for experimental research

    OpenAIRE

    Manjeet Mapara; Betsy Sara Thomas; Bhat, K M

    2012-01-01

    Animal experimentation is carried out in consultation with the veterinary wing but it is essential that be familiar with experimental protocols of animal model to be able to design an approriate study. This is more so in place where the veterinary facilities are not easily available.Span Rabbits are commonly used as subjects for screening implant material. They have gained favour for their numerous advantages even though they should be ideally used prior to testing in a larger animal model. T...

  17. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  18. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve. PMID:26845298

  19. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  20. Audiotutorial Teaching of Laboratory Animal Medicine and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This audiotutorial course consists of 35 minicourses including biology, husbandry, and diseases of the common laboratory animals. Each minicourse includes an audiocassette tape recording and visual and written materials. The course is available for distribution. (Author/LBH)

  1. From the 'cinematic' to the 'anime-ic': Issues of movement in anime

    OpenAIRE

    Ruddell, C

    2008-01-01

    This is the author's accepted manuscript. The final published article is available from the link below. This article explores the way that movement is formally depicted in anime. Drawing on Thomas Lamarre's concepts of the `cinematic' and the `anime-ic', the article interrogates further the differences in movement and action in anime from traditional filmic form. While often considered in terms of `flatness', anime offers spectacle, character development and, ironically, depth through the ...

  2. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Mitchell M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an...

  3. Animation-based Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    This thesis is based on the results of a three-year long PhD-study at the Department of Communication and Psychology at Aalborg University. The thesis consist of five original papers, a book manuscript, as well as a linking text with the thesis’ research questions, research design, and summary...... experiments has been carried out, applying animation-based sketching in various contexts and at varying points in the design process. In the studies, I evaluate the viability of the approach, the practical integration into the design process, and map how consensus between stakeholders in design can...

  4. Telltale Animation (Sol 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 1:10 PM local Mars time on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Telltale Animation (Sol 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 4:37 PM local Mars time on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  7. Weak-willed Animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Spitzley

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to answering the conceptual question whether there can be weak-willed non-human animals. After some preliminary clarifications concerning the phenomenon of weakness of will three different accounts are examined for the conditions a being has to fulfill in order to be in a position to display weakness of will. It is argued that these conditions are very strong and that there are good reasons to assume that, e.g., only language users can be weak-willed. Th...

  8. Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harold A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two prominent philosophical justifications for animal liberation and describes a simulation that facilitates class discussion of animal research issues. Students reported that the exercise increased their awareness of the issues and of the complexity of making ethical decisions. (DB)

  9. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals. PMID:27215017

  10. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals.

  11. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of commi...

  12. Animating Community: Reflexivity and Identity in Indian Animation Production Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jones,Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Animating Community examines the cultural practices of animators in India, and particularly the role of practitioner testimony in conceiving and negotiating social structures underpinning the nascent Indian animation industry. Recognizing a tendency in practitioner accounts towards theorization of contested industrial discourses, this research takes as its object the reflexive practice of animators in trade texts and interviews. These reveal how local practitioners understand production cultu...

  13. 动物产品中猪源性和牛源性成分双重荧光PCR检测方法的建立%Identification of Swine-derived and Bovine-derived Materials in Animal Products by Multiplex Fluorescent PCR Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冉

    2012-01-01

    [Objective ] To develop a multiplex fluorescent PCR assay method to detect swine-derived and bovine-derived materials in animal products. [ Method ] Two pairs of specific primers and two fluorescent-labled probes were designed and synthesized according to mitochondrial DNA gene sequences. The multiplex fluorescent PCR reaction system was established through the optimized screening of reaction system and reaction conditions, and swine-derived and bovine-derived materials in animal products were detected in the same fluorescent PCR reaction system. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated. [ Result ] The method successfully detected swine-derived and bovine-derived materials from 16 animals. Swine-derived and bovine-derived materials could obtain responsible S-type amplification curve, while there was no amplification curve from the other 14 animals. The detection limits of the assay for swine and bovine were either up to 10^-5, which was consistent with that of single-weight fluorescent PCR assay method. [Conclusion ] The multiplex fluorescent PCR developed in the study has strong specificity and good sensitivity, so it is suitable for the detection of swine-derived and bovine-derived materials in feed, meat products, milk products, etc..%[目的]建立双重荧光PCR法,检测动物产品中猪、牛源性成分。[方法]分别针对猪、牛线粒体DNA(mitochondrial DNA,mtDNA)种间保守基因,设计特异性引物与探针,通过对反应体系和反应条件的优化筛选,建立了双重荧光PCR方法,在同一个荧光PCR反应中完成2种动物源性成分的检测。并对该方法的特异性、敏感性进行评估。[结果]对16种不同的动物DNA进行检测.仅猪、牛源性成分收集到相应的典型的S型扩增曲线,对猪、牛二联模板的检测,可同时收集到相应模板的扩增曲线.其余14种动物源性成分未发现扩增曲线。双重荧光PCR对猪肉、牛肉模

  14. All about Animal Behavior & Communication. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Why do animals do what they do? What is the difference between instinct and learned behavior? How do animals communicate? These questions are answered as children examine animal behaviors that help them find food, protect themselves, and care for their young. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life…

  15. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  16. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo (Brazil); Medina, Nilberto H. [Instituto de Física da USP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  17. ANIMAL NUTRITION. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION UNITS, ANIMAL NUTRITION, FEED CHARACTERISTICS, VITAMINS, MINERALS. FINAL REPORT NUMBER 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, GILBERT A.

    PRINCIPLES AND FACTS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE ANIMAL NUTRITION PRACTICES WERE IDENTIFIED BY EXAMINATION OF RECENT SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. UTILIZING THIS INFORMATION, THE AUTHOR INVOLVED 16 VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL USE OF A UNIT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS. INSTRUCTIONAL RESULTS WERE NOT AVAILABLE AT THE…

  18. World Organisation for Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Organisation for Animal Health Home About us Presentation Director general office Biography Photos Strategic plan Our ... Food safety and animal welfare History General organisation World Assembly Council Headquarters OIE Regional Representations OIE Regional ...

  19. Animals: Disease Risks for People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Knowledge Base Browse AVMA Policies Browse by Animal/Species Browse by Topic Browse by Discipline Resources ... Your Veterinarian Pet Care Currently selected Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Disease Risks for ...

  20. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... This conclusion stems from an extensive study of animal cloning and related food safety, culminating in the release ...

  1. Animal Surgery and Resources Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ASR services for NHLBI research animals include: animal model development, surgery, surgical support, post-operative care as well as technical services such as...

  2. Anthropomorphism, Teleology, Animism, and Personification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin

    1973-01-01

    The question of attributing a purpose to animal's actions is still being debated by scientists. Consensus seems to be that animal behavior should be described in terms of function rather than purpose. (PS)

  3. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series To use the sharing ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  4. Penile autotransplantation in rats: An animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Seyam, Raouf M.; Said A Kattan; Assad, Lina W.; Raafat M El-Sayed; Falah H Almohanna

    2013-01-01

    Context: Penile allotransplantation might be a viable option for patients who need penile reconstruction. Aims: A successful autotransplantation rat model is the first step toward proceeding for allotransplantation. We herein evaluate autotransplantation following transaction of the rat penis just distal to the urethral bulb. Settings and Design: Experimental animal study. Materials and Methods: Five Sprague-Dawely rats weighing 520 g (SD 19) were used. Utilizing a magnification o...

  5. Trend analysis of mycotoxins in animal feed

    OpenAIRE

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van, H.J.; Driessen, J.J.M.; Rijk, de, J.; Jong, de, P.F.; Nijs, de, S.

    2012-01-01

    Feed materials were analysed for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and HT-2- and T-2-toxins. In this report trends in the average content during the period 2001-2009 are reported for these mycotoxins. Monitoring data from the National Feed monitoring program and from the Commodity Board Animal Feed are used for this study.

  6. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Lohani Usha

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred gr...

  7. The ethics of animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lane-Petter, W.

    2007-01-01

    Animal experimentation arouses great emotion in many people, perhaps more especially in Britain, and this has increased as more sophisticated medical and non-medical animal experiments are demanded by modern research. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 is the only legal regulation of experiments in animals, and many of its clauses are ambiguous. So in 1963 a committee of enquiry - the Littlewood Committee - was set up. Dr Lane-Petter examines the emotional and factual background to the enquir...

  8. Inducible chemical defences in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Heyttyey, Attila; Tóth, Zoltán; Buskirk, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is extremely widespread in the behaviour, morphology and life-history of animals. However, inducible changes in the production of defensive chemicals are described mostly in plants and surprisingly little is known about similar plasticity in chemical defences of animals. Inducible chemical defences may be common in animals because many are known to produce toxins, the synthesis of toxins is likely to be costly, and there are a few known cases of animals adjusting their t...

  9. Development of FAME Animation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Shirai, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Toshiaki [Department of Fusion Plasma Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, Hideto; Itakura, Hirofumi; Tahata, Yasunori

    1999-02-01

    In order to monitor an animation of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium calculated by the FAME-II (Fast Analyzer for Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibrium-II) system, a FAME Animation System was developed. This system provides automatically the animation on workstations connected to network with the same period of JT-60U discharge sequence. Then, the system can supply the important information for JT-60U operators to determine control parameters of the succeeding discharge. This report describes the overview of the FAME Animation System. (author)

  10. Animal Rights - a critical study

    OpenAIRE

    Nordin, Ingemar

    2001-01-01

    Do animals have rights similar to humans? In the philosophical debate concerning this question there have been two major ethical approaches. One of them is Peter Singer’s utilitarian theory, and the other is Tom Regan’s theory of animal rights. In this work these arguments for animal rights are extensively presented and discussed. Contrary to Singer and Regan, it is argued that there are ethically relevant biological distinctions between non-human animals and all humans. Although there are st...

  11. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  12. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China.

  13. Animal models for candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R; Huppler, Anna R; Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2014-04-02

    Multiple forms of candidiasis are clinically important in humans. Established murine models of disseminated, oropharyngeal, vaginal, and cutaneous candidiasis caused by Candida albicans are described in this unit. Detailed materials and methods for C. albicans growth and detection are also described.

  14. Animal Models for Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Heather R.; Huppler, Anna R.; Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Multiple forms of candidiasis are clinically important in humans. Established murine models of disseminated, oropharyngeal, vaginal, and cutaneous candidiasis caused by Candida albicans are described in this unit. Detailed materials and methods for C. albicans growth and detection are also described.

  15. A Taxonomy of Technical Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vaněček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT. This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

  16. Animals in life and works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振娟

    2014-01-01

    Many learners have made researches on animal words. Because animals have been keeping a good relationship with human beings since the human were born. So animals are important in daily life, they are also used in many works to express the Author’s thoughts.

  17. The Animal Without A Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万钧

    2002-01-01

    Have you ever seen an animal with out a head?there is such an animal! it has no tail or legs ,its body is full of holes it eats and breathes but never moves,it lives under water,the water brings the animal air.

