WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal manure treatment

  1. Environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...

  2. Vermicomposting of sludge from animal wastewater treatment plant mixed with cow dung or swine manure using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Weibing; Hao, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Xuewei; Bai, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Vermicomposting of animal wastewater treatment plant sludge (S) mixed with cow dung (CD) or swine manure (SM) employing Eisenia fetida was tested. The numbers, weights, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored for 60 days at a detecting interval of 15 days. The results indicated that 100 % of the sludge can be the suitable food for growth and fecundity of E. fetida, while addition of CD or SM in sludge significantly (P theory basic both for management of animal wastes and the production of earthworm proteins using E. fetida. PMID:26755173

  3. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  4. Overview of the advances in environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing environmental concern over animal manure due to the volumes produced in modern intensified animal production. However, animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. Although research on environmental impacts of animal manure and associated...

  5. Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement. Radiation treatment for disinfection of manure have been investigated on manure collected during the dry and rainy seasons. Total bacterial counts of non-irradiated dewatered manure with water content of around 13.44% were found to be 1.0x106 up to 1.4x108 per g during the dry season, and 2.0x105 up to 1.7x107 per g during the rainy season, while coliforms, enterobecteriacease, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pseudomonas were found to be 1.0x106 up to 1.4x108 per g, 1.0x104 up to 1.2x106 per g, 4.0x105 up to 2.2x107 per g, 1.8x103 per g, and 1.0x102 up to 5.4x103 per g, respectively. About 30% of the total coliforms were found to be escherichia coli. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy eliminated salmonella from all samples observed. No. Shigella Vibrio, and parasites were detected in the samples. Total nitrogen of the dewatered manure ranged between 1.87 and 2.33%, phosphorus between 1.25 and 4.38%, and potassium between 0.66 and 2.18%. Heavy metal elements were found only in very small amounts, hence the dewatered manure could be applied as animal feed or soil conditioner. A combination of irradiation at 4 kGy and storage for 3 months was synergistically effective to eliminate coliform, E. coli, and salmonella in the dewatered manure. From nutritional point of view, the manure is still acceptable for animal feed supplement. (author). 13 refs

  6. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  7. Phosphorus reclamation through hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Steven M; Molde, Joseph S; Timler, Jacobe G; Wood, Brandon M; Mikula, Anthony L; Vozhdayev, Georgiy V; Colosky, Edward C; Spokas, Kurt A; Valentas, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    Projected shortages of global phosphate have prompted investigation of methods that could be employed to capture and recycle phosphate, rather than continue to allow the resource to be essentially irreversibly lost through dilution in surface waters. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures from large farms was investigated as a scenario for the reclamation of phosphate for agricultural use and mitigation of the negative environmental impact of phosphate pollution. Hydrothermal reaction conditions were identified for poultry, swine, and cattle manures that resulted in hydrochar yields of 50-60% for all three manures, and >90% of the total phosphorus present in these systems was contained in the hydrochars as precipitated phosphate salts. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 80-90% by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 81-87% based on starting manures by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Swine and cattle manures produced hydrochars with combustion energy contents comparable to those of high-end sub-bituminous coals. PMID:25111737

  8. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  9. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    .  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk for......  The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production...... transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  10. [Anaerobic digestion of animal manure contaminated by tetracyclines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zi-Lin; Liu, Yuan-Lu; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yuan, Shou-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion of pig manure spiked with tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) and the degradation of the two antibiotics during the anaerobic digestion at 35 degrees C were investigated. The results indicate that propionate was the main volatile fatty acid produced during the anaerobic digestion followed by acetate. Compared with the CTC addition, TC + CTC addition showed obvious inhibitory effect on the hydrolysis and acidification of easily digestible organic components of pig manure. The cumulative methane production of TC, CTC, TC + CTC and CK2 during anaerobic digestion was 386.4 mL, 406.0 mL, 412.1 mL and 464.6 mL, respectively. Degradation of TC and CTC followed the first-order kinetic equation. The half-life of TC and CTC was 14-18 days and 10 days, respectively. After the treatment of 45-day anaerobic digestion, the degradation efficiency of TC was 88.6%-91.6% with 97.7%-98.2% of CTC. Therefore, anaerobic digestion shows the benefit on the management of animal manures contaminated by tetracyclines. PMID:22624404

  11. Ecosustainable animal manure treatment in countries with intensive breeding; Trattamento ecocompatibile delle deiezioni zootecniche in territori ad alta intensita' produttiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M. [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Bozzini, A. [Food Agricultural Organization, Rome (Italy); Montani, R. [INTEAM Srl., Verona (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In the Italian Veneto Region, a highly industrialized territory, the present intensive livestock farming (cattle, swine, chicken and rabbit) causes a series of serious problems to agricultural and industrial activities. In fact, if the raw (not digested) manure is directly spread on the soil, it leads to soil acidification and contamination, to possible water table contamination, to the diffusion of livestock and human infections and consequent damages to all production and commercialization chain and finally to all society. The organic amount coming from the livestock farms located in each of the 22 sanitary districts of the Veneto region (ASL) is calculated and the suitable manure treatment processes to obtain an organic fertilizer following the Italian and E.U. environmental regulations, is reported. The solid-liquid separation step, performed with traditional technologies (centrifuge, mechanical separation) can lead to a rational solution of the problem: the solid part is digested in special bioreactors and the liquid one is purified with membrane technologies. The paper suggests a strategic pathway for a sustainable manure management, based on a package of the following devices: the improvement of the hygiene in the buildings; the improvement with innovative and flexible technologies. In this way, the production of a precious and necessary organic manure for soil and agriculture development, coupled with an improvement of human and animal health, could be assured. [Italian] Nella regione Veneto, l'intensa attivita' zootecnica dovuta ad allevamenti di bovini, suini, avicoli e cunicoli, in un territorio particolarmente industrializzato crea complessi problemi di gestione delle deiezioni con preoccupanti ricadute sull'ambiente, sull'agricoltura e sulla salute dei cittadini. Lo spargimento fuori controllo delle deiezioni causa l'acidificazione e la sterilizzazione dei suoli, la contaminazione delle falde acquifere e la diffusione di

  12. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P. [Resource Development Associates, Marietta, GA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  13. Comparison of sampling methods for animal manure

    OpenAIRE

    Derikx, P. J. L.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Hoeksma, P.

    1997-01-01

    Currently available and recently developed sampling methods for slurry and solid manure were tested for bias and reproducibility in the determination of total phosphorus and nitrogen content of samples. Sampling methods were based on techniques in which samples were taken either during loading from the hose or from the transport vehicle after loading. Most methods were unbiased. New sampling methods for slurry from the hose were substantially more reproducible than existing methods. For pract...

  14. Applied manure research—looking forward to the benign roles of animal manure in agriculture and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    By definition, animal manure is discarded animal excreta and bedding materials usually applied to soils as a fertilizer for agricultural production. However, the impact of manure generation and disposal is far more than the role of organic fertilizers, even though the fertilizer function of animal m...

  15. DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE FOR USE AS ANIMAL FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure have become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by drying. Dried manure can be utilized as a feed for ruminants because of its high nitrogen content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drying temperature and depth, as well as the nutritional profile of dried manure and its suitability as an animal feed. Dried poultry manure contained sufficient levels of digestible energy, crude fiber, crude protein, crude fat, cobalt and iodine. Although dried poultry manure did not meet the dietary requirements for calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, sulfur or zinc it could be used as a feed stuff for ruminants after supplementation with the required nutrients. Heated air drying was most efficient at 60°C and at a depth of 3 cm. During drying poultry manure decreased in pH (8.4-6.9, protein content (43 to 39-43% and amino acid content. The greatest reductions in microbial population occurred at the highest temperature (60°C and the lowest manure depth (1cm. Reductions in the number of bacteria, mold/yeast and E. coli were 65-99, 74-99 and 99.97% respectively, Salmonellae was not detected in the dried product. Dried poultry manure was found to have a non-offensive odor. Odor intensity and offensiveness were reduced by 65 and 69% respectively during drying. Thin layer heated air drying of poultry manure between 40 and 60°C created a safe and nutritionally appropriate feed for ruminants.

  16. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) catch crop (with and without), and 2) manure (with and without). The four-course crop rotation was spring barley undersown with grass/clov...

  17. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental...... model-estimated benefit of increasing N input in grass-clover from 100 to 500 kg N ha-1 varied from 0.8 to 2.0 Mg DM ha-1 between locations. This is a considerably smaller yield increase than obtained for manure application, and it suggests that the productivity in this system may be improved by...

  18. Methane emissions during storage of different treatments from cattle manure in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Wang; Chiqing Duan; Yaqin Ji; Yichao Sun

    2010-01-01

    Many studies on methane emissions from animal manure have revealed that animal manure is a major source of methane emissions to the atmosphere that can have negative consequences for people,animals and environment.In general,the release of methane can be influenced by the type of feed taken by animals,temperature,manure characteristics and so on.This study aimed at quantifying and comparing methane release from dairy manure with different piling treatments.Four treatments were designed including manure piling height 30,45,60 cm and adding 6 cm manure every day until the piling height was 60 cm.Static chamber method and gas chromatography were adopted to measure the methane emissions from April to June in 2009.Methane emission rates of all four manure treatments were low in the first week and then increased sharply until reaching the peak values.Subsequently,all the methane emission rates decreased and fluctuated within the steady range till the end of the experiment.Wilcoxon nonparametric tests analysis indicated that methane emission rate was greatly influenced by manure piling height and manner.There were no significant relationships between methane emission rates and the temperatures of ambience and heap.However,regression analysis showed that the quadratic equations were found between emission rates of all treatments and the gas temperature in the barrels.

  19. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs. PMID:26197426

  20. Nutrient and Bacterial Transport From Agricultural Lands Fertlized With Different Animal Manures

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Anurag

    2003-01-01

    The increase of animal agriculture coupled with excess manure production, and the reduced availability of land has led to the over application of animal manure on agricultural fields. The excessive application of manure is responsible for nutrient and bacterial pollution of downstream waterbodies. Manure application based on the crop phosphorus (P) requirements has been recommended as a viable method to reduce nutrient pollution. A plot scale study was conducted to measure the loss of nutrien...

  1. The economics of energy from animal manure for greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the economic feasibility of using anaerobic digestion to produce biogas for the purpose of generating electricity. Centralized plants in 2 settings in Alberta were evaluated, notably a mixed farming area in Red Deer County and an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots in Lethbridge County. The cost of producing power at a centralized plant drawing manure from 61 sources in the mixed farming area was shown to be nearly double the cost of producing power at a centralized plant drawing manure from 560,000 beef cattle in Lethbridge County. Digestate processing shifts the balance in favour of centralized processing. At larger scales, pipelines could be used to transport manure to a centralized plant and return the processed digestate back to the manure source for spreading. Pipeline transport is more economic than truck transport in cases where manure is produced by more than 90,000 animals. Pipeline transport of digestate is more economic when manure from more than 21,000 beef cattle is available and two-way pipelining of manure plus digestate is more economic when manure from more than 29,000 beef cattle is available. The value of carbon credits needed to make AD profitable in a mixed farming region was calculated based on an analysis of manure and digestate transport and processing costs. Carbon emission reductions from power generation were calculated for displacement of power from coal and natural gas. The carbon credit needed to cover the cost of AD processing of manure is greater than $150 per tonne of carbon dioxide, indicating that AD treatment of manure from mixed farming areas is not economic given current values of carbon credits. It was concluded that power generated from biogas has a high cost compared to current power prices and the cost of power from other large scale renewable sources. As such, factors other than energy value, such as phosphate, pathogen or odour control would have to be considered in order to justify power

  2. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Infascelli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies and incentives aimed at controlling the amount of nitrate entering downstream water systems. The province of Caserta in southern Italy is characterized by high levels of animal manure loading. A comparison between manure nitrogen production and nitrate concentration in groundwater was carried out in this area, using geostatistical tools and spatial statistics. The results show a discrepancy between modelling of nitrate leaching and monitoring of the groundwater and, moreover, no spatial correlation between nitrogen production in livestock farms and nitrate concentration in groundwater, suggesting that producers are not following the regulatory procedures for the agronomic use of manure. The methodology developed in this paper could be applied also in other regions in which European Union fertilization plans are not adequately followed.

  3. Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organizing and managing the whole manure handling chain from the animal house through transport to the point of use (e.g. in the field) is a challenging task requiring consideration of manure type and operating conditions. Solid and liquid manure must be handled differently, using very different tec...

  4. Combustible gas and biochar production from co-pyrolysis of agricultural plastic wastes and animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers report that manure-derived biochar has considerable potential both for improving soil quality and reducing water pollution. One of obstacles in obtaining manure biochar is its high energy requirement for pyrolyzing wet and low-energy-density animal manures. The combustible gas produced f...

  5. Effect of Compost versus Animal Manure Fertilization on Crop Development, Yield and Nitrogen Residue in the Organic Cultivation of Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Willekens, Koen; De Vliegher, Alex; Vandecasteele, Bart; Carlier, Lucien

    2008-01-01

    Organic farmers in Flanders use manure from extensive conventional livestock systems due to a lack of animal manure from organic producers. The research question was if on-farm prepared compost mainly consisting of vegetal residues can be a good alternative. A long-term fertilization trial with a 4-year crop rotation of maize - potatoes - spring barley - red clover is carried out on two fields with a time difference of one year. The fertilization treatments are on-farm prepared compost, appli...

  6. From animals to crops : environmental consequences of current and future strategies for manure management

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, N.

    2014-01-01

    Animal manure is a key component that links crop and livestock production as it contains valuable nutrients for the soil and crop. Manure is also a source of environmental pollution through losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and losses of carbon (C). These losses are largely determined by the way manure is managed. Technologies to reduce nutrient and C losses from manure mainly focused on reducing a single emission while unwillingly increasing another emission at th...

  7. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Agyarko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM, cattle manure (CM and pig manure (PG on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11 treatments which were: Control (soil only; 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. Available phosphorus and other parameters were assessed using standard methods. Results were statistically analyzed using the the GenStat (11th Edition statistical software package. The amount and type of animal manure in the amendment affected the amount of the available P released. The addition of 2.5g manure to 2.5g RP in a kg of soil significantly (P<0.05 increased available P by 4 to 7 times over the sole 2.5g RP/kg soil treatment. Doubling the amount of manure in the amendment (5g manure + 2.5g RP almost doubled the amount of P released, with the poultry manure combinations being more significant. The amount of available P in the soil positively related to the plant height (R2=63, leaf area (R2=0.55, dry weight (R2=0.73 and the percentage P in the leaf (R2=0.88 of lettuce. The PM at 2.5gRP + 5gPM recorded the highest significant (P<0.05 values. The study has provided further basis for manure selection and quantities to be used in enhancing the release of P from rock phosphate. However, investigations need to be continued using nuclear techniques.

  8. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  9. Effect of Composting on Dissolved Organic Matter in Animal Manure and Its Binding with Cu

    OpenAIRE

    Fengsong Zhang; Yanxia Li; Xiong Xiong; Ming Yang; Wei Li

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural application of raw animal manure introduces large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into soil and would increase transport of heavy metals such as Cu which are widely present in animal manure. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the evolution of DOM from pig and cattle manures during composting through excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the binding ability of DOM toward copper (Cu) ions with the aid of fluorescence quenching titrat...

  10. Speciation and transformation of heavy metals during vermicomposting of animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of vermicomposting on the speciation and mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, and Cu) in cattle dung (CD) and pig manure (PM) using tessier sequential extraction method. Results showed that the pH, total organic carbon and C/N ratio were reduced, while the electric conductivity and humic acid increased after 90days vermicomposting. Moreover, the addition of earthworm could accelerate organic stabilization in vermicomposting. The total heavy metals in final vermicompost from CD and PM were higher than the initial values and the control without worms. Sequential extraction indicated that vermicomposting decreased the migration and availability of heavy metals, and the earthworm could reduce the mobile fraction, while increase the stable fraction of heavy metals. Furthermore, these results indicated that vermicomposting played a positive role in stabilizing heavy metals in the treatment of animal manure. PMID:26976060

  11. Assessing the effect of different treatments on decomposition rate of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Tariq M; Higgins, Stewart S; Ndegwa, Pius M; Frear, Craig S; Stöckle, Claudio O

    2016-11-01

    Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) contribute to greenhouse gas emission, but the magnitude of these emissions as a function of operation size, infrastructure, and manure management are difficult to assess. Modeling is a viable option to estimate gaseous emission and nutrient flows from CAFOs. These models use a decomposition rate constant for carbon mineralization. However, this constant is usually determined assuming a homogenous mix of manure, ignoring the effects of emerging manure treatments. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the decomposition rate constants of dairy manure in single and three-pool decomposition models, and to develop an empirical model based on chemical composition of manure for prediction of a decomposition rate constant. Decomposition rate constants of manure before and after an anaerobic digester (AD), following coarse fiber separation, and fine solids removal were determined under anaerobic conditions for single and three-pool decomposition models. The decomposition rates of treated manure effluents differed significantly from untreated manure for both single and three-pool decomposition models. In the single-pool decomposition model, AD effluent containing only suspended solids had a relatively high decomposition rate of 0.060 d(-1), while liquid with coarse fiber and fine solids removed had the lowest rate of 0.013 d(-1). In the three-pool decomposition model, fast and slow decomposition rate constants (0.25 d(-1) and 0.016 d(-1) respectively) of untreated AD influent were also significantly different from treated manure fractions. A regression model to predict the decomposition rate of treated dairy manure fitted well (R(2) = 0.83) to observed data. PMID:27479239

  12. DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE FOR USE AS ANIMAL FEED

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Ghaly; K. N. MacDonald

    2012-01-01

    The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure have become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by...

  13. Manure Storage, Process Improvement for Animal Feeding Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, John; Smith, Dallen

    2004-01-01

    The capability to store manure reduces or eliminates the need to collect, remove, and spread manure on a daily basis. In past years, when liv estock operations were smaller, daily hauling or very short-term storage with frequent hauling was a common and manageable system. However, as operations increased in size, and manure management systems evolved from solid/semisolid systems to liquid systems, the need for storage became more pronounced.

  14. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms ''certification of the links within the chain''. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is ''certification''. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from ''waste'', is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  15. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkuyten, J.C.A.M. [European Manure Association, EMA, Deventer (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms `certification of the links within the chain`. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is `certification`. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from `waste`, is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  16. Improving the sustainability of animal agriculture by treating manure with alum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two of the biggest environmental problems associated with animal manure management are ammonia emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff. Research conducted during the past two decades has shown that a simple topical application of aluminum sulfate (alum) to manure can greatly reduce the magnitude of bot...

  17. From animals to crops : environmental consequences of current and future strategies for manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Animal manure is a key component that links crop and livestock production as it contains valuable nutrients for the soil and crop. Manure is also a source of environmental pollution through losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and losses of carbon (C). These losses are large

  18. Cow Manure Composting by Microbial Treatment for Using as Potting Material: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwaneen, Waleed S

    2016-01-01

    Dairy industry is flourishing in Saudi Arabia for the last two decades producing milk and milk products to meet the population needs. Simultaneously, it is also producing large amount of dairy waste (animal manure) posing a serious environmental issues. Vermicomposting (conversion of animal manure into compost by bacterial treatments) is considered as one of the safest means for efficient management and to mitigate environmental pollution issues resulting from land disposal of raw dairy wastes. The main objective of this studywas to summarize different processes of vermicomposting and identified the most important bacteria species suitable for vermicomposting using animal manure especially the cowdung. The review showed that among the different bacteria species, Eisenia fetida is the most efficient and commonly used bacteria for vermicomposting to develop compost using cow dung (dairy manure). Overall,this review has highlighted the various vermicomposting technologies, various bacteria species involved in vermicomposting, effect on soil and plant growth as well as the benefits of using compost prepared by way of vermicomposting. The study showed a lot of potential for the production of compost by vermicomposting technology using appropriate bacteria species which is safe, friendly and is associated with minimum environmental issues for safe land disposal of dairy waste (animal manure) with minimum possible environmental issues for the adjacent population. PMID:26930795

  19. ANIMAL MANURE – REDUCED QUALITY BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun;

    2014-01-01

    caused the death of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms shortly after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. So far, we have observed only small differences in the effects of digested and undigested manure...

  20. Treatment technologies for ammonia in liquid manure: nitrification/denitrification and anammox based deammonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological treatment is regarded as the most efficient and economically feasible method available for removal of ammonia from wastewater. Its use for animal wastewater required development of new systems and methods that could handle the higher-strength characteristics of liquid manure. The discover...

  1. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Thanh Xuan;

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens...... in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h−1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of...... incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and...

  2. Availability of P and K in ash from thermal gasification of animal manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubaek, G.H.; Soerensen, Peter [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agroecology, Tjele (Denmark); Stoholm, P. [Danish Fluid Bed Technology (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    In areas like Denmark where the livestock density is regulated on the basis of manure N content, surplus phosphorus is becoming a key environmental problem, which has to be solved in order to avoid increasing P losses to surface waters in the future. Combustion of animal manure or its solid fraction and the subsequent export of the ash to nutrient-poor areas could be a solution. However, combustion is difficult due to fouling and corrosion problems, and the ash will only be marketable if the fertiliser value of the remaining P and K is acceptable and if the content of contaminants (heavy metals) is sufficiently low. A combined fast pyrolysis and char gasification technique for treatment of biomass has been developed where organic material such as manure is processed in a fluidised bed reactor at temperatures and around 700 deg. C. After simple separation of a fine textured ash, the cleaned gas is suitable for combustion in a separate unit for energy production. One advantage of this technique is that the temperature can be finely controlled, and temperatures exceeding the melting point of e.g. potassium chloride can be avoided. The low and well-controlled temperature probably also prevents severe reductions in the availability of nutrients in the ash. However, the availability of P and K in the ash remains to be thoroughly tested. (au)

  3. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    on human health and ecosystem health. Thus, alternative technologies for recycling manure and utilising it as a nutrient source for crop production, while minimising the environmental costs, are important for the sustainability of the livestock and poultry sectors. Composting of animal manure and other......, but information on its effect on GHG emissions, especially nitrous oxide (N2O), is still limited. This thesis investigated the main processes and factors affecting the physicochemical composition of the compost and emissions of GHG and NH3 during composting of animal manure and other organic waste products......, within the range of flow rates and composting mixtures tested. This indicates that temperature is an important factor influencing GHG emissions during composting. Composting of nitrogen-rich manure materials with carbon-rich bulking agents proved to be an effective means of conserving nitrogen in manures...

  4. Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Renčo, M.; Kováčik, P.

    2012-01-01

    In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreas...

  5. 黑水虻对畜禽废弃物治理的研究进展%Development of Animal Manure Treatment by Black Soldier Fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘韶娜; 赵智勇

    2016-01-01

    Black soldier fly (Hermtia illm L.) is a kind of wide spread insect. The larve is live on animal waste, animal carcass,decomposed organic matter and so on.It can be used for organic waste management which can reduce environmental pollution . The dry larve is 42%~43% of its whole weight , which contained 42%~44%protein,31%~35% fat,and essitial amino-acid.It can be used as an animal feed which larve can produced antibacterial peptide and biodiesel.%黑水虻(Hermitia illm L.)是一种广泛分布的昆虫,幼虫取食动物尸体粪便、腐烂有机物等,能被用作有机废弃物的无害化处理,减少了环境污染。幼虫虫体干物质达42%~43%,粗蛋白质占干重的42%~44%,粗脂肪占31%~35%,含有丰富的必需氨基酸,是畜禽饲料的优质资源。

  6. Report from the working group on combustion of domestic animal manure fractions; Rapport fra arbejdsgruppen om afbraending af fraktioner af husdyrgoedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    During the past few years there has been a considerable development of new technology for treatment of domestic animal manure. The development implies that environmental problems connected with storage and use of domestic animal manure for fertilization are reduced. Through several years experiences with utilization of domestic animal manure's energy potential in biogas plants have been compiled, and the technological basis for connecting slurry separation and biogas production is present. In order to promote this development, the agricultural sector has a growing desire to be able to dispose of parts from the separated slurry through combustion, hereby using the energy content to the energy production. However, there are a number of barriers that make combustion of domestic animal manure impossible. In order to uncover existing barriers for combustion of domestic animal manure fractions the Danish Minister of food appointed an inter ministerial committee on 30 March 2005. The committee should: 1. Describe the regulations within the ministerial areas that affect combustion of domestic animal manure, and also describe the regulations that act as barriers, 2. Describe binding international agreements, directives and regulations that affect combustion of domestic animal manure and which of these that act as barriers, 3. Evaluate the potential for regulation adjustments and other actions, that might further the development of sustainable energy production in which domestic animal manure is a part, 4. Evaluate socio-economic pros and cons in the light of environmental and climatic impacts, and 5. Describe estimated governmental financial consequences of potential adjustments of regulations and other actions. (BA)

  7. Microwave treatment and struvite recovery potential of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asif; Lo, Kwang Victor; Liao, Ping Huang

    2008-05-01

    Microwave digestion of liquid dairy manure was tested for the release of nutrients, such as orthophosphates, ammonia-nitrogen, magnesium, calcium and potassium, both with and without the aid of an oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide). The orthophosphate to total phosphorus ratio of the manure increased from 21% to greater than 80% with 5 minutes of microwave treatment. More than 36% of total chemical oxygen demand (t-COD) of the manure was reduced when microwave digestion was assisted with peroxide addition. In addition, the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) distribution shifted to simpler chain acids (acetic acid in particular) with an increase in operating temperature. In the second part of the study, digested manure with increased soluble phosphate was tested for the recovery of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) at different pH. It was found that up to 90% of orthophosphate can be removed from the solution. Overall, it was concluded that the oxidizing agent-assisted microwave digestion process can be used upstream of anaerobic digestion, following which the anaerobically digested manure can be used for struvite recovery. Thus, this microwave digestion process presents the potential for enhanced efficiencies in both manure digestion and struvite recovery. PMID:18437623

  8. Response of some Citrus Rootstock Seedlings to Fertilization by the Aqueous Extract of some Irradiated Animal Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was carried out during two consecutive seasons i.e. 2001 and 2002 on two citrus rootstocks namely Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings two-month-old planted in a sandy soil under greenhouse to study the feasibility of using the aqueous extract of some animal manures i.e. poultry, sheep and cattle treated by gamma irradiation at 10 kGay to keep the manure free from pathogenic organisms, pests and weed seeds and as a natural source of nutrients instead of mineral fertilizers, and it's effect on growth and leaf nutrients content of seedlings. Generally, results showed that all the tested treatments enhanced most of growth parameters such as seedling height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves/seedling, number of roots/seedling, and dry weight for both of stem, leaves, root and total dry weight/plant. Moreover, such treatments improved leaf nutrient content of both of Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings. Meanwhile, seedlings fertilized by the aqueous extract of poultry manure achieved the highest values of growth parameters and leaf nutrients content as well as mineral fertilizer followed by those treated by the aqueous extract of both sheep and cattle manures

  9. Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steroid hormone distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Popovic, Olga; Björklund, Erland;

    2015-01-01

    When steroid hormones are emitted into the environment, they may have harmful effects on the reproduction system of aquatic life. Until now, research has primarily focused on human excretion, demonstrating that steroid hormones reach the aquatic environment due to insufficient removal in waste...... the content of steroid hormones in separated manure solid fraction. This could potentially be achieved through composting or anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the solid fraction; however, the effects of these technologies on steroid hormones need to be verified....

  10. Phosphorus Leaching in Soils Amended with Animal Manures Generated from Modified Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Gurpal S; Sims, J Thomas

    2016-07-01

    New dietary modifications for dairy (reducing P content in feed) and poultry (addition of feed additives such as phytase) aim to reduce P excretion in manures. Our objective was to investigate if dietary changes were effective at reducing P leaching loss on land application of manures. We used 54 undisturbed lysimeters (30 cm diameter, 50 cm deep) collected from three typical mid-Atlantic soils. Lysimeters received 85 kg total P ha from fertilizer (superphosphate), dairy manures generated from low- or high-P diets, or broiler litters generated from normal diet or reduced P- and phytase-amended diets. Lysimeters were irrigated with 50 mm of water each week for 9 wk. The major forms of P in the leachate were dissolved (dissolved unreactive > dissolved reactive P [DRP]) rather than particulate (total particulate P). The higher P solubility (100%) in superphosphate resulted in greater leaching of DRP, whereas the lower P solubility (superphosphate-amended than in the manure/litter-amended lysimeters. The dairy and poultry dietary modification was effective at reducing the amount of P in manures and litters. However, the application of treatments at similar P rate (85 kg ha) resulted in the addition of a higher amount of manure (54-66%) in lysimeters that received low-P dairy manure-amended and phytase-amended broiler litter, which then controlled P leaching from soils. PMID:27380088

  11. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies

  12. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena, E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Komakech, Allan John [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Agricultural & Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, Björn [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  13. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies. PMID:25728090

  14. Feeding on microbiomes: effects of detritivory on the taxonomic and phylogenetic bacterial composition of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Bybee, Seth; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Domínguez, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Earthworms play a key role in nutrient cycling by interacting with microorganisms thus accelerating organic matter turnover in soil systems. As detritivores, some earthworm types ingest and digest a mixture of dead organic matter and microorganisms, like animal manures (i.e. animal gut microbiomes). Here we described the earthworm cast microbiome and the role ingested bacteria play on its composition. We fed Eisenia andrei with cow, horse and pig manures and determined the taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of the these manures before and after passage through the earthworm gut. Earthworm cast microbiomes showed a smaller diversity than the manure they fed on. Manures strongly differed in their taxonomic and phylogenetic composition, but these differences were markedly reduced once transformed into earthworm cast microbiomes after passage through the earthworm gut. The core earthworm cast microbiome comprised 30 OTUs (2.6% of OTUs from cast samples), of which 10 are possibly native to the earthworm gut. Most of the core cast microbiome OTUs belonged to phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, as opposed to already described animal core gut microbiomes, which are composed mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that earthworms build up their cast microbiome by selecting from the pool of ingested bacteria. PMID:26432803

  15. Laboratory Study of Oxytetracycline Degradation Kinetics in Animal Manure and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a major member of tetracyclines, oxytetracycline (OTC) is widely administered to animals in confined feeding operations. To diminish the contamination of OTC in the environment resulting from the application of OTC-contained manure as fertilizers to agriculture lands, OTC degradation kinetics in ...

  16. Arsenic uptake by two vegetables grown in two soils amended with As-bearing animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li-Xian; Li, Guo-Liang; Dang, Zhi; He, Zhao-Huan; Zhou, Chang-Min; Yang, Bao-Mei

    2009-05-30

    Organoarsenicals are widely used as growth promoters in animal feed, resulting in unabsorbed arsenic (As) left in animal manures. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the growth and As uptake of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor Linn, a crop with an axial root system) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, a crop with a fibrous root system) grown in a paddy soil (PS) and a lateritic red soil (LRS) amended with 2% and 4% (w/w) As-bearing chicken manure and pig manure, respectively. Soils without any fertilizers were the controls. The biomass, As contents and total As uptake of the shoots, As transfer factors (TFs) from roots to shoots and the root/shoot (R/S) ratios of water spinach were significantly higher than those of amaranth (p<0.0015). The biomass, total As uptake and R/S ratios showed significant difference for soil types (p<0.0031). Manure amendments increased the biomass of both vegetables, reduced the As contents in amaranth but increased those in water spinach. The As contents were negatively correlated with the biomass in amaranth, but positive correlation was observed for water spinach. The total As uptake by amaranth was decreased in PS and insignificantly affected in LRS by manure application, but that by water spinach was significantly increased in both soils. We suggest that the higher As uptake by water spinach might be related to its root structure and R/S ratio. Heavy application of As-bearing animal manures should be avoided in water spinach. PMID:18929443

  17. Composting of solids separated from anaerobically digested animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulking agents (BA) and mixing ratios on greenhouse gas (GHG) and NH3 emissions from composting digested solids (DS), separated from anaerobically digested manure and other bio-wastes, in small-scale laboratory composters. BA evaluated were plastic tube pieces (PT...... emissions occurred during the thermophilic temperature phase, which had little or no effect on N2O emissions. BS addition to DS resulted in the lowest cumulative NH3-N and N2O-N losses. BC was as effective as BS in reducing cumulative NH3-N losses, but had non-significant effect on CH4-C emissions....... Decreasing the mixing ratio from 6:1 to 3:1 reduced losses of CH4-C and N2O-N (except for BC) without any increase in NH3-N losses. BC and BS proved most effective in reducing emissions of total GHG (as CO2-equivalents). Composting of DS with C-rich BA can thus be an effective means of conserving N in DS...

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal waste: swine manure and tuna fish waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion has become an established and proven technology for the treatment of solid wastes. Co-digestion offers several possible ecological, technology and economical advantages. Anaerobic co-digestion can increase CH4 production of manure diesters in a 50-200% according to the operation conditions and the co-substrates used. Last September 2007, PROBIOGAS project started up with the objective of improving the production and use of biogas from co-digestion of farming, agricultural and industrial waste. Our research group takes part in the study of co-digestion of swine manure firstly with tuna fish waste and secondly with glycerine (bio diesel production waste). (Author)

  19. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kofi Agyarko; Akwasi Adutwum Abunyewa; Emmanuel Kwasi Asiedu; Emmanuel Heva

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM), cattle manure (CM) and pig manure (PG) on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP) and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11) treatments which were: Control (soil only); 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design...

  20. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... destroyed or treated by the transportation or yard company, or other owner thereof, under APHIS...

  1. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study

    OpenAIRE

    Lalander, Cecilia; Komakech, Allan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomp...

  2. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, C. H.; Triolo, J. M.; Cu, T. T. T.; Pedersen, L; Sommer, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journal...

  3. County-Level Estimates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Animal Manure for the Conterminous United States, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of county estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus in kilograms from animal manure in the conterminous United States for 2002. These estimates...

  4. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Infascelli; Raffaele Pelorosso; Lorenzo Boccia

    2009-01-01

    Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies ...

  5. Immobilization of tetracyclines in manure and manure-amended soils using aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Elzinga, Evert J; Datta, Rupali

    2016-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants of concern in the environment, mainly due to the potential for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and effect on microbiota that could interfere with crucial ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and decomposition. High levels of VAs such as tetracyclines (TCs) have been reported in agricultural soils amended with manure, which also has the potential to cause surface and groundwater contamination. Several recent studies have focused on developing methods to immobilize VAs such as composting with straw, hardwood chips, commercial biochar, aeration, mixing, heat treatment, etc. The major shortcomings of these methods include high cost and limited effectiveness. In the current study, we assessed the effectiveness of aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) as a "green" sorbent to immobilize TCs in manure and manure-applied soils with varying physicochemical properties by laboratory incubation study. Results show that Al-WTR is very effective in immobilizing tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC). The presence of phosphate resulted in significant (p < 0.01) decrease in TTC/OTC sorption by Al-WTR, but the presence of sulfate did not. attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy indicate that TTC and OTC likely forming surface complexes via inner-sphere-type bonds in soils, manure, and manure-applied soils amended with Al-WTR. PMID:26490907

  6. Response of plant parasitic and free living soil nematodes to composted animal manure soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renčo, M; Kováčik, P

    2012-12-01

    In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreased number of plant parasitic nematodes and also root-fungal feeding nematodes compared to the untreated control. Sawdust applied alone had no effect on plant parasitic and root-fungal feeding nematode suppression. Free-living nematodes which were mainly bacteriovores and fungivores were significantly more abundant in soil amended with fermented pig manure, while the sawdust had no effect on these nematodes. The effect of all tested treatments on omnivores-predators was rather random, and in general, the number of these nematodes decreased after soil amendment applications compared to the untreated control. PMID:23482503

  7. Animal manure for biogas production - what happens to the soil?

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riley, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing animal slurry to produce biogas may reduce fossil fuel usage and emissions of greenhouse gases. However, there is limited information on how the recycling of digested slurry as a fertilizer impacts soil fertility in the long run. This is of concern because organic matter in the slurry is converted to methane, which escapes the on-farm carbon cycle. In 2010, a study of this question was initiated on the organic research farm in Tingvoll, Norway. So far, a biogas plant has been built,...

  8. [Emission and control of gases and odorous substances from animal housing and manure depots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J

    1992-02-01

    Agricultural animal production in increasingly regarded as a source of gases which are both aggravating and ecologically harmful. An overview of the origin, number and quantity of trace gases emitted from animal housing and from manure stores is presented and possible means of preventing or reducing them are discussed. Of the 136 trace gases in the air of animal houses, odorous substances, ammonia and methane are most relevant to the environment. The role played by the remaining gases is largely unknown. Quantitative information is available for 23 gases. The gases are emitted principally from freshly deposited and stored faeces, from animal feed and from the animals themselves. Future work should determine sources and quantities of the gases emitted from animal housing more precisely and should aim to investigate the potential of these gases to cause damage in man, animals and environment. Odorous substances have an effect on the area immediately surrounding the animal housing. They can lead to considerable aggravation in humans. For years, VDI1 guidelines (3471/72), which prescribe distances between residential buildings and animal housing, have been valuable in preventing odour problems of this kind. Coverings are suitable for outside stores. The intensity of the odour from animal housing waste air increases from cattle through to hens and pigs; it is also further affected by the type of housing, the age of the animals and the purpose for which they are being kept. Methods of cleaning waste air (scrubbers/biofilters) are available for problematic cases. The need for guidelines to limit emissions from individual outside manure stores (lagoons) is recognised. Total ammonia emissions from animal production in the Federal Republic of Germany (up to 1989) are estimated at approximately 300,000 to 600,000 t/year. There is a shortage of satisfactory and precise research on the extent of emissions, in particular on those from naturally ventilated housing. It is

  9. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, C. H.; Triolo, J. M.; Cu, T. T. T.; Pedersen, L.; Sommer, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4) production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) (CH4 NL kg−1 VS) of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05). The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP) was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr) for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%), while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR) varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM) were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC). This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC. PMID:25049861

  10. Validation and recommendation of methods to measure biogas production potential of animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, C H; Triolo, J M; Cu, T T T; Pedersen, L; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4) production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) (CH4 NL kg(-1) VS) of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05). The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP) was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr) for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%), while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR) varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM) were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC). This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC. PMID:25049861

  11. Breakdown of Azadirachtin A in a Tropical Soil Amended with Neem Leaves and Animal Manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted to assess the breakdown of azadirachtin A in a tropical coastal savanna soil amended with neem leaves (NL) combined with poultry manure (PM) or cow dung (CD) using gas chromatography. Samples in polythene bags 15 cm long and 4.8 cm in diameter were randomly placed to a depth of 14 cm in the soil, and azadirachtin A concentration was assessed on days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84. Azadirachtin A degradation in the soil followed first-order reaction kinetics with different half-lives obtained for varying combinations of the amendments. Higher neem amendment levels of 100 g gave shorter half-lives of azadirachtin A than the lower levels of 50 g. Within the 50 g NL group the additions of the poultry manure and the cow dung gave significantly shorter (P < 0.05) half-lives of azadirachtin A than the sole neem amendment, whereas in the 100 g NL group only additions of 10 g CD and 10 g PM were significantly less (P < 0.05) than the sole neem amendment. Different changes resulting from the kind and quantity of animal manure added were observed in the half-lives of azadirachtin A. The 100 g NL group had significantly higher (P < 0.05) moisture content, which, coupled with the likely differences in microbial biomass, could be the major factor responsible for variations in the half-life of the compound. Therefore, the quantity of the neem leaves applied and the addition of animal manure affected the breakdown of azadirachtin A in the soil amended with neem leaves.

  12. Synergy of sewage water treatment plants and processing of manure; Synergie RWZI en mestverwerking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisschops, I.; Weijma, J.; Van Eekert, M.; Spanjers, H. [Lettinga Associates Foundation LeAF, Wageningen (Netherlands); Timmerman, M.; Fe Buisonje, F. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research WLR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    The goal of this study is to explore profitable ways of processing manure in sewage water treatment plants. Technological options are explored for processing manure, the availability of manure in the surroundings, the space taken up by manure digestion and annual costs and benefits [Dutch] Het doel van deze studie is te verkennen hoe mest op rendabele wijze in rwzi's (rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties) verwerkt kunnen worden. Er is gekeken naar de technologische mogelijkheden om mest te kunnen verwerken, de beschikbaarheid van mest in de omgeving, ruimtebeslag van mestvergisting, en jaarlijkse kosten en opbrengsten.

  13. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  14. Side-effects of application of manure from AFCF treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AFCF (ammonium-ferric-hexacyano-ferrate) is a very effective caesium binder. Mixed with the animal feed, presented in the form of salt licks or introduced into the rumenas slow release boll, this compound is an efficient countermeasure to limit the gastro-intestinal uptake of radiocaesium by farm animals and wild ruminants. Less than 1 % of the ingested AFCF is excreted in urine or secreted in milk, suggesting that it crossed the gastro-intestinal tract unabsorbed and is finally excreted in faeces together with the caesium bound in the gut. This means that AFCF from treated animals returns directly to pastures while animals are grazing or that it can be spread on fields fertilized with animal manure. Although no toxicological problems have been observed on animals given hexacyanoferrates in the recommended doses, the fate of this molecule in the environment after excretion is not well documented. Except for limited data obtained in Norway and in the CIS, practically no information is available regarding its action on the availability of Cs present in the soil, nor concerning potential side-effects of its possible degradation to cyanides and other materials with a concomitant release of bound Cs over long periods of time. (author)

  15. Turnover of manure 15N-labelled ammonium during composting and soil application as affected by lime and superphosphate addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Tien Minh; Luxhøi, Jesper; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-01-01

    To determine N turnover and losses during aerobic composting of animal manure, a 41-d laboratory study was performed on pig manure composting with three additive treatments (Straw: pig manure + straw only; Lime: pig manure + straw + quick lime; and SSP: pig manure + straw + single superphosphate...... superphosphate increased the NH4-N content in both. Therefore, superphosphate addition increased the potential fertilizer value of composted pig manure. © Soil Science Society of America....

  16. Comparing heavy metal contents in crops receiving mineral fertilisers and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    permissible levels for feeds. The content of As was barely detectable even in crops grown with double rate of NPK. This was also true for Hg and Ni in cereal grains. The Cd content increased linearly with NPK rate but only in crops with fresh dressings of NPK. Yet, cereal grains were low in Cd. Contents of Cd......Spring barley (grain, straw), grass-clover (two cuts), winter wheat (grain, straw) and silage maize grown in the Askov long-term experiment with different levels (0, ½, 1, 1½, 2) of mineral fertiliser (NPK) and animal manure (AM) had concentrations of As, Pb, Cd and Hg below the EC maximum...... found in the analysed metal contents between crops grown with NPK and AM. Crop contents of uranium and thallium were below the analytical detection limits regardless of nutrient source and addition rate. Thus in a farming context similar to that of the Askov experiment, the long-term application of...

  17. Effects of Soil Leachate on Release of Nitrogenous and Phosphorous Non-point Source Pollutants from Animal Manure%淋溶对畜禽粪便释放氮磷面源污染物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 梁勤爽; 杨志敏; 陈玉成

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis was made of the leaching losses of total N(TN) and total P(TP) in pig manure(ZF),cow manure(NF) and chick manure(JF),and the influences of application rate and leaching amount of animal manure on the release quantity,release speed and release rate of TN and TP were estimated.The results showed that the cumulative release of TN and TP increased with the application rate of animal manure and the leaching amount.The release speed of TN from the 3 kinds of animal manure was greater than that of TP.The TN released from pig manure was the greatest,followed in order by cow manure and chick manure,and the TP released from pig manure was the greatest,followed in sequence by chick manure and cow manure The influences on the release rate of TN and TP was in the order of pig manurecow manurechick manure.With similar manure application amount,the release rate increased with leaching amount,and with similar leaching amount,the release rate was greater in the low application rate treatment.%在淋溶条件下,分别对施入的猪粪(ZF)、牛粪(NF)、鸡粪(JF)中TN,TP的流失进行定量化;估算畜禽粪便的施用量与淋溶量对TN,TP的释放量、释放速率、释放率的影响.结果表明,对于TN,TP的释放量而言,施用量以及淋溶量越大,则累积释放量也就越大;3种畜禽粪便对TN,TP的释放速率的影响为TN〉TP.对于TN,由大到小依次为:猪粪,牛粪,鸡粪;而对于TP,由大到小依次为:猪粪,鸡粪,牛粪;对释放率的影响由大到小依次为:猪粪,牛粪,鸡粪;且粪便施用量相同时淋溶量高的释放率高,淋溶量相同时施入量低的释放率高.

