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Sample records for animal manure treatment

  1. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM ANIMAL MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. RECEBLI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study worked on a model biogas production unit which has 0.5 m3 fermentation tank capacities of a breeding farm in the Urla district of Izmir/Turkey. The farm animal quantity is 70 cattle and 1400 chicken. Animal wastes (poultry manure and bovine animals manure were anaerobically fermented in the tank. It is known in literature, the optimum fermentation occurs at 298-313 K temperatures. In this respect, experimentation was performed at summer season and average regional temperature was 307 K and so reaction does not require the extra heating for the optimization of process. Biogas production potential from bovine animal and poultry manure was separately studied. Firstly, 350 kg bovine animal manure blend (175 kg manure+175 kg water filled to the tank and the process occurred. Secondly, 375 kg poultry manure blend (50 kg manure+325 kg water was filled to the tank and the processes done. Then the biogas production rates was evaluated and compared for two processes. Results showed that daily 6.33 m3 and 0.83 m3 biogas productions were obtained from fermentation of bovine animal manure and poultry animal manure. Lower heating value of natural gas was known 34,000 kJ/m3 , and biogas LHV value waspredicted 21,000 kJ/m3 by the 62% CH4 content. By using biogas as a fuel to the heating or energy systems instead of natural gas about 0.35 $/m3 energy cost is saved.

  2. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM ANIMAL MANURE

    OpenAIRE

    Z. RECEBLI; S. SELIMLI; M. OZKAYMAK; O. GONC

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study worked on a model biogas production unit which has 0.5 m3 fermentation tank capacities of a breeding farm in the Urla district of Izmir/Turkey. The farm animal quantity is 70 cattle and 1400 chicken. Animal wastes (poultry manure and bovine animals manure) were anaerobically fermented in the tank. It is known in literature, the optimum fermentation occurs at 298-313 K temperatures. In this respect, experimentation was performed at summer season and average regional tempe...

  3. Growth of bacterial phytopathogens in animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledz, Wojciech; Zoledowska, Sabina; Motyka, Agata; Kadziński, Leszek; Banecki, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Animal manures are routinely applied to agricultural lands to improve crop yield, but the possibility to spread bacterial phytopathogens through field fertilization has not been considered yet. We monitored 49 cattle, horse, swine, sheep or chicken manure samples collected in 14 Polish voivodeships for the most important plant pathogenic bacteria - Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Erwinia amylovora (Eam), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) and Dickeya sp. (Dsp). All of the tested animal fertilizers were free of these pathogens. Subsequently, the growth dynamics of Pba, Pcc, Rsol, and Xcc in cattle, horse, swine, sheep and chicken manures sterilized either by autoclaving or filtration was evaluated. The investigated phytopathogens did not exhibit any growth in the poultry manure. However, the manure filtrates originating from other animals were suitable for microbial growth, which resulted in the optical density change of 0.03-0.22 reached within 26 h (48 h Rsol, 120 h Xcc), depending on bacterial species and the manure source. Pcc and Pba multiplied most efficiently in the cattle manure filtrate. These bacteria grew faster than Rsol and Xcc in all the tested manure samples, both the filtrates and the autoclaved semi-solid ones. Though the growth dynamics of investigated strains in different animal fertilizers was unequal, all of the tested bacterial plant pathogens were proven to use cattle, horse, swine and sheep manures as the sources of nutrients. These findings may contribute to further research on the alternative routes of spread of bacterial phytopathogens, especially because of the fact that the control of pectionolytic bacteria is only based on preventive methods.

  4. Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steroid hormone distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Popovic, Olga; Björklund, Erland

    2015-01-01

    water treatment processes. However more recently, it has been revealed that agricultural practices also may add to the environmental burden of steroid hormones. So far, research activities have mainly focused on steroid estrogens, but also androgens, progestagens and glucocorticoids, expressed......When steroid hormones are emitted into the environment, they may have harmful effects on the reproduction system of aquatic life. Until now, research has primarily focused on human excretion, demonstrating that steroid hormones reach the aquatic environment due to insufficient removal in waste...... in the vertebrate steroidogenesis, may occur at substantial levels in animal manure and should be addressed. In agricultural practices the animal manure can be applied to the soil as raw manure, but also as a solid or liquid manure fraction, since current livestock production facilities utilizes a recently...

  5. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  6. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  7. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.......  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk...

  8. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  9. Effect of animal manures on selected soil chemical properties (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of animal manures on selected soil properties were studied in the laboratory. Manures of Rabbit (RBM), Swine (SWM), Poultry (POM), Goat, (GTM) and Cow (COM) were added at 10, 20, 30 and 40 t/ha to an acidic Ultisol. The amended soils were incubated at 70% water holding capacity for 3 weeks.

  10. Stakeholder perceptions of manure treatment technologies in Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Y.; Velthof, G.L.; Case, S.D.C.; Oelofse, M.; Grignani, C.; Balsari, P.; Zavattaro, L.; Gioelli, F.; Bernal, M.P.; Fangueiro, D.; Trindade, H.; Jensen, L.S.; Oenema, O.

    2018-01-01

    Manure treatment technologies have been developed in Europe to better use animal manures and to reduce their environmental impact, but the adoption of these technologies in practice is regionally diverse and still limited. Also, little is known about the opinions of stakeholders towards manure

  11. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  12. Ecosustainable animal manure treatment in countries with intensive breeding; Trattamento ecocompatibile delle deiezioni zootecniche in territori ad alta intensita' produttiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M. [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Bozzini, A. [Food Agricultural Organization, Rome (Italy); Montani, R. [INTEAM Srl., Verona (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In the Italian Veneto Region, a highly industrialized territory, the present intensive livestock farming (cattle, swine, chicken and rabbit) causes a series of serious problems to agricultural and industrial activities. In fact, if the raw (not digested) manure is directly spread on the soil, it leads to soil acidification and contamination, to possible water table contamination, to the diffusion of livestock and human infections and consequent damages to all production and commercialization chain and finally to all society. The organic amount coming from the livestock farms located in each of the 22 sanitary districts of the Veneto region (ASL) is calculated and the suitable manure treatment processes to obtain an organic fertilizer following the Italian and E.U. environmental regulations, is reported. The solid-liquid separation step, performed with traditional technologies (centrifuge, mechanical separation) can lead to a rational solution of the problem: the solid part is digested in special bioreactors and the liquid one is purified with membrane technologies. The paper suggests a strategic pathway for a sustainable manure management, based on a package of the following devices: the improvement of the hygiene in the buildings; the improvement with innovative and flexible technologies. In this way, the production of a precious and necessary organic manure for soil and agriculture development, coupled with an improvement of human and animal health, could be assured. [Italian] Nella regione Veneto, l'intensa attivita' zootecnica dovuta ad allevamenti di bovini, suini, avicoli e cunicoli, in un territorio particolarmente industrializzato crea complessi problemi di gestione delle deiezioni con preoccupanti ricadute sull'ambiente, sull'agricoltura e sulla salute dei cittadini. Lo spargimento fuori controllo delle deiezioni causa l'acidificazione e la sterilizzazione dei suoli, la contaminazione delle falde acquifere e la diffusione di

  13. An innovative intermittent-vacuum assisted thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for effective animal manure utilization and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renchuan; Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Deng, Xiangyuan; Kabir, Fayal; Lu, Qian; Ma, Yiwei; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent-vacuum stripping (IVS) was developed as a pretreatment for thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) to improve methanogenesis and hydrolysis activity through preventing free ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) inhibition from liquid swine manure (LSM). Over 98% of ammonia and 38% organic nitrogen were removed in 60min from 55°C to 85°C with vacuum pressure (from 100.63±3.79mmHg to 360.91±7.39mmHg) at initial pH 10.0 by IVS. Thermophilic methanogenesis and hydrolysis activity of pretreated LSM increased 52.25% (from 11.56±1.75% to 17.60±0.49%) in 25days and 40% (from 10days to 6days) in bio-methane potential assay. Over 80% H 2 S and total nitrogen were removed by IVS assistance, while around 70% nitrogen was recycled as ammonium sulfate. Therefore, IVS-TAD combination could be an effective strategy to improve TAD efficiency, whose elution is more easily utilized in algae cultivation and/or hydroponic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Overview of manure treatment in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyon, L

    2017-03-01

    Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13.6milliontons corresponding to 11.3% of the total annual tonnage (120milliontons). The main processes, mostly applied on the farm, were composting (8.5milliontons), aerobic treatment (2.9milliontons of pig slurry) and anaerobic digestion (1milliontons). Other manure treatments, including physical-chemical treatment, were less frequent (0.4million of m 3 ). Treated manure was mainly used to fertilize the soil and crops on the farm concerned. Manure treatment can thus be considered to be underused in France. However, anaerobic digestion is expected to expand to reach the European target of 20% of energy from renewable sources. Nevertheless, this expansion will depend on overcoming the constraint requiring registration or normalization of the use of the digestate as fertilizer. Thus, to avoid penalizing farmers, the further development or creation of collective processing platforms is recommended, combined with an N recovery process that will enable the production of organic amendments and fertilizers in an easy marketable form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P. [Resource Development Associates, Marietta, GA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  16. anaerobic co-digestion with animal manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardiono Siswo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The result of this research is to determine the ratio of the combination of cow manure and bagasse (F/I to the volume of biogas production, chemical pretreatment effect of raw material bagasse on biogas production volume and the effect of co-digester on biogas production. The results showed a decrease in total solid occurs when the increase of 2%, 5% to 10%, and this contributes to decreasing the production of biogas. Chemical pretreatment influences on the production of biogas through pretreatment with 2% NaOH solution with surface morphology bagasse seen with SEM image and its chemical structure changes with FTIR instrument. The highest biogas yield of 51.04 L/Kg substrate was obtained from a combination bagasse treated with 2% NaOH solution for 24 hours and as much as 20% cow’s rumen.

  17. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only provides pollution prevention but also can convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion (AD) of livestock manures is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the AD animal manures. U.S. livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: slurry, plug-flow, complete-mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Case studies of operating digesters, with project and maintenance histories and the operators ''lessons learned,'' are included as reality checks. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some AD projects fail, are provided. The role of farm management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at farms willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. More than two decades of research has provided much information about how manure can be converted to an energy source; however, the American farmer has

  18. Salinity of animal manure and potential risk of secondary soil salinization through successive manure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Xian, Yao; Guo-Liang, Li; Shi-Hua, Tu; Gavin, Sulewski; Zhao-Huan, He

    2007-09-20

    To enhance animal productivity and maximize economic returns, mineral salts are routinely added to animal feed worldwide. Salinity and ionic composition of animal manure from intensive poultry and livestock farms in Guangdong province were investigated. Field experiments were conducted for six successive crops of Brassica Parachinensis to evaluate the possibility of secondary soil salinization by successive application of chicken manure (CM) and pigeon manure (PM) to a garden soil. The concentration of total soluble salts (TSS), which were mainly composed of sulfate and chloride of potassium and sodium, averaged 49.0, 20.6 and 60.3 g.kg(- 1) in chicken, pig and pigeon manure, respectively. After three crops, successive application of CM and PM increased soil concentrations of TSS, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), SO(4)(2-), and Cl(-) with application rate, resulting in a rise in soil salinity from low to medium levels and a slight reduction in soil pH. After heavy rains during the last three crops, soil TSS was reduced considerably and pH showed a slight increase. Concentrations of Cl(-) and Mg(2+) increased and Ca(2+) decreased at the end of the experiment, all leading to changes in the ionic composition of soil salinity. Manure with higher ion concentrations appeared to play a more important role in affecting ionic composition of soil salinity. The results further suggest that even in a region with abundant rainfall like Guangzhou, there is still potential risk for secondary soil salinization when high rates of CM and PM are applied.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  20. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental...... factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: (1) catch crop (with and without), and (2) manure (with and without). The four-course crop rotation was spring barley undersown with grass/clover - grass/clover - winter wheat or wheat rye - pulse crop. All cuttings of the grass-clover were...... not significantly affect yield. The use of catch crops interacts with other management factors, including row spacing and weed control, and this may have contributed to the negligible effects of catch crops. There was considerable variation in the amount of N (100-600 kg N ha-1 year-1) accumulated in the mulched...

  1. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Infascelli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies and incentives aimed at controlling the amount of nitrate entering downstream water systems. The province of Caserta in southern Italy is characterized by high levels of animal manure loading. A comparison between manure nitrogen production and nitrate concentration in groundwater was carried out in this area, using geostatistical tools and spatial statistics. The results show a discrepancy between modelling of nitrate leaching and monitoring of the groundwater and, moreover, no spatial correlation between nitrogen production in livestock farms and nitrate concentration in groundwater, suggesting that producers are not following the regulatory procedures for the agronomic use of manure. The methodology developed in this paper could be applied also in other regions in which European Union fertilization plans are not adequately followed.

  2. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infascelli, Roberta; Pelorosso, Raffaele; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2009-11-01

    Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies and incentives aimed at controlling the amount of nitrate entering downstream water systems. The province of Caserta in southern Italy is characterized by high levels of animal manure loading. A comparison between manure nitrogen production and nitrate concentration in groundwater was carried out in this area, using geostatistical tools and spatial statistics. The results show a discrepancy between modelling of nitrate leaching and monitoring of the groundwater and, moreover, no spatial correlation between nitrogen production in livestock farms and nitrate concentration in groundwater, suggesting that producers are not following the regulatory procedures for the agronomic use of manure. The methodology developed in this paper could be applied also in other regions in which European Union fertilization plans are not adequately followed.

  3. Characterization of Phosphorus in Animal Manures Collected from Three (Dairy, Swine, and Broiler) Farms in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Li, H.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Shen, J.; Zhang, F.

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the phosphorus species and concentration in animal manure, we comparatively characterized phosphorus in dairy manure, swine manure, and broiler litter, using a sequential procedure, a simplified two-step procedure (NaHCO3/NaOH+EDTA), and a solution Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic

  4. Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organizing and managing the whole manure handling chain from the animal house through transport to the point of use (e.g. in the field) is a challenging task requiring consideration of manure type and operating conditions. Solid and liquid manure must be handled differently, using very different tec...

  5. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Agyarko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM, cattle manure (CM and pig manure (PG on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11 treatments which were: Control (soil only; 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. Available phosphorus and other parameters were assessed using standard methods. Results were statistically analyzed using the the GenStat (11th Edition statistical software package. The amount and type of animal manure in the amendment affected the amount of the available P released. The addition of 2.5g manure to 2.5g RP in a kg of soil significantly (P<0.05 increased available P by 4 to 7 times over the sole 2.5g RP/kg soil treatment. Doubling the amount of manure in the amendment (5g manure + 2.5g RP almost doubled the amount of P released, with the poultry manure combinations being more significant. The amount of available P in the soil positively related to the plant height (R2=63, leaf area (R2=0.55, dry weight (R2=0.73 and the percentage P in the leaf (R2=0.88 of lettuce. The PM at 2.5gRP + 5gPM recorded the highest significant (P<0.05 values. The study has provided further basis for manure selection and quantities to be used in enhancing the release of P from rock phosphate. However, investigations need to be continued using nuclear techniques.

  6. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  7. Monitoring methane and nitrous oxide reduction by manure treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, P.; Mosquera Losada, J.; Melse, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (CH4 and N2O) by manure treatment should be accounted for in the National Inventory Report (NIR). At the moment reliable activity data and emission factors from manure treatment are hardly available. This is the outcome of a national and international literature

  8. Characteristics and Availability of Different Forms of Phosphorus in Animal Manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Zheng-juan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of intensive livestock industry has greatly increased the discharge of animal manure. Reasonable utilization of large amounts of phosphorus(Pin animal manure can not only save the fertilizer resource, but also avoid water pollution from manure due to direct discharge or excess application in farmland. In this study, P contents and fractionation in 76 animal manures were analyzed using Hedley P fractionation method based on the survey for 52 livestock farms, and P mobility and environmental risks in different manures were evaluated as the reference for manure P management. The results showed that there were significant differences in total P content of animal manures. The mean P contents were 22.5, 13.7, 12.9, 9.6 g P·kg-1 and 7.5 g P·kg-1, in which the proportion of organic P in total P were 33.1%, 41.5%, 66.4%, 28.1%and 36.8%in pig, chicken, duck, cattle and sheep manures, respectively. The contents of total and organic P in non-ruminant animal manure(pig, chicken and duck manureswere 1.7~3.0 times and 2.1~3.0 times greater than that in ruminant manure (cattle and sheep manuresand the proportion of organic P in total P in poultry manure was higher than that in other manures. P mineraliza-tion was easier in non-ruminant animal manure with lower C/P ratio(19~29, compared with that in ruminant manure with C/P ratio of 38~45. Manure P was sequentially extracted by deionized water(H2O-P, NaHCO3(NaHCO3-P, NaOH(NaOH-Pand HCl(HCl-P. The pro-portion of H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P, HCl-P and residual-P in total P in ruminant animal manure were 27.8%, 32.8%, 18.1%, 15.2%and 6.1%, respectively, while that were 24.6%, 19.4%, 12.7%, 34.4% and 8.9% in non-ruminant animal manure. The significant differences were in NaHCO3-P and HCl-P between ruminant and non-ruminant animal manures. Ruminant manure had greater proportion of liable P (H2O-P and NaHCO3-Pin total P(>60%, but the characteristics of higher mineralization rate might result in

  9. Transfer of antibiotics from wastewater or animal manure to soil and edible crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotics are added to agricultural fields worldwide through wastewater irrigation or manure application, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks to terrestrial environments and humans. Most studies focused on antibiotic detection in different matrices or were conducted in a hydroponic environment. Little is known about the transfer of antibiotics from antibiotic-contaminated irrigation wastewater and animal manure to agricultural soil and edible crops. In this study, we evaluated the transfer of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) to different crops under two levels of antibiotic-contaminated wastewater irrigation and animal manure fertilization. The final distribution of tetracycline (TC), norfloxacin (NOR) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in the crop tissues under these four treatments were as follows: fruit > leaf/shoot > root, while an opposite order was found for sulfamethazine (SMZ) and erythromycin (ERY): root > leaf/shoot > fruit. The growth of crops could accelerate the dissipation of antibiotics by absorption from contaminated soil. A higher accumulation of antibiotics was observed in crop tissues under the wastewater treatment than under manure treatment, which was due to the continual irrigation that increased adsorption in soil and uptake by crops. The translocation of antibiotics in crops mainly depended on their physicochemical properties (e.g. log K ow ), crop species, and the concentrations of antibiotics applied to the soil. The levels of antibiotics ingested through the consumption of edible crops under the different treatments were much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Animal Manures and Chemical Fertilizer on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Milk Thistle Plant (Silybum marianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yazdani Biuki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum is one of the medicinal plants that has many drug properties. In order to evaluate effects of animal manures and chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of Milk Thistle plant, an experiment was conducted in the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2008 based on completely randomized block design with three replications and four treatments. The treatments included: control (without any manure or fertilizer, chemical NPK fertilizer, cattle and sheep manures. The characteristics such as number of lateral stem per plant, height of plant, number of inflorescences per plant, inflorescence diameter, number of seeds per capitol, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, oil percentage, silymarin percentage (active ingredient, silybin percentage, oil yield and silymarin yield were recorded. The results showed that different treatments had no effect on yield components, but had significant effect on oil percentage, silymarin and silybin content of seeds. Cattle manure had more oil (21% and silybin (21.7% compared with other treatments. There was no significant difference in oil and silymarin percentage between control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Cattle manure and sheep manure had minimum percentage of silybin (16.4 and maximum percentage of silymarin (3.1 Compared with other treatments. There were positive correlation between height of plant with seed yield (r=0.86** and inflorescence diameter (r=0.6*, which represents importance of these traits for final yield assessment. There were no positive correlation between seed yield and other yields components. Keywords: Milk Thistle, Quantitative and qualitative characteristics, Animal manures, Medicinal plants

  11. Potential methane emission reductions for two manure treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderZaag, Andrew C; Baldé, Hambaliou; Crolla, Anna; Gordon, Robert J; Ngwabie, N Martin; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Desjardins, Ray; MacDonald, J Douglas

    2018-04-01

    The effect of two dairy manure treatments, solid-liquid separation (SLS) and anaerobic digestion (AD), on methane potential and the speed of production was evaluated. Assays were performed in the lab to measure methane (CH 4 ) production over 202 d from dairy manure samples taken before and after each treatment. Compared to raw manure, CH 4 emissions on a per-L basis were reduced 81% by SLS and 59% by AD, on average. The mean (SD) ultimate CH 4 emission potential (B 0 ) per kg of volatile solids (VS) was 247 (8) L CH 4  kg -1  VS for raw manure, 221 (9) L CH 4  kg -1  VS for separated liquid, and 160 (4) L CH 4  kg -1  VS for anaerobic digestate. Thus, SLS reduced the B 0 of the liquid fraction by 11% and AD reduced B 0 by up to 35% compared to raw manure. Manure treatment affected the speed of CH 4 production: SLS increased the CH 4 production rate and thus separated liquid manure was the fastest to produce 90% of the ultimate CH 4 production. Therefore, both the speed of degradation and B 0 should be considered when assessing these techniques for farm-scale manure storages, because actual emission reductions will depend on storage conditions.

  12. Composting of solids separated from anaerobically digested animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulking agents (BA) and mixing ratios on greenhouse gas (GHG) and NH3 emissions from composting digested solids (DS), separated from anaerobically digested manure and other bio-wastes, in small-scale laboratory composters. BA evaluated were plastic tube pieces (PT......), woodchips (WC), bio-char (BC), barley straw (BS) and lupin residues (LR) and were included at a DS:BA of 3:1 or 6:1, resulting in nine treatments: CTDS (control, DS only), PT3:1, PT6:1, WC3:1, WC6:1, BC3:1, BC6:1, BS3:1 and LR3:1. Depending on treatment, C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 41...

  13. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkuyten, J.C.A.M. [European Manure Association, EMA, Deventer (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms `certification of the links within the chain`. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is `certification`. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from `waste`, is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  14. From animals to crops : environmental consequences of current and future strategies for manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Animal manure is a key component that links crop and livestock production as it contains valuable nutrients for the soil and crop. Manure is also a source of environmental pollution through losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and losses of carbon (C). These losses are

  15. Phosphorus movement and speciation in a sandy soil profile after long-term animal manure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Chardon, W.J.; McDowell, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term application of phosphorus (P) with animal manure in amounts exceeding removal with crops leads to buildup of P in soil and to increasing risk of P loss to surface water and eutrophication. In most manures, the majority of P is held within inorganic forms, but in soil leachates organic P

  16. From animals to crops : environmental consequences of current and future strategies for manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Animal manure is a key component that links crop and livestock production as it contains valuable nutrients for the soil and crop. Manure is also a source of environmental pollution through losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and losses of carbon (C). These losses are

  17. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.  Fu...

  18. Availability of P and K in ash from thermal gasification of animal manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubaek, G.H.; Soerensen, Peter [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agroecology, Tjele (Denmark); Stoholm, P. [Danish Fluid Bed Technology (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    In areas like Denmark where the livestock density is regulated on the basis of manure N content, surplus phosphorus is becoming a key environmental problem, which has to be solved in order to avoid increasing P losses to surface waters in the future. Combustion of animal manure or its solid fraction and the subsequent export of the ash to nutrient-poor areas could be a solution. However, combustion is difficult due to fouling and corrosion problems, and the ash will only be marketable if the fertiliser value of the remaining P and K is acceptable and if the content of contaminants (heavy metals) is sufficiently low. A combined fast pyrolysis and char gasification technique for treatment of biomass has been developed where organic material such as manure is processed in a fluidised bed reactor at temperatures and around 700 deg. C. After simple separation of a fine textured ash, the cleaned gas is suitable for combustion in a separate unit for energy production. One advantage of this technique is that the temperature can be finely controlled, and temperatures exceeding the melting point of e.g. potassium chloride can be avoided. The low and well-controlled temperature probably also prevents severe reductions in the availability of nutrients in the ash. However, the availability of P and K in the ash remains to be thoroughly tested. (au)

  19. ANIMAL MANURE – REDUCED QUALITY BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun

    2014-01-01

    caused the death of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms shortly after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. So far, we have observed only small differences in the effects of digested and undigested manure......Anaerobic digestion may reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, but we know little about its impact on soil fertility. Reduced concentrations of easily degradable C in the manure may imply less food for the soil fauna and microflora. A field experiment to study its effect on crop yields and soil...... characteristics, established in 2011, showed comparable yield levels in perennial ley over 3 years when digested slurry was compared with undigested slurry. Digestion had no influence on either soil nutrient concentrations or soil organic matter levels over the first 2 years. Application of high amounts of manure...

  20. Field scale manure born animal waste management : GIS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive beef backgrounding often accumulate manure born soil nutrients, microbes, and pharmaceuticals at different site locations. Unless properly managed, such waste materials can pollute surrounding soil and water sources. Soil sampling from these sites helps determining waste material levels bu...

  1. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Thanh Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens...... in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry......PCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid...

  2. Report from the working group on combustion of domestic animal manure fractions; Rapport fra arbejdsgruppen om afbraending af fraktioner af husdyrgoedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    During the past few years there has been a considerable development of new technology for treatment of domestic animal manure. The development implies that environmental problems connected with storage and use of domestic animal manure for fertilization are reduced. Through several years experiences with utilization of domestic animal manure's energy potential in biogas plants have been compiled, and the technological basis for connecting slurry separation and biogas production is present. In order to promote this development, the agricultural sector has a growing desire to be able to dispose of parts from the separated slurry through combustion, hereby using the energy content to the energy production. However, there are a number of barriers that make combustion of domestic animal manure impossible. In order to uncover existing barriers for combustion of domestic animal manure fractions the Danish Minister of food appointed an inter ministerial committee on 30 March 2005. The committee should: 1. Describe the regulations within the ministerial areas that affect combustion of domestic animal manure, and also describe the regulations that act as barriers, 2. Describe binding international agreements, directives and regulations that affect combustion of domestic animal manure and which of these that act as barriers, 3. Evaluate the potential for regulation adjustments and other actions, that might further the development of sustainable energy production in which domestic animal manure is a part, 4. Evaluate socio-economic pros and cons in the light of environmental and climatic impacts, and 5. Describe estimated governmental financial consequences of potential adjustments of regulations and other actions. (BA)

  3. Evaluation of Four Farm-scale Systems for the Treatment of Liquid Pig Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Verdoes, N.

    2005-01-01

    In some regions in the Netherlands, high pig concentrations and limited availability of arable land have led to a surplus of manure which results in high off-farm manure disposal costs. The aim of manure treatment is to lower manure transport costs by reducing the volume and to improve market

  4. A survey of pathogen survival during municipal solid waste and manure treatment processes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, S.A.