  18. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S.

    2012-12-01

    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  19. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  20. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  1. Storyboarding an Animated Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies notions of transformation to the analysis of data on semiotic processes related to making an animated film. The data derives from a study conducted in an upper secondary school in Copenhagen with students (18 years old) participating in a week-long workshop. The paper applies t....... Conclusions highlight transformation as relevant for learning to reflect on media and the implications for teaching, given the increasing influence of visual modes of communication....... the concept of transduction with a focus on film storyboards: how students transform ideas when working with different modes (audio, visual) of representation. Data includes discourse analysis of semiotic processes and texts, referring to Social Semiotics and the methodology of Mediated Discourse Analysis...

  2. AGATE animation - business theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 2 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). Few objects convey wealth and power like a private airplane, but one day you won't have to be rich or famous to fly one. NASA is working with industry and other government agencies to develop the technology and vision for business and personal travel of the future. It's a future in which travelers fly to their destinations in small, safe, affordable and easy-to-use jets out of 'smart airports.' Future small aircraft may cost about as much as a luxury automobile. They will use 25% less fuel than today's airplanes with fuel efficiencies rivaling automobiles, but at four times highway speeds. The goal is to put 'wings on America' and enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways, making it possible to go where you want, when you want - faster than ever. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  3. Animal Enclosure Module (AEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research project is to test the hypothesis that corticosteroids contribute to the adverse skeletal effects of space flight. To achieve this objective, serum corticosteroids, which are known to increase during space flight, must be maintained at normal physiologic levels in flight rats by a combination of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid supplementation via implanted hormone pellets. Bone analyses in these animals will then be compared to those of intact flight rats that, based on past experience, will undergo corticosteroid excess and bone loss during space flight. The results will reveal whether maintaining serum corticosteroids at physiologic levels in flight rats affects the skeletal abnormalities that normally develop during space flight. A positive response to this question would indicate that the bone loss and decreased bone formation associated with space flight are mediated, at least in part, by corticosteroid excess.

  4. Systematic Review of Traumatic Brain Injury Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Helen W

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are to provide an introduction into the variety of animal models available for studying traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to provide a concise systematic review of the general materials and methods involved in each model. Materials and methods were obtained from a literature search of relevant peer-reviewed articles. Strengths and weaknesses of each animal choice were presented to include relative cost, anatomical and physiological features, and mechanism of injury desired. Further, a variety of homologous, isomorphic/induced, and predictive animal models were defined, described, and compared with respect to their relative ease of use, characteristics, range, adjustability (e.g., amplitude, duration, mass/size, velocity, and pressure), and rough order of magnitude cost. Just as the primary mechanism of action of TBI is limitless, so are the animal models available to study TBI. With such a wide variety of available animals, types of injury models, along with the research needs, there exists no single "gold standard" model of TBI rendering cross-comparison of data extremely difficult. Therefore, this chapter reflects a representative sampling of the TBI animal models available and is not an exhaustive comparison of every possible model and associated parameters. Throughout this chapter, special considerations for animal choice and TBI animal model classification are discussed. Criteria central to choosing appropriate animal models of TBI include ethics, funding, complexity (ease of use, safety, and controlled access requirements), type of model, model characteristics, and range of control (scope). PMID:27604713

  5. Digital Animation Character Creation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the proper method for Chinese digital animation character design on the foundation of certain cultural elements. The method used in this study is known as comparative analysis of Disney and Japanese animation styles in action, appearance, facial expression and voice design. These dynamic factors are the best carrier of the animation spirit and native culture, so it is important to take the dynamic factors into account when producing the digital animation, and it will be an excellent starting point to innovate Chinese digital animation.

  6. Why not look at animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Pick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revisiting John Berger’s seminal essay ‘Why Look at Animals?’ (1980, this essay inverts Berger’s title in order to explore instances where the visibility of animals is at stake and where seeing is linked to forms of surveillance and control. In the context of advanced optical and tracking technologies that render animals permanently visible, the possibility of not-seeing emerges as a progressive modality of relation to animals that takes seriously the notion of animal privacy and the exposed animal’s resistance to the human gaze.

  7. CERN Control Centre Animations

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    LHC operators need to adjust the machine parameters for optimizing the injection and acceleration of particles in the LHC. They inject low intensity pilot beams into the machine. To monitor their position and their movement after the injection, they can use actuators to move a radiator screen into the beam pipe. When the beams pass through the screen, they make the radiator material emit light that is recorded by a camera.

  8. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  9. CERN OVERVIEW animation

    CERN Multimedia

    Arzur Catel Torres

    2015-01-01

    This animation shows how the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) works. The film begins with an aerial view of CERN near Geneva, with outlines of the accelerator complex, including the underground Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 27-km in circumference. The positions of the four largest LHC experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are revealed before we see protons travelling around the LHC ring. The proton source is a simple bottle of hydrogen gas. An electric field is used to strip hydrogen atoms of their electrons to yield protons. Linac 2, the first accelerator in the chain, accelerates the protons to the energy of 50 MeV. The beam is then injected into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), which accelerates the protons to 1.4 GeV, followed by the Proton Synchrotron (PS), which pushes the beam to 25 GeV. Protons are then sent to the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) where they are accelerated to 450 GeV. The protons are finally transferred to the two beam pipes of the LHC. The beam in one pipe circulates clockwise while ...

  10. Animal models of candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Cornelius J; Cheng, Shaoji; Nguyen, Minh Hong

    2009-01-01

    Animal models are powerful tools to study the pathogenesis of diverse types of candidiasis. Murine models are particularly attractive because of cost, ease of handling, technical feasibility, and experience with their use. In this chapter, we describe methods for two of the most popular murine models of disease caused by Candida albicans. In an intravenously disseminated candidiasis (DC) model, immunocompetent mice are infected by lateral tail vein injections of a C. albicans suspension. Endpoints include mortality, tissue burdens of infection (most importantly in the kidneys, although spleens and livers are sometimes also assessed), and histopathology of infected organs. In a model of oral/esophageal candidiasis, mice are immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate and inoculated in the oral cavities using swabs saturated with a C. albicans suspension. Since mice do not die from oral candidiasis in this model, endpoints are tissue burden of infection and histopathology. The DC and oral/esophageal models are most commonly used for studies of C. albicans virulence, in which the disease-causing ability of a mutant strain is compared with an isogenic parent strain. Nevertheless, the basic techniques we describe are also applicable to models adapted to investigate other aspects of pathogenesis, such as spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression, specific aspects of host immune response and assessment of antifungal agents, immunomodulatory strategies, and vaccines.

  11. [Dangerous marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antensteiner, G

    1999-01-01

    Sea-biological basic knowledge for divers is offered only in special lessons for advanced scuba divers. According to statistics, however, five per cent of the deadly diving accidents are caused by underwater organisms. This number could be reduced to a fraction, by correct behaviour during the dive and after an accident. The most frequent accidents with sea animals during water sports are not by unprovoked shark attacks, which cause six deaths world-wide per year on the average, but turn out with usually well camouflaged sea inhabitants, that do not attack humans, rather by their inadvertence coincidentally get in contact with it. The various defense instruments of the often small, inconspicuous organisms reach from teeth over poison stings, pricks, spines, scalpelles, nettle injections and chemical weapons up to poison arrows. Due to that variety of the maritime life, the most important representatives of its type are explained including severity level of the caused injury or contamination. Both, diagnostic position and therapy possibility are described as follows: 1. Porifera (sponge), 2. Hydrozoa (white weed, yellow flower head), Actinaria (sea anemones), 3. Conidae (cone shells), Tridocna (giant clam), octopoda (octopus), 4. Acanthaster planci (crown of thorns), Echinodea (sea urchins), Holothurioidea (sea cucumber), 5. Selachoidei (shark), Batoidei (Ray), Muraenidae (moray), Plotosidae (barbel eels), Synanciidae (stonefish), Scorpaenidae (scorpionfish), Pterois (lion fish), Sphyraena Spec. (barracuda), Balistidae (triggerfish), Ostracionidae (puffer).

  12. Sedna Orbit Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  13. [Dangerous marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antensteiner, G

    1999-01-01

    Sea-biological basic knowledge for divers is offered only in special lessons for advanced scuba divers. According to statistics, however, five per cent of the deadly diving accidents are caused by underwater organisms. This number could be reduced to a fraction, by correct behaviour during the dive and after an accident. The most frequent accidents with sea animals during water sports are not by unprovoked shark attacks, which cause six deaths world-wide per year on the average, but turn out with usually well camouflaged sea inhabitants, that do not attack humans, rather by their inadvertence coincidentally get in contact with it. The various defense instruments of the often small, inconspicuous organisms reach from teeth over poison stings, pricks, spines, scalpelles, nettle injections and chemical weapons up to poison arrows. Due to that variety of the maritime life, the most important representatives of its type are explained including severity level of the caused injury or contamination. Both, diagnostic position and therapy possibility are described as follows: 1. Porifera (sponge), 2. Hydrozoa (white weed, yellow flower head), Actinaria (sea anemones), 3. Conidae (cone shells), Tridocna (giant clam), octopoda (octopus), 4. Acanthaster planci (crown of thorns), Echinodea (sea urchins), Holothurioidea (sea cucumber), 5. Selachoidei (shark), Batoidei (Ray), Muraenidae (moray), Plotosidae (barbel eels), Synanciidae (stonefish), Scorpaenidae (scorpionfish), Pterois (lion fish), Sphyraena Spec. (barracuda), Balistidae (triggerfish), Ostracionidae (puffer). PMID:11315406

  14. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohani Usha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred groups of such populations in the country and the group Tamang is one of these. The present paper studies Tamang-animal relationships in central Nepal. There is a growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies all across the globe, but this field is yet in its infancy in Nepal. The country is losing important fauna as well as ancient human cultures at the advent of development processes. As a result, ethnozoological knowledge is also teetering on the brink of extinction. Methods Ethnozoological data were collected by applying different participatory approaches techniques such as semi-structured interviews, participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were obtained by employing a household level questionnaire survey. Data were collected from the period of September 2004 to August 2005. Most of the animals were identified up to the species level with the help of standard taxonomic keys. Results The Tamang community treasures knowledge on various uses of 41 genera belonging to 28 families. Out of total number of animals, 14.6% belong to the Invertebrate group and the rest to the Vertebrate group. Of the total uses 58% fall in the food and medicinal use category, 16% in the magico-religious use category, 18% in the category of omen indication, and 2% each in the categories such as weather forecasting, trophy, ethnomusical and taboos. Conclusions The Tamang maintain strong ties with animals both at a

  15. 9 CFR 113.10 - Testing of bulk material for export or for further manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing of bulk material for export or for further manufacture. 113.10 Section 113.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.10 Testing of bulk material for export or for...