  18. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelme-Ayala, Pamela [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); El-Din, Mohamed Gamal, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Smith, Richard [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Code, Kenneth R. [IOWC Technologies Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Leonard, Jerry [Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. {yields} This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. {yields} Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. {yields} Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. {yields} Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH{sub 3}), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl{sup -}) and 50% of the phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH{sub 3}, nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  19. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. → This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. → Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. → Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. → Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH3), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl-) and 50% of the phosphate (PO43-) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH3, nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  20. Viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Seganfredo, Milton Antonio; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mmiele@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The swine manure treatment is based on several technologies, such as pond systems, composting, biodigesters, and compact process like the EMBRAPA's Swine Manure Treatment System. The last one can reach high quality effluent with reduced pollution, although it demands higher investment and costs. For this reason it is necessary to manage revenues with byproducts and carbon credit markets. The aim of this study was to present a viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system considering its potential revenues facing higher costs. Using market prices and measured data from a prototype running in south Brazil, the study calculated costs, revenues, profit, net present value and internal rate return. It also estimated these indicators assuming scale economies. The results showed that the investment can pay its costs by its insertion in the carbon credit market and other revenues like the energy substitution. It also showed the importance to reach scale economies. (author)

  1. Response of Sunflower Yield and Phytohormonal Changes to Azotobacter,Azospirillum,Pseudomonas and Animal Manure in a Chemical Free Agroecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Maziyar, Mehran; M. Reza, Ardakani; Hamid, Madani; Mohammad , Zahedi; Mohsen, Amirabadi; Saeed, Mafakheri

    2011-01-01

    There are new trends in agriculture to move toward the low input systems with the lower application of chemical fertilizers. To reach this goal, different methods, such as the application of biofertilizers, may be used. So this experiment was conducted in 2010 at a research farm in Arak, Iran, in factorial in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications and four factors: animal manure (M), Pseudomonas putida (P), Azotobacter chroococcum (A)and Azospirillum lipoferum ...

  2. Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking on the methane yield and composition of digested manure fibers applying different ammonia concentrations and treatment durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis;

    2014-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus...... and 5 days at 22°C was applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester. A methane yield increase from 76% to 104% was achieved during the first series of experiments, while the difference in reagent concentration did not considerably affect the...... concluded that AAS is a very promising treatment resulting to an overall increase of the methane yield of digested manure fibers from 76 to 265% depending on the conditions and the batch of digested fibers used (an even higher increase of 190-265% was achieved during the 2nd series of experiments, where...

  3. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  4. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J; Grönroos, J; Kuligowski, K; Pehme, S; Rankinen, K; Skura, D; Wenzel, Henrik; Wesnæs, Marianne; Ziolkowski, M

    manure is applied, specific legislations governing the manure management practices, etc.). Further, it presents a reference manure composition for each of these reference systems, including key parameters such as dry matter, nitrogen (inorganic and total), phosphorus, carbon and volatile solids content...

  5. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Scharf, Sigrid [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gans, Oliver [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: oliver.gans@umweltbundesamt.at

    2007-07-15

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 {mu}g/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria.

  6. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 μg/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria

  7. Anaerobic digestion technology in livestock manure treatment for biogas production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Ismail M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Ghazi, Tinia I.; Omar, Rozita

    2012-06-15

    This article reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production from livestock manure wastes and compares the operating and performance data for various anaerobic process configurations. It examines different kinds of manure waste treatment techniques and the influence of several parameters on biogas and methane yield. The comparison indicates that a variety of different operational conditions, various reactor configurations such as batch reactors, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), and continuous one- and two-stage systems, present a suitable technology for the AD of livestock manure waste. Main performance indicators are biogas and methane yield, degradation of volatile solids (VS), higher loading, and process stability with a short retention time. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater : pilot investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Archipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Klapwijk, A.

    2002-01-01

    Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater has been investigated on the pilot installation operated under ambient temperatures (15-20°C) and included: i) UASB-reactor for elimination of major part of COD from the filtrate; (ii) stripper of CO2 fluidised bed

  9. Plant-availability to barley of phosphorus in ash from thermally treated animal manure in comparison to other manure based materials and commercial fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Rubæk, Gitte Holton;

    2010-01-01

    ), thermally gasified SS (GAs), thermally gasified poultry manure (GAp), crushed triple super phosphate (TSP) and disodium phosphate (DSP) was used as reference P fertilizer. For application of 20 kg P ha-1 mineral P fertilizer replacement value (RV) in the second year in the sandy soil was 76% and 99% for GA...... kg P ha-1 in both soils had no significant effect on barley DM yield and P uptake. The overall efficiency for liquid fertilizers was much higher than for solid ones and relative effectiveness (RE) of ExL was comparable to RE of DSP. Despite the low P level in soils, the ryegrass crop grew very well...... on both soils in the second year, and there was no detectable residual effect of the treatments on grass yield and P uptake. In conclusion, untreated ash and solid manures used in this study were not suitable as starter P fertilizer, but could be used to maintain the level of available P in soil, as...

  10. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  11. Manure management and treatment in Europe : a review on environmental, technological and policy perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, J.; Burton, C

    2006-01-01

    Livestock agriculture in Europe has developed into an efficient industry over the latter half of the twentieth century. However, the prospects for the future are marred by an increasing number of environmental problems (e.g. soil, water and air pollution) that stem from the large quantities of manures produced within intensively farmed regions. The build-up of dense populations of animals in northern Europe has occurred in spite of the acknowledged pollution effects on the environment. It is ...

  12. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Prachoom, Norratouch; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-04-27

    Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products. PMID:27058252

  13. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  14. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The virucidal effect of 60Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  15. Biogas production from animal manure and agri-organic by-products. An analysis of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing interest in sustainable energy has been directed to the production of biogas from organic matter in animal manure and agri-organic by-products. The technology of biogas production by anaerobic digestion of organic materials is used in several parts of the world. Based on this experience and on positive results in a Novem study for the Netherlands situation in 1995, an actor survey has been carried out. The introduction of combined digestion of animal manure and agri-organic by-products has been discussed with companies, business associations and governmental organisations in the energy, agricultural and waste sectors. The survey has revealed that commercial exploitation of biogas plants with a capacity of 100 kton per year is possible under the following conditions: (1) costs of investment should not be higher than 100 Dutch Guilders (45 ECU) per ton processing capacity; (2) yield demands on investment capital, both equity and debt, should not be higher than 8%; (3) selling price for biogas should be around 0,30 Dutch Guilders (0,135 ECU) per mo3 natural gas equivalents; (4) supply for processing of agri-organic by-products with a received minimum fee of 35 Dutch Guilders (15,7 ECU) per ton should be guaranteed; (5) dairy, pig and arable farmers involved in the biogas plant should have both financial and quality incentives to participation; (6) environmental legislation on the level of heavy metals in animal manure mixed with agri-organic byproducts should not be different from the accepted levels in 'normal' animal manure; and finally (7) the site of the biogas plant accepted by local authorities should be suitable by logistic standards for the transports of animal manure, agri-organic by-products, the digested mixture and biogas. It has been concluded that these conditions are not unrealistic, although there is no absolute certainty that they will be fulfilled. However, circumstances for the implementation of biogas plants have improved in recent years

  16. Anaerobic digestion of plant biomass and animal manure: effect on C retention in soil and plant available N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Kahn, Arab R.; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    We compared the release of C and N from untreated and anaerobically digested plant biomasses and animal manures. Based on losses of C during the plant biomass (feed) passage in cattle, during anaerobic digestion (AD), and during incubation with soil, the retention of C in soil was estimated. When...... relationship between N release and C retention. The increase in N availability due to AD was equivalent to 10-35% of total N in slurry, but after AD of plant biomass and faeces the N availability increased significantly more....

  17. Potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havukainen, Jouni; Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Hermann, Ludwig; Horttanainen, Mika; Mikkilä, Mirja; Deviatkin, Ivan; Linnanen, Lassi

    2016-03-01

    All life forms require phosphorus (P), which has no substitute in food production. The risk of phosphorus loss from soil and limited P rock reserves has led to the development of recycling P from industrial residues. This study investigates the potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment (ASH DEC) in Finland. An ASH DEC plant could receive 46-76 kt/a of sewage sludge ash to produce 51-85 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P2O5 content of 13-18%, while 320-750 kt/a of manure ash could be supplied to produce 350-830 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P content of 4-5%. The P2O5 potential in the total P-rich product from the ASH DEC process using sewage sludge and manure ash is estimated to be 25-47 kt/a, which is significantly more than the P fertilizer demand in Finland's agricultural industries. The energy efficiency of integrated incineration and the ASH DEC process is more dependent on the total solid content and the subsequent need for mechanical dewatering and thermal drying than on the energy required by the ASH DEC process. According to the results of this study, the treated sewage sludge and manure ash using the ASH DEC process represent significant potential phosphorus sources for P fertilizer production. PMID:26810030

  18. Linked programme for improved utilization of farm animal manures from Linkogas. April 1990 - December 1993; Foelgeprogram for bedre udnyttelse af husdyrgoedning fra Linkogas. April 1990 - december 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    A detailed description of several projects, carried out by various Danish institutions with agricultural interests in cooperation with the Danish firm `Linkogas A.m.b.A., related to a more efficient utilization of degassed animal manures and fibers from methane-producing biomass conversion plants as fertilizers. The projects concerned fertilizing experiments using manures from which, using a special method, ca.50% of water content had been filtered from the degassed manure slurry (designated `RO` slurry). Another project aimed at determining ammonia evaporation out in the fields where RO slurry and ordinary manure slurry were used as fertilizers under varying conditions. Fertilization plans were produced and possibilities of damage from pressure during transport of the waste slurries using existing equipment were investigated. Economic aspects were also examined. Methods and results of the projects are described in detail. (AB)

  19. Pig manure treatment with housefly (Musca domestica) rearing – an environmental life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Roffeis, M.; Muys, B.; Almeida, J.; MATHIJS, E; Achten, W.M.J; Pastor Monllor, Berta; Velásquez Zambrano, Yelitza; Martínez Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Rojo Velasco, Santos

    2015-01-01

    The largest portion of a product’s environmental impacts and costs of manufacturing and use results from decisions taken in the conceptual design phase long before its market entry. To foster sustainable production patterns, applying life cycle assessment in the early product development stage is gaining importance. Following recent scientific studies on using dipteran fly species for waste management, this paper presents an assessment of two insect-based manure treatment systems. Considering...

  20. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL MANURE – IMPLICATIONS FOR CROP YIELDS AND SOIL BIOTA IN ORGANIC FARMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh;

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of farmyard manures may help farmers to produce bioenergy instead of using fossil fuels, support cycling of nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emission. However, compared to pristine slurry, digested slurry has a reduced content of organic carbon which may impact the soil biota...... of digestates affects crop yields, soil characteristics and soil biota (earthworms, springtails, microbiota). The grass-clover system showed comparable yield levels over 3 years when digested slurry was compared to untreated slurry. Digested slurries had no influence on soil nutrient concentrations or on soil...... and microorganisms seemed only little affected by application of digested slurry....

  1. Co-digestion of animal manure and maize : is it sustainable, an update

    OpenAIRE

    Zwart, K.B.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Co-digestion has attracted increased attention in The Netherlands as a result of a subsidy for electricity that is produced environmentally safe (MEP and SDE subsidy). Production of bio-energy by means of co-digestion turned financially profitable due to this financial support. Co-digestion is the simultaneous digestion of manure and a co-substrate and its conversion into biogas. We report on a methodology to assess the sustainability of bio-energy from co-digestion with emphasis on energy an...

  2. Biological treatment of acidic coal refuse using sulphate-reducing bacteria with chicken manure as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The performance of using chicken manure as carbon source to promote sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity within acidic coal refuse to prevent the generation of acidic leachate was investigated in batch and column bioreactors. The bioreactors showed satisfactory performance in biological sulphate reduction, evidenced by the increase in effluent pH, high removal efficiencies of sulphate and metals, and the presence of large numbers of SRB. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the formed precipitate indicated the formation of metal sulphides. Chicken manure was observed to play an important role in this treatment, which could not only provide carbon source but also reduce the adverse effect of strong acidity and metal toxicity on SRB activity. Metal removal could be mainly attributed to sulphides precipitation and sorption to chicken manure. This study indicated that SRB with chicken manure could be a novel alternative used for the prevention of acidic leachate from coal refuse. PMID:25189842

  3. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal manure management, 1990 - 2003 - Background document on the calculation method for the Dutch National Inventory Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek KW van der; Schijndel MW van; MNP; LVM

    2006-01-01

    Since 2005 the Netherlands has used a new country-specific method to calculate the methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal manure management. Compared to the default methods provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this method has led to a more realistic estimate of the emi

  4. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: II. Air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of improved manure management on air quality and the beneficial effect of a cleaner environment on animal productivity and health using a second generation of Environmentally Superior Technology. The second generation system combines solid-liquid sep...

  5. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure. ► The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was key controlling factor. ► The threshold of the SCOD/TAN ratio was 2.4 at an influent pH of 8.5–9. - Abstract: The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700 m3 chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3 L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35 ± 1 °C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5–3.5 kg-COD/m3 d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5 d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2 m3/m3 d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250 mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5–9.

  6. Development of an analytical methodology for the determination of the antiparasitic drug toltrazuril and its two metabolites in surface water, soil and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A;

    2012-01-01

    phase extraction and selective pressurized liquid extraction with integrated clean-up, the analytical method allows for the determination of these compounds down to 0.06-0.13 ng L(-1) in water, 0.01-0.03 ng g(-1)dw in soil and 0.22-0.51 ng g(-1) dw in manure. The deuterated analog of toltrazuril was......This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine the antiparasitic veterinary drug toltrazuril and its two main metabolites, toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone, in environmental surface water, soil and animal manure. Using solid...... used as internal standard, and ensured method accuracy in the range 96-123% for water and 77-110% for soil samples. The developed method can also be applied to simultaneously determine steroid hormones in the solid samples. The antiparasitic drug and its metabolites were found in manure and soil up to...

  7. Heterogeneity of O2 dynamics in soil amended with animal manure and implications for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Bruun, Sander; Larsen, Morten Kobæk;

    2015-01-01

    in soils in which the same amount of solid fraction of pig manure had been distributed in three different ways (mixed, layered, single patch) and which were maintained at awater potential of 5 kPa (corresponding to 91% of water-filled pore space). In parallel, the greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CO2...... stimulated the cumulative N2O emissions and reduced the cumulative CO2 fluxes. The faster the anoxia developed, the less the nitrification process appeared to contribute to N2O emissions. No treatment effects on CH4 emissions were observed. Combined high resolution imaging of O2 dynamics and measurements of...... producing greenhouse gases from soil ecosystems....

  8. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Guang; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhu, Hong-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700m(3) chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35±1°C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5kg-COD/m(3)d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2m(3)/m(3)d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9. PMID:21978423

  9. Treatment of Dairy and Swine Manure Effluents Using Freshwater Algae: Fatty Acid Content and Composition of Algal Biomass at Different Manure Loading Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the N and P present in the manure and convert manure N and P into algal biomass. The objective of this study was to determine how fatty acid (FA) content and composition of algae respond to changes in the type of manu...

  10. Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Diluted Pig Manure Streams in Russia: From Laboratory Trials to Full-Scale Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Arkhipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Kovalev, A.; Nozhevnikova, A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater

  11. The effects of post-treatments and temperature on recovering the methane potential of > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Rintala, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of thermal and chemical treatments, mechanical maceration and freezing and thawing on recovering the remaining methane potential of the > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure - which accounted for 30% of the original potential of digested cow manure - were studied in laboratory ...

  12. Distribution of Cu and Zn in System of Animal Manures/Excrement-Subsoil Under Natural Stacking of Animal Manures in Jilin, China%吉林省畜禽粪便自然堆放条件下粪便/土壤体系中Cu、Zn的分布规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢忠雷; 朱洪双; 李文艳; 李小滢; 蔡文达; 牛海玉; 李晶

    2011-01-01

    With the development of poultry breeding and increasing of Cu and Zn additive amount in feed, Cu and Zn in animal manures have become the considering resource of heavy metals in soils, therefore, there will be of the significance to study the migration and accumulation of Cu and Zn in system of animal manures/excrement-subsoil under natural stacking of animal manures for rightly assessing the pollution effect of Cu and Zn in animal manures. The contents of Cu and Zn in animal manures and effects of animal manures stacking under natural condition on the contents of Cu and Zn in the excrement-subsoil were studied in the paper by sampling different kinds of animal manures excre- mental-subsoil located in Jilin Province. The results showed that the contents of Cu in chicken manure, pig excrement and cow dung were the range of 7.12~26.04 mg·kg-1 (air-dried sample, being the same as the following)(average of 18.24 mg·kg-1, the same meaning as this in the following), 87.99~463.7 mg·kg-1(243.6 mg·kg-1) and 3.95~27.63 mg·kg-1( 12.28 mg·kg-1), and the contents of Zn in chicken manure, pig excrement and cow dung were the range of 179.2-340.8 mg·kg-1( 276.9 mg·kg-1), 140.5-455.8 mg·kg-1( 381.8 mg·kg-1) and 150.5-292.3 mg·kg-1( 188.1 mg·kg-1), respectively. The contents of Cu and Zn were the order of pig excrement>chicken manure>cow dung in the different kinds of animal manures and were the order of Zn>Cu in the same animal manures. Under the natural condition stacking, Cu could move from pig excrement and chicken manure to excremental-subsoil and the amount of Cu from animal manures into soils increased with the increasing of contents of Cu in animal manures, consequently Cu accumulated nearly in the topsoil, however, the effect of cow dung on the content of Cu in excremental-subsoil was not obvious. Generally, the contents of Cu in the excremental-subsoil was in the order of pig excrement>chicken manure>cow dung. Meanwhile, the content of Zn in the excremental

  13. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    volumetric methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity.......The methane productivity of manure in terms of volatile solids (VS), volume and livestock production was determined. The theoretical methane productivity is higher in pig (516 1 kg(-1) VS) and sow (530 1 kg(-1) VS) manure than in dairy cattle manure (469 1 kg(-1) VS), while the ultimate methane...... yield in terms of VS is considerably higher in pig (356 1 kg(-1) VS) and sow manure (275 1 kg(-1) VS) than in dairy cattle manure (148 1 kg(-1) VS). Methane productivity based on livestock units (LU) shows the lowest methane productivity for sows (165 m(3) CH4 LU-1), while the other animal categories...

  14. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    The methane productivity of manure in terms of volatile solids (VS), volume and livestock production was determined. The theoretical methane productivity is higher in pig (516 1 kg(-1) VS) and sow (530 1 kg(-1) VS) manure than in dairy cattle manure (469 1 kg(-1) VS), while the ultimate methane...... yield in terms of VS is considerably higher in pig (356 1 kg(-1) VS) and sow manure (275 1 kg(-1) VS) than in dairy cattle manure (148 1 kg(-1) VS). Methane productivity based on livestock units (LU) shows the lowest methane productivity for sows (165 m(3) CH4 LU-1), while the other animal categories...... volumetric methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  15. Optimisation and inhibition of anaerobic digestion of livestock manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutaryo, S.

    2012-11-15

    The optimisation process during this PhD study focused on mixed enzyme (ME) addition, thermal pre-treatment and co-digestion of raw manure with solid fractions of acidified manure, while for inhibition processes, ammonia and sulphide inhibition were studied. ME addition increased methane yield of both dairy cow manure (DCM) and solid fractions of DCM (by 4.44% and 4.15% respectively, compared to the control) when ME was added to manure and incubated prior to anaerobic digestion (AD). However, no positive effect was found when ME was added to manure and fed immediately to either mesophilic (35 deg. C) or thermophilic (50 deg. C) digesters. Low-temperature pre-treatment (65 deg. C to 80 deg. C for 20 h) followed by batch assays increased the methane yield of pig manure in the range from 9.5% to 26.4% at 11 d incubation. These treatments also increased the methane yield of solid-fractions pig manure in the range from 6.1% to 25.3% at 11 d of the digestion test. However, at 90 d the increase in methane yield of pig manure was only significant at the 65 deg. C treatment, thus low-temperature thermal pre-treatment increased the rate of gas production, but did not increase the ultimate yield (B{sub o}). High-temperature pre-treatment (100 deg. C to 225 deg. C for 15 min.) increased the methane yield of DCM by 13% and 21% for treatments at 175 deg. C and 200 deg. C, respectively, at 27 d of batch assays. For pig manure, methane yield was increased by 29% following 200 deg. C treatment and 27 d of a batch digestion test. No positive effect was found of high-temperature pre-treatment on the methane yield of chicken manure. At the end of the experiment (90 d), high-temperature thermal pre-treatment was significantly increasing the B{sub 0} of pig manure and DCM. Acidification of animal manure using sulphuric acid is a well-known technology to reduce ammonia emission of animal manure. AD of acidified manure showed sulphide inhibition and consequently methane production was 45

  16. Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV. The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  17. Selection and evaluation of biofilm carrier in anaerobic digestion treatment of cattle manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection and evaluation of biofilm carrier represent the two significant ways for improving the anaerobic digesters. This study investigated the performances of the AD (anaerobic digestion) reactors using three types of fibrous biofilm carriers, including the ACF (activated carbon fiber), the PVAF (polyvinyl alcohol fiber) and the GF (glass fiber). The biogas and methane production, pH, COD (chemical oxygen demand), TS (total solids), VS (volatile solids), residual coenzyme F420 as well as the residual amount of methanogen were measured periodically during the experimental run. Also, the SEM (scanning electron microscopy) was used to identify the microbial consortium and their attachments onto the surface of ACF carrier. The ACF carrier performed better than the other two types of carriers in achieving higher amount of biogas and methane production and pollutants' removal. The experimental results also demonstrated that the ACF carrier could make the reactor keep higher biogas and methane productions than the control blank reactor during the long run. -- Highlights: → ACF as biofilm carrier is superior to PVAF and GF in AD treatment of cattle manure. → ACF makes the reactor keep higher biogas and methane productions. → ACF enhances microorganism's immobilization.

  18. Psychrophilic anaerobic co-digestion of highland barley straw with two animal manures at high altitude for enhancing biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High I/S ratio (>2/1) was favorable to both sole digestion and co-digestion. • Biogas production from BS was feasible at low temperature and low air pressure condition. • Long SRT (>80 days) is needed for biogas production at low temperature and low air pressure condition. • BS to manure ratio of 1/1 could increase biogas production. • IVS removal efficiency was correlated with biogas production. - Abstract: Biogas production from the co-digestion of highland barley straw (BS) with Tibet pig manure (TPM) and cow manure (CM) was investigated at Tibet plateau under low temperature (15 °C) condition. The effect of inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratio and BS to manure ratio on the biogas production was studied using a series of batch digesters performed at substrate concentration of 20%, based on total solid (TS). The results showed that biogas production from BS was feasible at low temperature and low air pressure condition. High I/S ratio (>2/1) and BS to manure ratio of 1/1 could increase the biogas production. Long solid retention time (SRT) (>80 days) was needed for biogas production at low temperature and low air pressure condition. The highest cumulative biogas production obtained from the co-digestion of BS with TPM and CM was 233.4 ml/gVS and 192.0 ml/gVS, respectively. Removal efficiencies of substrate showed that biogas production was correlated with the removal efficiency of water-insoluble volatile solids (IVS) but not with the change rate of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)

  19. 34 CFR 76.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 76.682 Section 76.682 Education... animals. If a State or a subgrantee uses an animal in a project, the State or subgrantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act of...

  20. Thermal and enzymatic treatment of digested manure fibers in the re-injection loop concept to increase biogas yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escobar, Esperanza Jurado; Uellendahl, Hinrich Wilhelm; Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu;

    2015-01-01

    treatment of the digested manure fibers (DMF) in combination with the re-injection loop concept were tested. Thermal treatment of DMF at 105oC showed an increase of the specific methane yield of DMF by 65% while no siginificant effect was observed for enzymatic treatment of DMF for 1 h prior to......The re-injection loop concept proposes the recirculation of lignocellulosic organic matter after a first cycle of anaerobic digestion in order to increase the conversion into biogas. This re-circulation can potentially increase the methane yield up to 20%. In this study thermal and enzymatic...

  1. 34 CFR 75.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 75.682 Section 75.682 Education... Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.682 Treatment of animals. If a grantee uses an animal in a project, the grantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment...

  2. Marine mud and manure treatment in Ultisols increase pH and phosphate availability and affectCapsicum annum L. grows and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Matulessy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine mud and manure has potentially to improve ultisol soil condition, especially in soil acidity, CEC, base saturation, neutralizing organic acid, improving soil structure, soil nutrient retention, aeration, soil humidity, capacity of water holding capacity and infiltration and enhance the rapid supply of phosphate for plant grows and development. Two treatments, namely planting media with 200 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure and 400 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure were able to increase pH from 4.6 to 5.6.Significant decrease of Alexcsolubility about 0.03 meq.100 g-1 was found in M1O3; M2O1; M2O3 and M3O1 treatment about. Increase of phosphate about 5.02 ppm was found at treatment 200 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure. There are significant interaction in plant high about 62.42 cm in the media without marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1manure treatments. The amount of 30 ton,ha-1manure produce plant with leaf size about 95,52 cm2.tan-1and produce fresh fruit about 9.81 ton.ha-1.

  3. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities. PMID:18348791

  4. Paddy Soil Stability and Mechanical Properties as Affected by Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Animal Manure in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wet stability, penetration resistance (PR), and tensile strength (TS) of paddy soils under a fertilization experiment for 22 years were determined to elucidate the function of soil organic matter in paddy soil stabilization. The treatments included no fertilization (CK), normal chemical fertilization (NPK), double the NPK application rates (2NPK), and NPK mixed with organic manure (NPK+OM). Compared with CK, fertilization increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil porosity. The results of soil aggregate fragmentation degree (SAFD) showed that fast wetting by water was the key fragmentation mechanism. Among the treatments, the NPK+OM treatment had the largest size of water-stable aggregates and greatest normal mean weight diameter (NMWD) (P ≤ 0.05), but the lowest PR and TS in both cultivated horizon (Ap) and plow pan. The CK and 2NPK treatments were measured with PR > 2.0 MPa and friability index < 0.20,respectively, in the Ap horizon, suggesting that the soils was mechanically unfavourable to root growth and tillage. In the plow pan, the fertilization treatments had greater TS and PR than in CK. TS and PR of the tested soil aggregates were negatively correlated to SOC content and soil porosity. This study suggested that chemical fertilization could cause deterioration of mechanical properties while application of organic manure could improve soil stability and mechanical properties.

  5. Wet Oxidation Pre-Treatment – the Way To Improve Economics of Energy Production From Manure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Langvad, Niels Bo;

    2006-01-01

    and Wheatley, 1993). The combination of high temperature and pressure, together with the addition of oxygen in the wet oxidation process, has shown a superior potential for increasing the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass with subsequent ethanol fermentation. In the present study the wet oxidation...... process was tested as pretreatment for increasing the biogas yield of the fiber fraction of manure. The wet oxidation pretreatment in combination with solid liquid separation of manure by using either chemical precipitation or decanter centrifuge (Møller et al., 2004) could be a promising option for a...

  6. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.;

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account for...

  7. Characteristics and Availability of Different Forms of Phosphorus in Animal Manures%不同动物粪肥的磷素形态特征及有效性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严正娟; 陈硕; 王敏锋; 宋梓玮; 贾伟; 陈清

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of intensive livestock industry has greatly increased the discharge of animal manure. Reasonable utilization of large amounts of phosphorus(P)in animal manure can not only save the fertilizer resource, but also avoid water pollution from manure due to direct discharge or excess application in farmland. In this study, P contents and fractionation in 76 animal manures were analyzed using Hedley P fractionation method based on the survey for 52 livestock farms, and P mobility and environmental risks in different manures were evaluated as the reference for manure P management. The results showed that there were significant differences in total P content of animal manures. The mean P contents were 22.5, 13.7, 12.9, 9.6 g P·kg-1 and 7.5 g P·kg-1, in which the proportion of organic P in total P were 33.1%, 41.5%, 66.4%, 28.1%and 36.8%in pig, chicken, duck, cattle and sheep manures, respectively. The contents of total and organic P in non-ruminant animal manure(pig, chicken and duck manures)were 1.7~3.0 times and 2.1~3.0 times greater than that in ruminant manure (cattle and sheep manures)and the proportion of organic P in total P in poultry manure was higher than that in other manures. P mineraliza-tion was easier in non-ruminant animal manure with lower C/P ratio(19~29), compared with that in ruminant manure with C/P ratio of 38~45. Manure P was sequentially extracted by deionized water(H2O-P), NaHCO3(NaHCO3-P ), NaOH(NaOH-P)and HCl(HCl-P). The pro-portion of H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P, HCl-P and residual-P in total P in ruminant animal manure were 27.8%, 32.8%, 18.1%, 15.2%and 6.1%, respectively, while that were 24.6%, 19.4%, 12.7%, 34.4% and 8.9% in non-ruminant animal manure. The significant differences were in NaHCO3-P and HCl-P between ruminant and non-ruminant animal manures. Ruminant manure had greater proportion of liable P (H2O-P and NaHCO3-P)in total P(>60%), but the characteristics of higher mineralization rate might result in fast release

  8. Efficacy of alum and coal combustion by-products in stabilizing manure phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Z; Zhang, G Y; Stout, W L; Toth, J D; Ferguson, J D

    2003-01-01

    Animal manures contain large amounts of soluble phosphorus (P), which is prone to runoff losses when manure is surface-applied. Here we report the efficacy of alum and three coal combustion by-products in reducing P solubility when added to dairy, swine, or broiler litter manures in a laboratory incubation study. Compared with unamended controls, alum effectively reduced readily soluble P, determined in water extracts of moist manure samples with 1 h of shaking, for all three manures. The reduction ranged from 80 to 99% at treatment rates of 100 to 250 g alum kg(-1) manure dry matter. The fluidized bed combustion fly ash (FBC) reduced readily soluble P by 50 to 60% at a rate of 400 g kg(-1) for all three manures. Flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) reduced readily soluble P by nearly 80% when added to swine manure and broiler litter at 150 and 250 g kg(-1). Another by-product, anthracite refuse fly ash (ANT), was ineffective for all three manures. In all cases, reduction in readily soluble P is primarily associated with inorganic phosphorus (P(i)) with little change in organic phosphorus (P(o)). Sequential extraction results indicate that the by-product treatments shifted manure P from H2O-P into a less vulnerable fraction, NaHCO3 - P, while the alum treatment shifted the P into even more stable forms, mostly NaOH-P. Such shifts in P fractions would have little influence on P availability for crops over the long-term but would retard and reduce potential losses of P following manure applications. PMID:12931906

  9. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  10. GHRH treatment: studies in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakutsui, S; Abe, H; Chihara, K

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the effects of chronic deletion of circulating growth hormone-releasing (GHRH) and/or somatostatin (SRIF) on normal growing male rats, as well as the effects of exogenous GHRH (1-29)NH2 and/or SMS 201-995 administration on the growth of rats with hypothalamic ablation. Passive immunization with anti-rat GHRH goat gamma-globulin (GHRH-Ab) for 3 weeks caused a marked decrease in the levels of pituitary GH mRNA and severe growth failure. Treatment with anti-SRIF goat gamma-globulin (SRIF-Ab) for 3 weeks produced a more modest decrease in GH mRNA levels in the pituitary and a slight but significant inhibition of normal somatic growth. Hypothalamic ablation produced a marked decrease in the level of mRNA in the pituitary. Chronic continuous administration of GHRH (1-29)NH2 stimulated pituitary GH synthesis, elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I and increased body weight gain in rats with hypothalamic ablation treated with replacement doses of cortisone, testosterone and L-thyroxine. Combined treatment with GHRH (1-29)NH2 and SMS 201-995 appeared to promote the effect of GHRH on pituitary GH release and somatic growth in these animals. The results suggest that continuous administration of GHRH will be useful in the treatment of children with growth retardation resulting from hypothalamic disorders. In children with combined GHRH and somatostatin deficiencies, the addition of somatostatin to a GHRH treatment regimen may produce better results. PMID:2568726

  11. 施用畜禽粪肥对旱地玉米生产力的影响%Effects of Farm Animal Manure on Productivity of Dryland Cron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 籍增顺; 李永平; 史向远; 张晓晨

    2012-01-01

    Based on the current situation of the chemical fertilizer abuse and ignorance of organic fertilizers application rate in northern China dry farming region, effects of farm animal manure on the crop water use efficiency, biological characteristics, photosynthetic physiological characteristics and yield were studied through a two-year field experiment. The result showed that the water use efficiency could be significantly increased 25.80% - 43.36% under farm animal manure compared with CK, meanwhile, the organic fertilizer played a remarkable role on promoting crop growth, developing crop high photosynthesis duration and decreasing crop convex tip. The organic fertilizer had 25.59% ~ 39.15% higer yields than that of the CK.%针对北方旱作农业区化肥滥用、畜禽粪肥施用量不明的现状,通过连续2a的有机肥培肥试验,研究了不同梯度水平下施用畜禽粪肥对旱地玉米水分利用效率、生物学性状、光合生理特性以及产量的影响.结果表明,施用畜禽粪肥与对照相比,能显著提高作物水分利用效率25.80%~43.36%;可使作物增产25.59%~ 39.15%;对促进作物生长,延长作物的高光合持续期,减少作物的秃尖程度有显著作用.

  12. Thermochemical treatment of biogas digestate solids to produce organic fertilisers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelopoulos, Athanasios

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manures has been proposed as a process with twofold advantage. The production of biogas, a renewable source of energy, and the treatment of animal manures to increase their agronomic value and reduce their environmental impact. However, the residual of anaerobic dige...... with known manure stabilizing treatments i.e. composting. Finally, the energy cost associated with thermal drying of bio-wastes is expected to largely determine the degree implementation in different areas...

  13. 不同来源畜禽粪的养分和污染物组成%Contents of nutrient elements and pollutants in different sources of animal manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单英杰; 章明奎

    2012-01-01

    Intensive confined livestock and poultry production systems generate large quantities of by-product that can be potentially recycled on lands as manure.Environmental protection is a major consideration for developing management practices that effectively use livestock manure as nutrient resource and soil conditioner in agricultural production.To date,most environmental problems associated with land applications of by-product manure have centered mainly on groundwater and/or surface water contamination by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients.With increasing use of trace elements such as Cu in nutritional supplements and antibiotics in livestock medicines as feed additives in intensive livestock industries,manure application has become the main source of heavy metal (e.g.,Cu,Zn and As) and antibiotic load in soils.By-product manure is applied in farmlands to supply primarily soil N and/or P,without regard to heavy metal pollution.The danger lies in accumulation of manure-borne metals and antibiotics,whichthreaten food safety and security.To reduce the risk of offsite contamination,it is important to characterize the contents of nutrient elements and pollutants in animal manure.In this study,155 samples of animal manure (including 93 samples of pig manure,31 samples of chicken manure,18 samples of duck manure and 13 samples of cow manure) were collected from both intensive animal farms and household animal houses in different regions of Zhejiang Province.Chemical and spectrum analysis were used to characterize the contents of nutrient elements,heavy metals and antibiotic residues.The results showed low contents of Cd,Cr,Hg,Ni andPb and high contents of Cu and Zn in animal manure.The ranges of manure contents of Cu,Zn and As were 18.56~1 788.04 mg-kg-1,12.46~10 056.68 mg·kg-1 and 0.69~76.43 mg·kg-1,with mean values of 525.38 mg·kg-1,897.14 mg·kg-1 and 10.01 mg·kg-1,respectively.Based on the national standards of heavy metal load limit of sludge for land

  14. A biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry wastes manure as a feed ingredient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Jalil, M.H. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco). Biology Dept.; Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Faid, M. [Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Elyachioui, M. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2001-07-01

    Poultry wastes manure was diluted by adding the same amount of water 50-50 (w/v). They were then mixed with 10% molasses. The mixture was inoculated with a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidolactici, and incubated at 30{sup o}C for 10 days. Changes in nutritional quality and biochemical properties (pH, total nitrogen, total volatile nitrogen, non protein nitrogen, carbohydrates and ash) were determined for the raw and the transformed product. In parallel, microbiological analyses, including standard plant count, enterobacteria and enterococci, were performed. Results indicated that the product obtained from the wastes fermentation showed low counts of enterobacteria and enterococci. Chemical determinations showed a net decrease of the pH to around 4.0 and the growth curve of the lactic acid bacteria showed the success of the acidification process. The total nitrogen was conserved in the product and the total volatile nitrogen was totally eliminated. The product was used for substituting some protein sources in a conventional formula used in laying feeding of three lots. Two formulae containing, respectively, 20% and 40% of the product was compared to the control (0%). The food consumption and laying performances were monitored for 30 days. The nutritional test indicted that the incorporation of the poultry manure silage of up to 40% gave laying performances similar to those obtained with the conventional formula. These results show that it is possible to transform poultry manure by controlled fermentation and that the product has an added value as a feed ingredient. (Author)

  15. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  16. Inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, H.D.; Shannon, E.E.; Derbyshire, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55/sup 0/C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35/sup 0/C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70/sup 0/C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  17. Development of an efficient extraction method for oxytetracycline in animal manure for high performance liquid chromatography analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4-dimethylamino-5,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene- 1,3,12-trione) is a majormember of the tetracycline antibiotics family ofwhich are widely administered to animals in concentrated animal feeding operations for purposes o...

  18. Ultrasonic treatment of experimental animal tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Kremkau, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Studies on the effects of ultrasound on several solid tumours in experimental animals have indicated that tumour growth rates can be reduced. These data are generally consistent with a thermal mechanism of action. Application of combined ultrasound and X-irradiation have shown that with some experimental animal tumours the radiation dose required to locally control 50% of the tumours can be reduced by ultrasound. These results were also consistent with a thermal mechanism of action hypothesis...

  19. 45 CFR 63.33 - Treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations set forth in (9 CFR Parts 1, 2, 3, 4). ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of animals. 63.33 Section 63.33 Public... animals. If animals are utilized in any project receiving assistance, the applicant for such...

  20. Manure Spills in Streams: Current Practices and Remediation Methods to Minimize Water Quality Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure spills into streams are an all too common byproduct of animal production. With greater numbers of animals raised on fewer farms, manure spills become greater problems due to the volume of manure spilled into aquatic ecosystems. This book chapter reviews why manure spills occur, and the curren...

  1. Rabbit manure composting

    OpenAIRE

    Llosera Vall, X.; Voltas Aguilar, Jordi; Pujolà Cunill, Montserrat; Soliva Torrentó, Montserrat

    1992-01-01

    Ten samples of rabbit manure representative of the different techniques of treatment and handling used by livestock farms in Catalonia have been characterized. Two of the materials with a different composition have been composted. The origin of materials influence the composting processes and the compost final characteristics. It seems to be relationated with the balance between humification and decomposition processes.

  2. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm2, and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics

  3. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics.

  4. Postexposure Treatment and Animal Rabies, Ontario, 1958-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Nunan, Christopher P.; Tinline, Rowland R.; Honig, Janet M.; Ball, David G. A.; Hauschildt, Peggy; LeBer, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between animal rabies and postexposure treatment (PET) in Ontario by examining the introduction of human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) in 1980 and the initiation of an oral rabies vaccination program for wildlife in 1989. Introducing HDCV led to an immediate doubling of treatments. Both animal rabies and human treatments declined rapidly after the vaccination program was introduced, but human treatments have leveled off at approximately 1,000 per year.

  5. Use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and the fate of antibiotic residues and resistance genes in the environment after land application of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -absence data for the surveyed genes were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). Manure treatment lagoons and storage pits were always found to contain every tet gene for which surveys were conducted (Koike et al., 2007), and, likewise, five out six erm genes found at these sites were detected in nearly every lagoon sample (Koike et al., in review). A subset of groundwater wells at site A were found to contain both tet and erm genes with much higher frequencies than other wells, and the detection frequencies of most tet and erm genes for these wells were close to 100%. These 'impacted' wells (A6, A8, A9, A11, A12) were all located in close proximity to the source lagoon, and most of them were situated in a relatively porous aquifer that bisected the lagoon. Chemical indicators of lagoon leakage, such as chloride and ammonium concentrations, were previously seen to be elevated in these impacted wells (Mackie et al., 2006, Koike et al., 2007). The number of antibiotic resistance genes in other wells, including background wells, was extremely variable over time, with a tendency for the detection frequencies of many genes to be quite low. Antibiotic resistance gene pools in soils were impacted by the addition of manure. Background detection frequencies of tet genes in soil were close to zero, but immediately after manure injection, it was possible to detect all tet genes for which surveys were conducted in most soil samples. Over time, the detection frequency of some tet genes (tet(M), tet(O), tet(H), tet(Z)) returned to near-zero, while others (tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C)) persisted. The detection frequencies of tet(C) and tet(W) genes remained high five months after manure injection, and at site C the tet(C) gene was still detectable in many soil samples eighteen months after manure injection. Interestingly, the temporal and spatial patterns of antibiotic resistance genes in soils and water did not seem to depend on direct selection pressure due to antibiotic persistence, as

  6. Assessing the impacts of temperature and storage on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes decay in dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sagor; Pandey, Pramod K; Farver, Thomas B

    2016-06-01

    Elevated levels of animal waste-borne pathogen in ambient water is a serious human health issue. Mitigating influx of pathogens from animal waste such as dairy manure to soil and water requires improving our existing knowledge of pathogen reductions in dairy manure treatment methods. This study was conducted to enhance the  understanding of human pathogen decay in liquid dairy manure in anaerobic (AN) and limited aerobic (LA) storage conditions. The decay of three pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes) was assessed in bench-scale batch reactors fed with liquid slurry. A series of temperatures (30, 35, 42, and 50 °C) conditions were tested to determine the impacts of temperature on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes decay in AN and LA conditions. Results showed prolonged survival of E. coli compared to Salmonella and L. monocytogenes in both LA and AN environments. Variations in survival among pathogens with temperature and environmental conditions (i.e., LA and AN) indicated the necessity of developing improved dairy manure waste treatment methods for controlling animal waste-borne pathogens. The results of this study will help in improving the current understanding of human pathogen decay in dairy manure for making informed decisions of animal manure treatment by stakeholders. PMID:26922419

  7. 畜禽粪便中四环类抗生素的残留和环境行为%Residues and Environmental Behaviors of Tetracyclines in Animal Manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成贤; 周丽

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated operations of livestock and poultry were highly developed in China, its residues of tetracyclines in animal manure may pose great threat potential to environment. Residues of tetracyclines in animal manure, the ways entered into the environment and its mobility and degradation in the soil environment were summarized.%我国畜禽养殖业很发达,畜禽粪便中残留的四环素类抗生素的污染对生态环境构成了巨大的潜在威胁。针对这种状况,本文总结了我国四环素类抗生素在畜禽粪便中的残留状况及其进入环境的途径,并概述了其在环境中的迁移和降解状况。

  8. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  9. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  10. Citric Acid Treatment of Chronic Wounds in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    B.S. Nagoba,; B.J. Wadher and S.P. Selkar

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wound infections in animals not responding to conventional treatment modality are the important cause of morbidity. Infection is responsible for delayed wound healing. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop simple and effective treatment modality by using citric acid as a sole antimicrobial agent to control chronic wound infections in animals. Thirty eight cases of chronic wounds not responding to conventional treatment modalities were divided into two groups. Each group...

  11. Anaerobic treatment of apple waste with swine manure for biogas production: Batch and continuous operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Apple waste (AW) was co-digested with swine manure (SM). ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield than SM only. ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield at 55 °C than at 36.5 °C. ► Modified Gompertz model best fitted to the substrates used. ► Positive synergetic effect up to 33% AW during continuous digestion. -- Abstract: This study evaluated the performance of anaerobic digesters using a mixture of apple waste (AW) and swine manure (SM). Tests were performed using both batch and continuous digesters. The batch test evaluated the gas potential, gas production rate of the AW and SM (Experiment I), and the effect of AW co-digestion with SM (33:67,% volatile solids (VSs) basis) (Experiment II) at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The first-order kinetic model and modified Gompertz model were also evaluated for methane yield. The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with different mixture ratios of AW and SM at mesophilic temperature. The ultimate biogas and methane productivity of AW in terms of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was determined to be 510 and 252 mL/g TCOD added, respectively. The mixture of AW and SM improved the biogas yield by approximately 16% and 48% at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, respectively, compared to the use of SM only, but no significant difference was found in the methane yield. The difference between the predicted and measured methane yield was higher with a first order kinetic model (4.6–18.1%) than with a modified Gompertz model (1.2–3.4%). When testing continuous digestion, the methane yield increased from 146 to 190 mL/g TCOD added when the AW content in the feed was increased from 25% to 33% (VS basis) at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.6 g VS/L/d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days. However, the total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) accumulation increased rapidly and the p

  12. Scientific Opinion on animal health risk mitigation treatments as regards imports of animal casings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Salting with NaCl for 30 days is a well-established and accepted procedure in the casings industry and it has been the standard animal health risk mitigation treatment prescribed in EU legislation for many years. This opinion reviews (i improvements in the NaCl treatment that would lead to an increased level of safety to avoid transmission of animal pathogens, (ii alternative treatments that could have been developed giving equivalent or better results in the inactivation of relevant pathogens, and (iii provides an assessment of the phosphate-salt treatment recommended by OIE for foot and mouth disease virus, in particular if it could be considered safe as regards the elimination of other animal pathogens. The rate of inactivation of viruses was highly dependent on temperature for both NaCl and phosphate-NaCl treatment. Treatment with phosphate-NaCl mixture leads to faster inactivation than treatment with NaCl salt alone. Brucella species are readily inactivated by NaCl salting, but mycobacteriamay survive beyond 30 days in intestines in conditions similar to those used for salting of casings. It is recommended that casings should be treated at 20 °C for 30 days to achieve effective inactivation of animal pathogens. Several other treatments have been applied to casings with the aim of inactivating infectious agents, but none of them have been extensively investigated with viruses relevant for animal health.