    1980-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) and animal manures may contain microorganisms that can cause disease in man and animals. These pathogenic microorganisms include enteric bacteria, fungi, viruses, and human and animal parasites. This report summarizes and discusses various research findings documenting the extent of pathogen survival during MSW treatment. The technologies discussed are composting, incineration, landfill, and anaerobic digestion. There is also a limited examination of the use of the oxidation ditch as a means of animal manure stabilization. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS), and gamma radiation sterilization are mentioned as future options, especially for animal waste management. Several standard methods for the sampling, concentration, and isolation of microorganisms from raw and treated solid waste are also summarized

  5. Evaluation of biogas production potential by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass--animal manure mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Smith, M C; Kondrad, S L; White, J W

    2010-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application with reduced environmental impacts. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Dry anaerobic digestion [>15% total solid (TS)] has an advantage over wet digestion (produces a fertilizer that is easier to transport. Performance of anaerobic digestion of animal manure-switchgrass mixture was evaluated under dry (15% TS) and thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C). Three different mixtures of animal manure (swine, poultry, and dairy) and switchgrass were digested using batch-operated 1-L reactors. The swine manure test units showed 52.9% volatile solids (VS) removal during the 62-day trial, while dairy and poultry manure test units showed 9.3% and 20.2%, respectively. Over the 62 day digestion, the swine manure test units yielded the highest amount of methane 0.337 L CH4/g VS, while the dairy and poultry manure test units showed very poor methane yield 0.028 L CH4/g VS and 0.002 L CH4/g VS, respectively. Although dairy and poultry manure performed poorly, they may still have high potential as biomass for dry anaerobic digestion if appropriate designs are developed to prevent significant volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and pH drop.

  6. Labelling of animal manure nitrogen with 15N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.; Nielsen, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    A sheep was fed on N-15-labelled ryegrass hay during a period of 9 days in order to obtain N-15-labelled manure. After 9 days of feeding, the total N in faeces contained 3.70 atom % N-15 excess, which was equivalent to 82% of the N-15 enrichment of the hay N. The easily-decomposable fraction of t...

  7. Overview of the ability of different treatment methods for liquid and solid manure to inactivate pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, W; Böhm, R

    2009-11-01

    The use of manure as a fertilizer in agriculture includes the risk of spreading pathogenic infectious agents to the environment, to animals and humans. The treatment of manure can help avoid or reduce these risks. Even if the treatment is dominated by economic considerations such as biogas production, ammonia stripping or phosphorous precipitation, the hygienic aspect should be kept in mind. Otherwise, new infection chains may be established by the use of insufficiently treated manure by-products such as fertilizers still containing infective pathogens. Treatment plants should use a concept according to HACCP principles that includes hazard analysis, risk assessment, the determination of process relevant CCPs and the validation of the process by determining the hygienizing efficiency using representative test organisms as well as microbial end product supervision. Treatment methods can be divided into physical, chemical and microbiological treatment, sometimes used in combination. For economical reasons, only composting or anaerobic treatment (biogas) or, to a minor extent, aerobic thermophilic stabilization (ATS) are used as routine preventive measures on a farm level. In cases of outbreaks of notifiable diseases both physical and chemical treatment of manure can lead to reliable disinfected/pasteurised end products which can be used in agriculture without long-lasting risks for soil fertility or the environment.

  8. Energy conversion of animal manures: Feasibility analysis for thirteen western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Milward, R.; Churchill, G.; Searles, M.B. [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States); Moser, M. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Swanson, D.; Morgan, G. [Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The growth and concentration of the livestock industry has led to environmental disposal problems for large quantities of manure at feedlots, dairies, poultry production plants, animal holding areas and pasturelands. Consequently, waste management systems that facilitate energy recovery are becoming increasingly attractive since they address pollution problems and allow for energy generation from manure resources. This paper presents a manure resource assessment for the 13 US Department of Energy, Western Regional Biomass Energy Program states, describes and evaluates available energy conversion technologies, identifies environmental and regulatory factors associated with manure collection, storage and disposal, and identifies common disposal practices specific to animal types and areas within the WRBEP region. The paper also presents a pro forma economic analysis for selected manure-to-energy conversion technologies. The annual energy potential of various manures within the WRBEP region is equivalent to approximately 111 {times} 10{sup 13} Btu. Anaerobic digestion systems, both lagoon and plug flow, offer positive economic returns in a broad range of utility service territories.

  9. Effect of different technologies and animal manures on solid-liquid separation efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Cocolo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid-liquid separation is a widely used manure treatment option. However, little information is available to predict separator performance in a specific operating condition. This study investigates the effect on the separation efficiency of animal species (cattle and swine, use of flocculants, and separator construction and operating characteristics (filtration, pressurised filtration, settling and centrifugation. Using data available from published experiments, we evaluated correlations of the separation efficiencies with the physical and chemical characteristics of the inlet slurries (dry matter, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Dry matter concentration of the input manure was found to be the best parameter used to calculate and validate regression equations. Regres sions for the operating conditions of 7 of the 14 subgroups evaluated were significant (P<0.05 for at least one parameter. Pressurised filtration seems to be the process best represented by these regressions that can predict dry matter and nitrogen efficiency with relative root mean squared errors of less than 50%. However, they could only be used for some of the parameters and separation techniques. Therefore, it was not possible to use the available experimental data to define and validate empirical predictive models for all the conditions. Specific studies are needed to define more precise and physically-based models.

  10. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    on human health and ecosystem health. Thus, alternative technologies for recycling manure and utilising it as a nutrient source for crop production, while minimising the environmental costs, are important for the sustainability of the livestock and poultry sectors. Composting of animal manure and other......, but information on its effect on GHG emissions, especially nitrous oxide (N2O), is still limited. This thesis investigated the main processes and factors affecting the physicochemical composition of the compost and emissions of GHG and NH3 during composting of animal manure and other organic waste products....... Laboratory studies showed that differences in the initial physical properties (moisture, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity) of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSF) had a considerable impact on the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 o C) and the time required (2...

  11. Co-composting of distillery wastes with animal manures: carbon and nitrogen transformations in the evaluation of compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M A; Paredes, C; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Bernal, M P; Moral, R

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the viability of recycling the solid wastes generated by the winery and distillery industry by means of co-composting with animal manures, as well as to evaluate the quality of the composts obtained. Two piles, using exhausted grape marc and cattle manure or poultry manure, respectively (at ratios, on a fresh weight basis, of 70:30), were composted by the Rutgers static pile composting system. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were monitored, such as pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, water-soluble carbon, water-soluble polyphenols, different forms of nitrogen (organic nitrogen, ammonium and nitrate) and humification indices (humification ratio, humification index, percentage of humic acid-like C, polymerisation ratio and cation exchange capacity), as well as the germination index. Organic matter losses followed first-order kinetics equation in both piles, the highest organic matter mineralisation rate being observed with exhausted grape marc and cow manure. On the other hand, the mixture with the lowest C/N ratio, using exhausted grape marc and poultry manure, showed the highest initial ammonium contents, probably due to the higher and more labile N content of poultry manure. The increase in the cation exchange capacity revealed the organic matter humification during composting. In contrast, other humification parameters, such as the humification ratio and the humification index, did not show the expected evolution and, thus, could not be used to assess compost maturity. Composting produced a degradation of the phytotoxic compounds, such as polyphenols, to give composts without a phytotoxic character. Therefore, composting can be considered as an efficient treatment to recycle this type of wastes, due to composts presented a stable and humified organic matter and without phytotoxic effects, which makes them suitable for their agronomic use.

  12. Response of some Citrus Rootstock Seedlings to Fertilization by the Aqueous Extract of some Irradiated Animal Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out during two consecutive seasons i.e. 2001 and 2002 on two citrus rootstocks namely Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings two-month-old planted in a sandy soil under greenhouse to study the feasibility of using the aqueous extract of some animal manures i.e. poultry, sheep and cattle treated by gamma irradiation at 10 kGay to keep the manure free from pathogenic organisms, pests and weed seeds and as a natural source of nutrients instead of mineral fertilizers, and it's effect on growth and leaf nutrients content of seedlings. Generally, results showed that all the tested treatments enhanced most of growth parameters such as seedling height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves/seedling, number of roots/seedling, and dry weight for both of stem, leaves, root and total dry weight/plant. Moreover, such treatments improved leaf nutrient content of both of Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings. Meanwhile, seedlings fertilized by the aqueous extract of poultry manure achieved the highest values of growth parameters and leaf nutrients content as well as mineral fertilizer followed by those treated by the aqueous extract of both sheep and cattle manures

  13. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies

  14. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena, E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Komakech, Allan John [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Agricultural & Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, Björn [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  15. Regulating manure application discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, Terence J.; Feitshans, Theodore A.

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, reducing pollution from agriculture has received attention due to data suggesting that this is the leading source of impairment of many waterbodies. The federal government revised its regulations governing concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to enhance governmental oversight over sources of pollution. For the application of manure resulting in pollutant discharges, CAFOs need to implement nutrient management plans. A federal court affirmed the ability of the US federal government to oversee the application of manure from CAFOs that have discharges. Simultaneously, owners and operators of CAFOs who have implemented an appropriate nutrient management plan may forgo securing a permit if their discharges qualify under the agricultural stormwater discharge exemption. - New rules applying to the application of manure by large concentrated animal feeding operations should reduce water contamination

  16. Governmental policies and measures regulating nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure in European Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses governmental policies and measures that regulate the use of animal manure in the European Union (EU-15). Systematic intervention by governments with European agriculture in general started at the end of the 19th century. Major changes in governmental policies on agriculture

  17. Mineralization and herbage recovery of animal manure nitrogen after application to various soil types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, G.M.; Rashid, M.I.; Shah, G.A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim - Typical values of plant available nitrogen (N) from animal manures are provided in fertilizer recommendation schemes. However, only a few attempts have been made thus far to study the variation in these values among contrasting soil types. The objective of this study was to

  18. Growth and Productivity of Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Amanullah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha-1 each on the productivity profitability of small land rice (Oryza sativa L. grower under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P ha-1 fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1, impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep & poultry manures and P levels was studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied as check was investigated. In experiment (2, three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues & wheat straw and P levels was studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied as check. Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p≤0.05 less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues had resulted in higher rice productivity (90 = 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha-1. In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures. In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic resides had higher rice productivity over wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw. On the average, the rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than the rice grown under crop residues. We concluded from this study that application of 90 kg P ha-1 along with combined application of animal manures especially poultry manure could increase rice productivity. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha-1 along with combined application of animal

  19. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    Modern intensive confinement systems for livestock and poultry production have allowed farmers to greatly increase production efficiency and economic profitability, but this has inevitably resulted in significant environmental challenges, including generation of large volumes of manure in very....... Laboratory studies showed that differences in the initial physical properties (moisture, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity) of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSF) had a considerable impact on the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 o C) and the time required (2...... small areas without sufficient nearby farm land for application. In addition to significant impacts on climate due to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) from manure management, losses of nitrogen to the environment reduce the fertiliser value of manure and have negative effects...

  20. Fate of steroid hormones and endocrine activities in swine manure disposal and treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combalbert, Sarah; Bellet, Virginie; Dabert, Patrick; Bernet, Nicolas; Balaguer, Patrick; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2012-03-01

    Manure may contain high concern endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as steroid hormones, naturally produced by pigs, which are present at μgL(-1) levels. Manure may also contain other EDCs such as nonylphenols (NP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Thus, once manure is applied to the land as soil fertilizer these compounds may reach aquifers and consequently living organisms, inducing abnormal endocrine responses. In France, manure is generally stored in anaerobic tanks prior spreading on land; when nitrogen removal is requested, manure is treated by aerobic processes before spreading. However, little is known about the fate of hormones and multiple endocrine-disrupting activities in such manure disposal and treatment systems. Here, we determined the fate of hormones and diverse endocrine activities during manure storage and treatment by combining chemical analysis and in vitro quantification of estrogen (ER), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), androgen (AR), pregnane-X (PXR) and peroxysome proliferator-activated γ (PPARγ) receptor-mediated activities. Our results show that manure contains large quantities of hormones and activates ER and AhR, two of the nuclear receptors studied. Most of these endocrine activities were found in the solid fraction of manure and appeared to be induced mainly by hormones and other unidentified pollutants. Hormones, ER and AhR activities found in manure were poorly removed during manure storage but were efficiently removed by aerobic treatment of manure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factors for Crop Residues and Animal Manure Common in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Zhao, Guanglu; Zhang, Yang; Han, Lujia; Xiao, Weihua

    2017-10-25

    Accurately determining protein content is essential in exploiting biomass as feed and fuel. A survey of biomass samples in China indicated protein contents from 2.65 to 3.98% for crop residues and from 6.07 to 10.24% for animal manure of dry basis. Conversion factors based on amino acid nitrogen (k A ) ranged from 5.42 to 6.00 for the former and from 4.78 to 5.36 for the latter, indicating that the traditional factor of 6.25 is not suitable for biomass samples. On the other hand, conversion factors from Kjeldahl nitrogen (k P ) ranged from 3.97 to 4.57 and from 2.76 to 4.31 for crop residues and animal manure, respectively. Of note, conversion factors were strongly affected by amino acid composition and levels of nonprotein nitrogen. Thus, k P values of 4.23 for crop residues, 4.11 for livestock manure, and 3.11 for poultry manure are recommended to better estimate protein content from total nitrogen.

  2. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kofi Agyarko; Akwasi Adutwum Abunyewa; Emmanuel Kwasi Asiedu; Emmanuel Heva

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM), cattle manure (CM) and pig manure (PG) on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP) and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11) treatments which were: Control (soil only); 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design...

  3. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  4. Prevalence and persistence of potentially pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion treatment of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; de Oliveira Fortunato, Samuel; da Costa Carneiro, Jailton; Otenio, Marcelo Henrique; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2014-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion figures as a sustainable alternative to avoid discharge of cattle manure in the environment, which results in biogas and biofertilizer. Persistence of potentially pathogenic and drug-resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion of cattle manure was evaluated. Selective cultures were performed for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined and a decay of all bacterial groups was observed after 60days. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected both the influent and effluent. GPC, the most prevalent group was highly resistant against penicillin and levofloxacin, whereas resistance to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam and chloramphenicol was frequently observed in the ENT and NFR groups. The data point out the need of discussions to better address management of biodigesters and the implementation of sanitary and microbiological safe treatments of animal manures to avoid consequences to human, animal and environmental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence of estrogen hormones in biosolids, animal manure and mushroom compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaluri, Gangadhar; Suri, Rominder P S; Kumar, Kuldip

    2012-01-01

    The presence of natural estrogen hormones as trace concentrations in the environment has been reported by many researchers and is of growing concern due to its possible adverse effects on the ecosystem. In this study, municipal biosolids, poultry manure (PM) and cow manure (CM), and spent mushroom compost (SMC) were analyzed for the presence of seven estrogen hormones. 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, 17α-dihydroequilin, and estrone were detected in the sampled biosolids and manures at concentrations ranging from 6 to 462 ng/g of dry solids. 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, and estrone were also detected in SMC at concentrations ranging from 4 to 28 ng/g of dry solids. Desorption experiments were simulated in the laboratory using deionized water (milli-Q), and the aqueous phase was examined for the presence of estrogen hormones to determine their desorption potential. Very low desorption of 0.4% and 0.2% estrogen hormones was observed from municipal biosolids and SMC, respectively. An estimate of total estrogen contribution from different solid waste sources is reported. Animal manures (PM and CM) contribute to a significant load of estrogen hormones in the natural environment.

  6. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-Del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC.

  7. Governmental policies and measures regulating nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure in European Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Oenema, O.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses governmental policies and measures that regulate the use of animal manure in the European Union (EU-15). Systematic intervention by governments with European agriculture in general started at the end of the 19th century. Major changes in governmental policies on agriculture followed after the establishment of the EU and its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 1957. Environmental side effects of the large-scale intensification of agricultural production were addressed foll...

  8. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus pla...

  9. Method development for the analysis of ionophore antimicrobials in dairy manure to assess removal within a membrane-based treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Jerod J; Wallace, Josh S; Aga, Diana S

    2018-04-01

    Ionophore antimicrobials are heavily used in the livestock industries, both for preventing animal infection by coccidia protozoa and for increasing feed efficiency. Ionophores are excreted mostly unmetabolized and are released into the environment when manure is land-applied to fertilize croplands. Here, an analytical method was optimized to study the occurrences of five ionophore residues (monensin, lasalocid, maduramycin, salinomycin, and narasin) in dairy manure after solid-liquid separation and further treatment of the liquid manure by a membrane-based treatment system. Ionophore residues from the separated solid manure (dewatered manure) and suspended solids of manure slurry samples were extracted using ultrasonication with methanol, followed by sample clean-up using solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent analysis via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The use of an ethyl acetate and methanol (1:1 v:v) mixture as an SPE eluent resulted in higher recoveries and lower method quantitation limits (MQL), when compared to using methanol. Overall recoveries from separated solid manure ranged from 73 to 134%. Liquid manure fractions were diluted with Nanopure™ water and cleaned up using SPE, where recoveries ranged from 51 to 100%. The developed extraction and LC-MS/MS methods were applied to analyze dairy manure samples subjected to an advanced manure treatment process involving a membrane-based filtration step (reverse osmosis). Monensin and lasalocid were detected at higher concentrations in the suspended solid fractions (4.40-420 ng/g for lasalocid and 85-1950 ng/g for monensin) compared to the liquid fractions (manure treated with reverse osmosis where residual concentrations were reduced to near 8 ng/mL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of animal manure on quantitative and qualitative yield and chemical composition of essential oil in cumin (Cuminum cyminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad ahmadiyan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure on soil prepares essential elements and increase water holding capacity and quality of plants. To study the effects of animal manure on yield and its components, nutrients absorption, chemical composition and its percentages on Cuminum cyminum this experiment was conducted at the agricultural researcher station of Zahak-Zabol, during 2003 – 2004 in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Animal manure significantly enhanced number of umbers per plant, number of seed per plant, biological and seed yield. Use of animal manure had not significant affect on Ca, Mg, Fe, P, K, Mn, Zn, and Cu and protein percentage in cumin seed but decreased Na concentration. Animal manure significantly enhanced cumin aldehyde and ρ-cymene and decrease β-pinene, γ-terpinene and α-pinene in cumin oil. A relationship or correlation exists between the main components of cumin oil. This study showed that animal manure enhances seed yield, oil percentage and qualitative chemical composition in cumin oil.

  11. Changes in antibiotic concentrations and antibiotic resistome during commercial composting of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Ying; Yang, Xin-Ping; Li, Qian; Wu, Long-Hua; Shen, Qi-Rong; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China. High concentrations of fluoroquinolones were found in the poultry and swine composts, suggesting insufficient removal of these antibiotics by commercial thermophilic composting. Total ARGs in the cattle and poultry manures were as high as 1.9 and 5.5 copies per bacterial cell, respectively. After thermophilic composting, the ARG abundance in the mature compost decreased to 9.6% and 31.7% of that in the cattle and poultry manure, respectively. However, some ARGs (e.g. aadA, aadA2, qacEΔ1, tetL) and MGE marker genes (e.g. cintI-1, intI-1 and tnpA-04) were persistent with high abundance in the composts. The antibiotics that were detected at high levels in the composts (e.g. norfloxacin and ofloxacin) might have posed a selection pressure on ARGs. MGE marker genes were found to correlate closely with ARGs at the levels of individual gene, resistance class and total abundance, suggesting that MGEs and ARGs are closely associated in their persistence in the composts under antibiotic selection. Our research shows potential disseminations of antibiotics and ARGs via compost utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Pham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4 production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP (CH4 NL kg−1 VS of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05. The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%, while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC. This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC.

  13. Joint stabilization of sewage sludge and separated manure fluid. Treatment and utilization of manure. Final report; Gemeinsame Stabilisierung von Klaerschlamm und separierter Guellefluessigkeit. Guellebehandlung und -verwertung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, W.F.; Kolisch, G.

    1994-12-01

    As an alternative to separate manure processing, anaerobic stabilization of surplus manure and sewage sludge in combination is possible at municipal sewage treatment plants. Subsequently to the removal of solids, pig manure is fed into existing digesters. The process concept comprises the following partial steps: preliminary treatment of crude manure, anarobic stabilization of the separated manure fluid, biological nitrogen elimination from the digested mixture of sewage sludge and manure, and dewatering of the mixed sludge in the dewatering systems of the sewage treatment plant. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Eine Alternative zu den Verfahren einer separaten Guelleaufbereitung stellt die gemeinsame anaerobe Stabilisierung von Ueberschussguelle und Klaerschlamm auf kommunalen Klaeranlagen dar, die eine Einspeisung feststoffseparierter Schweineguelle in bereits vorhandene Faulbehaelter vorsieht. Das Verfahrenskonzept besteht aus den Teilschritten Vorseparierung der Rohguelle, anaerobe Stabiliserung der separierten Guellefluessigkeit, biologische Stickstoffelimination aus dem ausgefaulten Klaerschlamm-Guelle-Gemisch sowie Entwaesserung der Mischschlaemme auf den Entwaesserungsaggregaten der Klaeranlage. (orig./SR)

  14. Governmental policies and measures regulating nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure in European agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenema, O

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses governmental policies and measures that regulate the use of animal manure in the European Union (EU-15). Systematic intervention by governments with European agriculture in general started at the end of the 19th century. Major changes in governmental policies on agriculture followed after the establishment of the EU and its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 1957. Environmental side effects of the large-scale intensification of agricultural production were addressed following the reform of the CAP and the implementation of various environmental regulations and directives from the beginning of the 1990s. The Nitrate Directive approved in 1991 has exerted, as yet, the strongest influence on intensive livestock production systems. This directive regulates the use of N in agriculture, especially through its mandatory measures to designate areas vulnerable to nitrate leaching and to establish action programs and codes of good agricultural practice for these areas. These measures have to ensure that for each farm the amount of N applied via livestock manure shall not exceed 170 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1). These measures have large consequences, especially for countries with intensive animal agriculture, including The Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, and Ireland. The mean livestock density in these countries is between 1.5 and 4 livestock units/ha, and the average amounts of N in animal manure range from 100 to 300 kg/ha of agricultural land. More than 10 yr after approval of the Nitrate Directive, there appears to be a delay in the implementation and enforcement in many member states, which reflects in part the major complications that arise from this directive for intensive livestock farming. It also reflects the fact that environmental policies in agriculture have economic consequences. The slow progress in the enforcement of environmental legislations in agriculture combined with the increasing public awareness of food safety, animal welfare, and

  15. Modelling nitrogen and carbon interactions in composting of animal manure in naturally aerated piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudart, D; Robin, P; Paillat, J M; Paul, E

    2015-12-01

    Composting animal manure with natural aeration is a low-cost and low-energy process that can improve nitrogen recycling in millions of farms world-wide. Modelling can decrease the cost of choosing the best options for solid manure management in order to decrease the risk of loss of fertilizer value and ammonia emission. Semi-empirical models are suitable, considering the scarce data available in farm situations. Eleven static piles of pig or poultry manure were monitored to identify the main processes governing nitrogen transformations and losses. A new model was implemented to represent these processes in a pile considered as homogeneous. The model is based on four modules: biodegradation, nitrogen transformations and volatilization, thermal exchanges, and free air space evolution. When necessary, the parameters were calibrated with the data set. The results showed that microbial growth could reduce ammonia volatilization. Greatest nitrogen conservation is achieved when microbial growth was limited by nitrogen availability. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Synergy of sewage water treatment plants and processing of manure; Synergie RWZI en mestverwerking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisschops, I.; Weijma, J.; Van Eekert, M.; Spanjers, H. [Lettinga Associates Foundation LeAF, Wageningen (Netherlands); Timmerman, M.; Fe Buisonje, F. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research WLR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    The goal of this study is to explore profitable ways of processing manure in sewage water treatment plants. Technological options are explored for processing manure, the availability of manure in the surroundings, the space taken up by manure digestion and annual costs and benefits [Dutch] Het doel van deze studie is te verkennen hoe mest op rendabele wijze in rwzi's (rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties) verwerkt kunnen worden. Er is gekeken naar de technologische mogelijkheden om mest te kunnen verwerken, de beschikbaarheid van mest in de omgeving, ruimtebeslag van mestvergisting, en jaarlijkse kosten en opbrengsten.

  17. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, René K.; Petersen, Søren O.; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h−1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path. PMID:23124240

  18. The potential of animal manure, straw and grass for European biogas production in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    discussion. The aim of this study was to project and map the potentials of sustainable biomasses in 2030 in the EU. The investigated types of residual biomass were animal manure, straw from cereal production, and excess grass from both rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. In total the energy...... potential from the investigated resources was projected to range from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. In the perspectives of the energy political targets, the projected energy potential could cover 2.3-3.9% of the total EU energy consumption in 2030 or 8.4-14.3% of the total...

  19. Combustion behaviour of Olive pruning/animal manure blends in a fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Vamvuka

    2017-09-01

    Both fuels burned mostly within the bed. The maximum temperature of animal manure was 50 °C lower than that of olive pruning, however efficiency was nearly 99%. CO emissions were low, SO2 emissions were negligible, whereas NOx emissions of blends exceeded legislation limits, when excess air ratio was over 1.4. Decreasing excess air from 50 to 30%, or reducing reactor loading, resulted in improved burnout. The optimum performance for the blends was achieved when the feed rate was 0.6 kg/h and excess air was 30%.

  20. Comparing heavy metal contents in crops receiving mineral fertilisers and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    in the analysed metal contents between crops grown with NPK and AM. Crop contents of uranium and thallium were below the analytical detection limits regardless of nutrient source and addition rate. Thus in a farming context similar to that of the Askov experiment, the long-term application of standard rates...... of NPK and AM does not pose a threat in terms of feed quality. However, the long-term accumulation of heavy metals added with mineral fertilisers and animal manure is essentially irreversible and may threaten soil quality....

  1. Side-effects of application of manure from AFCF treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Hees, M. van; Brouwer, S. de; Vandenhove, H.

    1996-01-01

    AFCF (ammonium-ferric-hexacyano-ferrate) is a very effective caesium binder. Mixed with the animal feed, presented in the form of salt licks or introduced into the rumenas slow release boll, this compound is an efficient countermeasure to limit the gastro-intestinal uptake of radiocaesium by farm animals and wild ruminants. Less than 1 % of the ingested AFCF is excreted in urine or secreted in milk, suggesting that it crossed the gastro-intestinal tract unabsorbed and is finally excreted in faeces together with the caesium bound in the gut. This means that AFCF from treated animals returns directly to pastures while animals are grazing or that it can be spread on fields fertilized with animal manure. Although no toxicological problems have been observed on animals given hexacyanoferrates in the recommended doses, the fate of this molecule in the environment after excretion is not well documented. Except for limited data obtained in Norway and in the CIS, practically no information is available regarding its action on the availability of Cs present in the soil, nor concerning potential side-effects of its possible degradation to cyanides and other materials with a concomitant release of bound Cs over long periods of time. (author)

  2. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account...... for seasonal variations in numbers of soil bacteria, ratios of resistant bacteria divided by total count on nonselective plates were calculated. Soil samples were collected from four different farms and from a control soil on a fifth farm. The control soil was not amended with animal manure. The occurrence...... of tetracycline-resistant bacteria was elevated after spread of pig manure slurry but declined throughout the sampling period to a level corresponding to the control soil. Higher load of pig manure slurry yielded higher occurrence of tetracycline resistance after spreading; however, the tetracycline resistance...