  16. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  17. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  18. Genomic Tools and Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zanella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Animals have been selected to improve their productivity in order to increase the profitability to the producer. In this scenario, not much attention was given to health traits. As a consequence of that, selection was made for animals with higher production and a shortened productive life. In addition to that, the intense production system used in livestock has forced animals to be exposed to higher pathogen loads, therefore predisposing them to infections. Infectious diseases are known to be caused by micro-organisms that are able to infect and colonize the host, affecting their physiological functions and causing problems in their production and on animal welfare. Even with the best management practices, diseases are still the most important cause of economic losses in the animal industry. In this review article we have addressed the new tools that could be used to select animals to better cope with diseases and pathogens.

  19. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  20. Titanium Dioxide as an Osteoconductive Material: An Animal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harshakumar, Karunakaran; Nair, K. Chandrasekharan; Paulose, N. George; Nair, Vivek V.; Prasanth, V.; Krishnan, Aswathi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and osteoconductive potential of pure and pigment forms of titanium dioxide. Pure and pigment forms of titanium dioxide were incorporated into prepared bur holes in the femur bone of rabbits. Implantation was done on six Albino rabbits which were sacrificed at the end of 3rd, 4th and 5th months after implantation. Radiographic, histologic and scanning electron microscopic evaluations of the implanted sites were performed. H...

  1. Animal-computer interaction SIG

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Clara; Lawson, Shaun; Van Der Linden, Janet; Häkkilä, Jonna; Noz, Frank; Juhlin, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    User-computer interaction research is demonstrating growing interest in the relation between animals and technology (e.g., computer-mediated interspecies interactions and animal-computer interfaces). However, as a research area, this topic is still underexplored and fragmented, and researchers lack opportunities to exchange ideas, identify resources, form collaborations and co-operatively develop a coherent research agenda. The Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI) SIG meeting aims to provide ...

  2. Stochastic modelling of animal movement

    OpenAIRE

    Smouse, Peter E.; Focardi, Stefano; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Kie, John G.; Forester, James D.; Morales, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern animal movement modelling derives from two traditions. Lagrangian models, based on random walk behaviour, are useful for multi-step trajectories of single animals. Continuous Eulerian models describe expected behaviour, averaged over stochastic realizations, and are usefully applied to ensembles of individuals. We illustrate three modern research arenas. (i) Models of home-range formation describe the process of an animal ‘settling down’, accomplished by including one or more focal poi...

  3. Facial animation of game characters

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    Facial animation in games has increased significantly in the past ten years. This is why the thesis introduces the basic technology in facial animation. The thesis only covers the basic tools and techniques used to create facial animation of game characters. The software used during this thesis were Autodesk’s 3Ds Max and Mudbox, and Substance Painter by Allegoritmic. The basic tools for creating game assets were explored. First the thesis goes through the basics of modeling 3D objects fo...

  4. Animal Studies of Human Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    Animals have provided a surrogate for the study of human health. This has been particularly important in the definition of the effects of pollutants generated in our society. Electromagnetic fields provide an example of the use of animals as models. A review of the animal model literature provides the following information in response to three basic toxicologic elements in defining whether electromagnetic fields are a hazard: 1. Various scientific committees have determined that, in general, ...

  5. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  6. Animal Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nestler, Eric J.; Steven E Hyman

    2010-01-01

    Modeling of human neuropsychiatric disorders in animals is extremely challenging given the subjective nature of many key symptoms, the lack of biomarkers and objective diagnostic tests, and the early state of the relevant neurobiology and genetics. Nonetheless, progress in understanding pathophysiology and in treatment development would benefit greatly from improved animal models. Here we review the current state of animal models of mental illness, with a focus on schizophrenia, depression, a...

  7. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to...

  8. Establishment of multiplex fluorescent PCR assay for the detection of bovine,goat and sheep- derived materials in animal products and feeding stuffs%动物产品及饲料中牛源和羊源性成分三重荧光PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冉; 蔡振鸿; 陈永锋

    2012-01-01

    为鉴定和区分饲料及动物产品中牛、山羊、绵羊源性成分,根据线粒体DNA(mitochondrial DNA,mtDNA)种间保守序列,设计合成了3对特异性引物与TaqMan探针,通过对荧光PCR反应体系和反应条件的优化筛选,建立了三重荧光PCR方法,在同一个荧光PCR反应中完成3种动物源性成分的检测.用该方法对16种不同源性的动物DNA进行检测,结果表明能特异地鉴别检测出牛、山羊和绵羊源性成分,且敏感性比现行国标PCR法高100倍.该方法适用于饲料、肉制品、奶制品等动物源性产品的检测.%In this study, a multiplex fluorescent PCR assay capable of detecting and differentiating bovine, goat and sheep-derived materials was developed using specific primers and TaqMan probes designed according to mitochondrial DNA gene sequences. The multiplex fluorescent PCR reaction system was optimized. The developed method could successfully detect bovine, goat and sheep-derived materials of 16 animals. The result showed that the real-time PCR can work accurately and efficiently, and can be 100 times as sensitive as conventional PCR of GB/T 20190-2006. Therefore, this method has the potential application for detection of bovine, goat and sheep-derived materials in feed, meat products, milk products, etc.

  9. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal welfare…

  10. Emotional Support Animals, Service Animals, and Pets on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Bergen, C. W.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, universities have been accommodating physically disabled students who require guide dogs and other types of service animals. Within the past several years, however, mentally disabled students have increasingly petitioned colleges with no-pet policies to permit them to bring their animals on campus because they need a companion or…

  11. An animal welfare perspective on animal testing of GMO crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The public discussion on the introduction of agro-genetic engineering focuses mainly on economical, ecological and human health aspects. The fact is neglected that laboratory animals must suffer before either humans or the environment are affected. However, numerous animal experiments are conducted for toxicity testing and authorisation of genetically modified plants in the European Union. These are ethically questionable, because death and suffering of the animals for purely commercial purposes are accepted. Therefore, recent political initiatives to further increase animal testing for GMO crops must be regarded highly critically. Based on concrete examples this article demonstrates that animal experiments, on principle, cannot provide the expected protection of users and consumers despite all efforts to standardise, optimise or extend them. PMID:18551237

  12. The Effect of Probiotics on Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Corcionivoschi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria and their effect in combating digestive disorders in humans and animals has been demonstrated and supported in numerous scientific studies. Probiotic bacteria are used in a wide range of nutritional techniques in order to support the host organism during physiological strain, to reduce stress due to technology and to combat diarrheal syndromes (occurring naturally or pharmacologically induced. Based on a rich bibliographic material, this paper presents the role of probiotic bacteria to equilibrate the beneficial microbial population and in bacterial turnover by stimulating the host immune response via specific secretions (eg. bacteriocins and competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic germs in the digestive tract (Salmonella, E. coli. In the same context, this review presents the basic studies on the effect of probiotic bacteria in health maintenance for the main species of farm animals: pigs, poultry, cattle and sheep.

  13. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contagion of splenetic, Southern or Texas fever when imported for animal feed or bedding; therefore, such... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  14. 9 CFR 51.8 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.8 Section 51.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.8 Disinfection...

  15. What's Wrong with "Animal Rights"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    1992-01-01

    School leaders must withstand the pressures of the animal rights movement to disrupt the science curriculum. It would be tragic if this movement succeeded in turning a large number of students against the legitimate use of animals and, ultimately, against biomedical research. (MLF)

  16. Animals in Atomic Research (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciuti, Edward R. [Bronx Zoo

    1969-01-01

    This booklet explains what use animals are to science and why they are important to the development of nuclear energy for peaceful uses. It contains examples of the roles animals of many kinds play in the development of nuclear science for the well-being of mankind.

  17. The Early Years: Animal Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Children can have a new favorite animal every week or even every hour. The more familiar the children become with an animal, the more they will be able to understand how its body form and behavior allow it to survive. Learning about the characteristics of organisms and how organisms relate to their environment is part of the National Science…

  18. My Favorite Animal-Elephant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童佳欣; 姜彩娟

    2002-01-01

    There are many kinds of animals in the world.and i like the elephants best of all because they are the biggest animals on land they have the biggest ears and the biggest teeth,they also have a longnose,

  19. Radioactivity transfer to animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the behaviour of strontium, caesium, ruthenium, plutonium and americium in a range of domestic animals is reviewed to form a basis for the specification of time-dependent mathematical models describing uptake, distribution and retention in various domestic animals. Transfer factors relating concentration in animal product to daily radioactivity intake are derived after 100 d continuous intake and at equilibrium. These transfer factors are compared with the available published literature and used as a basis for the derivation of feedingstuff conversion factors relating limiting concentrations in animal feedingstuffs to limiting concentrations in human foodstuffs for application to animals receiving commercial feedingstuffs after a nuclear accident. Recommended transfer factors for animal products in conditions of continuous discharge and models for application to field conditions after a nuclear accident are also presented. Transfer of caesium to animal products is more effective than that for the other elements considered here. Transfer to meat of lamb, fattening pig, and chickens is generally more effective than that for other animals and other products

  20. Constraint-based facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.

    1999-01-01

    Constraints have been traditionally used for computer animation applications to define side conditions for generating synthesized motion according to a standard, usually physically realistic, set of motion equations. The case of facial animation is very different, as no set of motion equations for f

  1. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin;

    2011-01-01

    and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...

  2. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... history of the bite, including the type of animal and its health (behavior and rabies vaccine status), the time and location of the event, circumstances of the bite, whereabouts of the animal, and the pre-hospital treatment will be reviewed. ...

  3. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  4. A laboratory animal science pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-11-01

    Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, DVM, PhD, is Head of Laboratory Animal Facilities and Designated Veterinarian, Center of Clinical, Experimental Surgery and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece. Dr. Kostomitsopoulos discusses his successes in implementing laboratory animal science legislation and fostering collaboration among scientists in Greece.

  5. Animal Models of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert L.; Fleet, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that afflicts a large number of people in the United States. The use of animal models has the potential to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis, tumor biology, and the impact of specific molecular events on colon biology. In addition, animal models with features of specific human colorectal cancers can be used to test strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review we provide an overview of the mechanisms driving human cancer, we discuss the approaches one can take to model colon cancer in animals, and we describe a number of specific animal models that have been developed for the study of colon cancer. We believe that there are many valuable animal models to study various aspects of human colorectal cancer. However, opportunities for improving upon these models exist. PMID:23076650

  6. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  7. Classical Cosmology Through Animation Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, Milan; Kang, E. Y. E.; Longson, T.; State LA SciVi Project, Cal

    2010-05-01

    Computer animations are a powerful tool for explanation and communication of ideas, especially to a younger generation. Our team completed a three part sequence of short, computer animated stories about the insight and discoveries that lead to the understanding of the overall structure of the universe. Our principal characters are Immanuel Kant, Henrietta Leavitt, and Edwin Hubble. We utilized animations to model and visualize the physical concepts behind each discovery and to recreate the characters, locations, and flavor of the time. The animations vary in length from 6 to 11 minutes. The instructors or presenters may wish to utilize them separately or together. The animations may be used for learning classical cosmology in a visual way in GE astronomy courses, in pre-college science classes, or in public science education setting.