  13. EnviroAtlas - Manure application to agricultural lands from confined animal feeding operations by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean livestock manure application to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006....

  14. 中国区域畜禽粪便能源潜力及总量控制研究%Biogas energy potential for livestock manure and gross control of animal feeding in region level of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿维; 胡林; 崔建宇; 卜美东; 张蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

      为了评估中国畜禽粪便资源总量及其对环境的影响,以环保部、统计局和农业部发布的区域畜禽产排污系数为基础,利用2010年的统计数据,研究了中国及各省的畜禽粪便资源总量、能源潜力及农地的氮磷负荷,并以欧盟的农地氮磷施用标准对中国畜禽养殖的环境容量和污染风险进行了初步评估.结果表明,2010年,中国畜禽粪便总量达22.35亿 t,可产沼气1072.75亿 m3,山东等6省市粪便资源超过1.00亿 t;全国单位面积农地氮磷平均负荷为43.73 kg/hm2(TN)和9.16 kg/hm2(TP),北京等6省市农地氮磷负荷超标;全国畜禽养殖环境容量为129.56亿头猪当量(以 N 为基准),159.74亿头猪当量(以 P 为基准),实际养殖总量约占环境容量的1/4,考虑化肥施用的影响,约有20个省超过本省50%环境容量.研究结果为区域畜禽养殖总量控制、合理布局和粪污的综合利用提供决策依据.%With the increasing demand for meat products, animal husbandry industry has developed rapidly in China in the past decade. Large amount of animal manure were produced, which would be an important sources of biogas energy production or serious pollutant sources to soil and water body, if discharged into the environment without appropriate processing. It is very meaningful to assess the impacts of animal manure on environment in China. Based on the pollutant excretion coefficient of livestock and poultry that was officially released by the Ministry of National Environmental Protection of China, and the latest statistical data from statistical year book of China in 2011 that was released by the National Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Agriculture, the gross amount of animal manure and the biogas energy potential by animal manure in different regions of China were evaluated in this study. The whole country was divided into six regions and the major 10 species of livestock and poultry were selected. Meanwhile

  15. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge. PMID:26517996

  16. The use of N-15 labelling to study the turnover and utilization of ruminant manure N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved understanding of the cycling of animal manure N is a prerequisite for malting better use of this N source. A sheep was fed N-15-Iabelled grass in order to study the fate of N-15-Iabelled ruminant manure N in the plant-soil system. The uniformity of labelling was found to be satisfactory...... uptake of N-15- labelled mineral fertilizer in a reference treatment. The uptake was 28-32% of that of the reference treatment with simulated slurry injection, 13-25% with incorporated slurry and 18-19% with slurry on the soil surface. The mineralization of faecal N in the autumn after application in...... spring was low irrespective of the slurry distribution in soil. The results demonstrate that the contact between animal manure and the soil matrix significantly influences the short-term turnover and availability of faecal and ammonium N in slurry, especially in fine-textured soils....

  17. Scientific Opinion on animal health risk mitigation treatments as regards imports of animal casings

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)

    2012-01-01

    Salting with NaCl for 30 days is a well-established and accepted procedure in the casings industry and it has been the standard animal health risk mitigation treatment prescribed in EU legislation for many years. This opinion reviews (i) improvements in the NaCl treatment that would lead to an increased level of safety to avoid transmission of animal pathogens, (ii) alternative treatments that could have been developed giving equivalent or better results in the inactivation of releva...

  18. Citric Acid Treatment of Chronic Wounds in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Nagoba,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wound infections in animals not responding to conventional treatment modality are the important cause of morbidity. Infection is responsible for delayed wound healing. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop simple and effective treatment modality by using citric acid as a sole antimicrobial agent to control chronic wound infections in animals. Thirty eight cases of chronic wounds not responding to conventional treatment modalities were divided into two groups. Each group included 19 cases. In group 1, 3% citric acid solution and in group 2, 5% citric acid solution was used for local application to find out its efficacy in the treatment of chronic wound infections in animals. Citric acid was found effective in the control of all 38 cases in 7 to 20 applications. In group 1, the wounds healed in 10-20 applications. In group 2, the wounds healed in 7-15 applications. Citric acid treatment was found most effective and economical approach for the successful treatment of chronic infected wounds in animals not responding to conventional antibiotic treatment and local wound care. These results suggest that when healing of chronic wounds in animals is a matter of great concern, the value of topical agents like citric acid should not be forgotten.

  19. Swine manure post-treatment technologies for pathogenic organism inactivation Tecnologias de pós-tratamento de dejetos suínos para inativar organismos patogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bilotta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Swine manure agricultural use is a common practice in Brazil. Their physic-chemical characteristics favor its use as biofertilizer, but the presence of pathogens may become a risk to human health. This research presents a qualitative study of the main alternatives of pig manure disinfection, analyzing efficiency, advantages and limitations of each procedure. The disinfection studies reported in literature are based on the following treatments: alkaline, thermal, biological, chemical, and physical. The greater efficiencies are in thermal treatment (> 4 log: 60 °C, chemical treatment (3 to 4 log: 30mg Cl- L-1; 3 to 4 log: 40 mg O3 L-1 and physical treatment (3 a 4 log: 220 mJ UV radiation cm-2. The biological treatment (anaerobiosis also promotes the pathogen reduction of swine manure, however with lower efficiency (1 to 2 log. The selection of the treatment should consider: implementation and operation cost, necessity of preliminary treatment, efficiency obtained and destination of the treated manure (agricultural use, water reuse. Brazilian regulation does not have specific guidelines for the microbiological quality of animal production effluents that is very important to be considered due to confined animal feeding operation transformation in the last years in the country.O uso agrícola de dejetos suínos é uma prática comum no Brasil. Suas características físico-químicas favorecem seu aproveitamento como biofertilizante, porém a presença de patógenos pode representar um risco à saúde humana. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo qualitativo das principais alternativas de desinfecção de dejetos suínos, analisando eficiência, vantagens e limitações de cada procedimento. Os estudos de desinfecção reportados na literatura são baseados nos seguintes tratamentos: alcalino, térmico, biológico, químico e físico. As maiores eficiências de redução de patógenos estão no tratamento térmico (>4 log: 60 °C, tratamento químico (3

  20. Comparative Effects of Animal Manures and Mineral Fertilizer on Agronomic Parameters of Telfairia occidentalis on Luvisol in Lagos Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okubena-Dipeolu Esther

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Telfairia occidentalis is a vegetable rich in nutrients and command market value common among the Igbos of eastern part of Nigeria but has not been widely cultivated in other parts of the country except Lagos. Two pot experiments were concurrently conducted at lagos State University to evaluate the effect of blood meal (BM, poultry dung (PM, cattle dung (CD, pig dung (PD and NPK15:15:15 fertilizer (NPK on morphological characteristics of Telfairia occidentalis. Ten kilogram (10 kg of soil was weighed and poured into forty two buckets. A concentration of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 g/10 kg soil of each of the treatments to represent 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 t/ha were individually mixed with 10 kg soil. NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer was applied at the rate of 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5 g to represent 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg/ha respectively. The treatments were arranged on completely randomized design and replicated three times. Application of BM, PM, CD, PD and NPK had significant (p<0.05 influence on root, shoot and leaf parameters of Telfairia occidentalis. It is concluded that apart from the soil nutrients requirement, the choice of fertilizer in growing Telfaria occidentalis need to be depended on the part of the plants that is of interest to the farmer.

  1. Determination of chlorophyll a and total phosphorus abundance in organic manured fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin M. Chanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted for 6 weeks (between August and September 2010 with 4treatments (T1: poultry manure, T2: cattle manure, T3: poultry and cattle manure and T4: control-nomanure assigned to 8 concrete ponds at random to determine chlorophyll a and total phosphorusabundance in organic manured fish ponds. Results of the study suggest that T1, T2, and T3 had an effecton chlorophyll a and total phosphorus abundance in organic manured ponds. The final mean average forchlorophyll a ranged from 0.0105mg/m3 to 0.045mg/m3 and that of total phosphorus ranged from0.024mg/50mL to 0.522mg/50mL. Chlorophyll a and phosphorus were positively correlated with acoefficient of 0.92 and it was significant (p ≤ 0.05. However, weekly performance of chlorophyll a andtotal phosphorus was higher in T3 compared to other treatments. The treatments also showeddifferences in the number of plankton species available. Phytoplankton species in T3 increased from 888in week three to 933 in week six. However, the zooplankton species reduced from 10 in week three to 4in week six compared to other treatments. These results indicate that animal manure varied ininfluencing the production of chlorophyll a, planktons and phosphorus. The variation may be attributed tofeed nutritive value of the animals to which they were fed. Farmers should therefore be encouraged touse a combination of poultry and cattle manure to obtain maximum benefits in increasing chlorophyll aand total phosphorus.

  2. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and wheat straw for optimized biogas production by the addition of magnetite and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The additives of magnetite and zeolite in anaerobic digestion were studied. • Mineral additives increased methane production significantly. • Mineral additives provided a good environment for methanogens. • The optimum conditions for anaerobic digestion process were optimized. - Abstract: To enhance biogas production and identify new additive materials for the co-digestion of wheat straw, sheep manure, and chicken manure, batch experiments were investigated in this study. Experiments were conducted on the influence of additive materials on a range of manure/straw ratios (3:7, 5:5, and 7:3) and biogas production under a mesophilic temperature (35 °C). Results showed that the maximum increments of methane production (L/kg · VSadd) with the addition of 3 g magnetite and 1 g natural zeolite were 52.01% and 51.01%, respectively. The addition of magnetite and zeolite in the anaerobic digestion process produced a good fermentation environment. By using the response optimizer when the manure proportion was 52%, the best methane yield was obtained with the addition of 2.7 g magnetite. For zeolite, the best addition dose was 1 g and the optimum manure proportion is 63%. Magnetite had a more extensive increase in methane yield than zeolite

  3. Interaction and coupling in the emission of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.; Groenestein, C.M.; Hilhorst, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g., compost

  4. Fate and transport of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genetic determinants during manure storage, treatment, and land application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are used in swine production for therapeutic treatment of disease and at sub-therapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. It is estimated that ca.75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in waste. Antibiotic resistance selection occur...

  5. Methane emissions of differently fed dairy cows and corresponding methane and nitrogen emissions from their manure during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külling, D R; Dohme, Frigga; Menz, H; Sutter, F; Lischer, P; Kreuzer, M

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of supplementing 40 g lauric acid (C12) kg(-1) dry matter (DM) in feed on methane emissions from early-lactating dairy cows and the associated effects on methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia release from the manure during storage. Stearic acid (C18), a fatty acid without assumed methane-suppressing potential in the digestive tract of ruminants, was added at 40 g kg(-1) DM to a control diet. The complete feed consisted of forage and concentrate in a ratio of 1.5:1 (DM basis). The manure was stored for 14 weeks either as complete slurry or, separately, as urine-rich slurry and farmyard manure representing two common storage systems. Methane release of the cows, as measured in respiratory chambers, was lower with C12 by about 20%, but this was mostly resulting from a reduced feed intake and, partly, from a lower rate of fibre digestion. As milk yield declined less than feed intake, methane emission per kg of milk was significantly lower with C12 (11.4 g) than with C18 (14.0 g). Faeces of C12-fed cows had a higher proportion of undigested fibre and accordingly methane release from their manure was higher compared with the manure obtained from the C18-fed cows. Overall, manure-derived methane accounted for 8.2% and 15.4% of total methane after 7 and 14 weeks of storage, respectively. The evolution of methane widely differed between manure types and dietary treatments, with a retarded onset of release in complete slurry particularly in the C12 treatment. Emissions of nitrous oxide were lower in the manures from the C12 treatment. This partially compensated for the higher methane release from the C12 manure with respect to the greenhouse gas potential. The total greenhouse gas potential (cow and manure together) accounted for 8.7 and 10.5 kg equivalents of CO2 cow(-1) d(-1) with C12 and C18, respectively. At unaffected urine-N proportion ammonia and total nitrogen losses from stored manure were lower with C12 than with C18 corresponding

  6. Potential of Waste Water Sludge as Environmental-Friendly Manure after UV-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Zafar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to exponential population increase in developing world, the wastewater and solid waste generation has tremendously increased and their management has become a serious health and environmental issue. A large amount of sewage sludge generated by sewage treatment plants however, can be re-used after proper segregation and treatment as fertilizer and for energy production. Hence, this study was carried out to find out the potential use of sludge produced at Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT Sewage Treatment Plant (STP as organic fertilizer. For this purpose, chemical analysis of the waste water was carried out to determine the quality of raw waste water (influent and treated waste water (effluent intermittently. Furthermore, post-wastewater treatment, sewage sludge was analyzed for its chemical characteristics, i.e., for Total Nitrogen (TN, Total Phosphorous (TP and Organic Matter (OM contents; and microbial analyses for the presence of Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and E. Coli was also carried out sewage sludge was exposed to sunlight for 0, 3 and 6 months. The results were with commercial compost (control similar characteristics. According to the results, pH, EC, TSS, COD and BOD5 were found very high in the influent however, after the waste water treatment; the effluent quality was found within the limits of National Environmental Quality standards (NEQs. On the other hand, TN, TP and OM content remained high in sewage sludge as compared to the controls. In order to enumerate harmful microbes in sewage sludge, microbial analyses for Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and E. coli was carried out in pre-treated, UV-post-treated and control sludge samples. According to the results, the Total and Fecal Coliforms were found very high (>16000 MPN/g whereas, E. Coli population remained between (7000-12000 MPN/g. The most important aspect noted in this study was: as the sludge aged, this figure (7,000, 12,000, and 1,600 MPN/g after 0, 3 and 6 months

  7. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of waste treatment of animal carcass contaminated with plutonium was proposed. A multi-step process was designed and tested at a laboratory scale which was composed of the following processes; microwave dehydration, heat decomposition and ashing. Microwave dehydration was found the most adequate as the first step of the treatment because of the negligible release of nonvolatile radioactivity. About 70% of body weight was reduced by microwave dehydration. Dehydrated animal carcass was decomposed by graded electric heating under anaerobic condition. Burnable gas and vapour produced by the heat decomposition were oxidized by passing through a reheating tube with excess air. The exhaust gas had no significant radioactivity. The residue of charred carcass was oxidized by heating with excess air. The weight of final product was up to 8% of original wet weight. The proposed multi-step process provided to be adequate for the waste disporsal of Pu contaminated animal carcass. (author)

  8. Potential of biogas production with young bulls manure on batch biodigesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M.; Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The feedlot system concerning the young bull model allows that animals gain weight in a shorter time since there is higher daily intake of protein when compared to fiber. This change on animals' diet alters particularly manure characteristics and thus interferes on performance of biological systems of treatment. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of biogas production using manure of young bulls that received two different diets on batch biodigesters under three temperatures, with and without inoculum use. The results showed that manure from animals that received more protein on diet (80% concentrate + 20% roughage) had greater reductions on volatile solids when submitted to anaerobic biodigestion. Although the speed of biogas production was superior on treatments with inoculum, it was observed negative effect on inoculum use. There was no effect on temperature during biogas production. Regarding diet effect, manure of animals fed on diet with more protein produced larger amounts of biogas per kg of total added solids (0.2543) when compared to those who received less protein on diet (65% concentrate + 35% roughage), which meant 0.1001 m{sup 3} biogas/kg/total solids. (author)

  9. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The common house fly, Musca domestica (Md) is an important carrier of zoonotic agents, and Campylobacter jejuni is one that may be transmitted between animals and humans by flies. Colonized animals shed the bacteria in feces where larval stages of Md flies develops. Aim of the present...... study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure and...... C. jejuni. Pupae or newly hatched flies were not carriers of C. jejuni although larvae were grown in contaminated manure. Impact When composting poultry manure with Md fly larvae, it is possible both to reduce the amount of waste and to sanitize it from C. jejuni, thereby reducing the risk of...

  10. Treatment of Dairy Manure Effluent Using Freshwater Algae in Outdoor Pilot-Scale Raceways: Algal Production and Nutrient Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative practice to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) present in these liquid slurries. The objective of this study was to determine how algal productivity, nutrient removal efficiency, and elemental composition of turf algae ...

  11. Extensive Treatment System For Recycling Water For Flushing Fresh Manure And Recovering Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Philippe; Robin, Paul; Escande, Aurélie; Picot, Bernadette; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Jiangping, Qiu; Yinsheng, Li; Hamon, Gwenn; Amblard, Charlotte; Luth, Fievet, Sébastien; Oudart, Didier; Le Quéré, Camille Pain; Cluzeau, Daniel; Landrain, Brigitte

    2010-11-01

    From preliminary researches on a pilot scale, a complete demonstration plant was built to treat the effluents of a 30 pregnant sow's piggery. It includes a screen, a vermifilter, a macrophyte lagooning, and a complementary water storage pond; the recycled water is used for flushing, and rainfall is collected to compensate for evapotranspiration. After functioning in 2008 and 2009, it was showed that, during the warm season, the whole plant produced an effluent suitable for flushing, where the concentration decrease was over 70% for the phosphorus and potassium, 95% for the COD and nitrogen, 99.8% for endocrine disruptors (estrogenic activity), and 99.99% for pathogenic micro-organisms. During the cold season, the dilution by the rain water and the treatment effect of the constructed wetlands lead to similar results. Nevertheless, for this season, suitable floating macrophytes that will cover the lagoons remain to be settled.

  12. [Nutrients conservation of N & P and greenhouse gas reduction of N2O emission during swine manure composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Xi; Wei, Yuan-Song; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Zeng, Xiao-Lan; Han, Sheng-Hui; Fang, Yun

    2011-07-01

    Nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas (N2O) emission occur during animal manure composting, as well as phosphorus loss caused by runoff during land application of animal manure compost. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to simultaneously conserve nutrients of nitrogen & phosphorus and reduce N2O emission during animal manure composting using modified salts which are made from industrial solid waste. Experiments of in-vessel swine manure composting at lab-scale were carried out to investigate and compare effects of modified red-mud (MR) and modified forsterite (MF) as additives on nutrients conservation and greenhouse gas (N2O) reduction. As far as the nitrogen loss calculated on the basis of ammonia and nitrous oxide is concerned, the least nitrogen loss at only 6.38% of TKN occurred in the swine manure composting with MF addition at pH 7.0 +/- 0.2, compared with those of MR addition at pH 5.0 +/- 0.2 at 11.07% of TKN and the control at 14.68% of TKN, respectively. The best results of ammonia and nitrous oxide mitigation during swine manure composting were the treatments with MR addition and MF addition, which nitrogen losses were at 2.13% of TKN as NH3 and 0.65% of TKN, respectively. These results clearly showed that the modified salt additives from red-mud and forsterite were useful for saving nitrogen and reducing N2O emission. Moreover, the contents of soluble orthophosphate in swine manure compost with the addition of both modified salts were less than that of the control, which is helpful to reduce P loss during land application of swine manure compost. PMID:21922829

  13. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental co

  14. Persistence of pathogens in liquid pig manure processed in manure tanks and biodigesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Betancur H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the study and another one at the end of the process in manure tanks and biodigesters. For the manure tank, a 250 liters tank was filled with fresh pig manure and was analyzed after three days of storage. The biodigesters were of continuous flow and its effluents were analyzed, according to the specific hydraulic retention times. The diagnostic techniques were those recommended specifically for each microorganism and were carried out in certified labs by the Colombian Animal Health authority. Results. Of the 26 pathogens that were investigated, 15 appeared in the fresh pig manure used in pig manure tanks and 12 in the one used in biodigestors. In manure tanks, Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, mold, yeast, Salmonella spp., Balantidium coli and Strongylids did not persist. In biodigesters, PCV2, yeast, Strongylids, B. coli and Strongyloides spp., did not persist. Conclusions. In both manure tanks and biodigesters, a variation could be seen in pathogen persistency, indicating that they act as transformation systems of pig manure for the removal of the latter, as long as the storage times are increased if the efficiency wants to be improved.

  15. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    OpenAIRE

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The common house fly, Musca domestica (Md) is an important carrier of zoonotic agents, and Campylobacter jejuni is one that may be transmitted between animals and humans by flies. Colonized animals shed the bacteria in feces where larval stages of Md flies develops. Aim of the present study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larva...

  16. Microbial Community and Chemical Characteristics of Swine Manure during Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabue, Steven L; Kerr, Brian J; Bearson, Bradley L; Hur, Manhoi; Parkin, Timothy; Wurtele, Eve S; Ziemer, Cherrie J

    2016-07-01

    Swine diet formulations have the potential to lower animal emissions, including odor and ammonia (NH). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of manure storage duration on manure chemical and microbial properties in swine feeding trials. Three groups of 12 pigs were fed a standard corn-soybean meal diet over a 13-wk period. Urine and feces were collected at each feeding and transferred to 12 manure storage tanks. Manure chemical characteristics and headspace gas concentrations were monitored for NH, hydrogen sulfide (HS), volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles. Microbial analysis of the stored manure included plate counts, community structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), and metabolic function (Biolog). All odorants in manure and headspace gas concentrations were significantly ( effect of swine diet formulations on manure emissions for odor need to be conducted for a minimum of 5 wk. Efforts to determine the impact of diets on greenhouse gas emissions will require longer periods of study (>13 wk). PMID:27380061

  17. A REVIEW ON ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF SWINE MANURE%猪粪废水的厌氧处理工艺研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹榕; 谢丽; 黄燕; 周琪; 周烺; 龚浩

    2012-01-01

    介绍了近几年国内外厌氧工艺处理猪粪废水的研究,详述了猪粪废水的厌氧发酵特性,对比了各种厌氧技术对猪粪废水的处理效果和经济效益,总结了猪粪的厌氧处理工艺中应当关注的因素和运行条件,对该领域的研究前景进行了展望,提出应当加强新型高效反应器与创新耦合厌氧工艺的研究与应用.%Anaerobic digestion had become an attractive technology in the field of agricultural waste for its high removal efficiency of organics and production of biogas. In this literature review, recent researches on the anaerobic treatment of swine manure had been reviewed. The anaerobic treatment performance of swine manure and various technologies had been summarized, especially on the treatment efficiency and economy benefits. The main influencing factors and operation conditions were discussed in this paper. Future research should focus on the application of new efficient anaerobic reactors and innovative coupling technology.

  18. Analysis of manure-derived oxytetracycline in amended soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a member of tetracycline antibiotic family, oxytetracycline is widely administered to animals. With the application of manure from medicated animals as fertilizer into agricultural land, oxytetracycline may enter the environment. For studying oxytetracycline contamination and its fate in agricult...

  19. Abundance of 13C and 15N in emmer, spelt and naked barley grown on differently manured soils: towards a method for identifying past manuring practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Marie; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Andersen, Astrid Junker;

    2011-01-01

    on the soil. We have examined the δ15N and δ13C values of soil and of the grain and straw fractions of three ancient cereal types grown in unmanured, PK amended and cattle manured plots of the Askov long-term field experiment. Manure increased biomass yields and the δ15N values of soil and of grain......The shortage of plant-available nutrients probably constrained prehistoric cereal cropping but there is very little direct evidence relating to the history of ancient manuring. It has been shown that the long-term addition of animal manure elevates the δ15N value of soil and of modern crops grown...... and straw fractions of the ancient cereal types; differences in δ15N between unmanured and PK treatments were insignificant. The offset in straw and grain δ15N due to manure averaged 7.9 and 8.8 ‰, respectively, while the soil offset was 1.9 ‰. The soil and biomass δ13C values were not affected by...

  20. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be...

  1. Influence of Tillage and Daily Manure Application on the Survival of Bacterial Pathogens Indicators in Soil and on Radish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus sp. numbers in soil and on fresh radish (Raphanus sativus L.) at 1, 7, 14, 28, 54, and 84 days after the addition of high and low amounts of solid dairy manure in combination with chisel tillage to a 20 cm depth (deep) or roller tillage to a 10 cm depth (shallow). When the high or low amount of solid dairy manure was added to the soil, E. coli populations in soil were higher in the 54 days following manure addition compared to the control treatment. Dairy manure addition increased Enterococcus sp. in soils compared to the control treatment for the entire 84 days sampling period. At harvest, which was 84 days after application, we did not detect E. coli in radish in rhizosphere soil or on radish roots. Addition of solid dairy manure increased Enterococcus sp. numbers in radish rhizosphere soil and on radish roots. We suggest that fresh animal manure be applied to soil at least 120 days prior to planting to allow die-off of human pathogenic bacteria and reduce the incidence of bacterial adhesion on or bacterial colonization of ready to eat vegetables.

  2. Clinical translation of animal models of treatment relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Mace, F Charles; Penney, Heather; Harris, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Behavioral Momentum Theory (BMT) has inspired animal models of treatment relapse. We translated the models of reinstatement and resurgence into clinical procedures to test whether relapse tests would replicate behavior pattern found in basic research. Following multiple schedule baseline reinforcement of a 16-year-old male's problem behavior at equal rates by two therapists, treatment was introduced using a variable-interval, variable-time (VI VT) schedule arrangement with therapists delivering reinforcers at different rates. Despite the differing rates of VI VT reinforcers, the treatment produced comparable reductions in problem behavior. Following successful treatment, the two therapists discontinued treatment and resumed reinforcement of problem behavior at equal rates that constituted a reinstatement of baseline conditions. As predicted by BMT, reinstatement resulted in an immediate return of high rates of problem behavior but was 2.6 times higher for the therapist using the higher rate VI VT treatment. A second treatment phase was implemented followed by a test of resurgence in a single extended extinction session conducted separately for each therapist. The unequal VI VT treatment rates by therapists resulted in 2.1 times greater responding in the resurgence test for the therapist who implemented the higher rate VI VT procedure. These results are consistent with basic research studies and BMT. PMID:24700533

  3. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  4. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Accommodations § 91.17 Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from the United States to a foreign country shall provide,...

  5. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets... for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may be... Bagged complete diets, packaged feeds, feed ingredients, bulk feeds, animal treats and chews...

  6. Ammonia and nitrous oxide interactions: Roles of manure organic matter management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Sommer, Sven G

    2011-01-01

    between C and N transformations at each stage of the manure management chain in a time scale that is relevant for management practices such as retention time in housing and storage, treatment to optimize nutrient management, and timing of field application. Modelling emissions of N2O from field applied...... manure is a particular challenge due to the heterogeneity in distribution of O2 supply and O2 demand which is introduced. This article is part of the special issue entitled: Greenhouse Gases in Animal Agriculture – Finding a Balance between Food and Emissions, Guest Edited by T.A. McAllister, Section......, mineralization–immobilization turnover, and water retention. Manure management affects the potential for, and balance between, NH3 and N2O emissions. The interaction between NH3 and N2O may be positive (e.g., both emissions are reduced by an airtight cover during storage and stimulated by composting), or...

  7. Manure management. A systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusenmeyer, D C; Cramer, T N

    1997-10-01

    Traditionally, the management of manure nutrients has focused primarily on the production, collection, storage, and field application of manure. By contrast, a total systems approach expands this focus to include concerns about human and animal health, odor and fly control, nutrient import and handling, ration balancing and feeding management to optimize dietary nutrient utilization, management of crop harvest and storage to maximize feed palatability and nutrient digestibility, manure processing for export, farm economics of nutrient management, and the broader economic impacts of environmental regulation and enforcement. In the future, the focus of manure and nutrient management must be to optimize nutrient flow and utilization at every point within the total dairy farm system. A total systems approach to nutrient management is vital to the future of the dairy industry. This approach requires a broad spectrum of scientific expertise that includes multidisciplinary teams involving agronomists, dairy scientists, economists, engineers, microbiologists, soil scientists, veterinarians, and regulators to deal successfully with the complex issues pertaining to dairy nutrient management. PMID:9361237

  8. Odor and Odorous Compound Emissions from Manure of Swine Fed Standard and Dried Distillers Grains with Soluble Supplemented Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian; Scoggin, Kenwood

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a diet containing 35% DDGS over a 42-d feeding trial. Their waste was collected and transferred to individual manure storage containers. Manure from pigs fed diets containing DDGS had significantly lower odorant emissions expressed in animal units for hydrogen sulfide (HS) and ammonia (NH) ( animals fed the DDGS diet. There was no significant difference for indole compound emissions due to the dietary treatment applied. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from manure accounted for less than 0.1% of carbon consumed for either diet. There were no significant differences in odor emissions for either diet as quantified with human panels or measured as the sum total of the odor activity value. Manure odors from pigs fed the CSBM diet were dominated by HS, whereas animals fed the diet containing DDGS were dominated by VOCs. PMID:27136158

  9. Assessment of heavy metal flows in animal husbandry and development of a stategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into agro-ecosystems by animal manures; Erfassung von Schwermetallstroemen in landwirtschaftlichen Tierproduktionsbetrieben und Erarbeitung einer Konzeption zur Verringerung der Schwermetalleintraege durch Wirtschaftsduenger tierischer Herkunft in Agraroekosysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, U.; Doehler, H.; Roth, U.; Eckel, H.; Goldbach, H.; Kuehnen, V.; Wilcke, W.; Uihlein, A.; Fruechtenicht, K.; Steffens, G.

    2004-07-01

    The overall objectives of the project were to assess heavy metal flows on livestock farms and to develop a strategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into animal manures. For the experiments 20 farms with animal husbandry in various regions of Germany were selected. On the farms the inputs and outputs of the elements copper and zinc, as well as lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel were balanced at the stable level. The effect of abatement measures was evaluated using a calculation tool for stable balances. It is shown, the main input pathways for heavy metals into animal manures are, apart from copper disinfectants, feeding stuffs and feed supplements. Home grown feeds are the major source of heavy metal input into the stable because they are fed in large quantities. However, the heavy metal content of the home grown feeds in particular of roughages for ruminants is low. Purchased feed stuffs (supplementary feeding stuffs and complete feeding stuffs) were found to have a higher content of heavy metals (due to supplementation with trace elements) compared to home grown feeds. Thus, pig and poultry husbandry rather than ruminant husbandry is susceptible to heavy metal accumulation of manures. Heavy metals are cycling within the farm which is of importance when discussing the environmental impact. The turnover within the farm can hardly be controlled by the farmer. Thus, effective strategies have to be targeted at the inputs, e. g. the purchased feed stuffs. A main option to reduce the heavy metal input is to lower the trace element concentrations in supplementary feed stuffs either by legislation of maximum threshold values (e. g. EG 1334/2003) or by volunteer agreements of the feed industry and agriculture. In addition, the absorption of copper and zinc by the animals should be improved using better absorbable trace element compounds and phytase. (orig.)

  10. Humanizing Animal Models: A Key to Autoimmune Diabetes Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bresson, Damien; von Herrath, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical evaluation of antibody-based immunotherapies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in animal models is often hampered by the fact that the human antibody drug does not cross-react with its mouse counterpart. In this issue of Science Translational Medicine, researchers describe a new mouse model that expresses the human isoform of a molecule targeted by T1D antibody therapies that are currently being tested in clinical trials—the human epsilon chain of the CD3 complex expresse...

  11. Changes in physical properties and organic carbon of a Kandiudox fertilized with manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Patricia Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Successive applications of pig slurry and poultry manure can improve the soil structure, according to the land use conditions and amounts applied. This study evaluated the effect of manure fertilization on the physical properties and organic carbon of a Rhodic Kandiudox. Treatments included land use and management and time of pig slurry and poultry litter application, namely: native forest (NF; yerba mate after 20 years of animal waste application (YM20; pasture after 15 years of application (P15; grassland after 20 years of manuring (PP20; grassland after 3 years of manuring (P3; pasture without application (P0, maize after 20 years of application (M20; and maize after 7 years of application (M7. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm layers, in which density, porosity, aggregate stability, flocculation, penetration resistance, available water, and total clay content, total and particulate organic carbon, and C:N ratio were analyzed. The total organic carbon is sensitive to management and was not related to waste application, except in the 10-20cm layer of ryegrass pasture after three years of manuring. Reponses to waste application and land use and management systems were observed in the variables soil density and penetration resistance.

  12. Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Oun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

  13. Manuring and stable nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals and pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Rebecca A; Bogaard, Amy; Heaton, Tim;

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of animal manure application on the δ15N values of a broad range of crops (cereals and pulses), under a range of manuring levels/regimes and at a series of locations extending from northwest Europe to the eastern Mediterranean. We included both agricultural field ex...

  14. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, N.; Groenestein, C.M.; de Boer

    2012-01-01

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid miner...

  15. Integration of feeding strategies and manure management for improving growth performance of local cattle and conserving the environment under farmer's conditions in north Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve farms with two lai sind cattle each were selected and divided into two groups to investigate effects of different feeding strategies on growth performance, feed utilization efficiency and methane production in cattle. In group I, animals were reared using the traditional feeding system (cattle fed untreated rice straw and King grass without urea molasses multi- nutrient block (UMMB) and in group II, animals were reared using a new feeding strategy (cattle fed urea-treated rice straw and UMMB). Coupled with the feeding trial, two manure management strategies (solid cattle manure managed in the traditional way without absorbent and stored in the field without cover vs. the new strategy were rice straw ash (15% w/w) is used as absorbent and manure is stored covered with plastic roof) were tested to determine the change in some of the major components i.e. dry matter, N and P in manure during 21 days of storage. After three months feeding trial, an agronomic trial using 700 m2 plots divided into 12 blocks for the 4 treatments was conducted to investigate effects of the different fertilizers on biomass yield of King grasses and soil fertility. Results showed that new feeding strategy with urea treated rice straw and UMMB improved growth performance (15.6%), feed intake (12.4%) and feed conversion ratio (2.8%) of cattle and reduced methane production (17.7%) compared to that in traditional feeding system. Treatment of solid cattle manure with rice straw ash as an absorbent and keeping the manure covered with a plastic roof decreased of the leaching of N from manure by 75-77%. Applying the manure managed in new way to the soil improved soil fertility and biomass yield of King grass. (author)

  16. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of dehydration for the waste treatment of radioactive animal carcass by microwave heating was developed. A heating apparatus was devised by annexing the microwave output controlling circuit to a 600 W commercial microwave oven, and the aqueous vapour from the animal carcass was collected by duplex cold traps. Body weight of the carcass was reduced to 20-30% by dehydration, and a three-year storage test proved that the dehydrated carcass was very hard to decompose. Time needed for dehydration was about 10 min for a 25 g mouse, and about 1 hr for 668 g dog. Violent rupture of the carcass, and/or fuming due to overheating that had often been observed during dehydration were proved to be avoidable by controlling the microwave output during the process. The ratio of radioactivity (60Co, 137Cs, 85Sr, 144Ce) that escaped from the carcass during dehydration was found to be less than 3 x 10-4 by a series of experiment. Some related radiation safety problems were discussed. (author)

  17. Ovarian cysts in domestic animals: etiopathogenesis and treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M. Marinho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available . This literature review aims to address ovarian cysts on their etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, seeking to clarify and inform, because it is a high prevalence and pathogenicity that causes damage to the segments of production and reproduction of animals, especially dairy cows high production. Given the significant occurrence of ovarian alterations, the study covers the main types and their ratings also address predisposing factors, interference due to cystic formations and what types of cysts may or may not cause changes in the physiology of the estrous cycle of females, work also seeks to emphasize the importance of monitoring and early diagnosis in order to minimize the costs and disposal of matrices.

  18. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal for Liquid Dairy Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Yanjuan

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has been widely used in municipal wastewater treatment, but no previous studies have examined the application of EBPR to treat dairy manure. This study was conducted to evaluate the (i) performance of pilot-scale EBPR systems treating liquid dairy manure, to balance the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in manure to meet crop nutrient requirements, (ii) effects of dissolved oxygen and solids retention time on the efficiency of EBPR, and (iii) effect...

  19. Short chain nitrocompounds as a treatment of layer hen manure and litter; effects on in vitro survivability of Salmonella, generic E. coli, and nitrogen metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer hen manure and litter contain appreciable amounts of uric acid, which makes these good crude protein sources for ruminants. Rumen microbial populations can upgrade the nitrogen in uric acid into high quality microbial protein of nutritional value to the host. Layer hen manure and litter can ...

  20. Wet Oxidation of Crude Manure and Manure Fibers: Substrate Characteristics Influencing the Pretreatment Efficiency for Increasing the Biogas Yield of Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The biogas yield of manure is typically lower than 25 m3/t due to its low dry matter content and its high ratio of lignocellulosic fibers that are recalcitrant towards anaerobic digestion. A new pre-treatment method – wet oxidation – has been tested for disruption of the lignocellulosic fiber...... structure with subsequent higher degradation efficiencies and methane yields. A screening of crude manure and the separated fiber fraction shows that wet oxidation is more adequate for treatment of high concentrated solid fraction than for crude manure and an increase of 35% in biogas yield can be gained...... from wet oxidation of digested fibers. The wet oxidation treatment of the manure fiber fraction has to be carefully adjusted in order to achieve the highest increase in biogas yield for the manure fiber fraction under low production of inhibiting compounds and low losses of valuable organic matter....

  1. Organic food and health – a multigeneration animal experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Kirsten; Bügel, Susanne Højbjerg; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Frøsig, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective is to determine, if conventional and organic food products show differences in effects on animal physiology, of a type and magnitude, that indicates that such products will affect humans differently. The agricultural treatments used are: 1: An organic cultivation treatment, with low input of nutrients through animal manure and use of catch crops, and no pesticides. 2: A conventional cultivation system, with high input of nutrients through mineral fertiliser and in...

  2. Manure Tracking Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides an example of the ‘Manure Tracking Book’ that was used by the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the “On Farmers’ Ground” nutrient management research project. This Book was used to systematically tract how, when and where farmers spread manure, and factors...

  3. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis;

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus...

  4. Anaerobic digestion of manure - consequences for plant production

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, A.; Pommeresche, R.; Riley, H

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming systems are today dependent upon fossil energy. Another challenge are soil nutrient concentrations, which may be depleted with time even in animal husbandry systems (Løes & Øgaard 2001). Anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal manure may produce biogas to replace fossil fuels, and reduce methane (CH4) emissions during manure storage. Co-digestion of substrates rich in energy increases the economic viability of the biogas plant, and off-farm substrates such as fish silage or househo...

  5. Influence of pH on hydrothermal treatment of swine manure: Impact on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus in process water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpo, U; Ross, A B; Camargo-Valero, M A; Fletcher, L A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the influence of pH on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus from swine manure following hydrothermal treatment. Conditions include thermal hydrolysis (TH) at 120°C and 170°C, and hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) at 200°C and 250°C in either water alone or in the presence of 0.1M NaOH, H2SO4, CH3COOH or HCOOH. Phosphorus extraction is pH and temperature dependent and is enhanced under acidic conditions. The highest level of phosphorus is extracted using H2SO4 reaching 94% at 170°C. The phosphorus is largely retained in the residue for all other conditions. The extraction of nitrogen is not as significantly influenced by pH, although the maximum N extraction is achieved using H2SO4. A significant level of organic-N is extracted into the process waters following hydrothermal treatment. The results indicate that operating hydrothermal treatment in the presence of acidic additives has benefits in terms of improving the extraction of phosphorus and nitrogen. PMID:27187568

  6. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  7. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  8. County-based estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal manure in the United States for 1982, 1987, and 1992.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains county estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal wastes produced annually for the years 1982, 1987, and 1992. The estimates are...

  9. Hygienisation and Nutrient Conservation of Sewage Sludge or Cattle Manure by Lactic Acid Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A.; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S.; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E.

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. Thi...

  10. Effects of biological pit additives on microbial ecology of stored pig manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of biological pit additives on microbial ecology in stored pig manure were investigated using a dynamic manure storage system, which allowed for continual addition of swine feces and urine. After 13 weeks of manure collection and storage, four treatments were added to tanks (900 L capaci...

  11. Demiwater uit mest = Demineralised water from manure

    OpenAIRE

    Starmans, D.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Dit rapport gaat in op het vermarkten van permeaatwater uit mestverwerking (door middel van omgekeerde osmose) als grondstof voor de bereiding van demiwater.This report is about the commercialization of permeate water from manure treatment using reversed osmosis treatment. The goal is to use the permeate as a resource in the production of demineralized water.

  12. Weed suppression by green manure in an agroecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Garicoix Recalde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manure promotes efficient suppression of weeds, but green manure species can exhibit distinct behaviors, depending on the environmental conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of soil mulching and weed suppression by spring/summer green manure species grown in the spring/summer season, at different growth stages and after management (cut, for 90 days during the cassava crop cycle. The study was carried out in the 2010/2011 season, in a system managed under agroecological principles. The treatments consisted of different green manure species and arrangements: Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia brasiliensis, Canavalia ensiformis, Pennisetum americanum, Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum intercropped; Mucuna aterrima, Sorghum bicolor, a mixture of all the green manures in study and a control plot under fallow. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The evaluations of the soil cover either by the green manures or weeds were performed at 45, 90 and 105 days after the emergence of the green manures. The cassava crop was planted under reduced tillage system at 11 days after the cut of the green manures. The percentage of soil covered by weeds and the dry matter produced were evaluated at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting. The results showed that the green manures had a suppressive effect on weeds during their life cycle, as well as during the first months after its management (cut, composing the mulch.

  13. Management to reduce nitrogen losses in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of nitrogen loss in animal production requires whole-farm management. Reduced loss from one farm component is easily negated in another if all components are not equally well managed. Animal excretion of manure N can be decreased by improving the balance of protein or amino acids fed to that required by individual animals or animal groups or by improving production efficiency. Management to increase milk, meat, or egg production normally improves efficiency by reducing the maintenance protein required per unit of production. Large losses of manure nitrogen occur through the ammonia and nitrous oxide that are emitted into the atmosphere and the nitrate leached into groundwater. Up to half of the excreted nitrogen is lost from the housing facility, but this loss can be decreased through frequent manure removal and by avoiding deep litter systems and feedlots. Techniques such as acid treatment of manure, scrubbing of ventilation air, and floor designs for separating feces and urine substantially reduce ammonia emissions, but these practices are often impractical or uneconomical for general use. Manure storage units improve nutrient utilization by allowing better timing of nutrient application with crop needs. At least 70% of the nitrogen entering anaerobic lagoons is typically lost, but a less than 10% loss can be maintained using slurry storage with a natural crust or other cover, or by drying poultry manure to at least 50% dry matter. Irrigation and surface spreading of manure without soil incorporation often ensures the loss of all remaining nonorganic nitrogen (typically, 20 to 40% of remaining nitrogen). Rapid incorporation and shallow injection methods decrease this loss by at least 50%, and deep injection into the soil essentially eliminates this loss. For grazing animals, excessive loss can be avoided by not overstocking pastures and avoiding late fall and winter grazing. Reducing emissions between the animal and the soil can lead to greater leaching

  14. SWINE MANURE SOLIDS SEPARATION AND THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO HEAVY OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation of solids from liquid swine manure and subsequent thermo-chemical conversion (TCC of the solids fraction into oil is one way of reducing the waste strength and odor emission. Such processing also provides a potential means of producing renewable energy from animal wastes. Gravity settling and mechanical separation techniques, by means of a centrifuge and belt press, were used to remove the solids from liquid swine manure. The solid fractions from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for the TCC process for oil production. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor with a steady temperature 305 oC, and the corresponding pressure was 10.34 Mpa. Gravity settling was demonstrated to be capable of increasing the total solids content of manure from 1% to 9%. Both of the mechanical separation systems were able to produce solids with dry matter around 18% for manure, with 1% to 2% initial total solids. A significant amount of volatile solid (75.7% was also obtained from the liquid fraction using the belt press process. The oil yields of shallow pit manure solids and deep pit manure solids with belt press separation were 28.72% and 29.8% of the total volatile solids, respectively. There was no visible oil product obtained from the deep pit manure solids with centrifuge separation. It is believed that it is the volatile solid content and the other components in the manure chemical composition which mainly deter-mine the oil production.

  15. USE OF PLANTS TINCTURES FOR YOUNG ANIMALS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipov V. A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presented experimental data of alcoholic mixtures of medicinal plants in combination with antimicrobial agents in dyspepsia of calves. Use tinctures with antibiotics improved the general condition of the animals and prevented their death

  16. Effect of swine manure dilution on ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal manure is a significant source of environmental pollution and manure dilution in barn cleaning and slurry storage is a common practice in animal agriculture. The effect of swine manure dilution on releases of four pollutant gases was studied in a 30-day experiment using eight manure reactors divided into two groups. One group was treated with swine manure of 6.71% dry matter and another with manure diluted with water to 3.73% dry matter. Ammonia release from the diluted manure was 3.32 mg min-1 m-2 and was 71.0% of the 4.67 mg min-1 m-2 from the undiluted manure (P -1 m-2 from the diluted manure was 56.4% of the 154.8 mg min-1 m-2 from the undiluted manure (P 0.05) for both hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide releases. Therefore, dilution could also significantly increase the total releases of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide to the environment because dilution adds to the total manure volume and usually also increases the total gas release surface area.