  3. The potential of animal manure, straw and grass for European biogas production in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Biogas is a diverse energy source, suitable as a flexible and storable energy form. In the European Union (EU), biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the energy policy targets. The sustainability of substrates used for biogas production has however been under a critical...... potential from the investigated resources was projected to range from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. In the perspectives of the energy political targets, the projected energy potential could cover 2.3-3.9% of the total EU energy consumption in 2030 or 8.4-14.3% of the total...... discussion. The aim of this study was to project and map the potentials of sustainable biomasses in 2030 in the EU. The investigated types of residual biomass were animal manure, straw from cereal production, and excess grass from both rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. In total the energy...

  4. Biological degradation and greenhouse gas emissions during pre-storage of liquid animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    in the laboratory. Newly mixed slurry was added to vessels and stored at 15 and 20degreesC for 100 to 220 d. During storage, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured with a dynamic chamber technique. The ratio of decomposition in the subsurface to that at the surface indicated that the aerobic surface processes...... contributed significantly to CO2 emission. The measured CH4 emission was used to calculate the methane conversion factor (MCF) in relation to storage time and temperature, and the total carbon-C emission was used to calculate the decrease in potential CH4 production by anaerobic digestion following pre......-storage. The results show substantial methane and carbon dioxide production from animal manure in an open fed-batch system kept at 15 to 20degreesC, even for short storage times, but the influence of temperature was not significant at storage times of...

  5. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: II. A review of manure management mitigation options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montes, F.; Meinen, R.; Dell, C.; Rotz, A.; Hristov, A.N.; Oh, J.; Waghorn, G.; Gerber, P.J.; Henderson, B.L.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Reducing excreted nitrogen (N) and degradable organic carbon (C) by diet manipulation to improve the balance of nutrient inputs with production

  6. 16S rRNA analysis of diversity of manure microbial community in dairy farm environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pramod; Chiu, Colleen; Miao, Max; Wang, Yi; Settles, Matthew; Del Rio, Noelia Silva; Castillo, Alejandro; Souza, Alex; Pereira, Richard; Jeannotte, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Dairy farms generate a considerable amount of manure, which is applied in cropland as fertilizer. While the use of manure as fertilizer reduces the application of chemical fertilizers, the main concern with regards to manure application is microbial pollution. Manure is a reservoir of a broad range of microbial populations, including pathogens, which have potential to cause contamination and pose risks to public and animal health. Despite the widespread use of manure fertilizer, the change in microbial diversity of manure under various treatment processes is still not well-understood. We hypothesize that the microbial population of animal waste changes with manure handling used in a farm environment. Consequential microbial risk caused by animal manure may depend on manure handling. In this study, a reconnaissance effort for sampling dairy manure in California Central Valley followed by 16S rRNA analysis of content and diversity was undertaken to understand the microbiome of manure after various handling processes. The microbial community analysis of manure revealed that the population in liquid manure differs from that in solid manure. For instance, the bacteria of genus Sulfuriomonas were unique in liquid samples, while the bacteria of genus Thermos were observed only in solid samples. Bacteria of genus Clostridium were present in both solid and liquid samples. The population among liquid samples was comparable, as was the population among solid samples. These findings suggest that the mode of manure application (i.e., liquid versus solid) could have a potential impact on the microbiome of cropland receiving manure as fertilizers.

  7. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    The methane productivity of manure in terms of volatile solids (VS), volume and livestock production was determined. The theoretical methane productivity is higher in pig (516 1 kg(-1) VS) and sow (530 1 kg(-1) VS) manure than in dairy cattle manure (469 1 kg(-1) VS), while the ultimate methane...... yield in terms of VS is considerably higher in pig (356 1 kg(-1) VS) and sow manure (275 1 kg(-1) VS) than in dairy cattle manure (148 1 kg(-1) VS). Methane productivity based on livestock units (LU) shows the lowest methane productivity for sows (165 m(3) CH4 LU-1), while the other animal categories...... are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...

  8. Haalbaarheidsstudie terugwinning van mestnutriënten : Fase 1: Processchema en nutriëntenstromen = Feasibility study on nutrient recovery from animal manure : Phase 1: Process scheme and nutrient flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Melse, R.W.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A process scheme for a new manure treatment system for pig and cattle manure was formulated which aims to produce manure nutrient flows with added value. The basic process behind the treatment system is fermentation of manure, which is preceded by both stripping ammonia and chemical digestion of the

  9. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelme-Ayala, Pamela [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); El-Din, Mohamed Gamal, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Smith, Richard [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Code, Kenneth R. [IOWC Technologies Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Leonard, Jerry [Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. {yields} This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. {yields} Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. {yields} Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. {yields} Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH{sub 3}), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl{sup -}) and 50% of the phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH{sub 3}, nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  10. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    One major pre-condition for assessing a manure management technique in a whole system or LCA-approach is to define a reference system against which this technique can be assessed. This report thus presents and details the establishment of such reference systems, comprising eight different manure...... types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...... of these 15 reference systems, a description of the key managerial practices throughout the whole chain (e.g. storage duration, type of cover, type of manure application, etc.) and of the key site-specific conditions applying (e.g. average annual storage temperature, crop rotation and soil type on which...

  11. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. T. Cu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4 production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  12. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  13. Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulbry, Walter; Kondrad, Shannon; Pizarro, Carolina; Kebede-Westhead, Elizabeth

    2008-11-01

    Cultivating algae on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in animal manure effluents presents an alternative to the current practice of land application. The objective of this study was to determine values for productivity, nutrient content, and nutrient recovery using filamentous green algae grown in outdoor raceways at different loading rates of raw and anaerobically digested dairy manure effluent. Algal turf scrubber raceways (30m2 each) were operated in central Maryland for approximately 270 days each year (roughly April 1-December 31) from 2003 to 2006. Algal biomass was harvested every 4-12 days from the raceways after daily additions of manure effluent corresponding to loading rates of 0.3 to 2.5g total N (TN) and 0.08 to 0.42g total P (TP) m(-2)d(-1). Mean algal productivity values increased from approximately 2.5g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the lowest loading rate (0.3g TN m(-2)d(-1)) to 25g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the highest loading rate (2.5g TN m(-2)d(-1)). Mean N and P contents in the dried biomass increased 1.5-2.0-fold with increasing loading rate up to maximums of 7% N and 1% P (dry weight basis). Although variable, algal N and P accounted for roughly 70-90% of input N and P at loading rates below 1g TN, 0.15g TP m(-2)d(-1). N and P recovery rates decreased to 50-80% at higher loading rates. There were no significant differences in algal productivity, algal N and P content, or N and P recovery values from raceways with carbon dioxide supplementation compared to values from raceways without added carbon dioxide. Projected annual operational costs are very high on a per animal basis ($780 per cow). However, within the context of reducing nutrient inputs in sensitive watersheds such as the Chesapeake Bay, projected operational costs of $11 per kgN are well below the costs cited for upgrading existing water treatment plants.

  14. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  15. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundharrajan Ilavenil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  16. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  17. Haalbaarheidsstudie terugwinning van mestnutriënten : Fase 1: Processchema en nutriëntenstromen = Feasibility study on nutrient recovery from animal manure : Phase 1: Process scheme and nutrient flows

    OpenAIRE

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Melse, R.W.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A process scheme for a new manure treatment system for pig and cattle manure was formulated which aims to produce manure nutrient flows with added value. The basic process behind the treatment system is fermentation of manure, which is preceded by both stripping ammonia and chemical digestion of the organic solids. The fermented manure is separated in a thin and a thick phase, which is further treated.

  18. Viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Seganfredo, Milton Antonio; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mmiele@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The swine manure treatment is based on several technologies, such as pond systems, composting, biodigesters, and compact process like the EMBRAPA's Swine Manure Treatment System. The last one can reach high quality effluent with reduced pollution, although it demands higher investment and costs. For this reason it is necessary to manage revenues with byproducts and carbon credit markets. The aim of this study was to present a viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system considering its potential revenues facing higher costs. Using market prices and measured data from a prototype running in south Brazil, the study calculated costs, revenues, profit, net present value and internal rate return. It also estimated these indicators assuming scale economies. The results showed that the investment can pay its costs by its insertion in the carbon credit market and other revenues like the energy substitution. It also showed the importance to reach scale economies. (author)

  19. Optimization of animal manure vermicomposting based on biomass production of earthworms and higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Yan V; Alves, Luciano; Bianchi, Ivan; Espíndola, Jonas C; Oliveira, Juahil M De; Radetski, Claudemir M; Somensi, Cleder A

    2017-11-02

    The goal of this study was to optimize the mixture of swine manure (SM) and cattle manure (CM) used in the vermicomposting process, seeking to increase the manure biodegradation rate and enhance the biomass production of both earthworms and higher plants. To achieve this goal, physico-chemical parameters were determined to assess the final compost quality after 50 days of vermicomposting. The different manure ratios used to produce the composts (C) were as follows (SM:CM, % m/m basis): C1 100:0, C2 (75:25), C3 (50:50), C4 (25:75), and C5 (0:100). In addition, the earthworm biomass and the phytoproductivity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants grown in mixtures (1:1) of natural soil and the most viable vermicomposts were investigated. The C1 and C2 compost compositions were associated with high earthworm mortality rates. The C3 compost provided the highest mineral concentrations and C5 showed the highest lettuce yield (wet biomass). The results verify that stabilized cattle manure is an excellent substrate for the vermicomposting process and that fresh swine manure must be mixed with pre-stabilized cattle manure to ensure an optimized vermicomposting process, which must be controlled in terms of temperature and ammonia levels. It is concluded that small livestock farmers could add value to swine manure by applying the vermicomposting process, without the need for high investments and with a minimal requirement for management of the biodegradation process. These are important technical aspects to be considered when circular economy principles are applied to small farms.

  20. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Scharf, Sigrid [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gans, Oliver [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: oliver.gans@umweltbundesamt.at

    2007-07-15

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 {mu}g/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria.

  1. Fermentation of animal manure by means of energy-rich additives: The Danish practice and Dutch perspectives. Vergisting van dierlijke mest energierijke additieven: Deense praktijk en Nederlandse perspectieven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boo, W. (Centrum voor Energiebesparing en schone technologie CE, Delft (Netherlands)); Schomaker, A.H.H.M. (Haskoning Koninklijke Ingenieurs- en Architectenbureau, Nijmegen (Netherlands)); Moen, A.R. (Gezondheidsdienst voor Dieren in Noord-Nederland, Drachten (Netherlands))

    1993-12-01

    In this report Danish biogas production from animal manure and organic wastes is compared with biogas production in the Netherlands. Proposals are made for chances in Dutch energy and environmental policy by which a friendly environment is created for biogas plants. Higher energy tariffs for energy sources based on 'sustainable' technology are important, as is an efficient legal basis for the use and the amount of organic wastes on agricultural soils is needed. Also environmental policy for the use of animal manure in the Netherlands should be further developed. Due to the extensive surplus of animal manure in Holland, a problem which on such scale does not exist in Denmark, there is much unclarity about future legislation on the use and amount of animal manure. It is expected that this uncertainty will remain up to the year 2000. Therefore, in the coming years the possibilities for commercial collective biogas plants in the Netherlands are not promising, as it is promising in Denmark. It is necessary to create better conditions by the introduction of several demonstration projects for biogas production from animal manure and organic wastes. By such demonstration projects it can be monitored when and how Dutch farmers are in a position for cooperation with biogas plants. The Danish example has shown that digestion of animal manure should be based on the cooperation with the farmers. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 10 appendices, 38 refs.

  2. Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operating Wastewater on Agricultural Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal ...

  3. Treatment for Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out where to take your child for treatment. If the wound is so large that the edges won’t ... above the bite Your pediatrician may recommend antibiotic therapy for a child who has: Moderate or severe bite wounds Puncture wounds, especially if the bone, tendon, or ...

  4. Anaerobic digestion technology in livestock manure treatment for biogas production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Ismail M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Ghazi, Tinia I.; Omar, Rozita

    2012-06-15

    This article reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production from livestock manure wastes and compares the operating and performance data for various anaerobic process configurations. It examines different kinds of manure waste treatment techniques and the influence of several parameters on biogas and methane yield. The comparison indicates that a variety of different operational conditions, various reactor configurations such as batch reactors, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), and continuous one- and two-stage systems, present a suitable technology for the AD of livestock manure waste. Main performance indicators are biogas and methane yield, degradation of volatile solids (VS), higher loading, and process stability with a short retention time. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Performance of two swine manure treatment systems on chemical composition and on the reduction of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viancelli, A; Kunz, A; Steinmetz, R L R; Kich, J D; Souza, C K; Canal, C W; Coldebella, A; Esteves, P A; Barardi, C R M

    2013-01-01

    Swine effluents must be correctly handled to avoid negative environmental impacts. In this study, the profiles of two swine manure treatment systems were evaluated: a solid-liquid separation step, followed by an anaerobic reactor, and an aerobic step (System 1); and a biodigester followed by serial lagoons (System 2). Both systems were described by the assessment of chemical, bacterial and viral parameters. The results showed that in System 1, there was reduction of chemicals (COD, phosphorus, total Kjeldhal nitrogen - TKN - and NH(3)), total coliforms and Escherichia coli; however, the same reduction was not observed for Salmonella sp. Viral particles were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated from the effluent. In System 2, there was a reduction of chemicals, bacteria and viruses with no detection of Salmonella sp., circovirus, parvovirus, and torque teno virus in the effluent. The chemical results indicate that the treated effluent can be reused for cleaning swine facilities. However, the microbiological results show a need of additional treatment to achieve a complete inactivation for cases when direct contact with animals is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater : pilot investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Archipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Klapwijk, A.

    2002-01-01

    Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater has been investigated on the pilot installation operated under ambient temperatures (15-20°C) and included: i) UASB-reactor for elimination of major part of COD from the filtrate; (ii) stripper of CO2 fluidised bed

  7. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  8. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  9. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL MANURE – IMPLICATIONS FOR CROP YIELDS AND SOIL BIOTA IN ORGANIC FARMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    of digestates affects crop yields, soil characteristics and soil biota (earthworms, springtails, microbiota). The grass-clover system showed comparable yield levels over 3 years when digested slurry was compared to untreated slurry. Digested slurries had no influence on soil nutrient concentrations or on soil......Anaerobic digestion of farmyard manures may help farmers to produce bioenergy instead of using fossil fuels, support cycling of nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emission. However, compared to pristine slurry, digested slurry has a reduced content of organic carbon which may impact the soil biota...... organic matter levels over the first 2 years. Application of high levels of manure increased the mortality of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms just after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. Springtails...

  10. Anaerobic digestion performance of sweet potato vine and animal manure under wet, semi-dry, and dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enlan; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Keqiang; Wang, Feng; Yang, Houhua; Zhi, Suli; Liu, Guangqing

    2018-03-22

    Sweet potato vine (SPV) is an abundant agricultural waste, which is easy to obtain at low cost and has the potential to produce clean energy via anaerobic digestion (AD). The main objectives of this study were to reveal methane production and process stability of SPV and the mixtures with animal manure under various total solid conditions, to verify synergetic effect in co-digestion of SPV and manure in AD systems, and to determine the kinetics characteristics during the full AD process. The results showed that SPV was desirable feedstock for AD with 200.22 mL/g VS added of methane yield in wet anaerobic digestion and 12.20 L methane /L working volume in dry anaerobic digestion (D-AD). Synergistic effects were found in semi-dry anaerobic digestion and D-AD with each two mixing feedstock. In contrast with SPV mono-digestion, co-digestion with manure increased methane yield within the range of 14.34-49.11% in different AD digesters. The values of final volatile fatty acids to total alkalinity (TA) were below 0.4 and the values of final pH were within the range of 7.4-8.2 in all the reactors, which supported a positive relationship between carbohydrate hydrolysis and methanogenesis during AD process. The mathematical modified first order model was applied to estimate substrate biodegradability and methane production potential well with conversion constant ranged from 0.0003 to 0.0953 1/day, which indicated that co-digestion increased hydrolysis efficiency and metabolic activity. This work provides useful information to improve the utilization and stability of digestion using SPV and livestock or poultry manure as substrates.

  11. Biogas production from animal manure and agri-organic by-products. An analysis of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boo, W.

    1997-12-01

    Growing interest in sustainable energy has been directed to the production of biogas from organic matter in animal manure and agri-organic by-products. The technology of biogas production by anaerobic digestion of organic materials is used in several parts of the world. Based on this experience and on positive results in a Novem study for the Netherlands situation in 1995, an actor survey has been carried out. The introduction of combined digestion of animal manure and agri-organic by-products has been discussed with companies, business associations and governmental organisations in the energy, agricultural and waste sectors. The survey has revealed that commercial exploitation of biogas plants with a capacity of 100 kton per year is possible under the following conditions: (1) costs of investment should not be higher than 100 Dutch Guilders (45 ECU) per ton processing capacity; (2) yield demands on investment capital, both equity and debt, should not be higher than 8%; (3) selling price for biogas should be around 0,30 Dutch Guilders (0,135 ECU) per m o 3 natural gas equivalents; (4) supply for processing of agri-organic by-products with a received minimum fee of 35 Dutch Guilders (15,7 ECU) per ton should be guaranteed; (5) dairy, pig and arable farmers involved in the biogas plant should have both financial and quality incentives to participation; (6) environmental legislation on the level of heavy metals in animal manure mixed with agri-organic byproducts should not be different from the accepted levels in 'normal' animal manure; and finally (7) the site of the biogas plant accepted by local authorities should be suitable by logistic standards for the transports of animal manure, agri-organic by-products, the digested mixture and biogas. It has been concluded that these conditions are not unrealistic, although there is no absolute certainty that they will be fulfilled. However, circumstances for the implementation of biogas plants have improved in recent years

  12. Gasification of blended animal manures to produce synthesis gas and activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blended swine solids, chicken litter, and hardwood are renewable and expensive sources to produce combined heat and power (CHP), fuels and related chemicals. The therrmochemical pathway to gasify manure has the added advantage of destroying harmful pathogens and pharmaceutically active compounds dur...

  13. Potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havukainen, Jouni; Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Hermann, Ludwig; Horttanainen, Mika; Mikkilä, Mirja; Deviatkin, Ivan; Linnanen, Lassi

    2016-03-01

    All life forms require phosphorus (P), which has no substitute in food production. The risk of phosphorus loss from soil and limited P rock reserves has led to the development of recycling P from industrial residues. This study investigates the potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment (ASH DEC) in Finland. An ASH DEC plant could receive 46-76 kt/a of sewage sludge ash to produce 51-85 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P2O5 content of 13-18%, while 320-750 kt/a of manure ash could be supplied to produce 350-830 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P content of 4-5%. The P2O5 potential in the total P-rich product from the ASH DEC process using sewage sludge and manure ash is estimated to be 25-47 kt/a, which is significantly more than the P fertilizer demand in Finland's agricultural industries. The energy efficiency of integrated incineration and the ASH DEC process is more dependent on the total solid content and the subsequent need for mechanical dewatering and thermal drying than on the energy required by the ASH DEC process. According to the results of this study, the treated sewage sludge and manure ash using the ASH DEC process represent significant potential phosphorus sources for P fertilizer production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement of the nutritive value of bagasse using chicken manure.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of chicken manure droppings on the nutritive value of sugar cane bagasse upon fermentation. It was hypothesized that the use of the two low cost residues (bagasse and chicken manure) in an animal feed could present a great nutritional potential to livestock farmers. Five treatments were ...

  15. Borax and Octabor Treatment of Stored Swine Manure: Reduction in Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions and Phytotoxicity to Agronomic Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaseous emissions from stored manure have become environmental and health issues for humans and animals as the livestock industry becomes specialized and concentrated. Of particular concern is hydrogen sulfide, which is being targeted for regulatory control in concentrated animal farm operations. ...

  16. 16S rRNA analysis of diversity of manure microbial community in dairy farm environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Pandey

    Full Text Available Dairy farms generate a considerable amount of manure, which is applied in cropland as fertilizer. While the use of manure as fertilizer reduces the application of chemical fertilizers, the main concern with regards to manure application is microbial pollution. Manure is a reservoir of a broad range of microbial populations, including pathogens, which have potential to cause contamination and pose risks to public and animal health. Despite the widespread use of manure fertilizer, the change in microbial diversity of manure under various treatment processes is still not well-understood. We hypothesize that the microbial population of animal waste changes with manure handling used in a farm environment. Consequential microbial risk caused by animal manure may depend on manure handling. In this study, a reconnaissance effort for sampling dairy manure in California Central Valley followed by 16S rRNA analysis of content and diversity was undertaken to understand the microbiome of manure after various handling processes. The microbial community analysis of manure revealed that the population in liquid manure differs from that in solid manure. For instance, the bacteria of genus Sulfuriomonas were unique in liquid samples, while the bacteria of genus Thermos were observed only in solid samples. Bacteria of genus Clostridium were present in both solid and liquid samples. The population among liquid samples was comparable, as was the population among solid samples. These findings suggest that the mode of manure application (i.e., liquid versus solid could have a potential impact on the microbiome of cropland receiving manure as fertilizers.

  17. 16S rRNA analysis of diversity of manure microbial community in dairy farm environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Max; Wang, Yi; Settles, Matthew; del Rio, Noelia Silva; Castillo, Alejandro; Souza, Alex; Pereira, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Dairy farms generate a considerable amount of manure, which is applied in cropland as fertilizer. While the use of manure as fertilizer reduces the application of chemical fertilizers, the main concern with regards to manure application is microbial pollution. Manure is a reservoir of a broad range of microbial populations, including pathogens, which have potential to cause contamination and pose risks to public and animal health. Despite the widespread use of manure fertilizer, the change in microbial diversity of manure under various treatment processes is still not well-understood. We hypothesize that the microbial population of animal waste changes with manure handling used in a farm environment. Consequential microbial risk caused by animal manure may depend on manure handling. In this study, a reconnaissance effort for sampling dairy manure in California Central Valley followed by 16S rRNA analysis of content and diversity was undertaken to understand the microbiome of manure after various handling processes. The microbial community analysis of manure revealed that the population in liquid manure differs from that in solid manure. For instance, the bacteria of genus Sulfuriomonas were unique in liquid samples, while the bacteria of genus Thermos were observed only in solid samples. Bacteria of genus Clostridium were present in both solid and liquid samples. The population among liquid samples was comparable, as was the population among solid samples. These findings suggest that the mode of manure application (i.e., liquid versus solid) could have a potential impact on the microbiome of cropland receiving manure as fertilizers. PMID:29304047

  18. Properties of the filtrate from treatment of pig manure by filtration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makara Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents properties of filtrate obtained from pig manure using the AMAK treatment process, which includes the mineralization of macro- and microfertilizer components by the hydrolyzing of organic matter into forms that are bioavailable to plants. Filtration produced two products, sediment and filtrate. The quality of the filtrate allowed for its use as a substitute of water to irrigate crops. Concentrations of heavy metals are very low and therefore the quality of the filtrate fully complies with European standard concerning fertilizers. The used mineralization process practically eliminated odors from the filtrate. The reduction of specific odor emission by 99.1-99.5% in samples taken from above the filtrate, respectively compared to the odor concentration found in samples taken from above raw pig manure. Sediment could be used as raw material for production of mineral-organic fertilizer. Filtrate and filtration sediments analyses show that the majority of nitrogen and other fertilizing compounds included in raw pig manure remains in sediment.

  19. Development of an analytical methodology for the determination of the antiparasitic drug toltrazuril and its two metabolites in surface water, soil and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A

    2012-01-01

    ... with an EC 50 of 3.16 mg L ‚àí1 for toltrazuril [9]. Due to toltrazurils frequent usage ... a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine toltrazuril , toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone in ... SPE), and in agricultural soil, animal manure and sediment using pressurized liquid extraction ( PLE ). ...

  20. Development of an analytical methodology for the determination of the antiparasitic drug toltrazuril and its two metabolites in surface water, soil and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine the antiparasitic veterinary drug toltrazuril and its two main metabolites, toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone, in environmental surface water, soil and animal manure. Using solid...... phase extraction and selective pressurized liquid extraction with integrated clean-up, the analytical method allows for the determination of these compounds down to 0.06-0.13 ng L(-1) in water, 0.01-0.03 ng g(-1)dw in soil and 0.22-0.51 ng g(-1) dw in manure. The deuterated analog of toltrazuril...

  1. Global Cryptosporidium Loads from Livestock Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lucie C; Benders, Jorien; Medema, Gertjan; Hofstra, Nynke

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the environmental pathways of Cryptosporidium is essential for effective management of human and animal cryptosporidiosis. In this paper we aim to quantify livestock Cryptosporidium spp. loads to land on a global scale using spatially explicit process-based modeling, and to explore the effect of manure storage and treatment on oocyst loads using scenario analysis. Our model GloWPa-Crypto L1 calculates a total global Cryptosporidium spp. load from livestock manure of 3.2 × 10 23 oocysts per year. Cattle, especially calves, are the largest contributors, followed by chickens and pigs. Spatial differences are linked to animal spatial distributions. North America, Europe, and Oceania together account for nearly a quarter of the total oocyst load, meaning that the developing world accounts for the largest share. GloWPa-Crypto L1 is most sensitive to oocyst excretion rates, due to large variation reported in literature. We compared the current situation to four alternative management scenarios. We find that although manure storage halves oocyst loads, manure treatment, especially of cattle manure and particularly at elevated temperatures, has a larger load reduction potential than manure storage (up to 4.6 log units). Regions with high reduction potential include India, Bangladesh, western Europe, China, several countries in Africa, and New Zealand.