  8. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consistent with the Food and Drug Administration's regulations regarding such guaranties (21 CFR 7.12 and 7... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging materials. 381.144 Section... Packaging materials. (a) Edible products may not be packaged in a container which is composed in whole or...

  9. 9 CFR 390.2 - Published materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to Agency programs, which implement the laws listed in the Delegation of Authority, 7 CFR 2.15(a... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Published materials. 390.2 Section 390... § 390.2 Published materials. FSIS rules and regulations relating to its regulatory responsibilities...

  10. A proteomics perspective: from animal welfare to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, Anna; Turk, Romana; Roncada, Paola

    2014-03-01

    A fundamental issue of farm animal welfare is to keep animals clinically healthy, without disease or stress, particularly in intensive breeding, in order to produce safe and quality food. This issue is highly relevant for the food industry worldwide as they are directly linked to public health and welfare. The aim of this review is to explore how proteomics can assess and improve the knowledge useful for the strategic management of products of animal origin. Useful indications are provided about the latest proteomics tools for the development of novel biotechnologies serving the public health. The multivariate proteomics approach provides the bases for the discovery of biomarkers useful to investigate adaptation syndromes and oxidative stress. These two responses represent the milestones for the study of animal welfare. Moreover their implementation in the characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, and quality and safety control of the final product of animal origin represents the current frontier in official surveillance and tests development.

  11. Plant usage in protecting the farm animal health

    OpenAIRE

    Davidović V.; Todorović Joksimović M.; Stojanović B.; Relić R.

    2012-01-01

    Phytotherapy, as form of traditional and conventional veterinary medicine, includes curing, alleviation and prevention the onset of diseases in animals based on natural medicinal raw materials and folk remedies made from plants. In animal health care, the use of medicinal and other plants as supporting therapy, in preventive purposes or as a complete therapy has a large potential regardless whether it is the question of individual or combined plant medicina...

  12. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  13. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  14. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well.

  15. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well. PMID:25095477

  16. Teaching Physical Based Animation via OpenGL Slides

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Miao; Grogono, Peter; 10.1145/1557626.1557647

    2009-01-01

    This work expands further our earlier poster presentation and integration of the OpenGL Slides Framework (OGLSF) - to make presentations with real-time animated graphics where each slide is a scene with tidgets - and physical based animation of elastic two-, three-layer softbody objects. The whole project is very interactive, and serves dual purpose - delivering the teaching material in a classroom setting with real running animated examples as well as releasing the source code to the students to show how the actual working things are made.

  17. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction...

  18. 9 CFR 95.19 - Animal stomachs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal stomachs. 95.19 Section 95.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... stomachs. Stomachs or portions of the stomachs of ruminants or swine, other than those imported for...

  19. Animal models for human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, J H

    1982-01-01

    The use of animal models for the study of human disease is, for the most part, a recent development. This discussion of the use of animal models for human diseases directs attention to the sterile period, early advances, some personal experiences, the human as the model, biological oddities among common laboratory animals, malignancies in laboratory animals, problems created by federal regulations, cancer tests with animals, and what the future holds in terms of the use of animal models as an aid to understanding human disease. In terms of early use of animal models, there was a school of rabbis, some of whom were also physicians, in Babylon who studied and wrote extensively on ritual slaughter and the suitability of birds and beasts for food. Considerable detailed information on animal pathology, physiology, anatomy, and medicine in general can be found in the Soncino Babylonian Talmudic Translations. The 1906 edition of the "Jewish Encyclopedia," has been a rich resource. Although it has not been possible to establish what diseases of animals were studied and their relationship to the diseases of humans, there are fascinating clues to pursue, despite the fact that these were sterile years for research in medicine. The quotation from the Talmud is of interest: "The medical knowledge of the Talmudist was based upon tradition, the dissection of human bodies, observation of disease and experiments upon animals." A bright light in the lackluster years of medical research was provided by Galen, considered the originator of research in physiology and anatomy. His dissection of animals and work on apes and other lower animals were models for human anatomy and physiology and the bases for many treatises. Yet, Galen never seemed to suggest that animals could serve as models for human diseases. Most early physicians who can be considered to have been students of disease developed their medical knowledge by observing the sick under their care. 1 early medical investigator

  20. Standard of reporting animal-based experimental research in Indian Journal of Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Umme Aiman; Syed Ziaur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of present study was to survey and determine the reporting standards of animal studies published during three years from 2012 to 2014 in the Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP). Material and Methods: All issues of IJP published in the year 2012, 2013 and 2014 were reviewed to identify animal studies. Each animal study was searched for 15 parameters specifically designed to review standards of animal experimentation and research methodology. Observation: All pub...

  1. Implementation of Animal Dissection to Brush the Skills of Biology Experiments Up Qualitatively and the Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Takayuki; Torigoe, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Animal dissection is good teaching method to understand animal livings directly. But, almost all the science teachers don't have enough experiences and skills about it. Therefore, we caused students to do several animal dissections and compare the results on teacher training of graduate school of university.The results of this study are as follow: 1) Mouse and Frogs as typical animals of dissection are good teaching material for observing overview of inner organs.2) The other vertebrate anima...

  2. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

    OpenAIRE

    Probhakar Biswas; Triveni Dutt; Patel, M.; Reena Kamal; P. K. Bharti; Subhasish Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was ke...

  3. Animal rights v animal research: a modest proposal.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, J

    1996-01-01

    The practical problem of assuaging the opponents of animal research may be solved without formally addressing (or resolving) the underlying ethical questions of the debate. Specifically, a peaceful boycott of the "fruits" of animal research may lead to a wider cessation of such research, than, say, vocal or even violent protest. To assist those who might wish to participate in such a boycott- and, moreover, to critically inform them of the implications of their actions-1 offer a modest propos...

  4. Storytelling through animation: Oxford Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, D. M.; Cook, A.

    2013-12-01

    Oxford Sparks is a portal that launched in 2012, with the aim of bringing together resources that have been created across the University of Oxford and elsewhere for the purpose of wider engagement with science. To bring attention to this site, Oxford Sparks developed a set of high-quality short animations, each designed to tell a story relating to a current area of science. These animations have been launched on YouTube, and will shortly be available on iTunesU, and have covered broad areas of science from subduction zones (';Underwater Volcano Disaster'), through the early history of the solar system (';Rogue Planet') to the workings of the Large Hadron Collider (';A quick look around the LHC'). The animations have each been developed in close collaboration with researchers, created by a team with experience of education, engagement and outreach. The two minute scripts are intended to be both widely accessible and viewable as ';stand alone' stories. To this end, the scripts are humorous; while the animations are delightfully quirky, and created by professional animator with a degree-level science background. The animations are also intended to be used as ';lesson starters' in school, and educational activities graded for different age groups are being developed in parallel with the animations. They have been used, successfully, on pre-university summer schools, and in university classes. We are gathering both quantitative (analytics) and qualitative (school teacher and student focus group) feedback to monitor the success of the project, and to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In the first year since launch, Oxford Sparks animations were viewed over 80,000 times on YouTube, in part due to the surge of interest in the Large Hadron Collider animation after the discovery of the Higgs Boson.

  5. Agricultural Education--Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This compilation presents over 950 resumes of instructional materials in agricultural education, which have appeared quarterly in "Abstracts of Instructional Materials in Vocational and Technical Education" (AIM), Fall 1967 through Fall 1971. Resumes cover a broad range of fields and occupations, such as agribusiness, agronomy, animal and plant…

  6. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  7. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  8. Animation of boom failure processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer animations of oil boom failure mechanisms were discussed. The animations are useful in demonstrating the transient processes of boom failure. They consist of a series of images obtained from the graphical output of a computational fluid dynamics program, FLUENT, while the modeling is based on boom failure experiments carried out in flowing water channels. The animations can be viewed on a PC running under Windows '95. Three types of failures are presented, i. e. drainage failure, droplet entrainment and critical accumulation. 11 refs., 3 figs

  9. Computer animation algorithms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Parent, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the demands of research and the entertainment industry, the techniques of animation are pushed to render increasingly complex objects with ever-greater life-like appearance and motion. This rapid progression of knowledge and technique impacts professional developers, as well as students. Developers must maintain their understanding of conceptual foundations, while their animation tools become ever more complex and specialized. The second edition of Rick Parent's Computer Animation is an excellent resource for the designers who must meet this challenge. The first edition establ

  10. Animals in biomedical space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalism function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertibrate development. Following these preliminary animal experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  11. Optogenetics in psychiatric animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Christian T; Oettl, Lars-Lennart; Kelsch, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Optogenetics is the optical control of neuronal excitability by genetically delivered light-activated channels and pumps and represents a promising tool to fuel the study of circuit function in psychiatric animal models. This review highlights three developments. First, we examine the application of optogenetics in one of the neuromodulators central to the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders, the dopaminergic system. We then discuss recent work in translating functional magnetic resonance imaging in small animals (in which optogenetics can be employed to reveal physiological mechanisms underlying disease-related alterations in brain circuits) to patients. Finally, we describe emerging technological developments for circuit manipulation in freely behaving animals.

  12. A brave new animal for a brave new world: The British Laboratory Animals Bureau and the constitution of international standards of laboratory animal production and use, circa 1947-1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Robert G W

    2010-03-01

    In 1947 the Medical Research Council of Britain established the Laboratory Animals Bureau in order to develop national standards of animal production that would enable commercial producers better to provide for the needs of laboratory animal users. Under the directorship of William Lane-Petter, the bureau expanded well beyond this remit, pioneering a new discipline of "laboratory animal science" and becoming internationally known as a producer of pathogenically and genetically standardized laboratory animals. The work of this organization, later renamed the Laboratory Animals Centre, and of Lane-Petter did much to systematize worldwide standards for laboratory animal production and provision--for example, by prompting the formation of the International Committee on Laboratory Animals. This essay reconstructs how the bureau became an internationally recognized center of expertise and argues that standardization discourses within science are inherently internationalizing. It traces the dynamic co-constitution of standard laboratory animals alongside that of the identities of the users, producers, and regulators of laboratory animals. This process is shown to have brought into being a transnational community with shared conceptual understandings and material practices grounded in the materiality of the laboratory animal, conceived as an instrumental technology. PMID:20575490

  13. A brave new animal for a brave new world: The British Laboratory Animals Bureau and the constitution of international standards of laboratory animal production and use, circa 1947-1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Robert G W

    2010-03-01

    In 1947 the Medical Research Council of Britain established the Laboratory Animals Bureau in order to develop national standards of animal production that would enable commercial producers better to provide for the needs of laboratory animal users. Under the directorship of William Lane-Petter, the bureau expanded well beyond this remit, pioneering a new discipline of "laboratory animal science" and becoming internationally known as a producer of pathogenically and genetically standardized laboratory animals. The work of this organization, later renamed the Laboratory Animals Centre, and of Lane-Petter did much to systematize worldwide standards for laboratory animal production and provision--for example, by prompting the formation of the International Committee on Laboratory Animals. This essay reconstructs how the bureau became an internationally recognized center of expertise and argues that standardization discourses within science are inherently internationalizing. It traces the dynamic co-constitution of standard laboratory animals alongside that of the identities of the users, producers, and regulators of laboratory animals. This process is shown to have brought into being a transnational community with shared conceptual understandings and material practices grounded in the materiality of the laboratory animal, conceived as an instrumental technology.