  17. Farmyard manure management and its effect on maize fodder and soil nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stored manure in open heaps exposed to the sun, wind and rain accounts for substantial nutrient losses. A study was conducted to asses the effect of storing manures by traditional uncovered means or covered (under shade) and subsequently used as a fertilizer to determine effects on soil fertility and maize fodder performance. Manure from 5 animal groups was stored either traditionally or covered and the compost applied to a heavy loam soil. The DM and ash contents of the manure were higher in the uncovered compared to the covered manure. The N content of covered manure was 9.6 % higher along with P availability and exchangeable K than uncovered manures. Application of manure, whether covered or not, improved the fertilizer profile of soil than the non-manured control. There was 16.6% and 25.4 % increase in N in plots receiving manure from uncovered and covered manure piles respectively compared to the control plots that were not fertilized. The P level was increased by 6.8 and 19.3% in uncovered and covered manure plots compared to the control plots. Exchangeable K was increased by 1.3 and 1.6 times in uncovered and covered manured plots, respectively. Fresh fodder yield was 28, 32 and 35.2 metric tons per hectare for the control, uncovered and covered manure plots, respectively. Crude protein content was 8.58, 8.26 and 7.43% respectively in fodders from covered, uncovered and non-manure plots. Overall, there was a conservation of nutrients in covered than in uncovered manure with a concomitant increase in fodder biomass yield. (author)

  18. Investigation of the effects of treatment planning variables in small animal radiotherapy dose distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Motomura, Amy R.; Bazalova, Magdalena; Zhou, Hu; Keall, Paul J.; Graves, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Methods used for small animal radiation treatment have yet to achieve the same dose targeting as in clinical radiation therapy. Toward understanding how to better plan small animal radiation using a system recently developed for this purpose, the authors characterized dose distributions produced from conformal radiotherapy of small animals in a microCT scanner equipped with a variable-aperture collimator.

  19. Evaluation of Lactobacillus sobrius/L. amylovorus as a new microbial marker of pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Ziebal, Christine; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2010-03-01

    Based on a comparison of the dominant microbial populations in 17 pig manure samples and using a molecular typing method, we identified a species, Lactobacillus sobrius and Lactobacillus amylovorus (which now are considered a single species and are designated L. sobrius/amylovorus here), that was consistently found in manure. The aim of the present study was to confirm by real-time PCR the relevance of this species as a marker of pig fecal contamination. The specificity of L. sobrius/amylovorus was evaluated in human and animal DNA extracted from feces. The real-time PCR assay then was applied to water samples, including effluents from urban wastewater treatment plants, runoff water, and rivers. L. sobrius/amylovorus was consistently present in all samples of swine origin: 48 fecal samples, 18 from raw manure and 10 from biologically treated manure at mean concentrations of 7.2, 5.9, and 5.0 log(10) cells/g, respectively. The species was not detected in any of the other livestock feces (38 samples from cattle and 16 from sheep), in the 27 human fecal samples, or in the 13 effluent samples from urban wastewater treatment plants. Finally, L. sobrius/amylovorus was not detected in runoff water contaminated by cattle slurry, but it was quantified at concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 6.5 log(10) cells/100 ml in runoff water collected after pig manure was spread on soil. Among the stream water samples in which cultured Escherichia coli was detected, 23% tested positive for L. sobrius/amylovorus. The results of this study indicate that the quantification of L. sobrius/amylovorus using real-time PCR will be useful for identifying pig fecal contamination in surface waters. PMID:20038684

  20. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  1. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Massé, Daniel I.; Guillaume Jarret; Chaouki Benchaar; Noori M. Cata Saady

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure dur...

  2. Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH₃-N, TN, COD, and PO₄-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study. PMID:24203276

  3. Enhanced animal productivity and health with improved manure management in 2nd Generation Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: I. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    New legislation in North Carolina promotes the replacement of old lagoon technology with new Environmentally Superior Technology. Scientists at ARS Florence Center and industry cooperators completed design and demonstration of a second generation treatment system for swine waste that can achieve hig...

  4. Veterinary school uses acupuncture as treatment for many animal ailments

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Christy

    2008-01-01

    Needles are often equated with pain and discomfort; however, for a horse named Gypsy the tiny sharp objects brought about much needed relief as Dr. Mark Crisman, a professor in the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences in the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, administered acupuncture therapy.

  5. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  6. SWINE MANURE SOLIDS SEPARATION AND THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO HEAVY OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Shuangning Xiu; Yuanhui Zhang; Abolghasem Shahbazi

    2009-01-01

    Separation of solids from liquid swine manure and subsequent thermo-chemical conversion (TCC) of the solids fraction into oil is one way of reducing the waste strength and odor emission. Such processing also provides a potential means of producing renewable energy from animal wastes. Gravity settling and mechanical separation techniques, by means of a centrifuge and belt press, were used to remove the solids from liquid swine manure. The solid fractions from the above separation processes w...

  7. Modelos não lineares para a liberação de potássio de estercos animais em latossolos Non linear models to potassium release from animals manure in Latosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmes Marques Zeviani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modelos não lineares são adequados para a descrição da liberação de nutrientes, uma vez que estimam quantidades de interesse prático e apresentam boa qualidade de ajuste. Embora seu processo inferencial seja baseado em argumentos assintóticos, existem meios de se conhecer a intensidade da não linearidade. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a não linearidade de dois modelos de regressão não linear por meio das curvaturas de Bates e Watts, vício de Box e do estudo das propriedades amostrais dos estimadores de mínimos quadrados, obtido por simulação. Os dados são provenientes do estudo, ao longo do tempo, da liberação de K de quatro estercos animais em combinação com dois solos. O modelo Exponencial foi mais adequado, em termos inferenciais e para aplicação prática, uma vez que por todas as medidas apresentou menor não linearidade.Nonlinear models are appropriate to describe nutrient release, since they estimate quantities of practical interest and they have goodness of fit. Although its inferential process is based on asymptotic arguments, there are ways to know the nonlinearity intensity. In this work, we evaluate the nonlinearity of two nonlinear regression models through the curvatures of Bates e Watts, bias of Box and the least squares estimator sampling properties by simulation study. The data are from the study, over time, of the K release from 4 animal manure in combination with 2 soils. The exponential model was more appropriate in terms of inferential and practical aspects, since by all measures showed lower nonlinearity.

  8. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. PMID:27396682

  9. Determination of chlorophyll a and total phosphorus abundance in organic manured fish ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Kelvin M. Chanda; Confred G. Musuka

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted for 6 weeks (between August and September 2010) with 4treatments (T1: poultry manure, T2: cattle manure, T3: poultry and cattle manure and T4: control-nomanure) assigned to 8 concrete ponds at random to determine chlorophyll a and total phosphorusabundance in organic manured fish ponds. Results of the study suggest that T1, T2, and T3 had an effecton chlorophyll a and total phosphorus abundance in organic manured ponds. The final mean average forchlorophyll a range...

  10. Trace metal concentrations in Tilapia fed with pig and chicken manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H.; Chan, K.M.; Liu, W.K.

    1984-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effects of adding pig manure and chicken manure as supplementary feeds for rearing Sarotherodon mossambicus (Tilapia mossambica) in the laboratory. The feeding test lasted for four weeks under stable aerated conditions. Various portions (10%, 40%, 60% w/w) of the two types of manure were mixed with dried tubifex worm pellets, whilst the control group consisted of tubifex worm alone. The metals studied were Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb. The diets supplemented with 40% and 60% manure contained significantly (p < 0.05) greater amounts of all the metals tested except iron. The concentration of metals in the fish tissues (gill, viscera, flesh) was related to the amount of manure supplement. Harmful effects were reflected by significantly lower (p < 0.05) protein content in fish fed on manure-supplement diets, with the sole exception of the 10% pig manure supplement. Histological damage was also observed in the gills and the hepatopancreas of fish fed on diets supplemented with 60% pig manure and with 40% or 60% chicken manure. Of the two kinds of animal manure investigated as potential supplementary feeds for rearing tilapia, the results indicate that pig manure is likely to be the better choice.

  11. Qualidade de esterco de ave poedeira submetido a dois tipos de tratamentos de compostagem Quality of poultry manure submitted to two types of composting treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano G. dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se avaliou a qualidade de compostos de esterco de ave poedeira produzidos em pilhas de compostagem e se testaram os seguintes tratamentos: 1 sem gesso e sem revolvimento; 2 com gesso e sem revolvimento; 3 sem gesso e com revolvimento e 4 com gesso e com revolvimento. Para avaliar a qualidade dos compostos foram considerados os padrões do Ministério de Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA, estabelecidos para ovos e larvas de helmintos, Salmonella sp, coliformes totais e fecais, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, C, N, umidade, relações C:N, C:CTC (Capacidade de troca de cátions e pH. Os compostos obtidos nas pilhas revolvidas atenderam aos padrões de qualidade, exceto o teor de C, que foi menor. Nos compostos das pilhas com gesso e não revolvidas, o teor deste elemento excedeu o mínimo exigido mas os valores de N, de ovos de helmintos e de umidade, não corresponderam ao padrão do MAPA. Os teores de metais e de Se dos compostos foram menores que o máximo permitido, exceto o de Cd, cujo teor foi elevado no esterco utilizado nas pilhas sem gesso. Este aditivo decresceu o valor do pH dos compostos e aumentou o teor de N das pilhas não revolvidas. Em relação a todos os atributos avaliados, os melhores compostos foram obtidos nas pilhas revolvidas.The quality of poultry manure composts obtained from composting heaps were evaluated, in the following treatments: 1 without gypsum and turning; 2 without gypsum and with turning; 3 with gypsum and turning; 4 with gypsum and without turning. The quality of composts was evaluated with the Department of Agricultural (DA standards established to the occurrence of eggs and grubs of helminthes, Salmonella sp, fecal and total coliforms, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, C, N, humidity, C:N and C:CEC rations, and pH. The quality of composts from the turned heaps agrees with the DA standards, except the C content, which was lower. In the composts obtained from heaps with gypsum addition and without turner

  12. Darwin on the Treatment of Animals: His Thoughts Then and His Influence Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Donna Yarri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution has seriously challenged traditional religious views on the origins of life, as well as on our human-animal similarities. Darwin is often referenced in literature on animal ethics with regard to his contention that the difference between humans and other animals is one of degree rather than of kind. This paper posits that Darwin’s writings and theory make more positive contributions to the contemporary debate on animal ethics than for which he has previously been given credit. This paper addresses important aspects of Darwin’s theory for understanding our relationship with other animals and the implications for their subsequent treatment. First, this paper considers themes in Darwin’s original writings regarding relationships among different species; second, enhancements to his theory in support of these themes; and third, recommendations for how these themes can and should inform our moral reasoning and successive treatment of other animals.

  13. Animal and Human Bites: Prophlaxis and Approach to the Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet KARAKAŞ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal bites can cause complications ranging from slight injuries to serious infections. Infections can originate from the biter’s oral cavity and victims’s skin flora. Compared with animal bites, human bites have a higher risk of infection development. Most of the wound infections due to bites are caused by polymicrobials. Pasteurella species, streptococci, staphylococci, Moraxella, Corynebacterium, and Neisseria spp., Bergeyella zoohelcum and Capnocytophaga species are the most frequently isolated pathogens. Dogs (85-90 %, cats (5-10 %, humans (2-3 % and rodents (2-3 % are responsible for most of the bite injuries. Injuries due to dog bites occur mostly in men older than 20 years old and usually on the extremities. Cat bites and related injuries are found in 66 % on the upper extremities, typically on the hands. Bites of human origin are mostly occur in males between the ages of 20-30, and especially seen on the arms, fingers and head-neck regions. Most of the bites from rodents have a rat origin. Those bites often happen at night , especially on the face or hand of children under five years old who live in poor hygienic conditions. The dog bites are mostly due to the crush-style injuries and in 4-25 % of those injuries an infection develops in about 24 hours. Because of their sharp teeth, cats cause puncture-type wounds. Approximately 30-50 % of the cat bite wounds become infected 12 hours later. Hand, face and genital region wounds have a higher risk for the occurrence of an infection, because of their special anatomical structure. In case of risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, long term steroid use, splenectomy, extreme ages (children and elderly people and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, infection could easily spread to the deep tissues. The suturing of bite wounds remain controversial. Infected wounds and bites older than 24 hours could be left open. Cosmetically problematic wounds like on the face

  14. Combination of borax and quebracho condensed tannins treatment to reduce hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock producers are acutely aware for the need to reduce gaseous emissions from stored livestock waste and have been trying to identify new technologies to address the chronic problem. Besides the malodor issue, toxic gases emitted from stored livestock manure, especially hydrogen sulfide (H2S)...

  15. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 +/- 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean +/- Standard Deviation) and 1.73 +/- 0.29 Tg P yr.(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs inmanure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  16. Randomised controlled trial of animal facilitated therapy with dolphins in the treatment of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Antonioli, Christian; Reveley, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of animal facilitated therapy with dolphins, controlling for the influence of the natural setting, in the treatment of mild to moderate depression and in the context of the biophilia hypothesis.

  17. Accumulation of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Arable Soils Due to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-01-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  18. Radiation Treatment of Meat Products and Animal By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of radiation in food technology can only be considered as an alternative to existing preservation methods when a higher quality product and/or a cheaper product will result, or in cases where no alternative methods exist. With this view in mind, work performed at the Danish Meat Research Institute on sliced bacon, canned hams, luncheon meat, and animal feeding stuffs, i.e. meat and bone meal and blood meal, is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion drawn from the experimental results is that the formation of off-flavours in irradiated meat products is a very serious problem and the most important obstacle to a successful application of irradiation in meat processing. It is, therefore, essential that future research should concentrate on finding means to reduce the irradiation flavour. A number of approaches to solve this problem are mentioned and the Danish work in this field which has been centred mainly on the use of very high dose-rates and of non-equal dose distribution in cans is reviewed, and the concepts briefly described. (author)

  19. Comparison of behavioral and cognitive-behavioral one-session exposure treatments for small animal phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Ellen I; Spates, C Richard; Himle, Joseph A

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of behavioral and cognitive-behavioral one-session exposure treatment procedures with and without programmed generalization for participants with small animal phobias. Forty participants were randomly assigned to the treatment and generalization conditions. Both treatments produced significant improvements from pre-test to post-test and these results were maintained for 1 year. The treatment effect sizes ranged from large to very large across behavioral, self-report, and subjectively rated measures. Participants in the behavioral treatment condition reported that the treatment was significantly more intrusive than participants in the cognitive-behavioral treatment group. The programmed generalization condition did not produce additional measured benefit. The results are discussed in terms of the overall effectiveness of one-session exposure treatment components for small animal phobias. PMID:15500817

  20. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberle, E. [Fachverband Biogas, Obermarchtat (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  1. Diet, tillage and soil moisture effects on odorous emissions following land application of beef manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef manure from animals fed diets containing different amounts of wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) was applied to soil as a fertilizer to plot located across the slope. The applied manure and soil were either tilled or not tilled. The odor emissions were measured for 24 hours. Then a sing...

  2. Persistence of Escherichia coli in manure-amended soil in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potential for pathogen transfer from soils amended with untreated animal manure to crops and the frequent occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks involving Escherichia coli O157:H7 prompted the FDA proposal requiring a 9-month waiting period before harvesting produce from manure-amended fields. A...

  3. Leachate water quality from soils amended with swine manure based biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure applicatio...

  4. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt

  5. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: I. Structured design of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Management of animal manure in livestock and crop production is a major cause of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon (C) loss. The losses of N, P, and C contribute to adverse environmental impacts, such as climate change, terrestrial acidification, and marine eutrophication. Manure management t

  6. Increase of available soil silicon by Si-rich manure for sustainable rice production

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Hailong; Strong, Peter; Shan, Shengdao

    2014-01-01

    Depletion of bioavailable silicon, Si, in paddy soils can decrease the yields of rice. A potential solution is to amend soil with Si-rich organic wastes such as manure from animals fed with rice crop residues. Here, we studied Si in soils from 2000 to 2010 field experiments without manure, with 5 and 10 years of manure, in Eastern China. Results showed that available Si in soils increased from 130 to 270 mg kg−1 after 10 years of manure amendment. This finding is explained either by direct in...

  7. Nutritional balance and yield for green manure orange trees

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Renato Alves Ragozo; Sarita Leonel; Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2014-01-01

    Intercropping could efficiently prevent soil nutrient losses caused by extensive agriculture. The present study aimed to assess the effect of green manure on the nutritional status of orange trees cultivar 'Pera' (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck). The plants were grafted on 'Cravo' lime trees and were then planted in a 7x4m space. Four different treatments corresponding to the evaluated green manures were employed: jack bean (JB) (Canavalia ensiformis DC), lablab (LL) (Dolichos lablab L.), pigeon...

  8. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.;

    2013-01-01

    manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...

  9. Translational approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder: from animal models to clinical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fineberg, NA; Chamberlain, SR; E. Hollander; Boulougouris, V.; Robbins, TW

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessions (intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive ritualistic behaviours) leading to functional impairment. Accumulating evidence links these conditions with underlying dysregulation of fronto-striatal circuitry and monoamine systems. These abnormalities represent key targets for existing and novel treatment interventions. However, the brain bases of these conditions and treatment mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. Anim...

  10. Nutritional balance and yield for green manure orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Alves Ragozo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping could efficiently prevent soil nutrient losses caused by extensive agriculture. The present study aimed to assess the effect of green manure on the nutritional status of orange trees cultivar 'Pera' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. The plants were grafted on 'Cravo' lime trees and were then planted in a 7x4m space. Four different treatments corresponding to the evaluated green manures were employed: jack bean (JB (Canavalia ensiformis DC, lablab (LL (Dolichos lablab L., pigeon pea (PP (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp, and Brachiaria (BQ (Brachiaria brizantha Hochst ex A. Rich. Stapf as control. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in split-plot time, with six replicates, with four treatments (green manures and two plants per evaluation. The nutritional status was assessed by using the DRIS method (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System; the yield and the macro and micronutrient levels contained in green manures and in the control was also determined. The nutritional diagnosis indicated that, in the two years of experiment, plants treated with green manure showed better nutritional balance index compared to Brachiaria. This suggests that, over time, green manure can lead to better nutritional balance. Pigeon pea treatment showed the highest yields, compared to control, in the two evaluated crop cycles (2004/05 and 2005/06.

  11. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  12. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng Zhou; Jining Zhang; Guoyan Zou; Shohei Riya; Masaaki Hosomi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  13. Optimizing the Logistics of Anaerobic Digestion of Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Emad; Flynn, Peter C.

    Electrical power production from the combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure is a means of recovering energy from animal waste. We evaluate the lowest cost method of moving material to and from centralized AD plants serving multiple confined feeding operations. Two areas are modeled, Lethbridge County, Alberta, Canada, an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, and Red Deer County, Alberta, a mixed-farming area with hog, dairy, chicken and beef cattle farms, and feedlots. We evaluate two types of AD plant: ones that return digestate to the source confined feeding operation for land spreading (current technology), and ones that process digestate to produce solid fertilizer and a dischargeable water stream (technology under development). We evaluate manure and digestate trucking, trucking of manure with return of digestate by pipelines, and pipelining of manure plus digestate. We compare the overall cost of power from these scenarios to farm or feedlot-based AD units. For a centralized AD plant with digestate return for land spreading the most economical transport option for manure plus digestate is by truck for the mixed-farming area and by pipelines for the concentrated feedlot area. For a centralized AD plant with digestate processing, the most economical transport option is trucking of manure for both cases.

  14. Animal Fasciolosis in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Fasciolosis is a well known parasitic disease of animals with public health importance. In Rasht and Bandar-An­zali, in Gilan Province, where experienced two large human fasciolosis outbreaks, no update information is available on ani­mal fasciolosis. Paucity of information on animal fasciolosis in these regions and its possible impacts on human fasciolo­sis called us for carrying out this study."nMethods: During 2005, coprologic surveys using flotation method were applied to fecal samples of 156 stray cattle, 171 calves, 178 sheep, 85 buffaloes, 79 horses and 10 samples from 10 different preserved animal manure collec­tions to detect Fasciola egg."nResults: Fecal samples of 32 % of sheep, 32.1% of cattle, 0% of calves, 17% of buffaloes, 50% of horses and 100% of ani­mal manure samples harbored Fasciola egg. The mean intensity of Fasciola egg per gram of feces (EPG was low (0-13."nConclusion: Fasciolosis was very prevalent among animals in studied regions. Because sheep breeding is not a common prac­tice in Rasht and Bandar -Anzali and horse population is low, cattle and to a lesser extent buffalo were the predominant reser­voir hosts of infection. Regular treatment of all animals with an effective flukicide and sanitation of animal manure through its preservation for two month should be applied in order to reduce the level of infection in animals, water, wild and culti­vated vegetables and consequently human beings.  

  15. Long term treatment with gabapentin in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup, C. S.; Andrews, N.; Wegener, Gregers;

    2013-01-01

    . Daily treatment with gabapentin 30 mg/kg sc. or saline for 6 consecutive weeks. Mechanical sensitivity thresholds (MST) to von Frey stimulation of hindpaws and thorax measured by both reflex withdrawal and supra-spinal responses. Anxiety-like behaviour using the openfield paradigm. Drug effect...... was measured after initial dose, 1 and 6 weeks of treatment. Preliminary results show that saline-treated SCC animals (N=10) have significantly lower MST with supra-spinal responses on the thorax compared to saline-treated shams (N=10), and gabapentin-treated SCC (N=10) and sham animals (N=10) throughout...... the study. The SCC animals had significantly decreased MST with reflex responses on the hindpaws in the two first time points compared with gabapentin-treated SCC animals (and both sham groups). There was no effect of injury on the MST with supra-spinal responses on the hindpaws and thus no effect...

  16. ANIMAL-ASSISTED THERAPY – A NEW TREND IN THE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN AND ADDULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy is a familiar method of treatment in the rehabilitation of many illnesses and conditions, but is still not applied sufficiently in our milieu. This paper gives an overview of the available literature and some of the research which demonstrates that the interaction between the patient, animal and therapist provides a context which improves communication, elevates self-confidence, reduces the symptoms of diseases, and improves the quality of life. The dog, cat, horse,...

  17. Tillage and manure effects on soil and aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Mikha, M.M.; Rice, C.W.

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record This study assesses the impacts of tillage methods (conventional(CT) versus no-tillage(NT)) and nitrogen source (fertilizer(F) versus manure(M)) on soil aggregate size and the associated soil carbon and nitrogen. They find that both no-tillage and manure increase soil aggregate size, with the combination of the two producing the greatest soil aggregation. Likewise, there was greater total carbon and nitrogen in the soil for the no-tillage and manure treatments.

  18. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China. PMID:26963628

  19. Biological treatments as a mean to improve feed utilization in agriculture animals-An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahla A Abdel-Aziz; Abdelfattah Z M Salem; Mounir M El-Adawy; Luis M Camacho; Ahmed E Kholif; Mona M Y Elghandour; Borhami E Borhami

    2015-01-01

    As a result of agriculture practices, mil ion tons of agriculture are produced as a secondary or by-products;however, with low nutritive values. Many methods are applied to improve the nutritive value and increase its utilization in ruminant’s nutrition. The biological treatments are the most common with more safe-treated products. In most cases, the biological treatments are paral eled with decreased crude ifber and ifber fractions content with increased crude protein content. Direct-fed micro-bial and exogenous enzymes to animal are other ways of biological methods for improving nutritive value of feeds. Here in this review, we wil try to cover the biological treatments of by-products from different sides view with different types of animals and different animal end-products.

  20. Treatment of bovine cancer-eye (and other animal tumors) with heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthermia appears to be an excellent technique for the treatment of a variety of animal tumors. While this report has emphasized the application of hyperthermia to bovine cancer-eye, there cannot be serious doubt about the potential for wider applications of the technique. We have collaborated with the Animal Resource Facility at the University of New Mexico in the successful treatment of a variety of tumors in small animals which would not be a particular interest to stockmen, but the program included the successful treatment of a number of sarcoids in horses. This investigation involving heat effects on sarcoids will continue, but early results appear to be promising. Other veterinarians are using the commercial hyperthermia instruments to treat a variety of small-animal tumors; these practitioners are enthusiastic about the results but no data have been published to date. We have treated an equine lid tumor with good results, and others are pursuing investigations in this area. Use of commercial hyperthermia instruments for treatment of any condition other than bovine cancer-eye or similar small tumors on animals cannot be justified. Like other therapeutic techniques, hyperthermia must be applied to appropriate cases and retreatment will be necessary in some instances

  1. AN EFFECTIVE PASSIVE SOLAR DRYER FOR THIN LAYER DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal and poultry manures have been recognized for centuries as organic fertilizers providing essential nutrients to crops and improving soil structure due to their large input of organic matter. Increasing demand for poultry and egg products has led to intensification of the poultry rearing process, resulting in large amounts of poultry manure. Drying can be used to reduce the environmental impact of poultry manure and create a value added product for the farmers (animal feed or organic fertilizer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solar heated air drying on the chemical and biological characteristics of poultry manure and develop a suitable manure solar dryer. The effects of temperature (40-60°C and manure layer depth (1-3 cm were evaluated. At the three temperature levels studied, the time required to dry poultry manure in the 1 cm-deep layer was the shortest, followed by the 2 and 3 cm-deep layers, respectively. The optimum depth to dry manure (at which the highest drying effectiveness occurred was 3 cm. The manure drying rate increased with increasing temperature and was the fastest at 60°C for all manure depths studied. A drying temperature-depth combination of 60°C and 3 cm was the most efficient for the thin layer drying of poultry manure. Drying poultry manure at these conditions provided an effective means of removing moisture and odor and destroying microorganisms, thereby allowing the production of a value added product. This temperature range is feasible with a solar dryer operating in the tropics. A solar dryer operating at a 3 cm manure depth would be capable of drying 336 kg/h. Drying poultry manure with solar heated air resulted in a slight decrease in protein content (from 42 to 41%, a decrease in pH (from 8.4 to 6.6, removal of Salmonellae and a 99% reduction in numbers of total bacteria, yeast, mold and E. coli. Thin layer solar drying of poultry manure proved to be an effective means of

  2. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to dire...

  3. Anaerobic treatment of lactic waste and goat manure Tratamiento anaerobio de desechos lácticos y estiércol de cabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Islas Hugo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Anaerobic digestion was carried out to obtain biogas from lactic waste in combination with goat manure. Waste from lactic products such as cream, cheese and whey was mixed with goat manure using three formulations; the quantity of waste from cream and cheese was maintained, and only the quantity of manure and whey was varied. Methanogenic bacteria obtained from predigestion of goat manure were used as inoculants. Temperature was 35ºC and pH 7.0.Biogas methane percentage was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that the highest methane concentration obtained was 82% with formulation III.

    Se realizó una digestión anaerobia para la obtención de biogás a partir de residuos lácteos de crema, queso y suero de leche en combinación con estiércol de cabra, mediante el desarrollo de tres formulaciones, manteniendo constante la cantidad de los desechos de crema y queso y variando la cantidad de excreta de cabra y suero de leche. Se utilizó un inóculo de bacterias metanogénicas obtenido partir de una predigestión de estiércol de cabra. La temperatura de operación fue de 35 ºC, con un pH de 7,0, determinándose el porcentaje de metano en el biogás por medio de cromatografía de gases. Los resultados mostraron que la mayor concentración de metano fue de 82%, obtenida con la formulación número tres.

  4. Effect of liquid cow manure on andisol properties and atrazine adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Gabriela; Demanet, Rolando; de la Luz Mora, María; Palma, Graciela

    2008-01-01

    Application of animal manure amendments to agricultural soils is a common practice to improve soil fertility through the addition of essential plant nutrients. This practice may increase the potential for atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1, 3, 5-triazine) leaching due to competition for adsorption sites between the pesticide and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) added through manure. We evaluated the influence of liquid cow manure (LCM) application on soil properties, atrazine adsorption, and the physicochemical controlling mechanisms in an Andisol. The LCM was applied at rates equivalent to 0, 100,000, 200,000, and 300,000 L ha(-1), resulting in treatments S-0, S-100, S-200, and S-300, respectively. The LCM application increased DOC and pH of the soils immediately on addition, but pH returned to S-0 values 30 d after application. The LCM application did not modify atrazine adsorption with the two lowest application rates (S-100 and S-200), but atrazine adsorption was decreased in S-300 (K(f) = 0.96) compared with the control (S-0) (K(f) = 1.19), possibly due to the competitive adsorption of DOC with the pesticide. The Fourier-transformed infrared analysis showed that LCM increased aliphaticity and presence of N-containing groups and polysaccharide-like groups in amended soils; however, these properties did not modify the atrazine interaction in the studied amended soils. Interestingly the addition of DOC to soil at the high application rate (S-300) reduced atrazine adsorption in this rich OM Andisol despite the LCM not raising the concentration of stable organic matter. The application of high rates of liquid manure containing DOC incurs an increased risk of pesticide leaching. PMID:18574184

  5. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions of feedlot manure management practices: Land application versus gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal waste is an important source of anthropogenic GHG emissions, and in most cases, manure is managed by land application. Nevertheless, due to the huge amounts of manure produced annually, alternative manure management practices have been proposed, one of which is gasification, aimed to convert manure into clean energy-syngas. Syngas can be utilized to provide energy or power. At the same time, the byproduct of gasification, biochar, can be transported back to fields as a soil amendment. Environmental impacts are crucial in selecting the appropriate manure strategy. Therefore, GHG emissions during manure management systems (land application and gasification) were evaluated and compared by life cycle assessment (LCA) in our study. LCA is a universally accepted tool to determine GHG emissions associated with every stage of a system. Results showed that the net GHG emissions in land application scenario and gasification scenario were 119 and -643 kg CO2-eq for one tonne of dry feedlot manure, respectively. Moreover, sensitive factors in the gasification scenario were efficiency of the biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) system and energy source of avoided electricity generation. Overall, due to the environmental effects of syngas and biochar, gasification of feedlot manure is a much more promising technique as a way to reduce GHG emissions than is land application. -- Highlights: •GHGs of manure gasification were estimated as −643 kg CO2-eq/tonne dry manure. •GHGs of manure land application were estimated as 119 CO2-eq/tonne dry manure. •The replaced fertilizer emissions changed the net GHG emissions up to 75% in the land application scenario. •Sensitive factors were energy source of avoided electricity and BIGCC efficiency of the gasification scenario

  6. Coupling Manure Injection with Cover Crops to Enhance Nutrient Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale hog (Sus scrofa) production is a major agricultural enterprise in the Midwest. Large numbers of confined hogs produce about 50 million tons per year of swine manure in Iowa alone. Rapid expansion of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has resulted in increased concentrations o...

  7. Manure distribution as a predictor of N2O emissions from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Baral, Khagendra Raj; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Predicting nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from manure-amended soil remains a challenge. One reason may be that spatial heterogeneity in distribution of manure is not accounted for in models of N2O emission, but experimental results suggest that both manure and soil properties affect the distribution...... of manure constituents after field application in a systematic way. Key to predicting the fate of labile carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in manure is to acknowledge that the liquid phase, and a corresponding fraction of labile C and N, is partly absorbed by the bulk soil in response to the water...... 17% clay) adjusted to three soil water potentials (–3, –5 and –10 kPa) and amended with surface-applied pig slurry, cattle slurry, digestate or water only, in total 24 treatments. Net emissions of N2O corresponded to between 0.18% and 0.64% of manure N. Experimental results were analysed with a...

  8. BIO-ENERGY FROM PIG'S MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available After settling, in the sample of pig’s manure, before and after anaerobic fermentation different layers appear: foam, fine colloids, floating particle-colloids and sediment-rude particles. During the anaerobic treatment it being favourable for maintaining the anaerobic fermentation was examined. It was shown that the layer from the bottom, sediment-rude particles, achieved the best results. During the anaerobic fermentation pig’s manure was stabilized and its quality improved. Produced biogas contained more than 88 vol.% of methane. The degradation of organic matter was 50 % at pH value 6.5 and temperature 35 ºC during the anaerobic fermentation that lasted 7 days.

  9. Animal model for identifying therapetucually useful compounds for the treatment of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Ayuso-Gontán, Carmen; Martínez, Ana

    2012-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for identifying compounds that are potentially useful for the treatment of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), comprising the use of an animal model of rats, developed by means of the administration of β-Ν-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA)

  10. Reverse translation of failed treatments can help improving the validity of preclinical animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, Bert A.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in translational research is to reduce the currently high proportion of new candidate treatment agents for neuroinflammatory disease, which fail to reproduce promising effects observed in animal models when tested in patients. This disturbing situation has raised criticism against

  11. Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child…

  12. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term. PMID:27228611

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions from manure handling - effects of storage conditions and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stored animal manure and manure applied in the field contributes an estimated 20% to the total anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N20) in Denmark. Manure composition, handling and climatic conditions may all influence the emission level during storage, but there are relatively few experimental data on emissions of N20 from manure management, including animal houses, slurry stores and manure heaps. Among animal housing systems, very high emission rates have been found with pig deep lifter, and N20 emissions are further stimulated by mechanical mixing. Slurry stores are anaerobic, but a recent study showed that N20 can be produced in porous surface covers such as natural surface crusts, straw or leca pebbles, while no N20 was emitted from uncovered slurry. The emission was significantly related to the water balance, i.e., the difference between evaporation and rain, during dry periods; during wet periods no N20 was emitted. For solid manure, previous studies have typically found that less than 1 % of total N is emitted as N20. Nitrous oxide may be produced throughout the manure heap, provided an environment with both aerobic and anaerobic pockets exists. Profiles from an experimental heap indicated that most of the N20 emitted from solid manure was produced near the surface of the heap. Increasing density appears to stimulate N20 emissions up to a point, where the air exchange is significantly impeded. The IPCC methodology calculates N20 emissions from manure on the basis of total N content (that is, on the basis of volume) and climate region only. Possibly, estimates of N20 emissions from slurry stores could be improved by considering surface area, ammonium content and water balance as input variables. Emissions from solid manure heaps should consider surface area and the potential for composting, as reflected in bulk density and moisture content. (au)

  14. An in vitro study of manure composition on the biochemical origins, composition, and accumulation of odorous compounds in cattle feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D N; Varel, V H

    2002-09-01

    Very little is known about the biochemical origin of cattle feedlot odors and the environmental factors controlling their production. The tie between diet and manure composition is well established, but the effect of different manure compositions on odorous chemical production is unknown. This study describes the effect of starch, casein, and cellulose substrate additions to slurries of fresh (manure (> 1 d) on the anaerobic production of fermentation products and the consumption of substrates relative to no addition treatments. Aged cattle manure accumulated more VFA (245 to 290 mM) than the fresh manure (91 to 181 mM) irrespective of substrate additions (P manures, VFA concentrations were increased (P manure increased VFA content relative to no addition treatments (P manure (no addition and protein treatments), indicating that some protein fermentation occurred in those treatments. Based upon substrate loss, starch fermentation was the dominant process in both manures and all treatments with losses exceeding 18.6 g/L. Protein fermentation occurred only in the aged manure, specifically the no addition and protein treatments, when starch was no longer available. The production of odorous compounds from manure was controlled by substrate availability and pH, with pH related to lactate accumulation. We believe that calcareous soil and lactate-consuming microorganisms in the aged manure slurries minimized slurry acidification and resulted in greater accumulations of odorous products. Substrate additions had little effect on the overall accumulation of odor compounds in manure but had profound effects on odor compound composition. We propose that modifying cattle diets to limit starch and protein excretion would profoundly affect the production and accumulation of odor compounds in feedlots. PMID:12349997

  15. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213 g L-1, in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m-1). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DPs) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRPs) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DPs = 0.471 x MRPs + 1102 (r2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH ≤ 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r2) for the MRPs and RQFlex-DPs relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. - The dissolved phosphorous quick test can provide real-time information on soluble manure nutrient control

  16. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Ospina, A. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Dao, Thanh H. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Van Kessel, J.A. [Animal Waste Pathogens Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Reeves, J.B. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)]. E-mail: jreeves@anri.barc.usda.gov

    2005-05-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213 g L{sup -1}, in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m{sup -1}). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP{sub s}) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP{sub s}) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP{sub s} = 0.471 x MRP{sub s} + 1102 (r{sup 2} = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r{sup 2} = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH {<=} 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r{sup 2}) for the MRP{sub s} and RQFlex-DP{sub s} relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r{sup 2} = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r{sup 2} = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. - The dissolved phosphorous quick test can provide real-time information on soluble manure nutrient control.

  17. Competing conceptions of animal welfare and their ethical implications for the treatment of non-human animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Richard P

    2011-06-01

    Animal welfare has been conceptualized in such a way that the use of animals in science and for food seems justified. I argue that those who have done this have appropriated the concept of animal welfare, claiming to give a scientific account that is more objective than the "sentimental" account given by animal liberationists. This strategy seems to play a major role in supporting merely limited reform in the use of animals and seems to support the assumption that there are conditions under which animals may be raised and slaughtered for food that are ethically acceptable. Reformists do not need to make this assumption, but they tend to conceptualize animal welfare is such a way that death does not count as harmful to the interests of animals, nor prolonged life a benefit. In addition to this prudential value assumption, some members of this community have developed strategies for defending suitably reformed farming practices as ethical even granting that death and some other forms of constraints are harms. One such strategy is the fiction of a domestic contract. However, if one accepts the conceptualization of human welfare give by L. W. Sumner, and applies it to animals in the way that I think is justified, an accurate conceptualization of animal welfare has different implications for which uses of animals should be regarded as ethically acceptable. In this paper I give an historical and philosophical account of animal welfare conceptulization and use this account to argue that animal breeders, as custodians of the animals they breed, have the ethical responsibility to help their animal wards achieve as much autonomy as possible in choosing the form of life made available to them and to provide that life. Attempts to avoid these implications by alluding to a contract model of the relationship between custodians and their wards fail to relieve custodians of their ethical responsibilities of care. PMID:21305338

  18. Gene therapy by electroporation for the treatment of chronic renal failure in companion animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Melissa A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH plasmid-based therapy for the treatment of chronic renal failure and its complications was examined. Companion dogs (13.1 ± 0.8 years, 29.4 ± 5.01 kg and cats (13.2 ± 0.9 years, 8.5 ± 0.37 kg received a single 0.4 mg or 0.1 mg species-specific plasmid injection, respectively, intramuscularly followed by electroporation, and analyzed up to 75 days post-treatment; controls underwent electroporation without plasmid administration. Results Plasmid-treated animals showed an increase in body weight (dogs 22.5% and cats 3.2% compared to control animals, and displayed improved quality of life parameters including significant increases in appetite, activity, mentation and exercise tolerance levels. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, the downstream effector of GHRH levels were increased in the plasmid treated animals. Hematological parameters were also significantly improved. Protein metabolism changes were observed suggesting a shift from a catabolic to an anabolic state in the treated animals. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine did not show any significant changes suggesting maintenance of kidney function whereas the control animal's renal function deteriorated. Treated animals survived longer than control animals with 70% of dogs and 80% of cats surviving until study day 75. Only 17% and 40% of the control dogs and cats, respectively, survived to day 75. Conclusion Improved quality of life, survival and general well-being indicate that further investigation is warranted, and show the potential of a plasmid-based therapy by electroporation in preventing and managing complications of renal insufficiency.

  19. Improving biogas yields using an innovative pretreatment concept for conversion of the fiber fraction of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    % increase in methane yield compared to the untreated digested manure fibers in batch experiments. In a continuous mesophilic reactor process the addition of WEx treated digested fibers in co-digestion with filtered manure did not show any signs of process inhibition and the overall methane yield was in......A new concept to enable economically feasible operation of manure based biogas plants was tested in lab-scale. Wet explosion (WEx) was implemented as treatment of the residual manure fibers separated after the anaerobic digestion process for enhancing the biogas production before reintroducing into...... the biogas reactor. The increase in methane yield of the digested manure fibers was investigated by applying the WEx treatment under 5 different process conditions. The WEx treatment at 180 ºC and a retention time of 10 minutes without addition of oxygen was found to be optimal, resulting in 136...

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of inflammatoryand autoimmune diseases in experimental animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew W Klinker; Cheng-Hong Wei

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [also known asmesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are currently beingstudied as a cell-based treatment for inflammatorydisorders. Experimental animal models of humanimmune-mediated diseases have been instrumental inestablishing their immunosuppressive properties. Inthis review, we summarize recent studies examiningthe effectiveness of MSCs as immunotherapy in severalwidely-studied animal models, including type 1 diabetes,experimental autoimmune arthritis, experimentalautoimmune encephalomyelitis, inflammatory boweldisease, graft-vs -host disease, and systemic lupuserythematosus. In addition, we discuss mechanismsidentified by which MSCs mediate immune suppressionin specific disease models, and potential sources offunctional variability of MSCs between studies.

  1. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.;

    2013-01-01

    accessible during subsequent anaerobic digestion. This finding has confirmed earlier experimental results, showing that delignification was not necessarily the limiting factor during conversion of manure fibers into methane while cellulose accessibility during digestion seemed more crucial.......AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning...

  2. A single cidofovir treatment rescues animals at progressive stages of lethal orthopoxvirus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israely Tomer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an event of a smallpox outbreak in humans, the window for efficacious treatment by vaccination with vaccinia viruses (VACV is believed to be limited to the first few days post-exposure (p.e.. We recently demonstrated in a mouse model for human smallpox, that active immunization 2–3 days p.e. with either VACV-Lister or modified VACV Ankara (MVA vaccines, can rescue animals from lethal challenge of ectromelia virus (ECTV, the causative agent of mousepox. The present study was carried out in order to determine whether a single dose of the anti-viral cidofovir (CDV, administered at different times and doses p.e. either alone or in conjunction with active vaccination, can rescue ECTV infected mice. Methods Animals were infected intranasally with ECTV, treated on different days with various single CDV doses and monitored for morbidity, mortality and humoral response. In addition, in order to determine the influence of CDV on the immune response following vaccination, both the "clinical take”, IFN-gamma and IgG Ab levels in the serum were evaluated as well as the ability of the mice to withstand a lethal challenge of ECTV. Finally the efficacy of a combined treatment regime of CDV and vaccination p.e. was determined. Results A single p.e. CDV treatment is sufficient for protection depending on the initiation time and dose (2.5 – 100 mg/kg of treatment. Solid protection was achieved by a low dose (5 mg/kg CDV treatment even if given at day 6 p.e., approximately 4 days before death of the control infected untreated mice (mean time to death (MTTD 10.2. At the same time point complete protection was achieved by single treatment with higher doses of CDV (25 or 100 mg/kg. Irrespective of treatment dose, all surviving animals developed a protective immune response even when the CDV treatment was initiated one day p.e.. After seven days post treatment with the highest dose (100 mg/kg, virus was still detected in some

  3. 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manure Management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhele Edmond Moeletsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc. were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal, sows (25.23 kg/year/animal and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal. Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO2 Equivalent. Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO2 Equivalent and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options from manure management must be taken with care due to divergent conducive requirements of methane and nitrous oxide emissions requirements.

  4. 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manure Management in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeletsi, Mokhele Edmond; Tongwane, Mphethe Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc.) were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal), sows (25.23 kg/year/animal) and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal). Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO₂ Equivalent). Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO₂ Equivalent) and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options from manure management must be taken with care due to divergent conducive requirements of methane and nitrous oxide emissions requirements. PMID:26479229

  5. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  6. A new model for calculating the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions through anaerobic co-digestion of manure and organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogenic emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N20) occur during handling, storage and after field application of animal manure. The emissions are linked to decomposition of volatile solids (VS), which provide energy for microorganisms. During anaerobic storage, turnover of VS drives the microbial processes which lead to CH4, production. Also, turnover of VS in slurry applied to fields will consume oxygen and can thereby stimulate N20 production. Anaerobic digestion of manure and organic wastes for biogas production removes VS prior to storage and field application, and therefore this treatment also reduces the potential for CH4, and N20 emissions. A model has been developed to evaluate the effect of anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and organic waste on CH, and N20 emissions. The model estimates the reduction in VS during storage and digestion, and an algorithm for prediction of CH4, emissions from manure during storage relates the emission to VS, temperature and storage time. Nitrous oxide emissions from field-applied slurry are calculated using VS, slurry N, soil water potential and application method as input variables, thus linking C and N turnover. The amount of fossil fuel that is substituted by CH4, produced during digestion is also calculated in order to estimate the total effect of anaerobic digestion on greenhouse gas emissions from slurry. Model calculations show the potential of manure digestion to modify the emission of greenhouse gases from agriculture. The experience from application of the model to different scenarios is that the emission of greenhouse gases and their reduction must be calculated with dynamic and integrated models. Specifically, the results indicate that digestion of slurry and organic wastes could reduce Danish greenhouse gas emissions by as much as 3%. (au)

  7. Effects of carbon dioxide emission, kinetically-limited reactions, and diffusive transport on ammonia emission from manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from animal manure causes significant loss of fixed N from livestock operations. Ammonia emission from manure is the culmination of biological, chemical, and physical processes, all of which are well-understood. In this work, we present a speciation and transport mode...

