WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal manure treatment

  1. Vermicomposting of sludge from animal wastewater treatment plant mixed with cow dung or swine manure using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Weibing; Hao, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Xuewei; Bai, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Vermicomposting of animal wastewater treatment plant sludge (S) mixed with cow dung (CD) or swine manure (SM) employing Eisenia fetida was tested. The numbers, weights, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored for 60 days at a detecting interval of 15 days. The results indicated that 100 % of the sludge can be the suitable food for growth and fecundity of E. fetida, while addition of CD or SM in sludge significantly (P theory basic both for management of animal wastes and the production of earthworm proteins using E. fetida. PMID:26755173

  2. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  3. Vermicomposting of sludge from animal wastewater treatment plant mixed with cow dung or swine manure using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Weibing; Hao, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Xuewei; Bai, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Vermicomposting of animal wastewater treatment plant sludge (S) mixed with cow dung (CD) or swine manure (SM) employing Eisenia fetida was tested. The numbers, weights, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored for 60 days at a detecting interval of 15 days. The results indicated that 100 % of the sludge can be the suitable food for growth and fecundity of E. fetida, while addition of CD or SM in sludge significantly (P < 0.05) increased the worm biomass and reproduction. The sludge amended with 40 % SM can be a great medium for the growth of E. fetida, and the sludge amended with 40 % CD can be a suitable medium for the fecundity of E. fetida. The addition of CD in sludge provided a better environment for the fecundity of earthworm than SM did. Moreover, vermicomposts obtained in the study had lower pH value, lower total organic carbon (TOC), lower NH4 (+)-N, lower C/N ratio, higher total available phosphorous (TAP) contents, optimal stability, and maturity. NH4 (+)-N, pH and TAP of the initial mixtures explained high earthworm growth. The results provided the theory basic both for management of animal wastes and the production of earthworm proteins using E. fetida.

  4. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  5. Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steroid hormone distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Popovic, Olga; Björklund, Erland;

    2015-01-01

    in the vertebrate steroidogenesis, may occur at substantial levels in animal manure and should be addressed. In agricultural practices the animal manure can be applied to the soil as raw manure, but also as a solid or liquid manure fraction, since current livestock production facilities utilizes a recently...... developed technology, which separates raw animal manure into a solid and a liquid fraction. This technology offers an improved handling and refined distribution of the manure nutrients to the farmlands and the possibility to reduce the environmental impact of manure nutrients, especially avoiding...... and integrated clean-up pressurized liquid extraction, and further cleaned by a two step solid-phase extraction before derivatization and finally analyzed by GC-MS/MS. It was found that the steroid hormones were predominant in the solid manure separate calling for manure management strategies to reduce...

  6. Phosphorus reclamation through hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Steven M; Molde, Joseph S; Timler, Jacobe G; Wood, Brandon M; Mikula, Anthony L; Vozhdayev, Georgiy V; Colosky, Edward C; Spokas, Kurt A; Valentas, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    Projected shortages of global phosphate have prompted investigation of methods that could be employed to capture and recycle phosphate, rather than continue to allow the resource to be essentially irreversibly lost through dilution in surface waters. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures from large farms was investigated as a scenario for the reclamation of phosphate for agricultural use and mitigation of the negative environmental impact of phosphate pollution. Hydrothermal reaction conditions were identified for poultry, swine, and cattle manures that resulted in hydrochar yields of 50-60% for all three manures, and >90% of the total phosphorus present in these systems was contained in the hydrochars as precipitated phosphate salts. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 80-90% by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 81-87% based on starting manures by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Swine and cattle manures produced hydrochars with combustion energy contents comparable to those of high-end sub-bituminous coals. PMID:25111737

  7. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  8. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    .  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk......  The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  9. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental...... and applying the material to the cereals in the rotation, possibly after digestion in a biogas reactor. Cereal grain protein content was increased more by the N in the grass-clover than from manure application, probably due to different timing ofN availability. Green-manure crops or manures with a relatively...

  10. Kinetics and energetics of producing animal-manure-based biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of animal manure produce biochar with multiple beneficial use potentials for improving soil quality and the environment. The kinetics and energetics of pyrolysis in producing manure-based biochar char were reviewed and analyzed. Kinetic analysis of pyrolysis showed that the higher the temp...

  11. [Anaerobic digestion of animal manure contaminated by tetracyclines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zi-Lin; Liu, Yuan-Lu; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yuan, Shou-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion of pig manure spiked with tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) and the degradation of the two antibiotics during the anaerobic digestion at 35 degrees C were investigated. The results indicate that propionate was the main volatile fatty acid produced during the anaerobic digestion followed by acetate. Compared with the CTC addition, TC + CTC addition showed obvious inhibitory effect on the hydrolysis and acidification of easily digestible organic components of pig manure. The cumulative methane production of TC, CTC, TC + CTC and CK2 during anaerobic digestion was 386.4 mL, 406.0 mL, 412.1 mL and 464.6 mL, respectively. Degradation of TC and CTC followed the first-order kinetic equation. The half-life of TC and CTC was 14-18 days and 10 days, respectively. After the treatment of 45-day anaerobic digestion, the degradation efficiency of TC was 88.6%-91.6% with 97.7%-98.2% of CTC. Therefore, anaerobic digestion shows the benefit on the management of animal manures contaminated by tetracyclines. PMID:22624404

  12. Ecosustainable animal manure treatment in countries with intensive breeding; Trattamento ecocompatibile delle deiezioni zootecniche in territori ad alta intensita' produttiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M. [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Bozzini, A. [Food Agricultural Organization, Rome (Italy); Montani, R. [INTEAM Srl., Verona (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In the Italian Veneto Region, a highly industrialized territory, the present intensive livestock farming (cattle, swine, chicken and rabbit) causes a series of serious problems to agricultural and industrial activities. In fact, if the raw (not digested) manure is directly spread on the soil, it leads to soil acidification and contamination, to possible water table contamination, to the diffusion of livestock and human infections and consequent damages to all production and commercialization chain and finally to all society. The organic amount coming from the livestock farms located in each of the 22 sanitary districts of the Veneto region (ASL) is calculated and the suitable manure treatment processes to obtain an organic fertilizer following the Italian and E.U. environmental regulations, is reported. The solid-liquid separation step, performed with traditional technologies (centrifuge, mechanical separation) can lead to a rational solution of the problem: the solid part is digested in special bioreactors and the liquid one is purified with membrane technologies. The paper suggests a strategic pathway for a sustainable manure management, based on a package of the following devices: the improvement of the hygiene in the buildings; the improvement with innovative and flexible technologies. In this way, the production of a precious and necessary organic manure for soil and agriculture development, coupled with an improvement of human and animal health, could be assured. [Italian] Nella regione Veneto, l'intensa attivita' zootecnica dovuta ad allevamenti di bovini, suini, avicoli e cunicoli, in un territorio particolarmente industrializzato crea complessi problemi di gestione delle deiezioni con preoccupanti ricadute sull'ambiente, sull'agricoltura e sulla salute dei cittadini. Lo spargimento fuori controllo delle deiezioni causa l'acidificazione e la sterilizzazione dei suoli, la contaminazione delle falde acquifere e la diffusione di

  13. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P. [Resource Development Associates, Marietta, GA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  14. Applied manure research—looking forward to the benign roles of animal manure in agriculture and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    By definition, animal manure is discarded animal excreta and bedding materials usually applied to soils as a fertilizer for agricultural production. However, the impact of manure generation and disposal is far more than the role of organic fertilizers, even though the fertilizer function of animal m...

  15. DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE FOR USE AS ANIMAL FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure have become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by drying. Dried manure can be utilized as a feed for ruminants because of its high nitrogen content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drying temperature and depth, as well as the nutritional profile of dried manure and its suitability as an animal feed. Dried poultry manure contained sufficient levels of digestible energy, crude fiber, crude protein, crude fat, cobalt and iodine. Although dried poultry manure did not meet the dietary requirements for calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, sulfur or zinc it could be used as a feed stuff for ruminants after supplementation with the required nutrients. Heated air drying was most efficient at 60°C and at a depth of 3 cm. During drying poultry manure decreased in pH (8.4-6.9, protein content (43 to 39-43% and amino acid content. The greatest reductions in microbial population occurred at the highest temperature (60°C and the lowest manure depth (1cm. Reductions in the number of bacteria, mold/yeast and E. coli were 65-99, 74-99 and 99.97% respectively, Salmonellae was not detected in the dried product. Dried poultry manure was found to have a non-offensive odor. Odor intensity and offensiveness were reduced by 65 and 69% respectively during drying. Thin layer heated air drying of poultry manure between 40 and 60°C created a safe and nutritionally appropriate feed for ruminants.

  16. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) catch crop (with and without), and 2) manure (with and without). The four-course crop rotation was spring barley undersown with grass/clov...

  17. Methane emissions during storage of different treatments from cattle manure in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Wang; Chiqing Duan; Yaqin Ji; Yichao Sun

    2010-01-01

    Many studies on methane emissions from animal manure have revealed that animal manure is a major source of methane emissions to the atmosphere that can have negative consequences for people,animals and environment.In general,the release of methane can be influenced by the type of feed taken by animals,temperature,manure characteristics and so on.This study aimed at quantifying and comparing methane release from dairy manure with different piling treatments.Four treatments were designed including manure piling height 30,45,60 cm and adding 6 cm manure every day until the piling height was 60 cm.Static chamber method and gas chromatography were adopted to measure the methane emissions from April to June in 2009.Methane emission rates of all four manure treatments were low in the first week and then increased sharply until reaching the peak values.Subsequently,all the methane emission rates decreased and fluctuated within the steady range till the end of the experiment.Wilcoxon nonparametric tests analysis indicated that methane emission rate was greatly influenced by manure piling height and manner.There were no significant relationships between methane emission rates and the temperatures of ambience and heap.However,regression analysis showed that the quadratic equations were found between emission rates of all treatments and the gas temperature in the barrels.

  18. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs. PMID:26197426

  19. Nutrient and Bacterial Transport From Agricultural Lands Fertlized With Different Animal Manures

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Anurag

    2003-01-01

    The increase of animal agriculture coupled with excess manure production, and the reduced availability of land has led to the over application of animal manure on agricultural fields. The excessive application of manure is responsible for nutrient and bacterial pollution of downstream waterbodies. Manure application based on the crop phosphorus (P) requirements has been recommended as a viable method to reduce nutrient pollution. A plot scale study was conducted to measure the loss of nutrien...

  20. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Infascelli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies and incentives aimed at controlling the amount of nitrate entering downstream water systems. The province of Caserta in southern Italy is characterized by high levels of animal manure loading. A comparison between manure nitrogen production and nitrate concentration in groundwater was carried out in this area, using geostatistical tools and spatial statistics. The results show a discrepancy between modelling of nitrate leaching and monitoring of the groundwater and, moreover, no spatial correlation between nitrogen production in livestock farms and nitrate concentration in groundwater, suggesting that producers are not following the regulatory procedures for the agronomic use of manure. The methodology developed in this paper could be applied also in other regions in which European Union fertilization plans are not adequately followed.

  1. Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organizing and managing the whole manure handling chain from the animal house through transport to the point of use (e.g. in the field) is a challenging task requiring consideration of manure type and operating conditions. Solid and liquid manure must be handled differently, using very different tec...

  2. Effect of Compost versus Animal Manure Fertilization on Crop Development, Yield and Nitrogen Residue in the Organic Cultivation of Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Willekens, Koen; De Vliegher, Alex; Vandecasteele, Bart; Carlier, Lucien

    2008-01-01

    Organic farmers in Flanders use manure from extensive conventional livestock systems due to a lack of animal manure from organic producers. The research question was if on-farm prepared compost mainly consisting of vegetal residues can be a good alternative. A long-term fertilization trial with a 4-year crop rotation of maize - potatoes - spring barley - red clover is carried out on two fields with a time difference of one year. The fertilization treatments are on-farm prepared compost, appli...

  3. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Thanh Xuan;

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens......PCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid...

  4. From animals to crops : environmental consequences of current and future strategies for manure management

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, N.

    2014-01-01

    Animal manure is a key component that links crop and livestock production as it contains valuable nutrients for the soil and crop. Manure is also a source of environmental pollution through losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and losses of carbon (C). These losses are largely determined by the way manure is managed. Technologies to reduce nutrient and C losses from manure mainly focused on reducing a single emission while unwillingly increasing another emission at th...

  5. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Agyarko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM, cattle manure (CM and pig manure (PG on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11 treatments which were: Control (soil only; 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. Available phosphorus and other parameters were assessed using standard methods. Results were statistically analyzed using the the GenStat (11th Edition statistical software package. The amount and type of animal manure in the amendment affected the amount of the available P released. The addition of 2.5g manure to 2.5g RP in a kg of soil significantly (P<0.05 increased available P by 4 to 7 times over the sole 2.5g RP/kg soil treatment. Doubling the amount of manure in the amendment (5g manure + 2.5g RP almost doubled the amount of P released, with the poultry manure combinations being more significant. The amount of available P in the soil positively related to the plant height (R2=63, leaf area (R2=0.55, dry weight (R2=0.73 and the percentage P in the leaf (R2=0.88 of lettuce. The PM at 2.5gRP + 5gPM recorded the highest significant (P<0.05 values. The study has provided further basis for manure selection and quantities to be used in enhancing the release of P from rock phosphate. However, investigations need to be continued using nuclear techniques.

  6. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  7. Effect of Composting on Dissolved Organic Matter in Animal Manure and Its Binding with Cu

    OpenAIRE

    Fengsong Zhang; Yanxia Li; Xiong Xiong; Ming Yang; Wei Li

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural application of raw animal manure introduces large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into soil and would increase transport of heavy metals such as Cu which are widely present in animal manure. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the evolution of DOM from pig and cattle manures during composting through excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the binding ability of DOM toward copper (Cu) ions with the aid of fluorescence quenching titrat...

  8. Changes in heavy metal contents in animal feeds and manures in an intensive animal production region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Dong, Yuanhua; Yang, Yunya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhang, Xumei

    2013-12-01

    The 360 feed and manure samples were collected from 150 animal farms in Jiangsu Province, China and analyzed for heavy metals. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in animal feeds were 15.9-2041.8 and undetected-392.1 mg/kg respectively, while Hg, As, Pb, Cd, and Cr in all feeds were below 10 mg/kg. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Cr in animal manures were 8.4-1726, 39.5-11379, and 1.0-1602 mg/kg respectively, while As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were animal feed and manure were positively correlated (p animal manure have been greatly increased over 18 years and the contribution of manures to soil should be considered.

  9. Influence of animal manures on the biology of temperate earthworm, Eisenia fetida in tropical semiarid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulikeshi, M B; Amoji, S D; Shagoti, U M; Biradar, V A

    2001-04-01

    For understanding the potential utility in field scale production of vermicompost and vermiprotein economically, Eisenia fetida was cultured to establish the influence of (i) prevailing tropical semiarid (North-East region of Karnataka, India) environmental factors and (ii) different animal manures (cattle, horse and 1:1 mixture of cattle and horse) (on its growth, reproduction and life span. In three forms of diet, growth (mg/d/g live weight of worm) was almost similar, but the biomass in cattle manure (565.7 +/- 15.3) was significantly more than horse manure (494.9 +/- 22.8) and 1:1 mixture (470.3 +/- 22.0). Mean cocoon production (per worm/week) in horse manure (0.16) was significantly (Pmanure (1.6) and in 1:1 mixed manure (1.4). Cattle favoured biomass, growth and cocoon production. Horse manure inhibited cocoon production and the conserved energy in this process might have been added to the body weight almost equal to that in cattle manure. In 1:1 mixed manure, the biomass was less due to moderate cocoon production (presumably due to the stimulatory influence of 50% cattle manure) under semifavorable nutrients and environmental conditions. Fecundity of the worms declined with aging, despite favourable nutrients and environmental conditions. Worms survived up to 92, 68 and 66 weeks in cattle manure, 1:1 mixed manure and horse manure respectively.

  10. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J;

    One major pre-condition for assessing a manure management technique in a whole system or LCA-approach is to define a reference system against which this technique can be assessed. This report thus presents and details the establishment of such reference systems, comprising eight different manure...... of the manure for all main stages of the manure continuum (e.g. ex-animal, ex-housing, ex-storage). This report was prepared as part of Baltic Manure Work Package 5 - Assessing Sustainability of Manure Technology Chains....

  11. Economic analyses of pig manure treatment options in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Tereza; Troy, Shane M; Gilkinson, Stephen; Frost, Peter; Xie, Sihuang; Zhan, Xinmin; Harrington, Caolan; Healy, Mark G; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-02-01

    An economic analysis was performed on treatment options for pig manure in Ireland. Costs were based on a 500 sow integrated pig farm producing 10,500 m(3) of manure per year at 4.8% dry matter. The anaerobic digestion of pig manure and grass silage (1:1; volatile solids basis) was unviable under the proposed tariffs, with costs at € 5.2 m(-3) manure. Subsequent solid-liquid separation of the digestate would cost an additional € 12.8 m(-3) manure. The treatment of the separated solid fraction by composting and of the liquid fraction by integrated constructed wetlands, would add € 2.8 and € 4.6 m(-3) manure, respectively to the treatment costs. The cost analysis presented showed that the technologies investigated are currently not cost effective in Ireland. Transport and spreading of raw manure, at € 4.9 m(-3) manure (15 km maximum distance from farm) is the most cost effective option.

  12. Speciation and transformation of heavy metals during vermicomposting of animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of vermicomposting on the speciation and mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, and Cu) in cattle dung (CD) and pig manure (PM) using tessier sequential extraction method. Results showed that the pH, total organic carbon and C/N ratio were reduced, while the electric conductivity and humic acid increased after 90days vermicomposting. Moreover, the addition of earthworm could accelerate organic stabilization in vermicomposting. The total heavy metals in final vermicompost from CD and PM were higher than the initial values and the control without worms. Sequential extraction indicated that vermicomposting decreased the migration and availability of heavy metals, and the earthworm could reduce the mobile fraction, while increase the stable fraction of heavy metals. Furthermore, these results indicated that vermicomposting played a positive role in stabilizing heavy metals in the treatment of animal manure. PMID:26976060

  13. Assessing the effect of different treatments on decomposition rate of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Tariq M; Higgins, Stewart S; Ndegwa, Pius M; Frear, Craig S; Stöckle, Claudio O

    2016-11-01

    Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) contribute to greenhouse gas emission, but the magnitude of these emissions as a function of operation size, infrastructure, and manure management are difficult to assess. Modeling is a viable option to estimate gaseous emission and nutrient flows from CAFOs. These models use a decomposition rate constant for carbon mineralization. However, this constant is usually determined assuming a homogenous mix of manure, ignoring the effects of emerging manure treatments. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the decomposition rate constants of dairy manure in single and three-pool decomposition models, and to develop an empirical model based on chemical composition of manure for prediction of a decomposition rate constant. Decomposition rate constants of manure before and after an anaerobic digester (AD), following coarse fiber separation, and fine solids removal were determined under anaerobic conditions for single and three-pool decomposition models. The decomposition rates of treated manure effluents differed significantly from untreated manure for both single and three-pool decomposition models. In the single-pool decomposition model, AD effluent containing only suspended solids had a relatively high decomposition rate of 0.060 d(-1), while liquid with coarse fiber and fine solids removed had the lowest rate of 0.013 d(-1). In the three-pool decomposition model, fast and slow decomposition rate constants (0.25 d(-1) and 0.016 d(-1) respectively) of untreated AD influent were also significantly different from treated manure fractions. A regression model to predict the decomposition rate of treated dairy manure fitted well (R(2) = 0.83) to observed data. PMID:27479239

  14. DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE FOR USE AS ANIMAL FEED

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Ghaly; K. N. MacDonald

    2012-01-01

    The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure have become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by...

  15. Manure Storage, Process Improvement for Animal Feeding Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, John; Smith, Dallen

    2004-01-01

    The capability to store manure reduces or eliminates the need to collect, remove, and spread manure on a daily basis. In past years, when liv estock operations were smaller, daily hauling or very short-term storage with frequent hauling was a common and manageable system. However, as operations increased in size, and manure management systems evolved from solid/semisolid systems to liquid systems, the need for storage became more pronounced.

  16. Investigation of the inorganic and organic phosphorus forms in animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliari, Paulo H; Laboski, Carrie A M

    2012-01-01

    The most viable way to beneficially use animal manure on most farms is land application. Over the past few decades, repeated manure application has shown adverse effects on environmental quality due to phosphorus (P) runoff with rainwater, leading to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Improved understanding of manure P chemistry may reduce this risk. In this research, 42 manure samples from seven animal species (beef and dairy cattle, swine, chicken, turkey, dairy goat, horse, and sheep) were sequentially fractionated with water, NaHCO₃, NaOH, and HCl. Inorganic (P(i)), organic (P(o)), enzymatic hydrolyzable (P(e); monoester-, DNA-, and phytate-like P), and nonhydrolyzable P were measured in each fraction. Total dry ash P (P(t)) was measured in all manures. Total fractionated P (P(ft)) and total P(i) (P(it)) showed a strong linear relationship with P(t). However, the ratios between P(ft)/P(t) and P(it)/P(t) varied from 59 to 117% and from 28 to 96%, respectively. Water and NaHCO₃ extracted most of the P(i) in manure from ruminant+horse, whereas in nonruminant species a large fraction of manure P was extracted in the HCl fraction. Manure P(e) summed over all fractions (P(et)) accounted for 41 to 69% of total P(0) and 4 to 29% of P(t). The hydrolyzable pool in the majority of the manures was dominated by phytate- and DNA-like P in water, monoester- and DNA-like P in NaHCO₃, and monoester- and phytate-like P in NaOH and HCl fractions. In conclusion, if one assumes that the P(et) and P(it) from the fractionation can become bioavailable, then from 34 to 100% of P(t) in animal manure would be bioavailable. This suggests the need for frequent monitoring of manure P for better manure management practices.

  17. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms ''certification of the links within the chain''. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is ''certification''. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from ''waste'', is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  18. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkuyten, J.C.A.M. [European Manure Association, EMA, Deventer (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms `certification of the links within the chain`. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is `certification`. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from `waste`, is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  19. Phosphorus movement and speciation in a sandy soil profile after long-term animal manure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Chardon, W.J.; McDowell, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term application of phosphorus (P) with animal manure in amounts exceeding removal with crops leads to buildup of P in soil and to increasing risk of P loss to surface water and eutrophication. In most manures, the majority of P is held within inorganic forms, but in soil leachates organic P fo

  20. From animals to crops : environmental consequences of current and future strategies for manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Animal manure is a key component that links crop and livestock production as it contains valuable nutrients for the soil and crop. Manure is also a source of environmental pollution through losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and losses of carbon (C). These losses are large

  1. Toxicity of ozonated animal manure to the house fly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, S J; Kim-Yang, H; Walker, E D; Roman, H; Yokoyama, M T

    2001-01-01

    Swine manure slurries were ozonated at a dosage of 1 g/L and tested for their toxicity to the house fly (Musca domestica). The observed toxicity of ozonated swine manure was consistent and independent of origin of the swine manure. A dose (dilution) response curve was performed. A 50% dilution in the ozonated swine manure slurry resulted in 90% reduction in toxicity. Neither the synthetic nor ozonated synthetic swine manure, both of which contained higher concentrations of formaldehyde and three other unidentified carbonyl compounds than the ozonated swine manure, were toxic to the flies. Ozonated swine manure slurry was centrifuged and passed through a 0.45-microm filter. The liquid phase was as toxic as the unfiltered slurry; as such, the toxicant appears to be present in liquid phase. Neither ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde, nor other simple aldehydes appeared to be the toxic agent. The toxic agent appears to be a polar chemical compound and is concentrated in the urine. Several possible compounds have been identified. The toxicity of untreated and ozonated manure slurries from different livestock was compared. Six animal manure slurries (beef and dairy cattle, horse, poultry, sheep, and swine) were ozonated (dosage of 1 g/L) and tested for toxicity to the house fly. Ozonated dairy cattle manure slurry showed 78% mortality after 72 h, whereas ozonated swine manure slurry achieved a 100% mortality rate in 48 h. Neither the unozonated dairy nor swine manure slurries, nor any of the other raw or ozonated manure slurries, were toxic to the flies.

  2. Cow Manure Composting by Microbial Treatment for Using as Potting Material: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwaneen, Waleed S

    2016-01-01

    Dairy industry is flourishing in Saudi Arabia for the last two decades producing milk and milk products to meet the population needs. Simultaneously, it is also producing large amount of dairy waste (animal manure) posing a serious environmental issues. Vermicomposting (conversion of animal manure into compost by bacterial treatments) is considered as one of the safest means for efficient management and to mitigate environmental pollution issues resulting from land disposal of raw dairy wastes. The main objective of this studywas to summarize different processes of vermicomposting and identified the most important bacteria species suitable for vermicomposting using animal manure especially the cowdung. The review showed that among the different bacteria species, Eisenia fetida is the most efficient and commonly used bacteria for vermicomposting to develop compost using cow dung (dairy manure). Overall,this review has highlighted the various vermicomposting technologies, various bacteria species involved in vermicomposting, effect on soil and plant growth as well as the benefits of using compost prepared by way of vermicomposting. The study showed a lot of potential for the production of compost by vermicomposting technology using appropriate bacteria species which is safe, friendly and is associated with minimum environmental issues for safe land disposal of dairy waste (animal manure) with minimum possible environmental issues for the adjacent population. PMID:26930795

  3. Availability of P and K in ash from thermal gasification of animal manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubaek, G.H.; Soerensen, Peter [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agroecology, Tjele (Denmark); Stoholm, P. [Danish Fluid Bed Technology (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    In areas like Denmark where the livestock density is regulated on the basis of manure N content, surplus phosphorus is becoming a key environmental problem, which has to be solved in order to avoid increasing P losses to surface waters in the future. Combustion of animal manure or its solid fraction and the subsequent export of the ash to nutrient-poor areas could be a solution. However, combustion is difficult due to fouling and corrosion problems, and the ash will only be marketable if the fertiliser value of the remaining P and K is acceptable and if the content of contaminants (heavy metals) is sufficiently low. A combined fast pyrolysis and char gasification technique for treatment of biomass has been developed where organic material such as manure is processed in a fluidised bed reactor at temperatures and around 700 deg. C. After simple separation of a fine textured ash, the cleaned gas is suitable for combustion in a separate unit for energy production. One advantage of this technique is that the temperature can be finely controlled, and temperatures exceeding the melting point of e.g. potassium chloride can be avoided. The low and well-controlled temperature probably also prevents severe reductions in the availability of nutrients in the ash. However, the availability of P and K in the ash remains to be thoroughly tested. (au)

  4. ANIMAL MANURE – REDUCED QUALITY BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun;

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion may reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, but we know little about its impact on soil fertility. Reduced concentrations of easily degradable C in the manure may imply less food for the soil fauna and microflora. A field experiment to study its effect on crop yields and soil...... caused the death of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms shortly after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. So far, we have observed only small differences in the effects of digested and undigested manure...

  5. Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission from Animal Manure Using the Closed Chamber Method for Gas Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Călin VAC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure is an important source of anthropogenic GHG (greenhouse gas: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. The livestock contributes with 37% of global CH4 emission. The sources of GHG (CO2 and CH4 are the liquid manure or slurry storage and the compact solid manure. Measurement systems of GHG emission are important for the selection of the appropriate technology. By using the closed chamber method for soil, landfills, volcanoes etc., the present study evaluates the estimation of total emissions of methane and carbon dioxide from an experimental farm in Cluj County, Romania. The investigated area covered with sheep solid manure was about 579 m2 and ~5 cm thick, for cattle was about 12 m2 and 5 m thick and for swine was about 1.5 m5 and 0.5 m thick. The total methane emission measured for sheep manure was 0.83 t CH4/year and for cattle manure was 0.185 t CH4/year. The total carbon dioxide emission measured for sheep manure was 61.3 t CO2/year and for cattle manure was 4.7 t CO2/year. The measurement for pigs manure was high and this could be due to the freshness of the manure. The estimated emissions showed that a considerable amount of CH4 and CO2 is produced also by an experimental farm and an appropriate management of manure is important for reducing greenhouse gas. In this respect, we believe that the future solution for a green economy is to use manure in biogas plants.

  6. 黑水虻对畜禽废弃物治理的研究进展%Development of Animal Manure Treatment by Black Soldier Fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘韶娜; 赵智勇

    2016-01-01

    Black soldier fly (Hermtia illm L.) is a kind of wide spread insect. The larve is live on animal waste, animal carcass,decomposed organic matter and so on.It can be used for organic waste management which can reduce environmental pollution . The dry larve is 42%~43% of its whole weight , which contained 42%~44%protein,31%~35% fat,and essitial amino-acid.It can be used as an animal feed which larve can produced antibacterial peptide and biodiesel.%黑水虻(Hermitia illm L.)是一种广泛分布的昆虫,幼虫取食动物尸体粪便、腐烂有机物等,能被用作有机废弃物的无害化处理,减少了环境污染。幼虫虫体干物质达42%~43%,粗蛋白质占干重的42%~44%,粗脂肪占31%~35%,含有丰富的必需氨基酸,是畜禽饲料的优质资源。

  7. Report from the working group on combustion of domestic animal manure fractions; Rapport fra arbejdsgruppen om afbraending af fraktioner af husdyrgoedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    During the past few years there has been a considerable development of new technology for treatment of domestic animal manure. The development implies that environmental problems connected with storage and use of domestic animal manure for fertilization are reduced. Through several years experiences with utilization of domestic animal manure's energy potential in biogas plants have been compiled, and the technological basis for connecting slurry separation and biogas production is present. In order to promote this development, the agricultural sector has a growing desire to be able to dispose of parts from the separated slurry through combustion, hereby using the energy content to the energy production. However, there are a number of barriers that make combustion of domestic animal manure impossible. In order to uncover existing barriers for combustion of domestic animal manure fractions the Danish Minister of food appointed an inter ministerial committee on 30 March 2005. The committee should: 1. Describe the regulations within the ministerial areas that affect combustion of domestic animal manure, and also describe the regulations that act as barriers, 2. Describe binding international agreements, directives and regulations that affect combustion of domestic animal manure and which of these that act as barriers, 3. Evaluate the potential for regulation adjustments and other actions, that might further the development of sustainable energy production in which domestic animal manure is a part, 4. Evaluate socio-economic pros and cons in the light of environmental and climatic impacts, and 5. Describe estimated governmental financial consequences of potential adjustments of regulations and other actions. (BA)

  8. ARC technology turns animal manure into new source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golka, V.

    2003-09-30

    Bio-based fertilizers, reusable water and reduced greenhouse gas emissions are the results of the Integrated Manure Utilization System (IMUS) began some five years ago at the Alberta Research Council. The process incorporates anaerobic digestion that produces biogas, which is then used to generate electricity, while the nutrient byproducts of the process are used to produce bio-based fertilizer and water, which is reusable for applications like irrigation. A pilot-scale IMUS plant was constructed at Highland Feeders in Vegreville, which will produce one MW of electricity from the manure produced by 7,500 head of cattle. Commercialization of the technology is underway as a joint venture involving the Alberta Research Council, industry, the federal and provincial governments and non-governmental agencies. Because IMUS is designed to overcome the challenges associated with high-solid manure typical of most outdoor feedlots in North America, the technology is adaptable to other biomass sources, including liquid manure, food processing waste and municipal waste; a significant development in the field of renewable energy technologies. The demonstration project is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 740,000 tonnes annually based on cattle manure only; more when other livestock, such as poultry and dairy are included.

  9. Microwave treatment and struvite recovery potential of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asif; Lo, Kwang Victor; Liao, Ping Huang

    2008-05-01

    Microwave digestion of liquid dairy manure was tested for the release of nutrients, such as orthophosphates, ammonia-nitrogen, magnesium, calcium and potassium, both with and without the aid of an oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide). The orthophosphate to total phosphorus ratio of the manure increased from 21% to greater than 80% with 5 minutes of microwave treatment. More than 36% of total chemical oxygen demand (t-COD) of the manure was reduced when microwave digestion was assisted with peroxide addition. In addition, the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) distribution shifted to simpler chain acids (acetic acid in particular) with an increase in operating temperature. In the second part of the study, digested manure with increased soluble phosphate was tested for the recovery of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) at different pH. It was found that up to 90% of orthophosphate can be removed from the solution. Overall, it was concluded that the oxidizing agent-assisted microwave digestion process can be used upstream of anaerobic digestion, following which the anaerobically digested manure can be used for struvite recovery. Thus, this microwave digestion process presents the potential for enhanced efficiencies in both manure digestion and struvite recovery. PMID:18437623

  10. Composting of solids separated from anaerobically digested animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulking agents (BA) and mixing ratios on greenhouse gas (GHG) and NH3 emissions from composting digested solids (DS), separated from anaerobically digested manure and other bio-wastes, in small-scale laboratory composters. BA evaluated were plastic tube pieces (PT...

  11. Response of some Citrus Rootstock Seedlings to Fertilization by the Aqueous Extract of some Irradiated Animal Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was carried out during two consecutive seasons i.e. 2001 and 2002 on two citrus rootstocks namely Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings two-month-old planted in a sandy soil under greenhouse to study the feasibility of using the aqueous extract of some animal manures i.e. poultry, sheep and cattle treated by gamma irradiation at 10 kGay to keep the manure free from pathogenic organisms, pests and weed seeds and as a natural source of nutrients instead of mineral fertilizers, and it's effect on growth and leaf nutrients content of seedlings. Generally, results showed that all the tested treatments enhanced most of growth parameters such as seedling height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves/seedling, number of roots/seedling, and dry weight for both of stem, leaves, root and total dry weight/plant. Moreover, such treatments improved leaf nutrient content of both of Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings. Meanwhile, seedlings fertilized by the aqueous extract of poultry manure achieved the highest values of growth parameters and leaf nutrients content as well as mineral fertilizer followed by those treated by the aqueous extract of both sheep and cattle manures

  12. Production and structure of massai grass pastures fertilized with animal manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Virgínio Emerenciano Júnior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on the structure and production of Panicum maximum cv. Massai forage. The experiment was conducted at the teaching farm of Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte, Apodi Campus. The treatments evaluated were organic sources of nitrogen (wastes of pig, poultry and sheep farming and a mineral source (urea, set at 150 kg N/ha. Forage production, morphological components, pasture height, light interception, leaf area index, and chlorophyll content were evaluated in samples obtained at intervals of 60 days. Canopy height was affected by the type of fertilizer applied and the greatest height was observed for pasture fertilized with urea (50.97 cm. The highest light interception by the canopy was observed for pastures receiving urea, but 95% light interception was not reached. The leaf area index was higher for pastures fertilized with urea compared to the other treatments and the values obtained for pastures receiving organic fertilizers were considered very low. Forage, leaf blade, stem and dead material mass was affected by the type of fertilizer and was higher for pastures receiving urea. The total chlorophyll content of leaf blades did not differ between the types of fertilizer evaluated. Forage structure or production in massai grass pastures is not affected by the type of animal manure used as nitrogen source. The efficiency of these organic fertilizers as a nitrogen source is lower than that of mineral fertilization. The animal manures evaluated can be used as nitrogen sources for massai grass pastures to reduce costs and environmental impacts.

  13. Phosphorus Leaching in Soils Amended with Animal Manures Generated from Modified Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Gurpal S; Sims, J Thomas

    2016-07-01

    New dietary modifications for dairy (reducing P content in feed) and poultry (addition of feed additives such as phytase) aim to reduce P excretion in manures. Our objective was to investigate if dietary changes were effective at reducing P leaching loss on land application of manures. We used 54 undisturbed lysimeters (30 cm diameter, 50 cm deep) collected from three typical mid-Atlantic soils. Lysimeters received 85 kg total P ha from fertilizer (superphosphate), dairy manures generated from low- or high-P diets, or broiler litters generated from normal diet or reduced P- and phytase-amended diets. Lysimeters were irrigated with 50 mm of water each week for 9 wk. The major forms of P in the leachate were dissolved (dissolved unreactive > dissolved reactive P [DRP]) rather than particulate (total particulate P). The higher P solubility (100%) in superphosphate resulted in greater leaching of DRP, whereas the lower P solubility (superphosphate-amended than in the manure/litter-amended lysimeters. The dairy and poultry dietary modification was effective at reducing the amount of P in manures and litters. However, the application of treatments at similar P rate (85 kg ha) resulted in the addition of a higher amount of manure (54-66%) in lysimeters that received low-P dairy manure-amended and phytase-amended broiler litter, which then controlled P leaching from soils. PMID:27380088

  14. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena, E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Komakech, Allan John [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Agricultural & Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, Björn [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  15. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies

  16. Feeding on microbiomes: effects of detritivory on the taxonomic and phylogenetic bacterial composition of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Bybee, Seth; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Domínguez, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Earthworms play a key role in nutrient cycling by interacting with microorganisms thus accelerating organic matter turnover in soil systems. As detritivores, some earthworm types ingest and digest a mixture of dead organic matter and microorganisms, like animal manures (i.e. animal gut microbiomes). Here we described the earthworm cast microbiome and the role ingested bacteria play on its composition. We fed Eisenia andrei with cow, horse and pig manures and determined the taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of the these manures before and after passage through the earthworm gut. Earthworm cast microbiomes showed a smaller diversity than the manure they fed on. Manures strongly differed in their taxonomic and phylogenetic composition, but these differences were markedly reduced once transformed into earthworm cast microbiomes after passage through the earthworm gut. The core earthworm cast microbiome comprised 30 OTUs (2.6% of OTUs from cast samples), of which 10 are possibly native to the earthworm gut. Most of the core cast microbiome OTUs belonged to phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, as opposed to already described animal core gut microbiomes, which are composed mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that earthworms build up their cast microbiome by selecting from the pool of ingested bacteria.

  17. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies. PMID:25728090

  18. Feeding on microbiomes: effects of detritivory on the taxonomic and phylogenetic bacterial composition of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Bybee, Seth; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Domínguez, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Earthworms play a key role in nutrient cycling by interacting with microorganisms thus accelerating organic matter turnover in soil systems. As detritivores, some earthworm types ingest and digest a mixture of dead organic matter and microorganisms, like animal manures (i.e. animal gut microbiomes). Here we described the earthworm cast microbiome and the role ingested bacteria play on its composition. We fed Eisenia andrei with cow, horse and pig manures and determined the taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of the these manures before and after passage through the earthworm gut. Earthworm cast microbiomes showed a smaller diversity than the manure they fed on. Manures strongly differed in their taxonomic and phylogenetic composition, but these differences were markedly reduced once transformed into earthworm cast microbiomes after passage through the earthworm gut. The core earthworm cast microbiome comprised 30 OTUs (2.6% of OTUs from cast samples), of which 10 are possibly native to the earthworm gut. Most of the core cast microbiome OTUs belonged to phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, as opposed to already described animal core gut microbiomes, which are composed mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that earthworms build up their cast microbiome by selecting from the pool of ingested bacteria. PMID:26432803

  19. Plant-availability to barley of phosphorus in ash from thermally treated animal manure in comparison to other manure based materials and commercial fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Rubæk, Gitte Holton;

    2010-01-01

     kg P ha-1 in both soils had no significant effect on barley DM yield and P uptake. The overall efficiency for liquid fertilizers was much higher than for solid ones and relative effectiveness (RE) of ExL was comparable to RE of DSP. Despite the low P level in soils, the ryegrass crop grew very well......Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient and a limited resource, yet excess P is applied to agricultural land and can cause environmental problems in areas with intensive animal farming. In this study, the fertilizing effects of P in several animal manure-based products (including thermal treatment......), thermally gasified SS (GAs), thermally gasified poultry manure (GAp), crushed triple super phosphate (TSP) and disodium phosphate (DSP) was used as reference P fertilizer. For application of 20 kg P ha-1 mineral P fertilizer replacement value (RV) in the second year in the sandy soil was 76% and 99% for GA...

  20. Laboratory Study of Oxytetracycline Degradation Kinetics in Animal Manure and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a major member of tetracyclines, oxytetracycline (OTC) is widely administered to animals in confined feeding operations. To diminish the contamination of OTC in the environment resulting from the application of OTC-contained manure as fertilizers to agriculture lands, OTC degradation kinetics in ...

  1. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  2. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  3. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kofi Agyarko; Akwasi Adutwum Abunyewa; Emmanuel Kwasi Asiedu; Emmanuel Heva

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM), cattle manure (CM) and pig manure (PG) on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP) and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11) treatments which were: Control (soil only); 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design...

  4. Comparing heavy metal contents in crops receiving mineral fertilisers and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spring barley (grain, straw), grass-clover (two cuts), winter wheat (grain, straw) and silage maize grown in the Askov long-term experiment with different levels (0, ½, 1, 1½, 2) of mineral fertiliser (NPK) and animal manure (AM) had concentrations of As, Pb, Cd and Hg below the EC maximum...... in crops grown on unmanured soil and soil with AM were similar and below that of crops grown with NPK. For a range of other elements including Cr and Ni, we found no general relationship between fertilisation rate and their concentration in the crops. Except for Cd, no systematic differences were found...... of NPK and AM does not pose a threat in terms of feed quality. However, the long-term accumulation of heavy metals added with mineral fertilisers and animal manure is essentially irreversible and may threaten soil quality....

  5. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Infascelli; Raffaele Pelorosso; Lorenzo Boccia

    2009-01-01

    Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies ...

  6. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, C. H.; Triolo, J. M.; Cu, T. T. T.; Pedersen, L; Sommer, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journal...

  7. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study

    OpenAIRE

    Lalander, Cecilia; Komakech, Allan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomp...

  8. County-Level Estimates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Animal Manure for the Conterminous United States, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of county estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus in kilograms from animal manure in the conterminous United States for 2002. These estimates...

  9. Animal manure for biogas production - what happens to the soil?

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riley, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing animal slurry to produce biogas may reduce fossil fuel usage and emissions of greenhouse gases. However, there is limited information on how the recycling of digested slurry as a fertilizer impacts soil fertility in the long run. This is of concern because organic matter in the slurry is converted to methane, which escapes the on-farm carbon cycle. In 2010, a study of this question was initiated on the organic research farm in Tingvoll, Norway. So far, a biogas plant has been built,...

  10. [Emission and control of gases and odorous substances from animal housing and manure depots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J

    1992-02-01

    Agricultural animal production in increasingly regarded as a source of gases which are both aggravating and ecologically harmful. An overview of the origin, number and quantity of trace gases emitted from animal housing and from manure stores is presented and possible means of preventing or reducing them are discussed. Of the 136 trace gases in the air of animal houses, odorous substances, ammonia and methane are most relevant to the environment. The role played by the remaining gases is largely unknown. Quantitative information is available for 23 gases. The gases are emitted principally from freshly deposited and stored faeces, from animal feed and from the animals themselves. Future work should determine sources and quantities of the gases emitted from animal housing more precisely and should aim to investigate the potential of these gases to cause damage in man, animals and environment. Odorous substances have an effect on the area immediately surrounding the animal housing. They can lead to considerable aggravation in humans. For years, VDI1 guidelines (3471/72), which prescribe distances between residential buildings and animal housing, have been valuable in preventing odour problems of this kind. Coverings are suitable for outside stores. The intensity of the odour from animal housing waste air increases from cattle through to hens and pigs; it is also further affected by the type of housing, the age of the animals and the purpose for which they are being kept. Methods of cleaning waste air (scrubbers/biofilters) are available for problematic cases. The need for guidelines to limit emissions from individual outside manure stores (lagoons) is recognised. Total ammonia emissions from animal production in the Federal Republic of Germany (up to 1989) are estimated at approximately 300,000 to 600,000 t/year. There is a shortage of satisfactory and precise research on the extent of emissions, in particular on those from naturally ventilated housing. It is

  11. Breakdown of Azadirachtin A in a Tropical Soil Amended with Neem Leaves and Animal Manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted to assess the breakdown of azadirachtin A in a tropical coastal savanna soil amended with neem leaves (NL) combined with poultry manure (PM) or cow dung (CD) using gas chromatography. Samples in polythene bags 15 cm long and 4.8 cm in diameter were randomly placed to a depth of 14 cm in the soil, and azadirachtin A concentration was assessed on days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84. Azadirachtin A degradation in the soil followed first-order reaction kinetics with different half-lives obtained for varying combinations of the amendments. Higher neem amendment levels of 100 g gave shorter half-lives of azadirachtin A than the lower levels of 50 g. Within the 50 g NL group the additions of the poultry manure and the cow dung gave significantly shorter (P < 0.05) half-lives of azadirachtin A than the sole neem amendment, whereas in the 100 g NL group only additions of 10 g CD and 10 g PM were significantly less (P < 0.05) than the sole neem amendment. Different changes resulting from the kind and quantity of animal manure added were observed in the half-lives of azadirachtin A. The 100 g NL group had significantly higher (P < 0.05) moisture content, which, coupled with the likely differences in microbial biomass, could be the major factor responsible for variations in the half-life of the compound. Therefore, the quantity of the neem leaves applied and the addition of animal manure affected the breakdown of azadirachtin A in the soil amended with neem leaves.

  12. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, C. H.; Triolo, J. M.; Cu, T. T. T.; Pedersen, L.; Sommer, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4) production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) (CH4 NL kg−1 VS) of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05). The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP) was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr) for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%), while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR) varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM) were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC). This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC. PMID:25049861

  13. Chemical evaluation of odor reduction by soil injection of animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilberg Tavs Nyord, Anders; Hansen, Martin Nørregaard; Lindholst, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Field application of animal manure is a major cause of odor nuisance in the local environment. Therefore, there is a need for methods for measuring the effect of technologies for reducing odor after manure application. In this work, chemical methods were used to identify key odorants from field application of pig manure based on experiments with surface application by trailing hoses and soil injection. Results from three consecutive years of field trials with full-scale equipment are reported. Methods applied were: membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), gold-film hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) detection, all performed on site, and thermal desorption gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) based on laboratory analyses of field samples. Samples were collected from a static flux chamber often used for obtaining samples for dynamic olfactometry. While all methods were capable of detecting relevant odorants, PTR-MS gave the most comprehensive results. Based on odor threshold values, 4-methylphenol, H₂S, and methanethiol are suggested as key odorants. Significant odorant reductions by soil injection were consistently observed in all trials. The flux chamber technique was demonstrated to be associated with critical errors due to compound instabilities in the chamber. This was most apparent for H₂S, on a time scale of a few minutes, and on a longer time scale for methanethiol.