  2. Occurrence and transformation of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in dairy manure treated by advanced anaerobic digestion and conventional treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joshua S; Garner, Emily; Pruden, Amy; Aga, Diana S

    2018-05-01

    Manure treatment technologies are rapidly developing to minimize eutrophication of surrounding environments and potentially decrease the introduction of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) into the environment. While laboratory and pilot-scale manure treatment systems boast promising results, antibiotic and ARG removals in full-scale systems receiving continuous manure input have not been evaluated. The effect of treatment on ARGs is similarly lacking. This study examines the occurrence and transformation of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, tetracycline degradation products, and related ARGs throughout a full-scale advanced anaerobic digester (AAD) receiving continuous manure and antibiotic input. Manure samples were collected throughout the AAD system to evaluate baseline antibiotic and ARG input (raw manure), the effect of hygenization (post-pasteurized manure) and anaerobic digestion (post-digestion manure) on antibiotic and ARG levels. Antibiotics were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the ARGs tet(O), tet(W), sul1 and sul2 were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Significant reductions in the concentrations of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and their degradation products were observed in manure liquids following treatment (p resistant genes remained unchanged. A cross-sectional study of dairy farms utilizing natural aeration and liquid-solid separation treatments was additionally performed to compare levels of antibiotics and ARGs found in AAD with the levels in common manure management systems. The concentration of antibiotics in raw manure varied greatly between farms while minimal differences in ARGs were observed. However, significant (p < 0.01) differences in the levels of antibiotics and ARGs (except tet(W)) were observed in the effluents from the three different manure management systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of swine manure: case studies in European’s N-surplus areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cruz García-González

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, eight different manure treatment plants were monitored. The plants were four on-farm and four centralized treatment plants, all of them at full-scale level. Assessment includes a total of seven pre-treatment and process units as follows: mechanical separation, with and without coagulant and flocculant addition, pasteurization, nitrification-denitrification, anaerobic digestion, and composting. The plants are located in nutrient surplus areas of three European Member States (Spain, Italy and Denmark, the majority of these areas being Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZ. Results presented herein are data collected over a six-month period and comprise performance data of the treatment plants, pathogen indicators (E.coli and Salmonella and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions data under two scenarios: 1 the baseline scenario and 2 the treatment plant scenario. The assessment includes GHG emissions of the storage facilities, transportation, and subsequent intermediate storage, electric consumption, electric production, composting, and land application. All treatment plants studied generated a significant reduction in GHG emissions (between 53 and 90 % in comparison to the baseline scenario. Organic matter and total solids (TS content in manure were also greatly reduced, with values ranging between 35-53 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD and, 24-61 % of TS for anaerobic digestion (AD treatment plants, 77-93 % COD and 70 % TS in the case of AD combined with nitrogen (N-removal unit plants. Nitrogen concentrations were also greatly reduced (between 65-85 % total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN and 68-83 % ammonium (NH4+-N in plants with N-removal units.

  4. Short-term thermophilic treatment cannot remove tetracycline resistance genes in pig manures but exhibits controlling effects on their accumulation and spread in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Li, Qing; Xia, Dan; Shen, Min; Mei, Lijuan; Hu, Jian

    2017-10-15

    In this work, a microcosm experiment was conducted to merely mimic thermophilic phase in aerobic composting with pig manures in order to explore: (i) the effect of thermophilic phase in composting on the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs); and (ii) the impacts of the treated manures on the abundances of TRGs in soil. It was found that 4days of thermophilic process reduced the abundance of TRGs in pig manures by ∼1 lg unit compared to the samples without treatments, suggesting that other phases in composting may play significant roles in removal of TRGs. Once pig manures with thermophilic treatment were applied to soil, TRGs abundances decreased to the levels in unfertilized soil. With correlation analyses, it was concluded that pig manure derived tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) and nutrients exerted different effects on TRGs abundances in soil. In conclusion, short-term thermophilic treatment cannot remove tetracycline resistance genes in pig manures but exhibits controlling effects on their accumulation and spread in soil. Nutrients enrichment in soil following manuring of treated pig manures, together with a large proportion of gram-positive TRB left in treated pig manures with less risk to TRGs spread, contributed to the controlling effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking on the Methane Yield and Composition of Digested Manure Fibers Applying Different Ammonia Concentrations and Treatment Durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysoula Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most biogas plants. Thus, their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS at six different concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 32% and for 1, 3 and 5 days at 22 °C was applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester. A methane yield increase from 76% to 104% was achieved during the first series of experiments, while the difference in reagent concentration did not considerably affect the methane yield. It was shown that the optimal duration was three days for both 5% and 25% w/w reagent concentrations in ammonia tested. Carbohydrates and phosphorus content remained unaffected, while a slight decrease in Klason lignin and non-soluble organic nitrogen content was observed after AAS. It is concluded that AAS is a very promising treatment resulting to an overall increase of the methane yield of digested manure fibers from 76% to 265% depending on the conditions and the batch of digested fibers used (an even higher increase of 190%–265% was achieved during the 2nd series of experiments, where different AAS durations were tested, compared to the 1st series were different ammonia concentrations were applied.

  6. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiang Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1 non-treated; (2 chicken manure-treated and (3 organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  7. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-06-30

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  8. Potential for Lead Release from Lead-Immobilized Animal Manure Compost in Rhizosphere Soil of Shooting Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Katoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the magnitude of lead release from lead-sorbed animal manure compost (AMC in rhizosphere soil compared with nonplanted soil of shooting range. The presence of buckwheat caused reduction in rhizosphere soil pH and enhancement in the level of water-soluble organic carbon compared with those of nonplanted soil. In addition, the presence of buckwheat altered the lead phases and increased the relative amount of the soluble exchangeable fraction, resulting in increase in the CaCl2-soluble lead level. In contrast, the presence of Guinea grass did not change the lead bioavailability or phases compared with nonplanted soil. Lead release tests in solution showed that between solution pH 5 and solution pH 7 the amount of lead released from the compost was higher in the rhizosphere soil of buckwheat than in nonplanted soil, whereas there was no significant difference between the rhizosphere soil of Guinea grass and nonplanted soil. These results suggest that the increase in the quantity of exchangeable lead resulting from the rhizosphere effect induces lead immobilized by the AMC to be remobilized. Therefore, AMC should be applied to soils that contain plants that are unable to alter the lead phases in the shooting range soil. Efforts should be particularly made to ensure that lead cannot be transformed to the exchangeable phase.

  9. Role of Inorganic and Organic Fractions in Animal Manure Compost in Lead Immobilization and Microbial Activity in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Katoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify how the ratio of inorganic-to-organic components in animal manure compost (AMC affected both lead immobilization and microbial activity in lead-contaminated soil. When AMC containing 50% or more inorganic fraction with high phosphorous content was applied to contaminated soil, the amounts of water-soluble lead in it were suppressed by over 88% from the values in the soil without compost. The residual fraction under sequential extraction increased with the inorganic fraction in the AMC; however, in those AMCs, the levels of microbial enzyme activity were the same or less than those in the control soil. The application of AMC containing 25% inorganic fraction could alter the lead phases to be more insoluble while improving microbial enzyme activities; however, no suppression of the level of water-soluble lead existed during the first 30 days. These results indicate that compost containing an inorganic component of 50% or more with high phosphorus content is suitable for immobilizing lead; however, in the case where low precipitation is expected for a month, AMC containing 25% inorganic component could be used to both immobilize lead and restore microbial activity.

  10. Reducement of cadmium adsorption on clay minerals by the presence of dissolved organic matter from animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenjun; Ren, Lingwei; Zhu, Lizhong

    2017-04-01

    Clay minerals are the most popular adsorbents/amendments for immobilizing heavy metals in contaminated soils, but the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil environment would potentially affect the adsorption/immobilization capacity of clay minerals for heavy metals. In this study, the effects of DOM derived from chicken manure (CM) on the adsorption of cadmium (Cd 2+ ) on two clay minerals, bentonite and zeolite, were investigated. The equilibrium data for Cd 2+ sorption in the absence or presence of CM-DOM could be well-fitted to the Langmuir equation (R 2  > 0.97). The presence of CM-DOM in the aqueous solution was found to greatly reduce the adsorption capacity of both minerals for Cd 2+ , in particular zeolite, and the percentage decreases for Cd 2+ sorption increased with increasing concentrations of Cd 2+ as well as CM-DOM in aqueous solutions. The adsorption of CM-DOM on zeolite was greater than that on bentonite in the absence of Cd 2+ , however, a sharp increase was observed for CM-DOM sorption on bentonite with increasing Cd 2+ concentrations but little change for that on zeolite, which can be attributed to the different ternary structures on mineral surface. The CM-DOM modified clay minerals were utilized to investigate the effect of mineral-adsorbed CM-DOM on Cd 2+ sorption. The adsorbed form was found to inhibit Cd 2+ sorption, and further calculation suggested it primarily responsible for the overall decrease in Cd 2+ sorption on clay minerals in the presence of CM-DOM in aqueous solutions. An investigation for the mineral surface morphology suggested that the mineral-adsorbed CM-DOM decreased Cd 2+ sorption on bentonite mainly through barrier effect, while in the case of zeolite, it was the combination of active sites occupation and barrier effect. These results can serve as a guide for evaluating the performance of clay minerals in immobilizing heavy metals when animal manure is present in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Temporal succession of soil antibiotic resistance genes following application of swine, cattle and poultry manures spiked with or without antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Gou, Min; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Land application of animal manure is a common agricultural practice potentially leading to dispersal and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental settings. However, the fate of resistome in agro-ecosystems over time following application of different manure sources has never been compared systematically. Here, soil microcosm incubation was conducted to compare effects of poultry, cattle and swine manures spiked with or without the antibiotic tylosin on the temporal changes of soil ARGs. The high-throughput quantitative PCR detected a total of 185 unique ARGs, with Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B resistance as the most frequently encountered ARG type. The diversity and abundance of ARGs significantly increased following application of manure and manure spiked with tylosin, with more pronounced effects observed in the swine and poultry manure treatments than in the cattle manure treatment. The level of antibiotic resistance gradually decreased over time in all manured soils but was still significantly higher in the soils treated with swine and poultry manures than in the untreated soils after 130 days' incubation. Tylosin-amended soils consistently showed higher abundances of ARGs than soils treated with manure only, suggesting a strong selection pressure of antibiotic-spiked manure on soil ARGs. The relative abundance of ARGs had significantly positive correlations with integrase and transposase genes, indicative of horizontal transfer potential of ARGs in manure and tylosin treated soils. Our findings provide evidence that application of swine and poultry manures might enrich more soil ARGs than cattle manure, which necessitates the appropriate treatment of raw animal manures prior to land application to minimise the spread of environmental ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Diluted Pig Manure Streams in Russia: From Laboratory Trials to Full-Scale Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Arkhipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Kovalev, A.; Nozhevnikova, A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater

  13. Culture of ceriodaphnia cornuta, using chicken manure as fertilizer: conversion of waste product into highly nutritive animal protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, K.; War, M.U.D.

    2010-01-01

    For finding a cheap and suitable feed for culture of Ceriodaphnia cornuta studies were carried out for 21 days using chicken manure as fertilizer whereupon C. cornuta population ranged between 50 +- 2 and 10,232 +- 202 Ind./L. (individuals/L). The culture peaked on the 17th day producing the maximum density of 10,232 +- 202 Ind./L. Thus chicken manure can be used as a fertilizer for mass culture of cladocerans, specially C. cornuta. (author)

  14. Implications from distinct sulfate-reducing bacteria populations between cattle manure and digestate in the elucidation of H2S production during anaerobic digestion of animal slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

    2017-07-01

    Biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of animal slurry consists mainly of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), but also includes other minor gases, such as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). Since it can act as a potent corrosive agent and presents a health hazard even at low concentrations, H 2 S is considered an undesirable by-product of anaerobic digestion. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) have been identified as the main biological source of H 2 S in a number of natural, biological, and human-made habitats, and thus represent likely candidate microorganisms responsible for the production of H 2 S in anaerobic manure digesters. Phylogenetically, SRBs form a divergent group of bacteria that share a common anaerobic respiration pathway that allows them to use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. While the composition and activity of SRBs have been well documented in other environments, their metabolic potential remains largely uncharacterized and their populations poorly defined in anaerobic manure digesters. In this context, a combination of in vitro culture-based studies and DNA-based approaches, respectively, were used to gain further insight. Unexpectedly, only low to nondetectable levels of H 2 S were produced by digestate collected from a manure biogas plant documented to have persistently high concentrations of H 2 S in its biogas (2000-3000 ppm). In contrast, combining digestate with untreated manure (a substrate with comparatively lower sulfate and SRB cell densities than digestate) was found to produce elevated H 2 S levels in culture. While a 16S rRNA gene-based community composition approach did not reveal likely candidate SRBs in digestate or untreated manure, the use of the dsrAB gene as a phylogenetic marker provided more insight. In digestate, the predominant SRBs were found to be uncharacterized species likely belonging to the genus Desulfosporosinus (Peptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Firmicutes), while Desulfovibrio-related SRBs

  15. Plant-availability to barley of phosphorus in ash from thermally treated animal manure in comparison to other manure based materials and commercial fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2010-01-01

    ) were tested after application to two agricultural soil types (Jyndevad soil: clay 5.1%, silt 4.1%, sand 88.9%, organic matter 2.1%, total C 1.2% soil dry matter (DM), total P 266 mg kg-1 soil DM, pH 6.3; Rønhave soil: clay 15.4%, silt 32.6%, sand 49.6%, organic matter 2.3%, Total C 1.3% soil DM, total...... (GA) and a corresponding neutralized acid extract of the ash (ExL) in liquid form were the products in focus. Other products in use were: pelletized pig manure biogas residue (PEL), incinerated PEL (IA), anaerobically digested pig slurry (DS), dried ExL, dried fraction of separated pig slurry (SS......, 79% and 123% for IA, 95% and 155% for PEL, 94% and 73% for ExL, 55% and 15% for ExD, 64% and 82% for SS, 104% and 109% for DS, 60% and 95% for GAp, 73% and 111% for GAs, where the first value is based on barley DM yield and the second on barley total P uptake. Tripling the GA application rate to 60...

  16. Optimisation and inhibition of anaerobic digestion of livestock manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutaryo, S.

    2012-11-15

    The optimisation process during this PhD study focused on mixed enzyme (ME) addition, thermal pre-treatment and co-digestion of raw manure with solid fractions of acidified manure, while for inhibition processes, ammonia and sulphide inhibition were studied. ME addition increased methane yield of both dairy cow manure (DCM) and solid fractions of DCM (by 4.44% and 4.15% respectively, compared to the control) when ME was added to manure and incubated prior to anaerobic digestion (AD). However, no positive effect was found when ME was added to manure and fed immediately to either mesophilic (35 deg. C) or thermophilic (50 deg. C) digesters. Low-temperature pre-treatment (65 deg. C to 80 deg. C for 20 h) followed by batch assays increased the methane yield of pig manure in the range from 9.5% to 26.4% at 11 d incubation. These treatments also increased the methane yield of solid-fractions pig manure in the range from 6.1% to 25.3% at 11 d of the digestion test. However, at 90 d the increase in methane yield of pig manure was only significant at the 65 deg. C treatment, thus low-temperature thermal pre-treatment increased the rate of gas production, but did not increase the ultimate yield (B{sub o}). High-temperature pre-treatment (100 deg. C to 225 deg. C for 15 min.) increased the methane yield of DCM by 13% and 21% for treatments at 175 deg. C and 200 deg. C, respectively, at 27 d of batch assays. For pig manure, methane yield was increased by 29% following 200 deg. C treatment and 27 d of a batch digestion test. No positive effect was found of high-temperature pre-treatment on the methane yield of chicken manure. At the end of the experiment (90 d), high-temperature thermal pre-treatment was significantly increasing the B{sub 0} of pig manure and DCM. Acidification of animal manure using sulphuric acid is a well-known technology to reduce ammonia emission of animal manure. AD of acidified manure showed sulphide inhibition and consequently methane production was 45

  17. Development of an analytical methodology for the determination of the antiparasitic drug toltrazuril and its two metabolites in surface water, soil and animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jesper; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A; Hansen, Martin

    2012-11-28

    This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine the antiparasitic veterinary drug toltrazuril and its two main metabolites, toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone, in environmental surface water, soil and animal manure. Using solid phase extraction and selective pressurized liquid extraction with integrated clean-up, the analytical method allows for the determination of these compounds down to 0.06-0.13 ng L(-1) in water, 0.01-0.03 ng g(-1)dw in soil and 0.22-0.51 ng g(-1) dw in manure. The deuterated analog of toltrazuril was used as internal standard, and ensured method accuracy in the range 96-123% for water and 77-110% for soil samples. The developed method can also be applied to simultaneously determine steroid hormones in the solid samples. The antiparasitic drug and its metabolites were found in manure and soil up to 114 and 335 pg g(-1) dw, respectively. Little is known regarding the environmental fate and effects of these compounds; consequently more research is urgently needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV. The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  19. Feasibility and interest of the anammox process as treatment alternative for anaerobic digester supernatants in manure processing--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrí, Albert; Béline, Fabrice; Dabert, Patrick

    2013-12-15

    Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal (ANR) is based on the combination of partial nitritation (PN) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). It is a promising alternative for the subsequent treatment of biogas digester supernatants in livestock manure processing and nitrogen surplus scenarios. However, as no full-scale experiences in the treatment of manure digestates by ANR have been published to date, future field studies addressing treatment of this kind of effluent would be of great interest. Some topics to be considered in these studies would be coupling anaerobic digestion and ANR, analysis of the factors that affect the process, comparing reactor configurations, microbial ecology, gas emissions, and achieving robust performance. This paper provides an overview of published studies on ANR. Specific issues related to the applicability of the process for treating manure digestates are discussed. The energy requirements of ANR are compared with those of other technological alternatives aimed at recovering nitrogen from digester supernatants. The results of the assessment were shown to depend on the composition of the supernatant. In this regard, the PN-anammox process was shown to be more competitive than other alternatives particularly at concentrations of up to 2 kg NH4(+)-N m(-3). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Marine mud and manure treatment in Ultisols increase pH and phosphate availability and affectCapsicum annum L. grows and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Matulessy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine mud and manure has potentially to improve ultisol soil condition, especially in soil acidity, CEC, base saturation, neutralizing organic acid, improving soil structure, soil nutrient retention, aeration, soil humidity, capacity of water holding capacity and infiltration and enhance the rapid supply of phosphate for plant grows and development. Two treatments, namely planting media with 200 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure and 400 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure were able to increase pH from 4.6 to 5.6.Significant decrease of Alexcsolubility about 0.03 meq.100 g-1 was found in M1O3; M2O1; M2O3 and M3O1 treatment about. Increase of phosphate about 5.02 ppm was found at treatment 200 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure. There are significant interaction in plant high about 62.42 cm in the media without marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1manure treatments. The amount of 30 ton,ha-1manure produce plant with leaf size about 95,52 cm2.tan-1and produce fresh fruit about 9.81 ton.ha-1.

  1. Differential responses in yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) and nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.) to the application of three animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, J O; Van Averbeke, W; Okorogbona, A O M

    2010-04-01

    Crop responses to different manures differs considerably, however, the factors responsible for it have not been conclusively elucidated. Consequently, this study examined the biomass response of Cucurbita maxima and Solanum retroflexum to application rates of chicken and kraal manures of cattle and goat, and soil factors related to salinity. The crops' biomass yield increased linearly with increase in application rates of kraal and chicken manures, but steeper in the latter. Results showed that significant decline in biomass yield in chicken manure at rates above 8.5 tons ha(-1) were not due to salinity. The crops' response to cattle and goat kraal manures was linear but polynomial (cubic) in layer chicken manure. It was concluded that the yield decline in chicken manure was due to other manure factors except salinity, probably toxicity effect of the manure fatty acids. Further research was however, recommended to elucidate this claim. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of manure and plants spacing on yield and flavonoid content of Elephantopus scaber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyana, D.; Widiyastuti, Y.; Widodo, H.; Purwanto, E.; Samanhudi

    2018-03-01

    This experiment is aimed to observe the growth and flavonoid contain of Tapak Liman (Elephantopus scaber L.) with different manure types and plants spacing treatment. This experiment is conducted at Tegal Gede Village, Karanganyar District on June until August 2016. The analysis of secondary metabolism was done in B2P2TOOT, Tawangamangu. This experiment is conducted with Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two treatment factors, those are manure and plants spacing. Animal manure treatment had 3 levels, those are without manure, cow manure with 20 ton/ha dose, and chicken manure with 20 ton/ha dose. Plants spacing treatment had 3 phrase, those are 20 cm × 20 cm; 30 × 30 cm; 40 cm × 40 cm. The result of this experiment shows that chicken manure with 20 ton/ha dosage increase the development of leaves’ lengthiness, header’s diameter, plant’s fresh weight, and plant’s dry weight. Plants spacing 40 cm × 40 cm increase for the development of leaves’ lengthiness, header’s diameter, plant’s wet weight, and plant’s dry weight. The combination between chicken manure with 20 ton/ha dose and plants spacing 40 cm × 40cm treatments show the highest amount of tapak liman extract and alleged having the biggest amount of flavonoid substance.

  3. Interaction of crude oil and manure treatments and its effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Imo State, University, Owerri Nigeria to investigate the interaction of crude oil and manure on the agronomic characteristics of maize. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block ...

  4. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans.

  5. Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ogejo, Jactone Arogo

    2009-01-01

    Manure storage is part of the manure management system of a facility or property where animals and/or poultry are raised. Manure should be considered a resource not a waste to be discarded. Manure contains valuable organic matter and nutrients that can be used as a fertilizer and/or to produce energy. If not managed properly, manure will accumulate very quickly and pose the potential for polluting the environment from odors and contamination of surface water and ground water.

  6. Effects of Different Animal Waste Treatment Technologies on Detection and Viability of Porcine Enteric Viruses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Verónica P.; Azevedo, Ana C.; Li, Xin; Williams, Mike C.; Michel, Frederick C.; Saif, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Enteric pathogens in animal waste that is not properly processed can contaminate the environment and food. The persistence of pathogens in animal waste depends upon the waste treatment technology, but little is known about persistence of porcine viruses. Our objectives were to characterize the porcine enteric viruses (porcine noroviruses [PoNoVs], porcine sapoviruses [PoSaVs], rotavirus A [RV-A], RV-B, and RV-C) in fresh feces or manure and to evaluate the effects of different candidate environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for animal waste treatment on the detection of these viruses. Untreated manure and samples collected at different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms that used conventional waste management (CWM) and five different candidate ESTs. The RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or seminested PCR; PoSaV and RV-A were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) and experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine RV-A/C infectivity in posttreatment samples. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in pretreatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pretreatment feces from three of five and four of five farms using the candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment, PoSaV RNA was detected only in the samples from the farm using CWM and not from the farms using the candidate ESTs. RV-A and RV-C RNAs were detected in four of five and three of four candidate ESTs, respectively, after treatment, but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral infectivity, was detected after treatment. Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding swine production units. PMID:17601821

  7. Heterogeneity of O2 dynamics in soil amended with animal manure and implications for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Bruun, Sander; Larsen, Morten Kobæk

    2015-01-01

    Soil oxygen (O2) availability influences nitrification and denitrification, the major biological processes responsible for nitrous oxide (N2O) production and missions from soil. In this study O2-specific planar optodes were used to visualise O2 distribution with high spatial and temporal resolution...... in soils in which the same amount of solid fraction of pig manure had been distributed in three different ways (mixed, layered, single patch) and which were maintained at awater potential of 5 kPa (corresponding to 91% of water-filled pore space). In parallel, the greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CO2 and CH4...... rates are essential to get a detailed understanding of how O2 availability regulates the distribution and coupling of denitrification and nitrification activity in soil. Such unique information on soil O2 dynamics could be used for further modelling and quantification of processes producing greenhouse...

  8. Turnover of manure 15N-labelled ammonium during composting and soil application as affected by lime and superphosphate addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Tien Minh; Luxhøi, Jesper; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-01-01

    To determine N turnover and losses during aerobic composting of animal manure, a 41-d laboratory study was performed on pig manure composting with three additive treatments (Straw: pig manure + straw only; Lime: pig manure + straw + quick lime; and SSP: pig manure + straw + single superphosphate......, approximately 30, 90, and 20% was lost by NH3 volatilization during composting in the Straw, Lime, and SSP treatments, respectively. Concurrently, 62, 16, and 41% of initial 15NH4-N was immobilized in the respective treatments. When the composts were applied to soil, the mineral N in soil with SSP compost...... was higher throughout the incubation than in soil with Straw and Lime composts. This was because of higher mineral N content in the SSP compost on application and higher net N mineralization from that compost in the soil. In soil with Straw compost, N mineralization and immobilization were slow...

  9. Microbial and nutrient stabilization of two animal manures after the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2009-01-30

    Here we studied how the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eisenia fetida affects the microbial and nutrient stabilization of pig and cow manure, by analyzing fresh casts. Earthworms reduced the pools of dissolved organic C and N in casts from both types of manure, as wells as mineral N. Microbial biomass was enhanced only in casts from pig manure and did not change in casts from cow manure, and fungal populations only raised in casts from cow manure. Earthworms reduced microbial activity in casts from cow manure and did not modify in casts from pig slurry. Enzyme activities in casts also depended on the manure ingested; there were no changes in dehydrogenase and beta-glucosidase activities, whereas acid and alkaline phosphatases increased. The results indicate that the first stage in vermicomposting of pig and cow manure by E. fetida, i.e. casting, produced a microbial stabilization decreasing the activity of microorganisms; this stabilization occurred despite of the increase in microbial biomass. The strong reduction in nutrient pools of manures may be the responsible of this contradiction. These changes will influence the dynamics of the organic matter degradation by reducing forms of C and N available to microorganisms and hence restricting their growth and multiplication. Nevertheless, casts were also characterized by an increased enzyme potential that might lead to a further thorough degradation of pig and cow manure.

  10. 34 CFR 76.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 76.682 Section 76.682 Education... animals. If a State or a subgrantee uses an animal in a project, the State or subgrantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act of 1970...

  11. Sensitivity analysis of six soil organic matter models applied to the decomposition of animal manures and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two features distinguishing soil organic matter simulation models are the type of kinetics used to calculate pool decomposition rates, and the algorithm used to handle the effects of nitrogen (N shortage on carbon (C decomposition. Compared to widely used first-order kinetics, Monod kinetics more realistically represent organic matter decomposition, because they relate decomposition to both substrate and decomposer size. Most models impose a fixed C to N ratio for microbial biomass. When N required by microbial biomass to decompose a given amount of substrate-C is larger than soil available N, carbon decomposition rates are limited proportionally to N deficit (N inhibition hypothesis. Alternatively, C-overflow was proposed as a way of getting rid of excess C, by allocating it to a storage pool of polysaccharides. We built six models to compare the combinations of three decomposition kinetics (first-order, Monod, and reverse Monod, and two ways to simulate the effect of N shortage on C decomposition (N inhibition and C-overflow. We conducted sensitivity analysis to identify model parameters that mostly affected CO2 emissions and soil mineral N during a simulated 189-day laboratory incubation assuming constant water content and temperature. We evaluated model outputs sensitivity at different stages of organic matter decomposition in a soil amended with three inputs of increasing C to N ratio: liquid manure, solid manure, and low-N crop residue. Only few model parameters and their interactions were responsible for consistent variations of CO2 and soil mineral N. These parameters were mostly related to microbial biomass and to the partitioning of applied C among input pools, as well as their decomposition constants. In addition, in models with Monod kinetics, CO2 was also sensitive to a variation of the half-saturation constants. C-overflow enhanced pool decomposition compared to N inhibition hypothesis when N shortage occurred. Accumulated C in the

  12. 34 CFR 75.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 75.682 Section 75.682 Education... Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.682 Treatment of animals. If a grantee uses an animal in a project, the grantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment in...