  8. Detection of methanogenic archaea in stored swine manure by direct mcrA PCR and sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage of swine manure is associated with the production of a variety of odors and emissions which are products of anaerobic metabolism of the indigenous bacteria in the manure. These emissions can pose problems to the health and production efficiency of the animals, as well as the health and comf...

  9. Chemically and biologically-mediated fertilizing value of manure-derived biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, R; Taupe, N; Ikoyi, I; Bertora, C; Zavattaro, L; Schmalenberger, A; Leahy, J J; Grignani, C

    2016-04-15

    This study evaluates the potential of manure-derived biochars in promoting plant growth and enhancing soil chemical and biological properties during a 150day pot experiment. Biochars from pyrolysis of poultry litter (PL) and swine manure (SM) at 400 and 600°C, and a commonly available wood chip (WC) biochar produced at high temperature (1000°C) were incorporated to silt-loam (SL) and sandy (SY) soils on a 2% dry soil weight basis. Ryegrass was sown and moisture was adjusted to 60% water filled pore space (WFPS). The PL400 and SM400 biochars significantly increased (p<0.05) shoot dry matter (DM) yields (SL soil) and enhanced nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) uptake by the plants in both soils, compared to the Control. All biochars significantly increased the soil carbon (C) contents compared to the Control. Total N contents were significantly greater for PL400 and PL600 treatments in both soils. The dehydrogenase activity (DA) significantly increased for PL400 and SM400 treatments and was positively correlated with the volatile matter (VM) contents of the biochars, while β-glucosidase activity (GA) decreased for the same treatments in both soils. All biochars significantly shifted (p≤0.05) the bacterial community structure compared to the Control. This study suggests that pyrolysis of animal manures can produce a biochar that acts as both soil amendment and an organic fertilizer as proven by increased NPK uptake, positive liming effect and high soil nutrient availability, while WC biochar could work only in combination with fertilizers (organic as well as mineral). PMID:26851878

  10. Biochar from swine manure solids: influence on carbon sequestration and Olsen phosphorus and mineral nitrogen dynamics in soil with and without digestate incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marchetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biochar (BC has grown dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the fact that its incorporation into soil reportedly enhances carbon sequestration and fertility. Currently, BC types most under investigation are those obtained from organic matter (OM of plant origin. As great amounts of manure solids are expected to become available in the near future, thanks to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents, processing of manure solids for BC production seems an interesting possibility for the recycling of OM of high nutrient value. The aim of this study was to investigate carbon (C sequestration and nutrient dynamics in soil amended with BC from dried swine manure solids. The experiment was carried out in laboratory microcosms on a silty clay soil. The effect on nutrient dynamics of interaction between BC and fresh digestate obtained from a biogas plant was also investigated to test the hypothesis that BC can retain nutrients. A comparison was made of the following treatments: soil amended with swine manure solids (LC, soil amended with charred swine manure solids (LT, soil amended with wood chip (CC, soil amended with charred wood chip (CT, soil with no amendment as control (Cs, each one of them with and without incorporation of digestate (D for a total of 10 treatments. Biochar was obtained by treating OM (wood chip or swine manure with moisture content of less than 10% at 420°C in anoxic conditions. The CO2-C release and organic C, available phosphorus (P (Olsen P, POls and inorganic (ammonium+nitrate nitrogen (N (Nmin contents at the start and three months after the start of the experiment were measured in the amended and control soils. After three months of incubation at 30°C, the CO2-C emissions from soil with BC (CT and LT, ±D were the same as those in the control soil (Cs and were lower than those in the soils with untreated amendments (CC and LC, ±D. The organic C content

  11. Characteristics of pollutant gas releases from swine, dairy, beef, and layer manure, and municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Saha, Chayan Kumer; Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Dunn, James L

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about characteristics of gas releases from various types of organic wastes can assist in developing gas pollution reduction technologies and establishing environmental regulations. Five different organic wastes, i.e., four types of animal manure (swine, beef, dairy, and layer hen) and municipal wastewater, were studied for their characteristics of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) releases for 38 or 43 days in reactors under laboratory conditions. Weekly waste additions and continuous reactor headspace ventilation were supplied to simulate waste storage conditions. Results demonstrated that among the five waste types, layer hen manure and municipal wastewater had the highest and lowest NH3 release potentials, respectively. Layer manure had the highest and dairy manure had the lowest CO2 release potentials. Dairy manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest H2S release potentials, respectively. Beef manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest SO2 releases, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the different types of wastes, especially the total nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, dry matter, and pH, had strong influence on the releases of the four gases. Even for the same type of waste, the variation in physicochemical characteristics affected the gas releases remarkably. PMID:25794466

  12. Temporal changes of selected chemical properties in three manure - amended soils of Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Escobar, M E; Hue, N V

    2008-12-01

    Soil amendment with organic materials (crop residues animal manure, and green manure) reportedly has positive effects on soil properties, from acidity to plant-nutrient availability. To examine that hypothesis, an incubation study was conducted to assess the changes in some chemical properties of three different tropical soils (Andisol, Ultisol, and Oxisol) amended with chicken manure and green manure (Leucaena leucocephala) at the rate of 10tha(-1). The results showed that organic amendments raised soil pH and EC, regardless of the type of manure used. Manuring lowered the concentrations of Mehlich-3 extractable Ca, P, Mn and Si in all soils and decreased the concentration of Mg in the Ultisol and Oxisol. However, manure amendment led to increases in the concentrations of Mg and K in the Andisol. Organic amendments caused a decrease in KCl extractable Al. Initial soluble C levels were highest in the Oxisol (60micromolg(-1)) and lowest in the Andisol (20micromolg(-1)). The concentration of soluble C decreased exponentially with duration of incubation. Three low molecular weight organic molecules (acetic acid, catechol and oxalic acid) out of the eight tested were found in all manure-amended soils. This study quantified the release of some Al chelating organic acids, the reduction of exchangeable Al, and the changes in major plant-nutrients when organic materials were added to nutrient poor, tropical acid soils. PMID:18550367

  13. Development and validation of a treatment planning system for small animal radiotherapy: SmART-Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Image-guided equipment for precision irradiation of small animals for pre-clinical radiotherapy research became recently available. To enable downscaled radiotherapy studies that can be translated into human radiotherapy knowledge, a treatment planning system for pre-clinical studies is required. Material and methods: A dedicated treatment planning system (SmART-Plan) for small animal radiotherapy studies was developed. It is based on Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport in an animal. The voxel geometry is derived from the onboard cone beam CT imaging panel. SmART-Plan was validated using radiochromic film (RCF) dosimetry in various phantoms: uniform, multislab and a realistic plasticized mouse geometry. Results: Good agreement was obtained between SmART-Plan dose calculations and RCF dose measurements in all phantoms. For various delivered plans agreement was obtained within 10% for the majority of the targeted dose region, with larger differences between 10% and 20% near the penumbra regions and for the smallest 1 mm collimator. Absolute depth and lateral dose distributions showed better agreement for 5 and 15-mm collimators than for a 1-mm collimator, indicating that accurate dose prediction for the smallest field sizes is difficult. Conclusion: SmART-Plan offers a useful dose calculation tool for pre-clinical small animal irradiation studies

  14. Public health implications related to spread of pathogens in manure from livestock and poultry operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J Lloyd; Guan, Jiewen

    2004-01-01

    During the 20th century, food animal agriculture grew from small operations, where livestock (cattle, sheep, and swine) and poultry (chickens and turkeys) had access to free range, to large operations where animals and poultry were concentrated and confined to feed lots or buildings. The quantity of manure produced by confinement animals in the United States has been estimated to be in excess of 61 million tons of dry matter per year, and another report states that 1.2 billion tons of manure are produced by cattle annually in the United States (US Senate Agricultural Committee, 1998). As urban developments have come closer to livestock operations, there has been increasing public concern for the impact of the latter on public health and the environment. Although management practices for livestock production have increased in efficiency, insufficient attention has been given to managing and utilizing wastes so that they benefit rather than pollute the environment. Animal manure includes urine and various bodily secretions such as those from the nose, vagina, and mammary glands. Dust from animals and manure may be blown from buildings by powerful fans, and manure is often piled near the animal quarters or is spread on land in solid or liquid form. Public concerns associated with disposal of animal manure include objectionable odors, flies, excessive levels of phosphorous and nitrogen, and the potential for spread of human pathogens. It has been observed that despite linkages between outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans and livestock operations, the importance of animal manure in the spread of infectious agents tends to be underestimated. PMID:15156064

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  16. Comment appliquer la directive nitrates et à quel coût ? Une modélisation spatiale du marché de l’épandage. (The cost of the Nitrate Directive: a spatial model of manure market.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Djaout; Philippe Le Goffe; Mélanie Tauber

    2008-01-01

    [Paper in French] In Brittany, animal concentration is responsible for water pollution. French water policy does not stick to Water Framework Directive, though in northern countries polluter-pay principle stimulated manure markets. We tried to calculate the cost of the Nitrate Directive and simulate the manure markets in Brittany. A linear model minimizes the cost of manure management constrained by the Nitrate Directive. Farms process or export their manure in the short-run and reduce their ...

  17. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from cattle manure heaps: effect of compaction and covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, D. R.

    The effect of compaction and covering during storage of beef cattle ( Bos taurus) farmyard manure (FYM) on ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4) emissions was determined. Gaseous emission measurements were made over three separate storage periods of between 90 and 109 days. The effect of the different storage treatments on manure chemical composition was also determined. Compaction was carried out as the manure was put into store and the compacted manures covered with plastic sheeting. Compaction and covering significantly reduced NH 3 emissions from manure by over 90% during the first summer storage period (PMethane emissions from cattle FYM were unaffected by treatment over the first storage period and were decreased by compaction in the second storage period yet was increased by compaction during the third storage period. It would appear that compacting and covering manure heaps does have the potential to reduce emissions of both NH 3 and N 2O when the manure contains relatively high ammonium-N contents. Additional benefits are that N and K are retained in the manure heap for agronomic benefit.

  18. Effect of dietary protein concentration on ammonia and greenhouse gas emitting potential of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Dell, C J; Feyereisen, G W; Kaye, J; Beegle, D

    2012-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia (NH(3)) and greenhouse gas (GHG; nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) emissions from fresh dairy cow manure incubated in a controlled environment (experiment 1) and from manure-amended soil (experiment 2). Manure was prepared from feces and urine collected from lactating Holstein cows fed diets with 16.7% (DM basis; HCP) or 14.8% CP (LCP). High-CP manure had higher N content and proportion of NH(3)- and urea-N in total manure N than LCP manure (DM basis: 4.4 vs. 2.8% and 51.4 vs. 30.5%, respectively). In experiment 1, NH(3) emitting potential (EP) was greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (9.20 vs. 4.88 mg/m(2) per min, respectively). The 122-h cumulative NH(3) emission tended to be decreased 47% (P=0.09) using LCP compared with HCP manure. The EP and cumulative emissions of GHG were not different between HCP and LCP manure. In experiment 2, urine and feces from cows fed LCP or HCP diets were mixed and immediately applied to lysimeters (61×61×61 cm; Hagerstown silt loam; fine, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalf) at 277 kg of N/ha application rate. The average NH(3) EP (1.53 vs. 1.03 mg/m(2) per min, respectively) and the area under the EP curve were greater for lysimeters amended with HCP than with LCP manure. The largest difference in the NH(3) EP occurred approximately 24 h after manure application (approximately 3.5 times greater for HCP than LCP manure). The 100-h cumulative NH(3) emission was 98% greater for HCP compared with LCP manure (7,415 vs. 3,745 mg/m(2), respectively). The EP of methane was increased and that of carbon dioxide tended to be increased by LCP compared with HCP manure. The cumulative methane emission was not different between treatments, whereas the cumulative carbon dioxide emission was increased with manure from the LCP diet. Nitrous oxide emissions were low in this experiment and did not differ between treatments. In the

  19. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, J W; Groenestein, C M; De Boer, I J M

    2012-07-15

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid mineral concentrate used as mineral nitrogen and potassium fertilizer and a solid fraction used for bio-energy production or as phosphorus fertilizer. Five environmental impact categories were quantified using life cycle assessment: climate change (CC), terrestrial acidification (TA), marine eutrophication (ME), particulate matter formation (PMF), and fossil fuel depletion (FFD). For pig as well as dairy cattle manure, we compared a scenario with the processing method and a scenario with additional anaerobic digestion of the solid fraction to a reference situation applying only liquid manure. Comparisons were based on a functional unit of 1 ton liquid manure. System boundaries were set from the manure storage under the animal house to the field application of all end products. Scenarios with only manure processing increased the environmental impact for most impact categories compared to the reference: ME did not change, whereas, TA and PMF increased up to 44% as a result of NH3 and NO(x) emissions from processing and storage of solid fraction. Including digestion reduced CC by 117% for pig manure and 104% for dairy cattle manure, mainly because of substituted electricity and avoided N2O emission from storage of solid fraction. FFD decreased by 59% for pig manure and increased 19% for dairy cattle manure. TA and PMF remained higher compared to the reference. Sensitivity analysis showed that CH4 emission from manure storage, NH3 emission from processing, and the replaced nitrogen

  20. Manure management practices on biogas and non-biogas pig farms in developing countries - using livestock farms in Vietnam as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cu, T. T. T.; Cuong, P. H.; Hang, L. T.;

    2012-01-01

    This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production...... to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients...... such as public sewers or ponds. On biogas farms, most of the manure collected was used for bio-digestion. The farmers used the fermented manure (digestate) as a source of nutrients for crops, but on more than 50% of the interviewed biogas farms digestate was discharged to the environment. On non-biogas farms...

  1. Comparing N recovery from legumes grown as green manures in olive orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Arrobas, Margarida; Ferreira, I.Q.; Claro, Ana Marília; Correia, C.M.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.M.; Bacelar, E.A.; Fernandes-Silva, A.A.; Rodrigues, M.A. (Manuel Augusto)

    2012-01-01

    Green manuring is probably the only option for extending on a great scale the acreage of organic fanning in the perennial crops of the Mediterranean basin such as olive groves. Olive growers, in general, do not have animals so the availability of organic manures is not sufficient to maintain soil fertility. In addition, the organic composts approved for organic farming on the market have high prices and are sometimes speculative, in relation to their fertiliser value (Rodrigues et...

  2. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2−–N and NH4+–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge deodorization reactor and anaerobic digestion-partial oxidation treatment process treating swine manure and its corresponding control artificial wastewaters. Ammonium removal dropped from 98.0 ± 0.6% to 66.9 ± 2.7% and nearly absent when the organic load in the feeding increased from 232 mg COD/L to 1160 mg COD/L and 2320 mg COD/L. The presence of organic carbon had limited effect on nitrite and total nitrogen removal. At a COD to N ratio of 0.9, COD inhibitory organic load threshold concentration was 727 mg COD/L. Mass balance indicated that denitrifiers played an important role in nitrite, nitrate and organic carbon removal. These results demonstrated that anammox system had the potential to effectively treat swine manure that can achieve high nitrogen standards at reduced costs.

  3. Steroid-associated osteonecrosis: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, animal model, prevention, and potential treatments (an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hui Xie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON is a common orthopaedic problem caused by administration of corticosteroids prescribed for many nonorthopaedic medical conditions. We summarised different pathophysiologies of SAON which have adverse effects on multiple systems such as bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs pool, bone matrix, cell apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and angiogenesis. Different animal models were introduced to mimic the pathophysiology of SAON and for testing the efficacy of both prevention and treatment effects of various chemical drugs, biological, and physical therapies. According to the classification of SAON, several prevention and treatment methods are applied at the different stages of SAON. For the current period, Chinese herbs may also have the potential to prevent the occurrence of SAON. In the future, genetic analysis might also be helpful to effectively predict the development of ON and provide information for personalised prevention and treatment of patients with SAON.

  4. Selection of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae during penicillin treatment in vitro and in three animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Odenholt, Inga; Erlendsdottir, Helga;

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties for the selection of resistant pneumococci were studied by using three strains of the same serotype (6B) for mixed-culture infection in time-kill experiments in vitro and in three different animal models, the mouse peritonitis, the mouse...... used in the rabbit tissue cage model. During the different treatment regimens, the differences in numbers of CFU between treated and control animals were calculated to measure the efficacies of the regimens. Selective media with erythromycin or different penicillin concentrations were used to quantify...... overgrown by the less-susceptible strains. These findings with the experimental infection models confirm the importance of eradicating all the bacteria taking part in the infectious process in order to avoid selection of resistant clones....

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy as new treatment for clear cell sarcoma: Trial on different animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In our previous study, the tumor disappeared under boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on subcutaneously-transplanted CCS-bearing animals. In the present study, the tumor disappeared under this therapy on model mice intramuscularly implanted with three different human CCS cells. BNCT led to the suppression of tumor-growth in each of the different model mice, suggesting its potentiality as an alternative to, or integrative option for, the treatment of CCS. - Highlights: • BNCT with the use of L-BPA was applied for three human clear cell sarcoma (CCS) cell lines. • BNCT trial was performed on a newly established intramuscularly CCS-bearing animal model. • A significant decrease of the tumor-volume was seen by single BNCT with the use of L-BPA. • A multiple BNCT application would be required for controlling the growth of any residual tumors

  6. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotep Jurbe G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10 out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs, spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47% acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53% do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18% were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21% and Combretaceae (14.04% having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86% followed by the stem bark (29.82%. The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to

  7. Fertilizing cotton with recovered P from swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from liquid swine manure. Our objective was to compare P availability and leaching distribution in soils using the recovered P from swine wastewater (31% P2O5) compared with triple superphosphate (46% P2O5) and broiler litter (2.6% P...

  8. Solids and nutrient removal from flushed swine manure using polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the organic nutrient elements (nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon compounds (COD) in liquid swine manure are contained in fine suspended particles. Flocculation treatment with polyacrylamide (PAM) followed by screening if on the best methods to separate the liquid fraction

  9. Biochar and manure effects on nitrogen nutrition in silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amending soil with biochar may be a means of sequestering atmospheric CO2 and improving soil quality, but few multiyear field studies have examined the impacts of a one-time biochar application in an irrigated, calcareous soil. Four treatments were applied in the fall 2008: dairy manure (18.7 tons/...

  10. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  11. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey B. Manbeck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess: (1 how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2 from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3 whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  12. Effects of pH and manure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Claudia; Harter, Thomas; Radke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are a commonly used group of compounds in animal husbandry. They are excreted with manure, which is collected in a storage lagoon in certain types of confined animal feeding operations. Flood irrigation of forage fields with this liquid manure creates the potential risk of groundwater contamination in areas with shallow groundwater levels. We tested the hypothesis that-in addition to the soil characteristics-manure as cosolute and manure pH are two major parameters influencing sulfonamide transport in soils. Solute displacement experiments in repacked, saturated soil columns were performed with soil (loamy sand) and manure from a dairy farm in California. Breakthrough of nonreactive tracer and sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole at different solution pH (5, 6.5, 8.5) with and without manure was modeled using Hydrus-1D to infer transport and reaction parameters. Tracer and sulfonamide breakthrough curves were well explained by a model concept based on physical nonequilibrium transport, equilibrium sorption, and first-order dissipation kinetics. Sorption of the antibiotics was low ( K₄ ≤ 0.7 L kg) and only weakly influenced by pH and manure. However, sulfonamide attenuation was significantly affected by both pH and manure. The mass recovery of sulfonamides decreased with decreasing pH, e.g., for sulfamethoxazole from 77 (pH 8.5) to 56% (pH 5). The sulfonamides were highly mobile under the studied conditions, but manure application increased their attenuation substantially. The observed attenuation was most likely caused by a combination of microbial transformation and irreversible sorption to the soil matrix. PMID:21869527

  13. STTARR: a radiation treatment and multi-modal imaging facility for fast tracking novel agent development in small animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small animal models play a pivotal role in the pipeline development of novel agents and strategies in personalized cancer therapy. The Spatio-Temporal Targeting and Amplification of Radiation Response Program (STTARR) consists of an animal imaging and precision radiation facility designed to provide innovative biologic imaging and targeted radiation treatment strategies in small animals. The design is to mirror the imaging and radiation treatment facility in a modern cancer center. The STTARR features imaging equipment of small animal scale including CT, MRI, PET, SPECT, Optical devices as well as image guided irradiators. The fleet of imaging and irradiation equipment provides a platform for identification of biological targets of the specific molecular pathways that influence both tumor progression and a patient's response to radiation therapy. Examples will be given in the utilization of the imaging facilities for development in novel approaches in cancer therapy including a PET-FAZA study for hypoxia measurement in a pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenograft model. In addition, the cone-beam image guided small animal irradiator developed at our institute will also be described. The animal platform (couch) provides motion in 3 dimensions to position the animal to the isocentre of the beam. A pair of rotational arms supporting the X-ray/detector pair enables acquisition of cone-beam images of the animal which give rise to image guided precision of 0.5 mm. The irradiation energy ranges from 50 to 225 kVp at a dose rate from 10-400 cGy/min. The gantry is able to direct X-ray beam of different directions to give conformal radiation treatment to the animal. A dedicated treatment planning system is able to perform treatment planning and provide commonly used clinical metrics in the animal treatment plan. Examples will be given to highlight the use of the image guided irradiator for research of drug/irradiation regimen in animal models. (author)

  14. Effect of goat manure on some soil properties and growth, yield and nutrient status of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiment were conducted at Akure, Negeria, in a rainforest zone of Southwest Nigeria to study the effect of goat manure (droppings) on some soil physical and chemical properties and nutrient status, growth and yied of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Five levels of manure (0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha) were applied on the soil surface to two crops of tomato at each of two sites, namely, Federal College of Agriculture and Federal University of Technology. Soils were deficient in organic matter (OM), total N, exchangeable Ca and available P. Soil OM, total N, available P and moisture content increased with the level of manure, while soil bulk density decreased. Leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, growth and fruit yield of tomato were significantly increased by goat manure treatments. Leaf K, Ca and Mg, plant height, number of branches, leaf area, root length, number of fruits and fruit diameter increased with the level of manure, However, the 25 t/ha manure gave optimum values of number and weight of fruits. The mean fruit yields recorded for 0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha goat manure were 15.0, 19.7, 23.7, 24.3 and 22.3 t/ha, respectively. It is concluded that goat manure is suitable for impoving soil physical and chemical properties and growth and yield of tomato.(Author)

  15. Organic and chemical manure of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on bean production ICA CITARA variety, four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, and earthworm manure) in four doses 280,500 y 1.000 kg/ha with the same doses of chemical fertilization, were evaluated the experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia) of medium climate with 1.320 m.s.n.m. This was established using an alluvial soil (Tropofluvent), frenk, with low contents of organic, matter (2,2%), phosphorus (10 ppm), and potassium (0,10 meq/l00 g). the results, after six consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments. The highest yield (1.836 kg/ha) was obtained when to the chemical fertilization (300 kg of 10-30-10) was added with 250 kg/ha of hen manure, followed by the application of 100 kg/ha, of cow manure (1.812 kg/ha). Chemical fertilization without organic matter produced 1.640 kg/ha of bean, which was very similar to the addition of 1.000 kg/ha of cow manure and earthworm manure with yields of 1.688 kg/ha and 1.635 kg/ha respectively

  16. Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure.

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, G

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERALIn this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestion process for energy production on dairy farms.2. Digestion of manure at lower temperatures.The goal of the first mentioned research was optimization of anaerobic digestion of cow manure in a mesophilic CSTR-system...

  17. Anti-sized reed bed system for animal wastewater treatment : a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y. Q.; Sun, Guangzhi; Allen, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Two separate sets of reed bed systems were operated in parallel for the purpose to study a comparative behaviour of high strength animal wastewater treatment. Each system consisted of five-stage gravel-based reed beds. The only difference between the two systems lies in the gravel arrangement within the beds. One system employed single sized gravel as bed medium (termed as mono-sized bed) while the other used two layers of gravel with coarse grain as the upper layer (termed as anti-sized bed)...

  18. Methods for increasing the biogas potential from the recalcitrant organic matter contained in manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Angelidaki, Irini

    1998-01-01

    biogas potential from fibres in the range 5-20 mm. Treatment of the fibres with hemicellulolytic or cellulolytic enzymes did not result in any significant increase of the methane potential. However, biological treatment of the fibres of the manure with the hemicellulose degrading bacterium B4 resulted in...... a significant increase of the biogas potential of manure. An increase of approx. 30 % in methane potential was achieved compared to controls.......The biogas potential of manure could be significantly increased by treatment of the recalcitrant organic matter (biofibers) contained in the manure. Several treatment methods were tested. Mechanical maceration resulted in an average increase of the biogas potential of approx. 17% as shown by...

  19. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer. PMID:26341827

  20. SURVEY OF WATER EXTRACTABLE PHOSPHORUS IN MANURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-extractable phosphorus (P) in manure is strongly related to dissolved P in runoff from soils receiving recent additions of manure. A survey of water-extractable P concentrations in manures submitted to Penn State University's Agricultural Analytical Services Laboratory was conducted. Results r...

  1. SU-C-BRE-01: 3D Conformal Micro Irradiation Results of Four Treatment Sites for Preclinical Small Animal and Clinical Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S; Yaddanapudi, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Rangaraj, D; Izaguirre, E [Scott and White Hospital, Temple, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Small animal irradiation can provide preclinical insights necessary for clinical advancement. In order to provide clinically relevant data, these small animal irradiations must be designed such that the treatment methods and results are comparable to clinical protocols, regardless of variations in treatment size and modality. Methods: Small animal treatments for four treatment sites (brain, liver, lung and spine) were investigated, accounting for change in treatment energy and target size. Up to five orthovoltage (300kVp) beams were used in the preclinical treatments, using circular, square, and conformal tungsten apertures, based on the treatment site. Treatments were delivered using the image guided micro irradiator (microIGRT). The plans were delivered to a mouse sized phantom and dose measurements in axial and coronal planes were performed using radiochromic film. The results of the clinical and preclinical protocols were characterized in terms of conformality number, CTV coverage, dose nonuniformity ratio, and organ at risk sparing. Results: Preclinical small animal treatment conformality was within 1–16% of clinical results for all treatment sites. The volume of the CTV receiving 100% of the prescription dose was typically within 10% of clinical values. The dose non-uniformity was consistently higher for preclinical treatments compared to clinical treatments, indicating hot spots in the target. The ratios of the mean dose in the target to the mean dose in an organ at risk were comparable if not better for preclinical versus clinical treatments. Finally, QUANTEC dose constraints were applied and the recommended morbidity limits were satisfied in each small animal treatment site. Conclusion: We have shown that for four treatment sites, preclinical 3D conformal small animal treatments can be clinically comparable if clinical protocols are followed. Using clinical protocols as the standard, preclinical irradiation methods can be altered and iteratively

  2. Operational experinece with large scale biogas production at the promest manure processing plant in Helmond, the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In The Netherlands a surplus of 15 million tons of liquid pig manure is produced yearly on intensive pig breeding farms. The dutch government has set a three-way policy to reduce this excess of manure: 1. conversion of animal fodder into a product with less and better ingestible nutrients; 2. distribution of the surplus to regions with a shortage of animal manure; 3. processing of the remainder of the surplus in large scale processing plants. The first large scale plant for the processing of liquid pig manure was put in operation in 1988 as a demonstration plant at Promest in Helmond. The design capacity of this plant is 100,000 tons of pig manure per year. The plant was initiated by the Manure Steering Committee of the province Noord-Brabant in order to prove at short notice whether large scale manure processing might contribute to the solution of the problem of the manure surplus in The Netherlands. This steering committee is a corporation of the national and provincial government and the agricultural industrial life. (au)

  3. Economies of scale in the production of swine manure Economias de escala na produção de dejetos de suínos

    OpenAIRE

    W.C. Losinger; R.K. SAMPATH

    2000-01-01

    Manure production on grower/finisher swine operations in the United States was examined using data from 184 grower/finisher swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System's 1995 National Swine Study. Two methods were used: one, assuming that pigs produced 8.4% of their body weight in manure each day; another using the difference between feed fed and weight gained as a proxy variable to study manure production. Using this latter approach, a pro...

  4. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff. PMID:21367596

  5. Cadmium in animal production and its potential hazard on Beijing and Fuxin farmlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A random sample of pairs of animal feeds and manures were collected from 215 animal barns in Beijing and Fuxin regions of China. The concentrations of Cd in manures and feeds ranged from non-detectable to 129.8 mg/kg dry weight and non-detectable to 31 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The concentrations of Cd in pig, dairy cow and chicken manures were positively correlated to those in their feeds. About 30% of the manure samples contained Cd concentrations higher than the upper limit for use in farmlands, and pig and chicken manures might be the primary contributors of Cd to farmlands. The farmlands in Beijing and around the Fuxin Downtown areas would exceed the soil quality criteria within several decades according to current manure Cd loading rates. Undoubtedly, more scientific animal production and manure management practices to minimize soil pollution risks are necessary for the two regions.

  6. Organic manure of the corn (Zea mays L.) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on the yield of com ICA V.303 variety, using four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, earthworm manure) in two doses (500 and 1.000 kg/ha), compared with a chemical treatment (300 kg/ha of 10-30-10 plus 150 kg of urea), and a control, an experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia), with 1.320 m.s.n.m. The experiment was established using an alluvial soil (tropofluvent), frank, with low content of organic matter (3.1%), and potassium (0.11 meq/l00 g), and medium content of phosphorus (2 ppm). The results, after four consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments, compared with the control. The highest yield (4.709 kg/ha) was obtained with the chemical treatment (300 kg/ha of 10-30-10 plus 150 kg of urea). The addition of 500 and 1.000 kg/ha of hen manure and pig manure showed an average yield of corn of 4.315,4.539 .4.246, and 4.487 kg/ha respectively. the control only produced 2.620 kg/ha. The great profitability was obtained with 500 kg/ ha of cow manure, 1.000 kg/ha of pig manure and the chemical treatment (300 kg/ha 10-30-10 and 150 kg/ha of urea y 1.000 kg/ha hen manure). There were not significative differences between the chemical fertilization and the organic fertilization; these results show that organic matter is an alternative for fertilization with respect to the development of a sustained and biological agriculture

  7. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH Clinical Center | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Therapy Dogs Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH Clinical Center ... She and her friendly beagle, Juno, are trusted animal-assisted therapy volunteers. Accompanied by Parker or other Clinical Center ...

  8. High rate manure supernatant digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bergland, Wenche Hennie; Dinamarca, Carlos; Toradzadegan, Mehrdad; Nordgård, Anne Synnøve Røstad; Bakke, Ingrid; Bakke, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The study shows that high rate anaerobic digestion may be an efficient way to obtain sustainable energy recovery from slurries such as pig manure. High process capacity and robustness to 5% daily load increases are observed in the 370mL sludge bed AD reactors investigated. The supernatant from partly settled, stored pig manure was fed at rates giving hydraulic retention times, HRT, gradually decreased from 42 to 1.7h imposing a maximum organic load of 400g COD L-1 reactor d-1. The reactors re...

  9. Copper and zinc accumulation in sandy soils and constructed wetlands receiving pig manure effluent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pig production across the USA has undergone a massive centralization over the past few decades. Small animal production facilities have been replaced by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). This management practice has also centralized manure production into limited geographic areas. In t...

  10. Image-guided small animal radiation research platform: calibration of treatment beam alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression and response to therapy with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) is a portable system for precision irradiation with beam sizes down to approximately 0.5 mm and optimally planned radiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. This paper focuses on the geometric calibration of the system for high-precision irradiation. A novel technique for the calibration of the treatment beam is presented, which employs an x-ray camera whose precise positioning need not be known. Using the camera system we acquired a digitally reconstructed 3D 'star shot' for gantry calibration and then developed a technique to align each beam to a common isocenter with the robotic animal positioning stages. The calibration incorporates localization by cone-beam CT guidance. Uncorrected offsets of the beams with respect to the calibration origin ranged from 0.4 mm to 5.2 mm. With corrections, these alignment errors can be reduced to the sub-millimeter range. The calibration technique was used to deliver a stereotactic-like arc treatment to a phantom constructed with EBT Gafchromic films. All beams were shown to intersect at a common isocenter with a measured beam (FWHM) of approximately 1.07 mm using the 0.5 mm collimated beam. The desired positioning accuracy of the SARRP is 0.25 mm and the results indicate an accuracy of 0.2 mm. To fully realize the radiation localization capabilities of the SARRP, precise geometric calibration is required, as with any such system. The x-ray camera-based technique presented here provides a straightforward and semi-automatic method for system calibration.

  11. Recycling manure as cow bedding: Potential benefits and risks for UK dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Katharine A; Archer, Simon C; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J; Ohnstad, Ian C; Tuer, Sally; Bradley, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such 'recycling' of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health. PMID:26388545

  12. Effect of covering on greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle solid manure stored at different stack heights%覆盖及堆积高度对肉牛粪便温室气体排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 董红敏; 左福元; 袁丰; 饶骏

    2014-01-01

    为了研究覆盖对不同堆积高度肉牛固体粪便温室气体(N2O、CH4和 CO2)排放量的影响,试验采用静态箱的方法研究了20和40 cm堆积高度时覆盖或者不覆盖情况下肉牛粪便温室气体的排放量。结果表明,堆积40 cm的牛粪CH4的累积排放量显著高于20 cm处理,而N2O和CO2累积排放量显著降低。覆盖显著增加了牛粪N2O的排放量和40 cm高度牛粪的CH4排放量,降低了40 cm高度牛粪CO2的排放量,而对20 cm高度牛粪CH4和CO2排放无显著影响。根据CH4和N2O在100 a 尺度上相对CO2的全球增温潜势计算出综合温室效应,无覆盖处理的20和40 cm牛粪的综合温室效应分别为(101.07±6.28)和(94.67±3.29)g/kg,覆盖处理的20和40 cm牛粪的综合温室效应分别为(104.20±6.78)和(103.43±3.21)g/kg,堆积高度为40 cm且无覆盖的综合温室效应最小。%The greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased in atmospheric concentration since 1 750, attracting more and more attention regarding climate change. Agriculture activities contribute to the increase of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, resulting in a higher global warming potential, which is estimated to contribute about 47%-58% of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Storage of animal manure is reported to be a significant agricultural source of methane and nitrous oxide. Generally, greenhouse gas emissions from animal manure can be influenced by storage stacking configuration and covering during storage. However, there are large uncertainties in this estimation. In order to quantify N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions from covered beef cattle solid manure compared with uncovered manure stored at different stack heights during storage, four treatments were designed including a stack height of 20 cm without covering (H20), a tack height of 40 cm without covering (H40), a stack height

  13. 覆盖及堆积高度对肉牛粪便温室气体排放的影响%Effect of covering on greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle solid manure stored at different stack heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 董红敏; 左福元; 袁丰; 饶骏

    2014-01-01

    为了研究覆盖对不同堆积高度肉牛固体粪便温室气体(N2O、CH4和 CO2)排放量的影响,试验采用静态箱的方法研究了20和40 cm堆积高度时覆盖或者不覆盖情况下肉牛粪便温室气体的排放量。结果表明,堆积40 cm的牛粪CH4的累积排放量显著高于20 cm处理,而N2O和CO2累积排放量显著降低。覆盖显著增加了牛粪N2O的排放量和40 cm高度牛粪的CH4排放量,降低了40 cm高度牛粪CO2的排放量,而对20 cm高度牛粪CH4和CO2排放无显著影响。根据CH4和N2O在100 a 尺度上相对CO2的全球增温潜势计算出综合温室效应,无覆盖处理的20和40 cm牛粪的综合温室效应分别为(101.07±6.28)和(94.67±3.29)g/kg,覆盖处理的20和40 cm牛粪的综合温室效应分别为(104.20±6.78)和(103.43±3.21)g/kg,堆积高度为40 cm且无覆盖的综合温室效应最小。%The greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased in atmospheric concentration since 1 750, attracting more and more attention regarding climate change. Agriculture activities contribute to the increase of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, resulting in a higher global warming potential, which is estimated to contribute about 47%-58% of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Storage of animal manure is reported to be a significant agricultural source of methane and nitrous oxide. Generally, greenhouse gas emissions from animal manure can be influenced by storage stacking configuration and covering during storage. However, there are large uncertainties in this estimation. In order to quantify N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions from covered beef cattle solid manure compared with uncovered manure stored at different stack heights during storage, four treatments were designed including a stack height of 20 cm without covering (H20), a tack height of 40 cm without covering (H40), a stack height

  14. Control of Nematode Disease of Eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum L. Using Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Adekunle Abolusoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment was conducted in the year 2010 and repeated in 2011 to examine the effects of organic manure (poultry, cow dung, domestic waste and inorganic manure (NPK 15:15:15 on the yield, soil and root population of Meloidogyne incognita that infected Ethiopian eggplant Solanum aethiopicum in a greenhouse at Kabba College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Kabba, Nigeria. Each of the organic manure was applied as soil amendment at the rate of 5 t/ha and the inorganic fertilizer (NPK was applied at the rate of 200 kg/ha while there was an untreated control that acted as standard check. The experimental design was a completely randomized design comprising of five treatments including control and each of the treatments was replicated four times. The results of the experiment showed that all the organic manures considered and NPK fertilizer were effective in suppressing nematode negative effects on the plant as manifested in improved yield, reduced soil and root population as well as in reduced gall index of the organic and inorganic manure treated plants compared with the control. The mean fruit yield of the manure treated plant was 18+1, of NPK fertilizer treated ones was 17, while the average fruit number in untreated control was 6.5. The organic and inorganic manures treated plants had bigger fruit size compared with control and were significantly different from the control. The soil and root population as well as root gall index were reduced in all the manure treatments compared with the control and they were significantly different from the control. The results of this experiment confirmed that organic manure can be utilized to manage root-knot nematode (M. incognita in soil.

  15. Application of rye green manure in wheat rotation system alters soil water content and chemical characteristics under dryland condition in Maragheh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavi, S B; Jafarzadeh, A A; Nishabouri, M R; Ostan, Sh; Feiziasl, V

    2009-01-15

    This study was carried out with or without rye green manure along with 4 nitrogen fertilization treatments (0, 26, 103 and 337 (kg N ha(-1)) in 3 rotation system (green manure-wheat). Results showed that, although treatment effects on dryland wheat grain yield was not significant, but maximum grain yield (2484 kg ha(-1)) was obtained from application of rye green manure along with 26 kg N ha(-1); which is 22% more than check (without rye green manure) treatment. Green manure application with or without nitrogen increased EC (dS m(-1)), but decreased OC, P (av.), Cu (av.), Mn (av.), Zn (av.) and sand in the soil. In contrast to green manure, application of nitrogen along with green manure increased saturation and clay. In the stage of stem appearance, soil moisture content decreased 8% in green-manure application but with nitrogen application the moisture increased 6% compared with check in 0-20 cm depth. It can be concluded that, green manure application is useful along with nitrogen fertilizer application in long term. This treatment could increase soil moisture content, which leads to higher wheat grain yield in dryland areas. In addition, green manure application could change some soil characteristics such as soil TNV%, which decreases availability of some essential nutrients for dryland wheat. PMID:19579941

  16. Managing manure from China's pigs and poultry: the influence of ecological rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Bluemling, Bettina; Liu, Yi; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated manure management practices at three farm scales in Chinese pig and poultry production. The concept of ecological rationality was employed to explore empirically how environmental concerns drive adoption of environmental-friendly manure management technologies at different farm scales. The more developed Rudong County in Jiangsu Province and the less developed Zhongjiang County in Sichuan Province were chosen as cases for study of 258 animal breeders. On the contrary to our hypothesis, medium-scale farmers were not always found to be laggards in adoption of manure management technologies. Government ecological rationality played a key role to induce environmental-friendly technology adoption on its own, but also in cooperation with ecologically rational individual or network drivers. Authorities no longer applied their efforts in a conventional command-and-control way, but more in the form of incentives, stimulation, and information to farmers. Individual farmers in general showed low environmental responsibility in relation to manure handling. PMID:24026943

  17. Reconstitution of dewatered food processing residuals with manure to increase energy production from anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid residuals generated from dewatering food processing wastewater contain organic carbon that can potentially be reclaimed for energy through anaerobic digestion. This results in the diversion of waste from a landfill and uses it for a beneficial purpose. Dewatering the waste concentrates the carbon, reducing transportation costs to a farm digester where it can be blended with manure to increase biogas yield. Polymers are often used in the dewatering of the food waste but little is known regarding their impact on biogas production. Four 2 dm3 working volume, semi-continuous reactors, were used at a mesophilic temperature and a solids retention time (SRT) of 15 days. Reactors were fed daily with a blended feedstock containing a food processing sludge waste (FPSW)/manure ratio of 2.2:1 (by weight) as this produced the optimized carbon to nitrogen ratio. Results demonstrated that reconstitution of dewatered FPSW with dairy manure produced approximately 2 times more methane than animal manure alone for the same volume. However, only approximately 30% of volatile solids (VS) were consumed indicating energy potential still remained. Further, the efficiency of the conversion of VS to methane for the blended FPSW/manure was substantially less than for manure only. However, the overall result is an increase in energy production for a given tank volume, which can decrease life cycle costs. Because all FPSW is unique and the determination of dewatering additives is customized based on laboratory testing and field adjustment, generalizations are difficult and specific testing is required. -- Highlights: ► Energy production in anaerobic digestion can increase by co-blending food waste. ► Energy for transporting food waste to blend with manure is less when dewatered. ► Dewatered food waste in manure produced twice as much methane than manure. ► Efficiency of carbon to methane was low because of ammonium bicarbonate production. ► Carbon destruction was 30%, more

  18. Use of mammal manure by nesting burrowing owls: a test of four functional hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Animals have evolved an impressive array of behavioural traits to avoid depredation. Olfactory camouflage of conspicuous odours is a strategy to avoid depredation that has been implicated only in a few species of birds. Burrowing owls, Athene cunicularia, routinely collect dried manure from mammals and scatter it in their nest chamber, in the tunnel leading to their nest and at the entrance to their nesting burrow. This unusual behaviour was thought to reduce nest depredation by concealing the scent of adults and juveniles, but a recent study suggests that manure functions to attract arthropod prey. However, burrowing owls routinely scatter other materials in the same way that they scatter manure, and this fact seems to be at odds with both of these hypotheses. Thus, we examined the function of this behaviour by testing four alternative hypotheses. We found no support for the widely cited olfactory-camouflage hypothesis (manure did not lower the probability of depredation), or for the mate-attraction hypothesis (males collected manure after, not before, pair formation). Predictions of the burrow-occupied hypothesis (manure indicates occupancy to conspecifics and thereby reduces agonistic interactions) were supported, but results were not statistically significant. Our results also supported several predictions of the prey-attraction hypothesis. Pitfall traps at sampling sites with manure collected more arthropod biomass (of taxa common in the diet of burrowing owls) than pitfall traps at sampling sites without manure. Scattering behaviour of burrowing owls appears to function to attract arthropod prey, but may also signal occupancy of a burrow to conspecifics. ?? 2006 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  19. Determination of phosphorus speciation in dairy manure using XRD and XANES spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Kerem; Jürgensen, Astrid; Karthikeyan, K G

    2007-01-01

    Intensive manure application is an important source of diffuse phosphorus (P) pollution. Phosphorus availability from animal manure is influenced by its chemical speciation. The major objective of this study was to investigate the P speciation in raw and anaerobically digested dairy manure with an emphasis on the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphate phases. Influent and effluent from an on-farm digester in Wisconsin were sampled and sieved, and the 25 to 53 microm size fraction was dried for X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and P K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses. Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) was identified in both the raw (influent) and anaerobically digested (effluent) manure using XRD. Qualitative analysis of P K-edge XANES spectra indicated that the Ca orthophosphate phases, except dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) or monetite (CaHPO4), were not abundant in dairy manure. Linear combination fitting (LCF) of the P standard compounds showed that 57.0 and 43.0% of P was associated with DCPA and struvite, respectively, in the raw manure. In the anaerobically digested sample, 78.2% of P was present as struvite and 21.8% of P was associated with hydroxylapatite (HAp). The P speciation shifted toward Mg orthophosphates and least soluble Ca orthophosphates following anaerobic digestion. Similarity between the aqueous orthophosphate (aq-PO4), newberyite (MgHPO4.3H2O), and struvite spectra can cause inaccurate P speciation determination when dairy manure is analyzed solely using P K-edge XANES spectroscopy; however, XANES can be used in conjunction with XRD to quantify the distribution of inorganic P species in animal manure. PMID:17965388

  20. Treatment of Animal Feeds with Ionizing Radiation: VI. Technological and Economic Feasibility of Poultry Feed Radicidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella contamination of farm animals in Israel has increased significantly, particularly on poultry farms, and is causing severe losses and a high incidence of infected poultry products. EEC regulations regarding poultry meat require rejection of batches containing salmonella microorganisms. Feed flour is considered to be one of the principal sources of contamination and effective treatment of the feed is one of the most important steps in reducing flock contamination. The Israel authorities have passed a new regulation requiring breeders to buy only salmonella-free poultry feed. Salmonella-free poultry feed can be produced by pelletization or by treatment with ionizing radiation, using gamma or electron sources. From the view point of radicidation both types of radiation are equally effective. Both types of sources are suited to on-line treatment of products in feed mills, but each has its advantages and disadvantages in practice. Whereas gamma irradiation facilities will allow thick layers of product, they require considerable shielding and nearly continuous operation to be economically justifiable. The low energy electron accelerators allow treatment of flour only (pellets cannot be treated), but are easily adaptable to the fluctuating flow of products in a feed mill, at relatively low treatment cost. Breeders, contrary to broilers, require feed flour and not pellets. Hence electron irradiation would tend to yield a product more in compliance with the new regulation than pelletization, which requires crushing and which may leave Salmonella in the feed. The economic feasibility of an electron accelerator-based radicidation process in an existing feed mill is examined. (author)

  1. Treatment of animal feeds with ionizing radiation. VI. Technological and economic feasibility of poultry feed radicidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonella contamination of farm animals in Israel has increased significantly, particularly on poultry farms, and is causing severe losses and a high incidence of infected poultry products. EEC regulations regarding poultry meat require rejection of batches containing salmonella microorganisms. Feed flour is considered to be one of the principal sources of contamination and effective treatment of the feed is one of the most important steps in reducing flock contamination. The Israel authorities have passed a new regulation requiring breeders to buy only salmonella-free poultry feed. Salmonella-free poultry feed can be produced by pelletization or by treatment with ionizing radiation, using gamma or electron sources. From the view point of radicidation both types of radiation are equally effective. Both types of sources are suited to on-line treatment of products in feed mills, but each has its advantages and disadvantages in practice. Whereas gamma irradiation facilities will allow thick layers of product, they require considerable shielding and nearly continuous operation to be economically justifiable. The low energy electron accelerators allow treatment of flour only (pellets cannot be treated), but are easily adaptable to the fluctuating flow of products in a feed mill, at relatively low treatment cost. Breeders, contrary to broilers, require feed flour and not pellets. Hence electron irradiation would tend to yield a product more in compliance with the new regulation than pelletization, which requires crushing and which may leave Salmonella in the feed. The economic feasibility of an electron accelerator-based radicidation process in an existing feed mill is examined. (author)

  2. Preclinical imaging and treatment of cancer: the use of animal models beyond rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axiak-Bechtel, S M; Maitz, C A; Selting, K A; Bryan, J N

    2015-09-01

    The development of novel radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging and therapy of neoplastic diseases relies on accurate and reproducible animal models. Rodent models are often used to demonstrate the proof-of-principle tracer and therapeutic agent development, but their small size can make tissue sampling challenging. The dosimetry of decay emissions in the much smaller rodent tumors do not model dosimetry in human tumors well. In addition, rodent models of cancer represent a simplified version of a very complex process. Spontaneous tumors are heterogenous and the response to intervention can be unpredictable; tumor cells can adopt alternate signaling pathways and modify their interaction with the microenvironment. These inconsistencies, while present in humans, are difficult to fully reproduce in a genetically-engineered rodent model. Companion animals, primarily dogs and cats, offer translational models that more accurately reflect the intricate nature of spontaneous neoplasia in humans. Their larger size facilitates tissue and blood sampling when needed, and allows radiopharmaceutical tracers to be studied on human-scale imaging systems to better mimic the clinical application of the agent. This article will review the growing body of literature surrounding the use of radiopharmaceutical agents for both imaging and therapy in companion dogs and cats. Previous investigations have been performed both for the advancement of routine, high-level veterinary care, and in the context of translational research from which the results of imaging and treatment can be readily applied to people. Studies utilizing the spontaneously occurring cancer model in companion animals involving positron emission tomography, radiotracers, dosimetry, theranostics, targeted radiopharmaceuticals, brachytherapy, and boron neutron capture therapy are discussed. PMID:26200223

  3. Preclinical imaging and treatment of cancer: the use of animal models beyond rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of novel radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging and therapy of neoplastic diseases relies on accurate and reproducible animal models. Rodent models are often used to demonstrate the proof-of-principle tracer and therapeutic agent development, but their small size can make tissue sampling challenging. The dosimetry of decay emissions in the much smaller rodent tumors do not model dosimetry in human tumors well. In addition, rodent models of cancer represent a simplified version of a very complex process. Spontaneous tumors are heterogenous and the response to intervention can be unpredictable; tumor cells can adopt alternate signaling pathways and modify their interaction with the microenvironment. These inconsistencies, while present in humans, are difficult to fully reproduce in a genetically-engineered rodent model. Companion animals, primarily dogs and cats, offer translational models that more accurately reflect the intricate nature of spontaneous neoplasia in humans. Their larger size facilitates tissue and blood sampling when needed, and allows radiopharmaceutical tracers to be studied on human-scale imaging systems to better mimic the clinical application of the agent. This article will review the growing body of literature surrounding the use of radiopharmaceutical agents for both imaging and therapy in companion dogs and cats. Previous investigations have been performed both for the advancement of routine, high-level veterinary care, and in the context of translational research from which the results of imaging and treatment can be readily applied to people. Studies utilizing the spontaneously occurring cancer model in companion animals involving positron emission tomography, radiotracers, dosimetry, theranostics, targeted radiopharmaceuticals, brachytherapy, and boron neutron capture therapy are discussed.