  14. Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Katzourakis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized.

  15. Imaging of Ancient Egyptian Animal Mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Lidija M; Atherton-Woolham, Stephanie D; Adams, Judith E

    2015-01-01

    Human mummies have long been studied by using imaging as a primary investigative method. Mummified animal remains from ancient Egypt are less well researched, yet much can be learned about species diversity and the methods of preservation. Noninvasive imaging methods enable mummy bundles to remain intact, with no detrimental physical effects, thus ensuring protection of a valuable archaeological resource. This article is based on the research experience gathered during 13 years (2000-2012) with 152 animal mummies held in the collections of 17 museums in the United Kingdom. Conventional radiography, computed radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography (CT) available in the clinical setting were used to assess the value of each imaging modality in the study of animal mummies and related material. Radiography proved to be an excellent research method that provided initial insight into the contents of the mummy bundle, and CT contributed additional useful detail in some cases. Paleoradiologic analyses enabled information on mummy bundle contents to be proved, including the nature of the skeletal remains and the methods of mummification. An optimum method involving radiography and CT is described. PMID:26562240

  16. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal...... stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...... of the Swedish Rheumatism Association (n=1195) and to all scientific experts serving on Ethical Review Boards in Sweden (n=364), with response rates of 65 per cent and 60 per cent, respectively. Results show that patients hold a positive stance towards animal testing, but with many caveats, and the level...

  17. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  18. Animal pharming, two decades on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika

    2008-12-01

    Since its inception 20 years ago, the animal pharming industry has promoted transgenic animals as a cost-effective method of biopharmaceutical production. However, it took until 2006 for the first therapeutic product to gain regulatory approval. This was an important milestone, but scepticism still abounds. Can pharming regain investor confidence, and will society accept transgenic livestock as a production method? There is some cause for optimism, biopharmaceuticals are a large, expanding market and animal pharming has already made considerable strides. A novel production platform has been established, groundbreaking technologies developed, a necessary regulatory framework put in place. Nevertheless, despite cost advantages, pharming has become a niche production method and its long term success may depend on products unique to transgenic animals. PMID:18663595

  19. Domestication genomics: evidence from animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Xie, Hai-Bing; Peng, Min-Sheng; Irwin, David; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Animal domestication has far-reaching significance for human society. The sequenced genomes of domesticated animals provide critical resources for understanding the genetic basis of domestication. Various genomic analyses have shed a new light on the mechanism of artificial selection and have allowed the mapping of genes involved in important domestication traits. Here, we summarize the published genomes of domesticated animals that have been generated over the past decade, as well as their origins, from a phylogenomic point of view. This review provides a general description of the genomic features encountered under a two-stage domestication process. We also introduce recent findings for domestication traits based on results from genome-wide association studies and selective-sweep scans for artificially selected genomic regions. Particular attention is paid to issues relating to the costs of domestication and the convergent evolution of genes between domesticated animals and humans.

  20. Algab animafilmide festival "Animated dreams"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Nukufilmi stuudio ja animafilmide festival "Animated Dreams" (21.-25. XI kinos Sõprus) korraldavad Nukufilmi 50. juubeli tähistamiseks 22.-24. novembrini rahvusvahelise konverentsi "Voodoo hing". Filmiprogrammist tutvustavalt

  1. [Poultry husbandry and animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, U

    2003-08-01

    Close interactions are existing between poultry husbandry and poultry health. The more housing systems and the environment of the animals can be controlled, the less the general risk of disorders in poultry flocks--especially of diseases which are caused by the introduction of microoganisms. Resulting deterimental effects will affect not only the animals themselves, but also pose a risk indirectly for humans via food originating from animals under production. Also, by keeping the risk of infections as low as possible, the use of therapeutics can be avoided. This will reduce the risk of residues in food of animal origin. In summary, with all probability open poultry husbandry systems, especially those including free range systems pose increased risks for poultry health and consequently for the quality of food originating from poultry production. At least, those systems require highest standards of biosecurity, defined as management, location, farm layout, cleaning and desinfection incl. pest control programs, immunization and specific veterinary monitoring concepts to prevent infections.

  2. Animal pharming, two decades on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika

    2008-12-01

    Since its inception 20 years ago, the animal pharming industry has promoted transgenic animals as a cost-effective method of biopharmaceutical production. However, it took until 2006 for the first therapeutic product to gain regulatory approval. This was an important milestone, but scepticism still abounds. Can pharming regain investor confidence, and will society accept transgenic livestock as a production method? There is some cause for optimism, biopharmaceuticals are a large, expanding market and animal pharming has already made considerable strides. A novel production platform has been established, groundbreaking technologies developed, a necessary regulatory framework put in place. Nevertheless, despite cost advantages, pharming has become a niche production method and its long term success may depend on products unique to transgenic animals.

  3. Animal models in peritoneal dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitidou, Olga; Peppa, Vasiliki I.; Leivaditis, Konstantinos; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G.; Liakopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been extensively used over the past years as a method of kidney replacement therapy for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). In an attempt to better understand the properties of the peritoneal membrane and the mechanisms involved in major complications associated with PD, such as inflammation, peritonitis and peritoneal injury, both in vivo and ex vivo animal models have been used. The aim of the present review is to briefly describe the animal models that have been used, and comment on the main problems encountered while working with these models. Moreover, the differences characterizing these animal models, as well as, the differences with humans are highlighted. Finally, it is suggested that the use of standardized protocols is a necessity in order to take full advantage of animal models, extrapolate their results in humans, overcome the problems related to PD and help promote its use. PMID:26388781

  4. Animal Models in Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGA eNIKITIDOU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal dialysis (PD has been extensively used over the past years as a method of kidney replacement therapy for patients with end stage renal disease. In an attempt to better understand the properties of the peritoneal membrane and the mechanisms involved in major complications associated with PD, such as inflammation, peritonitis and peritoneal injury, both in vivo and ex vivo animal models have been used. The aim of the present review is to briefly describe the animal models that have been used, and comment on the main problems encountered while working with these models. Moreover, the differences characterizing these animal models, as well as, the differences with humans are highlighted. Finally, it is suggested that the use of standardized protocols is a necessity in order to take full advantage of animal models, extrapolate their results in humans, overcome the problems related to PD and help promote its use.

  5. Boneless Pose Editing and Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Hansen, Kristian Evers; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pose editing and animation method for triangulated surfaces based on a user controlled partitioning of the model into deformable parts and rigid parts which are denoted handles. In our pose editing system, the user can sculpt a set of poses simply by transforming...... the handles for each pose. Using Laplacian editing, the deformable parts are deformed to match the handles. In our animation system the user can constrain one or several handles in order to define a new pose. New poses are interpolated from the examples poses, by solving a small non-linear optimization...... problem in order to obtain the interpolation weights. While the system can be used simply for building poses, it is also an animation system. The user can specify a path for a given constraint and the model is animated correspondingly....

  6. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  7. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  8. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  9. A Review of Biomedical Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珊珊

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the review of the biomedical composite materials.It introduces the operational definition,the classification of biomedical composite materials,and its constituents within itself.In this thesis,the last part presents the application of this kind of material.By writing this paper,I hope that people will get a comprehensive knowledge of the biomedical composite material and make further and deeper research in this material by which way to animate the material science industry.

  10. Animal Models of Ricin Toxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Chad J; Song, Kejing; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Gardner, Donald J.; Seth H Pincus

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of ricin toxicosis are necessary for testing the efficacy of therapeutic measures, as well studying the mechanisms by which ricin exerts its toxicity in intact animals. Because ricin can serve as a particularly well-characterized model of tissue damage, and the host response to that damage, studies of the mechanisms of ricin toxicity may have more general applicability. For example, our studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of ricin-induced hypoglycemia ...

  11. Ethical considerations in animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2009-01-01

    Scientists undoubtedly owe their great advance and knowledge in biomedical research to millions of animals which they use every year in often-times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. One of the important issues in scientific research is to consider ethics in animal experimentation. Since this is a crucial issue in the modern era of medical research, in this paper, we have provided some guidelines (most of which have been adopted from Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the...

  12. Artificial cloning of domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Keefer, Carol L.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike ...

  13. Animal cloning: advances and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Chuaire Lilian; Sánchez Magda Carolina; Franco María Liliana

    2004-01-01

    Few recent advances have revolutionized the developmental biology as the animal cloning has. Since the birth of Dolly, the sheep, in 1996, which was the first derived clone of a mature animal, a new scientific era began. It has been characterized by growing demystification that differentiated cells are unalterable entities in its nuclear organization and chromatin structure, and by a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the development. Throughout this paper, we will review ...

  14. Collective behaviour across animal species

    OpenAIRE

    DeLellis, P.; G. Polverino; Ustuner, G.; Abaid, N.; Macri, S.; Bollt, E. M.; M. Porfiri

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, whe...

  15. Symptomatic animal models for dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Bethany K.; Hess, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic animal models have clinical features consistent with human disorders and are often used to identify the anatomical and physiological processes involved in the expression of symptoms and to experimentally demonstrate causality where it would be infeasible in the patient population. Rodent and primate models of dystonia have identified basal ganglia abnormalities, including alterations in striatal GABAergic and dopaminergic transmission. Symptomatic animal models have also establish...

  16. Animation Showing Backshell and Parachute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation zooms in on the backshell and parachute, about 300 meters to the south of the Phoenix lander. In the distance, about 9 miles or 15 kilometers away, is a range of hills. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Animal models in myopia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffel, Frank; Feldkaemper, Marita

    2015-11-01

    Our current understanding of the development of refractive errors, in particular myopia, would be substantially limited had Wiesel and Raviola not discovered by accident that monkeys develop axial myopia as a result of deprivation of form vision. Similarly, if Josh Wallman and colleagues had not found that simple plastic goggles attached to the chicken eye generate large amounts of myopia, the chicken model would perhaps not have become such an important animal model. Contrary to previous assumptions about the mechanisms of myopia, these animal models suggested that eye growth is visually controlled locally by the retina, that an afferent connection to the brain is not essential and that emmetropisation uses more sophisticated cues than just the magnitude of retinal blur. While animal models have shown that the retina can determine the sign of defocus, the underlying mechanism is still not entirely clear. Animal models have also provided knowledge about the biochemical nature of the signal cascade converting the output of retinal image processing to changes in choroidal thickness and scleral growth; however, a critical question was, and still is, can the results from animal models be applied to myopia in children? While the basic findings from chickens appear applicable to monkeys, some fundamental questions remain. If eye growth is guided by visual feedback, why is myopic development not self-limiting? Why does undercorrection not arrest myopic progression even though positive lenses induce myopic defocus, which leads to the development of hyperopia in emmetropic animals? Why do some spectacle or contact lens designs reduce myopic progression and others not? It appears that some major differences exist between animals reared with imposed defocus and children treated with various optical corrections, although without the basic knowledge obtained from animal models, we would be lost in an abundance of untestable hypotheses concerning human myopia. PMID:26769177

  18. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Cooke

    2013-01-01

    Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms...