  13. Low-temperature anaerobic treatment of hog manure and transformation of biogas into green energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van-Anh Truong, L.; Royer, R.

    2004-08-01

    A new environmental solution for hog manure management has been developed by Bio-Terre Systems Inc. in collaboration with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. The technical approach combines low-temperature anaerobic digestion, concentration of solids and production of biogas, a renewable energy source. Both small and large agricultural producers can benefit from this approach which helps transform organic matter into value-added by-products. They can fertilize their land with the liquid fraction, supply energy for their buildings with the biogas produced, and export surplus nutrients with the solid fraction. The technology also solves odour problems and destroys pathogenic microorganisms. No pretreatment is needed for this technology which makes use of robust anaerobic microorganisms that are low temperature tolerant. It is a stable process that provides continuous production of biogas with high energy potential. The automated system does not require much monitoring or maintenance. The environmental advantages include the production of biogas rich in methane, which can be used for electrical energy on the farm or sent to the electric power grids; production of high-value, odorless liquid fertilizer; a 50 per cent reduction of the amount of phosphorous in the liquid fraction; and, a 90 per cent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from hog manure. The profitability of capital investment is assured by both the energy-savings and the agricultural benefits. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  14. Inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, H.D.; Shannon, E.E.; Derbyshire, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55/sup 0/C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35/sup 0/C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70/sup 0/C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  15. Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) waste is a cost effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO waste to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluat...

  16. Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking on the methane yield and composition of digested manure fibers applying different ammonia concentrations and treatment durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    at 22°C was applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester. A methane yield increase from 76% to 104% was achieved during the first series of experiments, while the difference in reagent concentration did not considerably affect the methane yield...... is a very promising treatment resulting to an overall increase of the methane yield of digested manure fibers from 76 to 265% depending on the conditions and the batch of digested fibers used (an even higher increase of 190-265% was achieved during the 2nd series of experiments, where different AAS...

  17. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics.

  18. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha

    2009-01-01

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm 2 , and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics

  19. On-farm treatment of swine manure based on solid-liquid separation and biological nitrification-denitrification of the liquid fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño, B; García-González, M C

    2014-01-01

    In some regions, intensive pig farming has led to soil and water pollution due to the over-application of manure as an organic fertilizer, thereby necessitating alternative treatment technologies to help manage the large amounts of manure generated. The present study seeks to determine the effectiveness of an on-farm swine manure treatment plant consisting of a solid-liquid separation phase using screw pressing followed by a coagulation-flocculation process, and nitrification-denitrification of the liquid fraction. Each treatment unit was evaluated for its contribution towards reducing the raw manure concentration of solids, organic matter, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous), metals, and pathogens. The overall system presented high removal efficiencies of up to 71% of TS (total solids) and 97% of TCOD (total chemical oxygen demand). Approximately 97% TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen) and 89% TP (total phosphorous) removal was achieved. Metals (copper and zinc) diminished in the liquid fraction to non-detectable concentrations (denitrification of the liquid fraction is a technological alternative for reducing the environmental impact of intensive pig farming in a given area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Technical Documentation of the Regional Manure Management Model for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Aillery, Marcel P.; Gollehon, Noel; Breneman, Vincent E.

    2005-01-01

    The Regional Manure Management Model, developed for the ERS project on "Manure Management for Improved Water Quality," is used to evaluate the cost and feasibility of manure land application as a manure management strategy at the regional level. This model is a nonlinear mathematical programming model of animal manure-nutrient production and distribution applied to the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The model is designed to assess regional costs of manure management, transport, and land applicatio...

  1. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  2. Production of mineral concentrates from animal manure using reverse osmosis : monitoring of pilot plants in 2012-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, P.; Buisonjé, de F.E.

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2011 the agricultural, economic and environmental effects of the production and use of mineral concentrates, produced from animal slurry, were studied. Part of the study was the monitoring of the 8 participating full-scale (pilot) plants to assess the chemical composition of the half

  3. Microbial community composition and electricity generation in cattle manure slurry treatment using microbial fuel cells: effects of inoculum addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Binghan; Gong, Weijia; Ding, An; Yu, Huarong; Qu, Fangshu; Tang, Xiaobin; Yan, Zhongsen; Li, Guibai; Liang, Heng

    2017-10-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a sustainable technology to treat cattle manure slurry (CMS) for converting chemical energy to bioelectricity. In this work, two types of allochthonous inoculum including activated sludge (AS) and domestic sewage (DS) were added into the MFC systems to enhance anode biofilm formation and electricity generation. Results indicated that MFCs (AS + CMS) obtained the maximum electricity output with voltage approaching 577 ± 7 mV (~ 196 h), followed by MFCs (DS + CMS) (520 ± 21 mV, ~ 236 h) and then MFCs with autochthonous inoculum (429 ± 62 mV, ~ 263.5 h). Though the raw cattle manure slurry (RCMS) could facilitate electricity production in MFCs, the addition of allochthonous inoculum (AS/DS) significantly reduced the startup time and enhanced the output voltage. Moreover, the maximum power (1.259 ± 0.015 W/m 2 ) and the highest COD removal (84.72 ± 0.48%) were obtained in MFCs (AS + CMS). With regard to microbial community, Illumina HiSeq of the 16S rRNA gene was employed in this work and the exoelectrogens (Geobacter and Shewanella) were identified as the dominant members on all anode biofilms in MFCs. For anode microbial diversity, the MFCs (AS + CMS) outperformed MFCs (DS + CMS) and MFCs (RCMS), allowing the occurrence of the fermentative (e.g., Bacteroides) and nitrogen fixation bacteria (e.g., Azoarcus and Sterolibacterium) which enabled the efficient degradation of the slurry. This study provided a feasible strategy to analyze the anode biofilm formation by adding allochthonous inoculum and some implications for quick startup of MFC reactors for CMS treatment.

  4. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Etesami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality and quantity of the product to follow. Manure is a valuable source of biological, ecological and environmental benefits is positive and its main use is for agricultural use. Radish is an important root vegetable that belongs to the cruciferous (Brassicaceae. Value radish on high levels of dietary is related to soluble fiber and antioxidants. Radish is a native plant to Asia, China and Europe. The oral part of the botanical garden radish is important and that kind of traditional varieties have long hypocotyls include root and hypocotyls made.The purpose of this test is to evaluate the different mixture amount of animal fertilizers on the growth and yield of radish plants and compare them to each other. Materials and Methods: In order to study of different manure effect on radish growth and yield, an experiment carried out in 2012-2013 in the greenhouse of Gonbad- Kavos University with geographical characteristics 37.16 degrees north, 55.12 ° east and with a height of 45 meters above sea level in a completely randomized design with four replications. Soil and fertilizers used to this experiment were made of the soil and livestock of Gonbad- Kavos University. Soil texture was Clay loam and pH was 7.7 obtained from soil analysis. To obtain the required levels of fertilizer treatments (25, 50, 75, 100, a measure was considered as the basis of each treatment on the basis of the ratio were calculated. The treatments included control (soil, 25 percent cow manure+ 75

  5. Towards improving the manure management chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Animal manures are major sources of nutrients and organic matter, to be used to fertilize crops and improve soil quality. However, when not properly managed, these manures release considerable amounts of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) into the air, and nitrogen (N) and

  6. MINERALS AND NITROGEN IN POULTRY MANURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    more expensive protein sources in ruminant rations. (Anonymous, 1960; Bistrop, Wilke, Nash, Nell, Mac-. Donald, Compaan, Grobler & Kingman, l97l; van der. Westhuizen & Hugo, 1972 a,b) though the high mineral content of manure is often neglected. Poultry manure can be sold in Soutli Africa as an animal food only if it ...

  7. 45 CFR 63.33 - Treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of animals. 63.33 Section 63.33 Public... animals. If animals are utilized in any project receiving assistance, the applicant for such assistance shall provide assurances satisfactory to the Assistant Secretary that such animals will be provided with...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Manure application to agricultural lands from confined animal feeding operations by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean livestock manure application to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006....

  9. WORKSHOP ON EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS AND ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANIMAL MANURES, BIOSOLIDS, AND OTHER SIMILAR BY-PRODUCTS: THE REST OF THE STORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will:Discuss the purpose of the workshopDiscussion publication of "Contemporary Perspectives on Infectious Disease Agents in Sewage Sludge and Manure.Present Table of ContentsDiscuss summaryDiscuss synthesis document

  10. Animal drugs in treatment of cerebral ischemia and their mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Hairong Zhao; Junya Chen; Fanmao Jin; Xiumei Wu; Zhendong Zhu; Jingxin Zhang; Yu Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Over the past half century, toxins or preparations from animals have drawn great attentions for their significant therapeutic effects in treatments of cerebral ischemia. Here, we review several such animal drugs, their mechanism of actions, and its outlook.

  11. Effects of different types and rates of organic manures on Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Perss. control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Orooji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different types and rates of animal manure and spent mushroom compost on controlling Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Perss. in tomato (Mill. Lycopersicon esculentum, two studies were conducted on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research green house, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Nemooneh field of Astane Ghods Razavi during two years of 2009 and 2010. Greenhouse study treatments were consist of poultry, cow, sheep manure and spent mushroom compost, which each one applied at four rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 t.ha-1. Field experiment treatments were included of poultry, cow and sheep manure that each one applied at two rates (20 and 40 t.ha-1. Result of the greenhouse study indicated that poultry manure significantly reduced orobanch infestation and increase tomato dry weight compared to control. But in the field experiment, the maximum fruit yield (68 t.ha-1 with the minimum orobanch dry weight were obtained with sheep manure. The effect of cow manure was similar to poultry manure in all measured traits. In the field study, rates of manure application had no significant effect on orobanch fresh and dry weights. The findings indicated that all treatments of animal manure reduced orobanch infestation. But the mechanism of orobanch growth suppression due to animal manures application is unknown. It seems fermentation of different organic matters can produced heat and the resulting toxic compounds such as certain organic acids, ammonia and ammonium salts that may reduce orobanch growth at proper concentrations.

  12. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and wheat straw for optimized biogas production by the addition of magnetite and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Haiwen; Chen, Yuanlin; Wang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Gaihe; Ren, Guangxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The additives of magnetite and zeolite in anaerobic digestion were studied. • Mineral additives increased methane production significantly. • Mineral additives provided a good environment for methanogens. • The optimum conditions for anaerobic digestion process were optimized. - Abstract: To enhance biogas production and identify new additive materials for the co-digestion of wheat straw, sheep manure, and chicken manure, batch experiments were investigated in this study. Experiments were conducted on the influence of additive materials on a range of manure/straw ratios (3:7, 5:5, and 7:3) and biogas production under a mesophilic temperature (35 °C). Results showed that the maximum increments of methane production (L/kg · VS add ) with the addition of 3 g magnetite and 1 g natural zeolite were 52.01% and 51.01%, respectively. The addition of magnetite and zeolite in the anaerobic digestion process produced a good fermentation environment. By using the response optimizer when the manure proportion was 52%, the best methane yield was obtained with the addition of 2.7 g magnetite. For zeolite, the best addition dose was 1 g and the optimum manure proportion is 63%. Magnetite had a more extensive increase in methane yield than zeolite

  14. Swine manure post-treatment technologies for pathogenic organism inactivation Tecnologias de pós-tratamento de dejetos suínos para inativar organismos patogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bilotta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Swine manure agricultural use is a common practice in Brazil. Their physic-chemical characteristics favor its use as biofertilizer, but the presence of pathogens may become a risk to human health. This research presents a qualitative study of the main alternatives of pig manure disinfection, analyzing efficiency, advantages and limitations of each procedure. The disinfection studies reported in literature are based on the following treatments: alkaline, thermal, biological, chemical, and physical. The greater efficiencies are in thermal treatment (> 4 log: 60 °C, chemical treatment (3 to 4 log: 30mg Cl- L-1; 3 to 4 log: 40 mg O3 L-1 and physical treatment (3 a 4 log: 220 mJ UV radiation cm-2. The biological treatment (anaerobiosis also promotes the pathogen reduction of swine manure, however with lower efficiency (1 to 2 log. The selection of the treatment should consider: implementation and operation cost, necessity of preliminary treatment, efficiency obtained and destination of the treated manure (agricultural use, water reuse. Brazilian regulation does not have specific guidelines for the microbiological quality of animal production effluents that is very important to be considered due to confined animal feeding operation transformation in the last years in the country.O uso agrícola de dejetos suínos é uma prática comum no Brasil. Suas características físico-químicas favorecem seu aproveitamento como biofertilizante, porém a presença de patógenos pode representar um risco à saúde humana. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo qualitativo das principais alternativas de desinfecção de dejetos suínos, analisando eficiência, vantagens e limitações de cada procedimento. Os estudos de desinfecção reportados na literatura são baseados nos seguintes tratamentos: alcalino, térmico, biológico, químico e físico. As maiores eficiências de redução de patógenos estão no tratamento térmico (>4 log: 60 °C, tratamento químico (3

  15. Vermicomposting of cattle and goat manures by Eisenia foetida and their growth and reproduction performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, T C; Lee, Y C; Liang, J B; Tan, D

    2005-01-01

    Vermicomposting is commonly adopted for the treatment of livestock organic wastes. In the present study, two types of livestock manure were used for culturing of the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. Each treatment group consisted of six replicates and worm vermicasts were examined after 5 weeks. The concentrations of total C, P and K in goat manure vermicasts were higher than those in cattle manure vermicasts. Cattle vermicasts had a higher N content than goat vermicasts but the C:N ratio of fresh manure was higher than that of vermicasts for both materials. Earthworm biomass and reproductive performance, in terms of number of worms after 5 weeks of experiment, were higher in cattle manure than in goat manure. The cocoon production per worm in cattle manure was higher than in goat manure. However, the hatchability of cocoons was not affected by manure treatments. In conclusion, cattle manure provided a more nutritious and friendly environment to the earthworms than goat manure.

  16. Degradation of Insecticides in Poultry Manure: Determining the Insecticidal Treatment Interval for Managing House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Ahmad, Hamdan

    2016-04-01

    It is crucial to understand the degradation pattern of insecticides when designing a sustainable control program for the house fly, Musca domestica (L.), on poultry farms. The aim of this study was to determine the half-life and degradation rates of cyromazine, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin by spiking these insecticides into poultry manure, and then quantitatively analyzing the insecticide residue using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The insecticides were later tested in the field in order to study the appropriate insecticidal treatment intervals. Bio-assays on manure samples were later tested at 3, 7, 10, and 15 d for bio-efficacy on susceptible house fly larvae. Degradation analysis demonstrated that cyromazine has the shortest half-life (3.01 d) compared with chlorpyrifos (4.36 d) and cypermethrin (3.75 d). Cyromazine also had a significantly greater degradation rate compared with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. For the field insecticidal treatment interval study, 10 d was the interval that had been determined for cyromazine due to its significantly lower residue; for ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin), the suggested interval was 7 d. Future work should focus on the effects of insecticide metabolites on targeted pests and the poultry manure environment.

  17. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Thais A; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    Stable flies are blood-feeding insects with a great negative impact on animals world wide. Larvae develop primarily in animal manure and bacteria are essential for larval development; however, the principle of this dependence is not understood. We hypothesized that as the microbial community of animal manure changes over time, it plays an important role in stable fly fitness. Two-choice bioassays were conducted using 2 week old horse manure (control) and aging horse manure (fresh to 5 week old) to evaluate the effect of manure age on stable fly oviposition. Our data showed that fresh feces did not stimulate oviposition and that the attractiveness increased as manure aged but started to decline after 3 weeks. Bioassays assessing the effect of manure age at the time of oviposition on larval development demonstrated that 1-3 week old manure supported larval development significantly better than fresh, 4, and 5 week old manure. In addition, adult fitness (body size) was significantly higher in flies from 1 and 2 week old manure comparing to that of all other treatments. Analysis of the bacterial community of aging horse manure by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed a great reduction in bacterial diversity and richness from fresh to 1-5 week old manure and a major shift from strict anaerobes in fresh manure to facultative anaerobes and strict aerobes in aged manure. Overall, the microbial community of 2 and 3 week old horse manure with its dominant bacterial taxa Rhizobium, Devosia, and Brevundimonas stimulated stable fly oviposition the most and provided a suitable habitat for larval development. These bacteria represent the candidates for studies focused on better understanding of stable fly - microbial interactions.

  18. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais eAlbuquerque

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable flies are blood-feeding insects with a great negative impact on animals worldwide. Larvae develop primarily in animal manure and bacteria are essential for larval development; however, the principle of this dependence is not understood. We hypothesized that as the microbial community of animal manure changes over time, it plays an important role in stable fly fitness. Two-choice bioassays were conducted using two week old horse manure (control and aging horse manure (fresh to 5 week old to evaluate the effect of manure age on stable fly oviposition. Our data showed that fresh feces did not stimulate oviposition and that the attractiveness increased as manure aged but started to decline after 3 weeks. Bioassays assessing the effect of manure age at the time of oviposition on larval development demonstrated that 1 to 3 week old manure supported larval development significantly better than fresh, 4, and 5 week old manure. In addition, adult fitness (body size was significantly higher in flies from 1 and 2 week old manure comparing to that of all other treatments. Analysis of the bacterial community of aging horse manure by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed a great reduction in bacterial diversity and richness from fresh to 1-5 week old manure and a major shift from strict anaerobes in fresh manure to facultative anaerobes and strict aerobes in aged manure. Overall, the microbial community of 2 and 3 week old horse manure with its dominant bacterial taxa Rhizobium, Devosia, and Brevudiomonas stimulated stable fly oviposition the most and provided a suitable habitat for larval development. These bacteria represent the candidates for studies focused on better understanding of stable fly - microbial interactions.

  19. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Naotake

    1979-01-01

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  20. Bedding additives reduce ammonia emission and improve crop N uptake after soil application of solid cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ghulam Abbas; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Groot, Jeroen C J; Traore, Bouba; Lantinga, Egbert A

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the influences of three potential additives, i.e., lava meal, sandy soil top-layer and zeolite (used in animal bedding) amended solid cattle manures on (i) ammonia (NH 3 ), dinitrous oxide (N 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions and (ii) maize crop or grassland apparent N recovery (ANR). Diffusion samplers were installed at 20 cm height on grassland surface to measure the concentrations of NH 3 from the manures. A photoacoustic gas monitor was used to quantitate the fluxes of N 2 O, CH 4 and CO 2 after manures' incorporation into the maize-field. Herbage ANR was calculated from dry matter yield and N uptake of three successive harvests, while maize crop ANR was determined at cusp of juvenile stage, outset of grain filling as well as physiological maturity stages. Use of additives decreased the NH 3 emission rates by about two-third from the manures applied on grassland surface than control untreated-manure. Total herbage ANR was more than doubled in treated manures and was 25% from manure amended with farm soil, 26% and 28% from zeolite and lava meal, respectively compared to 11% from control manure. In maize experiment, mean N 2 O and CO 2 emission rates were the highest from the latter treatment but these rates were not differed from zero control in case of manures amended with farm soil or zeolite. However, mean CH 4 emissions was not differed among all treatments during the whole measuring period. The highest maize crop ANR was obtained at the beginning of grain filling stage (11-40%), however ample lower crop recoveries (8-14%) were achieved at the final physiological maturity stage. This phenomenon was occurred due to leaf senescence N losses from maize crop during the period of grains filling. The lowest losses were observed from control manure at this stage. Hence, all additives decreased the N losses from animal manure and enhanced crop N uptake thus improved the agro-environmental worth of animal manure

  1. Potential of Waste Water Sludge as Environmental-Friendly Manure after UV-Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Zafar; Asif Javed; Syed Shahid Ali; Zubair Anwar; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak

    2012-01-01

    Due to exponential population increase in developing world, the wastewater and solid waste generation has tremendously increased and their management has become a serious health and environmental issue. A large amount of sewage sludge generated by sewage treatment plants however, can be re-used after proper segregation and treatment as fertilizer and for energy production. Hence, this study was carried out to find out the potential use of sludge produced at Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) S...

  2. Defluviitalea raffinosedens sp. nov., a thermophilic, anaerobic, saccharolytic bacterium isolated from an anaerobic batch digester treating animal manure and rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shichun; Huang, Yan; Wang, Cong; Fan, Hui; Dai, Lirong; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Xing; Deng, Yu

    2017-05-01

    A thermophilic, anaerobic, fermentative bacterium, strain A6T, was obtained from an anaerobic batch digester treating animal manure and rice straw. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, slightly curved rods with a size of 0.6-1×2.5-8.2 µm, non-motile and produced terminal spores. The temperature, pH and NaCl concentration ranges for growth were 40-60 °C, 6.5-8.0 and 0-15.0 g l-1, with optimum growth noted at 50-55 °C, pH 7.5 and in the absence of NaCl, respectively. Yeast extract was required for growth. d-Glucose, maltose, d-xylose, d-galactose, d-fructose, d-ribose, lactose, raffinose, sucrose, d-arabinose, cellobiose, d-mannose and yeast extract were used as carbon and energy sources. The fermentation products from glucose were ethanol, lactate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, iso-butyrate, iso-valerate, H2 and CO2. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.6 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 1, C14 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 N-alcohol and C13 : 0 3-OH. Respiratory quinones were not detected. The polar lipid profile comprised phosphoglycolipids, phospholipids, glycolipids, a diphosphatidylglycerol, a phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified lipid. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain was closely related to Defluviitalea saccharophila DSM 22681T with a similarity of 96.0 %. Based on the morphological, physiological and taxonomic characterization, strain A6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Defluviitalea, for which the name Defluviitalea raffinosedens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A6T (=DSM 28090T=ACCC 19951T).

  3. Borax and octabor treatment of stored swine manure to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorous gas emissions from stored swine manure are becoming serious environmental and health issues as the livestock industry becomes more specialized, concentrated, and industrialized. These nuisance gasses include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia, and methane, which are produced as a result of ana...

  4. Renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. The objective of this paper is to review the use of soybean peroxidase (SBP) and peroxides as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odor...

  5. Persistence of pathogens in liquid pig manure processed in manure tanks and biodigesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Betancur H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the study and another one at the end of the process in manure tanks and biodigesters. For the manure tank, a 250 liters tank was filled with fresh pig manure and was analyzed after three days of storage. The biodigesters were of continuous flow and its effluents were analyzed, according to the specific hydraulic retention times. The diagnostic techniques were those recommended specifically for each microorganism and were carried out in certified labs by the Colombian Animal Health authority. Results. Of the 26 pathogens that were investigated, 15 appeared in the fresh pig manure used in pig manure tanks and 12 in the one used in biodigestors. In manure tanks, Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, mold, yeast, Salmonella spp., Balantidium coli and Strongylids did not persist. In biodigesters, PCV2, yeast, Strongylids, B. coli and Strongyloides spp., did not persist. Conclusions. In both manure tanks and biodigesters, a variation could be seen in pathogen persistency, indicating that they act as transformation systems of pig manure for the removal of the latter, as long as the storage times are increased if the efficiency wants to be improved.

  6. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  7. Potential of biogas production with young bulls manure on batch biodigesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M.; Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The feedlot system concerning the young bull model allows that animals gain weight in a shorter time since there is higher daily intake of protein when compared to fiber. This change on animals' diet alters particularly manure characteristics and thus interferes on performance of biological systems of treatment. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of biogas production using manure of young bulls that received two different diets on batch biodigesters under three temperatures, with and without inoculum use. The results showed that manure from animals that received more protein on diet (80% concentrate + 20% roughage) had greater reductions on volatile solids when submitted to anaerobic biodigestion. Although the speed of biogas production was superior on treatments with inoculum, it was observed negative effect on inoculum use. There was no effect on temperature during biogas production. Regarding diet effect, manure of animals fed on diet with more protein produced larger amounts of biogas per kg of total added solids (0.2543) when compared to those who received less protein on diet (65% concentrate + 35% roughage), which meant 0.1001 m{sup 3} biogas/kg/total solids. (author)

  8. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental

  9. Interaction and coupling in the emission of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.; Groenestein, C.M.; Hilhorst, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g.,

  10. Aeration effect on the efficiency of swine manure treatment in a trickling filter packed with organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Zúñiga, M A; Lessard, P; Aubry, G; Buelna, G

    2007-01-01

    Effect of aeration rate on the removal of organic matter and nitrogen and on the formation of NH3, N2O and N2 was studied for an extensive biofiltration system packed with an organic media, which was used to treat pig manure. The results show high removal of BOD5 and TSS (99 and > or = 98%), independently of the four aeration rate tested (3.4-34 m3/m2 x h). Aeration rate > or = 4.4 m/h resulted in high ammonia stripping during start-up (> or = 1.0 kg NH3-N/m3 of swine manure treated), while using 3.4 m/h only 0.3 kg NH3-N/m3 were stripped. Complete nitrification was achieved after day 100 of operation, except in the biofilter with the lowest aeration rate. Simultaneous denitrification established in all the biofilters. Applying an aeration rate of 9.4 m/h up to 1.2 kg nitrogen was removed in the form of N2 for each m3 of swine manure treated. Contrary to the expectations, N2 formation and release increased with the aeration rate. This particular behaviour seems to be related to the punctual accumulation of water layers inside the biofilters, caused by the air force flowing in the opposite direction to the water flux. N2O production was quite similar in all biofilters (between 0.25-0.36 kg N2O-N/m3 of swine manure treated).

  11. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  12. Carbon sequestration in soils with annual inputs of maize biomass and maize-derived animal manure: Evidence from 13C abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2010-01-01

    The abundance of 13C was determined over a period of nine years in two soils (LUN, coarse sand; ASK, sandy loam) following their conversion from C3-crops and to the C4-crop silage maize (Zea mays L.). The soils were exposed to identical management and climatic conditions, and were sampled every s...... biomass averaged 19% while the retention of C added in maize-derived faeces was 30%. Our study infers that that ruminant manure C contributes about 50% more to soil C sequestration than C applied in crop residues...

  13. Effect of rainfall timing and tillage on the transport of steroid hormones in runoff from manure amended row crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sagor; Kranz, William L; Shapiro, Charles A; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Mamo, Mitiku; Tarkalson, David D; Zhang, Tian C; Shelton, David P; van Donk, Simon J; Mader, Terry L

    2017-02-15

    Runoff generated from livestock manure amended row crop fields is one of the major pathways of hormone transport to the aquatic environment. The study determined the effects of manure handling, tillage methods, and rainfall timing on the occurrence and transport of steroid hormones in runoff from the row crop field. Stockpiled and composted manure from hormone treated and untreated animals were applied to test plots and subjected to two rainfall simulation events 30days apart. During the two rainfall simulation events, detection of any steroid hormone or metabolites was identified in 8-86% of runoff samples from any tillage and manure treatment. The most commonly detected hormones were 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, testosterone, and α-zearalenol at concentrations ranging up to 100-200ngL -1 . Considering the maximum detected concentrations in runoff, no more than 10% of the applied hormone can be transported through the dissolved phase of runoff. Results from the study indicate that hormones can persist in soils receiving livestock manure over an extended period of time and the dissolved phase of hormone in runoff is not the preferred pathway of transport from the manure applied fields irrespective of tillage treatments and timing of rainfall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Tillage and Daily Manure Application on the Survival of Bacterial Pathogens Indicators in Soil and on Radish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Bjorneberg, D.L.; Verwey, Sh.