  14. Synergy of sewage water treatment plants and processing of manure; Synergie RWZI en mestverwerking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisschops, I.; Weijma, J.; Van Eekert, M.; Spanjers, H. [Lettinga Associates Foundation LeAF, Wageningen (Netherlands); Timmerman, M.; Fe Buisonje, F. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research WLR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    The goal of this study is to explore profitable ways of processing manure in sewage water treatment plants. Technological options are explored for processing manure, the availability of manure in the surroundings, the space taken up by manure digestion and annual costs and benefits [Dutch] Het doel van deze studie is te verkennen hoe mest op rendabele wijze in rwzi's (rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties) verwerkt kunnen worden. Er is gekeken naar de technologische mogelijkheden om mest te kunnen verwerken, de beschikbaarheid van mest in de omgeving, ruimtebeslag van mestvergisting, en jaarlijkse kosten en opbrengsten.

  15. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  16. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  17. Anaerobic treatment of lactic waste and goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luís Magaña-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion was carried out to obtain biogas from lactic waste in combination with goat manure. Waste from lactic products such as cream, cheese and whey was mixed with goat manure using three formulations; the quantity of waste from cream and cheese was maintained, and only the quantity of manure and whey was varied. Methanogenic bacteria obtained from predigestion of goat manure were used as inoculants. Temperature was 35ºC and pH 7.0.Biogas methane percentage was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that the highest methane concentration obtained was 82% with formulation III.

  18. Wet Oxidation Pre-Treatment – the Way To Improve Economics of Energy Production From Manure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Langvad, Niels Bo;

    2006-01-01

    Throughout recent years, several physical, chemical and biological pretreatment methods have been tested with limited success in order to increase hydrolysis of the lignocellulose structure of manure fibers (Fan et al., 1982; Gharpuray et al., 1983; Grethlein, 1984; Hartmann et. al. 2000; Hobson ...... increase of the economical benefit in the AD treatment of manure....

  19. Nitrogen Mineralization from Animal Manures and Its Relation to Organic N Fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling-ling; LI Shu-tian

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory aerobic incubation was conducted for 161 d to study N mineralization and the changes of organic N fractions of nine different manures (3 chicken manures, 3 pig manures and 3 cattle manures) from different farms/locations. Results indicated that signiifcant (P<0.01 orP<0.001) difference existed in N mineralization between manures. The rapid N mineralization in manures occurred during 56 to 84 d of incubation. First order exponential model can be used to describe N mineralization from chicken manures and pig manures, while quadratic equation can predict mineralization of organic N from cattle manures. An average of 21, 19 and 13% added organic N from chicken manure, pig manure and cattle manure was mineralized during 161 d of incubation. Amino acid-N was the main source of N mineralization. The changes of amino acid-N together with ammonium N could explain signiifcantly 97 and 96% of the variation in mineralized N from manured soils and manures. Amino acid-N and ammonium N are two main N fractions in determining N mineralization potential from manures. Amino acid-N contributed more to the mineralized N than ammonium N.

  20. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: II. A review of manure management mitigation options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montes, F.; Meinen, R.; Dell, C.; Rotz, A.; Hristov, A.N.; Oh, J.; Waghorn, G.; Gerber, P.J.; Henderson, B.L.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Reducing excreted nitrogen (N) and degradable organic carbon (C) by diet manipulation to improve the balance of nutrient inputs with production

  1. Turnover of manure 15N-labelled ammonium during composting and soil application as affected by lime and superphosphate addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Tien Minh; Luxhøi, Jesper; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-01-01

    To determine N turnover and losses during aerobic composting of animal manure, a 41-d laboratory study was performed on pig manure composting with three additive treatments (Straw: pig manure + straw only; Lime: pig manure + straw + quick lime; and SSP: pig manure + straw + single superphosphate...... superphosphate increased the NH4-N content in both. Therefore, superphosphate addition increased the potential fertilizer value of composted pig manure. © Soil Science Society of America....

  2. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelme-Ayala, Pamela [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); El-Din, Mohamed Gamal, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Smith, Richard [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Code, Kenneth R. [IOWC Technologies Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Leonard, Jerry [Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. {yields} This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. {yields} Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. {yields} Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. {yields} Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH{sub 3}), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl{sup -}) and 50% of the phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH{sub 3}, nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  3. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. → This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. → Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. → Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. → Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH3), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl-) and 50% of the phosphate (PO43-) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH3, nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  4. Effects of Soil Leachate on Release of Nitrogenous and Phosphorous Non-point Source Pollutants from Animal Manure%淋溶对畜禽粪便释放氮磷面源污染物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 梁勤爽; 杨志敏; 陈玉成

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis was made of the leaching losses of total N(TN) and total P(TP) in pig manure(ZF),cow manure(NF) and chick manure(JF),and the influences of application rate and leaching amount of animal manure on the release quantity,release speed and release rate of TN and TP were estimated.The results showed that the cumulative release of TN and TP increased with the application rate of animal manure and the leaching amount.The release speed of TN from the 3 kinds of animal manure was greater than that of TP.The TN released from pig manure was the greatest,followed in order by cow manure and chick manure,and the TP released from pig manure was the greatest,followed in sequence by chick manure and cow manure The influences on the release rate of TN and TP was in the order of pig manurecow manurechick manure.With similar manure application amount,the release rate increased with leaching amount,and with similar leaching amount,the release rate was greater in the low application rate treatment.%在淋溶条件下,分别对施入的猪粪(ZF)、牛粪(NF)、鸡粪(JF)中TN,TP的流失进行定量化;估算畜禽粪便的施用量与淋溶量对TN,TP的释放量、释放速率、释放率的影响.结果表明,对于TN,TP的释放量而言,施用量以及淋溶量越大,则累积释放量也就越大;3种畜禽粪便对TN,TP的释放速率的影响为TN〉TP.对于TN,由大到小依次为:猪粪,牛粪,鸡粪;而对于TP,由大到小依次为:猪粪,鸡粪,牛粪;对释放率的影响由大到小依次为:猪粪,牛粪,鸡粪;且粪便施用量相同时淋溶量高的释放率高,淋溶量相同时施入量低的释放率高.

  5. Effects of acidifying reagents on microwave treatment of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Asha; Nkansah-Boadu, Frank; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2014-01-01

    Dairy manure, acidified using organic acids (acetic, oxalic, and citric acid) were treated with microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP). The effect of a mixture of oxalic acid and commonly used mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acid) on MW/H2O2-AOP was also examined. Substantial amounts of phosphorus were released under MW/H2O2-AOP, regardless of organic acid or mineral acid used. All three organic acids were good acidifying reagents; however, only oxalic acid could remove free calcium ion in the solution, and improve settleability of dairy manure. The MW/H2O2-AOP and calcium removal process could be combined into a single-stage process, which could release phosphate, solubilize solids and remove calcium from dairy manure at the same time. A mixture of oxalic acid and mineral acid produced the maximum volume of clear supernatant and had an ideal molar ratio of calcium to magnesium for effective struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) crystallization process. A single-stage MW/H2O2-AOP would simplify the process and reduce mineral acid consumption compared to a two-stage operation. The results of a pilot scale study demonstrate that MW/H2O2-AOP is effective in treating manure and recovering resource from dairy farms.

  6. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Kim

    Full Text Available Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4 production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009, fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW ha-1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg-1 and swine (460 g kg-1 manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered.

  7. Wet oxidation pre-treatment - the way to improve economics of energy production from manure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uellendahl, H.; Mladenovska, Z.; Ahring, B.K. [BioCentrum-DTU, Bioprocess Scinece and Technology, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Langvad, N. [BioGasol ApS, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure offers several benefits for agricultural waste management: It improves the fertilizer characteristics of manure, reduces its odour and converts organic matter into valuable energy resources like, for example, biogas. Using manure for bioenergy producltion in centralized biogas plants results often in a marginal economical benefit, since the value of the biogas yield per ton is only slightly higher than the costs for treatment and transportation. A newly developed pre-treatment method, wet oxidation, has recently been successfully applied for the pretreatment of straw for bioethanol producltion at Bio-Centrum-DTU, the Technical University of Denmark. This pre-treatment method is a very promising option to increase both bioethanol and biogas yields from lignocellulosic biomass, i.e. all kinds of agricultural waste. (au)

  8. Viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Seganfredo, Milton Antonio; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mmiele@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The swine manure treatment is based on several technologies, such as pond systems, composting, biodigesters, and compact process like the EMBRAPA's Swine Manure Treatment System. The last one can reach high quality effluent with reduced pollution, although it demands higher investment and costs. For this reason it is necessary to manage revenues with byproducts and carbon credit markets. The aim of this study was to present a viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system considering its potential revenues facing higher costs. Using market prices and measured data from a prototype running in south Brazil, the study calculated costs, revenues, profit, net present value and internal rate return. It also estimated these indicators assuming scale economies. The results showed that the investment can pay its costs by its insertion in the carbon credit market and other revenues like the energy substitution. It also showed the importance to reach scale economies. (author)

  9. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundharrajan Ilavenil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  10. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  11. Response of Sunflower Yield and Phytohormonal Changes to Azotobacter,Azospirillum,Pseudomonas and Animal Manure in a Chemical Free Agroecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Maziyar, Mehran; M. Reza, Ardakani; Hamid, Madani; Mohammad , Zahedi; Mohsen, Amirabadi; Saeed, Mafakheri

    2011-01-01

    There are new trends in agriculture to move toward the low input systems with the lower application of chemical fertilizers. To reach this goal, different methods, such as the application of biofertilizers, may be used. So this experiment was conducted in 2010 at a research farm in Arak, Iran, in factorial in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications and four factors: animal manure (M), Pseudomonas putida (P), Azotobacter chroococcum (A)and Azospirillum lipoferum ...

  12. Odour abatement in the integrated reactor concept for simultaneous treatment of liquid and solid pig manure fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Willers, H.C.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2004-01-01

    New technologies are needed for manure treatment that can capture nutrients, reduce emissions of ammonia and nuisance odours, and kill harmful pathogens. A reactor concept was developed for simultaneous treatment of separately collected liquid and solid fractions of pig manure. The liquid fraction i

  13. Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking on the methane yield and composition of digested manure fibers applying different ammonia concentrations and treatment durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis;

    2014-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus...... and 5 days at 22°C was applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester. A methane yield increase from 76% to 104% was achieved during the first series of experiments, while the difference in reagent concentration did not considerably affect the...... concluded that AAS is a very promising treatment resulting to an overall increase of the methane yield of digested manure fibers from 76 to 265% depending on the conditions and the batch of digested fibers used (an even higher increase of 190-265% was achieved during the 2nd series of experiments, where...

  14. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Scharf, Sigrid [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gans, Oliver [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: oliver.gans@umweltbundesamt.at

    2007-07-15

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 {mu}g/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria.

  15. Performance of two swine manure treatment systems on chemical composition and on the reduction of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viancelli, A; Kunz, A; Steinmetz, R L R; Kich, J D; Souza, C K; Canal, C W; Coldebella, A; Esteves, P A; Barardi, C R M

    2013-01-01

    Swine effluents must be correctly handled to avoid negative environmental impacts. In this study, the profiles of two swine manure treatment systems were evaluated: a solid-liquid separation step, followed by an anaerobic reactor, and an aerobic step (System 1); and a biodigester followed by serial lagoons (System 2). Both systems were described by the assessment of chemical, bacterial and viral parameters. The results showed that in System 1, there was reduction of chemicals (COD, phosphorus, total Kjeldhal nitrogen - TKN - and NH(3)), total coliforms and Escherichia coli; however, the same reduction was not observed for Salmonella sp. Viral particles were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated from the effluent. In System 2, there was a reduction of chemicals, bacteria and viruses with no detection of Salmonella sp., circovirus, parvovirus, and torque teno virus in the effluent. The chemical results indicate that the treated effluent can be reused for cleaning swine facilities. However, the microbiological results show a need of additional treatment to achieve a complete inactivation for cases when direct contact with animals is required.

  16. Anaerobic digestion technology in livestock manure treatment for biogas production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Ismail M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Ghazi, Tinia I.; Omar, Rozita

    2012-06-15

    This article reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production from livestock manure wastes and compares the operating and performance data for various anaerobic process configurations. It examines different kinds of manure waste treatment techniques and the influence of several parameters on biogas and methane yield. The comparison indicates that a variety of different operational conditions, various reactor configurations such as batch reactors, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), and continuous one- and two-stage systems, present a suitable technology for the AD of livestock manure waste. Main performance indicators are biogas and methane yield, degradation of volatile solids (VS), higher loading, and process stability with a short retention time. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater : pilot investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Archipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Klapwijk, A.

    2002-01-01

    Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater has been investigated on the pilot installation operated under ambient temperatures (15-20°C) and included: i) UASB-reactor for elimination of major part of COD from the filtrate; (ii) stripper of CO2 fluidised bed

  18. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  19. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL MANURE – IMPLICATIONS FOR CROP YIELDS AND SOIL BIOTA IN ORGANIC FARMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh;

    2015-01-01

    organic matter levels over the first 2 years. Application of high levels of manure increased the mortality of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms just after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. Springtails...... negatively due to substrate shortage. Our knowledge on these processes and their influence on soil quality is scarce. Hence, a field experiment with two organic cropping systems (grass-clover ley and arable system; at two slurry-application levels) was established in 2011, to study how application......Anaerobic digestion of farmyard manures may help farmers to produce bioenergy instead of using fossil fuels, support cycling of nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emission. However, compared to pristine slurry, digested slurry has a reduced content of organic carbon which may impact the soil biota...

  20. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  1. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The virucidal effect of 60Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  2. Potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havukainen, Jouni; Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Hermann, Ludwig; Horttanainen, Mika; Mikkilä, Mirja; Deviatkin, Ivan; Linnanen, Lassi

    2016-03-01

    All life forms require phosphorus (P), which has no substitute in food production. The risk of phosphorus loss from soil and limited P rock reserves has led to the development of recycling P from industrial residues. This study investigates the potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment (ASH DEC) in Finland. An ASH DEC plant could receive 46-76 kt/a of sewage sludge ash to produce 51-85 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P2O5 content of 13-18%, while 320-750 kt/a of manure ash could be supplied to produce 350-830 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P content of 4-5%. The P2O5 potential in the total P-rich product from the ASH DEC process using sewage sludge and manure ash is estimated to be 25-47 kt/a, which is significantly more than the P fertilizer demand in Finland's agricultural industries. The energy efficiency of integrated incineration and the ASH DEC process is more dependent on the total solid content and the subsequent need for mechanical dewatering and thermal drying than on the energy required by the ASH DEC process. According to the results of this study, the treated sewage sludge and manure ash using the ASH DEC process represent significant potential phosphorus sources for P fertilizer production. PMID:26810030

  3. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    small areas without sufficient nearby farm land for application. In addition to significant impacts on climate due to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) from manure management, losses of nitrogen to the environment reduce the fertiliser value of manure and have negative effects.......4-22.5% and 0.001-0.17% of initial Tot-C, respectively, while N losses as 2O and x NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.10% and 0.81-26.5% of initial Tot-N, respectively. There was strong evidence that high emissions of CH4-C and N2O-N gases can occur simultaneously, even during the thermophilic phase of composting...

  4. Pig manure treatment with housefly (Musca domestica) rearing – an environmental life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Roffeis, M.; Muys, B.; Almeida, J.; MATHIJS, E; Achten, W.M.J; Pastor Monllor, Berta; Velásquez Zambrano, Yelitza; Martínez Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Rojo Velasco, Santos

    2015-01-01

    The largest portion of a product’s environmental impacts and costs of manufacturing and use results from decisions taken in the conceptual design phase long before its market entry. To foster sustainable production patterns, applying life cycle assessment in the early product development stage is gaining importance. Following recent scientific studies on using dipteran fly species for waste management, this paper presents an assessment of two insect-based manure treatment systems. Considering...

  5. Co-digestion of animal manure and maize : is it sustainable, an update

    OpenAIRE

    Zwart, K.B.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Co-digestion has attracted increased attention in The Netherlands as a result of a subsidy for electricity that is produced environmentally safe (MEP and SDE subsidy). Production of bio-energy by means of co-digestion turned financially profitable due to this financial support. Co-digestion is the simultaneous digestion of manure and a co-substrate and its conversion into biogas. We report on a methodology to assess the sustainability of bio-energy from co-digestion with emphasis on energy an...

  6. Biological treatment of acidic coal refuse using sulphate-reducing bacteria with chicken manure as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of using chicken manure as carbon source to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity within acidic coal refuse to prevent the generation of acidic leachate was investigated in batch and column bioreactors. The bioreactors showed satisfactory performance in biological sulphate reduction, evidenced by the increase in effluent pH, high removal efficiencies of sulphate and metals, and the presence of large numbers of SRB. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the formed precipitate indicated the formation of metal sulphides. Chicken manure was observed to play an important role in this treatment, which could not only provide carbon source but also reduce the adverse effect of strong acidity and metal toxicity on SRB activity. Metal removal could be mainly attributed to sulphides precipitation and sorption to chicken manure. This study indicated that SRB with chicken manure could be a novel alternative used for the prevention of acidic leachate from coal refuse. PMID:25189842

  7. The use of manures for detection and quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene in animal husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; García-Falcón, Mercedes Sonia; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2008-11-15

    PAHs from a polluted atmosphere are generally transferred to plants by particle-phase deposition on the waxy leaf cuticle or by uptake in the gas phase through stomata. Thus, they are also present in ingredients for animal feed. Generally, toxic substances are metabolized before or after absorption through the intestinal tract. This is the case of 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, which can be found free or in its glucuronide and/or sulphate conjugate forms. This article develops a procedure to monitor the carry-over of PAHs from feed to food of animal origin based on the analysis of animal manure. Eleven PAHs and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene were measured in four animal manures (cow, horse, rabbit and pig) by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[k]fluoranthene were found in all the selected samples, but their total levels were not alarming (benzo[a]pyrene equivalents (microg/kg)manure. The highest total PAH levels were detected in cow manure (9.0 microg/kg), while the highest 3-OH-B[a]P level was determined in horse samples (13 microg/kg).

  8. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal manure management, 1990 - 2003 - Background document on the calculation method for the Dutch National Inventory Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek KW van der; Schijndel MW van; MNP; LVM

    2006-01-01

    Since 2005 the Netherlands has used a new country-specific method to calculate the methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal manure management. Compared to the default methods provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this method has led to a more realistic estimate of the emi

  9. Determination of Organic Carbon and Organic Matter in Animal Manure%畜禽粪便中有机碳和有机质的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石奥; 刘岩; 李鹏

    2016-01-01

    A method for determination of organic carbon and organic matter in animal manure was established in this study, which was subsequently used to assess the content of organic carbon and organic matter in animal manure samples collected from 16 intensive livestock and poultry farms in Beijing. We found that the content of organic carbon and organic matter varied in manure samples from different animal species. The highest (35.15%) and lowest (15.14%) content of organic carbon were found in porcine manure sample and bovine manure sample, respectively. Whilst, the highest (70.76%) and lowest (32.58%) content of organic matter were observed in chicken manure sample and bovine manure sample, respectively. The correction equation for determination of organic carbon and organic matter in animal manure established in this study was:w (OC)=0.5129w (OM)-2.3377, and R2 was 0.9255.%优化了畜禽粪便中有机碳和有机质的检测方法,利用该方法分析了北京地区16家规模化畜禽场的粪便样品。结果表明,各类畜禽粪便中的有机碳和有机质含量差异较大:有机碳含量最高值为35.15%(猪粪),最低值为15.14%(牛粪),有机质含量最高值为70.76%(鸡粪),最低值为32.58%(牛粪);畜禽粪便中有机碳和有机质的校正方程为w(有机碳)=0.5129w(有机质)-2.3377,R2=0.9255。

  10. Development of an analytical methodology for the determination of the antiparasitic drug toltrazuril and its two metabolites in surface water, soil and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A;

    2012-01-01

    phase extraction and selective pressurized liquid extraction with integrated clean-up, the analytical method allows for the determination of these compounds down to 0.06-0.13 ng L(-1) in water, 0.01-0.03 ng g(-1)dw in soil and 0.22-0.51 ng g(-1) dw in manure. The deuterated analog of toltrazuril......This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine the antiparasitic veterinary drug toltrazuril and its two main metabolites, toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone, in environmental surface water, soil and animal manure. Using solid...... was used as internal standard, and ensured method accuracy in the range 96-123% for water and 77-110% for soil samples. The developed method can also be applied to simultaneously determine steroid hormones in the solid samples. The antiparasitic drug and its metabolites were found in manure and soil up...

  11. Manure Use

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Renee Raiden

    2006-01-01

    Explains the proper use of manure in the garden, including the appropriate temperature of compost to kill pathogens, reducing the contact of produce with feces, and prevention of cross-contamination of raw manure and composted manure.

  12. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Guang; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhu, Hong-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700m(3) chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35±1°C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5kg-COD/m(3)d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2m(3)/m(3)d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9.

  13. Treatment of Dairy and Swine Manure Effluents Using Freshwater Algae: Fatty Acid Content and Composition of Algal Biomass at Different Manure Loading Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the N and P present in the manure and convert manure N and P into algal biomass. The objective of this study was to determine how fatty acid (FA) content and composition of algae respond to changes in the type of manu...

  14. Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking on the Methane Yield and Composition of Digested Manure Fibers Applying Different Ammonia Concentrations and Treatment Durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysoula Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most biogas plants. Thus, their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS at six different concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 32% and for 1, 3 and 5 days at 22 °C was applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester. A methane yield increase from 76% to 104% was achieved during the first series of experiments, while the difference in reagent concentration did not considerably affect the methane yield. It was shown that the optimal duration was three days for both 5% and 25% w/w reagent concentrations in ammonia tested. Carbohydrates and phosphorus content remained unaffected, while a slight decrease in Klason lignin and non-soluble organic nitrogen content was observed after AAS. It is concluded that AAS is a very promising treatment resulting to an overall increase of the methane yield of digested manure fibers from 76% to 265% depending on the conditions and the batch of digested fibers used (an even higher increase of 190%–265% was achieved during the 2nd series of experiments, where different AAS durations were tested, compared to the 1st series were different ammonia concentrations were applied.

  15. Production of value-added chars and activated carbons from animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a strong agricultural foundation that leaves behind large quantities of animal wastes. In the United States, an estimated 9 billion broilers, 256 million turkeys, 62 million pigs and 97 million dairy cows were produced in 2006 producing 5 times the waste of the U.S. human popu...

  16. Role of Inorganic and Organic Fractions in Animal Manure Compost in Lead Immobilization and Microbial Activity in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Katoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify how the ratio of inorganic-to-organic components in animal manure compost (AMC affected both lead immobilization and microbial activity in lead-contaminated soil. When AMC containing 50% or more inorganic fraction with high phosphorous content was applied to contaminated soil, the amounts of water-soluble lead in it were suppressed by over 88% from the values in the soil without compost. The residual fraction under sequential extraction increased with the inorganic fraction in the AMC; however, in those AMCs, the levels of microbial enzyme activity were the same or less than those in the control soil. The application of AMC containing 25% inorganic fraction could alter the lead phases to be more insoluble while improving microbial enzyme activities; however, no suppression of the level of water-soluble lead existed during the first 30 days. These results indicate that compost containing an inorganic component of 50% or more with high phosphorus content is suitable for immobilizing lead; however, in the case where low precipitation is expected for a month, AMC containing 25% inorganic component could be used to both immobilize lead and restore microbial activity.

  17. Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Diluted Pig Manure Streams in Russia: From Laboratory Trials to Full-Scale Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Arkhipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Kovalev, A.; Nozhevnikova, A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater

  18. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health. PMID:27376311

  19. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  20. Distribution of Cu and Zn in System of Animal Manures/Excrement-Subsoil Under Natural Stacking of Animal Manures in Jilin, China%吉林省畜禽粪便自然堆放条件下粪便/土壤体系中Cu、Zn的分布规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢忠雷; 朱洪双; 李文艳; 李小滢; 蔡文达; 牛海玉; 李晶

    2011-01-01

    With the development of poultry breeding and increasing of Cu and Zn additive amount in feed, Cu and Zn in animal manures have become the considering resource of heavy metals in soils, therefore, there will be of the significance to study the migration and accumulation of Cu and Zn in system of animal manures/excrement-subsoil under natural stacking of animal manures for rightly assessing the pollution effect of Cu and Zn in animal manures. The contents of Cu and Zn in animal manures and effects of animal manures stacking under natural condition on the contents of Cu and Zn in the excrement-subsoil were studied in the paper by sampling different kinds of animal manures excre- mental-subsoil located in Jilin Province. The results showed that the contents of Cu in chicken manure, pig excrement and cow dung were the range of 7.12~26.04 mg·kg-1 (air-dried sample, being the same as the following)(average of 18.24 mg·kg-1, the same meaning as this in the following), 87.99~463.7 mg·kg-1(243.6 mg·kg-1) and 3.95~27.63 mg·kg-1( 12.28 mg·kg-1), and the contents of Zn in chicken manure, pig excrement and cow dung were the range of 179.2-340.8 mg·kg-1( 276.9 mg·kg-1), 140.5-455.8 mg·kg-1( 381.8 mg·kg-1) and 150.5-292.3 mg·kg-1( 188.1 mg·kg-1), respectively. The contents of Cu and Zn were the order of pig excrement>chicken manure>cow dung in the different kinds of animal manures and were the order of Zn>Cu in the same animal manures. Under the natural condition stacking, Cu could move from pig excrement and chicken manure to excremental-subsoil and the amount of Cu from animal manures into soils increased with the increasing of contents of Cu in animal manures, consequently Cu accumulated nearly in the topsoil, however, the effect of cow dung on the content of Cu in excremental-subsoil was not obvious. Generally, the contents of Cu in the excremental-subsoil was in the order of pig excrement>chicken manure>cow dung. Meanwhile, the content of Zn in the excremental

  1. Investigation of chamber methods and a micrometeorological mass balance method for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Hyun

    Various measurement methods to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure storage or treatment facilities have been used. However, it is difficult to directly compare emission data measured with different methods, which causes uncertainties in national GHG inventories. In the micrometeorological mass balance (MMB) method, a gas flux consists of a horizontal mean flux (MF) and horizontal turbulent flux (TF) terms. In Chapter 2, methane (GH4 ) TF measurements obtained using a sonic anemometer and a tunable diode laser trace gas analyzer are presented. Contrary to previous studies in wind tunnels and flat-level field conditions, an overestimation of only 0.5% was observed by only considering the MF term. This means the MMB method without consideration of TF is suitable in complex field conditions with uneven topography, and farm buildings. In Chapter 3, the MMB method was compared to a floating chamber method. Of these, the floating chamber method has been extensively used for CH4 flux quantification. The MMB method, although providing advantages such as spatial integration of fluxes, requires fast response trace gas analyzers which are not widely available. The mean ratio of CH4 flux measured with the floating chamber method to that measured using the MMB method was 1.25, ranging from 1.07 to 1.83. Flux overestimation by the floating chamber could have been caused by location of the chamber and potential disturbances by the chamber. Frequent changes of the chamber location, use of several chambers, and/or avoiding chamber placement on 'hot spots' are recommended to decrease flux overestimation. In Chapter 4, CH4 fluxes measured with a mega chamber and eight small chambers during the in-vessel composting phase showed similar temporal variation, while nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were, significantly lower for the small chambers. The ratios of CH4 fluxes measured with a mega chamber to eight small chambers during the in-vessel composting phase were 0.72 and 1

  2. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    The methane productivity of manure in terms of volatile solids (VS), volume and livestock production was determined. The theoretical methane productivity is higher in pig (516 1 kg(-1) VS) and sow (530 1 kg(-1) VS) manure than in dairy cattle manure (469 1 kg(-1) VS), while the ultimate methane...... yield in terms of VS is considerably higher in pig (356 1 kg(-1) VS) and sow manure (275 1 kg(-1) VS) than in dairy cattle manure (148 1 kg(-1) VS). Methane productivity based on livestock units (LU) shows the lowest methane productivity for sows (165 m(3) CH4 LU-1), while the other animal categories...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  3. Optimisation and inhibition of anaerobic digestion of livestock manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutaryo, S.

    2012-11-15

    The optimisation process during this PhD study focused on mixed enzyme (ME) addition, thermal pre-treatment and co-digestion of raw manure with solid fractions of acidified manure, while for inhibition processes, ammonia and sulphide inhibition were studied. ME addition increased methane yield of both dairy cow manure (DCM) and solid fractions of DCM (by 4.44% and 4.15% respectively, compared to the control) when ME was added to manure and incubated prior to anaerobic digestion (AD). However, no positive effect was found when ME was added to manure and fed immediately to either mesophilic (35 deg. C) or thermophilic (50 deg. C) digesters. Low-temperature pre-treatment (65 deg. C to 80 deg. C for 20 h) followed by batch assays increased the methane yield of pig manure in the range from 9.5% to 26.4% at 11 d incubation. These treatments also increased the methane yield of solid-fractions pig manure in the range from 6.1% to 25.3% at 11 d of the digestion test. However, at 90 d the increase in methane yield of pig manure was only significant at the 65 deg. C treatment, thus low-temperature thermal pre-treatment increased the rate of gas production, but did not increase the ultimate yield (B{sub o}). High-temperature pre-treatment (100 deg. C to 225 deg. C for 15 min.) increased the methane yield of DCM by 13% and 21% for treatments at 175 deg. C and 200 deg. C, respectively, at 27 d of batch assays. For pig manure, methane yield was increased by 29% following 200 deg. C treatment and 27 d of a batch digestion test. No positive effect was found of high-temperature pre-treatment on the methane yield of chicken manure. At the end of the experiment (90 d), high-temperature thermal pre-treatment was significantly increasing the B{sub 0} of pig manure and DCM. Acidification of animal manure using sulphuric acid is a well-known technology to reduce ammonia emission of animal manure. AD of acidified manure showed sulphide inhibition and consequently methane production was 45

  4. Psychrophilic anaerobic co-digestion of highland barley straw with two animal manures at high altitude for enhancing biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High I/S ratio (>2/1) was favorable to both sole digestion and co-digestion. • Biogas production from BS was feasible at low temperature and low air pressure condition. • Long SRT (>80 days) is needed for biogas production at low temperature and low air pressure condition. • BS to manure ratio of 1/1 could increase biogas production. • IVS removal efficiency was correlated with biogas production. - Abstract: Biogas production from the co-digestion of highland barley straw (BS) with Tibet pig manure (TPM) and cow manure (CM) was investigated at Tibet plateau under low temperature (15 °C) condition. The effect of inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratio and BS to manure ratio on the biogas production was studied using a series of batch digesters performed at substrate concentration of 20%, based on total solid (TS). The results showed that biogas production from BS was feasible at low temperature and low air pressure condition. High I/S ratio (>2/1) and BS to manure ratio of 1/1 could increase the biogas production. Long solid retention time (SRT) (>80 days) was needed for biogas production at low temperature and low air pressure condition. The highest cumulative biogas production obtained from the co-digestion of BS with TPM and CM was 233.4 ml/gVS and 192.0 ml/gVS, respectively. Removal efficiencies of substrate showed that biogas production was correlated with the removal efficiency of water-insoluble volatile solids (IVS) but not with the change rate of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)

  5. Effect of manure vs. fertilizer inputs on productivity of forage crop models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caternolo, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Martiniello, Pasquale

    2011-06-01

    Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha(-1), respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha(-1) of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha(-1) under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  6. Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV. The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  7. Thermal and enzymatic treatment of digested manure fibers in the re-injection loop concept to increase biogas yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escobar, Esperanza Jurado; Uellendahl, Hinrich Wilhelm; Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu;

    2015-01-01

    treatment of the digested manure fibers (DMF) in combination with the re-injection loop concept were tested. Thermal treatment of DMF at 105oC showed an increase of the specific methane yield of DMF by 65% while no siginificant effect was observed for enzymatic treatment of DMF for 1 h prior to......The re-injection loop concept proposes the recirculation of lignocellulosic organic matter after a first cycle of anaerobic digestion in order to increase the conversion into biogas. This re-circulation can potentially increase the methane yield up to 20%. In this study thermal and enzymatic...

  8. Survival and Persistence of Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and Attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Soils Amended with Animal Manure in a Greenhouse Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manan; Millner, Patricia D; Hashem, Fawzy; Camp, Mary; Whyte, Celia; Graham, Lorna; Cotton, Corrie P

    2016-06-01

    Animal manure provides benefits to agriculture but may contain pathogens that contaminate ready-to-eat produce. U.S. Food and Drug Administration standards include 90- or 120-day intervals between application of manure and harvest of crop to minimize risks of pathogen contamination of fresh produce. Data on factors affecting survival of Escherichia coli in soils under greenhouse conditions are needed. Three separate studies were conducted to evaluate survival of nonpathogenic E. coli (gEc) and attenuated E. coli O157:H7 (attO157) inoculated at either low (4 log CFU/ml) or high (6 log CFU/ml) populations over 56 days. Studies involved two pot sizes (small, 398 cm(3); large, 89 liters), three soil types (sandy loam, SL; clay loam, CL; silt loam, SIL), and four amendments (poultry litter, PL; dairy manure liquids, DML; horse manure, HM; unamended). Amendments were applied to the surface of the soil in either small or large containers. Study 1, conducted in regularly irrigated small containers, showed that populations of gEc and attO157 (2.84 to 2.88 log CFU/g) in PL-amended soils were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those in DML-amended (0.29 to 0.32 log CFU/g [dry weight] [gdw]) or unamended (0.25 to 0.28 log CFU/gdw) soils; soil type did not affect E. coli survival. Results from study 2, in large pots with CL and SIL, showed that PL-amended soils supported significantly higher attO157 and gEc populations compared with HM-amended or unamended soils. Study 3 compared results from small and large containers that received high inoculum simultaneously. Overall, in both small and large containers, PLamended soils supported higher gEc and attO157 populations compared with HM-amended and unamended soils. Populations of attO157 were significantly greater in small containers (1.83 log CFU/gdw) than in large containers (0.65 log CFU/gdw) at week 8, perhaps because small containers received more regular irrigation than large pots. Regular irrigation of small pots may have

  9. Heterogeneity of O2 dynamics in soil amended with animal manure and implications for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Bruun, Sander; Larsen, Morten Kobæk;

    2015-01-01

    ) from soil at high temporal resolution were monitored. At the end of the incubations, vertical profiles of mineral nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) in the soil matrix were quantified. The optode results revealed that anoxia rapidly developed in zones with manure addition and gradually expanded......Soil oxygen (O2) availability influences nitrification and denitrification, the major biological processes responsible for nitrous oxide (N2O) production and missions from soil. In this study O2-specific planar optodes were used to visualise O2 distribution with high spatial and temporal resolution...... in soils in which the same amount of solid fraction of pig manure had been distributed in three different ways (mixed, layered, single patch) and which were maintained at awater potential of 5 kPa (corresponding to 91% of water-filled pore space). In parallel, the greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CO2 and CH4...

  10. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and other zoonotic pathogens during simulated composting, manure packing, and liquid storage of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Sukhbir K; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Michel, Frederick C

    2006-01-01

    Livestock manures contain numerous microorganisms which can infect humans and/or animals, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis). The effects of commonly used manure treatments on the persistence of these pathogens have rarely been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the persistence of artificially inoculated M. paratuberculosis, as well as other naturally occurring pathogens, during the treatment of dairy manure under conditions that simulate three commonly used manure management methods: thermophilic composting at 55 degrees C, manure packing at 25 degrees C (or low-temperature composting), and liquid lagoon storage. Straw and sawdust amendments used for composting and packing were also compared. Manure was obtained from a large Ohio free-stall dairy herd and was inoculated with M. paratuberculosis at 10(6) CFU/g in the final mixes. For compost and pack treatments, this manure was amended with sawdust or straw to provide an optimal moisture content (60%) for composting for 56 days. To simulate liquid storage, water was added to the manure (to simulate liquid flushing and storage) and the slurry was placed in triplicate covered 4-liter Erlenmeyer flasks, incubated under ambient conditions for 175 days. The treatments were sampled on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 for the detection of pathogens. The persistence of M. paratuberculosis was also assessed by a PCR hybridization assay. After 56 days of composting, from 45 to 60% of the carbon in the compost treatments was converted to CO2, while no significant change in carbon content was observed in the liquid slurry. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Listeria were all detected in the manure and all of the treatments on day 0. After 3 days of composting at 55 degrees C, none of these organisms were detectable. In liquid manure and pack treatments, some of these microorganisms were

  11. 34 CFR 76.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... animals. If a State or a subgrantee uses an animal in a project, the State or subgrantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act of 1970... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 76.682 Section 76.682...

  12. Paddy Soil Stability and Mechanical Properties as Affected by Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Animal Manure in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wet stability, penetration resistance (PR), and tensile strength (TS) of paddy soils under a fertilization experiment for 22 years were determined to elucidate the function of soil organic matter in paddy soil stabilization. The treatments included no fertilization (CK), normal chemical fertilization (NPK), double the NPK application rates (2NPK), and NPK mixed with organic manure (NPK+OM). Compared with CK, fertilization increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil porosity. The results of soil aggregate fragmentation degree (SAFD) showed that fast wetting by water was the key fragmentation mechanism. Among the treatments, the NPK+OM treatment had the largest size of water-stable aggregates and greatest normal mean weight diameter (NMWD) (P ≤ 0.05), but the lowest PR and TS in both cultivated horizon (Ap) and plow pan. The CK and 2NPK treatments were measured with PR > 2.0 MPa and friability index < 0.20,respectively, in the Ap horizon, suggesting that the soils was mechanically unfavourable to root growth and tillage. In the plow pan, the fertilization treatments had greater TS and PR than in CK. TS and PR of the tested soil aggregates were negatively correlated to SOC content and soil porosity. This study suggested that chemical fertilization could cause deterioration of mechanical properties while application of organic manure could improve soil stability and mechanical properties.

  13. 34 CFR 75.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 75.682 Section 75.682 Education... Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.682 Treatment of animals. If a grantee uses an animal in a project, the grantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment...

  14. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities. PMID:18348791

  15. Effects of borax treatment on hydrogen sulfide emissions and sulfate reducing bacteria in stored swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malodorous compounds and emissions produced from stored swine manure can pose both environmental and health issues. These nuisance odors largely result from compounds such as sulfides, volatile fatty acids, and phenols, which are produced as a result of anaerobic digestion of materials present in t...

  16. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.;

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account...

  17. Characteristics and Availability of Different Forms of Phosphorus in Animal Manures%不同动物粪肥的磷素形态特征及有效性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严正娟; 陈硕; 王敏锋; 宋梓玮; 贾伟; 陈清

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of intensive livestock industry has greatly increased the discharge of animal manure. Reasonable utilization of large amounts of phosphorus(P)in animal manure can not only save the fertilizer resource, but also avoid water pollution from manure due to direct discharge or excess application in farmland. In this study, P contents and fractionation in 76 animal manures were analyzed using Hedley P fractionation method based on the survey for 52 livestock farms, and P mobility and environmental risks in different manures were evaluated as the reference for manure P management. The results showed that there were significant differences in total P content of animal manures. The mean P contents were 22.5, 13.7, 12.9, 9.6 g P·kg-1 and 7.5 g P·kg-1, in which the proportion of organic P in total P were 33.1%, 41.5%, 66.4%, 28.1%and 36.8%in pig, chicken, duck, cattle and sheep manures, respectively. The contents of total and organic P in non-ruminant animal manure(pig, chicken and duck manures)were 1.7~3.0 times and 2.1~3.0 times greater than that in ruminant manure (cattle and sheep manures)and the proportion of organic P in total P in poultry manure was higher than that in other manures. P mineraliza-tion was easier in non-ruminant animal manure with lower C/P ratio(19~29), compared with that in ruminant manure with C/P ratio of 38~45. Manure P was sequentially extracted by deionized water(H2O-P), NaHCO3(NaHCO3-P ), NaOH(NaOH-P)and HCl(HCl-P). The pro-portion of H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P, HCl-P and residual-P in total P in ruminant animal manure were 27.8%, 32.8%, 18.1%, 15.2%and 6.1%, respectively, while that were 24.6%, 19.4%, 12.7%, 34.4% and 8.9% in non-ruminant animal manure. The significant differences were in NaHCO3-P and HCl-P between ruminant and non-ruminant animal manures. Ruminant manure had greater proportion of liable P (H2O-P and NaHCO3-P)in total P(>60%), but the characteristics of higher mineralization rate might result in fast release

  18. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2016-01-01

    Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans. PMID:27571092

  19. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-01-01

    Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans. PMID:27571092

  20. 施用畜禽粪肥对旱地玉米生产力的影响%Effects of Farm Animal Manure on Productivity of Dryland Cron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 籍增顺; 李永平; 史向远; 张晓晨

    2012-01-01

    Based on the current situation of the chemical fertilizer abuse and ignorance of organic fertilizers application rate in northern China dry farming region, effects of farm animal manure on the crop water use efficiency, biological characteristics, photosynthetic physiological characteristics and yield were studied through a two-year field experiment. The result showed that the water use efficiency could be significantly increased 25.80% - 43.36% under farm animal manure compared with CK, meanwhile, the organic fertilizer played a remarkable role on promoting crop growth, developing crop high photosynthesis duration and decreasing crop convex tip. The organic fertilizer had 25.59% ~ 39.15% higer yields than that of the CK.%针对北方旱作农业区化肥滥用、畜禽粪肥施用量不明的现状,通过连续2a的有机肥培肥试验,研究了不同梯度水平下施用畜禽粪肥对旱地玉米水分利用效率、生物学性状、光合生理特性以及产量的影响.结果表明,施用畜禽粪肥与对照相比,能显著提高作物水分利用效率25.80%~43.36%;可使作物增产25.59%~ 39.15%;对促进作物生长,延长作物的高光合持续期,减少作物的秃尖程度有显著作用.

  1. GHRH treatment: studies in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakutsui, S; Abe, H; Chihara, K

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the effects of chronic deletion of circulating growth hormone-releasing (GHRH) and/or somatostatin (SRIF) on normal growing male rats, as well as the effects of exogenous GHRH (1-29)NH2 and/or SMS 201-995 administration on the growth of rats with hypothalamic ablation. Passive immunization with anti-rat GHRH goat gamma-globulin (GHRH-Ab) for 3 weeks caused a marked decrease in the levels of pituitary GH mRNA and severe growth failure. Treatment with anti-SRIF goat gamma-globulin (SRIF-Ab) for 3 weeks produced a more modest decrease in GH mRNA levels in the pituitary and a slight but significant inhibition of normal somatic growth. Hypothalamic ablation produced a marked decrease in the level of mRNA in the pituitary. Chronic continuous administration of GHRH (1-29)NH2 stimulated pituitary GH synthesis, elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I and increased body weight gain in rats with hypothalamic ablation treated with replacement doses of cortisone, testosterone and L-thyroxine. Combined treatment with GHRH (1-29)NH2 and SMS 201-995 appeared to promote the effect of GHRH on pituitary GH release and somatic growth in these animals. The results suggest that continuous administration of GHRH will be useful in the treatment of children with growth retardation resulting from hypothalamic disorders. In children with combined GHRH and somatostatin deficiencies, the addition of somatostatin to a GHRH treatment regimen may produce better results. PMID:2568726

  2. 不同来源畜禽粪的养分和污染物组成%Contents of nutrient elements and pollutants in different sources of animal manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单英杰; 章明奎

    2012-01-01

    Intensive confined livestock and poultry production systems generate large quantities of by-product that can be potentially recycled on lands as manure.Environmental protection is a major consideration for developing management practices that effectively use livestock manure as nutrient resource and soil conditioner in agricultural production.To date,most environmental problems associated with land applications of by-product manure have centered mainly on groundwater and/or surface water contamination by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients.With increasing use of trace elements such as Cu in nutritional supplements and antibiotics in livestock medicines as feed additives in intensive livestock industries,manure application has become the main source of heavy metal (e.g.,Cu,Zn and As) and antibiotic load in soils.By-product manure is applied in farmlands to supply primarily soil N and/or P,without regard to heavy metal pollution.The danger lies in accumulation of manure-borne metals and antibiotics,whichthreaten food safety and security.To reduce the risk of offsite contamination,it is important to characterize the contents of nutrient elements and pollutants in animal manure.In this study,155 samples of animal manure (including 93 samples of pig manure,31 samples of chicken manure,18 samples of duck manure and 13 samples of cow manure) were collected from both intensive animal farms and household animal houses in different regions of Zhejiang Province.Chemical and spectrum analysis were used to characterize the contents of nutrient elements,heavy metals and antibiotic residues.The results showed low contents of Cd,Cr,Hg,Ni andPb and high contents of Cu and Zn in animal manure.The ranges of manure contents of Cu,Zn and As were 18.56~1 788.04 mg-kg-1,12.46~10 056.68 mg·kg-1 and 0.69~76.43 mg·kg-1,with mean values of 525.38 mg·kg-1,897.14 mg·kg-1 and 10.01 mg·kg-1,respectively.Based on the national standards of heavy metal load limit of sludge for land

  3. A biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry wastes manure as a feed ingredient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Jalil, M.H. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco). Biology Dept.; Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Faid, M. [Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Elyachioui, M. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2001-07-01

    Poultry wastes manure was diluted by adding the same amount of water 50-50 (w/v). They were then mixed with 10% molasses. The mixture was inoculated with a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidolactici, and incubated at 30{sup o}C for 10 days. Changes in nutritional quality and biochemical properties (pH, total nitrogen, total volatile nitrogen, non protein nitrogen, carbohydrates and ash) were determined for the raw and the transformed product. In parallel, microbiological analyses, including standard plant count, enterobacteria and enterococci, were performed. Results indicated that the product obtained from the wastes fermentation showed low counts of enterobacteria and enterococci. Chemical determinations showed a net decrease of the pH to around 4.0 and the growth curve of the lactic acid bacteria showed the success of the acidification process. The total nitrogen was conserved in the product and the total volatile nitrogen was totally eliminated. The product was used for substituting some protein sources in a conventional formula used in laying feeding of three lots. Two formulae containing, respectively, 20% and 40% of the product was compared to the control (0%). The food consumption and laying performances were monitored for 30 days. The nutritional test indicted that the incorporation of the poultry manure silage of up to 40% gave laying performances similar to those obtained with the conventional formula. These results show that it is possible to transform poultry manure by controlled fermentation and that the product has an added value as a feed ingredient. (Author)

  4. Treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process under a continuous mode operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Lo, Ing W; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2010-11-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat dairy manure for solubilization of nutrients and organic matters. This study investigated the effectiveness of the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP under a continuous mode of operation, and compared the results to those of batch operations. The main factors affecting solubilization by the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP were heating temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased with an increase of microwave (MW) heating temperature; very high concentrations were obtained at 90°C. Insignificant amounts of ammonia and reducing sugars were released in all runs. An acidic pH condition was required for phosphorus solubilisation from dairy manure. The best yield was obtained at 90°C with an acid dosage of 1.0 %; about 92 % of total phosphorus and 90 % of total chemical oxygen demand were in the soluble forms. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP operated in a continuous operation mode showed pronounced synergistic effects between hydrogen peroxide and microwave irradiation when compared to a batch system under similar operating conditions, resulting in much better yields.