  19. Tool use by aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M

    2013-11-19

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  20. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  1. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  2. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronesi Paola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy. Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities.

  3. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN LIVE ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MiĠuko VLAD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of foreign trade, in Romania there were some major changes over the past 20 years. In this paper we have focused on the Romanian external trade. The products which have been taken into account were live animals and animal products. Thus, we have made an analyse on the Romanian imports and exports at the global level and at the European level. Focused on the animal products, on the global level, there were registered major differences during the first seven years in the analysed period. Breaking by branches, we have pointed out huge distinctions between imports and exports, where the balance of trade was completely negative. Meanwhile, to have a good view on the international trade there were made links, based on some indexes between imports, exports, GDP and investments.

  4. Animal rights and animal experiments: an interest-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, Alasdair

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether non-human animals have a moral right not to be experimented upon. It adopts a Razian conception of rights, whereby an individual possesses a right if an interest of that individual is sufficient to impose a duty on another. To ascertain whether animals have a right not to be experimented on, three interests are examined which might found such a right: the interest in not suffering, the interest in staying alive, and the interest in being free. It is argued that whi...

  5. The animal welfare act as applied to primate animal laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindaman, D F

    1983-01-01

    The Animal Welfare Act (Public Law 89-544, as amended) was passed by Congress to assure the humane care and treatment of certain warmblooded animals bought, sold, held, or transported for purposes of research, exhibition, or for use as pets. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for administering the minimum care and treatment requirements promulgated under the authorities of this law. This paper presents in some detail the requirements and responsibilities of users of nonhuman primates for research, testing, or experimentation.

  6. 75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Additional...: Mr. Neil Hammerschmidt, Program Manager, Animal Disease Traceability, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road...

  7. Problem Animals : A Critical Genealogy of Animal Cruelty and Animal Welfare in Swedish Politics 1844–1944

    OpenAIRE

    Svärd, Per-Anders

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing academic interest in the human–animal relationship, little research has been directed toward the political regulation of animal treatment. Even less attention has been accorded to the emergence of the long dominant paradigm in this policy area, namely, the ideology of animal welfare. This book attempts to address this gap by chronicling the early history of animal politics in Sweden with the aim of producing a critical, deconstructive genealogy of animal cruelty and animal wel...

  8. Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Draheim, Megan M.; Patterson, Katheryn W.; Rockwood, Larry L.; Gregory A. Guagnano; E. Christien M. Parsons

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Understanding the public’s attitudes towards urban wildlife is an important step towards creating management plans, increasing knowledge and awareness about wildlife, and fostering coexistence between people and wildlife. Using undergraduate college students in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area (where coyotes are a recent arrival), this study examined attitudes towards coyotes and coyote management methods. Amongst other findings, we found differences in opinion between ke...

  9. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    绿波

    2011-01-01

    The pig is wronged Long, long ago, the pig often helped people with their work. There was a family which had a pig and a dog. The master told the pig and the dog to tilt land (耕地) . The pig dug the land with its snout (猪嘴), but the dog lay on the ground sleeping.

  10. ANIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    看似是一部超无厘头的荒诞剧,但却能出第二季。其实这部作品在表面的荒诞不羁和满眼充斥的黄段子下,还有另一条里剧情线路,在这些从天而降的天使背后其实隐藏着一个巨大的命运流转,第二季中在这个方面会有更多的揭示。这部片子绝就绝在荒诞与深刻之间转换地天农无缝,前一个镜头还在描绘天上的谜团,下一秒就可能开始扯淡。

  11. Animations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    20XX年的地球,人类对无休止的环境破坏十分困惑。为了保护被毁坏的自然和减少的动物,开展人工森林的项目,受到联合国委托的企业“永存地球“的CEO太山贤造,成功开发了“新原始森林”,在原始森林中生活的动物被强迫住进了这个世界在这个世界出生并成长的白色狮子潘加的藏子雷欧园为胆小总被同伴嘲笑。”我要成为爸爸妈妈那样的森林大帝!”如此发誓的雷欧和深信新森林伟大的大山贤谴的儿子贤一相遇,故事开始了……

  12. Advances in farm animal transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kues, Wilfried A; Niemann, Heiner

    2011-11-01

    The first transgenic livestock were produced in 1985 by microinjection of foreign DNA into zygotic pronuclei. This was the method of choice for more than 20 years, but more efficient protocols are now available, including somatic cell nuclear transfer and lentiviral transgenesis. Typical applications include carcass composition, lactational performance and wool production, as well as enhanced disease resistance and reduced environmental impact. Transgenic farm animal production for biomedical applications has found broad acceptance. In 2006 the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved commercialization of the first recombinant pharmaceutical protein, antithrombin, produced in the mammary gland of transgenic goats. As the genome sequencing projects for various farm animal species are completed, it has become feasible to perform precise genetic modifications employing the emerging tools of lentiviral vectors, small interfering ribonucleic acids, meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases and transposons. We anticipate that genetic modification of farm animals will be instrumental in meeting global challenges in agricultural production and will open new horizons in biomedicine.

  13. XX. Animal models of pneumocystosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dei-Cas, E.; Brun-Pascaud, M.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;

    1998-01-01

    As in vitro culture systems allowing to isolate Pneumocystis samples from patients or other mammal hosts are still not available, animal models have critical importance in Pneumocystis research. The parasite was reported in numerous mammals but P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) experimental models were...... a source of parasites taxonomically related to P. carinii sp. f hominis. Moreover, primates might be used as experimental hosts to human Pneumocystis. A marked variability of parasite levels among corticosteroid-treated animals and the fact that the origin of the parasite strain remains unknown......, are important drawbacks of the corticosteroid-treated models. For these reasons, inoculated animal models of PCP were developed. The intratracheal inoculation of lung homogenates containing viable parasites in corticosteroid-treated non-latently infected rats resulted in extensive, reproducible Pneumocystis...

  14. Auditory sensitivity in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Klaus; Popper, Arthur N; Hawkins, Anthony D; Akamatsu, Tomonari; André, Michel; Branstetter, Brian K; Lammers, Marc; Radford, Craig A; Stansbury, Amanda L; Aran Mooney, T

    2016-06-01

    A critical concern with respect to marine animal acoustics is the issue of hearing "sensitivity," as it is widely used as a criterion for the onset of noise-induced effects. Important aspects of research on sensitivity to sound by marine animals include: uncertainties regarding how well these species detect and respond to different sounds; the masking effects of man-made sounds on the detection of biologically important sounds; the question how internal state, motivation, context, and previous experience affect their behavioral responses; and the long-term and cumulative effects of sound exposure. If we are to better understand the sensitivity of marine animals to sound we must concentrate research on these questions. In order to assess population level and ecological community impacts new approaches can possibly be adopted from other disciplines and applied to marine fauna.

  15. Biocentric ethics and animal prosperity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchustegui, A T

    2005-01-01

    Singer's utilitarian and Regan's deontological views must be rejected because: (1) they rely on criteria for moral standing that can only be known a priori and (2) if these criteria were successful, they'd be too restrictive. I hold that while mental properties may be sufficient for moral standing, they are not necessary. (3) Their criteria of moral standing do not unambiguously abrogate needless harm to animals. I defend a theory of biocentric individualism that upholds the principle of species egalitarianism while at the same time recognizing that in certain cases, human needs must outweigh the needs of non-humans. On this view, moral consideration is not conferred only on beings that have human-life mental properties. Finally, it offers an unambiguous recommendation for the abolition of harmful animal experimentation, factory farming, and killing animals for sport. PMID:16276672

  16. Rejecting empathy for animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Ethicists have become increasingly skeptical about the importance of empathy in producing moral concern for others. One of the main claims made by empathy skeptics is a psychological thesis: empathy is not the primary psychological process responsible for producing moral concern. Some of the best...... evidence that could confirm or disconfirm this thesis comes from research on empathizing with animals. However, this evidence has not been discussed in any of the prominent critiques of empathy. In this paper, I investigate six different empirical claims commonly made about empathy toward animals. I find...... all six claims to be problematic, though some are more plausible than others, and argue that empathy is indeed not psychologically central to producing moral concern for animals. I also review evidence indicating that other moral emotions, particularly anger, are more strongly engaged with producing...

  17. Blowing in the Wind Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    These are two separate, side-by-side animations made from the same nine images the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took looking into the sky after 5:17 p.m. local time on Sol 8 (June 2, 2008), the eighth Martian day of the mission. The SSI was pointed almost straight up, toward the southwest. Zenith is near the top of the center frame. In the left animation, the images were stretched to enhance contrast. The right animation highlights variations between each image and the next. The variations are likely dust blown by winds passing through the SSI's field of view. The images suggest the dust is blowing from west to east. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth;

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  19. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth;

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the...

  20. Biocentric ethics and animal prosperity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchustegui, A T

    2005-01-01

    Singer's utilitarian and Regan's deontological views must be rejected because: (1) they rely on criteria for moral standing that can only be known a priori and (2) if these criteria were successful, they'd be too restrictive. I hold that while mental properties may be sufficient for moral standing, they are not necessary. (3) Their criteria of moral standing do not unambiguously abrogate needless harm to animals. I defend a theory of biocentric individualism that upholds the principle of species egalitarianism while at the same time recognizing that in certain cases, human needs must outweigh the needs of non-humans. On this view, moral consideration is not conferred only on beings that have human-life mental properties. Finally, it offers an unambiguous recommendation for the abolition of harmful animal experimentation, factory farming, and killing animals for sport.