    2010-01-01

    We measured Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus sp. numbers in soil and on fresh radish (Raphanus sativus L.) at 1, 7, 14, 28, 54, and 84 days after the addition of high and low amounts of solid dairy manure in combination with chisel tillage to a 20 cm depth (deep) or roller tillage to a 10 cm depth (shallow). When the high or low amount of solid dairy manure was added to the soil, E. coli populations in soil were higher in the 54 days following manure addition compared to the control treatment. Dairy manure addition increased Enterococcus sp. in soils compared to the control treatment for the entire 84 days sampling period. At harvest, which was 84 days after application, we did not detect E. coli in radish in rhizosphere soil or on radish roots. Addition of solid dairy manure increased Enterococcus sp. numbers in radish rhizosphere soil and on radish roots. We suggest that fresh animal manure be applied to soil at least 120 days prior to planting to allow die-off of human pathogenic bacteria and reduce the incidence of bacterial adhesion on or bacterial colonization of ready to eat vegetables.

  15. The Physiological Response of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. to Manure and Super Absorbent Polymer under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rezai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate theeffect of different ratios of animal manure and super absorbent polymer on some physiological characteristics of fennel under drought stress conditions, an experiment was conducted as spilt-plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2015 at the University of Shahrekord. Different levels of drought stress consisted of three levels of: control (50 mm, 100 mm and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan assigned to the main factor and different ratios of animal manure and super absorbent polymer in six levels including: D1: lack of manure and super absorbent polymer, D2: 10 t.ha-1 manure + 150 kg.ha-1 super absorbent polymer, D3: 20 t.ha-1 manure + 100 kg.ha-1 super absorbent polymer, D4: 30 t.ha-1 manure + 50 kg.ha-1super absorbent polymer, D5: 40 t.ha-1 manure and D6: 200 kg.ha-1 super absorbent polymer to the sub-factor. The results showed that the drought stress and animal manure and super absorbent polymer and their interactions had a significant effect on proline, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid contents, seed and essential oil yields. Also, the highest seed yield (146.66 g.m-2, essential oil yield (2.99 g.m-2 and carotenoid were obtained from control with D6. The highest proline content was obtained from 150 mm with the use of D4. The highest chlorophyll b was obtained from control and D3. The highest relative water content and total chlorophyll were obtained from control and D6, while the highest chlorophyll a was achieved from control and D4 treatment. In general, the highest seed and essential oil yields were obtained from 50 mm evaporation and 200 kg/ha superabsorbent polymer treatments. On the other hand, the effects of drought stress on seed and essential oil yields decreased by application of 40 t/ha manure at 100 mm evaporation conditions. Also, at 150 mm evaporation and use of manure and superabsorbent polymer (30 t.ha-1 and 50 kg/ha, respectively, the effects of drought stress on seed and

  16. Ammonia and nitrous oxide interactions - the role of manure organic matter management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.O.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2011-01-01

    and N transformations at each stage of the manure management chain in a time scale that is relevant for management practices such as retention time in housing and storage, treatment to optimize nutrient management, and timing of field application. Modelling emissions of N2O from field applied manure...... is a particular challenge due to the heterogeneity in distribution of O2 supply and O2 demand which is introduced. This article is part of the special issue entitled: Greenhouse Gases in Animal Agriculture – Finding a Balance between Food and Emissions, Guest Edited by T.A. McAllister, Section Guest Editors; K......, mineralization–immobilization turnover, and water retention. Manure management affects the potential for, and balance between, NH3 and N2O emissions. The interaction between NH3 and N2O may be positive (e.g., both emissions are reduced by an airtight cover during storage and stimulated by composting...

  17. Antibiotic uptake by plants from manure-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassil, Rani J; Bashour, Isam I; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Abou-Jawdeh, Youssef A

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are extensively given to livestock to promote growth and reduce diseases. Therefore, animal manure often contains antibiotics. Once manure is applied to agricultural land to improve soil productivity, crops would be exposed to antibiotics which may persist in soils from a few to several hundred days. The objective of this study was to evaluate the uptake of gentamicin and streptomycin by carrot (Daucus carota), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and radish (Rhaphanus sativus) from manure-amended soil. The treatments were 0, 0.5 and 1 mg of antibiotic kg⁻¹ of soil. Two pot experiments were carried out in the greenhouse. The first was conducted on the three crops and the second exclusively on radish. In radish, the increase in the concentrations of gentamicin was significant between the 0 and both of 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg⁻¹ treatments, but not significant between the 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg⁻¹. The average values were 35.5, 60.0 and 57.4 μg kg⁻¹ for the 0, 0.5 and 1 mg kg⁻¹ rates, respectively. However, the increase in streptomycin concentration in radish was not significant between the three treatments, and the average values were, 12.1, 15.2 and 17.4 μg kg⁻¹ for the 0, 0.5 and 1 mg kg⁻¹ rates, respectively. In carrot roots and lettuce leaves no significant increase in the concentrations of gentamicin or streptomycin was observed between the treatments. The three crops absorbed relatively higher amounts of gentamicin (small molecule) than streptomycin (large molecule). Generally the levels of antibiotics in plant tissue increased with increasing the antibiotic concentration in the manure (1 mg kg⁻¹ > 0.5 mg kg⁻¹).

  18. Treatment planning for a small animal using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, James C. L.; Leung, Michael K. K.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a small animal model for radiotherapy research requires a complete setup of customized imaging equipment, irradiators, and planning software that matches the sizes of the subjects. The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate the use of a flexible in-house research environment for treatment planning on small animals. The software package, called DOSCTP, provides a user-friendly platform for DICOM computed tomography-based Monte Carlo dose calculation using the EGSnrcMP-based DOSXYZnrc code. Validation of the treatment planning was performed by comparing the dose distributions for simple photon beam geometries calculated through the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system and measurements. A treatment plan for a mouse based on a CT image set by a 360-deg photon arc is demonstrated. It is shown that it is possible to create 3D conformal treatment plans for small animals with consideration of inhomogeneities using small photon beam field sizes in the diameter range of 0.5-5 cm, with conformal dose covering the target volume while sparing the surrounding critical tissue. It is also found that Monte Carlo simulation is suitable to carry out treatment planning dose calculation for small animal anatomy with voxel size about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the human

  19. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus in Manure Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus in Manure Production dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus manure produced and...

  20. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen in Manure Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen in Manure Production dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen manure produced and...

  1. A full-scale house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae bioconversion system for value-added swine manure reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Zhang, Zhijian; Czapar, George F; Winkler, Mari K H; Zheng, JianGuo

    2013-02-01

    Manure produced from confined animal farms can threaten public and environmental health if not managed properly. Herein, a full-scale commercial bioconversion operation in DeQing County, China for value-added swine manure reduction using house fly, Musca domestica L., larvae is reported. The greenhouse-assisted larvae bioreactor had a maximum daily treatment capacity of 35 m(3) fresh raw manure per day. The bioconversion process produced a fresh larvae yield of 95-120 kg m(3) fresh raw manure. This process provided an alternative animal foodstuff (having 56.9 and 23.8% protein and total fat as dry matter, respectively), as well as captured nutrients for agricultural re-utilization. Bioconversion reduced odour emission (characterized by 3-methylindole) and the Escherichia coli (E. coli) index by 94.5 and 92.0%, respectively, and reductions in total weight, moisture and total Kjeldahl nitrogen in solids were over 67.2, 80.0 and 76.0%, respectively. Yearly profit under this trial period ranged from US$33.4-46.1 per m(3). It is concluded that swine manure larvae bioconversion technology with subsequent production of value-added bio-products can be a promising avenue when considering a programme to reduce waste products in an intensive animal production system.

  2. Assessment of heavy metal flows in animal husbandry and development of a stategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into agro-ecosystems by animal manures; Erfassung von Schwermetallstroemen in landwirtschaftlichen Tierproduktionsbetrieben und Erarbeitung einer Konzeption zur Verringerung der Schwermetalleintraege durch Wirtschaftsduenger tierischer Herkunft in Agraroekosysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, U.; Doehler, H.; Roth, U.; Eckel, H.; Goldbach, H.; Kuehnen, V.; Wilcke, W.; Uihlein, A.; Fruechtenicht, K.; Steffens, G.

    2004-07-01

    The overall objectives of the project were to assess heavy metal flows on livestock farms and to develop a strategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into animal manures. For the experiments 20 farms with animal husbandry in various regions of Germany were selected. On the farms the inputs and outputs of the elements copper and zinc, as well as lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel were balanced at the stable level. The effect of abatement measures was evaluated using a calculation tool for stable balances. It is shown, the main input pathways for heavy metals into animal manures are, apart from copper disinfectants, feeding stuffs and feed supplements. Home grown feeds are the major source of heavy metal input into the stable because they are fed in large quantities. However, the heavy metal content of the home grown feeds in particular of roughages for ruminants is low. Purchased feed stuffs (supplementary feeding stuffs and complete feeding stuffs) were found to have a higher content of heavy metals (due to supplementation with trace elements) compared to home grown feeds. Thus, pig and poultry husbandry rather than ruminant husbandry is susceptible to heavy metal accumulation of manures. Heavy metals are cycling within the farm which is of importance when discussing the environmental impact. The turnover within the farm can hardly be controlled by the farmer. Thus, effective strategies have to be targeted at the inputs, e. g. the purchased feed stuffs. A main option to reduce the heavy metal input is to lower the trace element concentrations in supplementary feed stuffs either by legislation of maximum threshold values (e. g. EG 1334/2003) or by volunteer agreements of the feed industry and agriculture. In addition, the absorption of copper and zinc by the animals should be improved using better absorbable trace element compounds and phytase. (orig.)

  3. Solubility of manure phosphorus characterized by selective and sequential extractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing awareness of the severity of the problem of phosphorus (P) derived from agricultural production moving off-farm and threatening water quality has led to the search for methods to characterize the forms and potential solubilities of phosphorus in food animal manures and manure products...

  4. effect of farmyard manure on senescence, nitrogen and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    double manure treatment than those treated with single manure treatment. Between the two seasons, senescence started earlier rainy season than in dry season. On the other hand nitrogen and protein content of the leaves and grains were higher in IT89KD – 288 than in Kanannado, also between the treatment double ...

  5. Changes in physical properties and organic carbon of a Kandiudox fertilized with manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Patricia Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Successive applications of pig slurry and poultry manure can improve the soil structure, according to the land use conditions and amounts applied. This study evaluated the effect of manure fertilization on the physical properties and organic carbon of a Rhodic Kandiudox. Treatments included land use and management and time of pig slurry and poultry litter application, namely: native forest (NF; yerba mate after 20 years of animal waste application (YM20; pasture after 15 years of application (P15; grassland after 20 years of manuring (PP20; grassland after 3 years of manuring (P3; pasture without application (P0, maize after 20 years of application (M20; and maize after 7 years of application (M7. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm layers, in which density, porosity, aggregate stability, flocculation, penetration resistance, available water, and total clay content, total and particulate organic carbon, and C:N ratio were analyzed. The total organic carbon is sensitive to management and was not related to waste application, except in the 10-20cm layer of ryegrass pasture after three years of manuring. Reponses to waste application and land use and management systems were observed in the variables soil density and penetration resistance.

  6. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu; Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi

    1979-01-01

    A new method of waste treatment of animal carcass contaminated with plutonium was proposed. A multi-step process was designed and tested at a laboratory scale which was composed of the following processes; microwave dehydration, heat decomposition and ashing. Microwave dehydration was found the most adequate as the first step of the treatment because of the negligible release of nonvolatile radioactivity. About 70% of body weight was reduced by microwave dehydration. Dehydrated animal carcass was decomposed by graded electric heating under anaerobic condition. Burnable gas and vapour produced by the heat decomposition were oxidized by passing through a reheating tube with excess air. The exhaust gas had no significant radioactivity. The residue of charred carcass was oxidized by heating with excess air. The weight of final product was up to 8% of original wet weight. The proposed multi-step process provided to be adequate for the waste disporsal of Pu contaminated animal carcass. (author)

  7. Animal models for arthritis: innovative tools for prevention and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollias, G.; Papadaki, P.; Apparailly, F.; Vervoordeldonk, M.J.; Holmdahl, R.; Baumans, V.; Desaintes, C.; Di Santo, J.; Distler, J.; Garside, P.; Hegen, M.; Huizinga, T.W.J.; Jüngel, A.; Klareskog, L.; McInnes, I.; Ragoussis, I.; Schett, G.; Hart, B.t.; Tak, P.P.; Toes, R.; van den Berg, W.; Wurst, W.; Gay, S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of novel treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) requires the interplay between clinical observations and studies in animal models. Given the complex molecular pathogenesis and highly heterogeneous clinical picture of RA, there is an urgent need to dissect its multifactorial nature

  8. Impacts of delayed addition of N-rich and acidic substrates on nitrogen loss and compost quality during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishao; Kang, Kang; Chen, Dan; Liu, Ningning

    2018-02-01

    Delayed addition of Nitrogen (N)-rich and acidic substrates was investigated to evaluate its effects on N loss and compost quality during the composting process. Three different delayed adding methods of N-rich (pig manure) and acidic substrates (phosphate fertilizer and rotten apples) were tested during the pig manure and wheat straw is composting. The results showed that delayed addition of pig manure and acidic materials led two temperature peaks, and the durations of two separate thermophilic phase were closely related to the amount of pig manure. Delayed addition reduced total N loss by up to 14% when using superphosphate as acidic substrates, and by up to 12% when using rotten apples as acidic substrates, which is mainly due to the decreased NH 3 emissions. At the end of composting, delayed the addition of pig manure caused a significant increase in the HS (humus substance) content, and the highest HS content was observed when 70% of the pig manure was applied at day 0 and the remaining 30% was applied on day 27. In the final compost, the GI in all treatments almost reached the maturity requirement by exceeding 80%. The results suggest that delayed addition of animal manure and acidic substrates could prevent the N loss during composting and improve the compost quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  10. Short chain nitrocompounds as a treatment of layer hen manure and litter; effects on in vitro survivability of Salmonella, generic E. coli and nitrogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Barrera, Oscar; Anderson, Robin C; Hume, Michael E; Corrales-Millan, Jonatan; Castillo-Castillo, Yamicela; Corral-Luna, Agustin; Guevara-Valdez, Jose Luis; Salinas-Chavira, Jaime; Rodriguez-Muela, Carlos; Arzola-Alvarez, Claudio

    2017-01-02

    The current study was conducted to assess the bactericidal effectiveness of several nitrocompounds against pathogens in layer hen manure and litter. Evidence from an initial study indicated that treatment of layer hen manure with 12 mM nitroethane decreased populations of generic E. coli and total coliforms by 0.7 and 2.2 log 10 colony forming units (CFU) g -1 , respectively, after 24 h aerobic incubation at ambient temperature when compared to untreated populations. Salmonella concentrations were unaffected by nitroethane in this study. In a follow-up experiment, treatment of 6-month-old layer hen litter (mixed with 0.4 mL water g -1 ) with 44 mM 2-nitroethanol, 2-nitropropanol or ethyl nitroacetate decreased an inoculated Salmonella typhimurium strain from its initial concentration (3 log 10 CFU g -1 ) by 0.7 to 1.7 log 10 CFU g -1 after 6 h incubation at 37°C in covered containers. After 24 h incubation, populations of the inoculated S. Typhmiurium in litter treated with 44 mM 2-nitroethanol, 2-nitropropanol, ethyl nitroacetate or nitroethane were decreased more than 3.2 log 10 CFU g -1 compared to populations in untreated control litter. Treatment of litter with 44 mM 2-nitroethanol, 2-nitropropanol, ethyl nitroacetate decreased rates of ammonia accumulation more than 70% compared to untreated controls (0.167 µmol mL -1 h -1 ) and loses of uric acid (nitrocompounds may help prevent loss of nitrogen in treated litter. Results warrant further research to determine if these nitrocompounds can be developed into an environmentally sustainable and safe strategy to eliminate pathogens from poultry litter, while preserving its nitrogen content as a nutritionally valuable crude protein source for ruminants.

  11. Leaching impact assessment in liquid manure application to Tulip tree experimental site using Root Zone Water Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure recycling as a fertilizer is one of solutions for the environmental problem related with livestock manure treatment as well as the ocean dumping ban act prohibiting manure disposal to the ocean in Korea. For the manure disposal, tree plantation area is being a candidate place. However, the ma...

  12. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  13. Response of cowpea, okra and tomato sawdust ash manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at Akure and Obaile in Southwest Nigeria to test effect of sawdust ash manure treatments on cowpea (var. 1T82D – 716), okra (var. NAAe – 47 – 4) and Roma variety of tomato. The nutrient analysis of leaf and pod of okra given by different sawdust ash manure treatments was done.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of nitrogen rich poultry manure: Impact of thermophilic biogas process on metal release and microbial resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Reshma; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Krakat, Niclas

    2017-02-01

    Poultry manure is a nitrogen rich fertilizer, which is usually recycled and spread on agricultural fields. Due to its high nutrient content, chicken manure is considered to be one of the most valuable animal wastes as organic fertilizer. However, when chicken litter is applied in its native form, concerns are raised as such fertilizers also include high amounts of antibiotic resistant pathogenic Bacteria and heavy metals. We studied the impact of an anaerobic thermophilic digestion process on poultry manure. Particularly, microbial antibiotic resistance profiles, mobile genetic elements promoting the resistance dissemination in the environment as well as the presence of heavy metals were focused in this study. The initiated heat treatment fostered a community shift from pathogenic to less pathogenic bacterial groups. Phenotypic and molecular studies demonstrated a clear reduction of multiple resistant pathogens and self-transmissible plasmids in the heat treated manure. That treatment also induced a higher release of metals and macroelements. Especially, Zn and Cu exceeded toxic thresholds. Although the concentrations of a few metals reached toxic levels after the anaerobic thermophilic treatment, the quality of poultry manure as organic fertilizer may raise significantly due to the elimination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and self-transmissible plasmids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure storages, and in particular those storing digested manure, are a source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Permeable manure storage covers can reduce NH3 emissions, however performance can decline as they degrade. Thermochemical conversion of biomass through pyrolysis and steam treatment could incre...

  16. Research on animal laser varicose treatment in CIOMP, CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Laiming; Li, Dianjun; Lu, Qipeng; Yang, Guilong; Guo, Jin

    2007-05-01

    The work on laser varicose treatment carried out in CIOMP, CAS cooperating with The First Clinical Hospital, Jilin University is summarized. Dozens of animal experiments adopting dog and rabbit samples are made in a long time of several years. Different lasers are used, including long pulse frequency-doubled Nd:YAG(532nm) and semiconductor laser(808nm). Dozens of animal experiments show that laser has good efficacy to occlude the vein vessels. It has precise adjustability and relatively short treatment time only needing outpatient office setting with high cost and effect rate; It provides minimal invasion, often under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation thereby eliminating the need for general anesthesia, greatly shortens postoperative recovery term, and it is highly safe with no side effects and no serious complications.

  17. Biogas production from steer manures in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cuong H.; Saggar, Surinder; Vu, Cuong C.

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, the simple biogas digesters installed underground without heating or stirring are seen as a 'green' technology to convert animal waste into biogas, a source of bio-energy. However, quantitative estimates of biogas production of manures from steers fed local feed diets...

  18. Farm-scale testing of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for surficial swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-10-01

    The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide (CaO2) was found to be effective in mitigating gaseous emissions from swine manure. Thus, a farm-scale experiment was conducted at the university's 178-pig, shallow-pit, mechanically-ventilated swine barn to evaluate SBP/CaO2 as a surficial manure pit additive under field conditions. The SBP was applied once at the beginning of the 42-day experiment at an application rate of 2.28 kg m-2 with 4.2% CaO2 added by weight. Gas samples were collected from the primary barn exhaust fans. As compared to the control, significant reductions in gaseous emissions were observed for ammonia (NH3, 21.7%), hydrogen sulfide (H2S, 79.7%), n-butyric acid (37.2%), valeric acid (47.7%), isovaleric acid (39.3%), indole (31.2%), and skatole (43.5%). Emissions of dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT) increased by 30.6%. Emissions of p-cresol were reduced by 14.4% but were not statistically significant. There were no significant changes to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The total (material + labor) treatment cost was 2.62 per marketed pig, equivalent to 1.5% of the pig market price. The cost of CaO2 catalyst was ∼60% of materials cost. The cost of soybean hulls (SBP source) was 0.60 per marketed pig, i.e., only 40% of materials cost.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of manure - consequences for plant production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Pommeresche, Reidun; Johansen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming systems are today dependent upon fossil energy. Another challenge are soil nutrient concentrations, which may be depleted with time even in animal husbandry systems (Løes & Øgaard 2001). Anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal manure may produce biogas to replace fossil fuels, and reduce...... methane (CH4) emissions during manure storage. Co-digestion of substrates rich in energy increases the economic viability of the biogas plant, and off-farm substrates such as fish silage or household waste may add nutrients to the farming system. AD may also ease manure handling, while reducing the amount...

  20. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  1. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets..., AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.22 Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may be...

  2. Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil properties and rice yield in rice-based cropping systems. ... The effects of treatments on rice yield and its components were also investigated. ... Based on the results, BBRH and PTS are good practices for production of green manure in paddy soil. Chemical ...

  3. Poultry manure application and varietal effects of chilli-pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural practices such as organic manure application can affect soil fertility and also insect pest and disease incidence on the plant. The effect of poultry manure application was therefore evaluated in relation to the infestation by major insect pests and disease of pepper in a humid tropical agro-ecosystem. Treatments ...

  4. Influence Of Different Types Of Organic Manure On Yield And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result shows that application of poultry manure increased fruit yield, the leaf yield and nitrogen content of the leaves significantly (p=0.05). Poultry manure gave the best result followed by pig slurry while plants without any treatment gave the least yield and mineral composition. Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences Vol.

  5. Criterious preparation and characterization of earthworm-composts in view of animal waste recycling. Part I. Correlation between chemical, thermal and FTIR spectroscopic analyses of four humic acids from earthworm-composted animal manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangrich Antonio S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids (HA were extracted from sheep (SH, cow (CO, goat (GO and rabbit (RA manures which were vermicomposted with the earthworm Eisenia foetida. HA DSC curves showed well-defined thermal events indicative of intramolecular bonds (300 ºC and intermolecular organo-mineral linkages (500 ºC. All samples showed high nitrogen contents (from peptide chains and probably N-heterocycles and aromatic and/or unsaturated aliphatic conjugated structures, as well as a low carboxylic functionality content. The SH-HA was the most similar to a medium soil HA and the RA-HA being the least similar. The results show that it is possible to prepare distinct worm-composts to solve specific problems of degraded soils.

  6. Weed suppression by green manure in an agroecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Garicoix Recalde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manure promotes efficient suppression of weeds, but green manure species can exhibit distinct behaviors, depending on the environmental conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of soil mulching and weed suppression by spring/summer green manure species grown in the spring/summer season, at different growth stages and after management (cut, for 90 days during the cassava crop cycle. The study was carried out in the 2010/2011 season, in a system managed under agroecological principles. The treatments consisted of different green manure species and arrangements: Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia brasiliensis, Canavalia ensiformis, Pennisetum americanum, Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum intercropped; Mucuna aterrima, Sorghum bicolor, a mixture of all the green manures in study and a control plot under fallow. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The evaluations of the soil cover either by the green manures or weeds were performed at 45, 90 and 105 days after the emergence of the green manures. The cassava crop was planted under reduced tillage system at 11 days after the cut of the green manures. The percentage of soil covered by weeds and the dry matter produced were evaluated at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting. The results showed that the green manures had a suppressive effect on weeds during their life cycle, as well as during the first months after its management (cut, composing the mulch.

  7. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Etesami; F. Tajpour; M. Khosravi; A. Biabani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality a...

  8. Method for extraction of proteins and phosphate minerals from swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recovery of phosphorus and proteins from manure could be advantageous to both offset costs and to improve and lessen the environmental impacts of manure storage and treatment. Phosphorous in manure can contaminate rivers, lakes, and bays through runoff, if applied onto a cropland excessively. Th...

  9. Dissecting OCD Circuits: From Animal Models to Targeted Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari, Susanne E.; Dougherty, Darin D.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic, severe mental illness with up to 2–3% prevalence worldwide, which has been classified as one of the world’s 10 leading causes of illness-related disability according to the World Health Organization, largely because of the chronic nature of disabling symptoms 1. Despite the severity and high prevalence of this chronic and disabling disorder, there is still relatively limited understanding of its pathophysiology. However, this is now rapidly changing due to development of powerful technologies that can be used to dissect the neural circuits underlying pathologic behaviors. In this article, we describe recent technical advances that have allowed neuroscientists to start identifying the circuits underlying complex repetitive behaviors using animal model systems. In addition, we review current surgical and stimulation-based treatments for OCD that target circuit dysfunction. Finally, we discuss how findings from animal models may be applied in the clinical arena to help inform and refine targeted brain stimulation-based treatment approaches. PMID:25952989

  10. Perspectives of treating swine manure biodigestors in projects of carbon capture in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mario Rodrigues Marques

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects proposed in the Kyoto Protocol constitute an interesting way of protecting the environment and at the same time promoting sustainable economic development in emerging economy countries. Possible CDM projects include the treatment of swine manure using biodigestion, which would provide an opportunity for Brazil to actively participate in the carbon credits market. Brazil is currently the world’s third leading swine producer (36 million animals. This study aims to demonstrate that the treatment of swine manure using bio digestion can minimize environmental impact and also contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere by approximately 19 million tons per year, generating around US$ 78 million in carbon credits for Brazil annually.

  11. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1980-01-01

    A method of dehydration for the waste treatment of radioactive animal carcass by microwave heating was developed. A heating apparatus was devised by annexing the microwave output controlling circuit to a 600 W commercial microwave oven, and the aqueous vapour from the animal carcass was collected by duplex cold traps. Body weight of the carcass was reduced to 20-30% by dehydration, and a three-year storage test proved that the dehydrated carcass was very hard to decompose. Time needed for dehydration was about 10 min for a 25 g mouse, and about 1 hr for 668 g dog. Violent rupture of the carcass, and/or fuming due to overheating that had often been observed during dehydration were proved to be avoidable by controlling the microwave output during the process. The ratio of radioactivity ( 60 Co, 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 144 Ce) that escaped from the carcass during dehydration was found to be less than 3 x 10 -4 by a series of experiment. Some related radiation safety problems were discussed. (author)

  12. Ovarian cysts in domestic animals: etiopathogenesis and treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M. Marinho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available . This literature review aims to address ovarian cysts on their etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, seeking to clarify and inform, because it is a high prevalence and pathogenicity that causes damage to the segments of production and reproduction of animals, especially dairy cows high production. Given the significant occurrence of ovarian alterations, the study covers the main types and their ratings also address predisposing factors, interference due to cystic formations and what types of cysts may or may not cause changes in the physiology of the estrous cycle of females, work also seeks to emphasize the importance of monitoring and early diagnosis in order to minimize the costs and disposal of matrices.