  5. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  6. Inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, H.D.; Shannon, E.E.; Derbyshire, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55/sup 0/C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35/sup 0/C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70/sup 0/C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  7. The inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, H D; Shannon, E E; Derbyshire, J B

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70 degrees C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  8. Development of an efficient extraction method for oxytetracycline in animal manure for high performance liquid chromatography analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4-dimethylamino-5,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene- 1,3,12-trione) is a majormember of the tetracycline antibiotics family ofwhich are widely administered to animals in concentrated animal feeding operations for purposes o...

  9. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics.

  10. Use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and the fate of antibiotic residues and resistance genes in the environment after land application of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -absence data for the surveyed genes were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). Manure treatment lagoons and storage pits were always found to contain every tet gene for which surveys were conducted (Koike et al., 2007), and, likewise, five out six erm genes found at these sites were detected in nearly every lagoon sample (Koike et al., in review). A subset of groundwater wells at site A were found to contain both tet and erm genes with much higher frequencies than other wells, and the detection frequencies of most tet and erm genes for these wells were close to 100%. These 'impacted' wells (A6, A8, A9, A11, A12) were all located in close proximity to the source lagoon, and most of them were situated in a relatively porous aquifer that bisected the lagoon. Chemical indicators of lagoon leakage, such as chloride and ammonium concentrations, were previously seen to be elevated in these impacted wells (Mackie et al., 2006, Koike et al., 2007). The number of antibiotic resistance genes in other wells, including background wells, was extremely variable over time, with a tendency for the detection frequencies of many genes to be quite low. Antibiotic resistance gene pools in soils were impacted by the addition of manure. Background detection frequencies of tet genes in soil were close to zero, but immediately after manure injection, it was possible to detect all tet genes for which surveys were conducted in most soil samples. Over time, the detection frequency of some tet genes (tet(M), tet(O), tet(H), tet(Z)) returned to near-zero, while others (tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C)) persisted. The detection frequencies of tet(C) and tet(W) genes remained high five months after manure injection, and at site C the tet(C) gene was still detectable in many soil samples eighteen months after manure injection. Interestingly, the temporal and spatial patterns of antibiotic resistance genes in soils and water did not seem to depend on direct selection pressure due to antibiotic persistence, as

  11. Ultrasonic treatment of experimental animal tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Kremkau, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Studies on the effects of ultrasound on several solid tumours in experimental animals have indicated that tumour growth rates can be reduced. These data are generally consistent with a thermal mechanism of action. Application of combined ultrasound and X-irradiation have shown that with some experimental animal tumours the radiation dose required to locally control 50% of the tumours can be reduced by ultrasound. These results were also consistent with a thermal mechanism of action hypothesis...

  12. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  13. Degradation and dissipation of the veterinary ionophore lasalocid in manure and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žižek, Suzana; Dobeic, Martin; Pintarič, Štefan; Zidar, Primož; Kobal, Silvestra; Vidrih, Matej

    2015-11-01

    Lasalocid is a veterinary ionophore antibiotic used for prevention and treatment of coccidiosis in poultry. It is excreted from the treated animals mostly in its active form and enters the environment with the use of contaminated manure on agricultural land. To properly assess the risk that lasalocid poses to the environment, it is necessary to know its environmental concentrations as well as the rates of its degradation in manure and dissipation in soil. These values are still largely unknown. A research was undertaken to ascertain the rate of lasalocid degradation in manure under different storage conditions (aging in a pile or composting) and on agricultural soil after using lasalocid-contaminated manure. The results have shown that there is considerable difference in lasalocid degradation between aging manure with no treatment (t1/2=61.8±1.7 d) and composting (t1/2=17.5±0.8 d). Half-lives in soil are much shorter (on average 3.1±0.4 d). On the basis of the measured concentrations of lasalocid in soil after manure application, we can conclude that it can potentially be harmful to soil organisms (PEC/PNEC ratio of 1.18), but only in a worst-case scenario of using the maximum permissible amount of manure and immediately after application. To make certain that no harmful effects occur, composting is recommended.

  14. Anaerobic treatment of apple waste with swine manure for biogas production: Batch and continuous operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Apple waste (AW) was co-digested with swine manure (SM). ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield than SM only. ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield at 55 °C than at 36.5 °C. ► Modified Gompertz model best fitted to the substrates used. ► Positive synergetic effect up to 33% AW during continuous digestion. -- Abstract: This study evaluated the performance of anaerobic digesters using a mixture of apple waste (AW) and swine manure (SM). Tests were performed using both batch and continuous digesters. The batch test evaluated the gas potential, gas production rate of the AW and SM (Experiment I), and the effect of AW co-digestion with SM (33:67,% volatile solids (VSs) basis) (Experiment II) at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The first-order kinetic model and modified Gompertz model were also evaluated for methane yield. The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with different mixture ratios of AW and SM at mesophilic temperature. The ultimate biogas and methane productivity of AW in terms of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was determined to be 510 and 252 mL/g TCOD added, respectively. The mixture of AW and SM improved the biogas yield by approximately 16% and 48% at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, respectively, compared to the use of SM only, but no significant difference was found in the methane yield. The difference between the predicted and measured methane yield was higher with a first order kinetic model (4.6–18.1%) than with a modified Gompertz model (1.2–3.4%). When testing continuous digestion, the methane yield increased from 146 to 190 mL/g TCOD added when the AW content in the feed was increased from 25% to 33% (VS basis) at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.6 g VS/L/d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days. However, the total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) accumulation increased rapidly and the p

  15. Postexposure Treatment and Animal Rabies, Ontario, 1958-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Nunan, Christopher P.; Tinline, Rowland R.; Honig, Janet M.; Ball, David G. A.; Hauschildt, Peggy; LeBer, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between animal rabies and postexposure treatment (PET) in Ontario by examining the introduction of human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) in 1980 and the initiation of an oral rabies vaccination program for wildlife in 1989. Introducing HDCV led to an immediate doubling of treatments. Both animal rabies and human treatments declined rapidly after the vaccination program was introduced, but human treatments have leveled off at approximately 1,000 per year.

  16. Assessing the impacts of temperature and storage on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes decay in dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sagor; Pandey, Pramod K; Farver, Thomas B

    2016-06-01

    Elevated levels of animal waste-borne pathogen in ambient water is a serious human health issue. Mitigating influx of pathogens from animal waste such as dairy manure to soil and water requires improving our existing knowledge of pathogen reductions in dairy manure treatment methods. This study was conducted to enhance the  understanding of human pathogen decay in liquid dairy manure in anaerobic (AN) and limited aerobic (LA) storage conditions. The decay of three pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes) was assessed in bench-scale batch reactors fed with liquid slurry. A series of temperatures (30, 35, 42, and 50 °C) conditions were tested to determine the impacts of temperature on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes decay in AN and LA conditions. Results showed prolonged survival of E. coli compared to Salmonella and L. monocytogenes in both LA and AN environments. Variations in survival among pathogens with temperature and environmental conditions (i.e., LA and AN) indicated the necessity of developing improved dairy manure waste treatment methods for controlling animal waste-borne pathogens. The results of this study will help in improving the current understanding of human pathogen decay in dairy manure for making informed decisions of animal manure treatment by stakeholders. PMID:26922419

  17. 畜禽粪便中四环类抗生素的残留和环境行为%Residues and Environmental Behaviors of Tetracyclines in Animal Manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成贤; 周丽

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated operations of livestock and poultry were highly developed in China, its residues of tetracyclines in animal manure may pose great threat potential to environment. Residues of tetracyclines in animal manure, the ways entered into the environment and its mobility and degradation in the soil environment were summarized.%我国畜禽养殖业很发达,畜禽粪便中残留的四环素类抗生素的污染对生态环境构成了巨大的潜在威胁。针对这种状况,本文总结了我国四环素类抗生素在畜禽粪便中的残留状况及其进入环境的途径,并概述了其在环境中的迁移和降解状况。

  18. 45 CFR 63.33 - Treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... proper care and humane treatment; in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) and... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of animals. 63.33 Section 63.33 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY...

  19. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  20. Citric Acid Treatment of Chronic Wounds in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    B.S. Nagoba,; B.J. Wadher and S.P. Selkar

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wound infections in animals not responding to conventional treatment modality are the important cause of morbidity. Infection is responsible for delayed wound healing. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop simple and effective treatment modality by using citric acid as a sole antimicrobial agent to control chronic wound infections in animals. Thirty eight cases of chronic wounds not responding to conventional treatment modalities were divided into two groups. Each group...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Manure application to agricultural lands from confined animal feeding operations by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean livestock manure application to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006....

  2. DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE, AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND HPLC-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes from poultry houses is currently unregulated and poses a potential environmental concern. Determination of roxarsone and its transformation products in chicken manure is necessary to understand their possible impacts on human health and ...

  3. WORKSHOP ON EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS AND ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANIMAL MANURES, BIOSOLIDS, AND OTHER SIMILAR BY-PRODUCTS: THE REST OF THE STORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will:Discuss the purpose of the workshopDiscussion publication of "Contemporary Perspectives on Infectious Disease Agents in Sewage Sludge and Manure.Present Table of ContentsDiscuss summaryDiscuss synthesis document

  4. 中国区域畜禽粪便能源潜力及总量控制研究%Biogas energy potential for livestock manure and gross control of animal feeding in region level of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿维; 胡林; 崔建宇; 卜美东; 张蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

      为了评估中国畜禽粪便资源总量及其对环境的影响,以环保部、统计局和农业部发布的区域畜禽产排污系数为基础,利用2010年的统计数据,研究了中国及各省的畜禽粪便资源总量、能源潜力及农地的氮磷负荷,并以欧盟的农地氮磷施用标准对中国畜禽养殖的环境容量和污染风险进行了初步评估.结果表明,2010年,中国畜禽粪便总量达22.35亿 t,可产沼气1072.75亿 m3,山东等6省市粪便资源超过1.00亿 t;全国单位面积农地氮磷平均负荷为43.73 kg/hm2(TN)和9.16 kg/hm2(TP),北京等6省市农地氮磷负荷超标;全国畜禽养殖环境容量为129.56亿头猪当量(以 N 为基准),159.74亿头猪当量(以 P 为基准),实际养殖总量约占环境容量的1/4,考虑化肥施用的影响,约有20个省超过本省50%环境容量.研究结果为区域畜禽养殖总量控制、合理布局和粪污的综合利用提供决策依据.%With the increasing demand for meat products, animal husbandry industry has developed rapidly in China in the past decade. Large amount of animal manure were produced, which would be an important sources of biogas energy production or serious pollutant sources to soil and water body, if discharged into the environment without appropriate processing. It is very meaningful to assess the impacts of animal manure on environment in China. Based on the pollutant excretion coefficient of livestock and poultry that was officially released by the Ministry of National Environmental Protection of China, and the latest statistical data from statistical year book of China in 2011 that was released by the National Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Agriculture, the gross amount of animal manure and the biogas energy potential by animal manure in different regions of China were evaluated in this study. The whole country was divided into six regions and the major 10 species of livestock and poultry were selected. Meanwhile

  5. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge. PMID:26517996

  6. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge.

  7. Scientific Opinion on animal health risk mitigation treatments as regards imports of animal casings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Salting with NaCl for 30 days is a well-established and accepted procedure in the casings industry and it has been the standard animal health risk mitigation treatment prescribed in EU legislation for many years. This opinion reviews (i improvements in the NaCl treatment that would lead to an increased level of safety to avoid transmission of animal pathogens, (ii alternative treatments that could have been developed giving equivalent or better results in the inactivation of relevant pathogens, and (iii provides an assessment of the phosphate-salt treatment recommended by OIE for foot and mouth disease virus, in particular if it could be considered safe as regards the elimination of other animal pathogens. The rate of inactivation of viruses was highly dependent on temperature for both NaCl and phosphate-NaCl treatment. Treatment with phosphate-NaCl mixture leads to faster inactivation than treatment with NaCl salt alone. Brucella species are readily inactivated by NaCl salting, but mycobacteriamay survive beyond 30 days in intestines in conditions similar to those used for salting of casings. It is recommended that casings should be treated at 20 °C for 30 days to achieve effective inactivation of animal pathogens. Several other treatments have been applied to casings with the aim of inactivating infectious agents, but none of them have been extensively investigated with viruses relevant for animal health.

  8. Swine manure post-treatment technologies for pathogenic organism inactivation Tecnologias de pós-tratamento de dejetos suínos para inativar organismos patogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bilotta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Swine manure agricultural use is a common practice in Brazil. Their physic-chemical characteristics favor its use as biofertilizer, but the presence of pathogens may become a risk to human health. This research presents a qualitative study of the main alternatives of pig manure disinfection, analyzing efficiency, advantages and limitations of each procedure. The disinfection studies reported in literature are based on the following treatments: alkaline, thermal, biological, chemical, and physical. The greater efficiencies are in thermal treatment (> 4 log: 60 °C, chemical treatment (3 to 4 log: 30mg Cl- L-1; 3 to 4 log: 40 mg O3 L-1 and physical treatment (3 a 4 log: 220 mJ UV radiation cm-2. The biological treatment (anaerobiosis also promotes the pathogen reduction of swine manure, however with lower efficiency (1 to 2 log. The selection of the treatment should consider: implementation and operation cost, necessity of preliminary treatment, efficiency obtained and destination of the treated manure (agricultural use, water reuse. Brazilian regulation does not have specific guidelines for the microbiological quality of animal production effluents that is very important to be considered due to confined animal feeding operation transformation in the last years in the country.O uso agrícola de dejetos suínos é uma prática comum no Brasil. Suas características físico-químicas favorecem seu aproveitamento como biofertilizante, porém a presença de patógenos pode representar um risco à saúde humana. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo qualitativo das principais alternativas de desinfecção de dejetos suínos, analisando eficiência, vantagens e limitações de cada procedimento. Os estudos de desinfecção reportados na literatura são baseados nos seguintes tratamentos: alcalino, térmico, biológico, químico e físico. As maiores eficiências de redução de patógenos estão no tratamento térmico (>4 log: 60 °C, tratamento químico (3

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and wheat straw for optimized biogas production by the addition of magnetite and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The additives of magnetite and zeolite in anaerobic digestion were studied. • Mineral additives increased methane production significantly. • Mineral additives provided a good environment for methanogens. • The optimum conditions for anaerobic digestion process were optimized. - Abstract: To enhance biogas production and identify new additive materials for the co-digestion of wheat straw, sheep manure, and chicken manure, batch experiments were investigated in this study. Experiments were conducted on the influence of additive materials on a range of manure/straw ratios (3:7, 5:5, and 7:3) and biogas production under a mesophilic temperature (35 °C). Results showed that the maximum increments of methane production (L/kg · VSadd) with the addition of 3 g magnetite and 1 g natural zeolite were 52.01% and 51.01%, respectively. The addition of magnetite and zeolite in the anaerobic digestion process produced a good fermentation environment. By using the response optimizer when the manure proportion was 52%, the best methane yield was obtained with the addition of 2.7 g magnetite. For zeolite, the best addition dose was 1 g and the optimum manure proportion is 63%. Magnetite had a more extensive increase in methane yield than zeolite

  10. Degradation of Insecticides in Poultry Manure: Determining the Insecticidal Treatment Interval for Managing House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Ahmad, Hamdan

    2016-04-01

    It is crucial to understand the degradation pattern of insecticides when designing a sustainable control program for the house fly, Musca domestica (L.), on poultry farms. The aim of this study was to determine the half-life and degradation rates of cyromazine, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin by spiking these insecticides into poultry manure, and then quantitatively analyzing the insecticide residue using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The insecticides were later tested in the field in order to study the appropriate insecticidal treatment intervals. Bio-assays on manure samples were later tested at 3, 7, 10, and 15 d for bio-efficacy on susceptible house fly larvae. Degradation analysis demonstrated that cyromazine has the shortest half-life (3.01 d) compared with chlorpyrifos (4.36 d) and cypermethrin (3.75 d). Cyromazine also had a significantly greater degradation rate compared with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. For the field insecticidal treatment interval study, 10 d was the interval that had been determined for cyromazine due to its significantly lower residue; for ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin), the suggested interval was 7 d. Future work should focus on the effects of insecticide metabolites on targeted pests and the poultry manure environment.

  11. Scientific Opinion on animal health risk mitigation treatments as regards imports of animal casings

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)

    2012-01-01

    Salting with NaCl for 30 days is a well-established and accepted procedure in the casings industry and it has been the standard animal health risk mitigation treatment prescribed in EU legislation for many years. This opinion reviews (i) improvements in the NaCl treatment that would lead to an increased level of safety to avoid transmission of animal pathogens, (ii) alternative treatments that could have been developed giving equivalent or better results in the inactivation of releva...

  12. Citric Acid Treatment of Chronic Wounds in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Nagoba,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wound infections in animals not responding to conventional treatment modality are the important cause of morbidity. Infection is responsible for delayed wound healing. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop simple and effective treatment modality by using citric acid as a sole antimicrobial agent to control chronic wound infections in animals. Thirty eight cases of chronic wounds not responding to conventional treatment modalities were divided into two groups. Each group included 19 cases. In group 1, 3% citric acid solution and in group 2, 5% citric acid solution was used for local application to find out its efficacy in the treatment of chronic wound infections in animals. Citric acid was found effective in the control of all 38 cases in 7 to 20 applications. In group 1, the wounds healed in 10-20 applications. In group 2, the wounds healed in 7-15 applications. Citric acid treatment was found most effective and economical approach for the successful treatment of chronic infected wounds in animals not responding to conventional antibiotic treatment and local wound care. These results suggest that when healing of chronic wounds in animals is a matter of great concern, the value of topical agents like citric acid should not be forgotten.

  13. Determination of chlorophyll a and total phosphorus abundance in organic manured fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin M. Chanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted for 6 weeks (between August and September 2010 with 4treatments (T1: poultry manure, T2: cattle manure, T3: poultry and cattle manure and T4: control-nomanure assigned to 8 concrete ponds at random to determine chlorophyll a and total phosphorusabundance in organic manured fish ponds. Results of the study suggest that T1, T2, and T3 had an effecton chlorophyll a and total phosphorus abundance in organic manured ponds. The final mean average forchlorophyll a ranged from 0.0105mg/m3 to 0.045mg/m3 and that of total phosphorus ranged from0.024mg/50mL to 0.522mg/50mL. Chlorophyll a and phosphorus were positively correlated with acoefficient of 0.92 and it was significant (p ≤ 0.05. However, weekly performance of chlorophyll a andtotal phosphorus was higher in T3 compared to other treatments. The treatments also showeddifferences in the number of plankton species available. Phytoplankton species in T3 increased from 888in week three to 933 in week six. However, the zooplankton species reduced from 10 in week three to 4in week six compared to other treatments. These results indicate that animal manure varied ininfluencing the production of chlorophyll a, planktons and phosphorus. The variation may be attributed tofeed nutritive value of the animals to which they were fed. Farmers should therefore be encouraged touse a combination of poultry and cattle manure to obtain maximum benefits in increasing chlorophyll aand total phosphorus.

  14. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais eAlbuquerque

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable flies are blood-feeding insects with a great negative impact on animals worldwide. Larvae develop primarily in animal manure and bacteria are essential for larval development; however, the principle of this dependence is not understood. We hypothesized that as the microbial community of animal manure changes over time, it plays an important role in stable fly fitness. Two-choice bioassays were conducted using two week old horse manure (control and aging horse manure (fresh to 5 week old to evaluate the effect of manure age on stable fly oviposition. Our data showed that fresh feces did not stimulate oviposition and that the attractiveness increased as manure aged but started to decline after 3 weeks. Bioassays assessing the effect of manure age at the time of oviposition on larval development demonstrated that 1 to 3 week old manure supported larval development significantly better than fresh, 4, and 5 week old manure. In addition, adult fitness (body size was significantly higher in flies from 1 and 2 week old manure comparing to that of all other treatments. Analysis of the bacterial community of aging horse manure by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed a great reduction in bacterial diversity and richness from fresh to 1-5 week old manure and a major shift from strict anaerobes in fresh manure to facultative anaerobes and strict aerobes in aged manure. Overall, the microbial community of 2 and 3 week old horse manure with its dominant bacterial taxa Rhizobium, Devosia, and Brevudiomonas stimulated stable fly oviposition the most and provided a suitable habitat for larval development. These bacteria represent the candidates for studies focused on better understanding of stable fly - microbial interactions.

  15. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Thais A; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    Stable flies are blood-feeding insects with a great negative impact on animals world wide. Larvae develop primarily in animal manure and bacteria are essential for larval development; however, the principle of this dependence is not understood. We hypothesized that as the microbial community of animal manure changes over time, it plays an important role in stable fly fitness. Two-choice bioassays were conducted using 2 week old horse manure (control) and aging horse manure (fresh to 5 week old) to evaluate the effect of manure age on stable fly oviposition. Our data showed that fresh feces did not stimulate oviposition and that the attractiveness increased as manure aged but started to decline after 3 weeks. Bioassays assessing the effect of manure age at the time of oviposition on larval development demonstrated that 1-3 week old manure supported larval development significantly better than fresh, 4, and 5 week old manure. In addition, adult fitness (body size) was significantly higher in flies from 1 and 2 week old manure comparing to that of all other treatments. Analysis of the bacterial community of aging horse manure by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed a great reduction in bacterial diversity and richness from fresh to 1-5 week old manure and a major shift from strict anaerobes in fresh manure to facultative anaerobes and strict aerobes in aged manure. Overall, the microbial community of 2 and 3 week old horse manure with its dominant bacterial taxa Rhizobium, Devosia, and Brevundimonas stimulated stable fly oviposition the most and provided a suitable habitat for larval development. These bacteria represent the candidates for studies focused on better understanding of stable fly - microbial interactions.

  16. Fate and transport of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genetic determinants during manure storage, treatment, and land application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are used in swine production for therapeutic treatment of disease and at sub-therapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. It is estimated that ca.75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in waste. Antibiotic resistance selection occur...

  17. Survival and persistence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soils amended with animal manure in a greenhouse environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological soil amendments (BSA's), including dairy cattle, poultry litter, and horse manure, play an important role in agriculture but may contain pathogens that can contaminate raw or ready-to-eat fruit and vegetable crops that are consumed raw. Proposed FDA standards include a 90- or 120-day inte...

  18. Potential of Waste Water Sludge as Environmental-Friendly Manure after UV-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Zafar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to exponential population increase in developing world, the wastewater and solid waste generation has tremendously increased and their management has become a serious health and environmental issue. A large amount of sewage sludge generated by sewage treatment plants however, can be re-used after proper segregation and treatment as fertilizer and for energy production. Hence, this study was carried out to find out the potential use of sludge produced at Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT Sewage Treatment Plant (STP as organic fertilizer. For this purpose, chemical analysis of the waste water was carried out to determine the quality of raw waste water (influent and treated waste water (effluent intermittently. Furthermore, post-wastewater treatment, sewage sludge was analyzed for its chemical characteristics, i.e., for Total Nitrogen (TN, Total Phosphorous (TP and Organic Matter (OM contents; and microbial analyses for the presence of Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and E. Coli was also carried out sewage sludge was exposed to sunlight for 0, 3 and 6 months. The results were with commercial compost (control similar characteristics. According to the results, pH, EC, TSS, COD and BOD5 were found very high in the influent however, after the waste water treatment; the effluent quality was found within the limits of National Environmental Quality standards (NEQs. On the other hand, TN, TP and OM content remained high in sewage sludge as compared to the controls. In order to enumerate harmful microbes in sewage sludge, microbial analyses for Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and E. coli was carried out in pre-treated, UV-post-treated and control sludge samples. According to the results, the Total and Fecal Coliforms were found very high (>16000 MPN/g whereas, E. Coli population remained between (7000-12000 MPN/g. The most important aspect noted in this study was: as the sludge aged, this figure (7,000, 12,000, and 1,600 MPN/g after 0, 3 and 6 months

  19. Interaction and coupling in the emission of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.; Groenestein, C.M.; Hilhorst, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g., compost

  20. Odor and Odorous Compound Emissions from Manure of Swine Fed Standard and Dried Distillers Grains with Soluble Supplemented Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian; Scoggin, Kenwood

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a diet containing 35% DDGS over a 42-d feeding trial. Their waste was collected and transferred to individual manure storage containers. Manure from pigs fed diets containing DDGS had significantly lower odorant emissions expressed in animal units for hydrogen sulfide (HS) and ammonia (NH) ( < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the CSBM diet, but emissions of volatile fatty acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher ( < 0.05) for manures from animals fed the DDGS diet. There was no significant difference for indole compound emissions due to the dietary treatment applied. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from manure accounted for less than 0.1% of carbon consumed for either diet. There were no significant differences in odor emissions for either diet as quantified with human panels or measured as the sum total of the odor activity value. Manure odors from pigs fed the CSBM diet were dominated by HS, whereas animals fed the diet containing DDGS were dominated by VOCs. PMID:27136158

  1. Extensive Treatment System For Recycling Water For Flushing Fresh Manure And Recovering Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Philippe; Robin, Paul; Escande, Aurélie; Picot, Bernadette; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Jiangping, Qiu; Yinsheng, Li; Hamon, Gwenn; Amblard, Charlotte; Luth, Fievet, Sébastien; Oudart, Didier; Le Quéré, Camille Pain; Cluzeau, Daniel; Landrain, Brigitte

    2010-11-01

    From preliminary researches on a pilot scale, a complete demonstration plant was built to treat the effluents of a 30 pregnant sow's piggery. It includes a screen, a vermifilter, a macrophyte lagooning, and a complementary water storage pond; the recycled water is used for flushing, and rainfall is collected to compensate for evapotranspiration. After functioning in 2008 and 2009, it was showed that, during the warm season, the whole plant produced an effluent suitable for flushing, where the concentration decrease was over 70% for the phosphorus and potassium, 95% for the COD and nitrogen, 99.8% for endocrine disruptors (estrogenic activity), and 99.99% for pathogenic micro-organisms. During the cold season, the dilution by the rain water and the treatment effect of the constructed wetlands lead to similar results. Nevertheless, for this season, suitable floating macrophytes that will cover the lagoons remain to be settled.

  2. Borax and octabor treatment of stored swine manure to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorous gas emissions from stored swine manure are becoming serious environmental and health issues as the livestock industry becomes more specialized, concentrated, and industrialized. These nuisance gasses include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia, and methane, which are produced as a result of ana...

  3. Sodium tetraborate decahydrate treatment reduces hydrogen sulfide emissions and the sulfate reducing bacteria population of swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emission of odorous and toxic gases from stored livestock manure is well documented, and poses a serious health risk to farmers and livestock. Hydrogen sulfide emissions have been sharply rising with more intensive livestock production and are of particular concern due to its acute toxicity. Num...

  4. Treatment of Dairy Manure Effluent Using Freshwater Algae in Outdoor Pilot-Scale Raceways: Algal Production and Nutrient Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative practice to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) present in these liquid slurries. The objective of this study was to determine how algal productivity, nutrient removal efficiency, and elemental composition of turf algae ...

  5. Potential of biogas production with young bulls manure on batch biodigesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M.; Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The feedlot system concerning the young bull model allows that animals gain weight in a shorter time since there is higher daily intake of protein when compared to fiber. This change on animals' diet alters particularly manure characteristics and thus interferes on performance of biological systems of treatment. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of biogas production using manure of young bulls that received two different diets on batch biodigesters under three temperatures, with and without inoculum use. The results showed that manure from animals that received more protein on diet (80% concentrate + 20% roughage) had greater reductions on volatile solids when submitted to anaerobic biodigestion. Although the speed of biogas production was superior on treatments with inoculum, it was observed negative effect on inoculum use. There was no effect on temperature during biogas production. Regarding diet effect, manure of animals fed on diet with more protein produced larger amounts of biogas per kg of total added solids (0.2543) when compared to those who received less protein on diet (65% concentrate + 35% roughage), which meant 0.1001 m{sup 3} biogas/kg/total solids. (author)

  6. A dynamic model for calculating methane emissions from digestate based on co-digestion of animal manure and biogas crops in full scale German biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muha, Ivo; Linke, Bernd; Wittum, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    The focus of this work is the development of a model for the estimation of methane emissions for storage tanks of biogas plants. Those can be estimated depending on (i) hydraulic retention time in the digester, (ii) an arbitrary removal rate of the digestate from the storage tank and (iii) arbitrary temperature conditions in the storage tank. Furthermore, the model is capable of considering an arbitrary mixture of manure and crops in the input material. The model was validated by data from 21 full scale biogas plants in Germany digesting cow manure and crops. A realistic scenario for the removal rate and temperature conditions in the storage tank was then investigated and special emphasis was given to the effect of hydraulic retention time and proportion of crops in the mixture on the input VS methane yield from the digester and the storage tank.

  7. 畜禽粪便堆肥作为功能微生物载体的研究%Using Animal Manure as Carrier of Functional Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏清; 袁英英; 区伟佳; 李华兴; 欧阳净化; 凌龙

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and best condition of using compost( utilizing chicken manure, pig manure, rice husk and sawdust as composting materials) as the carrier of functional microorganism instead of turf. The experiment used the compost as the carrier of three strains bacillus inoculums( Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus ), meanwhile optimized the key factors, such as the water content of carrier, temperature and inoculation concentration. Taking changes of living cell quantity on the carrier at different stages as a standard. The result showed that the number of living cell quantity in chicken manure(C ), pig manure(P), mix chicken and pig manure( M ), and mix turf with pig manure(TP) in 72 h were much less than that of in turf(T); and the number of living cell quantity in the 50% turf+50% chicken manure(TC2) and 25% turf+75% mix chicken and pig manure(TM1 ) increased as time goes by; the number of living cell quantity in TC2 and TM1 respectively increased to 11.40×109 cfu·g-1 and 2.64×109 cfu·g-1 at the 72th hour, which have no significant difference comparing to that of T. Therefore, TC2 and TM1 could be used as the carrier of functional microorganism to replace T.Base on the single-factor experiment, the key factors that made TC2 and TM 1 the best carrier were:30% water content ,30 ℃ temperature and 108 cfu·mL-1 inoculation concentration.%以堆肥作为3株功能芽胞细菌液体菌剂的载体,通过优化载体含水量、温度和接种浓度等关键影响因子,以不同时间载体中有效活菌数的变化为指标,探讨堆肥代替草炭作为功能微生物载体的可行性和最适条件.研究结果表明,载体c(鸡粪)、P(猪粪)、M(1:1鸡粪猪粪)和TP(猪粪+草炭)在72 h内的有效活菌数均显著低于草炭;混合载体TC2(50%草炭+50%鸡粪)和TM1(25%草炭+75%1:1鸡粪猪粪)的有效活菌数随着时间的延长而增加,其中72h时TC2的有效活菌数达到11

  8. Organic manures as sources of fertiliser sulphur

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, J

    2001-01-01

    On a global scale, S excretion from domestic animals may be estimated to around 8 million t per year, corresponding to 80% of the World S consumption for mineral fertiliser manufacture. The utilisation of this potential source of fertiliser-S is discussed focusing on the use of manure from housing and manure storages applied to agricultural land. Especially in the developed countries the S content of manure collected from cattle and pigs (1 million t S per year) has a potential as S-fertilise...

  9. Persistence of pathogens in liquid pig manure processed in manure tanks and biodigesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Betancur H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the study and another one at the end of the process in manure tanks and biodigesters. For the manure tank, a 250 liters tank was filled with fresh pig manure and was analyzed after three days of storage. The biodigesters were of continuous flow and its effluents were analyzed, according to the specific hydraulic retention times. The diagnostic techniques were those recommended specifically for each microorganism and were carried out in certified labs by the Colombian Animal Health authority. Results. Of the 26 pathogens that were investigated, 15 appeared in the fresh pig manure used in pig manure tanks and 12 in the one used in biodigestors. In manure tanks, Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, mold, yeast, Salmonella spp., Balantidium coli and Strongylids did not persist. In biodigesters, PCV2, yeast, Strongylids, B. coli and Strongyloides spp., did not persist. Conclusions. In both manure tanks and biodigesters, a variation could be seen in pathogen persistency, indicating that they act as transformation systems of pig manure for the removal of the latter, as long as the storage times are increased if the efficiency wants to be improved.

  10. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    OpenAIRE

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The common house fly, Musca domestica (Md) is an important carrier of zoonotic agents, and Campylobacter jejuni is one that may be transmitted between animals and humans by flies. Colonized animals shed the bacteria in feces where larval stages of Md flies develops. Aim of the present study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larva...

  11. A REVIEW ON ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF SWINE MANURE%猪粪废水的厌氧处理工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹榕; 谢丽; 黄燕; 周琪; 周烺; 龚浩

    2012-01-01

    介绍了近几年国内外厌氧工艺处理猪粪废水的研究,详述了猪粪废水的厌氧发酵特性,对比了各种厌氧技术对猪粪废水的处理效果和经济效益,总结了猪粪的厌氧处理工艺中应当关注的因素和运行条件,对该领域的研究前景进行了展望,提出应当加强新型高效反应器与创新耦合厌氧工艺的研究与应用.%Anaerobic digestion had become an attractive technology in the field of agricultural waste for its high removal efficiency of organics and production of biogas. In this literature review, recent researches on the anaerobic treatment of swine manure had been reviewed. The anaerobic treatment performance of swine manure and various technologies had been summarized, especially on the treatment efficiency and economy benefits. The main influencing factors and operation conditions were discussed in this paper. Future research should focus on the application of new efficient anaerobic reactors and innovative coupling technology.

  12. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental co

  13. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be...

  14. Analysis of manure-derived oxytetracycline in amended soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a member of tetracycline antibiotic family, oxytetracycline is widely administered to animals. With the application of manure from medicated animals as fertilizer into agricultural land, oxytetracycline may enter the environment. For studying oxytetracycline contamination and its fate in agricult...

  15. Abundance of 13C and 15N in emmer, spelt and naked barley grown on differently manured soils: towards a method for identifying past manuring practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Marie; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Andersen, Astrid Junker;

    2011-01-01

    on the soil. We have examined the δ15N and δ13C values of soil and of the grain and straw fractions of three ancient cereal types grown in unmanured, PK amended and cattle manured plots of the Askov long-term field experiment. Manure increased biomass yields and the δ15N values of soil and of grain......The shortage of plant-available nutrients probably constrained prehistoric cereal cropping but there is very little direct evidence relating to the history of ancient manuring. It has been shown that the long-term addition of animal manure elevates the δ15N value of soil and of modern crops grown...... and straw fractions of the ancient cereal types; differences in δ15N between unmanured and PK treatments were insignificant. The offset in straw and grain δ15N due to manure averaged 7.9 and 8.8 ‰, respectively, while the soil offset was 1.9 ‰. The soil and biomass δ13C values were not affected by...

  16. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  17. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  18. Clinical translation of animal models of treatment relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Mace, F Charles; Penney, Heather; Harris, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Behavioral Momentum Theory (BMT) has inspired animal models of treatment relapse. We translated the models of reinstatement and resurgence into clinical procedures to test whether relapse tests would replicate behavior pattern found in basic research. Following multiple schedule baseline reinforcement of a 16-year-old male's problem behavior at equal rates by two therapists, treatment was introduced using a variable-interval, variable-time (VI VT) schedule arrangement with therapists delivering reinforcers at different rates. Despite the differing rates of VI VT reinforcers, the treatment produced comparable reductions in problem behavior. Following successful treatment, the two therapists discontinued treatment and resumed reinforcement of problem behavior at equal rates that constituted a reinstatement of baseline conditions. As predicted by BMT, reinstatement resulted in an immediate return of high rates of problem behavior but was 2.6 times higher for the therapist using the higher rate VI VT treatment. A second treatment phase was implemented followed by a test of resurgence in a single extended extinction session conducted separately for each therapist. The unequal VI VT treatment rates by therapists resulted in 2.1 times greater responding in the resurgence test for the therapist who implemented the higher rate VI VT procedure. These results are consistent with basic research studies and BMT. PMID:24700533

  19. Assessment of heavy metal flows in animal husbandry and development of a stategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into agro-ecosystems by animal manures; Erfassung von Schwermetallstroemen in landwirtschaftlichen Tierproduktionsbetrieben und Erarbeitung einer Konzeption zur Verringerung der Schwermetalleintraege durch Wirtschaftsduenger tierischer Herkunft in Agraroekosysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, U.; Doehler, H.; Roth, U.; Eckel, H.; Goldbach, H.; Kuehnen, V.; Wilcke, W.; Uihlein, A.; Fruechtenicht, K.; Steffens, G.

    2004-07-01

    The overall objectives of the project were to assess heavy metal flows on livestock farms and to develop a strategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into animal manures. For the experiments 20 farms with animal husbandry in various regions of Germany were selected. On the farms the inputs and outputs of the elements copper and zinc, as well as lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel were balanced at the stable level. The effect of abatement measures was evaluated using a calculation tool for stable balances. It is shown, the main input pathways for heavy metals into animal manures are, apart from copper disinfectants, feeding stuffs and feed supplements. Home grown feeds are the major source of heavy metal input into the stable because they are fed in large quantities. However, the heavy metal content of the home grown feeds in particular of roughages for ruminants is low. Purchased feed stuffs (supplementary feeding stuffs and complete feeding stuffs) were found to have a higher content of heavy metals (due to supplementation with trace elements) compared to home grown feeds. Thus, pig and poultry husbandry rather than ruminant husbandry is susceptible to heavy metal accumulation of manures. Heavy metals are cycling within the farm which is of importance when discussing the environmental impact. The turnover within the farm can hardly be controlled by the farmer. Thus, effective strategies have to be targeted at the inputs, e. g. the purchased feed stuffs. A main option to reduce the heavy metal input is to lower the trace element concentrations in supplementary feed stuffs either by legislation of maximum threshold values (e. g. EG 1334/2003) or by volunteer agreements of the feed industry and agriculture. In addition, the absorption of copper and zinc by the animals should be improved using better absorbable trace element compounds and phytase. (orig.)

  20. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Accommodations § 91.17 Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from the United States to a foreign country shall provide,...

  1. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets... for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may be... Bagged complete diets, packaged feeds, feed ingredients, bulk feeds, animal treats and chews...

  2. 动物尸体无害化处理物对油菜生长及重金属富集特征的影响%Effects of organic manure from animal carcasses on Brassiacampestris L. growth and soil heavy metal accumu-lation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟振; 熊波; 张莉; 蒋彬; 李传友; 逄焕成; 李玉义

    2016-01-01

    采用室内盆栽试验,以畜禽养殖场动物尸体无害化处理物为有机肥,研究了单施化肥(NPK)、化肥+单倍有机肥(NPK+M)、化肥+倍量有机肥(NPK+2M)三种施肥方式对油菜生长、叶片生理特性及植株和土壤中重金属积累的影响,探讨施用动物尸体无害化处理物在蔬菜种植方面的安全性。结果表明:与NPK处理相比,NPK+M和NPK+2M处理可显著提高油菜地上部干重50.53%~221.05%(P0.05),其地上部Cr、Cd和Pb含量远低于《食品安全国家标准》(GB 2762—2012)对新鲜蔬菜中重金属污染物含量的限制。%A pot experiment was conducted to explore the feasibility of applying harmlessly-treated animal carcass manure from livestock and poultry farms to vegetable cultivation. The growth of Brassiacampestris L. and soil heavy metal content were measured under three dif-ferent treatments, including chemical fertilizer(NPK)only, combined chemical fertilizer plus manure(NPK+M), and combined chemical fertilizer plus double manure(NPK+2M). Results showed that both NPK+M and NPK+2M significantly increased shoot dry weight by 50.53%~221.05%, compared with NPK(P0.05), and the Cr, Cd and Pb content in the aboveground part was much lower than the National Food Standards for vegetables. These results would shed light on the safe use of harmlessly-treated animal carcasses.

  3. Organic manure in maize culture in brejo paraibano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Cardoso Almeida Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of organic fertilizers of animal origin is of fundamental importance for the development and growth of crops cultivated by small producers. In this aspect, the present study evaluated the effect of fertilization with cattle manure and chicken litter rustic on the components of production of maize. The experiment was performed at the Experimental Station of Lagoa Seca, PB, belonging at Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba (Emepa. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments: control, urea to a 5%, cattle manure (10 t ha-1; bed of chicken (4 t ha-1 and 8 t ha-1 in four replications. Were determined the yield of dried ears and dry grain, the average weight of spike, the average weight of cob, the cob/grain and number of spikes per plant. The treatments with chicken litter of 4 and 8 t ha-1 influenced the increased productivity of ears and grain and weight of spike on urea, and the cattle and the control, which showed no statistical difference between them. The fertilization with poultry litter and cattle manure may substantially improve the productivity of maize grown in production system family production in Brejo paraibano.Key-words: Zea mays L., productivity, organic fertilizer.

  4. Changes in physical properties and organic carbon of a Kandiudox fertilized with manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Patricia Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Successive applications of pig slurry and poultry manure can improve the soil structure, according to the land use conditions and amounts applied. This study evaluated the effect of manure fertilization on the physical properties and organic carbon of a Rhodic Kandiudox. Treatments included land use and management and time of pig slurry and poultry litter application, namely: native forest (NF; yerba mate after 20 years of animal waste application (YM20; pasture after 15 years of application (P15; grassland after 20 years of manuring (PP20; grassland after 3 years of manuring (P3; pasture without application (P0, maize after 20 years of application (M20; and maize after 7 years of application (M7. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm layers, in which density, porosity, aggregate stability, flocculation, penetration resistance, available water, and total clay content, total and particulate organic carbon, and C:N ratio were analyzed. The total organic carbon is sensitive to management and was not related to waste application, except in the 10-20cm layer of ryegrass pasture after three years of manuring. Reponses to waste application and land use and management systems were observed in the variables soil density and penetration resistance.

  5. Humanizing Animal Models: A Key to Autoimmune Diabetes Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bresson, Damien; von Herrath, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical evaluation of antibody-based immunotherapies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in animal models is often hampered by the fact that the human antibody drug does not cross-react with its mouse counterpart. In this issue of Science Translational Medicine, researchers describe a new mouse model that expresses the human isoform of a molecule targeted by T1D antibody therapies that are currently being tested in clinical trials—the human epsilon chain of the CD3 complex expresse...

  6. Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Oun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

  7. Comparison of Kjeldahl and Dumas combustion methods for determination of nitrogen content in animal manures%杜马斯燃烧法与凯氏法测定畜禽粪便中氮含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈秀丽; 杨增玲; 薛俊杰; 杨旸

    2012-01-01

    为了比较杜马斯燃烧法与凯氏法测定畜禽粪便氮含量结果的异同,以取自中国不同地区的5种畜禽粪便和磺胺嘧啶标准物为试验材料,分别采用凯氏法和杜马斯燃烧法测定各种畜禽粪便的氮含量,并对上述2种氮含量测定结果进行比较分析.结果表明:5类畜禽粪便凯氏氮的质量分数范围为0.51%~3.19%,杜马斯燃烧氮的质量分数范围为0.51%~3.35%,2种方法测定值之间不存在显著性差异,变异系数CV均小于5%.畜禽粪便样品凯氏法与杜马斯燃烧法的测定结果呈显著性相关(R2=0.987,p<0.05),拟合直线的斜率与1以及截距与0之间均不存在显著性差异.因此,杜马斯燃烧法可以代替凯氏法测定蛋鸡、肉鸡、猪、奶牛和肉牛粪便中的氮含量.%In order to compare the determination features nitrogen content in animal manures by Dumas combustion method and Kjeldahl methods, five kinds of manures and one reference compound were analyzed for nitrogen concentrations using Kjeldahl and Dumas combustion procedures respectively. Statistical analysis was performed on Kjeldahl nitrogen and Dumas nitrogen values. The results showed that the Kjeldahl nitrogen content of animal manures ranged from 0.51% to 3.19% and the Dumas combustion nitrogen content ranged from 0.51% to 3.35%, there was no significant difference in the nitrogen mean values measured by the two methods, and the coefficient of variation of two methods were all below 5%. The nitrogen determined results from the all-samples population rendered a simple linear correlation (R2=0.987, p<0.05) between the two methods. All the Kjeldahl values as a function of Dumas values was close to 1:1 line. It was concluded that the Dumas combustion procedure is capable of replacing the Kjeldahl procedure for nitrogen analysis of animal manures in laboratory.

  8. Microbial Community and Chemical Characteristics of Swine Manure during Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabue, Steven L; Kerr, Brian J; Bearson, Bradley L; Hur, Manhoi; Parkin, Timothy; Wurtele, Eve S; Ziemer, Cherrie J

    2016-07-01

    Swine diet formulations have the potential to lower animal emissions, including odor and ammonia (NH). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of manure storage duration on manure chemical and microbial properties in swine feeding trials. Three groups of 12 pigs were fed a standard corn-soybean meal diet over a 13-wk period. Urine and feces were collected at each feeding and transferred to 12 manure storage tanks. Manure chemical characteristics and headspace gas concentrations were monitored for NH, hydrogen sulfide (HS), volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles. Microbial analysis of the stored manure included plate counts, community structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), and metabolic function (Biolog). All odorants in manure and headspace gas concentrations were significantly ( 13 wk). PMID:27380061

  9. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, N.; Groenestein, C.M.; de Boer

    2012-01-01

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid miner...

  10. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  11. Short chain nitrocompounds as a treatment of layer hen manure and litter; effects on in vitro survivability of Salmonella, generic E. coli, and nitrogen metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer hen manure and litter contain appreciable amounts of uric acid, which makes these good crude protein sources for ruminants. Rumen microbial populations can upgrade the nitrogen in uric acid into high quality microbial protein of nutritional value to the host. Layer hen manure and litter can ...