  4. Survey of dairy housing and manure management practices in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D; Price, P L; Rossow, H A; Silva-del-Rio, N; Karle, B M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Fadel, J G

    2011-09-01

    In 2007, a descriptive survey was mailed to all dairies in Glenn (G) and Tulare (T) Counties to identify current and future opportunities of manure management practices on California dairies. The purpose was to provide baseline information for development of outreach curriculum and a decision support tool to quantify potential benefits of various N management options on dairy farms. Such baseline information is valuable to staff regulating dairy facilities (e.g., San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board), dairy trade association representatives, and technology vendors. Response rates for each county were similar at 29.7% (n=19; G) and 26.7% (n=88; T). Mean milking herd size averaged 570 (range 50 to 3,000) cows in G and 1,800 (range 196 to 9,286) cows in T. Survey data are reported by location due to differences between counties in herd size, housing facilities, and climate. Freestalls are common housing facilities (63.2%, G; 38.6%, T) and separated solids and corral scrapings are commonly used as bedding in freestalls (81.8% G and 79.4% T). The most common methods of manure collection were flushing and scraping (18.8%, G; 44.7%, T), only flushing (43.8%, G; 34.1%, T), or only scraping daily or less frequently than daily (37.5%, G; 20.0%, T). Most dairy farms in G (63.2%) and T (70.5%) used some method of separating solids from liquids. However, mechanical separation systems alone were used by 5.3% G and 11.4% T of dairy farms. Storage or treatment ponds were found on 95.9% of dairies. Respondents identified existing manure management practices and did not indicate any new technologies were in use or being considered for manure management. Survey results were used to describe the 2 predominant manure management pathways of manure collection, storage, treatment, and utilization. Survey results will be used to develop and disseminate targeted information on manure treatment technologies, and on

  5. The effects of post-treatments and temperature on recovering the methane potential of > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Rintala, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    batch assays at 5-20 degrees C and at 35-55 degrees C to evaluate the treatment effects both under long-term (340 d) storage of solids and during active digestion (30 d), respectively. The effects of different treatments on the methane production of the solids varied with incubation temperatures and...... time. However, in all cases, methane productions at 15 degrees C and lower were slow and low for both untreated and treated solids even after long-term incubation. At 35 and 55 degrees C more methane was recovered from untreated solids producing up to 61-82 ml g(-1) volatile solids (VS)(added) in 30 d...... and 179-215 ml g(-1) VSadded in 340 d. Only chemical treatment with or without thermal treatment enhanced the methane yields while some treatments even decreased the yields. An increase in temperature to 35 degrees C of the assays incubated for 6 months at...

  6. Long-term manure amendments reduced soil aggregate stability via redistribution of the glomalin-related soil protein in macroaggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongtu; Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Lianfeng; Wang, Jingkuan; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) contributes to the formation and maintenance of soil aggregates, it is however remains unclear whether long-term intensive manure amendments alter soil aggregates stability and whether GRSP regulates these changes. Based on a three-decade long fertilization experiment in northeast China, this study examined the impact of long-term manure input on soil organic carbon (SOC), total and easily extractable GRSP (GRSPt and GRSPe) and their respective allocations in four soil aggregates (>2000 μm 2000-250 μm 250-53 μm and <53 μm). The treatments include no fertilization (CK), low and high manure amendment (M1, M2), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK), and combined manure and chemical fertilizers (NPKM1, NPKM2). Though SOC, GRSPe and GRSPt in soil and SOC in each aggregate generally increased with increasing manure input, GRSPt and GRSPe in each aggregate showed varying changes with manure input. Both GRSP in macroaggregates (2000-250 μm) were significantly higher under low manure input, a pattern consistent with changes in soil aggregate stability. Constituting 38~49% of soil mass, macroaggregates likely contributed to the nonlinear changes of aggregate stability under manure amendments. The regulatory process of GRSP allocations in soil aggregates has important implications for manure management under intensive agriculture.

  7. Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author)

  8. 干物质浓度对牛粪秸秆厌氧发酵产沼气的影响%Effect of Different Dry Matter Concentration on Dry Anaerobic Fermentation of Animal Manure and Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石利军; 黄淼; 刘慧芬; 张伟玉

    2013-01-01

    In this paper anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and straw was conducted to produce biogas .Under the con-ditions of C/N=25-30 and T=36℃, five kinds of dry matter concentration of 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%and 2 .5%were tested to investigate the effect of dry matter concentration on anaerobic digestion .The result showed that first 30 days was the biogas production peak phase and VFA concentrations in the leachate were also high during the same period .When dry matter concentration increased , biogas production amount appeared larger fluctuation , and the concentrations of alka-linity and NH4+-N in the leachate also increased with higher organic loading rate .Among five kinds of dry matter con-centration 10% was more suitable for anaerobic digestion to produce biogas with total biogas production amount of 4710 mL after 30 days and volume biogas production rates of 0 .313 m3/m3 · d.These results could provide instructive meaning to the engineering application of dry anaerobic digestion .%  在发酵原料C/N=25~30,T=36℃的条件下,研究20%,15%,10%,5%和2.5%等5种干物质浓度对牛粪秸秆混合干式厌氧发酵产沼气性能的影响。实验结果表明:发酵前30 d 为产气高峰期,同时发酵渗滤液中的VFA浓度也较高;干物质浓度增加时,产气量波动增大,渗滤液中碱度和 NH4+-N 浓度升高,发酵装置的有机负荷率也较高;10%的干物质浓度产气效果最好,发酵前30d的累积产气量为4710mL,相应的容积产气率可以达到0.313m3/m3· d。实验得到的结果对牛粪秸秆混合发酵的实际应用具有一定的指导意义。

  9. Effect of nitrogen and fish manure fertilization on growth and chemical composition of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ertan; Kul, Raziye; Turan, Metin; Ekinci, Melek; Alak, Gonca; Atamanalp, Muhammet

    2016-04-01

    Present experiment was designed to determine the response of various dozes of fish manure (FM) and commercial fertilizers on plant growth, yield and nutrient content of lettuce. The treatments consisted of fish manure, commercial fertilizer and the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer with four dozes of nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha and 200 kg/ha). The results of the study showed that treatments significantly affected the growth and chemical characteristics of lettuce. The best results in regard to plant growth and yield were obtained from 100 and 150 kg kg/ha nitrogen dozes of the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer.

  10. Lost in translation: animal models and clinical trials in cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Isabella WY; Evaniew, Nathan; Ghert, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Due to practical and ethical concerns associated with human experimentation, animal models have been essential in cancer research. However, the average rate of successful translation from animal models to clinical cancer trials is less than 8%. Animal models are limited in their ability to mimic the extremely complex process of human carcinogenesis, physiology and progression. Therefore the safety and efficacy identified in animal studies is generally not translated to human trials. Animal mo...

  11. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C. PMID:19161696

  12. Growth, nodulation and yield response of soybean to biofertilizers and organic manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain TAL-102 and a commercial biofertlizer EM (effective microorganisms) on growth, nodulation and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Wilczek] in soils amended either with farmyard manure or Trifolium alexandrinum L. green manure at the rate 20 tons ha/sup -1/ each. In green manure amendment, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced number and biomass of nodules resulting in a significant increase of 27, 65 and 55% in shoot biomass and number and biomass of pods, respectively. In farmyard manure amended soil, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced fresh biomass of nodules. As a result a significant increase of 45 and 47% in shoot biomass and number of pods was recorded, respectively. Generally, the effect of sole EM application on various studied parameters was insignificant in both the soil amendment systems. Combined application of EM and B. japonicum in green manure amended soil reduced shoot growth and number of pods as compared to sole B. japonicum inoculation. Conversely, in farmyard manure amendment, plants co-inoculated with B. japonicum and EM exhibited highest and significantly greater shoot biomass, and number and biomass of pods as compared to all other treatments. The present study concludes that soybean yield can be significantly enhanced by the application of B. japonicum and EM in farmyard manure amendment. (author)

  13. An assessment tool applied to manure management systems using innovative technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus G.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2003-01-01

    operational and cost-effective animal manure handling technologies. An assessment tool covering the whole chain of the manure handling system from the animal houses to the field has been developed. The tool enables a system-oriented evaluation of labour demand, machinery capacity and costs related to the...... tanker transport may reduce labour requirements, increase capacity, and open up new ways for reducing ammonia emission. In its most efficient configuration, the use of umbilical systems may reduce the labour requirement by about 40% and increase capacity by 80%. However, these systems are costly and will...

  14. Oxidation of methane from manure storages in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oonk, H. [OonKAY, Fabianusstraat 12, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Koopmans, J. [PAS Mestopslagsystemen, De Giek 31, Drachten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-12

    Dutch methane emissions from manure treatment and storage are estimated to be 115 Gg CH{sub 4}, which is about 1.5% of total greenhouse gas emissions. A possible option to reduce methane emissions from manure storages is to feed emissions into the soil next to the storage, where it is oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, comparable to the way methane is oxidized in top-layers of landfills. A feasibility study is performed to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the method. An annual average methane oxidizing capacity of about 2-3 g m{sup -2} h{sup -1} seems to be feasible in sandy or loamy soils, without major modifications. A single manure storage will require a few 100 m{sup 2} of soil to abate 70% or more of its methane. The system seems to be economically feasible and cost-effective. Additional investments are less than 5% of the total costs of a manure storage. Costs for emission reduction are 1 to 4 euro per Mg CO{sub 2}-eq. Proof of concept was no part of this feasibility study. The technology described is only expected and not demonstrated to work.

  15. Innovative process scheme for removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen from pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    blanket (UASB) reactor, partial oxidation), nitrogen (oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification, OLAND) and phosphorus (phosphorus removal by precipitation as struvite, PRS) from pig manure were tested. Results obtained showed that microfiltration was unsuitable for pig manure treatment...... with sequential separation by decanter centrifuge, post-digestion in UASB reactor, partial oxidation and finally OLAND process. This combination resulted in reduction of the total organic, nitrogen and phosphorus contents by 96%, 88%, and 81%, respectively....

  16. Pharmacological interventions for binge eating: lessons from animal models, current treatments, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating behavior has been noted in some eating disorders as well as in obesity. The goal of this paper is to review current, non-serotonergic pharmaceutical approaches to treat binge eating. Further, using information derived from preclinical models, we discuss candidate neurotransmitter systems for study as targets for the treatment of binge eating. Dopaminergic circuits have been implicated in both laboratory animal models and human studies of binge eating, though existing medications specifically targeting the dopaminergic system have been found to have adverse side effects. Opioidergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems also appear to be highly involved in aspects of binge eating; further, opioid antagonists, such as naloxone and naltrexone, and GABA agonists, such as baclofen, have all been shown to be effective in treating alcohol dependence and may be equally efficacious in attenuating binge eating. Preclinical evidence, and some clinical evidence, suggests that cannabinoid antagonism may also be useful in the treatment of binge eating, although the specific effect of antagonists, on binge consumption remains unclear. Overall, each of these neurotransmitter systems provides a promising avenue for new pharmacotherapy development for binge eating, and preclinical and human studies provide a strong rationale for the development of highly-selective drugs that target this neurocircuitry. PMID:21492094

  17. Utilization and environmental management of residues from intensive animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manures are traditional sources of nutrients in agriculture. Under proper management, manures provide nutrients to soil, reducing or eliminating the use of commercial fertilizers, as well as organic carbon that improves soil physical properties and soil health. However, excessive application ...

  18. Persistence of pathogens in liquid pig manure processed in manure tanks and biodigesters

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Betancur H.; Antonio Betancourt E.; Julián Estrada A.; Francisco Henao U.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the s...

  19. A novel phosphorus biofertilizer based on cattle manure and phytases-nanoclay complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel; Jorquera, Milko; Greiner, Ralf; Velasquez, Gabriela; Mora, María de la Luz

    2013-04-01

    Phytate and other phytase labile organic phosphorus (P) are abundant in both soils and manures. These recalcitrant forms of P accumulate in soils by their interaction with mineral particles. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of treating cattle manure with phytases stabilized in allophanic nanoclays, as a novel P biofertilization technology for crops grown in volcanic soils (Andisol). Two Andisols and two manures with contrasting inorganic Pcontent were used: Low P soil from Piedras Negras series (SPN-LP); High P soil from Freire Series (SF-HP); Low P Waste (WPN-LP); High P Waste (WF-HP). The used Andisols and manures were incubated with phytase-nanoclay complexes and the inorganic P was determined in the NaOH-EDTA and bicarbonate extracts. The WPN-LP was also inoculated with an alkaline β-propeller phytase (BPP) producing bacterium. The incubated SPN-LP and SPN-LP-WPN-LP mixture were evaluated for their P supplying capacity to wheat plants under greenhouse conditions. Our resultsindicated that the treatment of cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays resulted in a significant (P≤0.0.5) increase in the inorganic P. The use of phytase treated cattle manure increased 10% plant dry weight and 39% P concentration in wheat plants under greenhouse conditions, being equivalent to a P fertilizer dose of about 150 kg of P ha-1. In the case of low P cattle manure inoculated with BPP producing bacterium, inorganic P increased 10% in soil extracts (NaOH EDTA and Bicarbonate). However, the application of this treated manure did not result in a significant response to wheat growth and P acquisition. Our results suggest that this novel approach of incubating cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays enhances organic P cycling and P nutrition of plants grown under P-deficient soils.

  20. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam....... Moreover, foaming presents adverse environmental impacts owing to the overflowing of the pre-storage or digester tanks. So far, there has never been thoroughly investigation of foaming problem in manure-based digester, which is the main anaerobic digestion applied in Denmark. The purpose of the present...... study was to identify potential causes of foaming in manure based digesters. Moreover, it was also an aim to investigate possible solutions to counteract foam formation with the use of antifoam agents. Thus, the impact of organic loading rate and content of feeding substrate on anaerobic digestion...

  1. Approval of raxibacumab for the treatment of inhalation anthrax under the US Food and Drug Administration Animal rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei eTsai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 14, 2012, the FDA approved raxibacumab, the first product developed under Project BioShield to achieve this milestone, and the first biologic product to be approved through the FDA animal efficacy rule (or Animal Rule. Raxibacumab is approved for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis in combination with appropriate antibiotic drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or are not appropriate. The approval of Raxibacumab illustrates many of the challenges that product developers may encounter when pursuing approval under the Animal Rule and highlights a number of important regulatory and policy issues.

  2. The Influence of Chemical Treatment on the Mechanical Behaviour of Animal Fibre-Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Isiaka O. Oladele; Jimmy L. Olajide; Adekunle S. Ogunbadejo

    2015-01-01

    This research work has investigated the influence of chemical treatment on the mechanical behaviour of animal fibre-reinforced high density polyethylene composites. The animal fibres used for this present study were chicken feather and cow hair fibres procured from local poultries and abattoirs. Prior to the development of the composite materials, the animal fibres were washed and dried, cut into 10 mm and divided into two portions; one portion was treated with 0.25 M NaOH maintained at 60 0C...

  3. Mitoapocynin Treatment Protects Against Neuroinflammation and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in a Preclinical Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Langley, Monica R; Harischandra, Dilshan S; Neal, Matthew L; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Joseph, Joy; Brenza, Timothy; Narasimhan, Balaji; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been implicated as key mediators contributing to the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Currently, we lack a pharmacological agent that can intervene in all key pathological mechanisms, which would offer better neuroprotective efficacy than a compound that targets a single degenerative mechanism. Herein, we investigated whether mito-apocynin (Mito-Apo), a newly-synthesized and orally available derivative of apocynin that targets mitochondria, protects against oxidative damage, glial-mediated inflammation and nigrostriatal neurodegeneration in cellular and animal models of PD. Mito-Apo treatment in primary mesencephalic cultures significantly attenuated the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuronal cells and neurites. Mito-Apo also diminished MPP(+)-induced increases in glial cell activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Additionally, Mito-Apo decreased nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and 4-hydroxynonenol (4-HNE) levels in primary mesencephalic cultures. Importantly, we assessed the neuroprotective property of Mito-Apo in the MPTP mouse model of PD, wherein it restored the behavioral performance of MPTP-treated mice. Immunohistological analysis of nigral dopaminergic neurons and monoamine measurement further confirmed the neuroprotective effect of Mito-Apo against MPTP-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss. Mito-Apo showed excellent brain bioavailability and also markedly attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative markers in the substantia nigra (SN). Furthermore, oral administration of Mito-Apo significantly suppressed MPTP-induced glial cell activation, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS and gp91phox in IBA1-positive cells of SN. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the novel mitochondria-targeted compound Mito-Apo exhibits profound neuroprotective effects in

  4. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  5. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Lončarić; Meri Engler; Krunoslav Karalić; Gordana Bukvić; Ružica Lončarić; Davor Kralik

    2005-01-01

    Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus) is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida). Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32...

  6. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  7. Fate of tetracyclines in swine manure of three selected swine farms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Qiao; Wangda Chen; Jianqiang Su; Bing Zhang; Cai Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary antibiotics can enter the environment due to the common practice of land application of manure from treated animals.The environmental fate of tetracyclines in swine manure after composting and field application remains largely unknown.This study analyzed the concentrations of tetracyclines in manure,manure-based compost and compost amended soil in selected swine farms from Beijing,Jiaxing and Putian,China to determine the dilution effects of antibiotics when released into the soil environment.The results demonstrate that residues of antibiotics were detected in all samples and chlortetracycline as well as its degradation products should be regarded critically concerning their potential ecotoxicity.Application of manure-based compost to soil could reduce the possible risk posed by antibiotic contamination,but the trigger value of 100 μg/kg was still exceeded in soil samples (776.1 μg/kg dw) from Putian City after application of compost.Field studies such as the present one can help to improve the routine administration of antibiotic-containing composted manure.

  8. Enhancing Extraction and Detection of Veterinary Antibiotics in Solid and Liquid Fractions of Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joshua S; Aga, Diana S

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of veterinary antibiotics in separated liquid and solid fractions of animal manures is vital because of wide variations in the composition of agriculturally applied manure. Differentiation of antibiotic concentrations is important between liquid and solid manures, as their sorption onto the solid fraction depends on physicochemical properties of each antibiotic and manure composition (e.g., organic content, pH) and because each fraction may be treated and reused differently. Here, an efficient and sensitive method for the analysis of 22 veterinary antibiotics in the liquid and solid fractions of manure is reported. Tetracycline (TC), macrolide, and sulfonamide antibiotics were extracted from liquid manure by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with methanol following acidification with acetic acid. Extraction from solids was performed by sonication with acetonitrile, methanol, and 0.1 M EDTA-McIlvaine buffer. Cleanup of extracts was achieved by solid-phase extraction with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges or tandem amino (NH2) and HLB cartridges. Quantification of antibiotics was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) under wrong-way-round (WWR) ionization for sulfonamides and TCs and right-way-round ionization for macrolides. Recoveries of 58 to 94.7% and 62 to 94.3% were obtained in liquid and solid manure, respectively. Method detection limits range from 1.2 to 12 ng L and 0.5 to 7.9 μg kg dry wt. in liquids and solids, respectively. This method allows for extraction and analysis of both mobile antibiotics in liquid phase and hydrophobic antibiotics adsorbed on the solids. Without separate analysis, antibiotic concentrations may be improperly estimated by analyzing whole manure, as reported in many studies to date. PMID:27065393

  9. Cow power: the energy and emissions benefits of converting manure to biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of a top-level aggregate analysis of the total potential for converting livestock manure into a domestic renewable fuel source (biogas) that could be used to help states meet renewable portfolio standard requirements and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the US, livestock agriculture produces over one billion tons of manure annually on a renewable basis. Most of this manure is disposed of in lagoons or stored outdoors to decompose. Such disposal methods emit methane and nitrous oxide, two important GHGs with 21 and 310 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide, respectively. In total, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector in the US amounted to 536 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide equivalent, or 7% of the total US emissions in 2005. Of this agricultural contribution, 51 to 118 MMT of carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from livestock manure emissions alone, with trends showing this contribution increasing from 1990 to 2005. Thus, limiting GHG emissions from manure represents a valuable starting point for mitigating agricultural contributions to global climate change. Anaerobic digestion, a process that converts manure to methane-rich biogas, can lower GHG emissions from manure significantly. Using biogas as a substitute for other fossil fuels, such as coal for electricity generation, replaces two GHG sources-manure and coal combustion-with a less carbon-intensive source, namely biogas combustion. The biogas energy potential was calculated using values for the amount of biogas energy that can be produced per animal unit (defined as 1000 pounds of animal) per day and the number of animal units in the US. The 95 million animal units in the country could produce nearly 1 quad of renewable energy per year, amounting to approximately 1% of the US total energy consumption. Converting the biogas into electricity using standard microturbines could produce 88 ± 20 billion kWh, or 2.4 ± 0.6% of annual electricity

  10. Long-Term Manure Amendments Enhance Soil Aggregation and Carbon Saturation of Stable Pools in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Zhang-liu; WU Wen-liang; ZHANG Qing-zhong; GUO Yan-bin; MENG Fan-qiao

    2014-01-01

    Organic amendment is considered as an effective way to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in croplands. To better understand its potential for SOC sequestration, whether SOC saturation could be observed in an intensive agricultural ecosystem receiving long-term composted manure were examined. Different SOC pools were isolated by physical fractionation techniques of a Cambisol soil under a long-term manure experiment with wheat-maize cropping in North China Plain. A ifeld experiment was initiated in 1993, with 6 treatments including control (i.e., without fertilization), chemical fertilizer only, low rate of traditional composted manure (7.5 t ha-1), high rate of traditional composted manure (15 t ha-1), low rate of bio-composted manure (7.5 t ha-1) and high rate of bio-composted manure (15 t ha-1). The results showed that consecutive (for up to 20 years) composted manure amendments signiifcantly improved soil macro-aggregation, aggregate associated SOC concentration, and soil structure stability. In detail, SOC concentration in the sand-sized fraction (>53μm) continued to increase with manure application rate, while the silt (2-53μm) and clay (250μm) was the fraction in which SOC continued to increase with increasing manure application rate. In contrast, the chemical and physical protected C pools (i.e., micro-aggregates and silt-clay occluded in the small macro-aggregates) exhibited no additional C sequestration when the manure application rate was increased. It can be concluded that repeated manure amendments can increase soil macro-aggregation and lead to the increase in relatively stable C pools, showing hierarchical saturation behavior in the intensive cropping system of North China Plain.

  11. Spatial oxygen distribution and nitrous oxide emissions from soil after manure application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Bruun, Sander; Larsen, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    anoxia. Nitrous oxide emissions increased immediately after depletion of O2 in the manure-amended treatments. Greater understanding and improved knowledge of the spatial distribution of O2 is clearly beneficial and can be used to devise improved application strategies for mitigating N2O emissions from...... determining the content and distribution of O2. This complicates data interpretation and leads to speculative conclusions about which nitrogen transformation processes are responsible for N2O production. Using an O2-specific planar optode, this paper shows how spatiotemporal O2 dynamics can be used to...... interpret data on N2O emissions following a uniform or layered amendment of manure to agricultural soil. The spatial distribution of O2 and gas emission rates were monitored for 12 h. An anoxic layer formed rapidly around the layered manure, whereas the uniformly distributed manure led to a more widespread...

  12. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC MANURES AND AMENDMENTS IN SOIL PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND THEIR IMPACT ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF BANANA

    OpenAIRE

    K VANILARASU; G. BALAKRISHNAMURTHY

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was carried out during 2010-2011, to study the effect of organic manures (Farmyard manure, Vermicompost, Neem cake and Wood ash), organic amendments (Arbuscular mycorrhizae, Azospirillum, Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria and Trichoderma harzianum) and green manures (Sunhemp and Cowpea) in comparison with inorganic fertilizers on leaf nutrient and soil physiochemical properties of banana cv. Grand Naine. The treatment T10 with the combined application of organic man...

  13. Manure and wastewater management systems for open lot dairy operations

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeten, J. M.; Wolfe, M L

    1994-01-01

    Dairy industry expansion using open lot designs has impacted water quality and groundwater usage in parts of Central Texas. Field research was conducted at commercial dairy farms in Erath County, Texas, to develop improved design criteria for storage, treatment, and land application systems for open lot dairies. Water use and wastewater from milking parlors were monitored along with runoff from open lots. Water use for milk sanitation and manure removal averaged 148 L per cow per day. Two-sta...

  14. Effect of farmyard manure rate on water erosion of a Mediterranean soil: determination of the critical point of inefficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi, Mohamed; Bahri, Haithem; Cheick M'Hamed, Hatem; Hermessi, Taoufik

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cultivation of soils, using multiple soil tillage, led to the decrease of their organic matter content and structural stability in several cultivated area of the Mediterranean countries. In these degraded soils, the addition of organic products, traditionally the animal manure, should improve soil health among them the resistance of soil to water erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate after 1 year of the addition to a cambisoil different doses of farmyard manure on soil organic matter content, on microbial activity and on aggregate stability (proxy to soil resistance to water erosion). The statistical process (bilinear model) was used to found a point at which the addition of the organic product no longer influences the soil resistance to erosion. The farmyard manure issued from a cow breeding was composted passively during 4 months and used to amend a small plots of a cultivated cambisol (silty-clay texture, 0.9% TOC) located in the northeast of Tunisia (Morneg region). The manure was intimately incorporate to the soil. The manure organic matter content was 31%, and its isohumic coefficient was 49%. Twelve dose of manure were tested: from 0 to 220 t C.ha-1. The experiment was started on September 2011. In November 2012, soil sampling was done and soil organic carbon content (Walkley-Black method) and soil aggregate stability (wet method of Le Bissonnais) were assessed. A laboratory incubations of soil+manure mixtures, with the same proportions as tested in the field conditions, was carried at 28°C and at 75% of the mixture field capacity water retention. Carbon mineralization was monitored during three months incubation. Results show that the addition of farmyard manure stimulated the microbial activity proportionally to the added dose. This activation is due to the presence of easily biodegradable carbon in the manure, which increases with increasing manure dose. On the other hand, the addition of manure increased the aggregate stability with

  15. Experimental study of osthole on treatment of hyperlipidemic and alcoholic fatty liver in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Song; Mei-Lin Xie; Lu-Jia Zhu; Ke-Ping Zhang; Jie Xue; Zhen-Lun Gu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of osthole on fatty liver,and investigate the possible mechanism.METHODS: A quail model with hyperlipidemic fatty liver and rat model with alcoholic fatty liver were set up by feeding high fat diet and alcohol, respectively. These experimental animals were then treated with osthole 5-20 mg/kg for 6 wk, respectively. Whereafter, the lipid in serum and hepatic tissue, and coefficient of hepatic weight were measured.RESULTS: After treatment with osthole the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), lower density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), coefficient of hepatic weight, and the hepatic tissue contents of TC and TG were significantly decreased. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver was improved.In alcohol-induced fatty liver rats, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver was decreased. In high fat-induced fatty liver quails, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in liver was significantly improved. The histological evaluation of liver specimens demonstrated that the osthole dramatically decreased lipid accumulation.CONCLUSION: These results suggested that osthole had therapeutic effects on both alcohol and high fatinduced fatty liver. The mechanism might be associated with its antioxidation.

  16. Bacterial counts associated with sawdust and recycled manure bedding treated with commercial conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J S; Bogacz, V L; Thompson, L M; Romig, S; Schoenberger, P S; Weiss, W P; Smith, K L

    1999-08-01

    Bacteria counts associated with untreated organic bedding materials were compared with those of bedding treated with either an alkaline commercial bedding conditioner, acidic commercial bedding conditioner, or hydrated lime. Bedding materials were recycled manure and kiln-dried sawdust. The effects of bedding treatments on bacteria counts differed between bedding types. Each of the bedding treatments significantly reduced bacteria in recycled manure prior to use. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime effectively inhibited bacteria in recycled manure for 1 d. Bedding counts and teat swabs of cows housed on recycled manure treated with the alkaline conditioner were reduced on d 2. The use of the acid conditioner in recycled manure had little effect on bacteria in bedding. Sawdust differed from recycled manure in that bacteria in untreated sawdust prior to use were minimal, and populations increased rapidly during the first 2 d after use as bedding. The acid conditioner had a bacteriostatic effect in sawdust, evident by the reduction of bacteria on d 2. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime did not alter bacteria counts in sawdust compared with untreated sawdust. Antibacterial activity of each conditioner deteriorated between d 2 and d 6 in both beddings. The antibacterial activities of conditioners were related to the pH of bedding materials. The use of commercial bedding conditioners initially reduced bacterial counts; however, the antibacterial effects had diminished between d 2 and 6 after use in bedding. PMID:10480094

  17. Influence of tillage practices and poultry manure on grain physical properties and yield attributes of spring maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grains are the economical part of maize that demand proper management practices to achieve the crop potential. This study explored the influence of different tillage practices and poultry manure levels on the grain length, breadth, area, grains weight per cob and grain yield per m 2 of spring planted maize. The experiment was set up using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having four tillage practices as main plot treatments; zero tillage, minimum tillage, conventional tillage and deep tillage. Sub plot treatments were three poultry manure levels; control (no poultry manure), poultry manure at the rate 5 Mg ha/sup -1/and poultry manure at the rate 10 Mg ha/sup -1/. Data indicated that the deep tillage practice significantly improved (p>0.05) the length, breath and area of maize grains over the other tillage practices in both years of study. Significantly higher grain yield was produced in deep tillage practice as compared to conventional, minimum and zero tillage practices. Increasing order of poultry manure dose treatments produced the bold and healthy seeds over the control treatment. A positive correlation between grain yield per m/sup 2/ vs physical properties of maize grain and grains weight per cob was recorded. The study concludes that the productive effect of integrated use of poultry manure and chemical fertilizers application on the maize grain yield. (author)

  18. Poultry manure runoff and its influence on fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S.; Dutta, S.; Inamdar, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Land application of poultry manure as a substitute for synthetic fertilizer is a common practice in states like Delaware which have a surplus of this animal waste. However, this practice can generate large amounts of labile DOM and nutrients in agricultural runoff that can cause eutrophication of downstream aquatic ecosystems. We determined the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and the quality of DOM for a cropland receiving poultry manure in the coastal plain soils of Delaware. Manure was applied at the rate of 9 Mg ha-1 in the spring (March 10) of 2010 to an agricultural field planted in corn. Sampling was performed for surface runoff and soil waters at four landscape positions - field edge, upper and lower riparian zones and the stream. Sampling was conducted for eight storm events, one before manure application and seven after (March through July spanning over 100 days). DOM quality was characterized using spectrofluorometric techniques and the development of a site-specific PARAFAC model. DOC and DIN concentrations in surface runoff ranged from 18.1 to 77.2 mg/l and 4.2 to 22.6 mg/l, respectively. The percent of protein-like and humic-like DOM in surface runoff ranged between 3.9 to 23.5% and 12.3 to 41.6%, respectively. Highest concentrations of DOC and DIN were observed at the field edge and lowest in the stream. Protein-like and humic-like DOM decreased from the field edge to stream in surface runoff and soil waters. Temporally, both humic-like and protein-like DOM showed significant increases in storm runoff following manure application. After manure application, humic-like DOM increased by 70% while protein-like DOM increased by more than 200% in surface runoff indicating elevated content of labile DOM in poultry manure. These concentrations remained high for more than 60 days following manure application. Protein-like DOM was significantly correlated with nitrate-nitrogen (r = 0.43; p < 0

  19. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  20. Thermal pretreatment of the solid fraction of manure: Impact on the biogas reactor performance and microbial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Z; Hartmann, H.; Kvist, T.; Sales-Cruz, Alfonso Mauricio; Gani, Rafiqul; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    Application of thermal treatment at 100-140 degrees C as a pretreatment method prior to anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cattle and swine manure was investigated. In a batch test, biogasification of manure with thermally pretreated solid fraction proceeded faster and resulted in the increase of...... methane yield. The performances of two thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) treating manure with solid fraction pretreated for 40 minutes at 140 degrees C and non-treated manure were compared. The digester fed with the thermally pretreated manure had a higher methane productivity and an...... improved removal of the volatile solids (VS). The properties of microbial communities of both reactors were analysed. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test showed that both biomasses had significant activity towards hydrogen and formate, while the activity with the VFA - acetate, propionate and...

  1. Testing the effect of different enzyme blends on increasing the biogas yield of straw and digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Jurado, Esperanza; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn;

    In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily...... degradable fraction of manure in the biogas process. 2. Separation of the residual recalcitrant digested fiber fraction project. 3. Ultrasound and/or enzymatic treatment of the digested fiber fraction. 4. Recirculation of the treated fiber fraction into the reactor....

  2. New insights into therapeutic strategies for the treatment of peritoneal fibrosis: learning from histochemical analyses of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Mineaki; Nishino, Tomoya; Obata, Yoko; Ozono, Yoshiyuki; Koji, Takehiko; Kohno, Shigeru

    2014-08-29

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a fatal complication that can occur in patients undergoing long-term peritoneal dialysis. It is characterized by bowel obstruction and marked sclerotic thickening of the peritoneal membrane. Although the mechanisms underlying the development of EPS are complex, angiogenesis, inflammation, and peritoneal fibrosis are known to be essential factors. Now, several animal models that exhibit EPS have pathophysiology similar to that of human EPS and have been proposed for use in research to provide insights into it. Recent histochemical methods also help us to understand the pathophysiology of EPS. Advances in basic research based on the findings in those animal models have enabled the development of several strategies for the prevention and treatment of EPS. We describe here interventional studies in some animal models for peritoneal fibrosis, one of the histological disorders findings characteristic to EPS, and we highlight the need for a sophisticated animal model that closely resembles human conditions. PMID:25392567

  3. 基于LCA方法的模糊综合评价模型在粪便处理中的应用%Comprehensive Analysis for Manure Treatment Based on Method of Life Cycle Assessment Combined with Fuzzy Mathematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍春蕾; 丁美; 王春梅; 赵言文

    2012-01-01

    In this study, life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to establish inventory of resource consumption and pollutant emission, and comparative assessment of the life cycle environmental impacts were made for two kinds of manure treatment processes on scaled cattle farms. Based on the assessment results, and considering the weight of economic factors, environmental factors, technical and social factors, overall evaluation results of three processing system were obtained by the method of fuzzy mathematics. The results showed that the life cycle environmental impact index of anaerobic fermentation process and aerobic composting were 0.0216 and 0.0244 respectively. Considering the factors of economic, environment, technology and social, the overall fuzzy evaluation results of anaerobic fermentation process, aerobic composting process and untreated process were 95.41, 83.42, 67.58, respectively. And so the anaerobic fermentation process had the highest scores, which showed that anaerobic fermentation process was the best treatment approach for scaled cattle farms.%利用生命周期评价方法,对规模化养牛场粪便处理工艺进行生命周期资源消耗与污染物排放清单分析,之后对其进行生命周期对比评价,在评价结果的基础上利用模糊综合评价方法综合考虑经济因素、环境因素、技术因素和社会因素,得出三种处理方案的综合权重.结果表明,在处理牛粪的生命周期内,厌氧发酵的环境影响优于好氧堆肥,其环境影响综合指数分别为0.0216和0.0244;厌氧发酵、好氧堆肥、未处理方式对经济、环境、技术、社会因素的模糊综合评价结果分别为:95.41,83.42,67.58,可以看出厌氧发酵的分值最高,表明规模化养牛场畜禽粪便的处理最好采用厌氧发酵工艺.

  4. Darwin on the Treatment of Animals: His Thoughts Then and His Influence Now

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Donna Yarri; Dr. Spencer S. Stober

    2013-01-01

    Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution has seriously challenged traditional religious views on the origins of life, as well as on our human-animal similarities. Darwin is often referenced in literature on animal ethics with regard to his contention that the difference between humans and other animals is one of degree rather than of kind. This paper posits that Darwin’s writings and theory make more positive contributions to the contemporary debate on animal ethics than for which he has previous...

  5. Optimising manure management for GHG outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der H.G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on improvements to livestock manure management to reduce environmental pollution and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Livestock manures contain large amounts of plant nutrients and organic matter (OM). Structural changes to livestock production and ample supply of cheap chemica

  6. Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERALIn this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestio

  7. Fate and Transport of Bioaerosols Associated with Livestock Operations and Manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne microorganisms and microbial byproducts from intensive livestock and manure management systems are a potential health risk to workers and individuals in nearby communities. This report presents information on zoonotic pathogens in animal wastes and the generation, fate, and transport of bi...

  8. Trans-disciplinary soil science research: Impacts of dairy nutrition on manure chemistry and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The on-going trend of consolidation and intensification of animal agriculture requires a greater dependence on purchased feed. Larger livestock farms and more imported feed can result in the excretion of manure nutrients that may surpass the recycling capacity of local land, air, and water resource...

  9. Effect of liquid cow manure application on atrazine degradation in Andisol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, G.; Aguilera, P.; Briceno, G.; Mora, M. L.; Demanet, R.

    2009-07-01

    Application of animal manures on soil results in added organic matter and nutrients that contribute to improving plants growth, but these components could modify the behaviour of pesticides in the amended soils due to the content and quality of organic matter (OM) nad pools microorganisms. (Author)

  10. Effect of liquid cow manure application on atrazine degradation in Andisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of animal manures on soil results in added organic matter and nutrients that contribute to improving plants growth, but these components could modify the behaviour of pesticides in the amended soils due to the content and quality of organic matter (OM) nad pools microorganisms. (Author)

  11. Nutrient and sediment losses under simulated rainfall following manure incorporation by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Joanne L; Bennett, D Rodney; Miller, Jim J

    2005-01-01

    Incorporation of manure into cultivated soils is generally recommended to minimize nutrient losses. A 3-yr study was conducted to evaluate sediment and nutrient losses with different tillage methods (moldboard plow, heavy-duty cultivator, double disk, and no-incorporation) for incorporation of beef cattle manure in a silage barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cropping system. Runoff depths, sediment losses, and surface and subsurface nutrient transfers were determined from manured and unmanured field plots at Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. A Guelph rainfall simulator was used to generate 30 min of runoff. Sediment losses among our tillage treatments (137.4-203.6 kg ha(-1)) were not significantly different due to compensating differences in runoff depths. Mass losses of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in surface runoff were greatest from the no-incorporation (NI) treatments, with reductions in TP loads of 14% for double disk (DD), 43% for cultivator (CU), and 79% for moldboard plow (MP) treatments. Total N load reductions in 2002 were 26% for DD, 70% for CU, and 95% for MP treatments compared to the NI treatments. Nutrient losses following incorporation of manure with the DD or CU methods were not significantly different from the NI treatments. Manure treatments generally had lower runoff depths and sediment losses, and higher phosphorus and nitrogen losses than the control treatments. Subsurface concentrations of NH4-N, NO3-N, and TN were greatest from the MP treatments, whereas subsurface phosphorus concentrations were not affected by tillage method. Tillage with a cultivator or double disk minimized combined surface and subsurface nutrient losses immediately after annual manure applications. PMID:16151240

  12. Facilitating Spatial Perspective Taking through Animation: Evidence from an Aptitude-Treatment-Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the facilitating function of animations for spatial perspective taking. The task demanded to estimate directions to memorized objects in a spatial scene from an imagined position and orientation within the scene. Static pictures which required imagined reorientation of the self were compared to animations showing the…

  13. Treatment of a multiple sclerosis animal model by a novel nanodrop formulation of a natural antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyamin O

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orli Binyamin,1,* Liraz Larush,2,* Kati Frid,1 Guy Keller,1 Yael Friedman-Levi,1 Haim Ovadia,1 Oded Abramsky,1 Shlomo Magdassi,2 Ruth Gabizon1 1Department of Neurology, The Agnes Ginges Center of Human Neurogenetics, Hadassah University Hospital, 2Casali Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is associated with demyelination, neurodegeneration, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. In this work, we administered a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil (PSO, denominated Nano-PSO, to mice induced for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an established model of MS. PSO comprises high levels of punicic acid, a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid considered as one of the strongest natural antioxidants. We show here that while EAE-induced mice treated with natural PSO presented some reduction in disease burden, this beneficial effect increased significantly when EAE mice were treated with Nano-PSO of specific size nanodroplets at much lower concentrations of the oil. Pathological examinations revealed that Nano-PSO administration dramatically reduced demyelination and oxidation of lipids in the brains of the affected animals, which are hallmarks of this severe neurological disease. We propose that novel formulations of natural antioxidants such as Nano-PSO may be considered for the treatment of patients suffering from demyelinating diseases. On the mechanistic side, our results demonstrate that lipid oxidation may be a seminal feature in both demyelination and neurodegeneration. Keywords: nanodrops, PSO, EAE, oxidative stress, neurodegeneration

  14. Response of maize to poultry manure and mineral fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of mineral fertilizer, poultry manure, and their combination on maize was evaluated in a pot experiment. Six treatments viz 0, 4, 8, 12 tons of poultry manure (PM) ha-1, 60-40-40 kg NPK ha-1 (NPK) and 2 t PM ha-1+30-20-20 Kg NPK ha-1 (2 t + 1/2 NPK) were used in a completely randomized design. Root dry matter of the 2 t+1/2 NPK was greater than that of the 4 t ha-1 and control, and similarly to that of the NPK, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1 treatments. Shoot biomass showed a similar trend as the root dry matter. The NPK treatments and 12 t PM ha-1, rate had high shoot-root ratios. Although the NPK outyielded the other treatments in grain weight, it did differ significantly from that of the 2 t + 1/2 NPK, 8 and 12 t PM ha-1 treatments. Thousand grain weight values did not differ statistically among treatments. The harvest index indicated a higher efficiency of dry matter partitioning into the sink in the combined treatment than in the 4 and 8 t PM ha-1, rates. For practical purposes and from economic point of view, 4 t PM ha1 may be recommended while the combined treatment is promising. Poultry manure appeared more advantageous in supplying C and N to the subsequent crop as more C and N remain in the soil after the maize harvest than mineral fertilizer. The 12 t PM ha-1 rate retained over 40% more C than the mineral fertilizer rate. Further studies, especially in field situations, are recommended (au)

  15. EFFECT OF PGPR AND ORGANIC MANURES ON SOIL PROPERTIES OF ORGANICALLY CULTIVATED MUNGBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IPSITA DAS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was undertaken in the organic farming plot of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi with a view to study the effects of manures and PGPR on soil properties. Mungbean (var. Malviya 12 was grown in the plot during kharif season of 2009. Organic manures such as Farm yard manure (FYM, Cereal compost, Legume compost and combination of all the manures with or without PGPR [PGPR: Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria containing Rhizobium + Azotobacter + Pseudomonas + Trichoderma] was applied @ 5 t ha-1 in each plot. It was found that among all the manures tested for cultivation of mungbean, FYM was found to be superior having 320.91, 20.3, 286.72 kg ha-1 N, P2O5 and K2O respectively. The combined application of cereal compost and legume compost was effective over their sole application. Application of PGPR was beneficial showing higher nutrient content in soil. The most effective treatment was found to be FYM + PGPR among all the manures showing the highest amount of nutrients of 339.71, 22.33 and 298.66 kg ha-1 N, P2 O5 and K2O respectively.