  13. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  14. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Growth and Yield Performance of Banana (Musa acuminate L. as Affected by Different Farm Manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda C. Panelo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Integrated Sustainable Agri-Techno Demo Farm (ISATDF of the Pangasinan State University, Sta. Maria Campus, Sta. Maria, Pangasinan from October 15, 2013 to August 18, 2014 with a duration of 308 days. This study aimed to determine the growth and yield performance of banana (Musa acuminata L. as affected by different farm manures. Specifically, it attempted to: (1 determine the effect of different farm manures on the growth and yield performance of banana; and to (2 determine the cost and return of the different farm manures. The experiment was laid out using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences between treatments using F-test at 5 and 1 percent levels of significance and the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT was used to evaluate the differences among treatment means. The treatments used were the following: T1 - chicken manure, T2 - cow manure, T3 - goat manure, and T4 - hog manure. The results revealed that the application of chicken manure recorded the tallest plants (5.27 cm, most number of suckers (340. The application of chicken manure and goat manure significantly increased the mid-trunk diameter (25.63cm and (25.62 cm; finger length (14.33 cm and (13.13 cm; finger diameter (3.60 cm each; and weight of fruits (450kgs each. Net income and return on investment (ROI were also influenced by chicken manure and goat manure. Application of chicken manure and goat manure significantly enhanced the yield quality attributes and income of banana compared to the other sources of organic manure

  16. Centrifuge separation effect on bacterial indicator reduction in dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zong; Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C; Roa-Espinosa, Aicardo; Runge, Troy

    2017-04-15

    Centrifugation is a commonly applied separation method for manure processing on large farms to separate solids and nutrients. Pathogen reduction is also an important consideration for managing manure. Appropriate treatment reduces risks from pathogen exposure when manure is used as soil amendments or the processed liquid stream is recycled to flush the barn. This study investigated the effects of centrifugation and polymer addition on bacterial indicator removal from the liquid fraction of manure slurries. Farm samples were taken from a manure centrifuge processing system. There were negligible changes of quantified pathogen indicator concentrations in the low-solids centrate compared to the influent slurry. To study if possible improvements could be made to the system, lab scale experiments were performed investigating a range of g-forces and flocculating polymer addition. The results demonstrated that polymer addition had a negligible effect on the indicator bacteria levels when centrifuged at high g forces. However, the higher g force centrifugation was capable of reducing bacterial indicator levels up to two-log 10 in the liquid stream of the manure, although at speeds higher than typical centrifuge operations currently used for manure processing applications. This study suggests manure centrifuge equipment could be redesigned to provide pathogen reduction to meet emerging issues, such as zoonotic pathogen control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the ethical basis of animal treatment in Malawi | Kayange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper argues that the maltreatment/cruelty and destruction of animals common in Malawi is rooted in an African form of utilitarian ethics and a biased conception of animals that is promoted by Umunthu/Ubuntu ethical discourse. It explores the possibility of developing or discovering a moral ground for animal ethics ...

  18. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  19. Modelos não lineares para a liberação de potássio de estercos animais em latossolos Non linear models to potassium release from animals manure in Latosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmes Marques Zeviani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modelos não lineares são adequados para a descrição da liberação de nutrientes, uma vez que estimam quantidades de interesse prático e apresentam boa qualidade de ajuste. Embora seu processo inferencial seja baseado em argumentos assintóticos, existem meios de se conhecer a intensidade da não linearidade. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a não linearidade de dois modelos de regressão não linear por meio das curvaturas de Bates e Watts, vício de Box e do estudo das propriedades amostrais dos estimadores de mínimos quadrados, obtido por simulação. Os dados são provenientes do estudo, ao longo do tempo, da liberação de K de quatro estercos animais em combinação com dois solos. O modelo Exponencial foi mais adequado, em termos inferenciais e para aplicação prática, uma vez que por todas as medidas apresentou menor não linearidade.Nonlinear models are appropriate to describe nutrient release, since they estimate quantities of practical interest and they have goodness of fit. Although its inferential process is based on asymptotic arguments, there are ways to know the nonlinearity intensity. In this work, we evaluate the nonlinearity of two nonlinear regression models through the curvatures of Bates e Watts, bias of Box and the least squares estimator sampling properties by simulation study. The data are from the study, over time, of the K release from 4 animal manure in combination with 2 soils. The exponential model was more appropriate in terms of inferential and practical aspects, since by all measures showed lower nonlinearity.

  20. Nitrogen potential recovery and concentration of ammonia from swine manure using electrodialysis coupled with air stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippersiel, D; Mondor, M; Lamarche, F; Tremblay, F; Dubreuil, J; Masse, L

    2012-03-01

    The practice of intensive animal production in certain areas has resulted in excessive manure production for the available regional land base. Consequently, there is a need to develop treatment technologies to recover the valuable nutrients that manure contains so that the resulting product can be transported and used as fertilizer on agricultural land. The project presented here used electrodialysis in a dilution/concentration configuration to transfer the manure ammonia in the diluate solution by electromigration to an adjacent solution separated by an ion-exchange membrane under the driving force of an electrical potential. Then, air stripping from the electrodialysis-obtained concentrate solution without pH modification was used to isolate the ammonia in an acidic solution. An optimal process operating voltage of 17.5 V was first determined on the basis of current efficiency and total energy consumption. During the process, the swine manure pH varied from 8.5 to 8.2, values favourable for NH(4)(+) electromigration. Total ammonia nitrogen reached 21,352 mg/L in the concentrate solution, representing approximately seven times the concentration in the swine manure. Further increases in concentration were limited by water transfer from the diluate solution due to electroosmosis and osmosis. Applying vacuum to the concentrate reservoir was found to be more efficient than direct concentrate solution aeration for NH(3) recuperation in the acid trap, given that the ammonia recuperated under vacuum represented 14.5% of the theoretical value of the NH(3) present in the concentrate solution as compared to 6.2% for aeration. However, an excessively low concentrate solution pH (8.6-8.3) limited NH(3)volatilization toward the acid trap. These results suggest that the concentrate solution pH needs to be raised to promote the volatile NH(3) form of total ammonia nitrogen. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Kinetic of Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure in Batch Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Budiyono; I N. Widiasa; S. Johari; Sunarso

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the kinetic of biogas production was studied by performing a series laboratory experiment using rumen fluid of animal ruminant as inoculums. Cattle manure as substrate was inoculated by rumen fluid to the anaerobic biodigester. Laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid by manure : rumen weight ratio of 1:1 (MR11). The operating temperatures...

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr. −1 (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr. −1 (1 Tg = 10 12 g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun, E-mail: qichun.yang@pnnl.gov [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Tian, Hanqin, E-mail: tianhan@auburn.edu [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Li, Xia [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Ren, Wei [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Zhang, Bowen [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhang, Xuesong [Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wolf, Julie [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.{sup −1} (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr.{sup −1} (1 Tg = 10{sup 12} g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in

  4. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) effect on methane yield: verification in continuously fed digesters. • AAS resulted in 98% increase of the methane yield of swine manure fibers in continuously fed digesters. • ADM1 was successfully adapted to simulating anaerobic digestion of swine manure. • Modification of hydrolysis kinetics was necessary for an adequate simulation of the digestion of AAS-treated fibers. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per 0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly contribute to the methane production. In the second place, ADM1 was used to describe biogas production from the codigestion of manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The model predictions regarding biogas production and methane content were in good agreement with the experimental data. It was shown that, AAS treatment significantly increased the disintegration and hydrolysis rate of the carbohydrate compounds of the fibers. The effect of the addition of AAS treated fibers on the kinetics of the conversion of other key compounds such as volatile fatty acids was negligible.

  5. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm 3 ). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 +/- 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean +/- Standard Deviation) and 1.73 +/- 0.29 Tg P yr.(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs inmanure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  7. Methane production in low-cost, unheated, plug-flow digesters treating swine manure and used cooking grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Stephanie; Martin, Jay F; Botero, Raúl Botero; da Silva, Tatiana Nogueira; da Silva, Ederson Dias

    2010-06-01

    A co-digestion investigation was conducted using small-scale digesters in Costa Rica to optimize their ability to treat animal wastewater and produce renewable energy. Increases in methane production were quantified when swine manure was co-digested with used cooking grease in plug-flow digesters that operated at ambient temperate without mixing. The co-digestion experiments were conducted on 12 field-scale digesters (250 L each) using three replications of four treatment groups: the control (T0), which contained only swine manure and no waste oil, and T2.5, T5, and T10, which contained 2.5%, 5%, and 10% used cooking grease (by volume) combined with swine manure. The T2.5 treatment had the greatest methane (CH(4)) production (45 L/day), a 124% increase from the control, with a total biogas production of 67.3 L/day and 66.9% CH(4) in the produced biogas. Increasing the grease concentration beyond T2.5 produced biogas with a lower percentage of CH(4), and thus, did not result in any additional benefits. A batch study showed that methane production could be sustained for three months in digesters that co-digested swine manure and used cooking grease without daily inputs. The investigation proved that adding small amounts of grease to the influent is a simple way to double energy production without affecting other digester benefits. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combination of borax and quebracho condensed tannins treatment to reduce hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock producers are acutely aware for the need to reduce gaseous emissions from stored livestock waste and have been trying to identify new technologies to address the chronic problem. Besides the malodor issue, toxic gases emitted from stored livestock manure, especially hydrogen sulfide (H2S)...

  9. Feasibility study: using δ18O-PO4 to identify phosphate sources in Dutch surface waters: peat, manure, sewage treatment plant or natural, nutrient-rich groundwater?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, M.R.A.; Tamburini, F.; Griffioen, J.J.; Chardon, W.

    2012-01-01

    High nutrient concentrations are in the Netherlands and most other European nations the biggest challenge to comply with the European water quality guidelines. The continuous application of manure and fertilizers by farmers has a strong impact on the phosphate concentrations in surface water

  10. Qualidade de esterco de ave poedeira submetido a dois tipos de tratamentos de compostagem Quality of poultry manure submitted to two types of composting treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano G. dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se avaliou a qualidade de compostos de esterco de ave poedeira produzidos em pilhas de compostagem e se testaram os seguintes tratamentos: 1 sem gesso e sem revolvimento; 2 com gesso e sem revolvimento; 3 sem gesso e com revolvimento e 4 com gesso e com revolvimento. Para avaliar a qualidade dos compostos foram considerados os padrões do Ministério de Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA, estabelecidos para ovos e larvas de helmintos, Salmonella sp, coliformes totais e fecais, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, C, N, umidade, relações C:N, C:CTC (Capacidade de troca de cátions e pH. Os compostos obtidos nas pilhas revolvidas atenderam aos padrões de qualidade, exceto o teor de C, que foi menor. Nos compostos das pilhas com gesso e não revolvidas, o teor deste elemento excedeu o mínimo exigido mas os valores de N, de ovos de helmintos e de umidade, não corresponderam ao padrão do MAPA. Os teores de metais e de Se dos compostos foram menores que o máximo permitido, exceto o de Cd, cujo teor foi elevado no esterco utilizado nas pilhas sem gesso. Este aditivo decresceu o valor do pH dos compostos e aumentou o teor de N das pilhas não revolvidas. Em relação a todos os atributos avaliados, os melhores compostos foram obtidos nas pilhas revolvidas.The quality of poultry manure composts obtained from composting heaps were evaluated, in the following treatments: 1 without gypsum and turning; 2 without gypsum and with turning; 3 with gypsum and turning; 4 with gypsum and without turning. The quality of composts was evaluated with the Department of Agricultural (DA standards established to the occurrence of eggs and grubs of helminthes, Salmonella sp, fecal and total coliforms, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, C, N, humidity, C:N and C:CEC rations, and pH. The quality of composts from the turned heaps agrees with the DA standards, except the C content, which was lower. In the composts obtained from heaps with gypsum addition and without turner

  11. Process performance of biogas plants integrating pre-separation of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Henrik B.; Nielsen, Anders M.; Hastrup Andersen, G.; Nakakubo, R. [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Horsens (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    In terms of yield per volume the biogas production from liquid manure (slurry) is low, often causing a poor economical performance for plants treating manures as the only substrate. Pre-treatment of liquid manure by separation for producing a concentrated solid fraction increases significantly the biogas potential per waste volume. However there is no experience with the process performance of plants substituting liquid manure with varying amounts of concentrated manure solids. In the present study, different concepts integrating solid-liquid pre- and post separation were studied. In lab scale CSTR digesters liquid manure was substituted with varying amounts of the solid fraction from manure separation, starting with 20% substitution and ending with 60%. By increasing the substitution, the organic loading and the NH{sub 3} level will increase considerably. The process stability was evaluated by monitoring the VFA and NH{sub 4}-N levels at regular intervals. (au)

  12. Manure distribution as a predictor of N2O emissions from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Baral, Khagendra Raj; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    of manure constituents after field application in a systematic way. Key to predicting the fate of labile carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in manure is to acknowledge that the liquid phase, and a corresponding fraction of labile C and N, is partly absorbed by the bulk soil in response to the water potential......) adjusted to three soil water potentials (–3, –5 and –10 kPa) and amended with surface-applied pig slurry, cattle slurry, digestate or water only, in total 24 treatments. Net emissions of N2O corresponded to between 0.18% and 0.64% of manure N. Experimental results were analysed with a conceptual model...... of short-term N2O emissions from manure-amended soil, which estimates redistribution of manure constituents and predicts emissions from three sources, i.e. nitrification in bulk soil, and nitrification and denitrification in manure hotspots. Adopting a recent modification, oxygen availability in manure...

  13. Subsurface Application Enhances Benefits of Manure Redistribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable nutrient management requires redistribution of livestock manure from nutrient-excess areas to nutrient-deficit areas. Field experiments were conducted to assess agronomic (i.e., corn yield and environmental (i.e., ammonia volatilization and surface nutrient loss effects of different poultry litter application methods (surface vs. subsurface and timings (fall vs. spring in a potential manure-importing region in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed in the United States. All four litter treatments (205 kg nitrogen ha produced grain yields (10.9–12.8 Mg ha nearly equivalent to or higher than the 11.5 Mg ha yield expected from the same mineral nitrogen rate. Compared with surface application, subsurface application significantly reduced ammonia emission ( < 0.0001, runoff volume (fall: = 0.02; spring: = 0.004, and loads of nitrate nitrogen ( < 0.0001; = 0.003 and dissolved phosphorus ( < 0.0001; = 0.004 soon after application. Integrating subsurface manure application technologies into the manure redistribution programs would help ensure that the surplus nutrients being relocated provide a maximum agronomic impact and minimum environmental impact to the importing region.

  14. Transport and fate of phosphorus during and after manure spill simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Shalamar D; Smith, Douglas R; Joern, Brad C; Owens, Phillip R; Leytem, April B; Huang, C; Adeola, Layi

    2010-01-01

    Animal manure spills contribute to P loading of surface waters and little is known about the effectiveness of the current manure spill clean-up methods to mitigate P contamination. Manure spill clean-up consists of containing, removing, and land applying the contaminated water column, while P-enriched fluvial sediments remain in place. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to (i) understand how P partitions between the water column and fluvial sediments during a manure spill, and (ii) evaluate the efficacy of current manure spill clean-up methods to remediate manure contaminated sediments. Manure spill simulations were conducted using fluvarium techniques and sediments collected from three drainage areas of two drainage ditches. Sediments with the greatest clay content (33%) resulted in a significantly greater P buffering capacity (10.3 L kg(-1)) and removed P from the water column at the greatest rate during the manure spill simulation relative to sediments with clay. Phosphorus uptake length for all sediments ranged from 574 to 815 m and the adsorption flux ranged from 8.9 to 16.7 mg m(-2) h(-1). After simulating the current manure spill remediation methods, P desorbed to the water from all sediments exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency total P criteria (0.076 mg L(-1)) for the region by at least 67%. Furthermore, results from this study suggest that the current manure spill remediation method needs refining to mitigate P from the total fluvial system water column and sediment following a spill.

  15. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANIMAL MANURES ON SOIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    were highest after the third crop harvest suggesting that mineralization of organic N and P ... The use of inorganic fertilizers has .... determination. Soil analysis and root growth determination after harvest. After plant harvest, a small sub-sample of soil was collected for determination of soil available levels of N and P. Soil.

  16. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberle, E. [Fachverband Biogas, Obermarchtat (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  17. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: I. Structured design of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Management of animal manure in livestock and crop production is a major cause of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon (C) loss. The losses of N, P, and C contribute to adverse environmental impacts, such as climate change, terrestrial acidification, and marine eutrophication. Manure management

  18. Occurrence and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in agricultural soil receiving dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manures are commonly used to enhance soil fertility, but there are growing concerns over the impact of this practice on the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of annual dairy manure applications on the occurrence and abund...

  19. Manure-derived biochars for use as a phosphorus fertilizer in cotton production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochars made from animal manure feedstocks appear to be a potential P fertilizer source. Our objective was to assess five different manure-derived biochars, pyrolyzed at two different temperatures (350 and 700 °C), for their potential as a Phosphorus (P) fertilizer for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L....

  20. Poultry Manure Effect on Growth and Yield of Maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. The effect of poultry manure application on maize (Zea mays) growth and yields was studied on a Ferric Acrisol in the semi-deciduous rain forest zone of Ghana. Eight treatments of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 tons of poultry manure (pm) per hectare, 60-40-40 kg NPK/ha, 2 × 2 t pm/ha and 2 t pm + 30-20-20 kg NPK/ha were used in ...

  1. The effect of pig manure fermented by larvae of house flies on the yield parameters of sunflowers (Helianthus annus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fermented pig manure processed on a bed of wooden shavings and fermented for seven days by larvae of house flies on the yield parameters of sunflowers have been investigated on Haplic Luvisol in the pot trial realized in vegetative cage placed on the territory of SAU in Nitra. The experiment consisted of six treatments (0, NPK, Manure1, Manure2, Manure3, Veget. Treatments 0, NPK, and Veget were compared with the treatments Manure1, Manure2, and Manure3, i.e. with fermented manure applied at doses of 4, 6, and 8 t . ha−1.The results showed that application of fermented manure resulted in statistically significant greater stem thickness, higher leaf chlorophyll content, composites and harvest yield of seeds. The plants appeared healthy. Increasing the doses of fermented manure resulted in greater harvest yield of achenes and fat content in them. The dose of 4 t . ha−1 of fermented manure has proven to be insufficient.Out of the tested doses of 4, 6 and 8 t . ha−1 of fermented manure the highest achene yield has been achieved at the dose of 8 t . ha−1 but it was lower than the yield of the treatments fertilized by NPK fertilizers or Veget. From the viewpoint of achene yield quality (fat content out of six variants the best parameters were achieved with the treatment where fermented manure at the dose of 8 t . ha−1 was applied.The gathered data point towards the applicability and usefulness of manure processed by larvae of flies in agronomy. It is of note, that the manure fermentation period can be significantly shortened, whereby reducing the storage difficulties.

  2. Farm animal health managements and treatment practices at Diga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal sex, age, species and body condition were considered. Cases were characterized and determined using tentative diagnosis and patho-gnomonic signs. The owners were also interviewed for local name of the disease. The respective therapeutic drugs used were also assessed. Male cattle (57.7%), poultry (76.3%) ...

  3. Exploring the ethical basis of animal treatment in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    responsible for this maltreatment were asked to pay a fine or risk 12 months imprisonment. The mishandling of .... Umunthu/Ubuntu ethics focus is on an individual and his community. An action is considered morally .... have a duty to respect animals based on the idea that those duties are offered indirectly to fellow human ...

  4. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China.

  5. Methane production from thermophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk obtained from therapeutically treated cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneragama, Nilmini; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2017-02-01

    Methane production from co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk, milk from cows treated with antibiotics for mastitis, was tested in a 2 × 4 factorial design. Four different waste milk percentages (w/w): 0% (SM), 10% (SMWM10), 20% (SMWM20) and 30% (SMWM30), were tested with two slurry percentages (w/w): 50% (A) and 25% (B) and the rest being manure at 55°C for 12 days in batch digesters. The results analyzed using a Gompertz model showed SMWM10 produced the highest methane production potential (P m )/g volatile solids added followed by SM in both A and B. This P m of SMWM10 in A and B was statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). More than 96% of cefazolin-resistant bacteria and 100% of multi-drug-resistant bacteria reductions were observed in all the treatments. Inclusion of waste milk at 10% in single stage digester enhances the methane production from dairy manure and could offer added benefit of waste milk treatment and disposal. © 2016 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  7. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-22

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  8. Methods for increasing the biogas potential from the recalcitrant organic matter contained in manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    The biogas potential of manure could be significantly increased by treatment of the recalcitrant organic matter (biofibers) contained in the manure. Several treatment methods were tested. Mechanical maceration resulted in an average increase of the biogas potential of approximately 17% as shown b...

  9. Methods for increasing the biogas potential from the recalcitrant organic matter contained in manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Angelidaki, Irini

    1998-01-01

    The biogas potential of manure could be significantly increased by treatment of the recalcitrant organic matter (biofibers) contained in the manure. Several treatment methods were tested. Mechanical maceration resulted in an average increase of the biogas potential of approx. 17% as shown...

  10. Manure digestion in the Netherlands. Mestvergisting in Nederland; Tien jaar kennis en ervaring in de praktijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nes, W.J.; Van Diemen, F.M.P. (Centrum voor Energiebesparing en Schone Technologie (CE), Delft (Netherlands)); Schomaker, A.H.H.M. (Haskoning BV, Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1990-05-01

    The experiences with digestion of effluent animal manure in the Netherlands are complemented with relevant information from other sources. Mesophylic manure digestion at farmscale is discussed. This type of manure digestion is most used in the Netherlands. With the surplus of manure in large parts of the Netherlands and the increasing awareness of the environmental issue, digestion is regularly mentioned as a manner to deal more efficiently with materials from manure and to improve the processability. Furthermore digestion offers a source of energy by way of biogas and environmental hygienic advantages, such as stench reduction and destruction of bacteria and seeds. With the modest research done so far, the agricultural and environmental effects are only quantified very superficially. These effects are not financially valued. Opposing the advantages manure digestion offers, are the relatively high investments as well as possible technical and processing problems with the system management. Given the experience with 5 existing manure digestion plants as well as other results from research and practice, the issue is thoroughly discussed, so that many problems can already be avoided in the design phase. Based on the present results, at a gas production of 18 m{sup 3} manure gas per m{sup 3} supplied (cattle) manure, a manure digestion plant is not cost-efffectively exploitable. With regard to the present price of energy of Hfl. 12.00 per GJ, the price of energy from manure gas is Hfl. 24.00-32.00 per GJ. The future of manure digestion depends on the degree to which gas production can be improved as well as the value that is assigned to agricultural and environmental aspects. For both fields an increase of value is expected in the near future. In Denmark, with adding organic matter, already double the amount of gas per kg organic matter is extracted compared to the Netherlands. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. Cultivation of aquatic plants on cow manure digestate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurman, S.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Dijk, van W.

    2017-01-01

    Turning animal manure into energy generates a leftover product: digester bio slurry. Generally this bio slurry is separated in a solid and a liquid fraction. The use of the liquid fraction bio slurry (LFBS) in combination with residual heat and flu gas from the CHP unit could proof an interesting

  12. Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Effect of tillage and rainfall on transport of manure-applied Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Norma E; Wang, Ping; Lejeune, Jeff; Shipitalo, Martin J; Ward, Lucy A; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Dick, Warren A

    2009-01-01

    Most waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been attributed to agricultural sources due to the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal wastes and manure spreading on farmlands. No-till, an effective conservation practice, often results in soil having higher water infiltration and percolation rates than conventional tillage. We treated six undisturbed no-till and six tilled soil blocks (30 by 30 by 30 cm) with 1 L liquid dairy manure containing 10(5) C. parvum oocysts per milliliter to test the effect of tillage and rainfall on oocyst transport. The blocks were subjected to rainfall treatments consisting of 5 mm or 30 mm in 30 min. Leachate was collected from the base of the blocks in 35-mL increments using a 64-cell grid lysimeter. Even before any rain was applied, approximately 300 mL of water from the liquid manure (30% of that applied) was transported through the no-till soil, but none through the tilled blocks. After rain was applied, a greater number and percentage of first leachate samples from the no-till soil blocks compared to the tilled blocks tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. In contrast to leachate, greater numbers of oocysts were recovered from the tilled soil, itself, than from the no-till soil. Although tillage was the most important factor affecting oocyst transport, rainfall timing and intensity were also important. To minimize transport of Cryptosporidium in no-till fields, manure should be applied at least 48 h before heavy rainfall is anticipated or methods of disrupting the direct linkage of surface soil to drains, via macropores, need to be used.

  14. Effect of heat-shock treatment on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonellaenterica Typhimurium in dairy manure co-composted with vegetable wastes under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Marion W; Singh, Randhir; Kim, Jinkyung; Jiang, Xiuping

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the survival of heat-shocked (HS) and non-heat-shocked (NHS) Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonellaenterica Typhimurium when co-composting dairy manure and vegetable wastes in a field setting. In the summer, HS E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella survived for 7 and 2 days longer at the surface and bottom locations of the compost heaps, respectively, than NHS cultures. Both HS and NHS E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were detectable in all compost samples for more than 60 days in the winter. The results indicate that composting dairy manure with vegetable wastes under sub-optimal conditions may allow extended survival of pathogens in the heap at low ambient temperature. Analysis of covariance revealed that the heat-shock treatment may have induced cross-resistance to desiccation, allowing extended survival of HS E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella at the surface of the compost heaps during the summer. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Darwin on the Treatment of Animals: His Thoughts Then and His Influence Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Donna Yarri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution has seriously challenged traditional religious views on the origins of life, as well as on our human-animal similarities. Darwin is often referenced in literature on animal ethics with regard to his contention that the difference between humans and other animals is one of degree rather than of kind. This paper posits that Darwin’s writings and theory make more positive contributions to the contemporary debate on animal ethics than for which he has previously been given credit. This paper addresses important aspects of Darwin’s theory for understanding our relationship with other animals and the implications for their subsequent treatment. First, this paper considers themes in Darwin’s original writings regarding relationships among different species; second, enhancements to his theory in support of these themes; and third, recommendations for how these themes can and should inform our moral reasoning and successive treatment of other animals.