  12. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal for Liquid Dairy Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yanjuan

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has been widely used in municipal wastewater treatment, but no previous studies have examined the application of EBPR to treat dairy manure. This study was conducted to evaluate the (i) performance of pilot-scale EBPR systems treating liquid dairy manure, to balance the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in manure to meet crop nutrient requirements, (ii) effects of dissolved oxygen and solids retention time on the efficiency of EBPR, and (iii) effect...

  13. Ovarian cysts in domestic animals: etiopathogenesis and treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M. Marinho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available . This literature review aims to address ovarian cysts on their etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, seeking to clarify and inform, because it is a high prevalence and pathogenicity that causes damage to the segments of production and reproduction of animals, especially dairy cows high production. Given the significant occurrence of ovarian alterations, the study covers the main types and their ratings also address predisposing factors, interference due to cystic formations and what types of cysts may or may not cause changes in the physiology of the estrous cycle of females, work also seeks to emphasize the importance of monitoring and early diagnosis in order to minimize the costs and disposal of matrices.

  14. Wet Oxidation of Crude Manure and Manure Fibers: Substrate Characteristics Influencing the Pretreatment Efficiency for Increasing the Biogas Yield of Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    structure with subsequent higher degradation efficiencies and methane yields. A screening of crude manure and the separated fiber fraction shows that wet oxidation is more adequate for treatment of high concentrated solid fraction than for crude manure and an increase of 35% in biogas yield can be gained...

  15. Physical and thermal characteristics of dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutitarnnontr, Pakorn; Hu, Enzhu; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B

    2014-11-01

    Greenhouse and regulated gas emissions from animal waste are naturally mediated by moisture content and temperature. As with soils, emissions from manure could be readily estimated given the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties are described by models and microbes and nutrients are not limiting factors. The objectives of this study were to measure and model physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of dairy manure to support advanced modeling of gas and water fluxes in addition to solute, colloid, and heat transport. A series of soil science measurement techniques were applied to determine a set of fundamental properties of as-excreted dairy cattle manure. Relationships between manure dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content (θ) were obtained using time-domain reflectometry and capacitance-based dielectric measurements. The measured water retention characteristic for cattle manure was similar to organic peat soil. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function of dairy manure was inferred from inverse numerical fitting of laboratory manure evaporation results. The thermal properties of dairy manure, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and bulk volumetric heat capacity, were also determined using three penta-needle heat pulse probes. The accuracy of the heat capacity measurements was determined from a comparison of theoretical θ, estimated from the measured thermal properties with that determined by the capacitance-based dielectric measurement. These data represent a novel and unique contribution for advancing prediction and modeling capabilities of gas emissions from cattle manure, although the uncertainties associated with the complexities of shrinkage, surface crust formation, and cracking must also be considered.

  16. County-based estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal manure in the United States for 1982, 1987, and 1992.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains county estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal wastes produced annually for the years 1982, 1987, and 1992. The estimates are...

  17. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  18. A new, simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlortetracycline in pig solid manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlortetracycline (CTC is the most frequently used antibacterial in today’s swine production for disease treatment and growth promotion. It is not absorbed completely and a considerable amount is excreted into manure when CTC is administrated to animal. For this reason there is high concern on potential risks that manure-derived CTC enters into the surface water and selects for resistant microorganism. In order to support the monitoring of CTC and study its fate in manure and environment, a simple and rapid analytical procedure was developed to determine chlortetracycline (CTC in pig solid manure. The extraction solution, composed of acetone-4mol.L-1 hydrochloric acid-water (13:1:6, v/v/v, was mixed into the manure sample, and the solution was pH adjusted at 2.0-2.2 before extraction for 20 min. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column at 375 nm with UV detector, using isocratic elution with oxalic acid-methanol-acetonitrile (72:14:14, v/v/v as mobile phase at room temperature. Recoveries of CTC spiked samples at the levels of 1.0 mg.kg-1, 2.0 mg.kg-1 and 10.0 mg.kg-1 were 92.2%-100.73% with relative standard deviation (RSD of 2.81%-7.11% intra-day and 1.34%-3.25% inter-day, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD and the limit of quantitation (LOQ were 0.2 mg.kg-1 and 0.8 mg.kg-1, respectively. The procedure developed in this study was tested to be simple, sensitive and suitable for the determination and screening of CTC in pig solid manure samples.

  19. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  20. Hygienisation and Nutrient Conservation of Sewage Sludge or Cattle Manure by Lactic Acid Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A.; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S.; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E.

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. Thi...

  1. Weed suppression by green manure in an agroecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Garicoix Recalde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manure promotes efficient suppression of weeds, but green manure species can exhibit distinct behaviors, depending on the environmental conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of soil mulching and weed suppression by spring/summer green manure species grown in the spring/summer season, at different growth stages and after management (cut, for 90 days during the cassava crop cycle. The study was carried out in the 2010/2011 season, in a system managed under agroecological principles. The treatments consisted of different green manure species and arrangements: Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia brasiliensis, Canavalia ensiformis, Pennisetum americanum, Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum intercropped; Mucuna aterrima, Sorghum bicolor, a mixture of all the green manures in study and a control plot under fallow. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The evaluations of the soil cover either by the green manures or weeds were performed at 45, 90 and 105 days after the emergence of the green manures. The cassava crop was planted under reduced tillage system at 11 days after the cut of the green manures. The percentage of soil covered by weeds and the dry matter produced were evaluated at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting. The results showed that the green manures had a suppressive effect on weeds during their life cycle, as well as during the first months after its management (cut, composing the mulch.

  2. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  3. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms. PMID:20922382

  4. Effect of swine manure dilution on ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal manure is a significant source of environmental pollution and manure dilution in barn cleaning and slurry storage is a common practice in animal agriculture. The effect of swine manure dilution on releases of four pollutant gases was studied in a 30-day experiment using eight manure reactors divided into two groups. One group was treated with swine manure of 6.71% dry matter and another with manure diluted with water to 3.73% dry matter. Ammonia release from the diluted manure was 3.32 mg min-1 m-2 and was 71.0% of the 4.67 mg min-1 m-2 from the undiluted manure (P -1 m-2 from the diluted manure was 56.4% of the 154.8 mg min-1 m-2 from the undiluted manure (P 0.05) for both hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide releases. Therefore, dilution could also significantly increase the total releases of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide to the environment because dilution adds to the total manure volume and usually also increases the total gas release surface area.

  5. Farmyard manure management and its effect on maize fodder and soil nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stored manure in open heaps exposed to the sun, wind and rain accounts for substantial nutrient losses. A study was conducted to asses the effect of storing manures by traditional uncovered means or covered (under shade) and subsequently used as a fertilizer to determine effects on soil fertility and maize fodder performance. Manure from 5 animal groups was stored either traditionally or covered and the compost applied to a heavy loam soil. The DM and ash contents of the manure were higher in the uncovered compared to the covered manure. The N content of covered manure was 9.6 % higher along with P availability and exchangeable K than uncovered manures. Application of manure, whether covered or not, improved the fertilizer profile of soil than the non-manured control. There was 16.6% and 25.4 % increase in N in plots receiving manure from uncovered and covered manure piles respectively compared to the control plots that were not fertilized. The P level was increased by 6.8 and 19.3% in uncovered and covered manure plots compared to the control plots. Exchangeable K was increased by 1.3 and 1.6 times in uncovered and covered manured plots, respectively. Fresh fodder yield was 28, 32 and 35.2 metric tons per hectare for the control, uncovered and covered manure plots, respectively. Crude protein content was 8.58, 8.26 and 7.43% respectively in fodders from covered, uncovered and non-manure plots. Overall, there was a conservation of nutrients in covered than in uncovered manure with a concomitant increase in fodder biomass yield. (author)

  6. The different effects of applying fresh, composted or charred manure on soil N2O emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander;

    2014-01-01

    New manure management strategies and technologies are currently being developed in order to reduce manure volume and odorous emissions, utilise energy potential and produce improved manure-derived fertilisers. This has accentuated the need to determine their effects on greenhouse gas emissions...... to higher N2O and CO2 emissions than heterogeneous distribution. However, the effect of different distribution modes was not significant in treatments with charred manure, since N turnover in the immature compost was much more active than that in the charred manure. By combining charred manure...... with composted manure, N2O emissions were significantly reduced by 41% at pF 2.0, but the mitigation effect of charred manure was not observed at lower soil water potentials. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....

  7. Using animal models to develop new treatments for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuermberger, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Animal models have an important role in the preclinical evaluation of new antituberculosis drug candidates. Although it does not recapitulate the clinicopathological manifestations of tuberculosis in humans, the mouse remains the best characterized and most economical animal model for experimental chemotherapy. Provided care is taken to optimize the experimental conditions, the mouse has produced reliable data on the bactericidal and sterilizing activity of existing antituberculosis drugs and informed numerous clinical trials. Still, other animal models, especially the guinea pig, may have utility as confirmatory, or even alternative, models under certain circumstances. This chapter reviews some of the important considerations when selecting an animal model and presents a model for the sequential evaluation of a new compound with promising antituberculosis activity.

  8. Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH₃-N, TN, COD, and PO₄-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study. PMID:24203276

  9. Management to reduce nitrogen losses in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of nitrogen loss in animal production requires whole-farm management. Reduced loss from one farm component is easily negated in another if all components are not equally well managed. Animal excretion of manure N can be decreased by improving the balance of protein or amino acids fed to that required by individual animals or animal groups or by improving production efficiency. Management to increase milk, meat, or egg production normally improves efficiency by reducing the maintenance protein required per unit of production. Large losses of manure nitrogen occur through the ammonia and nitrous oxide that are emitted into the atmosphere and the nitrate leached into groundwater. Up to half of the excreted nitrogen is lost from the housing facility, but this loss can be decreased through frequent manure removal and by avoiding deep litter systems and feedlots. Techniques such as acid treatment of manure, scrubbing of ventilation air, and floor designs for separating feces and urine substantially reduce ammonia emissions, but these practices are often impractical or uneconomical for general use. Manure storage units improve nutrient utilization by allowing better timing of nutrient application with crop needs. At least 70% of the nitrogen entering anaerobic lagoons is typically lost, but a less than 10% loss can be maintained using slurry storage with a natural crust or other cover, or by drying poultry manure to at least 50% dry matter. Irrigation and surface spreading of manure without soil incorporation often ensures the loss of all remaining nonorganic nitrogen (typically, 20 to 40% of remaining nitrogen). Rapid incorporation and shallow injection methods decrease this loss by at least 50%, and deep injection into the soil essentially eliminates this loss. For grazing animals, excessive loss can be avoided by not overstocking pastures and avoiding late fall and winter grazing. Reducing emissions between the animal and the soil can lead to greater leaching

  10. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Massé, Daniel I.; Guillaume Jarret; Chaouki Benchaar; Noori M. Cata Saady

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure dur...

  11. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  12. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  13. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. PMID:27396682

  14. Modelos não lineares para a liberação de potássio de estercos animais em latossolos Non linear models to potassium release from animals manure in Latosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmes Marques Zeviani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modelos não lineares são adequados para a descrição da liberação de nutrientes, uma vez que estimam quantidades de interesse prático e apresentam boa qualidade de ajuste. Embora seu processo inferencial seja baseado em argumentos assintóticos, existem meios de se conhecer a intensidade da não linearidade. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a não linearidade de dois modelos de regressão não linear por meio das curvaturas de Bates e Watts, vício de Box e do estudo das propriedades amostrais dos estimadores de mínimos quadrados, obtido por simulação. Os dados são provenientes do estudo, ao longo do tempo, da liberação de K de quatro estercos animais em combinação com dois solos. O modelo Exponencial foi mais adequado, em termos inferenciais e para aplicação prática, uma vez que por todas as medidas apresentou menor não linearidade.Nonlinear models are appropriate to describe nutrient release, since they estimate quantities of practical interest and they have goodness of fit. Although its inferential process is based on asymptotic arguments, there are ways to know the nonlinearity intensity. In this work, we evaluate the nonlinearity of two nonlinear regression models through the curvatures of Bates e Watts, bias of Box and the least squares estimator sampling properties by simulation study. The data are from the study, over time, of the K release from 4 animal manure in combination with 2 soils. The exponential model was more appropriate in terms of inferential and practical aspects, since by all measures showed lower nonlinearity.

  15. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  16. Determination of chlorophyll a and total phosphorus abundance in organic manured fish ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Kelvin M. Chanda; Confred G. Musuka

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted for 6 weeks (between August and September 2010) with 4treatments (T1: poultry manure, T2: cattle manure, T3: poultry and cattle manure and T4: control-nomanure) assigned to 8 concrete ponds at random to determine chlorophyll a and total phosphorusabundance in organic manured fish ponds. Results of the study suggest that T1, T2, and T3 had an effecton chlorophyll a and total phosphorus abundance in organic manured ponds. The final mean average forchlorophyll a range...

  17. Qualidade de esterco de ave poedeira submetido a dois tipos de tratamentos de compostagem Quality of poultry manure submitted to two types of composting treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano G. dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se avaliou a qualidade de compostos de esterco de ave poedeira produzidos em pilhas de compostagem e se testaram os seguintes tratamentos: 1 sem gesso e sem revolvimento; 2 com gesso e sem revolvimento; 3 sem gesso e com revolvimento e 4 com gesso e com revolvimento. Para avaliar a qualidade dos compostos foram considerados os padrões do Ministério de Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA, estabelecidos para ovos e larvas de helmintos, Salmonella sp, coliformes totais e fecais, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, C, N, umidade, relações C:N, C:CTC (Capacidade de troca de cátions e pH. Os compostos obtidos nas pilhas revolvidas atenderam aos padrões de qualidade, exceto o teor de C, que foi menor. Nos compostos das pilhas com gesso e não revolvidas, o teor deste elemento excedeu o mínimo exigido mas os valores de N, de ovos de helmintos e de umidade, não corresponderam ao padrão do MAPA. Os teores de metais e de Se dos compostos foram menores que o máximo permitido, exceto o de Cd, cujo teor foi elevado no esterco utilizado nas pilhas sem gesso. Este aditivo decresceu o valor do pH dos compostos e aumentou o teor de N das pilhas não revolvidas. Em relação a todos os atributos avaliados, os melhores compostos foram obtidos nas pilhas revolvidas.The quality of poultry manure composts obtained from composting heaps were evaluated, in the following treatments: 1 without gypsum and turning; 2 without gypsum and with turning; 3 with gypsum and turning; 4 with gypsum and without turning. The quality of composts was evaluated with the Department of Agricultural (DA standards established to the occurrence of eggs and grubs of helminthes, Salmonella sp, fecal and total coliforms, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, C, N, humidity, C:N and C:CEC rations, and pH. The quality of composts from the turned heaps agrees with the DA standards, except the C content, which was lower. In the composts obtained from heaps with gypsum addition and without turner

  18. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.22 Cars, vehicles... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. 72.22 Section 72.22 Animals and...

  19. Feasibility study: using δ18O-PO4 to identify phosphate sources in Dutch surface waters: peat, manure, sewage treatment plant or natural, nutrient-rich groundwater?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, M.R.A.; Tamburini, F.; Griffioen, J.J.; Chardon, W.

    2012-01-01

    High nutrient concentrations are in the Netherlands and most other European nations the biggest challenge to comply with the European water quality guidelines. The continuous application of manure and fertilizers by farmers has a strong impact on the phosphate concentrations in surface water systems

  20. Combination of borax and quebracho condensed tannins treatment to reduce hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock producers are acutely aware for the need to reduce gaseous emissions from stored livestock waste and have been trying to identify new technologies to address the chronic problem. Besides the malodor issue, toxic gases emitted from stored livestock manure, especially hydrogen sulfide (H2S)...

  1. Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Rene; Villca, Saul [IIDEPROQ, UMSA, Plaza del Obelisco 1175, La Paz (Bolivia); Liden, Gunnar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    Methane production from llama and cow manures from the Bolivian high plateau (The 'Altiplano') was studied using a parallel reactor set-up consisting of 10 lab-scale biogasifiers. The effects of pressure (495 and 760mmHg), temperature (11 and 35 deg C), hydraulic retention time (20 and 50 days), and manure content in the slurry (10%, 20% and 50%) were evaluated with respect to productivity and methane yields based on two {sup 4-1} fractional factorial designs with 8 treatments for each kind of manure. The reactors were operated semi-continuously with daily manure feeding for periods between 50 and 100 days. Temperature was the main factor effect found, and the hydraulic retention time and the manure content in feed were also found significant whereas the effect of pressure was not significant in the range studied. The methane yield obtained with cow manure at 11 deg C was between 6.4 and 33.61 CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} VS (volatile solids added) whereas at 35 deg C the methane yield was between 49.6 and 131.31 CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} VS. The methane yield from llama manure was somewhat lower than for cow manure (between 3.3 and 19.31 CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} VS at 11 deg C and between 35.6 and 84.11 CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} VS at 35 deg C, respectively). However, overall llama manure was found to be the best raw material of the two for biogas production, due to its high content of volatile solid - higher than has been previously reported for most manures - and also its high nitrogen and phosphorous content. (author)

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 +/- 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean +/- Standard Deviation) and 1.73 +/- 0.29 Tg P yr.(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs inmanure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  3. Animal and Human Bites: Prophlaxis and Approach to the Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet KARAKAŞ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal bites can cause complications ranging from slight injuries to serious infections. Infections can originate from the biter’s oral cavity and victims’s skin flora. Compared with animal bites, human bites have a higher risk of infection development. Most of the wound infections due to bites are caused by polymicrobials. Pasteurella species, streptococci, staphylococci, Moraxella, Corynebacterium, and Neisseria spp., Bergeyella zoohelcum and Capnocytophaga species are the most frequently isolated pathogens. Dogs (85-90 %, cats (5-10 %, humans (2-3 % and rodents (2-3 % are responsible for most of the bite injuries. Injuries due to dog bites occur mostly in men older than 20 years old and usually on the extremities. Cat bites and related injuries are found in 66 % on the upper extremities, typically on the hands. Bites of human origin are mostly occur in males between the ages of 20-30, and especially seen on the arms, fingers and head-neck regions. Most of the bites from rodents have a rat origin. Those bites often happen at night , especially on the face or hand of children under five years old who live in poor hygienic conditions. The dog bites are mostly due to the crush-style injuries and in 4-25 % of those injuries an infection develops in about 24 hours. Because of their sharp teeth, cats cause puncture-type wounds. Approximately 30-50 % of the cat bite wounds become infected 12 hours later. Hand, face and genital region wounds have a higher risk for the occurrence of an infection, because of their special anatomical structure. In case of risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, long term steroid use, splenectomy, extreme ages (children and elderly people and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, infection could easily spread to the deep tissues. The suturing of bite wounds remain controversial. Infected wounds and bites older than 24 hours could be left open. Cosmetically problematic wounds like on the face

  4. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberle, E. [Fachverband Biogas, Obermarchtat (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  5. Darwin on the Treatment of Animals: His Thoughts Then and His Influence Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Donna Yarri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution has seriously challenged traditional religious views on the origins of life, as well as on our human-animal similarities. Darwin is often referenced in literature on animal ethics with regard to his contention that the difference between humans and other animals is one of degree rather than of kind. This paper posits that Darwin’s writings and theory make more positive contributions to the contemporary debate on animal ethics than for which he has previously been given credit. This paper addresses important aspects of Darwin’s theory for understanding our relationship with other animals and the implications for their subsequent treatment. First, this paper considers themes in Darwin’s original writings regarding relationships among different species; second, enhancements to his theory in support of these themes; and third, recommendations for how these themes can and should inform our moral reasoning and successive treatment of other animals.

  6. Radiation Treatment of Meat Products and Animal By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of radiation in food technology can only be considered as an alternative to existing preservation methods when a higher quality product and/or a cheaper product will result, or in cases where no alternative methods exist. With this view in mind, work performed at the Danish Meat Research Institute on sliced bacon, canned hams, luncheon meat, and animal feeding stuffs, i.e. meat and bone meal and blood meal, is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion drawn from the experimental results is that the formation of off-flavours in irradiated meat products is a very serious problem and the most important obstacle to a successful application of irradiation in meat processing. It is, therefore, essential that future research should concentrate on finding means to reduce the irradiation flavour. A number of approaches to solve this problem are mentioned and the Danish work in this field which has been centred mainly on the use of very high dose-rates and of non-equal dose distribution in cans is reviewed, and the concepts briefly described. (author)

  7. Persistence of Escherichia coli in manure-amended soil in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potential for pathogen transfer from soils amended with untreated animal manure to crops and the frequent occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks involving Escherichia coli O157:H7 prompted the FDA proposal requiring a 9-month waiting period before harvesting produce from manure-amended fields. A...

  8. Leachate water quality from soils amended with swine manure based biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure applicatio...

  9. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt

  10. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: I. Structured design of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Management of animal manure in livestock and crop production is a major cause of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon (C) loss. The losses of N, P, and C contribute to adverse environmental impacts, such as climate change, terrestrial acidification, and marine eutrophication. Manure management t

  11. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette;

    The spreading of manure on agricultural land is an economic and practical solution for improving soil quality; however, animal manure frequently contains zoonotic pathogenic bacteria, such as certain Eschericia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The present experiment was conducted...... as a large multidisciplinary project. Pig manure with a natural content of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicator organisms was followed in soil columns and a field scale experiment. In the field experiment pig manure was injected into agricultural soil. The distribution and survival of natural...... occurring indicator bacteria around a manure slurry slit in the soil was followed. During a period of two months, sections of soils with different distance to the manure string were assayed to obtain information on survival and spread of bacteriophage, faecal indicators (Enterococci, Bacterioides, E. coli...

  12. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.;

    2013-01-01

    manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...

  13. Phosphorus losses in simulated rainfall runoff from manured soils of Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Callie A; Ontkean, Gerald R; Bennett, D Rodney; Chanasyk, David S; Miller, Jim J

    2007-01-01

    Manure applied to agricultural land at rates that exceed annual crop nutrient requirements can be a source of phosphorus in runoff. Manure incorporation is often recommended to reduce phosphorus losses in runoff. A small plot rainfall simulation study was conducted at three sites in Alberta to evaluate the effects of manure rate and incorporation on phosphorus losses. Treatments consisted of three solid beef cattle manure application rates (50, 100, and 200 kg ha(-1) total phosphorus), an unmanured control, and two incorporation methods (nonincorporated and incorporated with one pass of a double disk). Simulated rain was applied to soils with freshly applied and residual (1 yr after application) manure at 70 mm h(-1) to produce 30 min of runoff. Soil test phosphorus (STP), total phosphorus (TP), and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) concentrations in runoff increased with manure rate for fresh and residual manure. Initial abstraction and runoff volumes did not change with manure rate. Initial abstraction, runoff volumes, and phosphorus concentrations did not change with manure incorporation at Lacombe and Wilson, but initial abstraction volumes increased and runoff volumes and phosphorus concentrations decreased with incorporation of fresh manure at Beaverlodge. Phosphorus losses in runoff were directly related to phosphorus additions. Extraction coefficients (slopes of the regression lines) for the linear relationships between residual manure STP and phosphorus in runoff were 0.007 to 0.015 for runoff TP and 0.006 to 0.013 for runoff DRP. While incorporation of manure with a double disk had no significant effect on phosphorus losses in runoff from manure-amended soils 1 yr after application, incorporation of manure is still recommended to control nitrogen losses, improve crop nutrient uptake, and potentially reduce odor concerns.

  14. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng Zhou; Jining Zhang; Guoyan Zou; Shohei Riya; Masaaki Hosomi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  15. Effects of Kraal Manure, Chicken Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var Commander in a Semi-arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Masarirambi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Horticulture Department Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland to determine the yield of lettuce (Lactuca sativa when fertilized with kraal manure, poultry manure and inorganic fertilizer, and to assess the rate of weed emergence on plots fertilized with various materials. The treatments were of kraal or chicken manure applied at 40 t/ha and 60 t/ha, and chemical fertilizer 2:3:2 (22 applied at 80 kg/ha. The results showed that growing lettuce using the five treatments significantly affected its growth rate, leaf number, fresh mass, dry mass and weed infestation. Lettuce grown with chicken manure at 60 t/ha was found to have higher leaf number, fresh mass, dry mass and apparently higher weed infestation as compared to the other treatments. There were no significant (p>0.05 growth parameter differences from the kraal manure at 40 t/ha and the chicken manure at 40 t/ha treatments. Lettuce grown using inorganic fertilizer had the least leaf number, leaf area, leaf area index, fresh and dry mass as compared to the other treatments. Weed infestation was found to be higher in the chicken manure treatments which had severe weed coverage, followed by the kraal manure treatments with intermediate weed coverage and finally the inorganic fertilizers treatment with least weed coverage. The application of chicken manure at 60 t/ha is preferred as it was associated with higher leaf number, leaf area , fresh and dry weights of lettuce. The application of chicken manures at 60 t/ha is therefore recommended for farmers to use to obtain higher yields of lettuce.

  16. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  17. Translational approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder: from animal models to clinical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fineberg, NA; Chamberlain, SR; E. Hollander; Boulougouris, V.; Robbins, TW

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessions (intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive ritualistic behaviours) leading to functional impairment. Accumulating evidence links these conditions with underlying dysregulation of fronto-striatal circuitry and monoamine systems. These abnormalities represent key targets for existing and novel treatment interventions. However, the brain bases of these conditions and treatment mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. Anim...

  18. Methods for increasing the biogas potential from the recalcitrant organic matter contained in manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    The biogas potential of manure could be significantly increased by treatment of the recalcitrant organic matter (biofibers) contained in the manure. Several treatment methods were tested. Mechanical maceration resulted in an average increase of the biogas potential of approximately 17% as shown b...

  19. Methods for increasing the biogas potential from the recalcitrant organic matter contained in manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Angelidaki, Irini

    1998-01-01

    The biogas potential of manure could be significantly increased by treatment of the recalcitrant organic matter (biofibers) contained in the manure. Several treatment methods were tested. Mechanical maceration resulted in an average increase of the biogas potential of approx. 17% as shown by cont...

  20. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  1. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China. PMID:26963628

  2. Response of antibiotics and resistance genes to high-intensity and low-intensity manure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storteboom, Heather N; Kim, Sung-Chul; Doesken, Kathy C; Carlson, Kenneth H; Davis, Jessica G; Pruden, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the response of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to manure management. A pilot field study was conducted using horse manure containing no antibiotics, into which chlortetracycline (CTC), tylosin (TYL), and monensin (MON) were spiked and compared to unspiked controls. Subsequently, a large-scale field study was conducted comparing manure from a dairy with minimal use of antibiotics and a feedlot with regular subtherapeutic use of antibiotics. The manures were subjected to high-intensity management (HIM) (amending, watering, and turning) and low-intensity management (LIM) (no amending, watering, or turning) and were monitored for antibiotic concentrations and levels of tetracycline ARG [tet(W) and tet(O)] using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. All three antibiotics in the pilot study dissipated more rapidly in HIM manure, with half-lives ranging from 4 to 15 d, compared to LIM manure, with half-lives ranging from 8 to 30 d. Levels of tet(W) were significantly higher after 141 d of treatment, but levels of tet(O) were significantly lower in all treatments. In the large-scale study, the feedlot manure had higher initial concentrations than the dairy manure of tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), and CTC as well as tet(W) and tet(O). Tetracycline and OTC dissipated more rapidly in HIM manure, with half-lives ranging from 6 to 15 d, compared to LIM manure, with half-lives ranging from 7 to 31 d. After 6 mo of treatment, tet(W) and tet(O) decreased significantly in feedlot manure, whereas dairy manure required only 4 mo of treatment for similar results.

  3. Tillage and manure effects on soil and aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Mikha, M.M.; Rice, C W

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record This study assesses the impacts of tillage methods (conventional(CT) versus no-tillage(NT)) and nitrogen source (fertilizer(F) versus manure(M)) on soil aggregate size and the associated soil carbon and nitrogen. They find that both no-tillage and manure increase soil aggregate size, with the combination of the two producing the greatest soil aggregation. Likewise, there was greater total carbon and nitrogen in the soil for the no-tillage and manure treatments.

  4. Anaerobic treatment of lactic waste and goat manure Tratamiento anaerobio de desechos lácticos y estiércol de cabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Islas Hugo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Anaerobic digestion was carried out to obtain biogas from lactic waste in combination with goat manure. Waste from lactic products such as cream, cheese and whey was mixed with goat manure using three formulations; the quantity of waste from cream and cheese was maintained, and only the quantity of manure and whey was varied. Methanogenic bacteria obtained from predigestion of goat manure were used as inoculants. Temperature was 35ºC and pH 7.0.Biogas methane percentage was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that the highest methane concentration obtained was 82% with formulation III.

    Se realizó una digestión anaerobia para la obtención de biogás a partir de residuos lácteos de crema, queso y suero de leche en combinación con estiércol de cabra, mediante el desarrollo de tres formulaciones, manteniendo constante la cantidad de los desechos de crema y queso y variando la cantidad de excreta de cabra y suero de leche. Se utilizó un inóculo de bacterias metanogénicas obtenido partir de una predigestión de estiércol de cabra. La temperatura de operación fue de 35 ºC, con un pH de 7,0, determinándose el porcentaje de metano en el biogás por medio de cromatografía de gases. Los resultados mostraron que la mayor concentración de metano fue de 82%, obtenida con la formulación número tres.

  5. Animal Fasciolosis in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Fasciolosis is a well known parasitic disease of animals with public health importance. In Rasht and Bandar-An­zali, in Gilan Province, where experienced two large human fasciolosis outbreaks, no update information is available on ani­mal fasciolosis. Paucity of information on animal fasciolosis in these regions and its possible impacts on human fasciolo­sis called us for carrying out this study."nMethods: During 2005, coprologic surveys using flotation method were applied to fecal samples of 156 stray cattle, 171 calves, 178 sheep, 85 buffaloes, 79 horses and 10 samples from 10 different preserved animal manure collec­tions to detect Fasciola egg."nResults: Fecal samples of 32 % of sheep, 32.1% of cattle, 0% of calves, 17% of buffaloes, 50% of horses and 100% of ani­mal manure samples harbored Fasciola egg. The mean intensity of Fasciola egg per gram of feces (EPG was low (0-13."nConclusion: Fasciolosis was very prevalent among animals in studied regions. Because sheep breeding is not a common prac­tice in Rasht and Bandar -Anzali and horse population is low, cattle and to a lesser extent buffalo were the predominant reser­voir hosts of infection. Regular treatment of all animals with an effective flukicide and sanitation of animal manure through its preservation for two month should be applied in order to reduce the level of infection in animals, water, wild and culti­vated vegetables and consequently human beings.  

  6. AN EFFECTIVE PASSIVE SOLAR DRYER FOR THIN LAYER DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal and poultry manures have been recognized for centuries as organic fertilizers providing essential nutrients to crops and improving soil structure due to their large input of organic matter. Increasing demand for poultry and egg products has led to intensification of the poultry rearing process, resulting in large amounts of poultry manure. Drying can be used to reduce the environmental impact of poultry manure and create a value added product for the farmers (animal feed or organic fertilizer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solar heated air drying on the chemical and biological characteristics of poultry manure and develop a suitable manure solar dryer. The effects of temperature (40-60°C and manure layer depth (1-3 cm were evaluated. At the three temperature levels studied, the time required to dry poultry manure in the 1 cm-deep layer was the shortest, followed by the 2 and 3 cm-deep layers, respectively. The optimum depth to dry manure (at which the highest drying effectiveness occurred was 3 cm. The manure drying rate increased with increasing temperature and was the fastest at 60°C for all manure depths studied. A drying temperature-depth combination of 60°C and 3 cm was the most efficient for the thin layer drying of poultry manure. Drying poultry manure at these conditions provided an effective means of removing moisture and odor and destroying microorganisms, thereby allowing the production of a value added product. This temperature range is feasible with a solar dryer operating in the tropics. A solar dryer operating at a 3 cm manure depth would be capable of drying 336 kg/h. Drying poultry manure with solar heated air resulted in a slight decrease in protein content (from 42 to 41%, a decrease in pH (from 8.4 to 6.6, removal of Salmonellae and a 99% reduction in numbers of total bacteria, yeast, mold and E. coli. Thin layer solar drying of poultry manure proved to be an effective means of

  7. Phosphorus release from dairy manure, the manure-derived biochar, and their amended soil: effects of phosphorus nature and soil property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Xu, Xiaoyun; Harris, Willie

    2014-07-01

    Land application of animal manure often risks excessive phosphorus (P) release into the surrounding water. The aim of this study was to convert the dairy manure into biochar, followed by their application into soil, and then to investigate P release from the manure and its derived biochar as well as from the manure- and biochar-amended soil. The results showed that P release was reduced when the manure was converted into biochar due to formation of less-soluble whitlockite [(Ca, Mg)(PO)]. The cumulative P released from biochar over 240 h was 0.26 g kg, a 76% reduction of that from the manure (1.07 g kg). The kinetic release of P from the manure was determined by the fast desorption process and was better fitted to Elovich equation, whereas P release from biochar was initially controlled by the diffusion process and then by slow but steady dissolution of (Ca,Mg)(PO), following the parabolic diffusion and linear models, respectively. When the manure or biochar was incorporated into the soil, P release in the CaCl and simulated acid rain water extraction from biochar-amended soil was consistently lower than that from the manure-amended soil during 210-d incubation. The lower P release in the biochar-amended soil was determined by stable P form (Ca, Mg)(PO) in the biochar itself, but less from the soil property effect. Results indicated that initial high P release from manure can be mitigated by converting the manure into biochar. PMID:25603098

  8. ANIMAL-ASSISTED THERAPY – A NEW TREND IN THE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN AND ADDULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy is a familiar method of treatment in the rehabilitation of many illnesses and conditions, but is still not applied sufficiently in our milieu. This paper gives an overview of the available literature and some of the research which demonstrates that the interaction between the patient, animal and therapist provides a context which improves communication, elevates self-confidence, reduces the symptoms of diseases, and improves the quality of life. The dog, cat, horse,...

  9. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to dire...

  10. Coupling Manure Injection with Cover Crops to Enhance Nutrient Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale hog (Sus scrofa) production is a major agricultural enterprise in the Midwest. Large numbers of confined hogs produce about 50 million tons per year of swine manure in Iowa alone. Rapid expansion of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has resulted in increased concentrations o...

  11. Anaerobic digestion of manure - consequences for plant production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Pommeresche, Reidun; Johansen, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    of weed seeds and animal pathogens. A reduced proportion of easily degraded C in the AD-manure may however impact the soil fauna/microflora and humus levels. Mineralization of organic N during AD may increase nutrient availability and crop yields. Possibly, the increased levels of root and shoot residues...

  12. Biological treatments as a mean to improve feed utilization in agriculture animals-An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahla A Abdel-Aziz; Abdelfattah Z M Salem; Mounir M El-Adawy; Luis M Camacho; Ahmed E Kholif; Mona M Y Elghandour; Borhami E Borhami

    2015-01-01

    As a result of agriculture practices, mil ion tons of agriculture are produced as a secondary or by-products;however, with low nutritive values. Many methods are applied to improve the nutritive value and increase its utilization in ruminant’s nutrition. The biological treatments are the most common with more safe-treated products. In most cases, the biological treatments are paral eled with decreased crude ifber and ifber fractions content with increased crude protein content. Direct-fed micro-bial and exogenous enzymes to animal are other ways of biological methods for improving nutritive value of feeds. Here in this review, we wil try to cover the biological treatments of by-products from different sides view with different types of animals and different animal end-products.

  13. BIO-ENERGY FROM PIG'S MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available After settling, in the sample of pig’s manure, before and after anaerobic fermentation different layers appear: foam, fine colloids, floating particle-colloids and sediment-rude particles. During the anaerobic treatment it being favourable for maintaining the anaerobic fermentation was examined. It was shown that the layer from the bottom, sediment-rude particles, achieved the best results. During the anaerobic fermentation pig’s manure was stabilized and its quality improved. Produced biogas contained more than 88 vol.% of methane. The degradation of organic matter was 50 % at pH value 6.5 and temperature 35 ºC during the anaerobic fermentation that lasted 7 days.

  14. Treatment of bovine cancer-eye (and other animal tumors) with heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthermia appears to be an excellent technique for the treatment of a variety of animal tumors. While this report has emphasized the application of hyperthermia to bovine cancer-eye, there cannot be serious doubt about the potential for wider applications of the technique. We have collaborated with the Animal Resource Facility at the University of New Mexico in the successful treatment of a variety of tumors in small animals which would not be a particular interest to stockmen, but the program included the successful treatment of a number of sarcoids in horses. This investigation involving heat effects on sarcoids will continue, but early results appear to be promising. Other veterinarians are using the commercial hyperthermia instruments to treat a variety of small-animal tumors; these practitioners are enthusiastic about the results but no data have been published to date. We have treated an equine lid tumor with good results, and others are pursuing investigations in this area. Use of commercial hyperthermia instruments for treatment of any condition other than bovine cancer-eye or similar small tumors on animals cannot be justified. Like other therapeutic techniques, hyperthermia must be applied to appropriate cases and retreatment will be necessary in some instances

  15. CONVERSION OF ORGANIC MANURE INTO BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Brdarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biogas with anaerobic degradation from organic waste is one of the pledge alternative energetic solutions, especially from organic manure made from animal farming and other residuals of agricultural production. According to 2005 livestock manufacture data daily quantity of animal excrements in Croatia, based on LSU number, is 784 015.26 m3. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of production of biogas from the most common types of domestic animals in Croatia. Anaerobic fermentation period of 40 days in mesophilic conditions produced from 1 kg of beef, 31 litres of biogas slurry and from pig slurry 14.83 litres of biogas. From our study it follows that the Republic of Croatia (based on the number of UG could produce 426,995,250.00 Nm3 biogas annually. Exploitation of biogas can decrease import of the referred energents, especially electric energy.

  16. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term. PMID:27228611

  17. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term.

  18. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH Clinical Center | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Therapy Dogs Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH ... is unlike any other." A self-described "huge animal lover," she coordinates 14 teams of trained and ...

  19. Long term treatment with gabapentin in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup, C. S.; Andrews, N.; Wegener, Gregers;

    2013-01-01

    In preclinical animal pain research potential efficacy of a drug is often evaluate after a single exposure, which is in contrast to the long lasting treatment needed in chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) patients. Gabapentin remains one of the most efficacious drugs in the treatment of CNP. The aims...... of the study were to evaluate the spinal cord contusion (SCC) model and 2 different measures of painlike behaviour using a long term treatment schedule with gabapentin. Furthermore the effect on mobility and on anxiety, a pain-related behaviour, was included. 40 Female SD rats with a T13 SCC and sham animals....... Daily treatment with gabapentin 30 mg/kg sc. or saline for 6 consecutive weeks. Mechanical sensitivity thresholds (MST) to von Frey stimulation of hindpaws and thorax measured by both reflex withdrawal and supra-spinal responses. Anxiety-like behaviour using the openfield paradigm. Drug effect...

  20. An in vitro study of manure composition on the biochemical origins, composition, and accumulation of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2002-09-01

    Very little is known about the biochemical origin of cattle feedlot odors and the environmental factors controlling their production. The tie between diet and manure composition is well established, but the effect of different manure compositions on odorous chemical production is unknown. This study describes the effect of starch, casein, and cellulose substrate additions to slurries of fresh (manure (> 1 d) on the anaerobic production of fermentation products and the consumption of substrates relative to no addition treatments. Aged cattle manure accumulated more VFA (245 to 290 mM) than the fresh manure (91 to 181 mM) irrespective of substrate additions (P manures, VFA concentrations were increased (P manure increased VFA content relative to no addition treatments (P manure (no addition and protein treatments), indicating that some protein fermentation occurred in those treatments. Based upon substrate loss, starch fermentation was the dominant process in both manures and all treatments with losses exceeding 18.6 g/L. Protein fermentation occurred only in the aged manure, specifically the no addition and protein treatments, when starch was no longer available. The production of odorous compounds from manure was controlled by substrate availability and pH, with pH related to lactate accumulation. We believe that calcareous soil and lactate-consuming microorganisms in the aged manure slurries minimized slurry acidification and resulted in greater accumulations of odorous products. Substrate additions had little effect on the overall accumulation of odor compounds in manure but had profound effects on odor compound composition. We propose that modifying cattle diets to limit starch and protein excretion would profoundly affect the production and accumulation of odor compounds in feedlots. PMID:12349997

  1. 利用有效微生物菌剂进行牛粪处理的研究%Treatment of dairy manure excrement using microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁志刚; 曲淑岩; 王丽丽

    2012-01-01

    Using dairy manure as materials, a compost test under natural aeration was conducted to study the effect of inoculated effective microorganisms on composting. Result of this experiment indicated that in process of compost,maturity of the sample which was added bacterium to is faster than the blank sample, and advance the arrival of megathermalperiod, and accelerate the organic decomposition in compost and accelerate compost process.%利用牛粪为原料进行自然通风堆肥试验,引入有效微生物菌剂,研究有效微生物菌剂对堆肥的影响.实验结果表明,加入菌种的样品腐熟明显快于空白样,并能提前高温期的到来,加速堆肥中有机物的分解,从而加速堆肥过程.

  2. Progress of Animal Research on Electro-acupuncture Treatment for Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-ping Mo; Hai-jiang Yao; Hong-tao Song; An-ping Xu; Yin-shan Tang; Zhi-gang Li

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarized the Chinese literatures in the previous 5 years about the pre-clinical animal researches on the application of electro-acupuncture (EA) treatment for depression, searched in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The efficiency of EA treatment for depression and the mechanism of it were discussed, to shed light on new ideas and new fronts for the further research on depression in clinical or pre-clinical fields.

  3. Reverse translation of failed treatments can help improving the validity of preclinical animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, Bert A.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in translational research is to reduce the currently high proportion of new candidate treatment agents for neuroinflammatory disease, which fail to reproduce promising effects observed in animal models when tested in patients. This disturbing situation has raised criticism against

  4. Animal model for identifying therapetucually useful compounds for the treatment of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Ayuso-Gontán, Carmen; Martínez, Ana

    2012-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for identifying compounds that are potentially useful for the treatment of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), comprising the use of an animal model of rats, developed by means of the administration of β-Ν-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA)

  5. Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child…

  6. Improving biogas yields using an innovative pretreatment concept for conversion of the fiber fraction of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    A new concept to enable economically feasible operation of manure based biogas plants was tested in lab-scale. Wet explosion (WEx) was implemented as treatment of the residual manure fibers separated after the anaerobic digestion process for enhancing the biogas production before reintroducing in...

  7. Swine manure vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica): the dynamics of biochemical and microbial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Wang, Hang; Zhu, Jun; Suneethi, Sundar; Zheng, JianGuo

    2012-08-01

    Improper handling of animal manure generated from concentrated swine operations greatly deteriorates water ecosystems. In this study, a full-scale vermireactor using housefly larvae (Musca domestica) was designed to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of swine manure reduction, and to explore the associated biochemical-biological mechanisms. The one-week larvae vermireactor resulted in a total weight reduction rate of 106±17 kg/(m(3) d) and moisture reduction of 80.2%. Microbial activities in manure decreased by 45% after vermicomposting, while the activities of cellulose, proteases, and phosphatases in the vermicompost were significantly 69 times, 48%, and 82% lower than those in raw manure, respectively. The vermicompost was exclusively dominated by Entomoplasma somnilux, Proteobacterium, and Clostridiaceae bacterium where the microbial diversity was decreased from 2.57 in raw manure to 1.77. Correlation coefficients statistic showed that organic C might be a key indicator of the biochemical features and microbial functions of the larvae vermireactor.

  8. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.;

    2013-01-01

    accessible during subsequent anaerobic digestion. This finding has confirmed earlier experimental results, showing that delignification was not necessarily the limiting factor during conversion of manure fibers into methane while cellulose accessibility during digestion seemed more crucial.......AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning...

  9. 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manure Management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhele Edmond Moeletsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc. were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal, sows (25.23 kg/year/animal and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal. Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO2 Equivalent. Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO2 Equivalent and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options from manure management must be taken with care due to divergent conducive requirements of methane and nitrous oxide emissions requirements.

  10. 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manure Management in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeletsi, Mokhele Edmond; Tongwane, Mphethe Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc.) were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal), sows (25.23 kg/year/animal) and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal). Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO₂ Equivalent). Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO₂ Equivalent) and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options from manure management must be taken with care due to divergent conducive requirements of methane and nitrous oxide emissions requirements. PMID:26479229

  11. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  12. Gene therapy by electroporation for the treatment of chronic renal failure in companion animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Melissa A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH plasmid-based therapy for the treatment of chronic renal failure and its complications was examined. Companion dogs (13.1 ± 0.8 years, 29.4 ± 5.01 kg and cats (13.2 ± 0.9 years, 8.5 ± 0.37 kg received a single 0.4 mg or 0.1 mg species-specific plasmid injection, respectively, intramuscularly followed by electroporation, and analyzed up to 75 days post-treatment; controls underwent electroporation without plasmid administration. Results Plasmid-treated animals showed an increase in body weight (dogs 22.5% and cats 3.2% compared to control animals, and displayed improved quality of life parameters including significant increases in appetite, activity, mentation and exercise tolerance levels. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, the downstream effector of GHRH levels were increased in the plasmid treated animals. Hematological parameters were also significantly improved. Protein metabolism changes were observed suggesting a shift from a catabolic to an anabolic state in the treated animals. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine did not show any significant changes suggesting maintenance of kidney function whereas the control animal's renal function deteriorated. Treated animals survived longer than control animals with 70% of dogs and 80% of cats surviving until study day 75. Only 17% and 40% of the control dogs and cats, respectively, survived to day 75. Conclusion Improved quality of life, survival and general well-being indicate that further investigation is warranted, and show the potential of a plasmid-based therapy by electroporation in preventing and managing complications of renal insufficiency.