  16. Hardwood biochar and manure co-application to a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, J A; Stromberger, M E; Lentz, R D; Dungan, R S

    2016-01-01

    Biochar may affect the mineralization rate of labile organic C sources such as manures via microbial community shifts, and subsequently affect nutrient release. In order to ascertain the positive or negative priming effect of biochar on manure, dairy manure (2% by wt.) and a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar were applied (0%, 1%, 2%, and 10% by wt.) to a calcareous soil. Destructive sampling occurred at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months to monitor for changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, bacterial populations, and microbial community structure. Overall results showed that increasing biochar application rate improved the soil water content, which may be beneficial in limited irrigation or rainfall areas. Biochar application increased soil organic C content and plant-available Fe and Mn, while a synergistic biochar-manure effect increased plant-available Zn. Compared to the other rates, the 10% biochar application lowered concentrations of NO3-N; effects appeared masked at lower biochar rates due to manure application. Over time, soil NO3-N increased likely due to manure N mineralization, yet soil NO3-N in the 10% biochar rate remained lower as compared to other treatments. In the presence of manure, only the 10% biochar application caused subtle microbial community structure shifts by increasing the relative amounts of two fatty acids associated with Gram-negative bacteria and decreasing Gram-positive bacterial fatty acids, each by ∼1%. Our previous findings with biochar alone suggested an overall negative priming effect with increasing biochar application rates, yet when co-applied with manure the negative priming effect was eliminated. PMID:26009473

  17. Experimental Study on Post-treatment of Anaerobically Digested Effluent from Flushed Dairy Manure%奶牛养殖污水厌氧消化液好氧后处理的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青鹏; 祝其丽; 胡启春; 孙辉

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic-aerobic co-treatment of flushed dairy manure was carried out in batch anaerobic reactor and aerobic shaking bottles based on SBR concept to study the treatment efficiency of anaerobic-aerobic method. The remove mechanism of COD,NH4+-N,TN and TP were discussed. The HRT of experimental anaerobic digestion were 3,6,9,12,15,18 day,and the cycle time of aerobic process was 12 hours. The experiment data showed that after 9 day anaerobic digestion, 82.1% of COD and 96.9% of BOD5 removal rate could be achieved respectively, approaching the maximum COD removal potential. But the rest COD was hard being digested. Under SBR situation, NH4+ -N in the anaerobic digested effluent with 0 -9 day HRT could be well removed by aerobic process, with the maximum removal of 97%. Phosphors and nitrogen removal rate were desired by anaerobic-aerobic co-treatment with total removal rate of 90%. After 3 ~9 day of anaerobic digestion and then 12 hours of SBR process, TN content of flushed dairy manure could be degraded from 731 mg · L-1 to 99 mg · L-1, and TP from 66 mg · L-1 to 7 mg · L-1. If HRT of anaerobic digestion was too long, over 9 day, the ratio of C/N became very low, which would influence the post-treatment of anaerobic digested effluent in aerobic process. The results can be utilized as references for further optimization of dairy methane project.%文章采用批式厌氧消化试验加试验模拟序批式活性污泥法(SBR)工艺处理奶牛场养殖污水.研究了该组合模式对奶牛场养殖污水的处理效果,同时讨论了对化学需氧量(COD),NH4+-N,总氮(TN)和总磷(TP)去除原因.厌氧消化停留时间分别为3,6,9,12,15,18 d;试验模拟SBR工艺周期为12 h.试验表明在厌氧消化9d时,COD和BODs的去除率分别为82.1%和96.9%,接近最大去除潜力,剩余的主要为难降解COD.在试验模拟SBR活性污泥条件下,好氧段对于厌氧消化时间在0~9d内的厌氧消化液的NH4+-N去除效

  18. Enhancing Nutrient Cycling by Coupling Cover Crops with Manure Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupling winter small grain cover crops (CC) with liquid manure injection may increase manure nutrient capture. The objectives of this research were to quantify manure injection effects using target manure N rates of 112, 224, and 336 kg N ha-1 on CC plant density, fall and spring shoot biomass, N, ...

  19. Acrylamide formation in vegetable oils and animal fats during heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniali, G; Jinap, S; Hajeb, P; Sanny, M; Tan, C P

    2016-12-01

    The method of liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry was utilized and modified to confirm and quantify acrylamide in heating cooking oil and animal fat. Heating asparagine with various cooking oils and animal fat at 180°C produced varying amounts of acrylamide. The acrylamide in the different cooking oils and animal fat using a constant amount of asparagine was measured. Cooking oils were also examined for peroxide, anisidine and iodine values (or oxidation values). A direct correlation was observed between oxidation values and acrylamide formation in different cooking oils. Significantly less acrylamide was produced in saturated animal fat than in unsaturated cooking oil, with 366ng/g in lard and 211ng/g in ghee versus 2447ng/g in soy oil, followed by palm olein with 1442ng/g. PMID:27374529

  20. Impact of Physical-Chemical Properties on Ammonia Emissions of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of totalsolids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant rolesin the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study.Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  1. Delineating Effects of Ionic Strength and Suspended Solids on Ammonia Volatilization from Dairy Manure Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of total solids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant roles in the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study. Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  2. Sewage sludge and liquid pig manure as possible sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Christina S; Schwaiger, Karin; Harms, Katrin; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Kunz, Anne; Meyer, Karsten; Müller, Christa; Bauer, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Within the last decades, the environmental spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a topic of concern. In this study, liquid pig manure (n=305) and sewage sludge (n=111) - used as agricultural fertilizers between 2002 and 2005 - were investigated for the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Bacteria were tested for their resistance against 40 chemotherapeutics including several "reserve drugs". E. coli (n=613) from pig manure were at a significantly higher degree resistant to streptomycin, doxycycline, spectinomycin, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol than E. coli (n=116) from sewage sludge. Enterococci (Ent. faecalis, n=387, and Ent. faecium, n=183) from pig manure were significantly more often resistant to high levels of doxycycline, rifampicin, erythromycin, and streptomycin than Ent. faecalis (n=44) and Ent. faecium (n=125) from sewage sludge. Significant differences in enterococcal resistance were also seen for tylosin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin high level, fosfomycin, clindamicin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. By contrast, aminopenicillins were more effective in enterococci from pig manure, and mean MIC-values of piperacillin+tazobactam and third generation cefalosporines were significantly lower in E. coli from pig manure than in E. coli from sewage sludge. 13.4% (E. coli) to 25.3% (Ent. faecium) of pig manure isolates were high-level multiresistant to substances from more than three different classes of antimicrobial agents. In sewage sludge, high-level-multiresistance reached from 0% (Ent. faecalis) to 16% (Ent. faecium). High rates of (multi-) resistant bacteria in pig manure emphasize the need for a prudent - cautious - use of antibiotics in farm animals. PMID:20303077

  3. Technical protocol for laboratory tests of transformation of veterinary medicinal products and biocides in liquid manures. Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The technical protocol under consideration describes a laboratory test method to evaluate the transformation of chemicals in liquid bovine and pig manures under anaerobic conditions and primarily is designed for veterinary medicinal products and biocides. The environmentally relevant entry routes into liquid manures occur via urine and feces of cattle and pigs in stable housings after excretion of veterinary medicinal products as parent compounds or metabolites and after the application of biocides in animal housings. Further entry routes such as solid dung application and direct dung pat deposition by production animals on pasture are not considered by this technical protocol. Thus, this technical protocol focused on the sampling of excrements from cattles and pigs kept in stables and fed under standard nutrition conditions. This approach additionally ensures that excrement samples are operationally free of any contamination by veterinary medicinal products and biocides. After the matrix characterization, reference-manure samples are prepared from the excrement samples by adding tap water to adjust defined dry substance contents typical for bovine or pig manures. This technical protocol comprehends a tiered experimental design in two parts: (a) Sampling of excrements and preparation of reference bovine and pig manures; (b) Testing of anaerobic transformation of chemicals in reference manures.

  4. Adaptation, Commissioning, and Evaluation of a 3D Treatment Planning System for High-Resolution Small-Animal Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeho; Chen, Qing; Febo, Robert; Yang, Jie; Pham, Hai; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Zanzonico, Pat B; Deasy, Joseph O; Humm, John L; Mageras, Gig S

    2016-06-01

    Although spatially precise systems are now available for small-animal irradiations, there are currently limited software tools available for treatment planning for such irradiations. We report on the adaptation, commissioning, and evaluation of a 3-dimensional treatment planning system for use with a small-animal irradiation system. The 225-kV X-ray beam of the X-RAD 225Cx microirradiator (Precision X-Ray) was commissioned using both ion-chamber and radiochromic film for 10 different collimators ranging in field size from 1 mm in diameter to 40 × 40 mm(2) A clinical 3-dimensional treatment planning system (Metropolis) developed at our institution was adapted to small-animal irradiation by making it compatible with the dimensions of mice and rats, modeling the microirradiator beam orientations and collimators, and incorporating the measured beam data for dose calculation. Dose calculations in Metropolis were verified by comparison with measurements in phantoms. Treatment plans for irradiation of a tumor-bearing mouse were generated with both the Metropolis and the vendor-supplied software. The calculated beam-on times and the plan evaluation tools were compared. The dose rate at the central axis ranges from 74 to 365 cGy/min depending on the collimator size. Doses calculated with Metropolis agreed with phantom measurements within 3% for all collimators. The beam-on times calculated by Metropolis and the vendor-supplied software agreed within 1% at the isocenter. The modified 3-dimensional treatment planning system provides better visualization of the relationship between the X-ray beams and the small-animal anatomy as well as more complete dosimetric information on target tissues and organs at risk. It thereby enhances the potential of image-guided microirradiator systems for evaluation of dose-response relationships and for preclinical experimentation generally. PMID:25948321

  5. Bioaugmentation of a Two-Stage Thermophilic (68°C/55°C) Anaerobic Digestion Concept for Improvement of the Methane Yield From Cattle Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of improving a two-stage (68°C/55°C) anaerobic digestion concept for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, a 10-24% increase of the specific methane yield from cattle manure and its fractions was obtained, when the substrates were inoculated with bacteria of...... of the two-stage setup....

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF MANURE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR REPRESENTATIVE MICHIGAN DAIRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Satyal, Vijayanand H.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental effects of animal waste have long been a concern to the United States livestock industry. Ever increasing livestock production scale, has resulted in three crucial environmental and odor consequences: 1. Spills from animal waste stores; 2. Nutrient runoff due to the application of manure to the croplands; and 3. Direct ambient pollution, including odors, pests and gases (Innes, 2000). Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, or also commonly known as the Clean Wate...

  7. Manure placement depth impacts on crop yields and N retained in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, M; Clay, D E; Carlson, C G; Clay, S A; Reicks, G; Clay, D W; Humburg, D E

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of manure placement depth on crop yield and N retention in soil. Experimental treatments were deep manure injection (45 cm), shallow manure injection (15 cm), and conventional fertilizer-based management with at least three replications per site. Water infiltration, and changes in soil N and P amounts were measured for up to 30 months and crop yield monitored for three seasons following initial treatment. Deep and shallow manure injections differed in soil inorganic N distributions. For example, in the manure slot the spring following application, NO(3)-N in the surface 60 cm was higher (p injected 15 cm (21.4 micro g/g) into the soil than 45 cm (11.7 micro g/g), whereas NH(4)-N had opposite results with shallow injection having less (p = 0.045) NH(4)-N (102 micro g/g) than deep (133 micro g/g) injection. In the fall one year after the manure was applied, NO(3)-N and NH(4)-N were lower (p = 0.001) in the shallow injection than the deep injection. The net impact of manure placement on total N was that deep injection had 31, 59, and 44 more kg N ha(- 1) than the shallow injection treatment 12, 18, and 30 months after application, respectively. Deep manure injection did not impact soybean (Glycine max L.) yield, however corn (Zea mays L.) yield increased if N was limiting. The higher corn yield in the deep injected treatment was attributed to increased N use efficiency. Higher inorganic N amounts in the deep injection treatment were attributed to reduced N losses through ammonia volatilization, leaching, or denitrification. Results suggest that deep manure placement in glacial till soil may be considered a technique to increase energy, N use efficiency, and maintain surface and ground water quality. However, this technique may not work in glacial outwash soils due to the inability to inject into a rocky subsurface. PMID:19089718

  8. Ageing of atrazine in manure amended soils assessed by bioavailability to Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Bælum, Jacob; Strobel, Bjarne W.;

    2014-01-01

    Animal manure is applied to agricultural land in areas of high livestock production. In the present study, we evaluated ageing of atrazine in two topsoils with and without addition of manure and in one subsoil. Ageing was assessed as the bioavailability of atrazine to the atrazine mineralizing...... bacteria Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Throughout an ageing period of 90 days bioavailability was investigated at days 1, 10, 32, 60 and 90, where ~108 cells g−1 of the ADP strain was inoculated to the 14C-atrazine exposed soil and 14CO2 was collected over 7 days as a measure of mineralized atrazine. Even...... though the bioavailable residue decreased in all of the three soils as time proceeded, we found that ageing occurred faster in the topsoils rich in organic carbon than in subsoil. For one topsoil rich in organic carbon content, Simmelkær, we observed a higher degree of ageing when treated with manure...

  9. Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

  10. Measuring and modeling nitrous oxide and methane emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure management: First assessments under Brazilian condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ciniro; Li, Changsheng; Cerri, Carlos E P; Cerri, Carlos C

    2014-01-01

    Intensive beef production has increased during recent decades in Brazil and may substantially increase both methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from manure management. However, the quantification of these gases and methods for extrapolating them are scarce in Brazil. A case study examines CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from one typical beef cattle feedlot manure management continuum in Brazil and the applicability of Manure-DNDC model in predicting these emissions for better understand fluxes and mitigation options. Measurements track CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from manure excreted in one housing floor holding 21 animals for 78 days, stockpiled for 73 days and field spread (360 kg N ha(-1)). We found total emissions (CH(4) + N(2)O) of 0.19 ± 0.10 kg CO(2)eq per kg of animal live weight gain; mostly coming from field application (73%), followed housing (25%) and storage (2%). The Manure-DNDC simulations were generally within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, differing in -28% in total emission. Large uncertainties in measurements showed the model was more accurate estimating the magnitude of gases emissions than replicate results at daily basis. Modeled results suggested increasing the frequency of manure removal from housing, splitting the field application and adopting no-tillage system is the most efficient management for reducing emissions from manure (up to about 75%). Since this work consists in the first assessment under Brazilian conditions, more and continuous field measurements are required for decreasing uncertainties and improving model validations. However, this paper reports promising results and scientific perceptions for the design of further integrated work on farm-scale measurements and Manure-DNDC model development for Brazilian conditions. PMID:25035919

  11. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyun; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Shi, Pengjun; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Zheng, Aijuan; Xie, Qing; Ma, Jianshuang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure are a significant environmental and public concern. Despite the numerous studies regarding NH3 emissions from manure, few of them have considered microbial nitrification approaches, especially fungal nitrification. In this study, a filamentous fungus was isolated from chicken manure and was used for nitrification. The species was Paecilomyces variotii by morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA gene sequencing. It played the biggest role in the removal of ammonium at pH 4.0–7.0, C/N ratio of 10–40, temperature of 25–37°C, shaking speed of 150 rpm, and with glucose as the available carbon source. Further analysis revealed that all ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was less than 100 mg/L; 40% ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was 1100 mg/L. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia from chicken manure with strain Paecilomyces variotii was significantly lower than that in the control group. We concluded that Paecilomyces variotii has good potential for future applications in in situ ammonium removal as well as ammonia emissions control from poultry manure. PMID:27348533

  12. A review of treatment planning for precision image-guided photon beam pre-clinical animal radiation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Hoof, Stefan van; Granton, Patrick V.; Trani, Daniela [Maastricht University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO)

    2014-07-01

    Recently, precision irradiators integrated with a high-resolution CT imaging device became available for pre-clinical studies. These research platforms offer significant advantages over older generations of animal irradiators in terms of precision and accuracy of image-guided radiation targeting. These platforms are expected to play a significant role in defining experiments that will allow translation of research findings to the human clinical setting. In the field of radiotherapy, but also others such as neurology, the platforms create unique opportunities to explore e.g. the synergy between radiation and drugs or other agents. To fully exploit the advantages of this new technology, accurate methods are needed to plan the irradiation and to calculate the three-dimensional radiation dose distribution in the specimen. To this end, dedicated treatment planning systems are needed. In this review we will discuss specific issues for precision irradiation of small animals, we will describe the workflow of animal treatment planning, and we will examine several dose calculation algorithms (factorization, superposition-convolution, Monte Carlo simulation) used for animal irradiation with kilovolt photon beams. Issues such as dose reporting methods, photon scatter, tissue segmentation and motion will also be discussed briefly.

  13. A review of treatment planning for precision image-guided photon beam pre-clinical animal radiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, precision irradiators integrated with a high-resolution CT imaging device became available for pre-clinical studies. These research platforms offer significant advantages over older generations of animal irradiators in terms of precision and accuracy of image-guided radiation targeting. These platforms are expected to play a significant role in defining experiments that will allow translation of research findings to the human clinical setting. In the field of radiotherapy, but also others such as neurology, the platforms create unique opportunities to explore e.g. the synergy between radiation and drugs or other agents. To fully exploit the advantages of this new technology, accurate methods are needed to plan the irradiation and to calculate the three-dimensional radiation dose distribution in the specimen. To this end, dedicated treatment planning systems are needed. In this review we will discuss specific issues for precision irradiation of small animals, we will describe the workflow of animal treatment planning, and we will examine several dose calculation algorithms (factorization, superposition-convolution, Monte Carlo simulation) used for animal irradiation with kilovolt photon beams. Issues such as dose reporting methods, photon scatter, tissue segmentation and motion will also be discussed briefly.

  14. A review of treatment planning for precision image-guided photon beam pre-clinical animal radiation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; van Hoof, Stefan; Granton, Patrick V; Trani, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Recently, precision irradiators integrated with a high-resolution CT imaging device became available for pre-clinical studies. These research platforms offer significant advantages over older generations of animal irradiators in terms of precision and accuracy of image-guided radiation targeting. These platforms are expected to play a significant role in defining experiments that will allow translation of research findings to the human clinical setting. In the field of radiotherapy, but also others such as neurology, the platforms create unique opportunities to explore e.g. the synergy between radiation and drugs or other agents. To fully exploit the advantages of this new technology, accurate methods are needed to plan the irradiation and to calculate the three-dimensional radiation dose distribution in the specimen. To this end, dedicated treatment planning systems are needed. In this review we will discuss specific issues for precision irradiation of small animals, we will describe the workflow of animal treatment planning, and we will examine several dose calculation algorithms (factorization, superposition-convolution, Monte Carlo simulation) used for animal irradiation with kilovolt photon beams. Issues such as dose reporting methods, photon scatter, tissue segmentation and motion will also be discussed briefly. PMID:24629309

  15. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New information is presented on impacts on groundwater by manure storage in deep ground pits. - Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and δ15N and δ18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal

  16. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC MANURES AND AMENDMENTS IN SOIL PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND THEIR IMPACT ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K VANILARASU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during 2010-2011, to study the effect of organic manures (Farmyard manure, Vermicompost, Neem cake and Wood ash, organic amendments (Arbuscular mycorrhizae, Azospirillum, Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria and Trichoderma harzianum and green manures (Sunhemp and Cowpea in comparison with inorganic fertilizers on leaf nutrient and soil physiochemical properties of banana cv. Grand Naine. The treatment T10 with the combined application of organic manures, amendments and green manures (Farmyard manure @ 10 kg + Neem cake @ 1.25 kg + Vermicompost @ 5 kg and Wood ash @ 1.75 kg /plant + Triple green manuring with Sunhemp + Double intercropping of Cow pea + biofertilizers viz., Arbuscular Mycorrhizae @ 25 g , Azospirillum @ 50 g, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria @ 50 g and Trichoderma harzianum @ 50 g/plant registered the maximum growth, yield and yield attributes, leaf nutrient status of N, P and K at 5th and 7th month after planting and soil physiochemical properties at harvesting stage because the role of organic manures and amendments to make the soil has healthy as well as possible and also, the unavailable form of soil nutrients to available form by enhancing mineralization and solubilization process in soil by adding organic manures and microbial agents make easy uptake of nutrients when crop required comparing to chemical fertilizers.

  17. Antisense treatment of caliciviridae: an emerging disease agent of animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alvin W; Matson, David O; Stein, David A; Skilling, Douglas E; Kroeker, Andrew D; Berke, Tamas; Iversen, Patrick L

    2002-04-01

    The Earth's oceans are the primary reservoir for an emerging family of RNA viruses, the Caliciviridae, which can cause a spectrum of diseases in marine animals, wildlife, farm animals, pets and humans. Certain members of this family have unusually broad host ranges, and some are zoonotic (transmissible from animals to humans). The RNA virus replicative processes lack effective genetic repair mechanisms, and, therefore, virtually every calicivirus replicate is a mutant. Hence, traditional therapeutics dependent on specific nucleic acid sequences or protein epitopes lack the required diversity of sequence or conformational specificity that would be required to reliably detect, prevent or treat infections from these mutant clusters (quasi-species) of RNA viruses, including the Caliciviridae. Antisense technology using phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers shows promise in overcoming these current diagnostic and therapeutic problems inherent with newly emerging viral diseases. PMID:12044040

  18. Dietary antioxidants for chronic periodontitis prevention and its treatment: a review on current evidences from animal and human studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Varela-López; Maurizio Battino; Pedro Bullón; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Given the relationship between chronic periodontitis and high levels of oxidative stress, this review aims to clarify what role can played the dietary intake of different antioxidants in maintaining a healthy periodontium and in reducing chronic periodontitis risk, as well as possible use of dietary therapies based on them for this disease treatment. Methods: The database of the National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC (MEDLINE PubMed) was used and all the studies in animals a...

  19. Living Animals in the Classroom: A Meta-Analysis on Learning Outcome and a Treatment-Control Study Focusing on Knowledge and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Eberhard; Randler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Prior research states that the use of living animals in the classroom leads to a higher knowledge but those previous studies have methodological and statistical problems. We applied a meta-analysis and developed a treatment-control study in a middle school classroom. The treatments (film vs. living animal) differed only by the presence of the…

  20. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A Scheinemann

    Full Text Available Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%, the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45% is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production.

  1. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%), the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45%) is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production. PMID:25786255

  2. Effects of Timing of Bisphosphonate Treatment on Cleft Bone Grafting in an Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BP on the success of bone grafts placed in palatal defects in rats. Bone was harvested and packed into palatal defects in recipient animals which were divided into four groups (n=8): (1) Saline, (2) BP at the time of surgery (T0), (3) BP one-week post-surgery (T1) and (4) BP three-weeks post-surgery (T2). All animals were euthanized at six weeks. Bone volume in the T1 BP (36.3 ± 8.8%) and T2 BP groups (36.9 ± 12.4%) was significantly gre...

  3. Evaluation of sample preservation methods for poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J; Fadel, J G; Zhang, R; El-Mashad, H M; Ying, Y; Rumsey, T

    2009-08-01

    When poultry manure is collected but cannot be analyzed immediately, a method for storing the manure is needed to ensure accurate subsequent analyses. This study has 3 objectives: (1) to investigate effects of 4 poultry manure sample preservation methods (refrigeration, freezing, acidification, and freeze-drying) on the compositional characteristics of poultry manure; (2) to determine compositional differences in fresh manure with manure samples at 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation under bird cages; and (3) to assess the influence of 14-d freezing storage on the composition of manure when later exposed to 25 degrees C for 7 d as compared with fresh manure. All manure samples were collected from a layer house. Analyses performed on the manure samples included total Kjeldahl nitrogen, uric acid nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and urea nitrogen. In experiment 1, the storage methods most similar to fresh manure, in order of preference, were freezing, freeze-drying, acidification, and refrigeration. Thoroughly mixing manure samples and compressing them to 2 to 3 mm is important for the freezing and freeze-dried samples. In general, refrigeration was found unacceptable for nitrogen analyses. A significant effect (P manure. Manure after 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation had similar nitrogen compositions. The results from experiment 3 show that nitrogen components from fresh manure samples and thawed samples from 14 d of freezing are similar at 7 d but high variability of nitrogen compositions during intermediate times from 0 to 7 d prevents the recommendation of freezing manure for use in subsequent experiments and warrants future experimentation. In conclusion, fresh poultry manure can be frozen for accurate subsequent nitrogen compositional analyses but this same frozen manure may not be a reliable substitute for fresh manure if a subsequent experiment is performed. PMID:19590065

  4. Study of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus through animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Casillas, Yeray; Melián, Carlos; Wägner, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    Most research in diabetes mellitus (DM) has been conducted in animals, and their replacement is currently a chimera. As compared to when they started to be used by modern science in the 17th century, a very high number of animal models of diabetes is now available, and they provide new insights into almost every aspect of diabetes. Approaches combining human, in vitro, and animal studies are probably the best strategy to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of diabetes, and the choice of the best model to achieve such objective is crucial. Traditionally classified based on pathogenesis as spontaneous or induced models, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. The most common animal models of diabetes are described, and in addition to non-obese diabetic mice, biobreeding diabetes-prone (BB-DP) rats, streptozotocin-induced models, or high-fat diet-induced diabetic C57Bl/6J mice, new valuable models, such as dogs and cats with spontaneous diabetes, are described. PMID:27246633

  5. Physiological effects of chicken manure on yield-forming of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plot experiments with different amounts of chicken manure applied (1,2,3 m3/hm2), compared with no using it, were carried out to study the physiological effects on the yield-forming of high-yielding winter wheat. The results indicated that the treatments with chicken manure increased the percentage of spike bearing tiller and spike density, as well as thousand-grain weight, however, they trended to decrease the maximum tillers and spike grains. In addition, peroxidase vigor of flag leaf in the treatments was critically strengthened with filling of spike, along with the canopy photosynthesis rate. Root absorption vigor inclined significantly, and such positive effect was risen with expanding amount of chicken manure applied

  6. Effective green manuring via biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Nykänen, Arja; Kymäläinen, Maritta; Lemola, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    The preliminary results show that the benefit from anaerobic digestion of the green manure leys seem to be based more on biogas energy production than for higher yields after anaerobic digestion. The N leaching risk is under determination.

  7. Effect of beef cattle manure application rate on CH4 and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Parker, David; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sa, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Chang-Sang

    2012-12-01

    In a series of field experiments, emissions of two major greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured using a closed chamber technique in summer 2010 to evaluate the effects of solid beef cattle manure land application techniques. The treatments included a control (C: no manure), two manure application rates (40 and 80 T ha-1), and two injection layers (surface vs. subsurface (5 cm)): (1) 40 T ha-1 on surface (S40), (2) 80 T ha-1 on surface (S80), (3) 40 T ha-1 at subsurface (D40), and (4) 80 T ha-1 at subsurface (D80)). The exchange patterns of CH4 and CO2 in the control were variable and showed both emission and deposition. However, only emissions were seen in the manure treatments. Emissions of CH4 were seen systematically on the ascending order of 5.35 (C), 59.3 (S40), 68.7 (D40), 188 (S80), and 208 μg m-2 h-1 (D80), while those of CO2 also showed a similar trend: 12.9 (C), 37.6 (S40), 55.8 (D40), 82.4 (S80), and 95.4 mg m-2 h-1 (D80). The overall results of our study suggest that the emissions of CH4 and CO2 are affected most noticeably by the differences in the amount of manure application.

  8. Influence of Irradiated Chicken Manure on Productivity and Fruit Quality of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out on Strawberry fruits (Fragaria×ananassa) cv. camarosa at Atomic Energy Authority, Experimental farm, Inshas, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2011 and 2012. Chicken manure at rates of 15 and 30 m3 fed-1 were irradiated with 10 KGy gamma were applied in combination with 206 N + 31 P2O5+ 240 K2O unit fed-1. Untreated control but fertilized with 206 N + 31 P2O5+ 240 K2O unit fed-1was also included. Generally chicken manure rates significantly increased vegetative growth, and total yield quality of strawberry fruits. The superiority data with 30 m3 fed-1 irradiated chicken manure was observed on strawberry of plant height, number of leaves plant, and number of crowns plant, root length and dry weight of shoots. Also total soluble solids and acidity, vitamin C, total sugars and anthocyanin content were significantly increased comparable to control. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents non significantly affected most of treatments except the combined treatment of chicken manure at rate 30 m3 fed-1 and 206 N + 31 P2O5+ 240 K2O unit fed-1 that induced the best results. This was true at the 2nd season. Moreover these results were nearly closed those of irradiated dry chicken manure at rate of 30 m3 fed-1 plus 206 N + 31 P2O5+ 240 K2O unit fed-1, for both seasons

  9. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    SUPRIYADI; MUJIYATI

    2009-01-01

    Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum) cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i) whithout fertilize...

  10. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso; Anderson Soares Bento; Humberto Misdei Moreski; Francielli Gasparotto

    2014-01-01

    Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR) in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa), T2: black oat (Avena ...

  11. The Influence of Chemical Treatment on the Mechanical Behaviour of Animal Fibre-Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka O. Oladele

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work has investigated the influence of chemical treatment on the mechanical behaviour of animal fibre-reinforced high density polyethylene composites. The animal fibres used for this present study were chicken feather and cow hair fibres procured from local poultries and abattoirs. Prior to the development of the composite materials, the animal fibres were washed and dried, cut into 10 mm and divided into two portions; one portion was treated with 0.25 M NaOH maintained at 60 0C for 1 hour in a water bath, rinsed with distilled water and dried in the oven while the other portion was left untreated. Both portions were then used to reinforce the high density polyethylene polymer at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 % fibre loading respectively from which, the flexural and tensile test samples were produced by hot compression moulding. From the test results, it was observed that the chemically treated cow hair and chicken feather fibre reinforced high density polyethylene composites gave the best flexural properties for most fibre loading percentages compared to their untreated animal fibre-reinforced high density polyethylene composites counterparts and the neat high density polyethylene matrix. However, the tensile properties of all the animal fibre-reinforced high density polyethylene composites were not enhanced. Chicken feather and cow hair fibres were chosen for this research work to consider their potential applications as reinforcement for polymeric materials with a view to curtail the environmental pollution they generate by means of their disposal, as they are considered as unusable animal waste.

  12. 应用Manure-DNDC模型模拟畜禽养殖氮素污染%Modelling nitrogen pollution from livestock breeding using Manure-DNDC model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高懋芳; 邱建军; 李长生; 王立刚; 李虎; 高春雨

    2012-01-01

    Livestock and poultry breeding is one of the most important sources for agricultural non-point source nitrogen pollution. After application of manure fertilizer, the intensity of nitrogen losses through soil erosion and leaching in arable land will increase dramatically. Livestock breeding and manure management is a complicate process including nutrient cycling in animal body and transportation of waste from manure to environment through different routes. Discharge coefficient method was widely used for the evaluation of nitrogen pollution loads from animal breeding. The newest Manure-DNDC model was used for the modelling of biogeochemistry process in animal breeding and manure management, with a case study of Xiaoqinghe watershed in Shandong province. Nitrogen transportation and transfer in animal body, manure and agricultural land, main ways of nitrogen losses as well as spatial and temporal distribution of pollution were analyzed in the paper. The results indicated that nitrogen loss in the process of animal breeding and manure fertilizer application was 46.6 million kg N in Xiaoqinghe watershed in 2008. Nitrogen losses from soil erosion and leaching in arable land caused by manure application were 1 million kg and 5.1 million kg, respectively.%畜禽养殖是重要的农业面源氮素污染源头,大量的畜禽粪便施入农田后,会加大农田氮素径流和淋溶损失强度.畜禽养殖废弃物氮素污染过程复杂,涉及到动物自身营养循环以及废弃物通过不同途径进入环境的过程,目前大多通过排放系数法估算畜禽养殖过程产生的氮素污染负荷.该文选用最新版Manure-DNDC模型,以山东小清河流域为例,模拟畜禽养殖及废弃物处理的生物地球化学过程,分析氮素在动物、畜禽粪便、农田之间的迁移转化,探讨该过程中氮素的主要损失途径以及污染物负荷的时空变化特征.模拟结果表明,小清河流域2008年畜禽养殖及粪便

  13. Phosphorus leaching as influenced by animal manure and catch crops

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Leaching of phosphorus (P) constitutes an important part of P losses from Swedish agricultural soils. Phosphorus leaching is complex and is influenced by many factors, from source and mobilisation to transport pathways, as well as agricultural management practices. In order to design appropriate mitigation strategies to reduce P leaching, it is urgent to understand how different factors influence P leaching and to understand the methods for assessing P leaching. This thesis investigat...

  14. Solid – Liquid separation of dairy manure: Distribution of components and methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical treatment and screening can be an effective technique for separation of dairy cattle manure into a liquid fraction (LF) and a nutrient-rich solid fraction (SF). The optimum loading of a strong cationic polyacrylamide was found to be 43.9 g kg−1 of dry excreta. The separated SF contained 29.1% of the initial mass present in the manure and the chemicals added. The Volatile Solids (VS)/Total Solids (TS) ratio, which was 0.78 for the manure, rose to 0.82 for the SF and decreased to 0.63 in the LF. Furthermore, the SF retained 76.1, 79.9, 59.4 and 87.4% of TS, VS, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus, respectively. In the LF, the ratio of filtrate chemical oxygen demand (CODfiltrate) and COD due to volatile fatty acids (CODVFA) in relation to total COD (CODT) were 0.86 and 0.76, respectively. The percentage of anaerobically biodegradable chemical oxygen demand (CODBD) for the LF was 83.0%. Treatment of the LF in high loading anaerobic reactors would be possible due to these COD characteristics. Specific methane production in terms of VS for the separated LF was 0.580 m3 kg−1. For dairy manure and SF, it was 0.320 and 0.258 m3 kg−1, respectively. -- Highlights: ► Chemical treatment is an effective technique for separation of dairy manure. ► Solid fraction retained 59.4 and 87.4% of Nitrogen and Phosphorous, respectively. ► Anaerobic biodegradability of liquid fraction much higher than that of raw manure. ► Characteristics of liquid fraction allow its treatment in high load systems.

  15. Mineralização de esterco de ovinos e sua influência na produção de alface Mineralization of sheep manure and its influence on lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Célio de Figueiredo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversos resíduos orgânicos são utilizados na agricultura sem o adequado conhecimento da sua dinâmica de mineralização. Avaliou-se a mineralização de esterco de ovinos e sua influência na produção de alface. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram utilizadas 25 t ha-1 como dose de esterco para cada um dos seguintes tratamentos: 1 esterco de ovinos que se alimentaram de feno de mandioca (PAM; 2 esterco de ovinos que se alimentaram de subproduto de ervilha (ERV; 3 esterco de ovinos que se alimentaram de feno de capim coast-cross (FCC; 4 esterco de ovinos que se alimentaram de subproduto de saccharina (SAC e 5 solo sem aplicação de esterco (testemunha. Foi determinada semanalmente a respiração basal do solo, utilizada como indicador de mineralização da matéria orgânica. A massa fresca de alface foi avaliada como medida de produção. Os tratamentos ERV, FCC e SAC apresentaram ganhos de massa fresca na ordem de 68, 65 e 62% em relação à testemunha e de 43, 39 e 33% em relação ao PAM, respectivamente. A produção menor promovida pelo PAM, em relação às demais, pode ser explicada pela forma de mineralização da matéria orgânica que apresentou elevada respiração microbiana cinco dias após o transplantio, com acentuado declínio, nas medições subseqüentes, ao longo do ciclo da cultura. Os demais tratamentos apresentaram mineralização sincronizada com conseqüente aumento na produção de massa fresca.Several organic wastes are used in agriculture with no precise knowledge about the mineralization dynamics of these materials. In this study the sheep manure mineralization and its influence on the lettuce production was evaluated. A randomized block design with three replications was used. Five treatments were studied using 25 t ha-1 as dose of manure: 1 sheep manure obtained from animals fed with cassava straw (PAM; 2 sheep manure obtained from animals fed with residue

  16. Living Animals in the Classroom: A Meta-Analysis on Learning Outcome and a Treatment-Control Study Focusing on Knowledge and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Eberhard; Randler, Christoph

    2012-02-01

    Prior research states that the use of living animals in the classroom leads to a higher knowledge but those previous studies have methodological and statistical problems. We applied a meta-analysis and developed a treatment-control study in a middle school classroom. The treatments (film vs. living animal) differed only by the presence of the living animal. Both treatments were based on the self-determination theory. More than 400 pupils filled in pre-test, post-test and two follow-up-tests (with a delay of 6-8 weeks and 7-8 months). After each lesson, pupils rated the lesson on a short intrinsic motivation scale. In the meta-analysis, we found that the living animal treatments significantly scored better than a control group, but not when comparing living animals with alternative treatments. In the treatment-control study, both treatments led to a significant increase in knowledge but there were no differences between film and living animal treatment. Pre-test and previous grading had a significant influence on post- and both follow-up tests. In the mouse lesson, pupils of the living animal group showed higher values in interest and competence and lower values in pressure. Interest and competence correlated positively with achievement, while pressure correlated negatively.

  17. Influence of canola and sunflower diet amendments on cattle feedlot manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Mir, Priya S; Shah, Mohammad A; Travis, Greg R

    2005-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) producers can replace a part of the traditional diet of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain/silage with sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) seeds or canola meal (Brassica napus L.)/oil to enhance conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) content in milk and meat for its positive health benefits. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding sunflower or canola to finishing steers on cattle manure chemical properties and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The control diet contained 84% rolled barley and 15% barley silage, which provided only 2.6% lipid. The other six treatments had 6.6 to 8.6% lipid delivered from sources such as hay, sunflower seed (SS), canola meal/oil, and SS forage pellets. Manure samples (a mixture of cattle urine, feces, and woodchip bedding materials) were collected and analyzed after cattle had been on these diets for 113 d. The dietary source and level of lipid had no effect on organic N and nitrate N content in manure, but significantly affected ammonia N and VFA. Inclusion of SS forage pellets, hay, or canola meal/oil in cattle diets had no significant impact on manure characteristics, but SS significantly reduced the pH and increased propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric content. In addition, N loss after excretion (mainly from urine N) increases with the pH and N levels in both feed and manure. The combination of SS with barley silage resulted in a lower VFA and NH3 content in manure and should be a more attractive option. To better manage N nutrient cycles and reduce NH3 related odor problems, feed and manure pH should be one of the factors to consider when determining feed mix rations. PMID:15998867

  18. Feeding high-moisture corn instead of dry-rolled corn reduces odorous compound production in manure of finishing beef cattle without decreasing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibeque, S L; Miller, D N; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L

    2006-07-01

    We hypothesized that feeding steers ground high-moisture ensiled corn (HMC) in lieu of dry-rolled corn (DRC) would reduce the amount of starch being excreted in the manure and the associated odorous compound production. One hundred forty-eight crossbred steers (363 +/- 33 kg of BW) were fed a DRC-or HMC-based diet in a feeding trial, and 8 Charolais-sired steers (447 +/- 22 kg of BW) were used in a nutrient balance study. Steers fed HMC tended to have a slightly lower DMI (P = 0.09), ADG (P = 0.06), and yield grade, but G:F, final HCW, and quality grade did not differ (P > or = 0.23) between treatments. Compared with feeding DRC, feeding HMC decreased (P = 0.02) starch intake from 5,407 to 4,846 g/d, decreased (P or = 0.55). In manure slurries incubated for 35 d with soil and water, total VFA concentration was lower (P < 0.01) in manure from steers fed HMC (1,625 micromol/g of DM) compared with steers fed DRC (3,041 micromol/g of DM). Lower initial (d 0) starch concentrations and greater initial pH was also observed in the slurries from the HMC manure. By d 3 of slurry incubation, there was an increase (P < 0.01) in free glucose and l-lactic acid in the DRC slurries but not in the HMC slurries. During manure incubation, alcohol and VFA content increased (P < 0.01) and pH declined, but to a lesser extent (P < 0.01) in the HMC slurries. However, branched-chain VFA increased more (P < 0.01) in the HMC slurries than in the DRC slurries. These data suggest that feeding HMC instead of DRC decreased fecal starch and production of some potentially odorous compounds in a finishing cattle system but had little impact on animal productivity. PMID:16775061

  19. Steroid-associated osteonecrosis: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, animal model, prevention, and potential treatments (an overview)

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-Hui Xie; Xin-Luan Wang; Hui-Lin Yang; De-Wei Zhao; Ling Qin

    2015-01-01

    Steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) is a common orthopaedic problem caused by administration of corticosteroids prescribed for many nonorthopaedic medical conditions. We summarised different pathophysiologies of SAON which have adverse effects on multiple systems such as bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) pool, bone matrix, cell apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and angiogenesis. Different animal models were introduced to mimic the pathophysiology of SAON and for testing the efficacy of both preve...

  20. Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products : pre-treatments and co-digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Abalde, Ángela

    2013-01-01

    The meat sector is one of the most important industrial sectors in Europe and it is associated with the generation of large quantities of animal by-products not intended for human consumption (ABPs). The increasing demand of renewable energy sources and reuse of wastes require good technological solutions for energy production such as anaerobic digestion (AD), which is included in the current European regulation as one of the allowed methods to valorize ABPs. Due to their composition, with hi...