  1. Exotic rotaviruses in animals and rotaviruses in exotic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Souvik; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2014-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are a major cause of viral diarrhea in the young of mammals and birds. RVA strains with certain genotype constellations or VP7-VP4 (G-P) genotype combinations are commonly found in a particular host species, whilst unusual or exotic RVAs have also been reported. In most cases, these exotic rotaviruses are derived from RVA strains common to other host species, possibly through interspecies transmission coupled with reassortment events, whilst a few other strains exhibit novel genotypes/genetic constellations rarely found in other RVAs. The epidemiology and evolutionary patterns of exotic rotaviruses in humans have been thoroughly reviewed previously. On the other hand, there is no comprehensive review article devoted to exotic rotaviruses in domestic animals and birds so far. The present review focuses on the exotic/unusual rotaviruses detected in livestock (cattle and pigs), horses and companion animals (cats and dogs). Avian rotaviruses (group D, group F and group G strains), including RVAs, which are genetically divergent from mammalian RVAs, are also discussed. Although scattered and limited studies have reported rotaviruses in several exotic animals and birds, including wildlife, these data remain to be reviewed. Therefore, a section entitled "rotaviruses in exotic animals" was included in the present review. PMID:25674582

  2. 11th Animation Film Festival Animated Dreams : Animatheque

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali alafestivali Animated Dreams lühitutvustus. Festival toimub 18. - 22. nov. 2009 Tallinnas. Alates 2008. aastast teeb festival koostööd Eesti Kunstiakadeemia Animatsiooni osakonnaga ja kord kuus toimuvad KUMU Auditooriumis animafilmide linastused programmis Animatheque

  3. Occurence and trend analysis of organochlorine in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Peters, R.J.B.; Egmond, van H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2014-01-01

    In this report historical data are used to give insight into the trends in levels of organochlorine compounds in compound feeds and feeding materials for animals in the Netherlands. The main focus is on pesticides, but non-dioxin-like PCBs have been studied as well. The latter will be included in th

  4. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  5. Animal Science Update Programs--The Role of Teacher Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Ed; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural teachers must continually improve their knowledge and skills in animal science. Teacher educators can play a significant role in this process through the following channels: summer courses, teleconferencing, workshops, summer internships, technical update programs, field days, curriculum materials development and dissemination, and…

  6. Ectoparasites of free-roaming and captive animals in South Carolina zoos and an assessment of their threat to animals welfare and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ectoparasites were collected from free-roaming and captive animals in zoos to document the species present and to determine if they were associated with vertebrate pathogens. We examined 133 animals or their associated nesting and bedding materials for ectoparasites. Fifty-five species of ectoparasi...

  7. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.;

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included

  9. Android 30 Animations Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Written in Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book takes a step-by-step approach with each chapter made up of three to five tutorials that introduce and explain different animation concepts. All concepts are explained with real-world examples that are fun to read and work with. If you are familiar with developing Android applications and want to bring your apps to life by adding smashing animations, then this book is for you. The book assumes that you are comfortable with Java development and have familiarity with creating Android Views in XML and Java. The tutorials assume that you will wa

  10. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cooke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  11. Animal models of portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan G Abraldes; Marcos Pasarín; Juan Carlos; García-Pagán

    2006-01-01

    Animal models have allowed detailed study of hemodynamic alterations typical of portal hypertension and the molecular mechanisms involved in abnormalities in splanchnic and systemic circulation associated with this syndrome. Models of prehepatic portal hypertension can be used to study alterations in the splanchnic circulation and the pathophysiology of the hyperdynamic circulation. Models of cirrhosis allow study of the alterations in intrahepatic microcirculation that lead to increased resistance to portal flow. This review summarizes the currently available literature on animal models of portal hypertension and analyzes their relative utility. The criteria for choosing a particular model,depending on the specific objectives of the study, are also discussed.

  12. The Phenomenology of Animal Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestel, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bi-constructivist approach to the study of animal life, which is opposed to the realist-Cartesian paradigm in which most ethology operates. The method is elaborated through the examples of a knot-tying orangutan in a Paris zoo and chile-eating cats in a New York apartment. We show that, when grounded in the operational framework of the phenomenological approach, the interpretation of animal life acquires a much more robust character than is usually supposed.

  13. Flyover Animation of Phoenix Workspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated 'flyover' of the workspace of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's was created from images taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), or the 14th Martian day after landing. The visualization uses both of the camera's 'eyes' to provide depth perception and ranging. The camera is looking north over the workspace. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Animal agriculture: symbiosis, culture or ethical conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Vonne; Olsson, I Anna S

    2006-01-01

    Several writers on animal ethics defend the abolition of most or all animal agriculture, which they consider an unethical exploitation of sentient non-human animals. However, animal agriculture can also be seen as a co-evolution over thousands of years, that has affected biology and behaviour on the one hand, and quality of life of humans and domestic animals on the other. Furthermore, animals are important in sustainable agriculture. They can increase efficiency by their ability to transform...

  15. The ethics of international animal law

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyzes international animal law, understood broadly as any international legal regulation pertaining to animals. The purpose of the thesis is to explain the moral implications of this branch of international law: how the law perceives the animal and how it believes animals ought to be treated. It attempts to do so by contrasting the law with moral philosophy pertaining to the status and treatment of animals as well as the core characteristics of the branch of animal law found in...

  16. Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI): a manifesto

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Although we have involved animals in machine and computer interactions for a long time, their perspective has seldom driven the design of interactive technology meant for them and animal-computer interaction is yet to enter mainstream user-computer interaction research. This lack of animal perspective can have negative effects on animal users and on the purposes for which animal technology is developed. Not only could an Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI) agenda mitigate those effects, it coul...

  17. Essential veterinary education in the cultural, political and biological complexities of international trade in animals and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C C

    2009-08-01

    Globalisation has changed the veterinary profession in many ways and academic institutes may need to re-tool to help future professionals deal with the changes in a successful and productive way. The remarkably expanded and expanding volume of trade and traffic in animals and animal products means that to be effective veterinarians must grasp some of the complexities inherent in this trade. Being able to engage productively in cross-cultural dialogue will be important in negotiations over livestock shipments and also within the context of the delivery of medical services to companion animals in societies that are becoming increasingly diverse. Understanding the political landscapes that influence trade decisions will help to expedite agreements and facilitate the transfer of goods and materials that involve animal health. Disease emergence will continue to occur, and an awareness of the factors responsible and the response measures to undertake will help to contain any damage. PMID:20128459

  18. Selected Natural Materials in History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian F.V.Vincent

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Technology of natural materials Early man used conveniently shaped stones as tools."Workshop" areas have been found with large numbers of stones, some showing signs of being worked[1].However, organic materials like wood will decay under normal wet conditions in the presence of oxygen, so we won't find the same sort of evidence for wooden tools. It is safe to assume that early man used sticks as probes and clubs, and maybe even for making some sort of nestlike protection against the elements and predators, since we see chimpanzees and other animals doing this sort of thing. So wood, and almost certainly other plant materials such as fibrous leaves, and bone and other materials gleaned from dead animals, would be used from the earliest times. We need to know this in order to establish the idea that Man can be expected to have a long history of the use and manipulation of natural materials. This needs skills in choosing materials for certain uses on the basis of their mechanical properties,whether those properties are to do with the ease of shaping the material or the effectiveness of that material in use. Occasionally the material was chosen simply because it was readily available. If we find that a particular material was always used for a certain job, it's reasonable to deduce that Man was exerting materials selection criteria through experience.

  19. 9 CFR 53.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 53.7 Section 53.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Virginia and Texas associated with the H5 or H7 virus, premises may not be restocked with poultry until...

  20. Director, Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIAMS Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section (LACU) provides support to all NIAMS Intramural Research Program (IRP) Branches and Laboratories using animals. The...

  1. Understanding Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Almost everything people have ever done has involved materials. Historical evidence indicates that "engineered materials" have been available and utilized for the benefit of humankind since the Neolithic period, beginning about 10,000 BC. Some of these materials have been in existence for thousands of years. At first, materials consisted of wood,…

  2. Natural selection and animal personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemanse, NJ; Reale, D

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress has been made on the study of personality in animals, both from a mechanistic and a functional perspective. While we start knowing more about the proximal mechanisms responsible for the consistent differences in behaviour between individuals in a population, little is known yet about

  3. Toxoplasmosis in animals and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. gondii is one of the most studied parasites.It causes disease in virtually all warm blooded animals Many scientists use T. gondii to investigate problems in cell biology and genetics. The book is divided into 19 chapters. Chapter 1 deals with biology. Chapter 2, which deals with toxoplasmosis...

  4. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  5. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.I. Gibson; R.A. Bray; D. Hunt; B.B. Georgiev; T. Scholz; P.D. Harris; T.A. Bakke; T. Pojmanska; K. Niewiadomska; A. Kostadinova; V. Tkach; O. Bain; M.C. Durette-Desset; L. Gibbons; F. Moravec; A. Petter; Z.M. Dimitrova; K. Buchmann; E.T. Valtonen; Y. de Jong

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fa

  6. A Vet and His Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 毛有春

    2002-01-01

    I was a vet(兽医) in a small town,but liked to work for a circus. Fortunately one day, I received a phone call from a manager of a certain circus. He wanted me to be in charge of his animals-all 700 of them! Then I could work in a circus!

  7. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  8. Animal Magnetism and Curriculum History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    This article elaborates the impact that crises of authority provoked by animal magnetism, mesmerism, and hypnosis in the 19th century had for field formation in American education. Four layers of analysis elucidate how curriculum history's repetitive focus on public school policy and classroom practice became possible. First, the article surveys…

  9. Sharing the World with Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the era of industry and technology, human beings continue to brutally hunt and kill animals to obtain furs or simply to satisfy gourmet appetites; everyday, more species disappear forever—species whose existence was the result of millions of years of evolution.

  10. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes an

  11. Evolutionary genomics of animal personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oers, K.; Mueller, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research on animal personality can be approached from both a phenotypic and a genetic perspective. While using a phenotypic approach one can measure present selection on personality traits and their combinations. However, this approach cannot reconstruct the historical trajectory that was taken by e

  12. ANIMAL MODELS FOR FOOD ALLERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models have been used to provide insight into the complex immunological and pathophysioligical mechanisms of human Type 1 allergic diseases. Research efforts that include mechanistic studies in search of new therapies and screening models for hazard identification of potential allergens in a...

  13. Animal Models for Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helieh S. Oz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models and cell cultures have contributed new knowledge in biological sciences, including periodontology. Although cultured cells can be used to study physiological processes that occur during the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the complex host response fundamentally responsible for this disease cannot be reproduced in vitro. Among the animal kingdom, rodents, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and nonhuman primates have been used to model human periodontitis, each with advantages and disadvantages. Periodontitis commonly has been induced by placing a bacterial plaque retentive ligature in the gingival sulcus around the molar teeth. In addition, alveolar bone loss has been induced by inoculation or injection of human oral bacteria (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis in different animal models. While animal models have provided a wide range of important data, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the findings are applicable to humans. In addition, variability in host responses to bacterial infection among individuals contributes significantly to the expression of periodontal diseases. A practical and highly reproducible model that truly mimics the natural pathogenesis of human periodontal disease has yet to be developed.

  14. The Animated Reading of Scripture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Klooster, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Historical-critical exegesis and pre-critical exegesis are complementary contributors to our understanding of Scripture. Animated reading is a proposal to read Scripture in a way that receives the best of both, at the service of the different forms of ministry theologians are engaged in.

  15. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning. PMID:16225138

  16. Animal Rights Activism Threatens Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the movement against the use of dissections in science laboratories. Examples of protests across the United States are included. Compared is the plight of using animals in a biology classroom and the demise of the teaching of evolution in some areas. (KR)

  17. The Moral Status of Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2006-01-01

    Human beings share a world and its scarce resources with other intelligent creatures, yet humans act in ways that deny other animals a dignified existence. A discussion on why notions of basic justice, entitlement, and law can, and must be extended across the species barrier is presented.