  13. A new model for calculating the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions through anaerobic co-digestion of manure and organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogenic emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N20) occur during handling, storage and after field application of animal manure. The emissions are linked to decomposition of volatile solids (VS), which provide energy for microorganisms. During anaerobic storage, turnover of VS drives the microbial processes which lead to CH4, production. Also, turnover of VS in slurry applied to fields will consume oxygen and can thereby stimulate N20 production. Anaerobic digestion of manure and organic wastes for biogas production removes VS prior to storage and field application, and therefore this treatment also reduces the potential for CH4, and N20 emissions. A model has been developed to evaluate the effect of anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and organic waste on CH, and N20 emissions. The model estimates the reduction in VS during storage and digestion, and an algorithm for prediction of CH4, emissions from manure during storage relates the emission to VS, temperature and storage time. Nitrous oxide emissions from field-applied slurry are calculated using VS, slurry N, soil water potential and application method as input variables, thus linking C and N turnover. The amount of fossil fuel that is substituted by CH4, produced during digestion is also calculated in order to estimate the total effect of anaerobic digestion on greenhouse gas emissions from slurry. Model calculations show the potential of manure digestion to modify the emission of greenhouse gases from agriculture. The experience from application of the model to different scenarios is that the emission of greenhouse gases and their reduction must be calculated with dynamic and integrated models. Specifically, the results indicate that digestion of slurry and organic wastes could reduce Danish greenhouse gas emissions by as much as 3%. (au)

  14. Effects of carbon dioxide emission, kinetically-limited reactions, and diffusive transport on ammonia emission from manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from animal manure causes significant loss of fixed N from livestock operations. Ammonia emission from manure is the culmination of biological, chemical, and physical processes, all of which are well-understood. In this work, we present a speciation and transport mode...

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of inflammatoryand autoimmune diseases in experimental animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew W Klinker; Cheng-Hong Wei

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [also known asmesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are currently beingstudied as a cell-based treatment for inflammatorydisorders. Experimental animal models of humanimmune-mediated diseases have been instrumental inestablishing their immunosuppressive properties. Inthis review, we summarize recent studies examiningthe effectiveness of MSCs as immunotherapy in severalwidely-studied animal models, including type 1 diabetes,experimental autoimmune arthritis, experimentalautoimmune encephalomyelitis, inflammatory boweldisease, graft-vs -host disease, and systemic lupuserythematosus. In addition, we discuss mechanismsidentified by which MSCs mediate immune suppressionin specific disease models, and potential sources offunctional variability of MSCs between studies.

  16. A single cidofovir treatment rescues animals at progressive stages of lethal orthopoxvirus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israely Tomer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an event of a smallpox outbreak in humans, the window for efficacious treatment by vaccination with vaccinia viruses (VACV is believed to be limited to the first few days post-exposure (p.e.. We recently demonstrated in a mouse model for human smallpox, that active immunization 2–3 days p.e. with either VACV-Lister or modified VACV Ankara (MVA vaccines, can rescue animals from lethal challenge of ectromelia virus (ECTV, the causative agent of mousepox. The present study was carried out in order to determine whether a single dose of the anti-viral cidofovir (CDV, administered at different times and doses p.e. either alone or in conjunction with active vaccination, can rescue ECTV infected mice. Methods Animals were infected intranasally with ECTV, treated on different days with various single CDV doses and monitored for morbidity, mortality and humoral response. In addition, in order to determine the influence of CDV on the immune response following vaccination, both the "clinical take”, IFN-gamma and IgG Ab levels in the serum were evaluated as well as the ability of the mice to withstand a lethal challenge of ECTV. Finally the efficacy of a combined treatment regime of CDV and vaccination p.e. was determined. Results A single p.e. CDV treatment is sufficient for protection depending on the initiation time and dose (2.5 – 100 mg/kg of treatment. Solid protection was achieved by a low dose (5 mg/kg CDV treatment even if given at day 6 p.e., approximately 4 days before death of the control infected untreated mice (mean time to death (MTTD 10.2. At the same time point complete protection was achieved by single treatment with higher doses of CDV (25 or 100 mg/kg. Irrespective of treatment dose, all surviving animals developed a protective immune response even when the CDV treatment was initiated one day p.e.. After seven days post treatment with the highest dose (100 mg/kg, virus was still detected in some

  17. Quality of shallow groundwater and manure effluents in a livestock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoroń Sylwester

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the quality of shallow groundwater on the site pens and runoff from livestock manure heaps, in three selected farms involved in animal production and vegetable crops in the area of Plateau Proszowice. The analysis mainly included water from farm wells and effluents from manure. Additionally, water from drainage ditch running nearby farms was collected, before inflow of effluent (i.e. ditch water without manure effluent and below inflow of effluent from heap of manure (i.e. ditch water containing manure effluent. Samples of the research material were collected from April 2012 to March 2014 at monthly intervals and analysed for the content of NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, K, Na and Cl. Based on the obtained results it was found that water from the farm wells near the livestock buildings and from manure storage sites, was heavily polluted by the majority of these contaminants. The highest concentration of these pollutants, except for the NO3-N, was found in manure effluent – it exceeded a few dozen to a few hundred to any standards for water quality. There was also a significant deterioration in the quality of drainage ditch water because of the penetration of contaminants into ditch water from heaps of improperly stored manure. The water of the farm wells was characterized by excessive concentrations of NO3-N which disqualified it for drinking purposes.

  18. Utilisation of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser for food production in central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Muhereza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertiliser use in small-holder peri-urban crop-livestock farms in Uganda was investigated by conducting a socio-economic survey of 40 farms in the central districts of Wakiso and Kampala where cattle manure is commonly applied to address the issue of declining crop yields. The major benefits obtained from cattle manure application were increased yields and low cost, while negative effects were poor hygienic conditions and bad odour. The challenges associated with the use of cattle manure included its weight and bulkiness, lack of labour, insufficient quantities, high transportation and application costs, lack of storage facilities to maintain quality attributes of manure and the incidence of chaffer grubs and worms; a nuisance during application which affected crop growth. The survey indicated that of the farmers using cattle manure, only 5% also supplemented with inorganic fertilisers. Other animal manures applied included poultry, pig, goat and rabbit where available. The nutrient content of cattle manure was generally low, as a result of livestock diet and storage. There was little education available to farmers as to optimum strategies and rates of fertiliser (including both inorganic and organic fertilisers to improve crop yield and this needed addressing to improve food security and economic development in Uganda. Keywords: cattle manure; fertiliser; urea

  19. Biochar from swine manure solids: influence on carbon sequestration and Olsen phosphorus and mineral nitrogen dynamics in soil with and without digestate incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marchetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biochar (BC has grown dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the fact that its incorporation into soil reportedly enhances carbon sequestration and fertility. Currently, BC types most under investigation are those obtained from organic matter (OM of plant origin. As great amounts of manure solids are expected to become available in the near future, thanks to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents, processing of manure solids for BC production seems an interesting possibility for the recycling of OM of high nutrient value. The aim of this study was to investigate carbon (C sequestration and nutrient dynamics in soil amended with BC from dried swine manure solids. The experiment was carried out in laboratory microcosms on a silty clay soil. The effect on nutrient dynamics of interaction between BC and fresh digestate obtained from a biogas plant was also investigated to test the hypothesis that BC can retain nutrients. A comparison was made of the following treatments: soil amended with swine manure solids (LC, soil amended with charred swine manure solids (LT, soil amended with wood chip (CC, soil amended with charred wood chip (CT, soil with no amendment as control (Cs, each one of them with and without incorporation of digestate (D for a total of 10 treatments. Biochar was obtained by treating OM (wood chip or swine manure with moisture content of less than 10% at 420°C in anoxic conditions. The CO2-C release and organic C, available phosphorus (P (Olsen P, POls and inorganic (ammonium+nitrate nitrogen (N (Nmin contents at the start and three months after the start of the experiment were measured in the amended and control soils. After three months of incubation at 30°C, the CO2-C emissions from soil with BC (CT and LT, ±D were the same as those in the control soil (Cs and were lower than those in the soils with untreated amendments (CC and LC, ±D. The organic C content

  20. Antibiotics and Manure Effects on Microbial Communities Responsible for Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, M.; Song, B.; Sparrer, T.; Crozier, C.; Tobias, C. R.; Phillips, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Agroecosystems are major contributors of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Denitrification and nitrification are the primary pathways of N2O emission in soils. However, there is uncertainty regarding the organisms responsible for N2O production. Bacteria were previously considered the only microbial N2O source, however, current studies indicate that fungi also produce N2O by denitrification. Denitrifying bacteria can be a source or sink of N2O depending on the presence and expression of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ), encoding for the enzyme converting N2O to N2. Fungal denitrification may produce only N2O as an end product due to missing the nosZ gene. Animal manures applied to agricultural fields can transfer antibiotics to soils as a result of antibiotic use in the livestock industry. These antibiotics target mostly bacteria and may promote fungal growth. The growth inhibition of denitrifying bacteria may favor fungal denitrifiers potentially enhancing N2O emissions. Our objective is to examine the effects of antibiotic exposure and manure fertilization on the microbial communities responsible for N2 and N2O production in grasslands. Soil slurry incubations were conducted with tetracycline at different concentrations. A mesocosm experiment was also performed with soil cores exposed to tetracycline and cow manure. Production of N2O and N2 was measured using gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), respectively. Antibiotic inhibition of soil N2 production was found to be dose dependent, reaching up to 80% inhibition with 1g Kg-1 of tetracycline treatment, while N2O production was enhanced up to 8 times. These results suggest higher fungal denitrification with a concomitant decrease in bacterial denitrification after antibiotic exposure. We also found higher N2O fluxes in the soil mesocosms treated with manure plus tetracycline. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) will be conducted to examine the changes in

  1. Development and validation of a treatment planning system for small animal radiotherapy: SmART-Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Image-guided equipment for precision irradiation of small animals for pre-clinical radiotherapy research became recently available. To enable downscaled radiotherapy studies that can be translated into human radiotherapy knowledge, a treatment planning system for pre-clinical studies is required. Material and methods: A dedicated treatment planning system (SmART-Plan) for small animal radiotherapy studies was developed. It is based on Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport in an animal. The voxel geometry is derived from the onboard cone beam CT imaging panel. SmART-Plan was validated using radiochromic film (RCF) dosimetry in various phantoms: uniform, multislab and a realistic plasticized mouse geometry. Results: Good agreement was obtained between SmART-Plan dose calculations and RCF dose measurements in all phantoms. For various delivered plans agreement was obtained within 10% for the majority of the targeted dose region, with larger differences between 10% and 20% near the penumbra regions and for the smallest 1 mm collimator. Absolute depth and lateral dose distributions showed better agreement for 5 and 15-mm collimators than for a 1-mm collimator, indicating that accurate dose prediction for the smallest field sizes is difficult. Conclusion: SmART-Plan offers a useful dose calculation tool for pre-clinical small animal irradiation studies

  2. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from cattle manure heaps: effect of compaction and covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, D. R.

    The effect of compaction and covering during storage of beef cattle ( Bos taurus) farmyard manure (FYM) on ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4) emissions was determined. Gaseous emission measurements were made over three separate storage periods of between 90 and 109 days. The effect of the different storage treatments on manure chemical composition was also determined. Compaction was carried out as the manure was put into store and the compacted manures covered with plastic sheeting. Compaction and covering significantly reduced NH 3 emissions from manure by over 90% during the first summer storage period (PMethane emissions from cattle FYM were unaffected by treatment over the first storage period and were decreased by compaction in the second storage period yet was increased by compaction during the third storage period. It would appear that compacting and covering manure heaps does have the potential to reduce emissions of both NH 3 and N 2O when the manure contains relatively high ammonium-N contents. Additional benefits are that N and K are retained in the manure heap for agronomic benefit.

  3. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis;

    2012-01-01

    -scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS...... in methane yield as the highest concentrations tested; it is anticipated that this will result to an even lower cost for recovery and recycling of ammonia in full-scale. Moreover, the effect of 1, 3, and 5 days AAS treatment on methane production from digested fibers was investigated with 5 and 25% w...

  4. Comment appliquer la directive nitrates et à quel coût ? Une modélisation spatiale du marché de l’épandage. (The cost of the Nitrate Directive: a spatial model of manure market.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Djaout; Philippe Le Goffe; Mélanie Tauber

    2008-01-01

    [Paper in French] In Brittany, animal concentration is responsible for water pollution. French water policy does not stick to Water Framework Directive, though in northern countries polluter-pay principle stimulated manure markets. We tried to calculate the cost of the Nitrate Directive and simulate the manure markets in Brittany. A linear model minimizes the cost of manure management constrained by the Nitrate Directive. Farms process or export their manure in the short-run and reduce their ...

  5. Effect of dietary protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas emitting potential of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Dell, C J; Feyereisen, G W; Kaye, J; Beegle, D

    2012-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia (NH(3)) and greenhouse gas (GHG; nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) emissions from fresh dairy cow manure incubated in a controlled environment (experiment 1) and from manure-amended soil (experiment 2). Manure was prepared from feces and urine collected from lactating Holstein cows fed diets with 16.7% (DM basis; HCP) or 14.8% CP (LCP). High-CP manure had higher N content and proportion of NH(3)- and urea-N in total manure N than LCP manure (DM basis: 4.4 vs. 2.8% and 51.4 vs. 30.5%, respectively). In experiment 1, NH(3) emitting potential (EP) was greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (9.20 vs. 4.88 mg/m(2) per min, respectively). The 122-h cumulative NH(3) emission tended to be decreased 47% (P=0.09) using LCP compared with HCP manure. The EP and cumulative emissions of GHG were not different between HCP and LCP manure. In experiment 2, urine and feces from cows fed LCP or HCP diets were mixed and immediately applied to lysimeters (61×61×61 cm; Hagerstown silt loam; fine, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf) at 277 kg of N/ha application rate. The average NH(3) EP (1.53 vs. 1.03 mg/m(2) per min, respectively) and the area under the EP curve were greater for lysimeters amended with HCP than with LCP manure. The largest difference in the NH(3) EP occurred approximately 24 h after manure application (approximately 3.5 times greater for HCP than LCP manure). The 100-h cumulative NH(3) emission was 98% greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (7,415 vs. 3,745 mg/m(2), respectively). The EP of methane was increased and that of carbon dioxide tended to be increased by LCP compared with HCP manure. The cumulative methane emission was not different between treatments, whereas the cumulative carbon dioxide emission was increased with manure from the LCP diet. Nitrous oxide emissions were low in this experiment and did not differ between treatments. In the

  6. 典型粪污处理模式下规模养猪场农牧结合规模配置研究*Ⅱ粪污直接厌氧发酵处理模式%Pig farm-cropland configuration under typical waste treatment mode- A case study of direct anaerobic fermentation of manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛婧; 孙国峰; 郑建初

    2015-01-01

    anaerobic fermentation of manure are important for reducing pollution from livestock excrement and for promoting sustainable development of animal husbandry. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal farmland area needed for large-scale pig farming so as to provide scientific basis and reference for the establishment of ecological modes for agriculture and animal husbandry. Based on data of proportion of pig population and discharges of nitrogen and phosphorus for different types of swine, rate of nutrient loss during waste treatment and nutrient demands by different crops, the study estimated areas of farmlands matching waste consumption and waste carrying capacities of farmlands with different planting patterns under the typical mode of direct anaerobic fermentation of manure in farm with 10 000 pigs. The results showed that under waste treatment mode of direct anaerobic fermentation of manure, the configuration with 10 000 pig farm needed an farm area of 272.5285.4 hm2 grain/oilcrop field, 149.4188.2 hm2 solanaceous vegetable field or 599.41 248.8 hm2 orchard/seedling field for safe disposal of biogas residue and slurry. One hectare of grain/oil crop field, solanaceous vegetable field and orchard/seedlings field were enough for the disposal of biogas residue and slurry produced respectively by 3537 heads, 5367 heads, 817 heads of pig. From the above results, waste treatment patterns and crop types should be rationally determined based on the number of swine bred on a farm and the surrounding farmland area. To ensure the crop nutrient demand was met, there was the need to supplement all crop planting patterns with certain amount of chemical fertilizers after biogas residue and slurry application. Nine patterns of cropping tested in the study needed the application of potassium fertilizer. Among the nine patterns, the potassium supplement for pepper-cucumber pattern was the highest, accounting for 48.0% of potassium demand. Cucumber

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  8. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, J W; Groenestein, C M; De Boer, I J M

    2012-07-15

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid mineral concentrate used as mineral nitrogen and potassium fertilizer and a solid fraction used for bio-energy production or as phosphorus fertilizer. Five environmental impact categories were quantified using life cycle assessment: climate change (CC), terrestrial acidification (TA), marine eutrophication (ME), particulate matter formation (PMF), and fossil fuel depletion (FFD). For pig as well as dairy cattle manure, we compared a scenario with the processing method and a scenario with additional anaerobic digestion of the solid fraction to a reference situation applying only liquid manure. Comparisons were based on a functional unit of 1 ton liquid manure. System boundaries were set from the manure storage under the animal house to the field application of all end products. Scenarios with only manure processing increased the environmental impact for most impact categories compared to the reference: ME did not change, whereas, TA and PMF increased up to 44% as a result of NH3 and NO(x) emissions from processing and storage of solid fraction. Including digestion reduced CC by 117% for pig manure and 104% for dairy cattle manure, mainly because of substituted electricity and avoided N2O emission from storage of solid fraction. FFD decreased by 59% for pig manure and increased 19% for dairy cattle manure. TA and PMF remained higher compared to the reference. Sensitivity analysis showed that CH4 emission from manure storage, NH3 emission from processing, and the replaced nitrogen

  9. Manure management practices on biogas and non-biogas pig farms in developing countries - using livestock farms in Vietnam as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cu, T. T. T.; Cuong, P. H.; Hang, L. T.;

    2012-01-01

    This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production...... to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients...... such as public sewers or ponds. On biogas farms, most of the manure collected was used for bio-digestion. The farmers used the fermented manure (digestate) as a source of nutrients for crops, but on more than 50% of the interviewed biogas farms digestate was discharged to the environment. On non-biogas farms...

  10. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2−–N and NH4+–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge deodorization reactor and anaerobic digestion-partial oxidation treatment process treating swine manure and its corresponding control artificial wastewaters. Ammonium removal dropped from 98.0 ± 0.6% to 66.9 ± 2.7% and nearly absent when the organic load in the feeding increased from 232 mg COD/L to 1160 mg COD/L and 2320 mg COD/L. The presence of organic carbon had limited effect on nitrite and total nitrogen removal. At a COD to N ratio of 0.9, COD inhibitory organic load threshold concentration was 727 mg COD/L. Mass balance indicated that denitrifiers played an important role in nitrite, nitrate and organic carbon removal. These results demonstrated that anammox system had the potential to effectively treat swine manure that can achieve high nitrogen standards at reduced costs.

  11. Fertilizing cotton with recovered P from swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from liquid swine manure. Our objective was to compare P availability and leaching distribution in soils using the recovered P from swine wastewater (31% P2O5) compared with triple superphosphate (46% P2O5) and broiler litter (2.6% P...

  12. Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure.

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, G

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERALIn this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestion process for energy production on dairy farms.2. Digestion of manure at lower temperatures.The goal of the first mentioned research was optimization of anaerobic digestion of cow manure in a mesophilic CSTR-system...

  13. Water Quality Signal of Animal Agriculture at USGS Monitoring Stations is Related to Animal Confinement and/or Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    US animal agriculture has undergone major structural changes over the past two decades, with the total number of livestock producers declining dramatically and the average size of the remaining operations increasing substantially. The result has been a pronounced trend towards greater spatial concentration and confinement of livestock. The change raises important questions about the water quality effects of animal agriculture in regions where livestock waste production has become more intensive but recovery, handling, and application of animal wastes to cropland more systematized. In previous research, we developed three separate national-level SPARROW models of surface water contaminants (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria). Based on USGS monitoring and ancillary data from more than 400 US stream and river basins, the models include point and nonpoint sources of contaminants, land-to-water transport factors, and in-stream loss processes; parameter estimation is by non-linear regression. In this study we report on a pattern in the statistical results for the three models: The source coefficients (quantity of contaminant delivered to streams per unit of contaminant input) for unconfined animals are consistently larger and more statistically significant than those for confined animals. The implicit meaning is that something associated with waste management on large farms and/or animal confinement (e.g. retention period, recovery of manure for application to crops and subsequent crop uptake, and/or better waste treatment) reduces the average water quality signal of this scale of animal agriculture (per unit of manure input) to barely detectable at downstream monitoring stations, while the water quality signal from unconfined animal agriculture is more clear. The county-level data for confined and unconfined manure inputs (defined primarily by farm size) are from the USDA, and are spatially distributed in the model GIS by 1-km land use data

  14. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  15. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey B. Manbeck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess: (1 how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2 from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3 whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  16. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  17. High rate manure supernatant digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bergland, Wenche Hennie; Dinamarca, Carlos; Toradzadegan, Mehrdad; Nordgård, Anne Synnøve Røstad; Bakke, Ingrid; Bakke, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The study shows that high rate anaerobic digestion may be an efficient way to obtain sustainable energy recovery from slurries such as pig manure. High process capacity and robustness to 5% daily load increases are observed in the 370mL sludge bed AD reactors investigated. The supernatant from partly settled, stored pig manure was fed at rates giving hydraulic retention times, HRT, gradually decreased from 42 to 1.7h imposing a maximum organic load of 400g COD L-1 reactor d-1. The reactors re...

  18. Steroid-associated osteonecrosis: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, animal model, prevention, and potential treatments (an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hui Xie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON is a common orthopaedic problem caused by administration of corticosteroids prescribed for many nonorthopaedic medical conditions. We summarised different pathophysiologies of SAON which have adverse effects on multiple systems such as bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs pool, bone matrix, cell apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and angiogenesis. Different animal models were introduced to mimic the pathophysiology of SAON and for testing the efficacy of both prevention and treatment effects of various chemical drugs, biological, and physical therapies. According to the classification of SAON, several prevention and treatment methods are applied at the different stages of SAON. For the current period, Chinese herbs may also have the potential to prevent the occurrence of SAON. In the future, genetic analysis might also be helpful to effectively predict the development of ON and provide information for personalised prevention and treatment of patients with SAON.

  19. Boron neutron capture therapy as new treatment for clear cell sarcoma: Trial on different animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In our previous study, the tumor disappeared under boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on subcutaneously-transplanted CCS-bearing animals. In the present study, the tumor disappeared under this therapy on model mice intramuscularly implanted with three different human CCS cells. BNCT led to the suppression of tumor-growth in each of the different model mice, suggesting its potentiality as an alternative to, or integrative option for, the treatment of CCS. - Highlights: • BNCT with the use of L-BPA was applied for three human clear cell sarcoma (CCS) cell lines. • BNCT trial was performed on a newly established intramuscularly CCS-bearing animal model. • A significant decrease of the tumor-volume was seen by single BNCT with the use of L-BPA. • A multiple BNCT application would be required for controlling the growth of any residual tumors

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotep Jurbe G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10 out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs, spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47% acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53% do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18% were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21% and Combretaceae (14.04% having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86% followed by the stem bark (29.82%. The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to

  1. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer.

  2. Survival of Salmonella enterica in Dried Turkey Manure and Persistence on Spinach Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Ruth A; Sharma, Manan; Buchanan, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    Concerns about the microbiological safety of fresh produce have attracted attention in the past three decades due to multiple foodborne outbreaks. Animal manure contaminated with enteric pathogens has been identified as an important preharvest pathogen source. This study investigated the survival of Salmonella enterica in dust particles of dehydrated turkey manure and how association with manure dust may enhance the survival of salmonellae on leafy greens in the field. The survival of a cocktail of multiple Salmonella serotypes in the dried fecal material of various particle sizes (125 to 500 μm) was examined at varying moisture contents (5, 10, and 15%). Survival times of the pathogen were inversely related to moisture content and particle size of manure dust, with viable Salmonella still detectable for up to 291 days in the smallest particle size (125 μm) with 5% moisture. Association with manure dust particles increased the survival of Salmonella when subjected to UV light both under laboratory conditions and on the surface of spinach leaves in a greenhouse setting. The results of this study suggest that aerosolized manure particles could be a potential vehicle for Salmonella dispersal to leafy greens if the microorganism is present in the dry manure.

  3. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff. PMID:21367596

  4. Pathogen survival in swine manure environments and transmission of human enteric illness--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tat Yee; Holley, Richard A

    2003-01-01

    The influence of zoonotic pathogens in animal manure on human health and well-being as a direct or indirect cause of human enteric illness is examined. Available international data are considered, but the study is focused on the developing situation in western Canada, where it is certain there will be further rapid growth in livestock numbers, particularly hogs. Major pathogens considered are Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. Canada is now the leading exporter of pork internationally, but recent increases in production contrast with constant domestic levels of pork consumption and declining levels of foodborne illness caused by pork. Effects of increased levels of manure production are not quantifiable in terms of effects on human health. The presence of major pathogens in manure and movement to human food sources and water are considered on the basis of available data. Survival of the organisms in soil, manure, and water indicate significant variability in resistance to environmental challenge that are characteristic of the organisms themselves. Generally, pathogens survived longer in environmental samples at cool temperatures but differences were seen in liquid and solid manure. Based on actual data plus some data extrapolated from cattle manure environments, holding manure at 25 degrees C for 90 d will render it free from the pathogens considered above. PMID:12708660

  5. Operational experinece with large scale biogas production at the promest manure processing plant in Helmond, the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In The Netherlands a surplus of 15 million tons of liquid pig manure is produced yearly on intensive pig breeding farms. The dutch government has set a three-way policy to reduce this excess of manure: 1. conversion of animal fodder into a product with less and better ingestible nutrients; 2. distribution of the surplus to regions with a shortage of animal manure; 3. processing of the remainder of the surplus in large scale processing plants. The first large scale plant for the processing of liquid pig manure was put in operation in 1988 as a demonstration plant at Promest in Helmond. The design capacity of this plant is 100,000 tons of pig manure per year. The plant was initiated by the Manure Steering Committee of the province Noord-Brabant in order to prove at short notice whether large scale manure processing might contribute to the solution of the problem of the manure surplus in The Netherlands. This steering committee is a corporation of the national and provincial government and the agricultural industrial life. (au)

  6. Copper and zinc accumulation in sandy soils and constructed wetlands receiving pig manure effluent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pig production across the USA has undergone a massive centralization over the past few decades. Small animal production facilities have been replaced by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). This management practice has also centralized manure production into limited geographic areas. In t...

  7. SU-C-BRE-01: 3D Conformal Micro Irradiation Results of Four Treatment Sites for Preclinical Small Animal and Clinical Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S; Yaddanapudi, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Rangaraj, D; Izaguirre, E [Scott and White Hospital, Temple, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Small animal irradiation can provide preclinical insights necessary for clinical advancement. In order to provide clinically relevant data, these small animal irradiations must be designed such that the treatment methods and results are comparable to clinical protocols, regardless of variations in treatment size and modality. Methods: Small animal treatments for four treatment sites (brain, liver, lung and spine) were investigated, accounting for change in treatment energy and target size. Up to five orthovoltage (300kVp) beams were used in the preclinical treatments, using circular, square, and conformal tungsten apertures, based on the treatment site. Treatments were delivered using the image guided micro irradiator (microIGRT). The plans were delivered to a mouse sized phantom and dose measurements in axial and coronal planes were performed using radiochromic film. The results of the clinical and preclinical protocols were characterized in terms of conformality number, CTV coverage, dose nonuniformity ratio, and organ at risk sparing. Results: Preclinical small animal treatment conformality was within 1–16% of clinical results for all treatment sites. The volume of the CTV receiving 100% of the prescription dose was typically within 10% of clinical values. The dose non-uniformity was consistently higher for preclinical treatments compared to clinical treatments, indicating hot spots in the target. The ratios of the mean dose in the target to the mean dose in an organ at risk were comparable if not better for preclinical versus clinical treatments. Finally, QUANTEC dose constraints were applied and the recommended morbidity limits were satisfied in each small animal treatment site. Conclusion: We have shown that for four treatment sites, preclinical 3D conformal small animal treatments can be clinically comparable if clinical protocols are followed. Using clinical protocols as the standard, preclinical irradiation methods can be altered and iteratively

  8. Practical survey on antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities in livestock manure and manure-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiang; Wang, Ruifei; Ren, Siwei; Szoboszlay, Marton; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Through livestock manure fertilization, antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are transferred to agricultural soils, resulting in a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the soil. It is not clear, however, whether a correlation exists between resistant bacterial populations in manure and manure-amended soil. In this work, we demonstrate that the prevalence of cephalexin-, amoxicillin-, kanamycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria as well as bacteria simultaneously resistant to all four antibiotics was much higher in manure-amended soils than in manure-free soil. 454-pyrosequencing indicated that the ARB and multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in swine or chicken manure and manure-amended soil were mainly distributed among Sphingobacterium, Myroides, Enterococcus, Comamonas and unclassified Flavobacteriaceae. The genus Sphingobacterium was highly prevalent among ARB from swine manure and manure-amended soil, and was also the most dominant genus among MARB from chicken manure and manure-amended soil. Other dominant genera among ARB or MARB populations in manure samples, including Myroides, Enterococcus and Comamonas, could not be detected or were detected at very low relative abundance in manure-amended soil. The present study suggests the possibility of transfer of ARBs from livestock manures to soils and persistence of ARB in these environments. PMID:26513264

  9. Recycling manure as cow bedding: Potential benefits and risks for UK dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Katharine A; Archer, Simon C; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J; Ohnstad, Ian C; Tuer, Sally; Bradley, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such 'recycling' of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health. PMID:26388545

  10. Control of Nematode Disease of Eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum L. Using Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Adekunle Abolusoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment was conducted in the year 2010 and repeated in 2011 to examine the effects of organic manure (poultry, cow dung, domestic waste and inorganic manure (NPK 15:15:15 on the yield, soil and root population of Meloidogyne incognita that infected Ethiopian eggplant Solanum aethiopicum in a greenhouse at Kabba College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Kabba, Nigeria. Each of the organic manure was applied as soil amendment at the rate of 5 t/ha and the inorganic fertilizer (NPK was applied at the rate of 200 kg/ha while there was an untreated control that acted as standard check. The experimental design was a completely randomized design comprising of five treatments including control and each of the treatments was replicated four times. The results of the experiment showed that all the organic manures considered and NPK fertilizer were effective in suppressing nematode negative effects on the plant as manifested in improved yield, reduced soil and root population as well as in reduced gall index of the organic and inorganic manure treated plants compared with the control. The mean fruit yield of the manure treated plant was 18+1, of NPK fertilizer treated ones was 17, while the average fruit number in untreated control was 6.5. The organic and inorganic manures treated plants had bigger fruit size compared with control and were significantly different from the control. The soil and root population as well as root gall index were reduced in all the manure treatments compared with the control and they were significantly different from the control. The results of this experiment confirmed that organic manure can be utilized to manage root-knot nematode (M. incognita in soil.

  11. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH Clinical Center | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Therapy Dogs Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH Clinical Center ... She and her friendly beagle, Juno, are trusted animal-assisted therapy volunteers. Accompanied by Parker or other Clinical Center ...

  12. Cadmium in animal production and its potential hazard on Beijing and Fuxin farmlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A random sample of pairs of animal feeds and manures were collected from 215 animal barns in Beijing and Fuxin regions of China. The concentrations of Cd in manures and feeds ranged from non-detectable to 129.8 mg/kg dry weight and non-detectable to 31 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The concentrations of Cd in pig, dairy cow and chicken manures were positively correlated to those in their feeds. About 30% of the manure samples contained Cd concentrations higher than the upper limit for use in farmlands, and pig and chicken manures might be the primary contributors of Cd to farmlands. The farmlands in Beijing and around the Fuxin Downtown areas would exceed the soil quality criteria within several decades according to current manure Cd loading rates. Undoubtedly, more scientific animal production and manure management practices to minimize soil pollution risks are necessary for the two regions.

  13. Reconstitution of dewatered food processing residuals with manure to increase energy production from anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid residuals generated from dewatering food processing wastewater contain organic carbon that can potentially be reclaimed for energy through anaerobic digestion. This results in the diversion of waste from a landfill and uses it for a beneficial purpose. Dewatering the waste concentrates the carbon, reducing transportation costs to a farm digester where it can be blended with manure to increase biogas yield. Polymers are often used in the dewatering of the food waste but little is known regarding their impact on biogas production. Four 2 dm3 working volume, semi-continuous reactors, were used at a mesophilic temperature and a solids retention time (SRT) of 15 days. Reactors were fed daily with a blended feedstock containing a food processing sludge waste (FPSW)/manure ratio of 2.2:1 (by weight) as this produced the optimized carbon to nitrogen ratio. Results demonstrated that reconstitution of dewatered FPSW with dairy manure produced approximately 2 times more methane than animal manure alone for the same volume. However, only approximately 30% of volatile solids (VS) were consumed indicating energy potential still remained. Further, the efficiency of the conversion of VS to methane for the blended FPSW/manure was substantially less than for manure only. However, the overall result is an increase in energy production for a given tank volume, which can decrease life cycle costs. Because all FPSW is unique and the determination of dewatering additives is customized based on laboratory testing and field adjustment, generalizations are difficult and specific testing is required. -- Highlights: ► Energy production in anaerobic digestion can increase by co-blending food waste. ► Energy for transporting food waste to blend with manure is less when dewatered. ► Dewatered food waste in manure produced twice as much methane than manure. ► Efficiency of carbon to methane was low because of ammonium bicarbonate production. ► Carbon destruction was 30%, more

  14. Image-guided small animal radiation research platform: calibration of treatment beam alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression and response to therapy with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) is a portable system for precision irradiation with beam sizes down to approximately 0.5 mm and optimally planned radiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. This paper focuses on the geometric calibration of the system for high-precision irradiation. A novel technique for the calibration of the treatment beam is presented, which employs an x-ray camera whose precise positioning need not be known. Using the camera system we acquired a digitally reconstructed 3D 'star shot' for gantry calibration and then developed a technique to align each beam to a common isocenter with the robotic animal positioning stages. The calibration incorporates localization by cone-beam CT guidance. Uncorrected offsets of the beams with respect to the calibration origin ranged from 0.4 mm to 5.2 mm. With corrections, these alignment errors can be reduced to the sub-millimeter range. The calibration technique was used to deliver a stereotactic-like arc treatment to a phantom constructed with EBT Gafchromic films. All beams were shown to intersect at a common isocenter with a measured beam (FWHM) of approximately 1.07 mm using the 0.5 mm collimated beam. The desired positioning accuracy of the SARRP is 0.25 mm and the results indicate an accuracy of 0.2 mm. To fully realize the radiation localization capabilities of the SARRP, precise geometric calibration is required, as with any such system. The x-ray camera-based technique presented here provides a straightforward and semi-automatic method for system calibration.

  15. The effects of post-treatments and temperature on recovering the methane potential of > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Rintala, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    batch assays at 5-20 degrees C and at 35-55 degrees C to evaluate the treatment effects both under long-term (340 d) storage of solids and during active digestion (30 d), respectively. The effects of different treatments on the methane production of the solids varied with incubation temperatures...... and time. However, in all cases, methane productions at 15 degrees C and lower were slow and low for both untreated and treated solids even after long-term incubation. At 35 and 55 degrees C more methane was recovered from untreated solids producing up to 61-82 ml g(-1) volatile solids (VS)(added) in 30 d...... and 179-215 ml g(-1) VSadded in 340 d. Only chemical treatment with or without thermal treatment enhanced the methane yields while some treatments even decreased the yields. An increase in temperature to 35 degrees C of the assays incubated for 6 months at...

  16. Effect of covering on greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle solid manure stored at different stack heights%覆盖及堆积高度对肉牛粪便温室气体排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 董红敏; 左福元; 袁丰; 饶骏

    2014-01-01

    为了研究覆盖对不同堆积高度肉牛固体粪便温室气体(N2O、CH4和 CO2)排放量的影响,试验采用静态箱的方法研究了20和40 cm堆积高度时覆盖或者不覆盖情况下肉牛粪便温室气体的排放量。结果表明,堆积40 cm的牛粪CH4的累积排放量显著高于20 cm处理,而N2O和CO2累积排放量显著降低。覆盖显著增加了牛粪N2O的排放量和40 cm高度牛粪的CH4排放量,降低了40 cm高度牛粪CO2的排放量,而对20 cm高度牛粪CH4和CO2排放无显著影响。根据CH4和N2O在100 a 尺度上相对CO2的全球增温潜势计算出综合温室效应,无覆盖处理的20和40 cm牛粪的综合温室效应分别为(101.07±6.28)和(94.67±3.29)g/kg,覆盖处理的20和40 cm牛粪的综合温室效应分别为(104.20±6.78)和(103.43±3.21)g/kg,堆积高度为40 cm且无覆盖的综合温室效应最小。%The greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased in atmospheric concentration since 1 750, attracting more and more attention regarding climate change. Agriculture activities contribute to the increase of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, resulting in a higher global warming potential, which is estimated to contribute about 47%-58% of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Storage of animal manure is reported to be a significant agricultural source of methane and nitrous oxide. Generally, greenhouse gas emissions from animal manure can be influenced by storage stacking configuration and covering during storage. However, there are large uncertainties in this estimation. In order to quantify N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions from covered beef cattle solid manure compared with uncovered manure stored at different stack heights during storage, four treatments were designed including a stack height of 20 cm without covering (H20), a tack height of 40 cm without covering (H40), a stack height

  17. Testing the effect of different enzyme blends on increasing the biogas yield of straw and digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Jurado, Esperanza; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn;

    In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily d...

  18. 干物质浓度对牛粪秸秆厌氧发酵产沼气的影响%Effect of Different Dry Matter Concentration on Dry Anaerobic Fermentation of Animal Manure and Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石利军; 黄淼; 刘慧芬; 张伟玉

    2013-01-01

    In this paper anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and straw was conducted to produce biogas .Under the con-ditions of C/N=25-30 and T=36℃, five kinds of dry matter concentration of 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%and 2 .5%were tested to investigate the effect of dry matter concentration on anaerobic digestion .The result showed that first 30 days was the biogas production peak phase and VFA concentrations in the leachate were also high during the same period .When dry matter concentration increased , biogas production amount appeared larger fluctuation , and the concentrations of alka-linity and NH4+-N in the leachate also increased with higher organic loading rate .Among five kinds of dry matter con-centration 10% was more suitable for anaerobic digestion to produce biogas with total biogas production amount of 4710 mL after 30 days and volume biogas production rates of 0 .313 m3/m3 · d.These results could provide instructive meaning to the engineering application of dry anaerobic digestion .%  在发酵原料C/N=25~30,T=36℃的条件下,研究20%,15%,10%,5%和2.5%等5种干物质浓度对牛粪秸秆混合干式厌氧发酵产沼气性能的影响。实验结果表明:发酵前30 d 为产气高峰期,同时发酵渗滤液中的VFA浓度也较高;干物质浓度增加时,产气量波动增大,渗滤液中碱度和 NH4+-N 浓度升高,发酵装置的有机负荷率也较高;10%的干物质浓度产气效果最好,发酵前30d的累积产气量为4710mL,相应的容积产气率可以达到0.313m3/m3· d。实验得到的结果对牛粪秸秆混合发酵的实际应用具有一定的指导意义。

  19. Survey of dairy housing and manure management practices in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D; Price, P L; Rossow, H A; Silva-del-Rio, N; Karle, B M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Fadel, J G

    2011-09-01

    In 2007, a descriptive survey was mailed to all dairies in Glenn (G) and Tulare (T) Counties to identify current and future opportunities of manure management practices on California dairies. The purpose was to provide baseline information for development of outreach curriculum and a decision support tool to quantify potential benefits of various N management options on dairy farms. Such baseline information is valuable to staff regulating dairy facilities (e.g., San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board), dairy trade association representatives, and technology vendors. Response rates for each county were similar at 29.7% (n=19; G) and 26.7% (n=88; T). Mean milking herd size averaged 570 (range 50 to 3,000) cows in G and 1,800 (range 196 to 9,286) cows in T. Survey data are reported by location due to differences between counties in herd size, housing facilities, and climate. Freestalls are common housing facilities (63.2%, G; 38.6%, T) and separated solids and corral scrapings are commonly used as bedding in freestalls (81.8% G and 79.4% T). The most common methods of manure collection were flushing and scraping (18.8%, G; 44.7%, T), only flushing (43.8%, G; 34.1%, T), or only scraping daily or less frequently than daily (37.5%, G; 20.0%, T). Most dairy farms in G (63.2%) and T (70.5%) used some method of separating solids from liquids. However, mechanical separation systems alone were used by 5.3% G and 11.4% T of dairy farms. Storage or treatment ponds were found on 95.9% of dairies. Respondents identified existing manure management practices and did not indicate any new technologies were in use or being considered for manure management. Survey results were used to describe the 2 predominant manure management pathways of manure collection, storage, treatment, and utilization. Survey results will be used to develop and disseminate targeted information on manure treatment technologies, and on

  20. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Dmitriy; Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27784990

  1. Effects of Liquid Manure on Growth and Yield of Spinach (Beta vulgaris Var Cicla in a Sub-tropical Environment in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Msibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of liquid manure on growth, development and yield of spinach. A randomized complete block design experiment was conducted in pots, in a 50% semi shaded lath house. The four treatments were solid kraal manure applied at 40 t/ha; liquid manure applied at 40 m3/ha; liquid manures solid remains applied at 40 t/ha and control of inorganic chemical fertilizer applied at 150 kg/ha. There were four replications per treatment. The growth parameters that were measured included the average number of leaf development per week, leaf height, leaf width, leaf area, leaf area index and the fresh biomass. For the growth parameters measured the results showed that the highest values were obtained in spinach plants fertilized with inorganic fertilizer followed in decreasing order by those fertilized with solid kraal manure, liquid manure solid remains and lastly liquid manure. The spinach fresh biomass mean yield for the treatment of inorganic chemical fertilizers was the highest at 54.4 g per plant. The lowest spinach yield of 17.9 g per plant was obtained from liquid manure treatment. The spinach yield from inorganic fertilized plants was significantly (p≤0.05 different from that of liquid manure and liquid manure solid remains. However, the yield from solid kraal manure treatment and inorganic chemical fertilizers was not significantly different, implying that kraal manure could be used to produce a high yield of the vegetable at a lower cost compared to inorganic fertilizer. Therefore it is recommended that farmers should continue to use solid kraal manure since the yields produced were similar to that of chemical fertilizers.

  2. Use of mammal manure by nesting burrowing owls: a test of four functional hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Animals have evolved an impressive array of behavioural traits to avoid depredation. Olfactory camouflage of conspicuous odours is a strategy to avoid depredation that has been implicated only in a few species of birds. Burrowing owls, Athene cunicularia, routinely collect dried manure from mammals and scatter it in their nest chamber, in the tunnel leading to their nest and at the entrance to their nesting burrow. This unusual behaviour was thought to reduce nest depredation by concealing the scent of adults and juveniles, but a recent study suggests that manure functions to attract arthropod prey. However, burrowing owls routinely scatter other materials in the same way that they scatter manure, and this fact seems to be at odds with both of these hypotheses. Thus, we examined the function of this behaviour by testing four alternative hypotheses. We found no support for the widely cited olfactory-camouflage hypothesis (manure did not lower the probability of depredation), or for the mate-attraction hypothesis (males collected manure after, not before, pair formation). Predictions of the burrow-occupied hypothesis (manure indicates occupancy to conspecifics and thereby reduces agonistic interactions) were supported, but results were not statistically significant. Our results also supported several predictions of the prey-attraction hypothesis. Pitfall traps at sampling sites with manure collected more arthropod biomass (of taxa common in the diet of burrowing owls) than pitfall traps at sampling sites without manure. Scattering behaviour of burrowing owls appears to function to attract arthropod prey, but may also signal occupancy of a burrow to conspecifics. ?? 2006 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Determination of phosphorus speciation in dairy manure using XRD and XANES spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Kerem; Jürgensen, Astrid; Karthikeyan, K G

    2007-01-01

    Intensive manure application is an important source of diffuse phosphorus (P) pollution. Phosphorus availability from animal manure is influenced by its chemical speciation. The major objective of this study was to investigate the P speciation in raw and anaerobically digested dairy manure with an emphasis on the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphate phases. Influent and effluent from an on-farm digester in Wisconsin were sampled and sieved, and the 25 to 53 microm size fraction was dried for X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and P K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses. Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) was identified in both the raw (influent) and anaerobically digested (effluent) manure using XRD. Qualitative analysis of P K-edge XANES spectra indicated that the Ca orthophosphate phases, except dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) or monetite (CaHPO4), were not abundant in dairy manure. Linear combination fitting (LCF) of the P standard compounds showed that 57.0 and 43.0% of P was associated with DCPA and struvite, respectively, in the raw manure. In the anaerobically digested sample, 78.2% of P was present as struvite and 21.8% of P was associated with hydroxylapatite (HAp). The P speciation shifted toward Mg orthophosphates and least soluble Ca orthophosphates following anaerobic digestion. Similarity between the aqueous orthophosphate (aq-PO4), newberyite (MgHPO4.3H2O), and struvite spectra can cause inaccurate P speciation determination when dairy manure is analyzed solely using P K-edge XANES spectroscopy; however, XANES can be used in conjunction with XRD to quantify the distribution of inorganic P species in animal manure. PMID:17965388

  4. Characterisation of the organic matter pool in manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, R; Moreno-Caselles, J; Perez-Murcia, M D; Perez-Espinosa, A; Rufete, B; Paredes, C

    2005-01-01

    In this research, different types of animal manure were evaluated with respect to organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (C(ot)), total N (N(t)), C(ot)/N(t) ratio, water-soluble organic carbon (C(w)), organic N (N(org)), carbohydrates, C(w)/N(org) ratio, humic acid-like carbon (C(ha)), fulvic acid-like carbon (C(fa)), humification index ((C(ha)/C(ot))x100) (HI) and the C(ha)/C(fa) and NH(4)(+)-N/NO(3)(-)-N ratios. In comparison with the limits set by the Spanish legislation for organic fertilisers, most of the manures had high OM contents, moderate N(org) concentrations (except in the case of the chicken and pig manures where this parameter was high) and C(ot)/N(t) ratios above the value stated in the legislation. The study of the different fractions of organic matter showed that the horse, pig and rabbit manures had the greatest content of C(ot). However, the fraction of easily-biodegradable organic compounds (C(w)) was significantly higher in the horse, goat and chicken manures. The study also showed that, in most cases, the percentage of fulvic acid-like C was greater than that of the humic acid-like C, indicating that the organic matter of these wastes is not completely humified. Values of HI ((C(ha)/C(ot))x100) and C(ha)/C(fa) ratio in the studied manures were not significantly different. Regarding the parameters related to the organic matter stability such as C(w), carbohydrates and the C(ot)/N(t), C(w)/N(org) and NH(4)(+)-N/NO(3)(-)-N ratios, it has been determined that the organic matter of these materials was not completely stabilised. The heterogeneity in OM composition of the studied manures did not allow the formulation of simple equations for evaluation of the composition of these wastes from easily-determined parameters.