  1. Co-digestion of manure and industrial waste--The effects of trace element addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordell, Erik; Nilsson, Britt; Nilsson Påledal, Sören; Karisalmi, Kaisa; Moestedt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Manure is one of the most common substrates for biogas production. Manure from dairy- and swine animals are often considered to stabilize the biogas process by contributing nutrients and trace elements needed for the biogas process. In this study two lab-scale reactors were used to evaluate the effects of trace element addition during co-digestion of manure from swine- and dairy animals with industrial waste. The substrate used contained high background concentrations of both cobalt and nickel, which are considered to be the most important trace elements. In the reactor receiving additional trace elements, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was 89% lower than in the control reactor. The lower VFA concentration contributed to a more digested digestate, and thus lower methane emissions in the subsequent storage. Also, the biogas production rate increased with 24% and the biogas production yield with 10%, both as a result of the additional trace elements at high organic loading rates. All in all, even though 50% of the feedstock consisted of manure, trace element addition resulted in multiple positive effects and a more reliable process with stable and high yield. PMID:25812806

  2. Report on power generation potential using manure gas from Ontario farms. Appendix B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for manure gas power generation in Ontario is assessed. Since biogas cannot be easily liquefied for reserve use applications, it must be consumed as it is produced, or stored as a gas under low or medium pressure. Simultaneous conversion of fuel into both thermal and electrical energy is known as cogeneration, and offers the potential of electrical power sales through utility interconnection. Typical electrical production results available on a per mature animal basis are: cow, 75 W; swine, 10 W; and poultry, 0.65 W. A supplementary benefit is that digestion greatly reduces manure odour. The potential number of manure biogas power plant units (MBU) by size can be determined from livestock data, farm size and animal type. There are ca 17,000 potential MBU (361 MW continuous power) related to cattle operations, 3,200 MBU (49 MW) associated with swine operations, and 14,000 MBU (42 MW) related to poultry, for a total technical potential of 452 MW. Based on available equipment packages and installation costs, it is estimated that 15 kW is the minimum capacity cogeneration unit worthy of consideration. Estimated cost of an on-farm biogas cogeneration plant ranges from $200,000 for a 15 kW installation to $500,000 for a 150 kW plant. Appendices present properties of manure gases, representative installations, involved groups, a literature search, selected equipment manufacturers, and case study data sheets. 27 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Effect of Poultry Manure and Irrigation Depth on the Growth of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F During the Dry Season in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fubara-Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria only practice rainfed agriculture, partly because of the misconception that the area has abundant rainfall even though the region has distinct wet and dry seasons. This, coupled with the low soil fertility always results in crops being produced at the subsistence level. This experiment was therefore conducted during the dry season to investigate the growth response of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F to different combinations of poultry manure and depths of irrigation in a loamy sand soil. It was a randomized complete block design experiment involving three levels each of poultry manure and irrigation with three replications. The treatments comprised random combinations of 10, 20 and 30 t/ha poultry manure with 3, 4 and 5 mm depths of irrigation, including control treatment that had neither manure nor irrigation. Results indicated that the application of poultry manure and irrigation produced significantly higher values of all the growth parameters than the control. Although the combination of 30 t/ha manure and 4 mm depth of irrigation produced the maximum leaf area, the best result in terms of vine length, number of leaves, vine fresh weight and total shoot yield was obtained by combining 30 t/ha manure with 3 mm irrigation depth. This study therefore recommends the application of 30 t/ha poultry manure and 3 mm depth of irrigation for the cultivation of fluted pumpkin during the dry season in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  4. Volatilization of ammonia from manure as affected by manure additives, temperature and mixing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Vliet, van P.C.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization decreases the N-nutrient value of livestock manure slurries and can lead to soil acidification and eutrophication problems. In this study the effect of three manure additives (Euro Mest-mix® (Mx), Effective Micro-organisms® (EM), and Agri-mest® (Am)) on NH3 volatilizatio

  5. Manure and Inorganic Nitrogen Affect Trace Gas Emissions under Semi-Arid Irrigated Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Stewart, Catherine E

    2016-05-01

    Dairy manure is often applied to cropped soils as a substitute for inorganic N fertilizers, but the impacts of manure on soil trace gas fluxes, yields, and soil N are uncertain in the semiarid western United States. Soil carbon dioxide (CO-C), methane (CH-C), nitrous oxide (NO-N), and ammonia (NH-N) emissions were monitored using surface chambers from five N treatments: (i) partially composted solid dairy manure (DM) (412 kg N ha), (ii) DM + AgrotainPlus (DM+AP), (iii) enhanced efficiency N fertilizer (SuperU [SU]) (179 kg N ha), (iv) urea (179 kg N ha), and (v) check (no N applied), to determine their effect on growing season (GS) and nongrowing season emissions from a tilled clay loam soil under irrigated, continuous corn production for 3 yr. SuperU and AgrotainPlus contain urease and nitrification inhibitors. Averaged over years, GS soil CO-C emissions were greater for DM and DM+AP than for urea, SU, and check treatments due to the large amount of C added with the manure; CH-C emissions did not vary among N treatments; and NO-N emissions decreased in the order urea = DM = DM+AP > SU > check. AgrotainPlus added to the DM did not reduce NO-N emissions compared with DM. Cumulative NH-N emissions after manure application decreased in the order urea > SU > check, with no significant differences between SU, DM, and DM+AP. Dairy manure provided slow-release N with nitrate intensities lower than urea and NO-N emissions similar to urea. These results highlight the importance of best-management practices such as immediate irrigation after N application and use of urease and nitrification inhibitors to minimize N losses. PMID:27136157

  6. Occurrence and distribution of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, and nitrofurans in livestock manure and amended soils of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Wan, Weining; Mao, Daqing; Wang, Chong; Mu, Quanhua; Qin, Songyan; Luo, Yi

    2015-03-01

    A feasible and rapid analysis for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamides (SAs), tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQs), macrolides (MACs) and nitrofurans (NFs) in livestock manure and soils was established by solid-phase extraction (SPE)-ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A total of 32 manure and 17 amended soil samples from the Liaoning and Tianjin areas in Northern China were collected for analysis. The largest detected frequencies and concentrations in manure samples were those of TCs (3326.6 ± 12,302.6 μg/kg), followed by FQs (411.3 ± 1453.4 μg/kg), SAs (170.6 ± 1060.2 μg/kg), NFs (85.1 ± 158.1 μg/kg), and MACs (1.4 ± 4.8 μg/kg). In general, veterinary antibiotics (VAs) were detected with higher concentrations in swine and chicken manure than in cattle manure, reflecting the heavy usage of VAs in swine and chicken husbandry in the studied area. Furthermore, higher residues of antibiotics were found in piglet and fattening swine manure than in sow manure. In addition, TCs were the most frequently (100%) detected antibiotics in amended soil with higher concentrations (up to 10,967.1 μg/kg) than any other VAs. The attenuation of SAs was more obvious than TCs in amended soil after fertilization, which can most likely be attributed to the stronger sorption of TCs than SAs to soil organic matter through cation exchange. This study illustrated the prevalence of TCs detected in both animal manure and fertilized agricultural soils in Northern China, which may increase the risk to human health through the food chain. Thus, TCs should be given more attention in the management of veterinary usage in livestock husbandry. PMID:25318415

  7. Codigestion of Taihu blue algae with swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Codigestion of blue algae with swine manure has the highest CH4 yield at ISR 2.0. • pH, TAN, N-NH3 and VFAs confirmed the appropriate stability of the codigestion. • 35.44% VS reduction was achieved by codigestion of blue algae with swine manure. • Three key enzyme characteristics demonstrated the higher efficiencies of codigestion. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of Taihu blue algae and its codigestion with swine manure was evaluated at different inoculum substrate ratios (ISRs) from 0.5 to 3.0. Results showed that codigestion of blue algae with swine manure led to the highest methane (CH4) production of 212.7 mL g−1 VS at ISR 2.0, while digestion of blue algae inoculated with granular sludge brought out the optimized CH4 production of 73.5 mL g−1 VS at ISR 3.0. The values of pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), free ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) showed no significant difference between the digestion and codigestion, confirming the appropriate stability of the two batch anaerobic processes. Closer examination of VS removal rates and key enzymes variation proved codigestion had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation, which demonstrated that AD of blue algae with swine manure was a promising technology for both solid wastes treatment and renewable-energy production

  8. Evaluation of calcium superphosphate as an additive to reduce gas emissions from rabbit manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Estellés Barber

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques to reduce the emission of air pollutants from livestock production are demanded. In this study, the effect of an additive (calcium superphosphate on gas emissions from rabbit manure was investigated and compared with a control where no additive was used. Calcium superphosphate was applied at a rate of 100 g/m2 per week in a manure pit during 2 cycles of growing rabbits. Manure samples were collected weekly and then chemically and microbiologically analysed. Gas emissions (ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide were determined in 2 open flux chambers. No differences were observed in gas emissions between the treated and control samples except for ammonia emissions, which were reduced by 33% when the additive was applied (P<0.05. No statistical differences were obtained in the microbial content between control and treatment, as results showed a high variability. Dry matter content and pH were the most influential parameters on the emission of gases from manure. According to these results, the application of calcium superphosphate may be considered as an effective technique to reduce ammonia emission from rabbit manure. The additive may also be potentially effective in other species, but additional research is necessary to investigate its performance.

  9. Life cycle assessment of manure management and nutrient recycling from a Chinese pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiming; Stichnothe, Heinz; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Huaitalla, Roxana Mendoza; Xu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the growing numbers of intensified pig farms around cities in China, there are problems of nutrient surplus and shortage of arable land for utilising the manure. Hence, sustainable livestock systems with effective manure management are needed. The objective of this study is to compare the existing manure treatment of a typical pig farm in Beijing area (separate collection of faeces; 'Gan qing fen' system) with an alternative system and to identify the nutrients flow of the whole farm in order to quantify environmental burdens and to estimate the arable land required for sustainable nutrients recycling. Life cycle assessment is used for this purpose. Acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) are analysed in detail; the functional unit is the annual production of the pig farm. The results show that the cropland area demand for sustainable land application of the effluent can be reduced from 238 to 139 ha with the alternative system. It is possible to transfer 29% of total nitrogen, 87% of phosphorus, 34% of potassium and 75% of magnesium to the compost, and to reduce the total AP, EP and GWP of manure management on the farm by 64.1%, 96.7% and 22%, respectively, compared with the current system. Besides an effective manure management system, a full inventory of the regional nutrients flow is needed for sustainable development of livestock systems around big cities in China. PMID:24293069

  10. Effect of treatment with simvastatin on bone microarchitecture of the femoral head in an osteoporosis animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lucas Oliveira; Macedo, Ana Paula; Shimano, Roberta Carminati; Shimano, Antônio Carlos; Yanagihara, Gabriela Rezende; Ramos, Junia; Paulini, Marina Ribeiro; Tocchini de Figueiredo, Fellipe Augusto; Gonzaga, Miliane Gonçalves; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the microarchitecture and trabecular bone strength at the distal region of the femur, and its biomechanical properties with simvastatin administration with two different doses in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Ninety rats were divided into six groups to evaluate treatment with the simvastatin drug (n = 15): SH (Sham surgery), SH-5 (5 mg simvastatin), SH-20 (20 mg simvastatin), OVX, OVX-5, and OVX-20. Euthanasia was performed at three different times, five animals per period: 7, 14, and 28 days. The effectiveness of the treatments was evaluated by mechanical testing and histomorphometric analysis of the femurs. The results of analysis by the linear model of mixed effects showed 20 mg of simvastatin results in increased trabecular bone after 14 days (P = 0.039) of ingestion in ovariectomized animals. However, ingestion of 5 mg of simvastatin is able to sensitize the trabecular bone only at 28 days (P = 0.005) of ingestion. In the mechanical tests stiffness improves within 28 days (P = 0.003). Regarding maximum strength, no statistical differences were observed. According to these results, it can be concluded that for a decrease in oral intake, longer treatment times are required. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:684-690, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27186631

  11. Pollution by animal production in The Netherlands: solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorburg, J H

    1991-09-01

    Provided that the application rates of manure do not exceed the crop uptake of nutrients, pollution by animal production is mainly caused by nitrogenous substances. Applying manure outside the growing season causes pollution of groundwater and surface water due to leaching and runoff. In regions with a high livestock density, the evaporation of ammonia has a serious impact on the environment. It contributes to acidification and causes a nutrient imbalance in natural vegetation. The prevention of nutrient losses from manure is unprofitable. The environmental impact is not caused by the individual farmer but is a result of the sum of activities in a region. This means that legislation is necessary to impose limits in order to arrive at production without pollution. Within this framework, the farmer should optimise the utilisation of minerals from manure by more efficient animal nutrition and better handling of the manure. One of the most difficult problems is the prevention of ammonia evaporation. A reduction of these losses generally also has a favourable effect on odour emissions. A new development is the processing of manure surpluses into a dried manure of sufficient quality to compete on the fertiliser market. As is usually the case with pollution control, these measures raise the costs of livestock production. PMID:1782422

  12. Preliminary design and economical study of a biogas production-plant using cow manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents considerations and results from designing a large- scale biogas production-plant using cow manure. The so designed plant capacity allowed processing the dung from 1,300 cows, producing 500 kW of electrical energy from operating a generator which works on a mixture of diesel and biogas fuel. The design included sizing the cowsheds, the manure-collecting systems, transporting the dung, the digester, the effluent tank and the biogas treatment system. An economic study was also done, concluding that project was viable and the importance of the cost of diesel evolving for determining return on investment time.

  13. Effects of Temperature and Drying and Wetting Alternation on Ammonium Fixation in Manured Loessial Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANXIAOLIN; LILING; 等

    1996-01-01

    Effects of temperature and drying and wetting alternation (DWA) on ammonium fixation in manured loessial soil were studied by means of Batch Equilibrium with varying concentration solutions of ammonium chloride.ammonium fixation time,and soil clay contents.The purpose of the research was to find out the pattern of ammonium fixation affected by the varying factors.The results showed a remarkable variation in ammonium fixation.Fixed ammonium increased with temperature and treatments of DWA.The ammonium fixation in manured loessial soil was characterized by the effect of temperature and DWA.

  14. Microbiological and chemical attributes of a Hapludalf soil with swine manure fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael da Rosa Couto; Jucinei José Comin; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares; Paulo Belli Filho; Lucas Benedet; Marcel Pires de Moraes; Gustavo Brunetto; Caetano Luiz Beber

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical attributes of a soil with a seven‑year history of urea and swine manure application. In the period from October 2008 to October 2009, soil samples were collected in the 0-10 cm layer and were subjected to the treatments: control, without application of urea or manure; and with the application of urea, pig slurry, and deep pig litter in two doses, in order to supply one or two times the recommended N doses for the maiz...

  15. Data on the irradiation of liquid manure artificially infected with foot-and mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the application of an ionizing radiation treatment to liquid manure infected with Foot- and Mouth disease virus is described. Virus suspensions diluted with a phosphate buffer solution showed a considerable decrease of virulence already at an exposure to 0.4 - 0.8 Mrad at low initial titre. 1.2 Mrad proved to be effective also against high concentrations of the virus. However, with liquid manure used as diluent, a certain protective effect was noted against the destructive influence of radiation on the virus. (author)

  16. Effect of Lime and Farmyard Manure on the Concentration of Cadmium in Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica)

    OpenAIRE

    Subash Chandra Shaha; Md. Abul Kashem; Khan Towhid Osman

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of lime and farmyard manure on the concentration of cadmium in water spinach. Water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica cv. Kankon) was grown in sandy loam soil spiked with 5 mg Cd K g − 1 with lime (L) and farmyard manure (M) amendments. The treatments consisted of control, four levels of L (5, 10, 15, and 20 t  h a − 1 ), M (5, 10, 15, and 20 t  h a − 1 ), and their combinations (5 + 5, 10 + 10, 15 + 15, and 20 + 20 t  h a − 1 ). Growth parameters...

  17. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.;

    2002-01-01

    . Using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, it was shown that codigestion of OME with swine manure (up to 50% OME) was successful with a COD reduction up to 75%. The process was adapted for degradation of OME with stepwise increase of the OME load to the UASB reactor. The results showed...... that the high content of ammonia in swine manure, together with content of other nutrients, make it possible to degrade OME without addition of external alkalinity and without addition of external nitrogen source. Anaerobic treatment of OME in UASB reactors resulted in reduction of simple phenolic compounds......Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process...

  18. Evaluation of heavy metal content in irradiated sludge, chicken manure and fertilized soil in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of heavy metals, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Co, were determined in two irradiated sludges, chicken manure and fertilized soil. Sludge I was collected from a treatment plant in Jakarta city, Sludge II from a sludge reservoir in a Jakarta suburb, chicken manure was obtained from a farm south of Jakarta, and the soil had been treated with phosphate fertilizer since 1967. The sludges and chicken manure were collected during the rainy and dry seasons, and the heavy-metal contents were determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry and neutron-activation analysis. The results obtained are compared with data from Canada, and are discussed in terms of permissible limits in the environment. (author)

  19. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.

  20. Life-span studies in 226Ra-injected animals: Effect of low doses, effect of a decorporative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A life-span radiation effects study was performed in mice injected with several doses of 226Ra. The study included 788 male C57Bl mice. For the removal of the 226Ra, half the mice were treated daily with a diet 5% of which was sodium-alginate. The experiment revealed that mice that received the lowest dose of 226Ra lived significantly longer than controls, and, despite appreciable skeletal removal of 226Ra as a result of decorporative treatment, no biological benefit was observed in treated animals. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyaev, Yulian A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2006-02-01

    One of the important problems of modern medicine is treatment of infected wounds. There are many diversified expedients of treatment, but none of them obey the modern physician completely. The aim of this study is to develop and test a new combined method of photodynamic ultrasonic therapy (PDUST) for treatment of infected wounds with focus on experimental trials. PDUST is based on a combination of two methods: photodynamic (PD) therapy (PDT) with photosensitizer and low frequency ultrasonic (US) therapy with antibiotic as tools for treatment of wounds and effectively killing bacteria. The main parameters are: US frequency - 26.5 kHz; US tip elongation - 40+/-20 μm wavelength of light emitting diodes (LED) array - 660+/-10 nm; light intensity on biotissue surface - 1-2 mW/cm2; photosensitizer - an aluminum disulfonated phtalocyanine dissolved in a physiological solution in concentration 10 mg/l. The experiments were carried out with 70 male chinchilla rabbits divided into 7 groups, thus the dynamics of wounds healing were studied in different modes of PDUST. The PD and US methods supplement each other and in conjunction provide additive and especially synergetic effects. The experimental data demonstrated advantages of new technology in comparison with conventional methods in cases of treatment of extended suppurative inflammatory and profound wounds. The more detailed study of PDUST method's mechanism, which is based on low intensity of LED light, PD therapy and US influence is required.

  2. [Bioleaching of fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerator using sewage sludge and pig manure as culture media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun-gui; Chang, Ming; Hu, Pei; Ni, Jin-ren

    2005-11-01

    A mixed culture of Acidihiobacillus ferrooaidans and Acidihiobacillus thiooxidans was used to leach heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI fly ash). This study explored the possibility of using sewage sludge or pig manure as nutrients for supporting the growth of the leaching bacteria and allowing metal solubilization like a synthetic mineral medium. In contrast to pig manure, there is a high ability for acidification of the fly ash and solubilization of toxic metals using sewage sludge at the same content. After 15 d of bioleaching, the following removal efficiencies were obtained for the treatment with the addition of 1% sewage sludge: Cd 88.1%; Zn 78.7%; Cu 69.6%, whereas their removal efficiencies for the treatment with the addition of 1% pig manure were 82.4%, 73.5% and 60.0%, respectively. Results demonstrate that the inhibition by sewage sludge DOM is much more significant than by pig manure DOM at the same concentration level. The dissolved organic carbon in excess of 400 and 150 mg/L was inhibitory to the bacterial growth using sludge DOM and manure DOM, respectively. Compared with sewage sludge, pig manure contained a higher fraction of DOM with molecular size <1000, which led to its higher toxicity. PMID:16447455

  3. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  4. Animal experiments and clinical application of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Liu; Wei Liu; Baiyu Zhou; Jing Wang; Bing Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The olfactory epithelium can still generate new neurons after arresting its growth and development in the human body. Axons can still be generated and pass through peripheral tissue to reach the olfactory bulb. Thus, olfactory cells have been widely used in the repair of spinal cord injury.OBJECTIVE: Using animal experiments in conjunction with a clinical study of olfactory ensheathing cells, this paper was designed to clarify the function and application prospects of olfactory ensheathing cells, as well as the existing problems with their application. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: Using the terms "olfactory ensheathing cells, spinal cord injury", we retrieved manuscripts published from January 1990 to June 2007. The languages were limited to English and Chinese. Inclusion criteria: studies addressing the characteristics, basic study, clinical application and prospects of olfactory ensheathing cells; studies that were recently published or were published in high-impact journals. Exclusion criteria: repetitive studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION: The included 29 manuscripts were primarily clinical or basic experimental studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Following spinal cord injury, spinal neurons die, neurotrophic factors are lacking, and the existing glial scar and cavities hinder axonal growth. One method to repair spinal cord injury is to interfere with the above-mentioned factors based on animal experiments. Myelination and axonal regeneration are the keys to spinal cord injury therapy. Olfactory ensheathing cells can secrete several neurotrophic factors, inhibit horizontal cell reactions, have noticeable neuroprotective effects, and possess a very strong reproductive activity, so they have many advantages in the fields of cell transplantation and gene therapy. However, there still exist many questions and uncertainties, such as the best time window and dose, as well as complications of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation; precise mechanism of action after olfactory

  5. Evaluating aeration techniques for decreasing phosphorus export from grasslands receiving manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given that surface-applied manures can contribute to phosphorus (P) in runoff, a study was conducted to examine mechanical aeration of grasslands for reducing P transport by increasing infiltration of rainfall and binding of P with soil minerals. The effects of three aeration treatments and a contr...

  6. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20:1 and 30:1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  7. Gene therapy by electroporation for the treatment of chronic renal failure in companion animals

    OpenAIRE

    Pope Melissa A; Bodles-Brakhop Angela M; Brown Patricia A; Draghia-Akli Ruxandra

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plasmid-based therapy for the treatment of chronic renal failure and its complications was examined. Companion dogs (13.1 ± 0.8 years, 29.4 ± 5.01 kg) and cats (13.2 ± 0.9 years, 8.5 ± 0.37 kg) received a single 0.4 mg or 0.1 mg species-specific plasmid injection, respectively, intramuscularly followed by electroporation, and analyzed up to 75 days post-treatment; controls underwent electroporation without plasmid administration. Res...

  8. Contribution of customised dosimetry for small animal to the treatments of cancers by metabolic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis first reports a bibliographical study which addressed the use of ionizing radiations in cancer therapy (evolution from ionizing radiation to metabolic radiotherapy, biological and physical parameters, and absorbed dose in metabolic radiotherapy) and the role imagery has in customised dosimetry (absorbed dose calculation methods, determination of cumulative activity, dosimetric models for S factor calculation). Then, the author presents a software which has been specifically developed for the creation of dosimetric models, and reports its validation. He reports the comparison between different dosimetric models in the case of mice. He highlights two applications of the developed tool: radio-immunotherapy and metabolic radiotherapy. He finally proposes a general discussion on the impact of small animal dosimetry on metabolic radiotherapy

  9. Integration of feeding strategies and manure management for improving milk production of dairy cows and conserving the environment under farmer's conditions in south Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six farms with 4 dairy cows (75% of Holstein Friesian) each in Hoc Mon district, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam were selected and divided into two groups (three farms; 12 cows each). In group 1, animals were fed using traditional feeding system verses a new feeding strategy in group 2. The diet in the traditional feeding system was composed of grasses, untreated rice straws, cassava waste, brewery waste and concentrate. In the new feeding system, rice straw was treated with 4% urea and animals were supplemented with urea molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB). In each group, the animals were further divided into two groups for manure collection. In one group, the traditional manure storage method i.e. sun-drying was used whereas in the other, manure was stored roofed and covered and the manure from the different storage methods subsequently used as fertilizer for grasses. The results showed that the new feeding system with urea treated rice straw and UMMB improved milk production and reduced methane production. Roofing and covering manure reduced N loss from the manure and improved soil fertility and biomass yield of the test grasses. (author)

  10. Effect of integrated forage rotation and manure management on yield, nutrient balance and soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Tomasoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a field experiment established in 1995 and still on going. It is located in Lodi, in the irrigated lowlands of Lombardy, Northern Italy. The experiment compares two rotations: the annual double cropping system, Italian ryegrass + silage maize (R1; and the 6-year rotation, in which three years of double crop Italian ryegrass + silage maize are followed by three years of alfalfa harvested for hay (R6 Each rotation have received two types of dairy manure: i farmyard manure (FYM; ii semi-liquid manure (SLM. The intent was to apply to each unit land area the excreta produced by the number of adult dairy cows sustained, in terms of net energy, by the forage produced in each rotation, corresponding to about 6 adult cows ha-1 for R1 and 4 adult cows ha-1 for R6. Manure was applied with (N1 or without (N0 an extra supply of mineral N in the form of urea. The objectives of this study were: i to assess whether the recycling of two types of manure in two forage rotation systems can sustain crop yields in the medium and long term without additional N fertilization; ii to evaluate the nutrient balance of these integrated forage rotations and manure management systems; iii to compare the effects of farmyard manure and semi-liquid manure on soil organic matter. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased yield of silage maize by 19% and alfalfa by 23%, while Italian ryegrass was not influenced by the manure treatment. Yet, silage maize produced 6% more in rotation R6 compared to rotation R1. The mineral nitrogen fertilization increased yield of Italian ryegrass by 11% and of silage maize by 10%. Alfalfa, not directly fertilized with mineral nitrogen, was not influenced by the nitrogen applied to the other crops in rotation. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased soil organic matter (SOM by +37 % for the rotation R1, and by +20% for the rotation R6. Conversely, no significant difference on SOM was observed

  11. Treatment with a Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, inhibits excitotoxicity in an animal model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-Siang; Lin, Hsuan-Yuan; Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Lin, Jung-Yaw

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA 17) is a polyglutamine disease caused by the expansion of CAG/CAA repeats in the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) gene. The Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, contains flavonoids and terpenoids with a potential use for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The neuroprotective effects of EGb 761 are obvious, but whether the EGb 761 has therapeutic effects in SCA 17 is still unclear. To manage our issues, we have generated TBP/79Q-expressing SH-SY5Y cells and SCA 17 transgenic mice with the mutant hTBP gene. In in vitro experiment, we observed that the EGb 761 treatment decreased the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble proteins in the TBP/79Q-expressing SH-SY5Y cells. We further found that the EGb 761 treatment could inhibit excitotoxicity and calcium influx and reduce the expression of apoptotic markers in glutamate-treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In in vivo experiment, we observed that the EGb 761 treatment (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection per day) could relieve the motor deficiencies of the SCA 17 transgenic mice. Our findings provide evidence that the EGb 761 treatment can be a remedy for SCA 17 via suppressing excitotoxicity and apoptosis in SCA 17 cell and animal models. Therefore, we suggest that EGb 761 may be a potential therapeutic agent for treating SCA 17. PMID:26937174

  12. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Shen, JianGuo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, LongHua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, HongYi; Zheng, ChangFeng; Xu, XinHua

    2014-01-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m(-2), respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting. PMID:25354896

  13. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijian; Shen, Jianguo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, Longhua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, Hongyi; Zheng, Changfeng; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-10-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m-2, respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting.

  14. Vulnerability of shallow ground water and drinking-water wells to nitrate in the United States: Model of predicted nitrate concentration in shallow, recently recharged ground water -- Input data set for confined manure (gwava-s_conf)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the average annual nitrogen input from confined animal manure, 1992 and 1997, in kilograms per hectare, in the conterminous United States....

  15. Renal effects of long-term ciclosporin A treatment in a large animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibulskyte, Donata; Samsoe Engberg, Anne; Hanefelt Kristensen, Daniel;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most experimental studies of chronic ciclosporin A (CsA) nephrotoxicity have been performed in rodents; however, the pig possesses several advantages. The aim of this study was to investigate renal functional and structural changes during CsA treatment with 20 mg/kg/day for 6 months in...

  16. Levothyroxine treatment generates an abnormal uterine contractility patterns in an in vitro animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Corriveau, MSc

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Our data suggest that changes in myometrial reactivity are induced by T4 treatment. Thus, in conjunction with our previous observations on human myometrial strips, management of hypothyroidism should be improved to reduce the rate of C-sections in this group of patients.

  17. Nitrogen transformations during pig manure composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Composting is now suggested as one of the environmentallyand friendly alternative method for disposal of solid organic wastes, as it leads to minimization, stabilization, and utilization of organic waste. Transformations of nitrogen were investigated inco-composting of pig manure with different amendments, such as sawdust and leaves. Samples were analyzed for pH, total-N, soluble NH4-N, soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N. The total-N increased after 63 days of composting, as well as the soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N. Soluble NH4-N increased significantly and showed peak values at day 7, thereafter decreased sharply and gradually to lower levels. Seed germination index (GI) showed that co-composting of pig manure with sawdust reached maturity after 49 days of composting, while co-composting of pig manure with sawdust and leaves required shorter time for 35 days. Soluble NH4-N was significantly negatively (P<0.05), while soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N were significantly positively (P<0.05), correlated with seed germination index (GI). Addition of leaves in co-composting of pig manure with sawdust had no significant impacts on nitrogen transformations, but it was beneficial for maturity of pig manure compost.

  18. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  19. Evaluation of muscle regeneration in aged animals after treatment with low-level laser therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pertille

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aging process and its associated morphophysiological changes trigger a reduction in the regenerative ability of the satellite cells, a reduction of vascular tissue and an increase in the production of fibroblasts, developing a cellular environment unfavorable for muscle regeneration. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on the muscle regeneration of old experimental rat models after contusion. METHOD: A total of 25 old rats,18 months old, were divided into three groups: control group (CT without treatment; injury group (IN with muscle contusion and without treatment and laser group (LA with contusion and low-level laser therapy, 830 nm, 30 mW e 4 J/cm². The no invasive contusion was induced in the Tibialis Anterior muscle and the samples were collected after 7 and 21 treatment sessions. The muscle was evaluated by Light Microscopy and Immunoblotting. RESULTS: After 21 days of treatment there was a significant reduction in the areas of inflammation/regeneration of the LA 21 group compared to IN 21 group. The cross-sectional area of the fibers in regeneration was not statistically different between the groups. Molecular analysis showed that the content of MyoD was statistically reduced in the IN 21 group compared to the CT group. The Myogenin content was increased in the IN 21 group compared to the CT group. Ultimately, the content of TGF-β1 on the IN 21 group was higher when compared to the CT group. CONCLUSION: Considering the parameters used, the laser therapy demonstrated to be effective for muscle regeneration in old rats, however only through its anti-inflammatory effect.

  20. Recent developments in chemical treatment of roughages and their relevance to animal production in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research in developed regions, at laboratory level, has investigated acids, amines and the oxidizing agents sulphur dioxide, ozone and alkaline hydrogen peroxide as reagents for upgrading roughages. In vivo experiments with sheep show improvements in digestibility from treating with 40 g SO2 per kg wheat straw DM for 3 d at 70 deg. C, comparable to responses normally gained by treating with NaOH. Alkaline H2O2 (pH11.5) treatment in one study increased wheat straw DM digestibility in sheep fed ad libitum, from 467 to 659 g/kg. However this treatment used large inputs (260 g H2O2 and 180 g NaOH/kg straw DM in 26 L solution for 16 h, followed by drying); subsequent studies showed possible input reductions. The techniques are not relevant for use in developing countries except possibly at centralized processing plants, but greater commercial viability will need to be demonstrated before then. The NaOH dip method is the most effective current, low technology upgrading technique and is capable of further development to produce treated roughage of improved digestibility and optimum content of N and required minerals. There are no major new developments in urea ammonia treatment. The recent 'AGRI-AM' method produces NH3 by hydrating a mixture of CaO and (NH4)2SO4 fertilizers, but the method requires much chemical input. 'Ensiling' barley straw for 60 d with 60 g Ca(OH)2 and 30 g urea per kg straw DM improves intake and digestibility in sheep, with little loss of N from the system. This is due to reduced urea hydrolysis caused by high pH. Other research shows that the quantity of straw needing to be treated can be halved by allowing goats (or sheep) to 'graze' untreated straw (to allow 50% refusals) followed by treatment and refeeding. 92 refs, 11 tabs

  1. Decision making in the treatment of pelvic fractures in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic fractures are usually the result of major trauma. In many cases there will be concomitant injuries to other tissues and this, together with the varied configuration of pelvic fractures, can present a challenge to the attending clinician. Careful patient management is a prerequisite for fracture assessment and treatment. Several factors will determine whether conservative or surgical management is appropriate. This article outlines a logical approach to the dog or cat presented with pelvic fractures

  2. Phytic acid as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's pathology: evidence from animal and in vitro models

    OpenAIRE

    Thimmappa S. Anekonda; Wadsworth, Teri L.; Sabin, Robert; Frahler, Kate; Harris, Christopher; Petriko, Babett; Ralle, Martina; Woltjer, Randy; Joseph F. Quinn

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes progressive age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunctions leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid beta pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model. In MC65 cells, 48–7...

  3. Coupling Cover Crops and Manure Injection: Soil Inorganic N Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of a rye/oat cover crop with liquid swine manure application may enhance retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil inorganic N following injection of liquid swine manure to plots seeded with a rye/oat co...

  4. Effects of chemical amendments to swine manure on runoff quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-applied swine manure can be an environmental concern when runoff losses of manure constituents occur. The use of chemical amendments to mitigate these losses has been investigated for poultry litter, but materials such as swine manure have received less attention in this context, particularly ...

  5. CO2 laser surface treatment of failed dental implants for re-implantation: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Torkzaban, Parviz; Shams, Bahar; Hosseinipanah, Seyed Mohammad; Farhadian, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the success rate of failed implants re-implanted after surface treatment with CO2 laser. Despite the widespread use of dental implants, there are many incidents of failures. It is believed that lasers can be applied to decontaminate the implant surface without damaging the implant. Ten dental implants that had failed for various reasons other than fracture or surface abrasion were subjected to CO2 laser surface treatment and randomly placed in the maxillae of dogs. Three failed implants were also placed as the negative controls after irrigation with saline solution without laser surface treatment. The stability of the implants was evaluated by the use of the Periotest values (PTVs) on the first day after surgery and at 1, 3, and 6 months post-operatively. The mean PTVs of treated implants increased at the first month interval, indicating a decrease in implant stability due to inflammation followed by healing of the tissue. At 3 and 6 months, the mean PTVs decreased compared to the 1-month interval (P implant stability. The mean PTVs increased in the negative control group compared to baseline (P implants were significantly lower than control group at 3 and 6 months after implant placement (P implantation of failed implants in Jack Russell Terrier dogs after CO2 laser surface debridement is associated with a high success rate in terms of implant stability. PMID:27126410

  6. Bioaerosols associated with animal production operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air emissions from animal housing and manure management operations include a complex mixture of biological, microbial, and inorganic particulates along with odorous volatile compounds. This report highlights the state of current issues, technical knowledge, and remaining challenges to be addressed i...

  7. Optimized biogas production by utilization the primary agriculture products: - manure and lignocellulosic crop and crop-byproduct materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    natural areas. This can be release of greenhouse gasses or by leaching nitrate or phosphorous to the water environment. Animal manure recycled at the wrong time and the wrong place during the year still has a huge negative impact on the water environment all over Europe. Closing this cycle means 9...

  8. On the effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on batch and continuous anaerobic digestion of digested swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis;

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus...

  9. Effect of Organic Manures on the Yield and Quality of True Seeds of Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. A. Mollah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was stimulated by the problem of onion seed production where seed production is possibly only winter period after which rapid increase in temperature as well as early shower adversely affect the quality of seed. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications to determine optimum doses of manures and fertilizers for maximizing quality true seeds of onion. Six treatments viz. T1= Only inorganic fertilizer recommended by Spices Research Centre (SRC, T2 = T1 + Cowdung manure 7.5 t/ha, T3= T1 + Poultry manure 5 t/ha, T4= T1 + Mustard oil cake 5 t/ha, T5= T1 + Dhaincha 5 t/ha and T6= Control (No manures and fertilizer applicationwere consisted to achieve the objective. The research work was done at On-Farm Research Division, BARI, Bogra during September, 2010 to June, 2011. The results revealed that the growth parameters, seed yield components, health and quality of harvested seeds were significantly influenced by the different treatments. Results showed that among different treatments, inorganic fertilizer Urea, TSP, MoP, Gypsum, Zinc oxide and Boric acid @ 250, 275, 150, 110, 3 and 5 kg/ha, respectively along with Cowdung 7.5 t/ha was the best for true seed production of onion at Bogra region in Bangladesh.

  10. Evaluation of Green Manures as Nitrogen Source for Maize Using 15N Labeling Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    to lower contribution to maize N uptake. Studies have shown that N uptake and accumulation by maize plant is directly influenced by the growth stage of maize (Varvel et al., 1997, Silva et al., 2006). The contribution of N from green manures to total N in maize plants did not differ significantly among the green manures. However, when the N recovery is considered, which is relative to the amount of N applied in the form of residues, there were differences even among the legume green manures, such that velvet bean (13.7%) and pigeon pea (14.7%), better than sunnhemp (10.4%). Millet (3.0%) was significantly less efficient than the three legumes. The results of this study are similar to those obtained by Acosta et al. (2011), in which the hairy vetch N utilization by maize was on average 12.3%. On average, more than 85% of the green manures N was not utilized by maize grown in succession. Studies have shown that the majority of N from green manures accumulates in the soil predominantly in the form of organic N (Silva et al., 2006; Acosta et al., 2011). Of the N accumulated in the soil less than 50% is transformed into inorganic N by mineralization and the remaining is found with the soil microbial biomass (Mengel, 1996). Regardless of N rate and green manures species used, the soil was the main source of N for maize. The highest grain yields in treatments without mineral N application were observed in treatments where legume green manures were grown previously and the lowest yields observed in treatments with millet or where fallow soil was previously practiced Based on grain yield in legume green manures treatments without mineral N application, the response in grain yield would be equivalent to applying 80 kg N ha-1 for maize grown in the fallow soil, and 108 kg N ha-1 for the maize in succession to millet. Thus, this slower N release from decomposition of green manure residues may represent increased efficiency and/or farm income, while reducing losses of N. In

  11. Intensive pig production and manure management in Beijing, North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Huaitalla, Roxana

    2014-01-01

    China, at the forefront of the livestock revolution, has experienced a more industrialized change, with an increment of the large livestock farms and of the decoupling between the livestock and arable land. Meat production in China is dominated by pork, which comprises approximately 50% of worldwide pig production. The description of the pig husbandry and manure management systems in the large animal operations of the NCP is not widely available. In order to describe the status quo o...

  12. The environmental impact of buffalo manure in areas specialized in mozzarella production, southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Infascelli; Salvatore Faugno; Stefania Pindozzi; Raffaele Pelorosso; Lorenzo Boccia

    2010-01-01

    Buffalo livestock plays a central role in the regional economy in some areas of southern Italy, through the production of mozzarella cheese. With about 250,000 heads per utilizable agricultural area (equal to 107,400 ha), livestock husbandry is intensive. An important issue with regard to high animal density is manure management, an activity determined by cost optimization and the laws governing environmental sustainability. According to community, national and international rules (European D...

  13. The Concept of the Three Rs in Biomedical Research The Ethical and Scientific Basis for the Humane Treatment of Laboratory Animals --The British Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GC BANTIN

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction 1.1 THE CONCEPT OF ANIMAL CARE.Ethics and the developing demand for relevant legislation During the late 19th Century there was an increasing concern in the UK with respect to a aspects of illtreatment of animals. This was reflected in the thinking of the research community and in 1871 The British Association For the Advancement of Science issued a set of basic principles of animal experimentation.This was a response to the growing awareness by the BA of the need for an ethical approach to biomedical research and for the considerate treatment of laboratory animals.

  14. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.;

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure...... effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and...

  15. Chemical characterization of manure in relation to manure quality as a contribution to a reduced nitrogen emission to the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:manure composition, ammonia volatilization, free ions, Donnan Membrane Technique, manure additives, dietary changes, nitrogen dynamics,grasslandsoils.More insight in manure composition, ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilizatio

  16. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillus in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPRIYADI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mujiyati, Supriyadi. 2009. Effect of manure and NPK to increase soil bacterial population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum in chili (Capsicum annum cultivation. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 59-64. The objectives of this research were to find out the increase number of two bacterials populations, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, due to the use of manure fertilizer. The exsperiment was conducted using group randomly designed with two treatments. The plant populations were treated (i whithout fertilizer as the control, (ii with manure fertilizer, and (iii with NPK fertilizer. Data was experimentally collected by planting chili in several plots treated by manure, with three replications. The field experiment was conducted in Gathak Village, Karangnongko Sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java. The data collected consist of the total population of Azotobacter and Azospirillum, nitrogen content in soil and the chili yield. The primary data of research were analyzed using ANOVA test and followed by LSD test, with the degree of significance by 95% .The results showed that the manure fertilizer can increase the population of bacteria as many as 0.02% (Azotobacter and 0.46% (Azospirillum when they were compared to the control one. So that it can increase the soil fertility when they were used in long time. Therefore increasing the nutrient availability in the soil was occurred. Application of manure fertilizer could increase the total nitrogen content in the soil and it is very useful for the fertilizing of plants.

  17. Evaluation of combined famotidine with quercetin for the treatment of peptic ulcer: in vivo animal study

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    Abourehab MA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed AS Abourehab,1,2 Khaled A Khaled,1 Hatem AA Sarhan,1 Osama AA Ahmed1,3 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The aim of this work was to prepare a combined drug dosage form of famotidine (FAM and quercetin (QRT to augment treatment of gastric ulcer. FAM was prepared as freeze-dried floating alginate beads using ion gelation method and then coated with Eudragit RL100 to sustain FAM release. QRT was prepared as solid dispersion with polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 to improve its solubility. Photo images and scanning electron microscope images of the prepared beads were carried out to detect floating behavior and to reveal surface and core shape of the prepared beads. Anti-ulcerogenic effect and histopathological examination of gastric tissues were carried out to investigate the effect of the combined drug formulation compared with commercial FAM tablets and FAM beads. Gastric glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase, catalase, tissue myeloperoxidase, and lipid peroxidation enzyme activities and levels in rat stomach tissues were also determined. Results revealed that spherical beads were formed with an average diameter of 1.64±0.33 mm. They floated immediately with no lag time before floating, and remained buoyant throughout the test period. Treatment with a combination of FAM beads plus QRT showed the absence of any signs of inflammation or hemorrhage, and significantly prevented the indomethacin-induced decrease in GSH levels (P<0.05 with regain of normal GSH gastric tissue levels. Also, there was a significant difference in the decrease of malondialdehyde level compared to FAM commercial tablets or beads alone (P<0.05. The combined formula

  18. Multi-Location Study of Soil Enzyme Activities as Affected by Types and Rates of Manure Application and Tillage Practices

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    Richie Erickson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant amounts of manure are produced in the USA; however, information on the changes in ecosystem services related to soil biogeochemical cycling for agroecosystems supported with organic amendments such as manure is limited. A multi-location field study was initiated in Colorado (CO, Kansas (KS and Kentucky (KY, USA in loam soils to evaluate the effects of manure and tillage practices on enzyme activities that are key to biogeochemical cycling such as β-glucosidase (C cycling, α-galactosidase (C cycling, β-glucosaminidase (C and N cycling and phosphomonoesterases (P cycling. The treatments were as follows: (i two years of beef manure applications to a fine sandy loam at different rates (control: 0, low: 34 kg N ha−1 and high: 96 kg N ha−1 and tillage practices in CO; (ii three years of beef manure applications to a silt loam at different rates (0, low: 67 kg N ha−1 and high: 134 kg N ha−1 and tillage practices in KS and; (iii three years of poultry and dairy manure applications to a silt loam with different tillage practices at the same rate (403 kg N ha−1 in KY. Tillage practices (none vs. conventional had no effect on the enzyme activities. Principal Component Analyses (PCA grouped all enzyme activities with the high beef manure application rate after the first year in CO at 0–5 cm. By the second year, the low and high beef manure rates differed in enzyme activities for the KS soil with no difference between the low rate and control in CO. Since the first year of the KY study, acid phosphatase activity was greater in the poultry treated soil compared to dairy or the control; whereas, C cycling enzyme activities were similar in soil treated with dairy or poultry manure. For all studies, PCAs for soil samples from 5–10 cm depth did not reveal treatment separation until the second year, i.e., only high application rate differed from the other treatments. Results of the study indicated significant responses in C and P

  19. Effect of poultry manure and mineral fertilizer on the growth performance and quality of cucumber fruits

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    OKOLI PSO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of poultry manure and organic fertilizer (NPK 20:10:10 on the growth and quality of cucumber fruits was studied at the experimental site of the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam campus. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four levels of treatments consisting of 4tha-1 poultry manure (PM, 900 kgha-1 NPK in a ratio of 20:10:10 (NPK, 2 tha-1 poultry manure + 450 kgha-1 NPK fertilizer (PM + NPK and 0 tha-1 control (CO, where no treatment was applied. Data collected were tested using analysis of variance and significant differences among treatment means were separated using LSD at 0.05 probability level. The results obtained from the study indicated that the numbers of leaves of cucumber increased as weeks after planting (WAP increased. The highest leaves numbers was observed in the plots treated by PM. The order of leaves increases from 2 to 6 weeks were PM > PM+NPK > NPK > CO. The length of fruits, number of fruits, the quality of marketable fruits and weight of fruits increased proportionately in PM treated plots and were significantly (P=0.05 different among the other treatments except for quality of marketable fruits. The highest value of 171.25cm (length of fruits, 10.75 (number of fruits and 2.38kgha- 1 (weight of fruits were obtained in PM treated plots. Based on the results obtained it is evident that poultry manure as organic manure and its mixture (PM + NPK is a good source of soil amendment, since it influenced the growth and yield components of cucumber.

  20. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Anna Korn

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple j...