  18. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  19. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause Lyme disease. Some wild animals may carry rabies. Enjoy wildlife from a distance. Pets can also make you sick. Reptiles pose a particular risk. Turtles, snakes and iguanas can transmit Salmonella bacteria to their owners. You can get rabies from an infected dog or toxoplasmosis from handling ...

  20. Nietzsche y el olvido animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemm, Vanessa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents a reading of Nietzsche’s second Untimely Consideration and the second essay of his On the Genealogy of Morals that reevaluates the importance of animal forgetfulness in Nietzsche’s conception of history and politics. On my account the insight in the value of animal forgetfulness allows Nietzsche to redefine memory as an artistic force, and historiography as an art of interpretation. This article relates this insight to the relation between politics and the promise in the second essay of On the Genealogy of Morals, arguing that here the rediscovery of the value of animal forgetfulness allows Nietzsche to redefine politics as a realm in which the animality of the human being can take on a creative and productive role exemplified by the promise of the sovereign individual instead of being considered as an object of domination.Este ensayo presenta una lectura de la segunda Consideración intempestiva y del segundo ensayo de La genealogía de la moral que revaloriza la importancia del olvido animal en la concepción de la historia y de la política propuesta por Nietzsche. En mi interpretación, el reconocimiento del valor del olvido animal permite a Nietzsche redefinir la memoria como una fuerza artística y la historiografía como un arte de la interpretación. Este artículo conecta esta intuición con la relación entre política y promesa establecida por Nietzsche en el segundo ensayo de La genealogía de la moral, argumentando que el descubrimiento del valor del olvido animal permite a Nietzsche redefinir la esfera de la política como una esfera en la cual la animalidad del ser humano pude tomar un rol creativo y productivo ejemplificado por la promesa del individual soberano en vez de ser considerado como un objeto de dominación y explotación.

  1. Materials Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Tomlinson

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Materials development is both a field of study and a practical undertaking. As a field it studies the principles and procedures of the design, implementation and evaluation and adaptation of language teaching materials, by teachers for their own classrooms and by materials writers for sale or distribution. Ideally these two aspects of materials development are interactive in that the theoretical studies inform and are informed by the development and use of classroom materials (e. g. Tomlinson 1998c).

  2. Collective motion in animal groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzin, Iain

    2004-03-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the relationship between individual behavior and population-level properties in animal groups. One of the fundamental problems is related to spatial scale; how do interactions over a local range result in population properties at larger, averaged, scales, and how can we integrate the properties of aggregates over these scales? Many group-living animals exhibit complex, and coordinated, spatio-temporal patterns which despite their ubiquity and ecological importance are very poorly understood. This is largely due to the difficulties associated with quantifying the motion of, and interactions among, many animals simultaneously. It is on how these behaviors scale to collective behaviors that I will focus here. Using a combined empirical approach (using novel computer vision techniques) and individual-based computer models, I investigate pattern formation in both invertebrate and vertebrate systems, including - Collective memory and self-organized group structure in vertebrate groups (Couzin, I.D., Krause, J., James, R., Ruxton, G.D. & Franks, N.R. (2002) Journal of Theoretical Biology 218, 1-11. (2) Couzin, I.D. & Krause, J. (2003) Advances in the Study of Behavior 32, 1-75. (3) Hoare, D.J., Couzin, I.D. Godin, J.-G. & Krause, J. (2003) Animal Behaviour, in press.) - Self-organized lane formation and optimized traffic flow in army ants (Couzin, I.D. & Franks, N.R. (2003) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 270, 139-146) - Leadership and information transfer in flocks, schools and swarms. - Why do hoppers hop? Hopping and the generation of long-range order in some of the largest animal groups in nature, locust hopper bands.

  3. 75 FR 34361 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal... requirements in 5 U.S.C. 801-808. List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, Animal feeds. 0...

  4. 75 FR 9334 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Chlortetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal... CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  5. Allometry of animal–microbe interactions and global census of animal-associated microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Simmons, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Animals live in close association with microorganisms, mostly prokaryotes, living in or on them as commensals, mutualists or parasites, and profoundly affecting host fitness. Most animal–microbe studies focus on microbial community structure; for this project, allometry (scaling of animal attributes with animal size) was applied to animal–microbe relationships across a range of species spanning 12 orders of magnitude in animal mass, from nematodes to whales. Microbial abundances per individual animal were gleaned from published literature and also microscopically counted in three species. Abundance of prokaryotes/individual versus animal mass scales as a nearly linear power function (exponent = 1.07, R2 = 0.94). Combining this power function with allometry of animal abundance indicates that macrofauna have an outsized share of animal-associated microorganisms. The total number of animal-associated prokaryotes in Earth's land animals was calculated to be 1.3–1.4 × 1025 cells and the total of marine animal-associated microbes was calculated to be 8.6–9.0 × 1024 cells. Animal-associated microbes thus total 2.1–2.3 × 1025 of the approximately 1030 prokaryotes on the Earth. Microbes associated with humans comprise 3.3–3.5% of Earth's animal-associated microbes, and domestic animals harbour 14–20% of all animal-associated microbes, adding a new dimension to the scale of human impact on the biosphere. This novel allometric power function may reflect underlying mechanisms involving the transfer of energy and materials between microorganisms and their animal hosts. Microbial diversity indices of animal gut communities and gut microbial species richness for 60 mammals did not indicate significant scaling relationships with animal body mass; however, further research in this area is warranted. PMID:26108631

  6. GIGA ANIMAL CARE : Mice & Zebrafish Animal Facility and Transgenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Remy, Benoît; Ectors, Fabien; Winandy, Marie; Rentier, Bernard; Drion, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In fundamental research, animal models allow to place molecular and cellular observations back into their physiological context. In applied research, these models still remain a mandatory step to evaluate the efficiency and the toxicity of potential treatments, before going to clinical trials. Mouse and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are two very interesting models because of a short live cycle and a high prolificacy. They require a limited space. Their genome is well known and shows a high ...

  7. Auto-choreography: Animating Sentient Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Satchell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The stories lives tell, the narratives they follow and the spaces they embody are critical to articulating the conditions of everyday life. This resonates in the fraught relations within and between surf cultures, affluent societies and economic development. In the context of Rural Cultural Studies the analysis of coastal place allows for a combination of self-reflexive, critical and transformative modes of inquiry. This pedagogy of the coast offers innovative approaches to contemporary anthropogenic and existential challenges. For the Ecological Humanities, adjusting to living synergistically requires dialogue, ethical frameworks and care. This includes attention to the more-than human world and the non-human inhabitants with whose lives people become entangled in the mutuality of wandering paths and shared haunts. The imaginary-material architectures and geographies of these samples of coastal life, are topographies woven of spatiality and contemporary coastal writing. These contemplations attempt to sketch performative interactions from the auto-choreography animating sentient archives.

  8. Microbiological Standardization in Small Laboratory Animals and Recommendations for the Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Karaman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological standardization in laboratory animal breeding is based on the classification according to the microorganisms that the animals host and consequently their upbringing environment, as well as the certification of their microbiological status and the protection of their properties. Although there are many different classifications for microbiological standardization of laboratory animals, they can be basically classified as; gnotobiotic animals, animals bred with a complete barrier system (Germ free, GF, with Colonization-Resistant Flora; CRF, animals bred with a partial barrier system (Specified Pathogen Free, SPF, and animals bred by conventional methods in units without barriers (Conventional; CV. Monitoring of microbiological standardization is carried out in two ways. One is controlling barrier systems (process control and the other is controlling laboratory animals (product control. In controlling barrier systems samples are taken routinely from ambient air, surfaces, base plate materials of animals, foods and waters, and microbiological tests are carried out. FELASA guidelines are frequently used in monitoring laboratory animals. These guidelines where the monitoring frequency, sample size, micro-organisms to be tested, vary according to the microbiological quality of the animals, and test methods and are frequently updated by FELASA and shared in their web pages. In our country, in general, laboratory animals used for experimental studies present no microbiological standardization, and follow-up protocols are not implemented. Therefore, construction of facilities for the production of microbiologically standard animals and establishment of backup laboratories testing microbiological quality should be established.

  9. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  10. Functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a compilation of chapters written by active researchers and offer information and critical insights about semiconducting materials and devices, dielectric and ferroelectric materials, magnetic materials, composites and other functional materials. In the book, the functional materials are discussed from the mixed valences and stoichiometry points of view, to understand the structural evolution and transformation of different material systems - in particular, the role played by crystal structures in property control of functional materials using advanced characterization techniques. The book examines the properties, soft-chemistry preparations, electronic structures and crystal structures of transition and rare earth metals and their oxides. The book presents a strong argument that functional materials system is the future direction of the multidisciplinary research involving physics, chemistry, materials science and electrical engineering, with emphasis on device applications. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3120 - Animal glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Animal glue. 178.3120 Section 178.3120 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3120 Animal glue. Animal glue may be safely used as a component of articles..., transporting, or holding food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Animal glue consists of...

  13. 75 FR 47769 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. DATES: The... Traceability, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 46, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5571....

  14. Emotional Communicative Body Animation for Multiple Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Magnenat-Thalmann, N.

    2008-01-01

    Current body animation systems for Interactive Virtual Humans are mostly procedural or key-frame based. Although such methods provide for a high flexibility of the animation system, often it is not possible to create animations that are as realistic as animations obtained using a motion capture syst

  15. The role of Drawing in Animated Films

    OpenAIRE

    Kunz, Sahra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Historically, the role of drawing in traditional animation was unequivocal. How has this role been affected or changed by the advent of computer animation, and the increasingly widespread use of digital tools in animation? Can the contemporary animator work exclusively with these digital tools and forego the use of drawing, or are these tools an extension of traditional drawing utensils?

  16. The peculiarity of animal complexes of chernozem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zhukov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The genetic connection of animal complexes and soil cover is in the basis of diagnostic ability of animals to indicate and quantity assessment of soil processes. The ecoiGgical view and peculiarity of soil animal complexes has the most impotent value. The soil animal complexes of steppe and their trans-formation under artificial forest are discussed

  17. The peculiarity of animal complexes of chernozem

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Zhukov

    2005-01-01

    The genetic connection of animal complexes and soil cover is in the basis of diagnostic ability of animals to indicate and quantity assessment of soil processes. The ecoiGgical view and peculiarity of soil animal complexes has the most impotent value. The soil animal complexes of steppe and their trans-formation under artificial forest are discussed

  18. 43 CFR 423.35 - Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animals. 423.35 Section 423.35 Public... Animals. (a) You must not bring pets or other animals into public buildings, public transportation vehicles, or sanitary facilities. This provision does not apply to properly trained animals...

  19. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.15 Blood meal... entry. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal materials intended for use...

  20. Applied manure research—looking forward to the benign roles of animal manure in agriculture and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    By definition, animal manure is discarded animal excreta and bedding materials usually applied to soils as a fertilizer for agricultural production. However, the impact of manure generation and disposal is far more than the role of organic fertilizers, even though the fertilizer function of animal m...