  5. Effect of nitrogen and fish manure fertilization on growth and chemical composition of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ertan; Kul, Raziye; Turan, Metin; Ekinci, Melek; Alak, Gonca; Atamanalp, Muhammet

    2016-04-01

    Present experiment was designed to determine the response of various dozes of fish manure (FM) and commercial fertilizers on plant growth, yield and nutrient content of lettuce. The treatments consisted of fish manure, commercial fertilizer and the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer with four dozes of nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha and 200 kg/ha). The results of the study showed that treatments significantly affected the growth and chemical characteristics of lettuce. The best results in regard to plant growth and yield were obtained from 100 and 150 kg kg/ha nitrogen dozes of the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer.

  6. Oxidation of methane from manure storages in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oonk, H. [OonKAY, Fabianusstraat 12, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Koopmans, J. [PAS Mestopslagsystemen, De Giek 31, Drachten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-12

    Dutch methane emissions from manure treatment and storage are estimated to be 115 Gg CH{sub 4}, which is about 1.5% of total greenhouse gas emissions. A possible option to reduce methane emissions from manure storages is to feed emissions into the soil next to the storage, where it is oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, comparable to the way methane is oxidized in top-layers of landfills. A feasibility study is performed to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the method. An annual average methane oxidizing capacity of about 2-3 g m{sup -2} h{sup -1} seems to be feasible in sandy or loamy soils, without major modifications. A single manure storage will require a few 100 m{sup 2} of soil to abate 70% or more of its methane. The system seems to be economically feasible and cost-effective. Additional investments are less than 5% of the total costs of a manure storage. Costs for emission reduction are 1 to 4 euro per Mg CO{sub 2}-eq. Proof of concept was no part of this feasibility study. The technology described is only expected and not demonstrated to work.

  7. Treatment of Animal Feeds with Ionizing Radiation: VI. Technological and Economic Feasibility of Poultry Feed Radicidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella contamination of farm animals in Israel has increased significantly, particularly on poultry farms, and is causing severe losses and a high incidence of infected poultry products. EEC regulations regarding poultry meat require rejection of batches containing salmonella microorganisms. Feed flour is considered to be one of the principal sources of contamination and effective treatment of the feed is one of the most important steps in reducing flock contamination. The Israel authorities have passed a new regulation requiring breeders to buy only salmonella-free poultry feed. Salmonella-free poultry feed can be produced by pelletization or by treatment with ionizing radiation, using gamma or electron sources. From the view point of radicidation both types of radiation are equally effective. Both types of sources are suited to on-line treatment of products in feed mills, but each has its advantages and disadvantages in practice. Whereas gamma irradiation facilities will allow thick layers of product, they require considerable shielding and nearly continuous operation to be economically justifiable. The low energy electron accelerators allow treatment of flour only (pellets cannot be treated), but are easily adaptable to the fluctuating flow of products in a feed mill, at relatively low treatment cost. Breeders, contrary to broilers, require feed flour and not pellets. Hence electron irradiation would tend to yield a product more in compliance with the new regulation than pelletization, which requires crushing and which may leave Salmonella in the feed. The economic feasibility of an electron accelerator-based radicidation process in an existing feed mill is examined. (author)

  8. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C. PMID:19161696

  9. Replacing methyl bromide in annual strawberry production with glucosinolate-containing green manure crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Luca; Baruzzi, Gianluca; Malaguti, Lorena; Antoniacci, Loredana

    2003-09-01

    The use of biocidal green manure crops is an agronomic technique for amending soil with fresh organic matter containing volatile compounds active in controlling some soil-borne pests and diseases. Two new selections of the Brassicaceae family were cultivated, incorporated before planting strawberries and tested as an alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. Two biocidal green manure crops (Brassica juncea L sel ISCI20, Eruca sativa Mill cv Nemat) containing glucosinolate-myrosinase systems, a conventional green manure (barley), untreated soil and a fumigated control were evaluated during two seasons. The effect of these soil management systems on subsequent strawberry performance was evaluated by monitoring yield and plant growth parameters. In both years, biocidal plant green manure treatments led to a fruit yield lower than with methyl bromide, but higher than with conventional green manure or untreated soil. These results confirm the good prospects for biocidal green manures, not only as an environmentally friendly alternative to methyl bromide in conventional agriculture, but also in organic agriculture as an alternative to conventional green manure crops.

  10. Growth, nodulation and yield response of soybean to biofertilizers and organic manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain TAL-102 and a commercial biofertlizer EM (effective microorganisms) on growth, nodulation and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Wilczek] in soils amended either with farmyard manure or Trifolium alexandrinum L. green manure at the rate 20 tons ha/sup -1/ each. In green manure amendment, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced number and biomass of nodules resulting in a significant increase of 27, 65 and 55% in shoot biomass and number and biomass of pods, respectively. In farmyard manure amended soil, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced fresh biomass of nodules. As a result a significant increase of 45 and 47% in shoot biomass and number of pods was recorded, respectively. Generally, the effect of sole EM application on various studied parameters was insignificant in both the soil amendment systems. Combined application of EM and B. japonicum in green manure amended soil reduced shoot growth and number of pods as compared to sole B. japonicum inoculation. Conversely, in farmyard manure amendment, plants co-inoculated with B. japonicum and EM exhibited highest and significantly greater shoot biomass, and number and biomass of pods as compared to all other treatments. The present study concludes that soybean yield can be significantly enhanced by the application of B. japonicum and EM in farmyard manure amendment. (author)

  11. Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe's first farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Amy; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H E; Wallace, Michael; Vaiglova, Petra; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Evershed, Richard P; Styring, Amy K; Andersen, Niels H; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Bartosiewicz, László; Gardeisen, Armelle; Kanstrup, Marie; Maier, Ursula; Marinova, Elena; Ninov, Lazar; Schäfer, Marguerita; Stephan, Elisabeth

    2013-07-30

    The spread of farming from western Asia to Europe had profound long-term social and ecological impacts, but identification of the specific nature of Neolithic land management practices and the dietary contribution of early crops has been problematic. Here, we present previously undescribed stable isotope determinations of charred cereals and pulses from 13 Neolithic sites across Europe (dating ca. 5900-2400 cal B.C.), which show that early farmers used livestock manure and water management to enhance crop yields. Intensive manuring inextricably linked plant cultivation and animal herding and contributed to the remarkable resilience of these combined practices across diverse climatic zones. Critically, our findings suggest that commonly applied paleodietary interpretations of human and herbivore δ(15)N values have systematically underestimated the contribution of crop-derived protein to early farmer diets.

  12. Preclinical imaging and treatment of cancer: the use of animal models beyond rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiak-Bechtel, S M; Maitz, C A; Selting, K A; Bryan, J N

    2015-09-01

    The development of novel radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging and therapy of neoplastic diseases relies on accurate and reproducible animal models. Rodent models are often used to demonstrate the proof-of-principle tracer and therapeutic agent development, but their small size can make tissue sampling challenging. The dosimetry of decay emissions in the much smaller rodent tumors do not model dosimetry in human tumors well. In addition, rodent models of cancer represent a simplified version of a very complex process. Spontaneous tumors are heterogenous and the response to intervention can be unpredictable; tumor cells can adopt alternate signaling pathways and modify their interaction with the microenvironment. These inconsistencies, while present in humans, are difficult to fully reproduce in a genetically-engineered rodent model. Companion animals, primarily dogs and cats, offer translational models that more accurately reflect the intricate nature of spontaneous neoplasia in humans. Their larger size facilitates tissue and blood sampling when needed, and allows radiopharmaceutical tracers to be studied on human-scale imaging systems to better mimic the clinical application of the agent. This article will review the growing body of literature surrounding the use of radiopharmaceutical agents for both imaging and therapy in companion dogs and cats. Previous investigations have been performed both for the advancement of routine, high-level veterinary care, and in the context of translational research from which the results of imaging and treatment can be readily applied to people. Studies utilizing the spontaneously occurring cancer model in companion animals involving positron emission tomography, radiotracers, dosimetry, theranostics, targeted radiopharmaceuticals, brachytherapy, and boron neutron capture therapy are discussed. PMID:26200223

  13. Preclinical imaging and treatment of cancer: the use of animal models beyond rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of novel radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging and therapy of neoplastic diseases relies on accurate and reproducible animal models. Rodent models are often used to demonstrate the proof-of-principle tracer and therapeutic agent development, but their small size can make tissue sampling challenging. The dosimetry of decay emissions in the much smaller rodent tumors do not model dosimetry in human tumors well. In addition, rodent models of cancer represent a simplified version of a very complex process. Spontaneous tumors are heterogenous and the response to intervention can be unpredictable; tumor cells can adopt alternate signaling pathways and modify their interaction with the microenvironment. These inconsistencies, while present in humans, are difficult to fully reproduce in a genetically-engineered rodent model. Companion animals, primarily dogs and cats, offer translational models that more accurately reflect the intricate nature of spontaneous neoplasia in humans. Their larger size facilitates tissue and blood sampling when needed, and allows radiopharmaceutical tracers to be studied on human-scale imaging systems to better mimic the clinical application of the agent. This article will review the growing body of literature surrounding the use of radiopharmaceutical agents for both imaging and therapy in companion dogs and cats. Previous investigations have been performed both for the advancement of routine, high-level veterinary care, and in the context of translational research from which the results of imaging and treatment can be readily applied to people. Studies utilizing the spontaneously occurring cancer model in companion animals involving positron emission tomography, radiotracers, dosimetry, theranostics, targeted radiopharmaceuticals, brachytherapy, and boron neutron capture therapy are discussed.

  14. Methane capture from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauseef, S M; Premalatha, M; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2013-03-15

    It has been estimated that livestock manure contributes about 240 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent of methane to the atmosphere and represents one of the biggest anthropogenic sources of methane. Considering that methane is the second biggest contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide, it is imperative that ways and means are developed to capture as much of the anthropogenic methane as possible. There is a major associated advantage of methane capture: its use as a source of energy which is comparable in 'cleanness' to natural gas. The present review dwells upon the traditional ways of methane capture used in India, China, and other developing countries for providing energy to the rural poor. It then reviews the present status of methane capture from livestock manure in developed countries and touches upon the prevalent trends.

  15. An assessment tool applied to manure management systems using innovative technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus G.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2003-01-01

    operational and cost-effective animal manure handling technologies. An assessment tool covering the whole chain of the manure handling system from the animal houses to the field has been developed. The tool enables a system-oriented evaluation of labour demand, machinery capacity and costs related to the...... tanker transport may reduce labour requirements, increase capacity, and open up new ways for reducing ammonia emission. In its most efficient configuration, the use of umbilical systems may reduce the labour requirement by about 40% and increase capacity by 80%. However, these systems are costly and will...

  16. Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author)

  17. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Lončarić; Meri Engler; Krunoslav Karalić; Gordana Bukvić; Ružica Lončarić; Davor Kralik

    2005-01-01

    Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus) is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida). Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32...

  18. 覆盖及堆积高度对肉牛粪便温室气体排放的影响%Effect of covering on greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle solid manure stored at different stack heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 董红敏; 左福元; 袁丰; 饶骏

    2014-01-01

    为了研究覆盖对不同堆积高度肉牛固体粪便温室气体(N2O、CH4和 CO2)排放量的影响,试验采用静态箱的方法研究了20和40 cm堆积高度时覆盖或者不覆盖情况下肉牛粪便温室气体的排放量。结果表明,堆积40 cm的牛粪CH4的累积排放量显著高于20 cm处理,而N2O和CO2累积排放量显著降低。覆盖显著增加了牛粪N2O的排放量和40 cm高度牛粪的CH4排放量,降低了40 cm高度牛粪CO2的排放量,而对20 cm高度牛粪CH4和CO2排放无显著影响。根据CH4和N2O在100 a 尺度上相对CO2的全球增温潜势计算出综合温室效应,无覆盖处理的20和40 cm牛粪的综合温室效应分别为(101.07±6.28)和(94.67±3.29)g/kg,覆盖处理的20和40 cm牛粪的综合温室效应分别为(104.20±6.78)和(103.43±3.21)g/kg,堆积高度为40 cm且无覆盖的综合温室效应最小。%The greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased in atmospheric concentration since 1 750, attracting more and more attention regarding climate change. Agriculture activities contribute to the increase of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, resulting in a higher global warming potential, which is estimated to contribute about 47%-58% of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Storage of animal manure is reported to be a significant agricultural source of methane and nitrous oxide. Generally, greenhouse gas emissions from animal manure can be influenced by storage stacking configuration and covering during storage. However, there are large uncertainties in this estimation. In order to quantify N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions from covered beef cattle solid manure compared with uncovered manure stored at different stack heights during storage, four treatments were designed including a stack height of 20 cm without covering (H20), a tack height of 40 cm without covering (H40), a stack height

  19. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  20. Crescimento e absorção de nutrientes pelo algodoeiro e pela mamoneira adubados com gliricídia e esterco Growth and uptake of nutrients by cotton and castor bean fertilized with gliricidia and/or manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon da S. Garrido

    2009-10-01

    measured in two consecutive growing periods in the greenhouse. The treatments were: incorporation 20 t ha-1 of manure; incorporation of 20 t ha-1 of gliricidia prunings; incorporation of the mixture of 10 t ha-1 of manure and 10 t ha-1 of gliricidia; and a control without fertilization. The treatment with gliricídia incorporation resulted in better development of both crops, greater soil N availability, greater accumulation of nutrients in the dry biomass of the crops, and greater apparent recovery of N, P and K, relative to the other treatments. The manure did not increase soil N availability, but the mixture of manure and gliricidia increased availability of soil N, P and K in relation to the control treatment, proving to be a promising practice capable of improving the quality of animal manure.

  1. Lost in translation: animal models and clinical trials in cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Isabella WY; Evaniew, Nathan; Ghert, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Due to practical and ethical concerns associated with human experimentation, animal models have been essential in cancer research. However, the average rate of successful translation from animal models to clinical cancer trials is less than 8%. Animal models are limited in their ability to mimic the extremely complex process of human carcinogenesis, physiology and progression. Therefore the safety and efficacy identified in animal studies is generally not translated to human trials. Animal mo...

  2. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy so

  3. Assessment of homeopathic medicine Aconitum napellus in the treatment of anxiety in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersom Ricardo Fréz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aconitum napellus is a classic resource of complementary medicine for the treatment of patients exhibiting neurological symptoms of anxiety. Aim: To assess the action of homeopathic medicine Acon in the treatment of generalized anxiety in an experimental model using rats. Methods: 48 adult (two to three months old male Wistar rats (Rattus rattus were randomly divided in six groups (n= 8/treatment and given the following treatments by gastric tube along 10 days: 1 control (diazepam 1 mg/kg/day; 2 negative control (0.15 mL saline solution/day; 3 ACH6 (0.15 mL Acon (6cH/day; 4 ACH12 (0.15 mL Acon 12cH/day; 5 ACH30 (0.15 mL Acon 30cH/day; and 6 ALC30 (0.15 mL 30% cereal alcohol/day. Behavioral effects were blindly and randomly assessed in elevated plus maze (EPM and open field test. Results: Acon in dilutions 12cH and 30cH exhibited possible anxiolytic effects on the central nervous system (CNS since they increased the number of entries in the EPM open arms (12cH and 30cH and the permanence time in the EPM open arms (30cH only. In the open field test the homeopathic preparations did not show effects on the locomotor system of rats. Conclusion: Dilutions 12cH and 30cH of Acon exhibited anxiolytic effects on the CNS in an animal experimental model.

  4. A novel phosphorus biofertilizer based on cattle manure and phytases-nanoclay complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel; Jorquera, Milko; Greiner, Ralf; Velasquez, Gabriela; Mora, María de la Luz

    2013-04-01

    Phytate and other phytase labile organic phosphorus (P) are abundant in both soils and manures. These recalcitrant forms of P accumulate in soils by their interaction with mineral particles. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of treating cattle manure with phytases stabilized in allophanic nanoclays, as a novel P biofertilization technology for crops grown in volcanic soils (Andisol). Two Andisols and two manures with contrasting inorganic Pcontent were used: Low P soil from Piedras Negras series (SPN-LP); High P soil from Freire Series (SF-HP); Low P Waste (WPN-LP); High P Waste (WF-HP). The used Andisols and manures were incubated with phytase-nanoclay complexes and the inorganic P was determined in the NaOH-EDTA and bicarbonate extracts. The WPN-LP was also inoculated with an alkaline β-propeller phytase (BPP) producing bacterium. The incubated SPN-LP and SPN-LP-WPN-LP mixture were evaluated for their P supplying capacity to wheat plants under greenhouse conditions. Our resultsindicated that the treatment of cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays resulted in a significant (P≤0.0.5) increase in the inorganic P. The use of phytase treated cattle manure increased 10% plant dry weight and 39% P concentration in wheat plants under greenhouse conditions, being equivalent to a P fertilizer dose of about 150 kg of P ha-1. In the case of low P cattle manure inoculated with BPP producing bacterium, inorganic P increased 10% in soil extracts (NaOH EDTA and Bicarbonate). However, the application of this treated manure did not result in a significant response to wheat growth and P acquisition. Our results suggest that this novel approach of incubating cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays enhances organic P cycling and P nutrition of plants grown under P-deficient soils.

  5. Fate of tetracyclines in swine manure of three selected swine farms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Qiao; Wangda Chen; Jianqiang Su; Bing Zhang; Cai Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary antibiotics can enter the environment due to the common practice of land application of manure from treated animals.The environmental fate of tetracyclines in swine manure after composting and field application remains largely unknown.This study analyzed the concentrations of tetracyclines in manure,manure-based compost and compost amended soil in selected swine farms from Beijing,Jiaxing and Putian,China to determine the dilution effects of antibiotics when released into the soil environment.The results demonstrate that residues of antibiotics were detected in all samples and chlortetracycline as well as its degradation products should be regarded critically concerning their potential ecotoxicity.Application of manure-based compost to soil could reduce the possible risk posed by antibiotic contamination,but the trigger value of 100 μg/kg was still exceeded in soil samples (776.1 μg/kg dw) from Putian City after application of compost.Field studies such as the present one can help to improve the routine administration of antibiotic-containing composted manure.

  6. Low temperature anaerobic digestion of mixtures of llama, cow and sheep manure for improved methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Rene [IIDEPROQ, UMSA, Plaza del Obelisco 1175, La Paz (Bolivia)]|[Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Liden, Gunnar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Biogas production in anaerobic digestion in farm-scale units is typically performed under mesophilic conditions when used for producing domestic fuel and stabilizing animal waste for the use of digested manure as a fertilizer. Previous studies on the digestion of llama and cow manure have shown the feasibility of producing biogas under altiplano conditions (low pressure and low temperature) and of llama manure as a promising feedstock. The present study concerns the utilization of various mixtures of feedstocks from the Bolivian altiplano under low temperature conditions (18-25 C). Laboratory scale experiments were performed on the digestion of mixtures of llama, sheep and cow manure in a semi-continuous process using ten 2-L stainless steel digesters to determine the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) and the feed composition. The semi-continuous operation of mixture of llama-cow-sheep manure proved to be a reliable system, which could be operated with good stability. The results suggest that in a system digesting a mixture of llama-cow-sheep manure at low temperature (18-25 C) the maximum OLR value is between 4 and 6 kg VS m{sup 3} d{sup -1}. The methane yields obtained in the mixture experiments were in the range 0.07-0.14 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} VS added, with a methane concentration in the gas of between 47 and 55%. (author)

  7. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacological interventions for binge eating: lessons from animal models, current treatments, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating behavior has been noted in some eating disorders as well as in obesity. The goal of this paper is to review current, non-serotonergic pharmaceutical approaches to treat binge eating. Further, using information derived from preclinical models, we discuss candidate neurotransmitter systems for study as targets for the treatment of binge eating. Dopaminergic circuits have been implicated in both laboratory animal models and human studies of binge eating, though existing medications specifically targeting the dopaminergic system have been found to have adverse side effects. Opioidergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems also appear to be highly involved in aspects of binge eating; further, opioid antagonists, such as naloxone and naltrexone, and GABA agonists, such as baclofen, have all been shown to be effective in treating alcohol dependence and may be equally efficacious in attenuating binge eating. Preclinical evidence, and some clinical evidence, suggests that cannabinoid antagonism may also be useful in the treatment of binge eating, although the specific effect of antagonists, on binge consumption remains unclear. Overall, each of these neurotransmitter systems provides a promising avenue for new pharmacotherapy development for binge eating, and preclinical and human studies provide a strong rationale for the development of highly-selective drugs that target this neurocircuitry. PMID:21492094

  9. Impact of charring on cereal grain characteristics: linking prehistoric manuring practice to 15N signatures in archaeobotanical material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Marie; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Mikkelsen, Peter Hambro;

    2012-01-01

    Systematic use of animal manure has been demonstrated to be detectable in the plant δ15N value but evidence of manure affecting isotopic composition is mainly based on studies of fresh plant material. These findings can potentially be applied to archaeobotanical assemblages and thus provide....... However, despite attempts to deliberately tamper and distort the grain δ15N signature, the changes observed in this study were too small to be of any consequences for the archaeobotanical applicability of the method. Thus the isotope method offers unique evidence about prehistoric manuring practice....

  10. Enhancing Extraction and Detection of Veterinary Antibiotics in Solid and Liquid Fractions of Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joshua S; Aga, Diana S

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of veterinary antibiotics in separated liquid and solid fractions of animal manures is vital because of wide variations in the composition of agriculturally applied manure. Differentiation of antibiotic concentrations is important between liquid and solid manures, as their sorption onto the solid fraction depends on physicochemical properties of each antibiotic and manure composition (e.g., organic content, pH) and because each fraction may be treated and reused differently. Here, an efficient and sensitive method for the analysis of 22 veterinary antibiotics in the liquid and solid fractions of manure is reported. Tetracycline (TC), macrolide, and sulfonamide antibiotics were extracted from liquid manure by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with methanol following acidification with acetic acid. Extraction from solids was performed by sonication with acetonitrile, methanol, and 0.1 M EDTA-McIlvaine buffer. Cleanup of extracts was achieved by solid-phase extraction with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges or tandem amino (NH2) and HLB cartridges. Quantification of antibiotics was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) under wrong-way-round (WWR) ionization for sulfonamides and TCs and right-way-round ionization for macrolides. Recoveries of 58 to 94.7% and 62 to 94.3% were obtained in liquid and solid manure, respectively. Method detection limits range from 1.2 to 12 ng L and 0.5 to 7.9 μg kg dry wt. in liquids and solids, respectively. This method allows for extraction and analysis of both mobile antibiotics in liquid phase and hydrophobic antibiotics adsorbed on the solids. Without separate analysis, antibiotic concentrations may be improperly estimated by analyzing whole manure, as reported in many studies to date. PMID:27065393

  11. Utilization and environmental management of residues from intensive animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manures are traditional sources of nutrients in agriculture. Under proper management, manures provide nutrients to soil, reducing or eliminating the use of commercial fertilizers, as well as organic carbon that improves soil physical properties and soil health. However, excessive application ...

  12. Manure and wastewater management systems for open lot dairy operations

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeten, J. M.; Wolfe, M L

    1994-01-01

    Dairy industry expansion using open lot designs has impacted water quality and groundwater usage in parts of Central Texas. Field research was conducted at commercial dairy farms in Erath County, Texas, to develop improved design criteria for storage, treatment, and land application systems for open lot dairies. Water use and wastewater from milking parlors were monitored along with runoff from open lots. Water use for milk sanitation and manure removal averaged 148 L per cow per day. Two-sta...

  13. Cow power: the energy and emissions benefits of converting manure to biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of a top-level aggregate analysis of the total potential for converting livestock manure into a domestic renewable fuel source (biogas) that could be used to help states meet renewable portfolio standard requirements and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the US, livestock agriculture produces over one billion tons of manure annually on a renewable basis. Most of this manure is disposed of in lagoons or stored outdoors to decompose. Such disposal methods emit methane and nitrous oxide, two important GHGs with 21 and 310 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide, respectively. In total, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector in the US amounted to 536 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide equivalent, or 7% of the total US emissions in 2005. Of this agricultural contribution, 51 to 118 MMT of carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from livestock manure emissions alone, with trends showing this contribution increasing from 1990 to 2005. Thus, limiting GHG emissions from manure represents a valuable starting point for mitigating agricultural contributions to global climate change. Anaerobic digestion, a process that converts manure to methane-rich biogas, can lower GHG emissions from manure significantly. Using biogas as a substitute for other fossil fuels, such as coal for electricity generation, replaces two GHG sources-manure and coal combustion-with a less carbon-intensive source, namely biogas combustion. The biogas energy potential was calculated using values for the amount of biogas energy that can be produced per animal unit (defined as 1000 pounds of animal) per day and the number of animal units in the US. The 95 million animal units in the country could produce nearly 1 quad of renewable energy per year, amounting to approximately 1% of the US total energy consumption. Converting the biogas into electricity using standard microturbines could produce 88 ± 20 billion kWh, or 2.4 ± 0.6% of annual electricity

  14. Long-Term Manure Amendments Enhance Soil Aggregation and Carbon Saturation of Stable Pools in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Zhang-liu; WU Wen-liang; ZHANG Qing-zhong; GUO Yan-bin; MENG Fan-qiao

    2014-01-01

    Organic amendment is considered as an effective way to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in croplands. To better understand its potential for SOC sequestration, whether SOC saturation could be observed in an intensive agricultural ecosystem receiving long-term composted manure were examined. Different SOC pools were isolated by physical fractionation techniques of a Cambisol soil under a long-term manure experiment with wheat-maize cropping in North China Plain. A ifeld experiment was initiated in 1993, with 6 treatments including control (i.e., without fertilization), chemical fertilizer only, low rate of traditional composted manure (7.5 t ha-1), high rate of traditional composted manure (15 t ha-1), low rate of bio-composted manure (7.5 t ha-1) and high rate of bio-composted manure (15 t ha-1). The results showed that consecutive (for up to 20 years) composted manure amendments signiifcantly improved soil macro-aggregation, aggregate associated SOC concentration, and soil structure stability. In detail, SOC concentration in the sand-sized fraction (>53μm) continued to increase with manure application rate, while the silt (2-53μm) and clay (250μm) was the fraction in which SOC continued to increase with increasing manure application rate. In contrast, the chemical and physical protected C pools (i.e., micro-aggregates and silt-clay occluded in the small macro-aggregates) exhibited no additional C sequestration when the manure application rate was increased. It can be concluded that repeated manure amendments can increase soil macro-aggregation and lead to the increase in relatively stable C pools, showing hierarchical saturation behavior in the intensive cropping system of North China Plain.

  15. Approval of raxibacumab for the treatment of inhalation anthrax under the US Food and Drug Administration Animal rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei eTsai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 14, 2012, the FDA approved raxibacumab, the first product developed under Project BioShield to achieve this milestone, and the first biologic product to be approved through the FDA animal efficacy rule (or Animal Rule. Raxibacumab is approved for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis in combination with appropriate antibiotic drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or are not appropriate. The approval of Raxibacumab illustrates many of the challenges that product developers may encounter when pursuing approval under the Animal Rule and highlights a number of important regulatory and policy issues.

  16. The Influence of Chemical Treatment on the Mechanical Behaviour of Animal Fibre-Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Isiaka O. Oladele; Jimmy L. Olajide; Adekunle S. Ogunbadejo

    2015-01-01

    This research work has investigated the influence of chemical treatment on the mechanical behaviour of animal fibre-reinforced high density polyethylene composites. The animal fibres used for this present study were chicken feather and cow hair fibres procured from local poultries and abattoirs. Prior to the development of the composite materials, the animal fibres were washed and dried, cut into 10 mm and divided into two portions; one portion was treated with 0.25 M NaOH maintained at 60 0C...

  17. Bacterial counts associated with sawdust and recycled manure bedding treated with commercial conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J S; Bogacz, V L; Thompson, L M; Romig, S; Schoenberger, P S; Weiss, W P; Smith, K L

    1999-08-01

    Bacteria counts associated with untreated organic bedding materials were compared with those of bedding treated with either an alkaline commercial bedding conditioner, acidic commercial bedding conditioner, or hydrated lime. Bedding materials were recycled manure and kiln-dried sawdust. The effects of bedding treatments on bacteria counts differed between bedding types. Each of the bedding treatments significantly reduced bacteria in recycled manure prior to use. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime effectively inhibited bacteria in recycled manure for 1 d. Bedding counts and teat swabs of cows housed on recycled manure treated with the alkaline conditioner were reduced on d 2. The use of the acid conditioner in recycled manure had little effect on bacteria in bedding. Sawdust differed from recycled manure in that bacteria in untreated sawdust prior to use were minimal, and populations increased rapidly during the first 2 d after use as bedding. The acid conditioner had a bacteriostatic effect in sawdust, evident by the reduction of bacteria on d 2. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime did not alter bacteria counts in sawdust compared with untreated sawdust. Antibacterial activity of each conditioner deteriorated between d 2 and d 6 in both beddings. The antibacterial activities of conditioners were related to the pH of bedding materials. The use of commercial bedding conditioners initially reduced bacterial counts; however, the antibacterial effects had diminished between d 2 and 6 after use in bedding. PMID:10480094

  18. Effect of farmyard manure rate on water erosion of a Mediterranean soil: determination of the critical point of inefficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi, Mohamed; Bahri, Haithem; Cheick M'Hamed, Hatem; Hermessi, Taoufik

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cultivation of soils, using multiple soil tillage, led to the decrease of their organic matter content and structural stability in several cultivated area of the Mediterranean countries. In these degraded soils, the addition of organic products, traditionally the animal manure, should improve soil health among them the resistance of soil to water erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate after 1 year of the addition to a cambisoil different doses of farmyard manure on soil organic matter content, on microbial activity and on aggregate stability (proxy to soil resistance to water erosion). The statistical process (bilinear model) was used to found a point at which the addition of the organic product no longer influences the soil resistance to erosion. The farmyard manure issued from a cow breeding was composted passively during 4 months and used to amend a small plots of a cultivated cambisol (silty-clay texture, 0.9% TOC) located in the northeast of Tunisia (Morneg region). The manure was intimately incorporate to the soil. The manure organic matter content was 31%, and its isohumic coefficient was 49%. Twelve dose of manure were tested: from 0 to 220 t C.ha-1. The experiment was started on September 2011. In November 2012, soil sampling was done and soil organic carbon content (Walkley-Black method) and soil aggregate stability (wet method of Le Bissonnais) were assessed. A laboratory incubations of soil+manure mixtures, with the same proportions as tested in the field conditions, was carried at 28°C and at 75% of the mixture field capacity water retention. Carbon mineralization was monitored during three months incubation. Results show that the addition of farmyard manure stimulated the microbial activity proportionally to the added dose. This activation is due to the presence of easily biodegradable carbon in the manure, which increases with increasing manure dose. On the other hand, the addition of manure increased the aggregate stability with

  19. Poultry manure runoff and its influence on fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S.; Dutta, S.; Inamdar, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Land application of poultry manure as a substitute for synthetic fertilizer is a common practice in states like Delaware which have a surplus of this animal waste. However, this practice can generate large amounts of labile DOM and nutrients in agricultural runoff that can cause eutrophication of downstream aquatic ecosystems. We determined the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and the quality of DOM for a cropland receiving poultry manure in the coastal plain soils of Delaware. Manure was applied at the rate of 9 Mg ha-1 in the spring (March 10) of 2010 to an agricultural field planted in corn. Sampling was performed for surface runoff and soil waters at four landscape positions - field edge, upper and lower riparian zones and the stream. Sampling was conducted for eight storm events, one before manure application and seven after (March through July spanning over 100 days). DOM quality was characterized using spectrofluorometric techniques and the development of a site-specific PARAFAC model. DOC and DIN concentrations in surface runoff ranged from 18.1 to 77.2 mg/l and 4.2 to 22.6 mg/l, respectively. The percent of protein-like and humic-like DOM in surface runoff ranged between 3.9 to 23.5% and 12.3 to 41.6%, respectively. Highest concentrations of DOC and DIN were observed at the field edge and lowest in the stream. Protein-like and humic-like DOM decreased from the field edge to stream in surface runoff and soil waters. Temporally, both humic-like and protein-like DOM showed significant increases in storm runoff following manure application. After manure application, humic-like DOM increased by 70% while protein-like DOM increased by more than 200% in surface runoff indicating elevated content of labile DOM in poultry manure. These concentrations remained high for more than 60 days following manure application. Protein-like DOM was significantly correlated with nitrate-nitrogen (r = 0.43; p < 0

  20. 基于LCA方法的模糊综合评价模型在粪便处理中的应用%Comprehensive Analysis for Manure Treatment Based on Method of Life Cycle Assessment Combined with Fuzzy Mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍春蕾; 丁美; 王春梅; 赵言文

    2012-01-01

    In this study, life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to establish inventory of resource consumption and pollutant emission, and comparative assessment of the life cycle environmental impacts were made for two kinds of manure treatment processes on scaled cattle farms. Based on the assessment results, and considering the weight of economic factors, environmental factors, technical and social factors, overall evaluation results of three processing system were obtained by the method of fuzzy mathematics. The results showed that the life cycle environmental impact index of anaerobic fermentation process and aerobic composting were 0.0216 and 0.0244 respectively. Considering the factors of economic, environment, technology and social, the overall fuzzy evaluation results of anaerobic fermentation process, aerobic composting process and untreated process were 95.41, 83.42, 67.58, respectively. And so the anaerobic fermentation process had the highest scores, which showed that anaerobic fermentation process was the best treatment approach for scaled cattle farms.%利用生命周期评价方法,对规模化养牛场粪便处理工艺进行生命周期资源消耗与污染物排放清单分析,之后对其进行生命周期对比评价,在评价结果的基础上利用模糊综合评价方法综合考虑经济因素、环境因素、技术因素和社会因素,得出三种处理方案的综合权重.结果表明,在处理牛粪的生命周期内,厌氧发酵的环境影响优于好氧堆肥,其环境影响综合指数分别为0.0216和0.0244;厌氧发酵、好氧堆肥、未处理方式对经济、环境、技术、社会因素的模糊综合评价结果分别为:95.41,83.42,67.58,可以看出厌氧发酵的分值最高,表明规模化养牛场畜禽粪便的处理最好采用厌氧发酵工艺.

  1. Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERALIn this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestio

  2. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.;

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure...

  3. Optimising manure management for GHG outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der H.G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on improvements to livestock manure management to reduce environmental pollution and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Livestock manures contain large amounts of plant nutrients and organic matter (OM). Structural changes to livestock production and ample supply of cheap chemica

  4. Effect of manure under different nitrogen application rates on winter wheat production and soil fertility in dryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. Q.; Yu, X. Y.; Zhai, B. N.; Jin, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    Exploring an effective fertilization practice is crucial for achieving a sustainable dryland winter wheat cropping system. Following a split-plot design, this study was conducted to investigate the combined effect of manure (-M or +M; main plot) and various rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 kg N ha-1; sub plot) on grain yield, water and N use efficiencies of winter wheat, and soil nutrients. The results showed that the treatments with manure improved the grain yield by 8%, and WUE by 10% relative to that without manure throughout the study years. The highest winter wheat yield and WUE were both recorded in the M+N225 treatment, which were not significantly different from those for M+N75 and M+N150 treatment. In contrast, high levels of N fertilizer (> 150 kg N ha-1) combined with manure not only caused a reduction in the N use efficiency (NUE), but it also caused an increase in the soil residual nitrate-N (from 43.7 to 188.9 kg ha-1) relative to without manure. After three years of continuous cropping, the treatment combining manure with 150 kg N ha-1 fertilizer had the highest SOM, available P and available K, which was 24%, 379% and 102% higher than that for unfertilized treatment (CK), and 10%, 267%, and 55% higher than that for without manure, respectively. Thus, the combination of manure (17.5 t ha-1 poultry or 30 t ha-1 pig manure) with 75-150 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer is recommended for improving winter wheat yield, water and N use efficiencies, and reducing soil nitrate-N residue as well.

  5. Experimental study of osthole on treatment of hyperlipidemic and alcoholic fatty liver in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Song; Mei-Lin Xie; Lu-Jia Zhu; Ke-Ping Zhang; Jie Xue; Zhen-Lun Gu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of osthole on fatty liver,and investigate the possible mechanism.METHODS: A quail model with hyperlipidemic fatty liver and rat model with alcoholic fatty liver were set up by feeding high fat diet and alcohol, respectively. These experimental animals were then treated with osthole 5-20 mg/kg for 6 wk, respectively. Whereafter, the lipid in serum and hepatic tissue, and coefficient of hepatic weight were measured.RESULTS: After treatment with osthole the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), lower density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), coefficient of hepatic weight, and the hepatic tissue contents of TC and TG were significantly decreased. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver was improved.In alcohol-induced fatty liver rats, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver was decreased. In high fat-induced fatty liver quails, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in liver was significantly improved. The histological evaluation of liver specimens demonstrated that the osthole dramatically decreased lipid accumulation.CONCLUSION: These results suggested that osthole had therapeutic effects on both alcohol and high fatinduced fatty liver. The mechanism might be associated with its antioxidation.

  6. Nutrient and sediment losses under simulated rainfall following manure incorporation by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Joanne L; Bennett, D Rodney; Miller, Jim J

    2005-01-01

    Incorporation of manure into cultivated soils is generally recommended to minimize nutrient losses. A 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate sediment and nutrient losses with different tillage methods (moldboard plow, heavy-duty cultivator, double disk, and no-incorporation) for incorporation of beef cattle manure in a silage barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cropping system. Runoff depths, sediment losses, and surface and subsurface nutrient transfers were determined from manured and unmanured field plots at Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. A Guelph rainfall simulator was used to generate 30 min of runoff. Sediment losses among our tillage treatments (137.4-203.6 kg ha(-1)) were not significantly different due to compensating differences in runoff depths. Mass losses of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in surface runoff were greatest from the no-incorporation (NI) treatments, with reductions in TP loads of 14% for double disk (DD), 43% for cultivator (CU), and 79% for moldboard plow (MP) treatments. Total N load reductions in 2002 were 26% for DD, 70% for CU, and 95% for MP treatments compared to the NI treatments. Nutrient losses following incorporation of manure with the DD or CU methods were not significantly different from the NI treatments. Manure treatments generally had lower runoff depths and sediment losses, and higher phosphorus and nitrogen losses than the control treatments. Subsurface concentrations of NH4-N, NO3-N, and TN were greatest from the MP treatments, whereas subsurface phosphorus concentrations were not affected by tillage method. Tillage with a cultivator or double disk minimized combined surface and subsurface nutrient losses immediately after annual manure applications.

  7. Nutrient and sediment losses under simulated rainfall following manure incorporation by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Joanne L; Bennett, D Rodney; Miller, Jim J

    2005-01-01

    Incorporation of manure into cultivated soils is generally recommended to minimize nutrient losses. A 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate sediment and nutrient losses with different tillage methods (moldboard plow, heavy-duty cultivator, double disk, and no-incorporation) for incorporation of beef cattle manure in a silage barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cropping system. Runoff depths, sediment losses, and surface and subsurface nutrient transfers were determined from manured and unmanured field plots at Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. A Guelph rainfall simulator was used to generate 30 min of runoff. Sediment losses among our tillage treatments (137.4-203.6 kg ha(-1)) were not significantly different due to compensating differences in runoff depths. Mass losses of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in surface runoff were greatest from the no-incorporation (NI) treatments, with reductions in TP loads of 14% for double disk (DD), 43% for cultivator (CU), and 79% for moldboard plow (MP) treatments. Total N load reductions in 2002 were 26% for DD, 70% for CU, and 95% for MP treatments compared to the NI treatments. Nutrient losses following incorporation of manure with the DD or CU methods were not significantly different from the NI treatments. Manure treatments generally had lower runoff depths and sediment losses, and higher phosphorus and nitrogen losses than the control treatments. Subsurface concentrations of NH4-N, NO3-N, and TN were greatest from the MP treatments, whereas subsurface phosphorus concentrations were not affected by tillage method. Tillage with a cultivator or double disk minimized combined surface and subsurface nutrient losses immediately after annual manure applications. PMID:16151240

  8. Trans-disciplinary soil science research: Impacts of dairy nutrition on manure chemistry and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The on-going trend of consolidation and intensification of animal agriculture requires a greater dependence on purchased feed. Larger livestock farms and more imported feed can result in the excretion of manure nutrients that may surpass the recycling capacity of local land, air, and water resource...

  9. CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MANURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA and the USDA convened a three-day Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated with Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures, and Other Organic By-Products on June 4-6, 2001 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the effe...

  10. Response of maize to poultry manure and mineral fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of mineral fertilizer, poultry manure, and their combination on maize was evaluated in a pot experiment. Six treatments viz 0, 4, 8, 12 tons of poultry manure (PM) ha-1, 60-40-40 kg NPK ha-1 (NPK) and 2 t PM ha-1+30-20-20 Kg NPK ha-1 (2 t + 1/2 NPK) were used in a completely randomized design. Root dry matter of the 2 t+1/2 NPK was greater than that of the 4 t ha-1 and control, and similarly to that of the NPK, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1 treatments. Shoot biomass showed a similar trend as the root dry matter. The NPK treatments and 12 t PM ha-1, rate had high shoot-root ratios. Although the NPK outyielded the other treatments in grain weight, it did differ significantly from that of the 2 t + 1/2 NPK, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1 treatments. Thousand grain weight values did not differ statistically among treatments. The harvest index indicated a higher efficiency of dry matter partitioning into the sink in the combined treatment than in the 4 and 8 t PM ha-1, rates. For practical purposes and from economic point of view, 4 t PM ha1 may be recommended while the combined treatment is promising. Poultry manure appeared more advantageous in supplying C and N to the subsequent crop as more C and N remain in the soil after the maize harvest than mineral fertilizer. The 12 t PM ha-1 rate retained over 40% more C than the mineral fertilizer rate. Further studies, especially in field situations, are recommended (au)

  11. [Effects of organic manure on wheat growth under lead stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sha-sha; Zhang, Yong-qing; Yang, Li-wen; Pei, Hong-bin; Sun, Hong-shuai

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of organic manure on the wheat growth under different levels of lead stress. With increasing lead stress level, whether fertilization or not, the plant height, shoot dry mass, adventitious root number, root total length, root dry mass, root activity, root total and active absorbing area, and root SOD and POD activities decreased, and root MDA content presented an increasing trend. The decrement of the above-mentioned parameters differed with fertilization treatments. Applying organic manure mitigated the impact of lead stress on wheat growth to some extent, delayed the senescence of wheat roots, and promoted root development and growth, ultimately leading to the increase of wheat yield and the decrease of lead content in grain.

  12. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  13. [Treatment of vertebrates according to Section 4 of the Animal Welfare Act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormuth, H J

    1992-01-01

    Relating to Section 4 of the Animal Protection Act "Operations on animals", general principles and arguments of the animal protection law are demonstrated; questions about painfulness and necessity of operations on vertebrates are discussed considering the recent states of knowledge and practice. Problems mainly relate to the sensation of pain in juvenile animals during operations without anaesthesia, and to castration and amputation (tails, horns, beaks, combs/wattles, teeth) as well as to destruction or removal of tissues (notching or perforation of ears) in various animal species. Finally, it is recommended to question the indispensability of operations both continuously and more frequently, and to anaesthetize young animals for specified operations despite the legal possibility to dispense from anaesthesia.

  14. Experimental Study on Post-treatment of Anaerobically Digested Effluent from Flushed Dairy Manure%奶牛养殖污水厌氧消化液好氧后处理的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青鹏; 祝其丽; 胡启春; 孙辉

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic-aerobic co-treatment of flushed dairy manure was carried out in batch anaerobic reactor and aerobic shaking bottles based on SBR concept to study the treatment efficiency of anaerobic-aerobic method. The remove mechanism of COD,NH4+-N,TN and TP were discussed. The HRT of experimental anaerobic digestion were 3,6,9,12,15,18 day,and the cycle time of aerobic process was 12 hours. The experiment data showed that after 9 day anaerobic digestion, 82.1% of COD and 96.9% of BOD5 removal rate could be achieved respectively, approaching the maximum COD removal potential. But the rest COD was hard being digested. Under SBR situation, NH4+ -N in the anaerobic digested effluent with 0 -9 day HRT could be well removed by aerobic process, with the maximum removal of 97%. Phosphors and nitrogen removal rate were desired by anaerobic-aerobic co-treatment with total removal rate of 90%. After 3 ~9 day of anaerobic digestion and then 12 hours of SBR process, TN content of flushed dairy manure could be degraded from 731 mg · L-1 to 99 mg · L-1, and TP from 66 mg · L-1 to 7 mg · L-1. If HRT of anaerobic digestion was too long, over 9 day, the ratio of C/N became very low, which would influence the post-treatment of anaerobic digested effluent in aerobic process. The results can be utilized as references for further optimization of dairy methane project.%文章采用批式厌氧消化试验加试验模拟序批式活性污泥法(SBR)工艺处理奶牛场养殖污水.研究了该组合模式对奶牛场养殖污水的处理效果,同时讨论了对化学需氧量(COD),NH4+-N,总氮(TN)和总磷(TP)去除原因.厌氧消化停留时间分别为3,6,9,12,15,18 d;试验模拟SBR工艺周期为12 h.试验表明在厌氧消化9d时,COD和BODs的去除率分别为82.1%和96.9%,接近最大去除潜力,剩余的主要为难降解COD.在试验模拟SBR活性污泥条件下,好氧段对于厌氧消化时间在0~9d内的厌氧消化液的NH4+-N去除效

  15. Effects of covering materials and sawdust covering depths on ammonia and greenhouse gase emissions from cattle manure during storage%覆盖材料和厚度对堆存牛粪氨气和温室气体排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 左福元; 董红敏; 栾冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the important source of gaseous emissions (NH3 and greenhouse gases) from agriculture. Storage of animal manure is reported to be an important agricultural source of the environmentally harmful gases. Generally, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored animal manure can be affected by environmental factors (temperature and wind speed) and storage stacking configuration. Most studies have focused on the emission of ammonia and greenhouse gases from slurry during storage. However, information of gaseous emissions from solid manure stored is limited. Material covering is expected to be an effective method to reduce gaseous emissions from the stored manure. Thus, two experiments were set up to study gaseous emissions during storage of the solid cattle manure, and the effect of covering depth (1, 3 and 5 cm) and two different covering materials (sawdust and straw) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Polyvinylchloride cylindrical (30 cm in diameter and 90 cm in height) static vessels were designed and built to measure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in the laboratory experiment. Fresh cattle manure was collected from practicing farm of Rongchang Campus of Southwest University in Chongqing. After fully mixed, manure was filled into 12 barrels (24.2 cm in diameter and 15 cm in height). Barrels were enveloped by static vessels while measuring gaseous emissions. The stacking process commenced on May 29, 2014, and was measured for 49 days. In Experiment 1, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 from an uncovered and three sawdust-covering heaps of solid cattle manure were compared. Considering that the stacking of solid manure was only 10 cm height (about 4 kg), sawdust covering depths of 1, 3 and 5 cm were selected. In Experiment 2, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 were quantified using solid cattle manure (about 10 kg, 25cm stacking height) covered with sawdust (2 cm depth, 250 g) and straw (6 cm depth, 250 g) by using

  16. New insights into therapeutic strategies for the treatment of peritoneal fibrosis: learning from histochemical analyses of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Mineaki; Nishino, Tomoya; Obata, Yoko; Ozono, Yoshiyuki; Koji, Takehiko; Kohno, Shigeru

    2014-08-29

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a fatal complication that can occur in patients undergoing long-term peritoneal dialysis. It is characterized by bowel obstruction and marked sclerotic thickening of the peritoneal membrane. Although the mechanisms underlying the development of EPS are complex, angiogenesis, inflammation, and peritoneal fibrosis are known to be essential factors. Now, several animal models that exhibit EPS have pathophysiology similar to that of human EPS and have been proposed for use in research to provide insights into it. Recent histochemical methods also help us to understand the pathophysiology of EPS. Advances in basic research based on the findings in those animal models have enabled the development of several strategies for the prevention and treatment of EPS. We describe here interventional studies in some animal models for peritoneal fibrosis, one of the histological disorders findings characteristic to EPS, and we highlight the need for a sophisticated animal model that closely resembles human conditions. PMID:25392567

  17. Darwin on the Treatment of Animals: His Thoughts Then and His Influence Now

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Donna Yarri; Dr. Spencer S. Stober

    2013-01-01

    Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution has seriously challenged traditional religious views on the origins of life, as well as on our human-animal similarities. Darwin is often referenced in literature on animal ethics with regard to his contention that the difference between humans and other animals is one of degree rather than of kind. This paper posits that Darwin’s writings and theory make more positive contributions to the contemporary debate on animal ethics than for which he has previous...

  18. EFFECT OF PGPR AND ORGANIC MANURES ON SOIL PROPERTIES OF ORGANICALLY CULTIVATED MUNGBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IPSITA DAS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was undertaken in the organic farming plot of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi with a view to study the effects of manures and PGPR on soil properties. Mungbean (var. Malviya 12 was grown in the plot during kharif season of 2009. Organic manures such as Farm yard manure (FYM, Cereal compost, Legume compost and combination of all the manures with or without PGPR [PGPR: Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria containing Rhizobium + Azotobacter + Pseudomonas + Trichoderma] was applied @ 5 t ha-1 in each plot. It was found that among all the manures tested for cultivation of mungbean, FYM was found to be superior having 320.91, 20.3, 286.72 kg ha-1 N, P2O5 and K2O respectively. The combined application of cereal compost and legume compost was effective over their sole application. Application of PGPR was beneficial showing higher nutrient content in soil. The most effective treatment was found to be FYM + PGPR among all the manures showing the highest amount of nutrients of 339.71, 22.33 and 298.66 kg ha-1 N, P2 O5 and K2O respectively.

  19. Hardwood biochar and manure co-application to a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, J A; Stromberger, M E; Lentz, R D; Dungan, R S

    2016-01-01

    Biochar may affect the mineralization rate of labile organic C sources such as manures via microbial community shifts, and subsequently affect nutrient release. In order to ascertain the positive or negative priming effect of biochar on manure, dairy manure (2% by wt.) and a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar were applied (0%, 1%, 2%, and 10% by wt.) to a calcareous soil. Destructive sampling occurred at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months to monitor for changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, bacterial populations, and microbial community structure. Overall results showed that increasing biochar application rate improved the soil water content, which may be beneficial in limited irrigation or rainfall areas. Biochar application increased soil organic C content and plant-available Fe and Mn, while a synergistic biochar-manure effect increased plant-available Zn. Compared to the other rates, the 10% biochar application lowered concentrations of NO3-N; effects appeared masked at lower biochar rates due to manure application. Over time, soil NO3-N increased likely due to manure N mineralization, yet soil NO3-N in the 10% biochar rate remained lower as compared to other treatments. In the presence of manure, only the 10% biochar application caused subtle microbial community structure shifts by increasing the relative amounts of two fatty acids associated with Gram-negative bacteria and decreasing Gram-positive bacterial fatty acids, each by ∼1%. Our previous findings with biochar alone suggested an overall negative priming effect with increasing biochar application rates, yet when co-applied with manure the negative priming effect was eliminated. PMID:26009473

  20. Enhancing Nutrient Cycling by Coupling Cover Crops with Manure Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupling winter small grain cover crops (CC) with liquid manure injection may increase manure nutrient capture. The objectives of this research were to quantify manure injection effects using target manure N rates of 112, 224, and 336 kg N ha-1 on CC plant density, fall and spring shoot biomass, N, ...

  1. Status and Prospect for Cow Breeding and Manure Treatment in Beijing-A Case Study of Sanyuan Luhe%北京市奶牛养殖与粪污处理现状及展望--以三元绿荷为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易小燕; 杨宇泽

    2015-01-01

    Beijing Sanyuan Luhe has 60 years of history of dairy farming, dairy cattle and milk production have grown in recent years, the milk yield per dairy cattle is the most in China, is the main channel of Beijing milk supply, and occupies an important position in Beijing. At the same time, with the continuous development of the scale of cow breeding of Sanyuan Luhe, cattle manure increased gradually. Based on the survey data of some cattle farms belonging to Sanyuan Luhe, this paper analyzed its treatment investment status, facilities and the treatment and usage of manure. Finally, under the dual pressures of the market and the environment, the trend of cattle manure processing was discussed.%北京三元绿荷有60多年奶牛养殖历史,近年来奶牛存栏量与牛奶产量不断增长,奶牛单产更是全国之最,是北京鲜奶供应的主要渠道,在北京占有相当重要的地位。同时,随着三元绿荷奶牛养殖规模不断发展,牛场粪污量逐渐增加,通过对部分牛场的调查数据,分析了三元绿荷粪污设施投资、配备及其处理利用状况。最后对三元绿荷在市场与环境双重压力下的牛场粪污处理方式的发展趋势进行了展望。

  2. Facilitating Spatial Perspective Taking through Animation: Evidence from an Aptitude-Treatment-Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the facilitating function of animations for spatial perspective taking. The task demanded to estimate directions to memorized objects in a spatial scene from an imagined position and orientation within the scene. Static pictures which required imagined reorientation of the self were compared to animations showing the…

  3. Treatment of a multiple sclerosis animal model by a novel nanodrop formulation of a natural antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyamin O

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orli Binyamin,1,* Liraz Larush,2,* Kati Frid,1 Guy Keller,1 Yael Friedman-Levi,1 Haim Ovadia,1 Oded Abramsky,1 Shlomo Magdassi,2 Ruth Gabizon1 1Department of Neurology, The Agnes Ginges Center of Human Neurogenetics, Hadassah University Hospital, 2Casali Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is associated with demyelination, neurodegeneration, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. In this work, we administered a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil (PSO, denominated Nano-PSO, to mice induced for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an established model of MS. PSO comprises high levels of punicic acid, a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid considered as one of the strongest natural antioxidants. We show here that while EAE-induced mice treated with natural PSO presented some reduction in disease burden, this beneficial effect increased significantly when EAE mice were treated with Nano-PSO of specific size nanodroplets at much lower concentrations of the oil. Pathological examinations revealed that Nano-PSO administration dramatically reduced demyelination and oxidation of lipids in the brains of the affected animals, which are hallmarks of this severe neurological disease. We propose that novel formulations of natural antioxidants such as Nano-PSO may be considered for the treatment of patients suffering from demyelinating diseases. On the mechanistic side, our results demonstrate that lipid oxidation may be a seminal feature in both demyelination and neurodegeneration. Keywords: nanodrops, PSO, EAE, oxidative stress, neurodegeneration

  4. Interaction between temperature and ammonia in mesophilic digesters for animal waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcelo L; Angenent, Largus T

    2009-05-01

    Four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) were operated during a period of 988 days to evaluate the effect of temperature, ammonia, and their interconnectivity on the methane yield of anaerobic processes for animal waste treatment. During period 1 (day 0-378), the methane yield was 0.31 L CH(4)/g volatile solids (VS) for all digesters (with no statistical differences among them) at a temperature and total ammonium-N levels of 25 degrees C and approximately 1200 mg NH(4)(+)-N/L, respectively. During period 2 (day 379-745), the methane yield at 25 degrees C decreased by 45% when total ammonium-N and ammonia-N were increased in two of the four ASBRs to levels >4000 mg NH(4)(+)-N/L and >80 mg NH(3)-N/L, respectively. During period 3 (day 746-988), this relative inhibition was reduced from 45% to 13% compared to the low-ammonia control reactors when the operating temperature was increased from 25 degrees C to 35 degrees C (while the free ammonia levels increased from approximately 100 to approximately 250 mg NH(3)-N/L). The 10 degrees C increase in temperature doubled the rate constant for methanogenesis, which overwhelmed the elevated toxicity effects caused by the increasing concentration of free ammonia. Thus, the farmer/operator may alleviate ammonia toxicity by increasing the operating temperature within the mesophilic range. We extrapolated our data to correlate temperature, ammonia, and methane yield and to hypothesize that the difference between high- and low-ammonia reactors is negligible at the optimum mesophilic temperature of 38 degrees C.

  5. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum.

  6. Impact of Physical-Chemical Properties on Ammonia Emissions of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of totalsolids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant rolesin the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study.Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  7. Delineating Effects of Ionic Strength and Suspended Solids on Ammonia Volatilization from Dairy Manure Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of total solids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant roles in the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study. Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  8. Sewage sludge and liquid pig manure as possible sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Christina S; Schwaiger, Karin; Harms, Katrin; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Kunz, Anne; Meyer, Karsten; Müller, Christa; Bauer, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Within the last decades, the environmental spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a topic of concern. In this study, liquid pig manure (n=305) and sewage sludge (n=111) - used as agricultural fertilizers between 2002 and 2005 - were investigated for the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Bacteria were tested for their resistance against 40 chemotherapeutics including several "reserve drugs". E. coli (n=613) from pig manure were at a significantly higher degree resistant to streptomycin, doxycycline, spectinomycin, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol than E. coli (n=116) from sewage sludge. Enterococci (Ent. faecalis, n=387, and Ent. faecium, n=183) from pig manure were significantly more often resistant to high levels of doxycycline, rifampicin, erythromycin, and streptomycin than Ent. faecalis (n=44) and Ent. faecium (n=125) from sewage sludge. Significant differences in enterococcal resistance were also seen for tylosin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin high level, fosfomycin, clindamicin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. By contrast, aminopenicillins were more effective in enterococci from pig manure, and mean MIC-values of piperacillin+tazobactam and third generation cefalosporines were significantly lower in E. coli from pig manure than in E. coli from sewage sludge. 13.4% (E. coli) to 25.3% (Ent. faecium) of pig manure isolates were high-level multiresistant to substances from more than three different classes of antimicrobial agents. In sewage sludge, high-level-multiresistance reached from 0% (Ent. faecalis) to 16% (Ent. faecium). High rates of (multi-) resistant bacteria in pig manure emphasize the need for a prudent - cautious - use of antibiotics in farm animals. PMID:20303077

  9. Technical protocol for laboratory tests of transformation of veterinary medicinal products and biocides in liquid manures. Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The technical protocol under consideration describes a laboratory test method to evaluate the transformation of chemicals in liquid bovine and pig manures under anaerobic conditions and primarily is designed for veterinary medicinal products and biocides. The environmentally relevant entry routes into liquid manures occur via urine and feces of cattle and pigs in stable housings after excretion of veterinary medicinal products as parent compounds or metabolites and after the application of biocides in animal housings. Further entry routes such as solid dung application and direct dung pat deposition by production animals on pasture are not considered by this technical protocol. Thus, this technical protocol focused on the sampling of excrements from cattles and pigs kept in stables and fed under standard nutrition conditions. This approach additionally ensures that excrement samples are operationally free of any contamination by veterinary medicinal products and biocides. After the matrix characterization, reference-manure samples are prepared from the excrement samples by adding tap water to adjust defined dry substance contents typical for bovine or pig manures. This technical protocol comprehends a tiered experimental design in two parts: (a) Sampling of excrements and preparation of reference bovine and pig manures; (b) Testing of anaerobic transformation of chemicals in reference manures.

  10. Heavy metals pollution in poultry and livestock feeds and manures under intensive farming in Jiangsu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANG Long; WANG Yu-jun; ZHOU Dong-mei; DONG Yuan-hua

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metals pollution in poultry and livestock feeds and manures under intensive farming in Jiangsu Province was investigated. 97 feed and manure samples were sampled from 31 farming plants in 10 major cities of Jiangsu. 14 metals, including Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mo, Mn, Ba, Co, Sr, Ti, As and Hg, were analyzed after samples acid digestion. The results showed that the most feed samples contained high concentration of metals exceeding National Hygienical Standard for Feeds. Meanwhile, it was found that Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cr concentrations in animal manures were also high, for example, Cu concentration in a manure sample reached to as much as 1726.3 mg/kg. Heavy metals loading quantities in soil per year were then calculated when metals contaminated organic fertilizers were applied, and its effects on soil environmental quality were further evaluated.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF MANURE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR REPRESENTATIVE MICHIGAN DAIRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Satyal, Vijayanand H.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental effects of animal waste have long been a concern to the United States livestock industry. Ever increasing livestock production scale, has resulted in three crucial environmental and odor consequences: 1. Spills from animal waste stores; 2. Nutrient runoff due to the application of manure to the croplands; and 3. Direct ambient pollution, including odors, pests and gases (Innes, 2000). Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, or also commonly known as the Clean Wate...

  12. Manure placement depth impacts on crop yields and N retained in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, M; Clay, D E; Carlson, C G; Clay, S A; Reicks, G; Clay, D W; Humburg, D E

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of manure placement depth on crop yield and N retention in soil. Experimental treatments were deep manure injection (45 cm), shallow manure injection (15 cm), and conventional fertilizer-based management with at least three replications per site. Water infiltration, and changes in soil N and P amounts were measured for up to 30 months and crop yield monitored for three seasons following initial treatment. Deep and shallow manure injections differed in soil inorganic N distributions. For example, in the manure slot the spring following application, NO(3)-N in the surface 60 cm was higher (p injected 15 cm (21.4 micro g/g) into the soil than 45 cm (11.7 micro g/g), whereas NH(4)-N had opposite results with shallow injection having less (p = 0.045) NH(4)-N (102 micro g/g) than deep (133 micro g/g) injection. In the fall one year after the manure was applied, NO(3)-N and NH(4)-N were lower (p = 0.001) in the shallow injection than the deep injection. The net impact of manure placement on total N was that deep injection had 31, 59, and 44 more kg N ha(- 1) than the shallow injection treatment 12, 18, and 30 months after application, respectively. Deep manure injection did not impact soybean (Glycine max L.) yield, however corn (Zea mays L.) yield increased if N was limiting. The higher corn yield in the deep injected treatment was attributed to increased N use efficiency. Higher inorganic N amounts in the deep injection treatment were attributed to reduced N losses through ammonia volatilization, leaching, or denitrification. Results suggest that deep manure placement in glacial till soil may be considered a technique to increase energy, N use efficiency, and maintain surface and ground water quality. However, this technique may not work in glacial outwash soils due to the inability to inject into a rocky subsurface. PMID:19089718

  13. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Manure Management Chains on Smallholder Livestock Farms with and without Biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, Quynh Vu

    Vietnam is now facing the risk of environmental pollution from inappropriate animal manure management chain. Comparative research on manure management chains between livestock farms with and without biogas showed that non-biogas livestock households discharged approximately 15 % of the total manure...... produced into the environment while biogas livestock farms discharged a large volume of digestate (up to 50 %) into the environment because of its low nutrient content and high transportation costs. The filtration experiment therefore was conducted to treat the digestate by using crop residue filtration....... The results showed that filtration of digestate by different crop residues does not work well with some nutrients, such as nitrogen and potassium from crop residue diluted in digestate, resulting in additional polluted digestate. The passive aeration composting experiment showed that the composting of biochar...

  15. Ageing of atrazine in manure amended soils assessed by bioavailability to Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Bælum, Jacob; Strobel, Bjarne W.;

    2014-01-01

    bacteria Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Throughout an ageing period of 90 days bioavailability was investigated at days 1, 10, 32, 60 and 90, where ~108 cells g−1 of the ADP strain was inoculated to the 14C-atrazine exposed soil and 14CO2 was collected over 7 days as a measure of mineralized atrazine. Even......Animal manure is applied to agricultural land in areas of high livestock production. In the present study, we evaluated ageing of atrazine in two topsoils with and without addition of manure and in one subsoil. Ageing was assessed as the bioavailability of atrazine to the atrazine mineralizing...... though the bioavailable residue decreased in all of the three soils as time proceeded, we found that ageing occurred faster in the topsoils rich in organic carbon than in subsoil. For one topsoil rich in organic carbon content, Simmelkær, we observed a higher degree of ageing when treated with manure...

  16. Bioaugmentation of a Two-Stage Thermophilic (68°C/55°C) Anaerobic Digestion Concept for Improvement of the Methane Yield From Cattle Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of improving a two-stage (68°C/55°C) anaerobic digestion concept for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, a 10-24% increase of the specific methane yield from cattle manure and its fractions was obtained, when the substrates were inoculated with bacteria of...... of the two-stage setup....

  17. Modeling Phosphorous Losses from Seasonal Manure Application Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, E.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Excess nutrient loading, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters is a common and significant problem throughout the United States. While pollution remediation efforts are continuously improving, the most effective treatment remains to limit the source. Appropriate timing of fertilizer application to reduce nutrient losses is currently a hotly debated topic in the Northeastern United States; winter spreading of manure is under special scrutiny. We plan to evaluate the loss of phosphorous to surface waters from agricultural systems under varying seasonal fertilization schemes in an effort to determine the impacts of fertilizers applied throughout the year. The Cayuga Lake basin, located in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, is a watershed dominated by agriculture where a wide array of land management strategies can be found. The evaluation will be conducted on the Fall Creek Watershed, a large sub basin in the Cayuga Lake Watershed. The Fall Creek Watershed covers approximately 33,000 ha in central New York State with approximately 50% of this land being used for agriculture. We plan to use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model a number of seasonal fertilization regimes such as summer only spreading and year round spreading (including winter applications), as well as others. We will use the model to quantify the phosphorous load to surface waters from these different fertilization schemes and determine the impacts of manure applied at different times throughout the year. More detailed knowledge about how seasonal fertilization schemes impact phosphorous losses will provide more information to stakeholders concerning the impacts of agriculture on surface water quality. Our results will help farmers and extensionists make more informed decisions about appropriate timing of manure application for reduced phosphorous losses and surface water degradation as well as aid law makers in improving policy surrounding manure application.

  18. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days < Salmonella sp. (133 days from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure, respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  19. Inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-07-14

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%-99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  20. Ageing of atrazine in manure amended soils assessed by bioavailability to Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Bælum, Jacob; Strobel, Bjarne W; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2014-04-01

    Animal manure is applied to agricultural land in areas of high livestock production. In the present study, we evaluated ageing of atrazine in two topsoils with and without addition of manure and in one subsoil. Ageing was assessed as the bioavailability of atrazine to the atrazine mineralizing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Throughout an ageing period of 90 days bioavailability was investigated at days 1, 10, 32, 60 and 90, where ~10(8) cells g(-1) of the ADP strain was inoculated to the (14)C-atrazine exposed soil and (14)CO2 was collected over 7 days as a measure of mineralized atrazine. Even though the bioavailable residue decreased in all of the three soils as time proceeded, we found that ageing occurred faster in the topsoils rich in organic carbon than in subsoil. For one topsoil rich in organic carbon content, Simmelkær, we observed a higher degree of ageing when treated with manure. Contrarily, sorption experiments showed less sorption to Simmelkær treated with manure than the untreated soil indicating that sorption processes are not the only mechanisms of ageing. The other topsoil low in organic carbon content, Ringe, showed no significant difference in ageing between the manure-treated and untreated soil. The present study illustrates that not simply the organic carbon content influences adsorption and ageing of atrazine in soil but the origin and composition of organic matter plays an important role.

  1. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyun; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Shi, Pengjun; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Zheng, Aijuan; Xie, Qing; Ma, Jianshuang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure are a significant environmental and public concern. Despite the numerous studies regarding NH3 emissions from manure, few of them have considered microbial nitrification approaches, especially fungal nitrification. In this study, a filamentous fungus was isolated from chicken manure and was used for nitrification. The species was Paecilomyces variotii by morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA gene sequencing. It played the biggest role in the removal of ammonium at pH 4.0–7.0, C/N ratio of 10–40, temperature of 25–37°C, shaking speed of 150 rpm, and with glucose as the available carbon source. Further analysis revealed that all ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was less than 100 mg/L; 40% ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was 1100 mg/L. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia from chicken manure with strain Paecilomyces variotii was significantly lower than that in the control group. We concluded that Paecilomyces variotii has good potential for future applications in in situ ammonium removal as well as ammonia emissions control from poultry manure. PMID:27348533

  2. Acrylamide formation in vegetable oils and animal fats during heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniali, G; Jinap, S; Hajeb, P; Sanny, M; Tan, C P

    2016-12-01

    The method of liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry was utilized and modified to confirm and quantify acrylamide in heating cooking oil and animal fat. Heating asparagine with various cooking oils and animal fat at 180°C produced varying amounts of acrylamide. The acrylamide in the different cooking oils and animal fat using a constant amount of asparagine was measured. Cooking oils were also examined for peroxide, anisidine and iodine values (or oxidation values). A direct correlation was observed between oxidation values and acrylamide formation in different cooking oils. Significantly less acrylamide was produced in saturated animal fat than in unsaturated cooking oil, with 366ng/g in lard and 211ng/g in ghee versus 2447ng/g in soy oil, followed by palm olein with 1442ng/g. PMID:27374529

  3. Inactivation of human pathogens during phase II composting of manure-based mushroom growth substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Jennifer D; Cutter, Catherine N; Beelman, Robert B; LaBorde, Luke F

    2013-08-01

    Commercial production of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) requires a specialized growth substrate prepared from composted agricultural by-products. Because horse and poultry manures are widely used in substrate formulations, there is a need to determine the extent to which the composting process is capable of eliminating human pathogens. In this study, partially composted substrate was inoculated with a pathogen cocktail (log 10⁶ to 10⁸ CFU/g) containing Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. Pathogen and indicator-organism reductions were followed at temperatures that typically occurred during a standard 6-day phase II pasteurization and conditioning procedure. Controlled-temperature water bath studies at 48.8, 54.4, and 60°C demonstrated complete destruction of the three pathogens after 36.0, 8.0, and 0.5 h, respectively. Destruction of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 at 54.4°C occurred more slowly than E. coli, total coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and Salmonella. Microbial reductions that occurred during a standard 6-day phase II pasteurization and conditioning treatment were studied in a small-scale mushroom production research facility. After phase II composting, E. coli, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae were below detectable levels, and inoculated pathogens were not detected by direct plating or by enrichment. The results of this study show that a phase II composting process can be an effective control measure for eliminating risks associated with the use of composted animal manures during mushroom production. Growers are encouraged to validate and verify their own composting processes through periodic microbial testing for pathogens and to conduct studies to assure uniform distribution of substrate temperatures during phase II.

  4. Plant-available and water-soluble phosphorus in soils amended with separated manure solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, M-O; Chantigny, M H; Angers, D A; Bittman, S; Buckley, K E; Rochette, P; Massé, D

    2012-01-01

    Physical, chemical, or biological treatment of animal liquid manure generally produces a dry-matter rich fraction (DMF) that contains most of the initial phosphorus (P). Our objective was to assess the solubility and plant availability of P from various DMFs as a function of soil P status. Eight different DMFs were obtained from liquid swine (LSM) and dairy cattle (LDC) manures treated by natural decantation, anaerobic digestion, chemical flocculation, composting, or mechanical separation. The DMFs were compared with mineral P fertilizer in a pot experiment with oat ( L.) grown in four soils with varied P-fixing capacities and P saturation levels. The DMFs were added at a rate of 50 mg P kg soil and incubated 14 d before seeding. Soil water-extractable P (P) at all water:soil extraction ratios (2:1, 20:1, and 200:1) was slightly higher when DMFs were derived from LDC rather than LSM. Soil P at the 2:1 ratio was lower with anaerobically digested LSM. At the 2:1 extraction ratio, DMF P was less soluble than mineral P as P saturation in soils increased. In soils with a lower P-fixing capacity, DMF P appeared less water soluble than mineral P under 20:1 and 200:1 extraction ratios. After 72 d of plant growth, DMFs produced yields comparable to mineral P fertilizer. Although the plant availability of P from DMFs was comparable to mineral P fertilizer, P from DMFs could be less vulnerable to leaching or runoff losses in soils with a high P saturation level or low P-fixing capacity.

  5. Measuring and modeling nitrous oxide and methane emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure management: First assessments under Brazilian condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ciniro; Li, Changsheng; Cerri, Carlos E P; Cerri, Carlos C

    2014-01-01

    Intensive beef production has increased during recent decades in Brazil and may substantially increase both methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from manure management. However, the quantification of these gases and methods for extrapolating them are scarce in Brazil. A case study examines CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from one typical beef cattle feedlot manure management continuum in Brazil and the applicability of Manure-DNDC model in predicting these emissions for better understand fluxes and mitigation options. Measurements track CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from manure excreted in one housing floor holding 21 animals for 78 days, stockpiled for 73 days and field spread (360 kg N ha(-1)). We found total emissions (CH(4) + N(2)O) of 0.19 ± 0.10 kg CO(2)eq per kg of animal live weight gain; mostly coming from field application (73%), followed housing (25%) and storage (2%). The Manure-DNDC simulations were generally within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, differing in -28% in total emission. Large uncertainties in measurements showed the model was more accurate estimating the magnitude of gases emissions than replicate results at daily basis. Modeled results suggested increasing the frequency of manure removal from housing, splitting the field application and adopting no-tillage system is the most efficient management for reducing emissions from manure (up to about 75%). Since this work consists in the first assessment under Brazilian conditions, more and continuous field measurements are required for decreasing uncertainties and improving model validations. However, this paper reports promising results and scientific perceptions for the design of further integrated work on farm-scale measurements and Manure-DNDC model development for Brazilian conditions. PMID:25035919

  6. Evaluation of sample preservation methods for poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J; Fadel, J G; Zhang, R; El-Mashad, H M; Ying, Y; Rumsey, T

    2009-08-01

    When poultry manure is collected but cannot be analyzed immediately, a method for storing the manure is needed to ensure accurate subsequent analyses. This study has 3 objectives: (1) to investigate effects of 4 poultry manure sample preservation methods (refrigeration, freezing, acidification, and freeze-drying) on the compositional characteristics of poultry manure; (2) to determine compositional differences in fresh manure with manure samples at 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation under bird cages; and (3) to assess the influence of 14-d freezing storage on the composition of manure when later exposed to 25 degrees C for 7 d as compared with fresh manure. All manure samples were collected from a layer house. Analyses performed on the manure samples included total Kjeldahl nitrogen, uric acid nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and urea nitrogen. In experiment 1, the storage methods most similar to fresh manure, in order of preference, were freezing, freeze-drying, acidification, and refrigeration. Thoroughly mixing manure samples and compressing them to 2 to 3 mm is important for the freezing and freeze-dried samples. In general, refrigeration was found unacceptable for nitrogen analyses. A significant effect (P Kjeldahl nitrogen and uric acid nitrogen were significantly lower (P < 0.05) for 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation compared with fresh manure. Manure after 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation had similar nitrogen compositions. The results from experiment 3 show that nitrogen components from fresh manure samples and thawed samples from 14 d of freezing are similar at 7 d but high variability of nitrogen compositions during intermediate times from 0 to 7 d prevents the recommendation of freezing manure for use in subsequent experiments and warrants future experimentation. In conclusion, fresh poultry manure can be frozen for accurate subsequent nitrogen compositional analyses but this same frozen manure may not be a reliable substitute for fresh manure if a subsequent experiment

  7. Evaluation of sample preservation methods for poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J; Fadel, J G; Zhang, R; El-Mashad, H M; Ying, Y; Rumsey, T

    2009-08-01

    When poultry manure is collected but cannot be analyzed immediately, a method for storing the manure is needed to ensure accurate subsequent analyses. This study has 3 objectives: (1) to investigate effects of 4 poultry manure sample preservation methods (refrigeration, freezing, acidification, and freeze-drying) on the compositional characteristics of poultry manure; (2) to determine compositional differences in fresh manure with manure samples at 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation under bird cages; and (3) to assess the influence of 14-d freezing storage on the composition of manure when later exposed to 25 degrees C for 7 d as compared with fresh manure. All manure samples were collected from a layer house. Analyses performed on the manure samples included total Kjeldahl nitrogen, uric acid nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and urea nitrogen. In experiment 1, the storage methods most similar to fresh manure, in order of preference, were freezing, freeze-drying, acidification, and refrigeration. Thoroughly mixing manure samples and compressing them to 2 to 3 mm is important for the freezing and freeze-dried samples. In general, refrigeration was found unacceptable for nitrogen analyses. A significant effect (P manure. Manure after 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation had similar nitrogen compositions. The results from experiment 3 show that nitrogen components from fresh manure samples and thawed samples from 14 d of freezing are similar at 7 d but high variability of nitrogen compositions during intermediate times from 0 to 7 d prevents the recommendation of freezing manure for use in subsequent experiments and warrants future experimentation. In conclusion, fresh poultry manure can be frozen for accurate subsequent nitrogen compositional analyses but this same frozen manure may not be a reliable substitute for fresh manure if a subsequent experiment is performed. PMID:19590065

  8. Adaptation, Commissioning, and Evaluation of a 3D Treatment Planning System for High-Resolution Small-Animal Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeho; Chen, Qing; Febo, Robert; Yang, Jie; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Zanzonico, Pat B; Deasy, Joseph O; Humm, John L; Mageras, Gig S

    2016-06-01

    Although spatially precise systems are now available for small-animal irradiations, there are currently limited software tools available for treatment planning for such irradiations. We report on the adaptation, commissioning, and evaluation of a 3-dimensional treatment planning system for use with a small-animal irradiation system. The 225-kV X-ray beam of the X-RAD 225Cx microirradiator (Precision X-Ray) was commissioned using both ion-chamber and radiochromic film for 10 different collimators ranging in field size from 1 mm in diameter to 40 × 40 mm(2) A clinical 3-dimensional treatment planning system (Metropolis) developed at our institution was adapted to small-animal irradiation by making it compatible with the dimensions of mice and rats, modeling the microirradiator beam orientations and collimators, and incorporating the measured beam data for dose calculation. Dose calculations in Metropolis were verified by comparison with measurements in phantoms. Treatment plans for irradiation of a tumor-bearing mouse were generated with both the Metropolis and the vendor-supplied software. The calculated beam-on times and the plan evaluation tools were compared. The dose rate at the central axis ranges from 74 to 365 cGy/min depending on the collimator size. Doses calculated with Metropolis agreed with phantom measurements within 3% for all collimators. The beam-on times calculated by Metropolis and the vendor-supplied software agreed within 1% at the isocenter. The modified 3-dimensional treatment planning system provides better visualization of the relationship between the X-ray beams and the small-animal anatomy as well as more complete dosimetric information on target tissues and organs at risk. It thereby enhances the potential of image-guided microirradiator systems for evaluation of dose-response relationships and for preclinical experimentation generally. PMID:25948321

  9. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45%) is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production. PMID:25786255

  10. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A Scheinemann

    Full Text Available Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%, the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45% is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production.

  11. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45%) is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production.

  12. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC MANURES AND AMENDMENTS IN SOIL PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND THEIR IMPACT ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K VANILARASU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during 2010-2011, to study the effect of organic manures (Farmyard manure, Vermicompost, Neem cake and Wood ash, organic amendments (Arbuscular mycorrhizae, Azospirillum, Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria and Trichoderma harzianum and green manures (Sunhemp and Cowpea in comparison with inorganic fertilizers on leaf nutrient and soil physiochemical properties of banana cv. Grand Naine. The treatment T10 with the combined application of organic manures, amendments and green manures (Farmyard manure @ 10 kg + Neem cake @ 1.25 kg + Vermicompost @ 5 kg and Wood ash @ 1.75 kg /plant + Triple green manuring with Sunhemp + Double intercropping of Cow pea + biofertilizers viz., Arbuscular Mycorrhizae @ 25 g , Azospirillum @ 50 g, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria @ 50 g and Trichoderma harzianum @ 50 g/plant registered the maximum growth, yield and yield attributes, leaf nutrient status of N, P and K at 5th and 7th month after planting and soil physiochemical properties at harvesting stage because the role of organic manures and amendments to make the soil has healthy as well as possible and also, the unavailable form of soil nutrients to available form by enhancing mineralization and solubilization process in soil by adding organic manures and microbial agents make easy uptake of nutrients when crop required comparing to chemical fertilizers.

  13. Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

  14. A review of treatment planning for precision image-guided photon beam pre-clinical animal radiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, precision irradiators integrated with a high-resolution CT imaging device became available for pre-clinical studies. These research platforms offer significant advantages over older generations of animal irradiators in terms of precision and accuracy of image-guided radiation targeting. These platforms are expected to play a significant role in defining experiments that will allow translation of research findings to the human clinical setting. In the field of radiotherapy, but also others such as neurology, the platforms create unique opportunities to explore e.g. the synergy between radiation and drugs or other agents. To fully exploit the advantages of this new technology, accurate methods are needed to plan the irradiation and to calculate the three-dimensional radiation dose distribution in the specimen. To this end, dedicated treatment planning systems are needed. In this review we will discuss specific issues for precision irradiation of small animals, we will describe the workflow of animal treatment planning, and we will examine several dose calculation algorithms (factorization, superposition-convolution, Monte Carlo simulation) used for animal irradiation with kilovolt photon beams. Issues such as dose reporting methods, photon scatter, tissue segmentation and motion will also be discussed briefly.

  15. A review of treatment planning for precision image-guided photon beam pre-clinical animal radiation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Hoof, Stefan van; Granton, Patrick V.; Trani, Daniela [Maastricht University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO)

    2014-07-01

    Recently, precision irradiators integrated with a high-resolution CT imaging device became available for pre-clinical studies. These research platforms offer significant advantages over older generations of animal irradiators in terms of precision and accuracy of image-guided radiation targeting. These platforms are expected to play a significant role in defining experiments that will allow translation of research findings to the human clinical setting. In the field of radiotherapy, but also others such as neurology, the platforms create unique opportunities to explore e.g. the synergy between radiation and drugs or other agents. To fully exploit the advantages of this new technology, accurate methods are needed to plan the irradiation and to calculate the three-dimensional radiation dose distribution in the specimen. To this end, dedicated treatment planning systems are needed. In this review we will discuss specific issues for precision irradiation of small animals, we will describe the workflow of animal treatment planning, and we will examine several dose calculation algorithms (factorization, superposition-convolution, Monte Carlo simulation) used for animal irradiation with kilovolt photon beams. Issues such as dose reporting methods, photon scatter, tissue segmentation and motion will also be discussed briefly.

  16. Effect of beef cattle manure application rate on CH4 and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Parker, David; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sa, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Chang-Sang

    2012-12-01

    In a series of field experiments, emissions of two major greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured using a closed chamber technique in summer 2010 to evaluate the effects of solid beef cattle manure land application techniques. The treatments included a control (C: no manure), two manure application rates (40 and 80 T ha-1), and two injection layers (surface vs. subsurface (5 cm)): (1) 40 T ha-1 on surface (S40), (2) 80 T ha-1 on surface (S80), (3) 40 T ha-1 at subsurface (D40), and (4) 80 T ha-1 at subsurface (D80)). The exchange patterns of CH4 and CO2 in the control were variable and showed both emission and deposition. However, only emissions were seen in the manure treatments. Emissions of CH4 were seen systematically on the ascending order of 5.35 (C), 59.3 (S40), 68.7 (D40), 188 (S80), and 208 μg m-2 h-1 (D80), while those of CO2 also showed a similar trend: 12.9 (C), 37.6 (S40), 55.8 (D40), 82.4 (S80), and 95.4 mg m-2 h-1 (D80). The overall results of our study suggest that the emissions of CH4 and CO2 are affected most noticeably by the differences in the amount of manure application.

  17. Antisense treatment of caliciviridae: an emerging disease agent of animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alvin W; Matson, David O; Stein, David A; Skilling, Douglas E; Kroeker, Andrew D; Berke, Tamas; Iversen, Patrick L

    2002-04-01

    The Earth's oceans are the primary reservoir for an emerging family of RNA viruses, the Caliciviridae, which can cause a spectrum of diseases in marine animals, wildlife, farm animals, pets and humans. Certain members of this family have unusually broad host ranges, and some are zoonotic (transmissible from animals to humans). The RNA virus replicative processes lack effective genetic repair mechanisms, and, therefore, virtually every calicivirus replicate is a mutant. Hence, traditional therapeutics dependent on specific nucleic acid sequences or protein epitopes lack the required diversity of sequence or conformational specificity that would be required to reliably detect, prevent or treat infections from these mutant clusters (quasi-species) of RNA viruses, including the Caliciviridae. Antisense technology using phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers shows promise in overcoming these current diagnostic and therapeutic problems inherent with newly emerging viral diseases. PMID:12044040

  18. Dietary antioxidants for chronic periodontitis prevention and its treatment: a review on current evidences from animal and human studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Varela-López; Maurizio Battino; Pedro Bullón; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Given the relationship between chronic periodontitis and high levels of oxidative stress, this review aims to clarify what role can played the dietary intake of different antioxidants in maintaining a healthy periodontium and in reducing chronic periodontitis risk, as well as possible use of dietary therapies based on them for this disease treatment. Methods: The database of the National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC (MEDLINE PubMed) was used and all the studies in animals a...

  19. 应用Manure-DNDC模型模拟畜禽养殖氮素污染%Modelling nitrogen pollution from livestock breeding using Manure-DNDC model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高懋芳; 邱建军; 李长生; 王立刚; 李虎; 高春雨

    2012-01-01

    Livestock and poultry breeding is one of the most important sources for agricultural non-point source nitrogen pollution. After application of manure fertilizer, the intensity of nitrogen losses through soil erosion and leaching in arable land will increase dramatically. Livestock breeding and manure management is a complicate process including nutrient cycling in animal body and transportation of waste from manure to environment through different routes. Discharge coefficient method was widely used for the evaluation of nitrogen pollution loads from animal breeding. The newest Manure-DNDC model was used for the modelling of biogeochemistry process in animal breeding and manure management, with a case study of Xiaoqinghe watershed in Shandong province. Nitrogen transportation and transfer in animal body, manure and agricultural land, main ways of nitrogen losses as well as spatial and temporal distribution of pollution were analyzed in the paper. The results indicated that nitrogen loss in the process of animal breeding and manure fertilizer application was 46.6 million kg N in Xiaoqinghe watershed in 2008. Nitrogen losses from soil erosion and leaching in arable land caused by manure application were 1 million kg and 5.1 million kg, respectively.%畜禽养殖是重要的农业面源氮素污染源头,大量的畜禽粪便施入农田后,会加大农田氮素径流和淋溶损失强度.畜禽养殖废弃物氮素污染过程复杂,涉及到动物自身营养循环以及废弃物通过不同途径进入环境的过程,目前大多通过排放系数法估算畜禽养殖过程产生的氮素污染负荷.该文选用最新版Manure-DNDC模型,以山东小清河流域为例,模拟畜禽养殖及废弃物处理的生物地球化学过程,分析氮素在动物、畜禽粪便、农田之间的迁移转化,探讨该过程中氮素的主要损失途径以及污染物负荷的时空变化特征.模拟结果表明,小清河流域2008年畜禽养殖及粪便

  20. Living Animals in the Classroom: A Meta-Analysis on Learning Outcome and a Treatment-Control Study Focusing on Knowledge and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Eberhard; Randler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Prior research states that the use of living animals in the classroom leads to a higher knowledge but those previous studies have methodological and statistical problems. We applied a meta-analysis and developed a treatment-control study in a middle school classroom. The treatments (film vs. living animal) differed only by the presence of the…

  1. Volatilization of ammonia from manure as affected by manure additives, temperature and mixing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Vliet, van P.C.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization decreases the N-nutrient value of livestock manure slurries and can lead to soil acidification and eutrophication problems. In this study the effect of three manure additives (Euro Mest-mix® (Mx), Effective Micro-organisms® (EM), and Agri-mest® (Am)) on NH3 volatilizatio

  2. Influence of canola and sunflower diet amendments on cattle feedlot manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Mir, Priya S; Shah, Mohammad A; Travis, Greg R

    2005-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) producers can replace a part of the traditional diet of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain/silage with sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) seeds or canola meal (Brassica napus L.)/oil to enhance conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) content in milk and meat for its positive health benefits. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding sunflower or canola to finishing steers on cattle manure chemical properties and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The control diet contained 84% rolled barley and 15% barley silage, which provided only 2.6% lipid. The other six treatments had 6.6 to 8.6% lipid delivered from sources such as hay, sunflower seed (SS), canola meal/oil, and SS forage pellets. Manure samples (a mixture of cattle urine, feces, and woodchip bedding materials) were collected and analyzed after cattle had been on these diets for 113 d. The dietary source and level of lipid had no effect on organic N and nitrate N content in manure, but significantly affected ammonia N and VFA. Inclusion of SS forage pellets, hay, or canola meal/oil in cattle diets had no significant impact on manure characteristics, but SS significantly reduced the pH and increased propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric content. In addition, N loss after excretion (mainly from urine N) increases with the pH and N levels in both feed and manure. The combination of SS with barley silage resulted in a lower VFA and NH3 content in manure and should be a more attractive option. To better manage N nutrient cycles and reduce NH3 related odor problems, feed and manure pH should be one of the factors to consider when determining feed mix rations.

  3. Swine manure injection with low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, J L; Moorman, T B; Singer, J W; Cambardella, C A; Tomer, M D

    2011-01-01

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. We determined the effect of two manure application methods on P fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system, with and without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop. Treatments included: (i) no manure; (ii) knife injection; and (iii) low-disturbance injection, each with and without the cover crop. Simulated rainfall runoff was analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP). Rainfall was applied 8 d after manure application (early November) and again in May after emergence of the corn crop. Manure application increased soil bioavailable P in the 20- to 30-cm layer following knife injection and in the 5- to 20-cm layer following low-disturbance injection. The low-disturbance system caused less damage to the cover crop, so that P uptake was more than threefold greater. Losses of DRP were greater in both fall and spring following low-disturbance injection; however, application method had no effect on TP loads in runoff in either season. The cover crop reduced fall TP losses from plots with manure applied by either method. In spring, DRP losses were significantly higher from plots with the recently killed cover crop, but TP losses were not affected. Low-disturbance injection of swine manure into a standing cover crop can minimize plant damage and P losses in surface runoff while providing optimum P availability to a subsequent agronomic crop.

  4. Influence of canola and sunflower diet amendments on cattle feedlot manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Mir, Priya S; Shah, Mohammad A; Travis, Greg R

    2005-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) producers can replace a part of the traditional diet of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain/silage with sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) seeds or canola meal (Brassica napus L.)/oil to enhance conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) content in milk and meat for its positive health benefits. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding sunflower or canola to finishing steers on cattle manure chemical properties and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The control diet contained 84% rolled barley and 15% barley silage, which provided only 2.6% lipid. The other six treatments had 6.6 to 8.6% lipid delivered from sources such as hay, sunflower seed (SS), canola meal/oil, and SS forage pellets. Manure samples (a mixture of cattle urine, feces, and woodchip bedding materials) were collected and analyzed after cattle had been on these diets for 113 d. The dietary source and level of lipid had no effect on organic N and nitrate N content in manure, but significantly affected ammonia N and VFA. Inclusion of SS forage pellets, hay, or canola meal/oil in cattle diets had no significant impact on manure characteristics, but SS significantly reduced the pH and increased propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric content. In addition, N loss after excretion (mainly from urine N) increases with the pH and N levels in both feed and manure. The combination of SS with barley silage resulted in a lower VFA and NH3 content in manure and should be a more attractive option. To better manage N nutrient cycles and reduce NH3 related odor problems, feed and manure pH should be one of the factors to consider when determining feed mix rations. PMID:15998867

  5. Study of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus through animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Casillas, Yeray; Melián, Carlos; Wägner, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    Most research in diabetes mellitus (DM) has been conducted in animals, and their replacement is currently a chimera. As compared to when they started to be used by modern science in the 17th century, a very high number of animal models of diabetes is now available, and they provide new insights into almost every aspect of diabetes. Approaches combining human, in vitro, and animal studies are probably the best strategy to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of diabetes, and the choice of the best model to achieve such objective is crucial. Traditionally classified based on pathogenesis as spontaneous or induced models, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. The most common animal models of diabetes are described, and in addition to non-obese diabetic mice, biobreeding diabetes-prone (BB-DP) rats, streptozotocin-induced models, or high-fat diet-induced diabetic C57Bl/6J mice, new valuable models, such as dogs and cats with spontaneous diabetes, are described. PMID:27246633

  6. Analysis on the model selection and influence factors of manure treatment in dairy farm-a case study of Beijing%奶牛养殖场粪污处理模式选择及影响因素分析--以北京市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁凡琳; 董晓霞; 王建芬; 姜小平

    2015-01-01

    基于北京市延庆、昌平、大兴、房山、密云5个区(县)和首农集团107个奶牛养殖场的调研数据,运用多元 Logit 模型对影响北京市奶牛养殖场粪污处理模式选择的因素进行计量分析。结果表明:养殖规模是影响牛场粪污处理模式选择的主要因素。以还田模式为参照,相关设备齐全度显著影响工业化处理模式的选择,而综合性处理模式更多受法人素质和补贴的影响。基于模型结论,建议按不同规模养殖场实际情况选择适宜的粪污处理模式,并加强法人环保意识,优化政策扶持方式,酌情为企业提供金融支持。%Based on the data of 107 dairy farms in Yanqing,Changping,Daxing,Fangshan,Miyun and Bei-jing Capital Agribusiness Group,the factors affecting the model selection of manure treatment in Beijing dairy farms were analyzed by multivariate Logit model.The results suggested that the breeding scale was the main factor affecting the mode selection of cattle manure treatment.Taking the field pattern as the reference,related equip-ment affected the choice of industrial processing mode significantly,while the comprehensive treatment model was more influenced by the legal person quality and the subsidy.Based on the model conclusion,the appropriate ma-nure treatment mode should be chosen according to the actual situation of different scale farms,,and strengthe-ning environmental protection awareness of legal person,optimizing policy support model,providing financial sup-port to enterprises appropriately.

  7. Methane production potential (B0) of swine and cattle manures--a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, S; Verma, M; Larouche, J P; Potvin, L; Chapman, A M; Lemay, S P; Pelletier, F; Brar, S K

    2010-11-01

    Canada's agricultural emissions accounted for 60 Mt or 8% of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2007. The estimation of CH4 emission factor (B0) from manure management systems in Canada is prone to uncertainty owing to lack of B0 values for Canadian conditions. Therefore, in this study, manure samples from six Canadian animal farms, two each of swine, beef and dairy cattle, were investigated in order to estimate their methane production potential (B0). The ultimate anaerobic biodegradability was measured with ISO standard batch fermentation. The extent of biodegradation of the manure samples with or without sodium benzoate was always greater than 60% and hence showed no inhibitory effect on methane production by the manure. The impact of use of antibiotics in the animal feed on methane production was also considered; however, no inhibitory effect on methane production could be observed. The plateau of methane production in all cases was achieved by 63 d of anaerobic digestion process and the final pH was within 6-8. The calculated B0 were in the range of 0.47-0.42, 0.21-0.19 and 0.35-0.30 for swine, beef cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The uncertainties associated with B0 values were +/- 9% for swine, +/- 3% for beef cattle and, +/- 6 and +/- 2% for dairy cows.

  8. Growth Performance Characteristics of Goats Fed Varied Levels of Poultry Manure in whole Cassava Plant Based Concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf, M. B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A 56-day feed intake, growth and digestibility trial was carried out to investigate the use of poultry manure as a fermentable nitrogen source in whole cassava plant-based concentrate fed to goats on basal Panicummaximum hay (9.18 % CP. Sixteen adult (2 years old; 12.48 – 16.72 kg initial body weights West African Dwarf goats were blocked on the basis of body weights into four similar groups that were assigned randomly to four treatments. Treatments consisted of dried poultry manure that was included in a cassava-based concentrate at 0, 14, 18 or 22 % level. Average feed intake (g/W0.725 kg was reduced (p < 0.05 in goats fed poultry manure at 22 % inclusion level when compared with the other dietary groups. Effects of poultry manure treatments on digestibility of dry matter or crude protein, nitrogen retention and body weight gain were significant (p < 0.05. It was concluded that poultry manure could be used to complement cassava leaf meal in cassava plant-based concentrates for the goats. The use of poultry manure as a source of fermentable nitrogen would promote activities of rumen microbial populations for efficient fermentation and reduce the constraints associated with collection and processing of cassava leaf in sufficient quantity for inclusion in the diet.

  9. Effect of liquid swine manure rate, incorporation, and timing of rainfall on phosphorus loss with surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brett L; Mallarino, Antonio P

    2008-01-01

    Excessive manure phosphorus (P) application increases risk of P loss from fields. This study assessed total runoff P (TPR), bioavailable P (BAP), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentrations and loads in surface runoff after liquid swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure application with or without incorporation into soil and different timing of rainfall. Four replicated manure P treatments were applied in 2002 and in 2003 to two Iowa soils testing low in P managed with corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations. Total P applied each time was 0 to 80 kg P ha(-1) at one site and 0 to 108 kg P ha(-1) at the other. Simulated rainfall was applied within 24 h of P application or after 10 to 16 d and 5 to 6 mo. Nonincorporated manure P increased DRP, BAP, and TPR concentrations and loads linearly or exponentially for 24-h and 10- to 16-d runoff events. On average for the 24-h events, DRP, BAP, and TPR concentrations were 5.4, 4.7, and 2.2 times higher, respectively, for nonincorporated manure than for incorporated manure; P loads were 3.8, 7.7, and 3.6 times higher; and DRP and BAP concentrations were 54% of TPR for nonincorporated manure and 22 to 25% for incorporated manure. A 10- to 16-d rainfall delay resulted in DRP, BAP, and TPR concentrations that were 3.1, 2.7, and 1.1 times lower, respectively, than for 24-h events across all nonincorporated P rates, sites, and years, whereas runoff P loads were 3.8, 3.6, and 1.6 times lower, respectively. A 5- to 6-mo simulated rainfall delay reduced runoff P to levels similar to control plots. Incorporating swine manure when the probability of immediate rainfall is high reduces the risk of P loss in surface runoff; however, this benefit sharply decreases with time.

  10. Feeding high-moisture corn instead of dry-rolled corn reduces odorous compound production in manure of finishing beef cattle without decreasing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibeque, S L; Miller, D N; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L

    2006-07-01

    We hypothesized that feeding steers ground high-moisture ensiled corn (HMC) in lieu of dry-rolled corn (DRC) would reduce the amount of starch being excreted in the manure and the associated odorous compound production. One hundred forty-eight crossbred steers (363 +/- 33 kg of BW) were fed a DRC-or HMC-based diet in a feeding trial, and 8 Charolais-sired steers (447 +/- 22 kg of BW) were used in a nutrient balance study. Steers fed HMC tended to have a slightly lower DMI (P = 0.09), ADG (P = 0.06), and yield grade, but G:F, final HCW, and quality grade did not differ (P > or = 0.23) between treatments. Compared with feeding DRC, feeding HMC decreased (P = 0.02) starch intake from 5,407 to 4,846 g/d, decreased (P or = 0.55). In manure slurries incubated for 35 d with soil and water, total VFA concentration was lower (P < 0.01) in manure from steers fed HMC (1,625 micromol/g of DM) compared with steers fed DRC (3,041 micromol/g of DM). Lower initial (d 0) starch concentrations and greater initial pH was also observed in the slurries from the HMC manure. By d 3 of slurry incubation, there was an increase (P < 0.01) in free glucose and l-lactic acid in the DRC slurries but not in the HMC slurries. During manure incubation, alcohol and VFA content increased (P < 0.01) and pH declined, but to a lesser extent (P < 0.01) in the HMC slurries. However, branched-chain VFA increased more (P < 0.01) in the HMC slurries than in the DRC slurries. These data suggest that feeding HMC instead of DRC decreased fecal starch and production of some potentially odorous compounds in a finishing cattle system but had little impact on animal productivity. PMID:16775061

  11. The Influence of Chemical Treatment on the Mechanical Behaviour of Animal Fibre-Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka O. Oladele

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work has investigated the influence of chemical treatment on the mechanical behaviour of animal fibre-reinforced high density polyethylene composites. The animal fibres used for this present study were chicken feather and cow hair fibres procured from local poultries and abattoirs. Prior to the development of the composite materials, the animal fibres were washed and dried, cut into 10 mm and divided into two portions; one portion was treated with 0.25 M NaOH maintained at 60 0C for 1 hour in a water bath, rinsed with distilled water and dried in the oven while the other portion was left untreated. Both portions were then used to reinforce the high density polyethylene polymer at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 % fibre loading respectively from which, the flexural and tensile test samples were produced by hot compression moulding. From the test results, it was observed that the chemically treated cow hair and chicken feather fibre reinforced high density polyethylene composites gave the best flexural properties for most fibre loading percentages compared to their untreated animal fibre-reinforced high density polyethylene composites counterparts and the neat high density polyethylene matrix. However, the tensile properties of all the animal fibre-reinforced high density polyethylene composites were not enhanced. Chicken feather and cow hair fibres were chosen for this research work to consider their potential applications as reinforcement for polymeric materials with a view to curtail the environmental pollution they generate by means of their disposal, as they are considered as unusable animal waste.

  12. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of manure and mixture of manure with lipids: biogas reactor performance and microbial community analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37degreesC. The reactor. codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield and a hi......Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37degreesC. The reactor. codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield...

  14. Manure and Inorganic Nitrogen Affect Trace Gas Emissions under Semi-Arid Irrigated Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Stewart, Catherine E

    2016-05-01

    Dairy manure is often applied to cropped soils as a substitute for inorganic N fertilizers, but the impacts of manure on soil trace gas fluxes, yields, and soil N are uncertain in the semiarid western United States. Soil carbon dioxide (CO-C), methane (CH-C), nitrous oxide (NO-N), and ammonia (NH-N) emissions were monitored using surface chambers from five N treatments: (i) partially composted solid dairy manure (DM) (412 kg N ha), (ii) DM + AgrotainPlus (DM+AP), (iii) enhanced efficiency N fertilizer (SuperU [SU]) (179 kg N ha), (iv) urea (179 kg N ha), and (v) check (no N applied), to determine their effect on growing season (GS) and nongrowing season emissions from a tilled clay loam soil under irrigated, continuous corn production for 3 yr. SuperU and AgrotainPlus contain urease and nitrification inhibitors. Averaged over years, GS soil CO-C emissions were greater for DM and DM+AP than for urea, SU, and check treatments due to the large amount of C added with the manure; CH-C emissions did not vary among N treatments; and NO-N emissions decreased in the order urea = DM = DM+AP > SU > check. AgrotainPlus added to the DM did not reduce NO-N emissions compared with DM. Cumulative NH-N emissions after manure application decreased in the order urea > SU > check, with no significant differences between SU, DM, and DM+AP. Dairy manure provided slow-release N with nitrate intensities lower than urea and NO-N emissions similar to urea. These results highlight the importance of best-management practices such as immediate irrigation after N application and use of urease and nitrification inhibitors to minimize N losses. PMID:27136157

  15. No Room to Swing a Cat? Animal Treatment and Urban Space in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-kit Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Singapore’s independence in 1965, the People’s Action Party government has launched an extensive urban planning program to transform the island into a modern metropolis. This paper discusses human-animal relations and the management of stray cats in postcolonial Singapore. In exploring the perceptions and handling of stray cats in Singapore, I argue that stray cats became an urban “problem” as a result of the government’s public-health regime, urban renewal projects, and attempts to fashion itself and Singapore for international tastes, and that cat activists are the main agents of rebuilding connections between animals and everyday urban life. In particular, I analyze how cat-welfare associations and individual citizens assume functions that the government has been loath to perform unless absolutely necessary.

  16. Steroid-associated osteonecrosis: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, animal model, prevention, and potential treatments (an overview)

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-Hui Xie; Xin-Luan Wang; Hui-Lin Yang; De-Wei Zhao; Ling Qin

    2015-01-01

    Steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) is a common orthopaedic problem caused by administration of corticosteroids prescribed for many nonorthopaedic medical conditions. We summarised different pathophysiologies of SAON which have adverse effects on multiple systems such as bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) pool, bone matrix, cell apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and angiogenesis. Different animal models were introduced to mimic the pathophysiology of SAON and for testing the efficacy of both preve...

  17. Occurrence and distribution of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, and nitrofurans in livestock manure and amended soils of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Wan, Weining; Mao, Daqing; Wang, Chong; Mu, Quanhua; Qin, Songyan; Luo, Yi

    2015-03-01

    A feasible and rapid analysis for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamides (SAs), tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQs), macrolides (MACs) and nitrofurans (NFs) in livestock manure and soils was established by solid-phase extraction (SPE)-ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A total of 32 manure and 17 amended soil samples from the Liaoning and Tianjin areas in Northern China were collected for analysis. The largest detected frequencies and concentrations in manure samples were those of TCs (3326.6 ± 12,302.6 μg/kg), followed by FQs (411.3 ± 1453.4 μg/kg), SAs (170.6 ± 1060.2 μg/kg), NFs (85.1 ± 158.1 μg/kg), and MACs (1.4 ± 4.8 μg/kg). In general, veterinary antibiotics (VAs) were detected with higher concentrations in swine and chicken manure than in cattle manure, reflecting the heavy usage of VAs in swine and chicken husbandry in the studied area. Furthermore, higher residues of antibiotics were found in piglet and fattening swine manure than in sow manure. In addition, TCs were the most frequently (100%) detected antibiotics in amended soil with higher concentrations (up to 10,967.1 μg/kg) than any other VAs. The attenuation of SAs was more obvious than TCs in amended soil after fertilization, which can most likely be attributed to the stronger sorption of TCs than SAs to soil organic matter through cation exchange. This study illustrated the prevalence of TCs detected in both animal manure and fertilized agricultural soils in Northern China, which may increase the risk to human health through the food chain. Thus, TCs should be given more attention in the management of veterinary usage in livestock husbandry. PMID:25318415

  18. Living Animals in the Classroom: A Meta-Analysis on Learning Outcome and a Treatment-Control Study Focusing on Knowledge and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Eberhard; Randler, Christoph

    2012-02-01

    Prior research states that the use of living animals in the classroom leads to a higher knowledge but those previous studies have methodological and statistical problems. We applied a meta-analysis and developed a treatment-control study in a middle school classroom. The treatments (film vs. living animal) differed only by the presence of the living animal. Both treatments were based on the self-determination theory. More than 400 pupils filled in pre-test, post-test and two follow-up-tests (with a delay of 6-8 weeks and 7-8 months). After each lesson, pupils rated the lesson on a short intrinsic motivation scale. In the meta-analysis, we found that the living animal treatments significantly scored better than a control group, but not when comparing living animals with alternative treatments. In the treatment-control study, both treatments led to a significant increase in knowledge but there were no differences between film and living animal treatment. Pre-test and previous grading had a significant influence on post- and both follow-up tests. In the mouse lesson, pupils of the living animal group showed higher values in interest and competence and lower values in pressure. Interest and competence correlated positively with achievement, while pressure correlated negatively.

  19. Evaluation of calcium superphosphate as an additive to reduce gas emissions from rabbit manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Estellés Barber

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques to reduce the emission of air pollutants from livestock production are demanded. In this study, the effect of an additive (calcium superphosphate on gas emissions from rabbit manure was investigated and compared with a control where no additive was used. Calcium superphosphate was applied at a rate of 100 g/m2 per week in a manure pit during 2 cycles of growing rabbits. Manure samples were collected weekly and then chemically and microbiologically analysed. Gas emissions (ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide were determined in 2 open flux chambers. No differences were observed in gas emissions between the treated and control samples except for ammonia emissions, which were reduced by 33% when the additive was applied (P<0.05. No statistical differences were obtained in the microbial content between control and treatment, as results showed a high variability. Dry matter content and pH were the most influential parameters on the emission of gases from manure. According to these results, the application of calcium superphosphate may be considered as an effective technique to reduce ammonia emission from rabbit manure. The additive may also be potentially effective in other species, but additional research is necessary to investigate its performance.

  20. Life cycle assessment of manure management and nutrient recycling from a Chinese pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiming; Stichnothe, Heinz; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Huaitalla, Roxana Mendoza; Xu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the growing numbers of intensified pig farms around cities in China, there are problems of nutrient surplus and shortage of arable land for utilising the manure. Hence, sustainable livestock systems with effective manure management are needed. The objective of this study is to compare the existing manure treatment of a typical pig farm in Beijing area (separate collection of faeces; 'Gan qing fen' system) with an alternative system and to identify the nutrients flow of the whole farm in order to quantify environmental burdens and to estimate the arable land required for sustainable nutrients recycling. Life cycle assessment is used for this purpose. Acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) are analysed in detail; the functional unit is the annual production of the pig farm. The results show that the cropland area demand for sustainable land application of the effluent can be reduced from 238 to 139 ha with the alternative system. It is possible to transfer 29% of total nitrogen, 87% of phosphorus, 34% of potassium and 75% of magnesium to the compost, and to reduce the total AP, EP and GWP of manure management on the farm by 64.1%, 96.7% and 22%, respectively, compared with the current system. Besides an effective manure management system, a full inventory of the regional nutrients flow is needed for sustainable development of livestock systems around big cities in China. PMID:24293069

  1. Bispecific antibodies for treatment of cancer in experimental animal models and man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Helfrich, Wijnand; Molema, Ingrid; de Leij, Lou

    1998-01-01

    Immunotherapy is a powerful anti-cancer treatment modality. However, despite numerous encouraging results obtained in pre-clinical studies, a definite breakthrough towards an established clinical treatment modality has as yet not occurred. Antibodies against tumor antigens have been shown to localis

  2. Preliminary design and economical study of a biogas production-plant using cow manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents considerations and results from designing a large- scale biogas production-plant using cow manure. The so designed plant capacity allowed processing the dung from 1,300 cows, producing 500 kW of electrical energy from operating a generator which works on a mixture of diesel and biogas fuel. The design included sizing the cowsheds, the manure-collecting systems, transporting the dung, the digester, the effluent tank and the biogas treatment system. An economic study was also done, concluding that project was viable and the importance of the cost of diesel evolving for determining return on investment time.

  3. Microbiological and chemical attributes of a Hapludalf soil with swine manure fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael da Rosa Couto; Jucinei José Comin; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares; Paulo Belli Filho; Lucas Benedet; Marcel Pires de Moraes; Gustavo Brunetto; Caetano Luiz Beber

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical attributes of a soil with a seven‑year history of urea and swine manure application. In the period from October 2008 to October 2009, soil samples were collected in the 0-10 cm layer and were subjected to the treatments: control, without application of urea or manure; and with the application of urea, pig slurry, and deep pig litter in two doses, in order to supply one or two times the recommended N doses for the maiz...

  4. Effects of Temperature and Drying and Wetting Alternation on Ammonium Fixation in Manured Loessial Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANXIAOLIN; LILING; 等

    1996-01-01

    Effects of temperature and drying and wetting alternation (DWA) on ammonium fixation in manured loessial soil were studied by means of Batch Equilibrium with varying concentration solutions of ammonium chloride.ammonium fixation time,and soil clay contents.The purpose of the research was to find out the pattern of ammonium fixation affected by the varying factors.The results showed a remarkable variation in ammonium fixation.Fixed ammonium increased with temperature and treatments of DWA.The ammonium fixation in manured loessial soil was characterized by the effect of temperature and DWA.

  5. Data on the irradiation of liquid manure artificially infected with foot-and mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the application of an ionizing radiation treatment to liquid manure infected with Foot- and Mouth disease virus is described. Virus suspensions diluted with a phosphate buffer solution showed a considerable decrease of virulence already at an exposure to 0.4 - 0.8 Mrad at low initial titre. 1.2 Mrad proved to be effective also against high concentrations of the virus. However, with liquid manure used as diluent, a certain protective effect was noted against the destructive influence of radiation on the virus. (author)

  6. Nitrogen transformations during pig manure composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Composting is now suggested as one of the environmentallyand friendly alternative method for disposal of solid organic wastes, as it leads to minimization, stabilization, and utilization of organic waste. Transformations of nitrogen were investigated inco-composting of pig manure with different amendments, such as sawdust and leaves. Samples were analyzed for pH, total-N, soluble NH4-N, soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N. The total-N increased after 63 days of composting, as well as the soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N. Soluble NH4-N increased significantly and showed peak values at day 7, thereafter decreased sharply and gradually to lower levels. Seed germination index (GI) showed that co-composting of pig manure with sawdust reached maturity after 49 days of composting, while co-composting of pig manure with sawdust and leaves required shorter time for 35 days. Soluble NH4-N was significantly negatively (P<0.05), while soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N were significantly positively (P<0.05), correlated with seed germination index (GI). Addition of leaves in co-composting of pig manure with sawdust had no significant impacts on nitrogen transformations, but it was beneficial for maturity of pig manure compost.

  7. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.

  8. [Bioleaching of fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerator using sewage sludge and pig manure as culture media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun-gui; Chang, Ming; Hu, Pei; Ni, Jin-ren

    2005-11-01

    A mixed culture of Acidihiobacillus ferrooaidans and Acidihiobacillus thiooxidans was used to leach heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI fly ash). This study explored the possibility of using sewage sludge or pig manure as nutrients for supporting the growth of the leaching bacteria and allowing metal solubilization like a synthetic mineral medium. In contrast to pig manure, there is a high ability for acidification of the fly ash and solubilization of toxic metals using sewage sludge at the same content. After 15 d of bioleaching, the following removal efficiencies were obtained for the treatment with the addition of 1% sewage sludge: Cd 88.1%; Zn 78.7%; Cu 69.6%, whereas their removal efficiencies for the treatment with the addition of 1% pig manure were 82.4%, 73.5% and 60.0%, respectively. Results demonstrate that the inhibition by sewage sludge DOM is much more significant than by pig manure DOM at the same concentration level. The dissolved organic carbon in excess of 400 and 150 mg/L was inhibitory to the bacterial growth using sludge DOM and manure DOM, respectively. Compared with sewage sludge, pig manure contained a higher fraction of DOM with molecular size <1000, which led to its higher toxicity. PMID:16447455

  9. Evaluating aeration techniques for decreasing phosphorus export from grasslands receiving manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given that surface-applied manures can contribute to phosphorus (P) in runoff, a study was conducted to examine mechanical aeration of grasslands for reducing P transport by increasing infiltration of rainfall and binding of P with soil minerals. The effects of three aeration treatments and a contr...

  10. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20:1 and 30:1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  11. Clays Can Decrease Gaseous Nutrient Losses from Soil-Applied Livestock Manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Chris; Redding, Matthew; Hill, Jaye; Brown, Grant; Westermann, Maren

    2016-03-01

    Clays could underpin a viable agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement technology given their affinity for nitrogen and carbon compounds. We provide the first investigation into the efficacy of clays to decrease agricultural nitrogen GHG emissions (i.e., NO and NH). Via laboratory experiments using an automated closed-vessel analysis system, we tested the capacity of two clays (vermiculite and bentonite) to decrease NO and NH emissions and organic carbon losses from livestock manures (beef, pig, poultry, and egg layer) incorporated into an agricultural soil. Clay addition levels varied, with a maximum of 1:1 to manure (dry weight). Cumulative gas emissions were modeled using the biological logistic function, with 15 of 16 treatments successfully fitted ( oxide emissions were significantly lower (×3; < 0.05) at the highest clay addition level compared with no clay addition. When assessing manures individually, we observed generally decreasing trends in NH and NO emissions with increasing clay addition, albeit with widely varying statistical significance between manure types. Most of the treatments also showed strong evidence of increased C retention with increasing clay additions, with up to 10 times more carbon retained in treatments containing clay compared with treatments containing no clay. This preliminary assessment of the efficacy of clays to mitigate agricultural GHG emissions indicates strong promise. PMID:27065411

  12. No Room to Swing a Cat? Animal Treatment and Urban Space in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-kit Chan

    2016-01-01

    Since Singapore’s independence in 1965, the People’s Action Party government has launched an extensive urban planning program to transform the island into a modern metropolis. This paper discusses human-animal relations and the management of stray cats in postcolonial Singapore. In exploring the perceptions and handling of stray cats in Singapore, I argue that stray cats became an urban “problem” as a result of the government’s public-health regime, urban renewal projects, and attempts to fas...

  13. Effect of integrated forage rotation and manure management on yield, nutrient balance and soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Tomasoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a field experiment established in 1995 and still on going. It is located in Lodi, in the irrigated lowlands of Lombardy, Northern Italy. The experiment compares two rotations: the annual double cropping system, Italian ryegrass + silage maize (R1; and the 6-year rotation, in which three years of double crop Italian ryegrass + silage maize are followed by three years of alfalfa harvested for hay (R6 Each rotation have received two types of dairy manure: i farmyard manure (FYM; ii semi-liquid manure (SLM. The intent was to apply to each unit land area the excreta produced by the number of adult dairy cows sustained, in terms of net energy, by the forage produced in each rotation, corresponding to about 6 adult cows ha-1 for R1 and 4 adult cows ha-1 for R6. Manure was applied with (N1 or without (N0 an extra supply of mineral N in the form of urea. The objectives of this study were: i to assess whether the recycling of two types of manure in two forage rotation systems can sustain crop yields in the medium and long term without additional N fertilization; ii to evaluate the nutrient balance of these integrated forage rotations and manure management systems; iii to compare the effects of farmyard manure and semi-liquid manure on soil organic matter. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased yield of silage maize by 19% and alfalfa by 23%, while Italian ryegrass was not influenced by the manure treatment. Yet, silage maize produced 6% more in rotation R6 compared to rotation R1. The mineral nitrogen fertilization increased yield of Italian ryegrass by 11% and of silage maize by 10%. Alfalfa, not directly fertilized with mineral nitrogen, was not influenced by the nitrogen applied to the other crops in rotation. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased soil organic matter (SOM by +37 % for the rotation R1, and by +20% for the rotation R6. Conversely, no significant difference on SOM was observed

  14. Effect of treatment with simvastatin on bone microarchitecture of the femoral head in an osteoporosis animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lucas Oliveira; Macedo, Ana Paula; Shimano, Roberta Carminati; Shimano, Antônio Carlos; Yanagihara, Gabriela Rezende; Ramos, Junia; Paulini, Marina Ribeiro; Tocchini de Figueiredo, Fellipe Augusto; Gonzaga, Miliane Gonçalves; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the microarchitecture and trabecular bone strength at the distal region of the femur, and its biomechanical properties with simvastatin administration with two different doses in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Ninety rats were divided into six groups to evaluate treatment with the simvastatin drug (n = 15): SH (Sham surgery), SH-5 (5 mg simvastatin), SH-20 (20 mg simvastatin), OVX, OVX-5, and OVX-20. Euthanasia was performed at three different times, five animals per period: 7, 14, and 28 days. The effectiveness of the treatments was evaluated by mechanical testing and histomorphometric analysis of the femurs. The results of analysis by the linear model of mixed effects showed 20 mg of simvastatin results in increased trabecular bone after 14 days (P = 0.039) of ingestion in ovariectomized animals. However, ingestion of 5 mg of simvastatin is able to sensitize the trabecular bone only at 28 days (P = 0.005) of ingestion. In the mechanical tests stiffness improves within 28 days (P = 0.003). Regarding maximum strength, no statistical differences were observed. According to these results, it can be concluded that for a decrease in oral intake, longer treatment times are required. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:684-690, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27186631

  15. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijian; Shen, Jianguo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, Longhua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, Hongyi; Zheng, Changfeng; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-10-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m-2, respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting.

  16. Selection of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae during penicillin treatment in vitro and in three animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Odenholt, Inga; Erlendsdottir, Helga;

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties for the selection of resistant pneumococci were studied by using three strains of the same serotype (6B) for mixed-culture infection in time-kill experiments in vitro and in three different animal models, the mouse peritonitis, the mouse th...... by the less-susceptible strains. These findings with the experimental infection models confirm the importance of eradicating all the bacteria taking part in the infectious process in order to avoid selection of resistant clones.......Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties for the selection of resistant pneumococci were studied by using three strains of the same serotype (6B) for mixed-culture infection in time-kill experiments in vitro and in three different animal models, the mouse peritonitis, the mouse.......016 micro g/ml; erythromycin resistant)/ml, 10(6) CFU of strain B (MIC of penicillin, 0.25 micro g/ml)/ml, and 10(5) CFU of strain C (MIC of penicillin, 4 micro g/ml)/ml, was used in the two mouse models, and a mixture of 10(5) CFU of strain A/ml, 10(4) CFU of strain B/ml, and 10(3) CFU of strain C...

  17. Pollution by animal production in The Netherlands: solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorburg, J H

    1991-09-01

    Provided that the application rates of manure do not exceed the crop uptake of nutrients, pollution by animal production is mainly caused by nitrogenous substances. Applying manure outside the growing season causes pollution of groundwater and surface water due to leaching and runoff. In regions with a high livestock density, the evaporation of ammonia has a serious impact on the environment. It contributes to acidification and causes a nutrient imbalance in natural vegetation. The prevention of nutrient losses from manure is unprofitable. The environmental impact is not caused by the individual farmer but is a result of the sum of activities in a region. This means that legislation is necessary to impose limits in order to arrive at production without pollution. Within this framework, the farmer should optimise the utilisation of minerals from manure by more efficient animal nutrition and better handling of the manure. One of the most difficult problems is the prevention of ammonia evaporation. A reduction of these losses generally also has a favourable effect on odour emissions. A new development is the processing of manure surpluses into a dried manure of sufficient quality to compete on the fertiliser market. As is usually the case with pollution control, these measures raise the costs of livestock production. PMID:1782422

  18. Coupling Cover Crops and Manure Injection: Soil Inorganic N Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of a rye/oat cover crop with liquid swine manure application may enhance retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil inorganic N following injection of liquid swine manure to plots seeded with a rye/oat co...

  19. Effects of chemical amendments to swine manure on runoff quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-applied swine manure can be an environmental concern when runoff losses of manure constituents occur. The use of chemical amendments to mitigate these losses has been investigated for poultry litter, but materials such as swine manure have received less attention in this context, particularly ...

  20. Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyaev, Yulian A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2006-02-01

    One of the important problems of modern medicine is treatment of infected wounds. There are many diversified expedients of treatment, but none of them obey the modern physician completely. The aim of this study is to develop and test a new combined method of photodynamic ultrasonic therapy (PDUST) for treatment of infected wounds with focus on experimental trials. PDUST is based on a combination of two methods: photodynamic (PD) therapy (PDT) with photosensitizer and low frequency ultrasonic (US) therapy with antibiotic as tools for treatment of wounds and effectively killing bacteria. The main parameters are: US frequency - 26.5 kHz; US tip elongation - 40+/-20 μm wavelength of light emitting diodes (LED) array - 660+/-10 nm; light intensity on biotissue surface - 1-2 mW/cm2; photosensitizer - an aluminum disulfonated phtalocyanine dissolved in a physiological solution in concentration 10 mg/l. The experiments were carried out with 70 male chinchilla rabbits divided into 7 groups, thus the dynamics of wounds healing were studied in different modes of PDUST. The PD and US methods supplement each other and in conjunction provide additive and especially synergetic effects. The experimental data demonstrated advantages of new technology in comparison with conventional methods in cases of treatment of extended suppurative inflammatory and profound wounds. The more detailed study of PDUST method's mechanism, which is based on low intensity of LED light, PD therapy and US influence is required.

  1. Yield, income and bromatology of ‘Chinês’ and ‘Macaquinho’ taro in response to forms of adding chicken manure to the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Antonio Heredia Zárate

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield of Taro is very variable by the unknowing of its genotype characteristics and by differences of planting practices, mainly about the use of organic residues as covering or incorporated to the soil. The aim of this work was to analyze the productivity, gross income and bromatological composition of ‘Chinês’ and ‘Macaquinho’ taro, cultivated with different forms of adding semi-decomposed chicken manure to the soil (soil without chicken manure; with chicken manure as covering; with chicken manure incorporated to the soil and with chicken manure as covering + incorporated to the soil. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized complete block design with five replications. Two harvests were performed at 183 and 211 days after transplanting. There was no difference for most of the characteristics evaluated under addiction of chicken manure. Yields of commercial cormels from Macaquinho were higher than Chinês, which can be seen as positive feature for higher gross income. Plants of ‘Macaquinho’ taro were precocious and more productive than ‘Chinês’ taro. To obtain higher gross income, ‘Macaquinho’ taro must be cultivated with adding chicken manure to the soil as covering (5 t ha-1 + incorporated to the soil (5 t ha-1 and harvested 183 days after planting. Bromatological analysis showed that corms and cormels of ‘Chinês’ taro were more nutritious than ‘Macaquinho’ taro when grown without chicken manure.

  2. Life-span studies in 226Ra-injected animals: Effect of low doses, effect of a decorporative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A life-span radiation effects study was performed in mice injected with several doses of 226Ra. The study included 788 male C57Bl mice. For the removal of the 226Ra, half the mice were treated daily with a diet 5% of which was sodium-alginate. The experiment revealed that mice that received the lowest dose of 226Ra lived significantly longer than controls, and, despite appreciable skeletal removal of 226Ra as a result of decorporative treatment, no biological benefit was observed in treated animals. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Vulnerability of shallow ground water and drinking-water wells to nitrate in the United States: Model of predicted nitrate concentration in shallow, recently recharged ground water -- Input data set for confined manure (gwava-s_conf)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the average annual nitrogen input from confined animal manure, 1992 and 1997, in kilograms per hectare, in the conterminous United States....

  4. Animal experiments and clinical application of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Liu; Wei Liu; Baiyu Zhou; Jing Wang; Bing Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The olfactory epithelium can still generate new neurons after arresting its growth and development in the human body. Axons can still be generated and pass through peripheral tissue to reach the olfactory bulb. Thus, olfactory cells have been widely used in the repair of spinal cord injury.OBJECTIVE: Using animal experiments in conjunction with a clinical study of olfactory ensheathing cells, this paper was designed to clarify the function and application prospects of olfactory ensheathing cells, as well as the existing problems with their application. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: Using the terms "olfactory ensheathing cells, spinal cord injury", we retrieved manuscripts published from January 1990 to June 2007. The languages were limited to English and Chinese. Inclusion criteria: studies addressing the characteristics, basic study, clinical application and prospects of olfactory ensheathing cells; studies that were recently published or were published in high-impact journals. Exclusion criteria: repetitive studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION: The included 29 manuscripts were primarily clinical or basic experimental studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Following spinal cord injury, spinal neurons die, neurotrophic factors are lacking, and the existing glial scar and cavities hinder axonal growth. One method to repair spinal cord injury is to interfere with the above-mentioned factors based on animal experiments. Myelination and axonal regeneration are the keys to spinal cord injury therapy. Olfactory ensheathing cells can secrete several neurotrophic factors, inhibit horizontal cell reactions, have noticeable neuroprotective effects, and possess a very strong reproductive activity, so they have many advantages in the fields of cell transplantation and gene therapy. However, there still exist many questions and uncertainties, such as the best time window and dose, as well as complications of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation; precise mechanism of action after olfactory

  5. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  6. Gene therapy by electroporation for the treatment of chronic renal failure in companion animals

    OpenAIRE

    Pope Melissa A; Bodles-Brakhop Angela M; Brown Patricia A; Draghia-Akli Ruxandra

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plasmid-based therapy for the treatment of chronic renal failure and its complications was examined. Companion dogs (13.1 ± 0.8 years, 29.4 ± 5.01 kg) and cats (13.2 ± 0.9 years, 8.5 ± 0.37 kg) received a single 0.4 mg or 0.1 mg species-specific plasmid injection, respectively, intramuscularly followed by electroporation, and analyzed up to 75 days post-treatment; controls underwent electroporation without plasmid administration. Res...

  7. Contribution of customised dosimetry for small animal to the treatments of cancers by metabolic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis first reports a bibliographical study which addressed the use of ionizing radiations in cancer therapy (evolution from ionizing radiation to metabolic radiotherapy, biological and physical parameters, and absorbed dose in metabolic radiotherapy) and the role imagery has in customised dosimetry (absorbed dose calculation methods, determination of cumulative activity, dosimetric models for S factor calculation). Then, the author presents a software which has been specifically developed for the creation of dosimetric models, and reports its validation. He reports the comparison between different dosimetric models in the case of mice. He highlights two applications of the developed tool: radio-immunotherapy and metabolic radiotherapy. He finally proposes a general discussion on the impact of small animal dosimetry on metabolic radiotherapy

  8. Effect of Organic Manures on the Yield and Quality of True Seeds of Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. A. Mollah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was stimulated by the problem of onion seed production where seed production is possibly only winter period after which rapid increase in temperature as well as early shower adversely affect the quality of seed. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications to determine optimum doses of manures and fertilizers for maximizing quality true seeds of onion. Six treatments viz. T1= Only inorganic fertilizer recommended by Spices Research Centre (SRC, T2 = T1 + Cowdung manure 7.5 t/ha, T3= T1 + Poultry manure 5 t/ha, T4= T1 + Mustard oil cake 5 t/ha, T5= T1 + Dhaincha 5 t/ha and T6= Control (No manures and fertilizer applicationwere consisted to achieve the objective. The research work was done at On-Farm Research Division, BARI, Bogra during September, 2010 to June, 2011. The results revealed that the growth parameters, seed yield components, health and quality of harvested seeds were significantly influenced by the different treatments. Results showed that among different treatments, inorganic fertilizer Urea, TSP, MoP, Gypsum, Zinc oxide and Boric acid @ 250, 275, 150, 110, 3 and 5 kg/ha, respectively along with Cowdung 7.5 t/ha was the best for true seed production of onion at Bogra region in Bangladesh.

  9. Levothyroxine treatment generates an abnormal uterine contractility patterns in an in vitro animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Corriveau, MSc

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Our data suggest that changes in myometrial reactivity are induced by T4 treatment. Thus, in conjunction with our previous observations on human myometrial strips, management of hypothyroidism should be improved to reduce the rate of C-sections in this group of patients.

  10. Biodegradation of pig manure by the housefly, Musca domestica: a viable ecological strategy for pig manure management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Čičková

    Full Text Available The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500-700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4-1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178-444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust. Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6-11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9-74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18-0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed.

  11. Chemical characterization of manure in relation to manure quality as a contribution to a reduced nitrogen emission to the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:manure composition, ammonia volatilization, free ions, Donnan Membrane Technique, manure additives, dietary changes, nitrogen dynamics,grasslandsoils.More insight in manure composition, ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilizatio

  12. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Infascelli; Salvatore Faugno; Stefania Pindozzi; Raffaele Pelorosso; Lorenzo Boccia

    2010-01-01

    Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha), livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European D...

  13. Intensive pig production and manure management in Beijing, North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Huaitalla, Roxana

    2014-01-01

    China, at the forefront of the livestock revolution, has experienced a more industrialized change, with an increment of the large livestock farms and of the decoupling between the livestock and arable land. Meat production in China is dominated by pork, which comprises approximately 50% of worldwide pig production. The description of the pig husbandry and manure management systems in the large animal operations of the NCP is not widely available. In order to describe the status quo o...

  14. Oxygen Distribution and Potential Ammonia Oxidation in Floating, Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    Floating, organic crusts on liquid manure, stored as a result of animal production, reduce emission of ammonia (NH3) and other volatile compounds during storage. The occurrence of NO2- and NO3- in the crusts indicate the presence of actively metabolizing NH3 oxidizing bacteria (AOB) which may...... varied from nitrifying activity could only be detected in old natural crusts and young straw crust with high O2...

  15. Evaluation of muscle regeneration in aged animals after treatment with low-level laser therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pertille

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aging process and its associated morphophysiological changes trigger a reduction in the regenerative ability of the satellite cells, a reduction of vascular tissue and an increase in the production of fibroblasts, developing a cellular environment unfavorable for muscle regeneration. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on the muscle regeneration of old experimental rat models after contusion. METHOD: A total of 25 old rats,18 months old, were divided into three groups: control group (CT without treatment; injury group (IN with muscle contusion and without treatment and laser group (LA with contusion and low-level laser therapy, 830 nm, 30 mW e 4 J/cm². The no invasive contusion was induced in the Tibialis Anterior muscle and the samples were collected after 7 and 21 treatment sessions. The muscle was evaluated by Light Microscopy and Immunoblotting. RESULTS: After 21 days of treatment there was a significant reduction in the areas of inflammation/regeneration of the LA 21 group compared to IN 21 group. The cross-sectional area of the fibers in regeneration was not statistically different between the groups. Molecular analysis showed that the content of MyoD was statistically reduced in the IN 21 group compared to the CT group. The Myogenin content was increased in the IN 21 group compared to the CT group. Ultimately, the content of TGF-β1 on the IN 21 group was higher when compared to the CT group. CONCLUSION: Considering the parameters used, the laser therapy demonstrated to be effective for muscle regeneration in old rats, however only through its anti-inflammatory effect.

  16. Recent developments in chemical treatment of roughages and their relevance to animal production in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research in developed regions, at laboratory level, has investigated acids, amines and the oxidizing agents sulphur dioxide, ozone and alkaline hydrogen peroxide as reagents for upgrading roughages. In vivo experiments with sheep show improvements in digestibility from treating with 40 g SO2 per kg wheat straw DM for 3 d at 70 deg. C, comparable to responses normally gained by treating with NaOH. Alkaline H2O2 (pH11.5) treatment in one study increased wheat straw DM digestibility in sheep fed ad libitum, from 467 to 659 g/kg. However this treatment used large inputs (260 g H2O2 and 180 g NaOH/kg straw DM in 26 L solution for 16 h, followed by drying); subsequent studies showed possible input reductions. The techniques are not relevant for use in developing countries except possibly at centralized processing plants, but greater commercial viability will need to be demonstrated before then. The NaOH dip method is the most effective current, low technology upgrading technique and is capable of further development to produce treated roughage of improved digestibility and optimum content of N and required minerals. There are no major new developments in urea ammonia treatment. The recent 'AGRI-AM' method produces NH3 by hydrating a mixture of CaO and (NH4)2SO4 fertilizers, but the method requires much chemical input. 'Ensiling' barley straw for 60 d with 60 g Ca(OH)2 and 30 g urea per kg straw DM improves intake and digestibility in sheep, with little loss of N from the system. This is due to reduced urea hydrolysis caused by high pH. Other research shows that the quantity of straw needing to be treated can be halved by allowing goats (or sheep) to 'graze' untreated straw (to allow 50% refusals) followed by treatment and refeeding. 92 refs, 11 tabs

  17. Phytic acid as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's pathology: evidence from animal and in vitro models

    OpenAIRE

    Thimmappa S. Anekonda; Wadsworth, Teri L.; Sabin, Robert; Frahler, Kate; Harris, Christopher; Petriko, Babett; Ralle, Martina; Woltjer, Randy; Joseph F. Quinn

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes progressive age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunctions leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid beta pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model. In MC65 cells, 48–7...

  18. CO2 laser surface treatment of failed dental implants for re-implantation: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Torkzaban, Parviz; Shams, Bahar; Hosseinipanah, Seyed Mohammad; Farhadian, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the success rate of failed implants re-implanted after surface treatment with CO2 laser. Despite the widespread use of dental implants, there are many incidents of failures. It is believed that lasers can be applied to decontaminate the implant surface without damaging the implant. Ten dental implants that had failed for various reasons other than fracture or surface abrasion were subjected to CO2 laser surface treatment and randomly placed in the maxillae of dogs. Three failed implants were also placed as the negative controls after irrigation with saline solution without laser surface treatment. The stability of the implants was evaluated by the use of the Periotest values (PTVs) on the first day after surgery and at 1, 3, and 6 months post-operatively. The mean PTVs of treated implants increased at the first month interval, indicating a decrease in implant stability due to inflammation followed by healing of the tissue. At 3 and 6 months, the mean PTVs decreased compared to the 1-month interval (P implant stability. The mean PTVs increased in the negative control group compared to baseline (P implants were significantly lower than control group at 3 and 6 months after implant placement (P implantation of failed implants in Jack Russell Terrier dogs after CO2 laser surface debridement is associated with a high success rate in terms of implant stability. PMID:27126410

  19. Seasonal Variation on Microbial Community and Methane Production during Anaerobic Digestion of Cattle Manure in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Arcuri, Pedro Braga; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Otenio, Marcelo Henrique; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2016-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an alternative method for the treatment of animal manure and wastewater. The anaerobic bioconversion of biomass requires a multi-step biological process, including microorganisms with distinct roles. The diversity and composition of microbial structure in pilot-scale anaerobic digestion operating at ambient temperature in Brazil were studied. Influence of the seasonal and temporal patterns on bacterial and archaeal communities were assessed by studying the variations in density, dynamic and diversity and structure. The average daily biogas produced in the summer and winter months was 18.7 and 16 L day(-1), respectively, and there was no difference in the average methane yield. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that no differences in abundances and dynamics were found for bacterial communities and the total number of Archaea in different seasons. Analysis of bacterial clone libraries revealed a predominance of Firmicutes (54.5 %/summer and 46.7 %/winter) and Bacteroidetes (31.4 %/summer and 44.4 %/winter). Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota was predominant in both digesters. Phylogenetic distribution showed changes in percentage between the phyla identified, but no alterations were recorded in the quality and amount of produced methane or community dynamics. The results may suggest that redundancy of microbial groups may have occurred, pointing to a more complex microbial community in the ecosystem related to this ambient temperature system.

  20. Effect of radioactivity on stent-graft incorporation after endovascular treatment of aneurysms: An animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerouge, Sophie; Raymond, Jean; Schloesser, Klaus; Gaboury, Louis; Soulez, Gilles

    2006-12-01

    Poor stent-graft (SG) incorporation into the vessel wall, following endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR), can lead to endoleaks and SG migration. Low-dose radiation can prevent aneurysm recurrence after coil embolization, and has been associated with a "paradoxical" increase in neointima formation after stenting in a few studies. It was hypothesized that in situ beta radiation emitted from SG could improve its incorporation by preventing the persistence of circulating channels between the implant and the vessel wall and increasing neointima formation around the SG. Phosphorus 32 ((32)P, 200 or 400 kBq per SG (n = 6 each)) was ion implanted on the external surface of balloon-expandable SGs. Twelve radioactive and six non-radioactive SGs were deployed in iliac arteries of nine Mongrel dogs. Neointima formation inside the graft and the persistence of circulating flow through an artificial groove created during the endovascular procedure were assessed by follow-up imaging and by blinded, computerized histomorphometric analysis after animal sacrifice at 3 months. Occlusion occurred in four radioactive SGs. A lesser number of patent grooves was observed along high-activity SGs than along control SGs (1/3 versus 4/4). No difference in neointima formation was observed in radioactive and non-radioactive SGs. Alteration of external graft surface was observed after ion implantation. Ion implantation of (32)P on SGs does not seem to be a viable strategy to improve incorporation and prevent type-I endoleak after EVAR.