  16. Manuring and stable nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals and pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Rebecca A; Bogaard, Amy; Heaton, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of animal manure application on the δ15N values of a broad range of crops (cereals and pulses), under a range of manuring levels/regimes and at a series of locations extending from northwest Europe to the eastern Mediterranean. We included both agricultural field ex...... of these observations has fundamental implications for archaeobotanical interpretation of δ15N values as evidence of land use practices and (together with analysis of bone collagen/tooth enamel in potential consumers) palaeodiet....

  17. CONVERSION OF ORGANIC MANURE INTO BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Brdarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biogas with anaerobic degradation from organic waste is one of the pledge alternative energetic solutions, especially from organic manure made from animal farming and other residuals of agricultural production. According to 2005 livestock manufacture data daily quantity of animal excrements in Croatia, based on LSU number, is 784 015.26 m3. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of production of biogas from the most common types of domestic animals in Croatia. Anaerobic fermentation period of 40 days in mesophilic conditions produced from 1 kg of beef, 31 litres of biogas slurry and from pig slurry 14.83 litres of biogas. From our study it follows that the Republic of Croatia (based on the number of UG could produce 426,995,250.00 Nm3 biogas annually. Exploitation of biogas can decrease import of the referred energents, especially electric energy.

  18. The Effect of Organic Phosphorus and Nitrogen Enriched Manure on Nutritive Value of Sweet Corn Stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukiwati, D. R.; Pujaningsih, R. I.; Murwani, R.

    2018-02-01

    The experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of some manure enriched with phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) organic (‘manure plus’) on crude protein and mineral production of sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata)and quality of fermented stover as livestock feed. A field experiment was conducted on a vertisol soil (low pH, nitrogen and low available Bray II extractable P). Randomized block design with 9 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this experiment. The treatments were T1(TSP), T2 (SA), T3 (TSP+SA), T4 (manure), T5 (manure+PR), T6 (manure+guano), T7 (manure+N-legume), T8 (manure+PR+N-legume), T9 (manure +guano+N-legume). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences between treatment means were examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Results of the experiment showed that the treatment significantly affected to the crude protein and calcium production of stover and nutrient concentration of fermented stover, but it is not affected to P production of stover. The result of DMRT showed that the effect of ‘manure plus’ was not significantly different on CP and Ca production of stover, mineral concentration, in vitro DMD and OMD of fermented stover, compared to inorganic fertilization. Conclusion, manure enriched with organic NP, resulted in similar on CP and Ca production of stover and nutrient concentration of fermented stover compared to inorganic fertilizer. Thus, organic-NP enriched manure could be an alternative and viable technology to utilize low grade of phosphate rock, guano and Gliricidea sepium to produce sweet corn in vertisol soil.

  19. Emergency management and treatment of the poisoned small animal patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justine A

    2013-07-01

    This article reviews management of the acutely poisoned veterinary patient, including initial telephone triage, appropriate communication and history gathering from the pet owner, decontamination methods (including the use of appropriate emetic agents and dosing of activated charcoal), and general treatment of the poisoned patient. Symptomatic and supportive care of the poisoned patient includes the use of fluid therapy, gastrointestinal support (eg, antacids), central nervous system support (eg, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants), sedatives/reversal agents (eg, phenothiazines, naloxone, flumazenil), hepatoprotectants, and miscellaneous antidotal therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Randomised controlled trial of animal facilitated therapy with dolphins in the treatment of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Antonioli, Christian; Reveley, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of animal facilitated therapy with dolphins, controlling for the influence of the natural setting, in the treatment of mild to moderate depression and in the context of the biophilia hypothesis.

  1. Airborne pathogens from dairy manure aerial irrigation and the human health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Burch, Tucker R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy manure, like the fecal excrement from any domesticated or wild animal, can contain pathogens capable of infecting humans and causing illness or even death. Pathogens in dairy manure can be broadly divided into categories of taxonomy or infectiousness. Dividing by taxonomy there are three pathogen groups in dairy manure: viruses (e.g., bovine rotavirus), bacteria (e.g., Salmonella species), and protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum). There are two categories of infectiousness for pathogens found in animals: those that are zoonotic and those that are not. A zoonotic pathogen is one that can infect both human and animal hosts. Some zoonotic pathogens found in dairy manure cause illness in both hosts (e.g., Salmonella) while other zoonotic pathogens, like Escherichia coli O157:H7, (enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)) cause illness only in humans. As a general rule, the gastrointestinal viruses found in dairy manure are not zoonotic. While there are exceptions (e.g., rare reports of bovine rotavirus infecting children), for the most part the viruses in dairy manure are not a human health concern. The primary concerns are the zoonotic bacteria and protozoa in dairy manure.

  2. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette

    The spreading of manure on agricultural land is an economic and practical solution for improving soil quality; however, animal manure frequently contains zoonotic pathogenic bacteria, such as certain Eschericia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The present experiment was conducted......) and Tetracycline resistant bacteria. The die-off of the different organisms was quantified showing an extended survival close to the manure string. Genomic DNA from 400 Tetracycline resistant bacteria was isolated and their phylogenetic relationship was established using BOX PCR showing that the main Tetracycline...... resistant bacterial species is E. coli. Drainage water from the field sites were collected weekly from one year prior to manure application, where no Tetracycline resistant bacteria were detected. For a period of 11 months following the first manure application, drainage water was sampled proportional...

  3. Effects Of Mixtures Of Pig Manure And Sandy Soil On The Growth Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effects of mixtures of various levels of pig manure with sandy soil on the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) seedlings. Pig manure was mixed with sandy soil at the rates of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% respectively on volume/volume basis of the dry materials, the treatments ...

  4. Cowpea as a Potential Green Manure Crop in the Rain Forest Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four treatments consisting of control, mineral fertilizer at 51-30-30 kg NPK ha-1, cowpea green manure and cowpea green manure + 25-15-15 kg NPK ha-1 in RCBD of four replications were employed. Pods were harvested at physiological maturity for grain, while the green leaf and stem biomass were cut and incorporated ...

  5. Improving biogas yields using an innovative pretreatment concept for conversion of the fiber fraction of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    A new concept to enable economically feasible operation of manure based biogas plants was tested in lab-scale. Wet explosion (WEx) was implemented as treatment of the residual manure fibers separated after the anaerobic digestion process for enhancing the biogas production before reintroducing in...

  6. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.22 Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. Cars and other...

  7. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  8. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  9. 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manure Management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhele Edmond Moeletsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc. were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal, sows (25.23 kg/year/animal and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal. Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO2 Equivalent. Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO2 Equivalent and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options from manure management must be taken with care due to divergent conducive requirements of methane and nitrous oxide emissions requirements.

  10. Comparison of tithonia ( Tithonia diversifolia ) green manure, poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Except for tithonia green manure, all the other treatments were administered at the time of transplanting. The experiment was a Completely Randomized Block Design, with five treatments in three levels, replicated three times on each site, and each site being a replica. Individual plots measured 4 m x 3 m at inter-plant and ...

  11. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  12. Utilisation of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser for food production in central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Muhereza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertiliser use in small-holder peri-urban crop-livestock farms in Uganda was investigated by conducting a socio-economic survey of 40 farms in the central districts of Wakiso and Kampala where cattle manure is commonly applied to address the issue of declining crop yields. The major benefits obtained from cattle manure application were increased yields and low cost, while negative effects were poor hygienic conditions and bad odour. The challenges associated with the use of cattle manure included its weight and bulkiness, lack of labour, insufficient quantities, high transportation and application costs, lack of storage facilities to maintain quality attributes of manure and the incidence of chaffer grubs and worms; a nuisance during application which affected crop growth. The survey indicated that of the farmers using cattle manure, only 5% also supplemented with inorganic fertilisers. Other animal manures applied included poultry, pig, goat and rabbit where available. The nutrient content of cattle manure was generally low, as a result of livestock diet and storage. There was little education available to farmers as to optimum strategies and rates of fertiliser (including both inorganic and organic fertilisers to improve crop yield and this needed addressing to improve food security and economic development in Uganda. Keywords: cattle manure; fertiliser; urea

  13. Characteristics of pollutant gas releases from swine, dairy, beef, and layer manure, and municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Saha, Chayan Kumer; Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Dunn, James L

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about characteristics of gas releases from various types of organic wastes can assist in developing gas pollution reduction technologies and establishing environmental regulations. Five different organic wastes, i.e., four types of animal manure (swine, beef, dairy, and layer hen) and municipal wastewater, were studied for their characteristics of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) releases for 38 or 43 days in reactors under laboratory conditions. Weekly waste additions and continuous reactor headspace ventilation were supplied to simulate waste storage conditions. Results demonstrated that among the five waste types, layer hen manure and municipal wastewater had the highest and lowest NH3 release potentials, respectively. Layer manure had the highest and dairy manure had the lowest CO2 release potentials. Dairy manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest H2S release potentials, respectively. Beef manure and layer manure had the highest and lowest SO2 releases, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the different types of wastes, especially the total nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, dry matter, and pH, had strong influence on the releases of the four gases. Even for the same type of waste, the variation in physicochemical characteristics affected the gas releases remarkably. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of antimicrobial compounds tylosin and chlortetracycline during batch anaerobic swine manure digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A; Zhu, Zhenwei; Wong, Kwok L; Porath, Laura R; Spellman, Garth M

    2009-10-01

    Tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) are antimicrobial chemicals that are fed to >45% of the US swine herds at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dosages to enhance growth rates and treat swine health problems. These compounds are poorly absorbed during digestion so that the bioactive compound or metabolites are excreted. This study investigated the degradation and stabilization of swine manure that contained no additives and compared the observed processes with those of manure containing either tylosin or CTC. The batch anaerobic incubation lasted 216 days. The breakdown of insoluble organic matter through anaerobic hydrolysis reactions was faster for manure containing CTC compared with tylosin or no-antimicrobial treatments. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation, including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, was greater for CTC-containing manure compared to tylosin and no-antimicrobial treatments. The relative abundance of two aceticlastic methanogens, Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae spp., were less for CTC manure than manure with no-antimicrobial treatment. In addition, generation of methane and carbon dioxide was inhibited by 27.8% and 28.4%, respectively, due to the presence of CTC. Tylosin effects on manure degradation were limited, however the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae spp. was greater than found in the CTC or no-antimicrobial manures. These data suggest that acetate and other C-1 VFA compounds would be effectively utilized during methanogenesis in the presence of tylosin.

  15. Effect of broadcast manure on runoff phosphorus concentrations over successive rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Peter J A; Sharpley, Andrew N

    2003-01-01

    Concern over eutrophication has directed attention to manure management effects on phosphorus (P) loss in runoff. This study evaluates the effects of manure application rate and type on runoff P concentrations from two, acidic agricultural soils over successive runoff events. Soils were packed into 100- x 20- x 5-cm runoff boxes and broadcast with three manures (dairy, Bos taurus, layer poultry, Gallus gallus; swine, Sus scrofa) at six rates, from 0 to 150 kg total phosphorus (TP) ha(-1). Simulated rainfall (70 mm h(-1)) was applied until 30 min of runoff was collected 3, 10, and 24 d after manure application. Application rate was related to runoff P (r2 = 0.50-0.98), due to increased concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in runoff; as application rate increased, so did the contribution of DRP to runoff TP. Varied concentrations of water-extractable phosphorus (WEP) in manures (2-8 g WEP kg(-1)) resulted in significantly lower DRP concentrations in runoff from dairy manure treatments (0.4-2.2 mg DRP L(-1)) than from poultry (0.3-32.5 mg DRP L(-1)) and swine manure treatments (0.3-22.7 mg DRP L(-1)). Differences in runoff DRP concentrations related to manure type and application rate were diminished by repeated rainfall events, probably as a result of manure P translocation into the soil and removal of applied P by runoff. Differential erosion of broadcast manure caused significant differences in runoff TP concentrations between soils. Results highlight the important, but transient, role of soluble P in manure on runoff P, and point to the interactive effects of management and soils on runoff P losses.

  16. A new model for calculating the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions through anaerobic co-digestion of manure and organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, S.G.; Moeller, H.B.; Petersen, S.O.

    2002-01-01

    Biogenic emissions of methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 0) occur during handling, storage and after field application of animal manure. The emissions are linked to decomposition of volatile solids (VS), which provide energy for microorganisms. During anaerobic storage, turnover of VS drives the microbial processes which lead to CH 4 , production. Also, turnover of VS in slurry applied to fields will consume oxygen and can thereby stimulate N 2 0 production. Anaerobic digestion of manure and organic wastes for biogas production removes VS prior to storage and field application, and therefore this treatment also reduces the potential for CH 4 , and N 2 0 emissions. A model has been developed to evaluate the effect of anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and organic waste on CH, and N 2 0 emissions. The model estimates the reduction in VS during storage and digestion, and an algorithm for prediction of CH 4 , emissions from manure during storage relates the emission to VS, temperature and storage time. Nitrous oxide emissions from field-applied slurry are calculated using VS, slurry N, soil water potential and application method as input variables, thus linking C and N turnover. The amount of fossil fuel that is substituted by CH 4 , produced during digestion is also calculated in order to estimate the total effect of anaerobic digestion on greenhouse gas emissions from slurry. Model calculations show the potential of manure digestion to modify the emission of greenhouse gases from agriculture. The experience from application of the model to different scenarios is that the emission of greenhouse gases and their reduction must be calculated with dynamic and integrated models. Specifically, the results indicate that digestion of slurry and organic wastes could reduce Danish greenhouse gas emissions by as much as 3%. (au)

  17. Chemically and biologically-mediated fertilizing value of manure-derived biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, R; Taupe, N; Ikoyi, I; Bertora, C; Zavattaro, L; Schmalenberger, A; Leahy, J J; Grignani, C

    2016-04-15

    This study evaluates the potential of manure-derived biochars in promoting plant growth and enhancing soil chemical and biological properties during a 150day pot experiment. Biochars from pyrolysis of poultry litter (PL) and swine manure (SM) at 400 and 600°C, and a commonly available wood chip (WC) biochar produced at high temperature (1000°C) were incorporated to silt-loam (SL) and sandy (SY) soils on a 2% dry soil weight basis. Ryegrass was sown and moisture was adjusted to 60% water filled pore space (WFPS). The PL400 and SM400 biochars significantly increased (psoil) and enhanced nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) uptake by the plants in both soils, compared to the Control. All biochars significantly increased the soil carbon (C) contents compared to the Control. Total N contents were significantly greater for PL400 and PL600 treatments in both soils. The dehydrogenase activity (DA) significantly increased for PL400 and SM400 treatments and was positively correlated with the volatile matter (VM) contents of the biochars, while β-glucosidase activity (GA) decreased for the same treatments in both soils. All biochars significantly shifted (p≤0.05) the bacterial community structure compared to the Control. This study suggests that pyrolysis of animal manures can produce a biochar that acts as both soil amendment and an organic fertilizer as proven by increased NPK uptake, positive liming effect and high soil nutrient availability, while WC biochar could work only in combination with fertilizers (organic as well as mineral). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Nugroho, R. A.; Pinandoyo; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Media culture is an important factor for the growth and quality of Daphnia magna nutrient value. This study has purpose to find the increasing of nutritional content, biomass production and growth performance of D. magna using different animal wastes fermented by probiotic bacteria. This study conducted using completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments and 3 replicates. Those media used different animal manures such as chicken manure, goat manure and quail manure mixed by rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 24 days. The results showed that the media which used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D.magna about 2111788.9 ind/L for population; 342 grams biomass production and 68.85% protein content. The highest fatty acid profile is 6.37% of linoleic and the highest essential amino acid is 22.8% of lysine. Generally, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna’s life. This research has conclusion that media used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D. magna.

  19. Biochar from swine manure solids: influence on carbon sequestration and Olsen phosphorus and mineral nitrogen dynamics in soil with and without digestate incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marchetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biochar (BC has grown dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the fact that its incorporation into soil reportedly enhances carbon sequestration and fertility. Currently, BC types most under investigation are those obtained from organic matter (OM of plant origin. As great amounts of manure solids are expected to become available in the near future, thanks to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents, processing of manure solids for BC production seems an interesting possibility for the recycling of OM of high nutrient value. The aim of this study was to investigate carbon (C sequestration and nutrient dynamics in soil amended with BC from dried swine manure solids. The experiment was carried out in laboratory microcosms on a silty clay soil. The effect on nutrient dynamics of interaction between BC and fresh digestate obtained from a biogas plant was also investigated to test the hypothesis that BC can retain nutrients. A comparison was made of the following treatments: soil amended with swine manure solids (LC, soil amended with charred swine manure solids (LT, soil amended with wood chip (CC, soil amended with charred wood chip (CT, soil with no amendment as control (Cs, each one of them with and without incorporation of digestate (D for a total of 10 treatments. Biochar was obtained by treating OM (wood chip or swine manure with moisture content of less than 10% at 420°C in anoxic conditions. The CO2-C release and organic C, available phosphorus (P (Olsen P, POls and inorganic (ammonium+nitrate nitrogen (N (Nmin contents at the start and three months after the start of the experiment were measured in the amended and control soils. After three months of incubation at 30°C, the CO2-C emissions from soil with BC (CT and LT, ±D were the same as those in the control soil (Cs and were lower than those in the soils with untreated amendments (CC and LC, ±D. The organic C content

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Manure Management Chains on Smallholder Livestock Farms with and without Biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, Quynh Vu

    Vietnam is now facing the risk of environmental pollution from inappropriate animal manure management chain. Comparative research on manure management chains between livestock farms with and without biogas showed that non-biogas livestock households discharged approximately 15 % of the total manure....... The results showed that filtration of digestate by different crop residues does not work well with some nutrients, such as nitrogen and potassium from crop residue diluted in digestate, resulting in additional polluted digestate. The passive aeration composting experiment showed that the composting of biochar...

  1. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is filtered. Hence, it is not possible to scale up the experiments, and it is therefore difficult to optimize the flocculation and estimate the needed filter media area. Similar problems have been observed when sewage sludge and synthetic core-shell colloids are filtered, and it has been suggested......, and the mixing procedure affect the result, and lab-scale experiments are often used to study how these pre-treatments influence the filtration process. However, the existing mathematical filtration models are based on filtration of inorganic particles and cannot simulate the filtration data obtained when manure...

  2. Long term treatment with gabapentin in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup, C. S.; Andrews, N.; Wegener, Gregers

    2013-01-01

    . Daily treatment with gabapentin 30 mg/kg sc. or saline for 6 consecutive weeks. Mechanical sensitivity thresholds (MST) to von Frey stimulation of hindpaws and thorax measured by both reflex withdrawal and supra-spinal responses. Anxiety-like behaviour using the openfield paradigm. Drug effect...... was measured after initial dose, 1 and 6 weeks of treatment. Preliminary results show that saline-treated SCC animals (N=10) have significantly lower MST with supra-spinal responses on the thorax compared to saline-treated shams (N=10), and gabapentin-treated SCC (N=10) and sham animals (N=10) throughout...... the study. The SCC animals had significantly decreased MST with reflex responses on the hindpaws in the two first time points compared with gabapentin-treated SCC animals (and both sham groups). There was no effect of injury on the MST with supra-spinal responses on the hindpaws and thus no effect...

  3. Is manure an alternative to topsoil in road embankment restoration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Peco

    Full Text Available One of the main steps in road and railway embankment restoration is the spreading of previously removed topsoil, which provides an input of seeds, organic matter and microorganisms and encourages the establishment of a vegetation cover, essential to stabilise the embankment and blend it with the landscape. However, topsoil is a scarce resource, prompting the search for economic alternatives with similar results. The present study compares the results of spreading topsoil with an organic amendment (manure for the soil's physico-chemical properties, erosion resistance and microbial activity, floristic richness and composition, and bare soil cover. For this purpose, experimental plots with three treatments (Control, Topsoil and Manure were maintained on a recently built embankment in Central Spain for 20 months. Manure was found to be an effective alternative to topsoil for the improvement of soil fertility (organic matter content and total nitrogen. The two types of organic amendment produced similar reductions in bare soil cover and erosion rates. However, plots with topsoil showed greater soil respiration and species richness and a different floristic composition in comparison to those treated with manure, which was closer to control plots. These results suggest that manure can be used to replace topsoil to enhance embankment stability during the early stages of restoration. However, if the aim of the restoration process is to promote plant diversity, topsoil is recommended.

  4. Manure management practices on biogas and non-biogas pig farms in developing countries - using livestock farms in Vietnam as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cu, T. T. T.; Cuong, P. H.; Hang, L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production...... to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients...... such as public sewers or ponds. On biogas farms, most of the manure collected was used for bio-digestion. The farmers used the fermented manure (digestate) as a source of nutrients for crops, but on more than 50% of the interviewed biogas farms digestate was discharged to the environment. On non-biogas farms...

  5. Dry anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and cattle manure: Impact of total solids, substrate ratio and thermal pre treatment on methane yield and quality of biomanure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelli, Vijayalakshmi; Begum, Sameena; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao; Kuruti, Kranti; S, Shailaja

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of TS concentration, substrate mixing ratio (co digestion) and thermal pretreatment on biogas production, methane yield, VS reduction (%) and quality of biomanure through dry anaerobic digestion (DAD) of food waste (FW) and cattle manure (CM). Results divulged that the optimum methane yield and biomanure of 0.18 and 0.21 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 3.15 and 2.8 kg/kg waste was obtained from FW at TS of 25% and 30% at an HRT of 41 and 31 days respectively whereas it was 0.32 and 0.43 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 2.2 and 1.15 kg/kg waste from pretreated FW at an HRT of 16 and 20 days correspondingly. Improvement of methane from 62 to 81% was obtained due to thermal pretreatment. The highest nutrient recovery in terms of N, P, K was found to be 5.14, 2.6 and 3.2 respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of bovine cancer-eye (and other animal tumors) with heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doss, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Hyperthermia appears to be an excellent technique for the treatment of a variety of animal tumors. While this report has emphasized the application of hyperthermia to bovine cancer-eye, there cannot be serious doubt about the potential for wider applications of the technique. We have collaborated with the Animal Resource Facility at the University of New Mexico in the successful treatment of a variety of tumors in small animals which would not be a particular interest to stockmen, but the program included the successful treatment of a number of sarcoids in horses. This investigation involving heat effects on sarcoids will continue, but early results appear to be promising. Other veterinarians are using the commercial hyperthermia instruments to treat a variety of small-animal tumors; these practitioners are enthusiastic about the results but no data have been published to date. We have treated an equine lid tumor with good results, and others are pursuing investigations in this area. Use of commercial hyperthermia instruments for treatment of any condition other than bovine cancer-eye or similar small tumors on animals cannot be justified. Like other therapeutic techniques, hyperthermia must be applied to appropriate cases and retreatment will be necessary in some instances

  7. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.

    2016-01-01

    (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly......, AAS treatment significantly increased the disintegration and hydrolysis rate of the carbohydrate compounds of the fibers. The effect of the addition of AAS treated fibers on the kinetics of the conversion of other key compounds such as volatile fatty acids was negligible....

  8. Response of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) to Farmyard Manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    of roselle to farmyard manure, nitrogen and their interaction on the growth and yield of roselle. Treatment consisted ... (Sudan savanna) agro-ecological zone. The ... WAS using hand hoe. Data was collected on number of leaves per plant and calyx yield. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the.

  9. Green manuring and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of these treatments on agronomic trait and yield of upland rice and soil chemical properties were then investigated at UNAAB and Olowo-Papa village (OP). In the first experiment three green manure crops, namely, Mucuna utilis, Canavalia ensiformis and Lablab purpureus were screened for biomass production ...

  10. Feeding Rice Husk-Poultry Manure with and without Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of thirty-six (36) rabbits of mixed sexes were used in a ten (10) week feeding trials to investigate the relative effect of dietary levels of rice husk poultry manure (RHPM) supplemented with or without β-xylanase. The rabbits were randomly allotted into six (6) dietary treatment groups of 0, 10 and 20% of RHPM with or ...

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of cassava peels and manure: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment before use as a substrate, hence, a multi-stage and high rate digestion system might be adop-ted in efficient digestion of cassava peels. To optimize carbon-nitrogen ratio for efficient digestion, cassava sh-ould be co-digested with manure.

  12. Tillage and Farmyard Manure Effects on Crusting and Compacting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field investigations on rainfall characteristics, surface runoff, soil loss, soil bulk density and soil shear strength covered two rainy seasons (short and long rains) and were done on a Chromic Luvisol. The field treatments were zero tillage and conventional tillage, and two farmyard manure applications (5 and 10 Mg ha-1).

  13. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial ...

  14. Spring barley yield and nitrogen recovery after application of peat manure and pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. MATTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of peat manure, manufactured of pig slurry and moderately humified Sphagnum peat (slurry:peat ca. 1:1.5 v/v, as nitrogen (N source for spring barley was investigated in a four.year field experiment on a clay loam soil in south-western Finland. Pig slurry, NPK fertilizer and plain peat were used as references. Manures were incorporated before sowing or surface-applied after sowing in spring at an ammoniacal N rate of.54.106 kg.ha-1 with or without supplementary NPK fertilizer (40.kg N.ha-1. Soil moisture conditions were varied by different irrigation treatments. Peat manure produced 5.15% higher grain yields than pig slurry, with the largest difference after surface application. Incorporation was more important for slurry than for peat manure in increasing N uptake and yield. Soil moisture deficit in spring and early summer limited the availability of manure N. Part of the manure N that was not available in the early growing period was apparently taken up by the crop later. Consequently, N concentration tended to be higher with lower yields, and differences in the recovery of manure N were smaller than the differences in grain yield. Supplementation of manures with inorganic fertilizer N increased yield by 37%, on average, and improved the N recovery.;

  15. Organic and chemical manure of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo V, Alvaro; Munoz A, Rodrigo

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on bean production ICA CITARA variety, four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, and earthworm manure) in four doses 280,500 y 1.000 kg/ha with the same doses of chemical fertilization, were evaluated the experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia) of medium climate with 1.320 m.s.n.m. This was established using an alluvial soil (Tropofluvent), frenk, with low contents of organic, matter (2,2%), phosphorus (10 ppm), and potassium (0,10 meq/l00 g). the results, after six consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments. The highest yield (1.836 kg/ha) was obtained when to the chemical fertilization (300 kg of 10-30-10) was added with 250 kg/ha of hen manure, followed by the application of 100 kg/ha, of cow manure (1.812 kg/ha). Chemical fertilization without organic matter produced 1.640 kg/ha of bean, which was very similar to the addition of 1.000 kg/ha of cow manure and earthworm manure with yields of 1.688 kg/ha and 1.635 kg/ha respectively

  16. Crude glycerin in anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure increases methane production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Simm

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic digestion of crude glycerin (CG along with animal waste has been an excellent option for increasing the production of biogas and methane to achieve efficiency in the treatment of both residues. This study aimed to evaluate improvements in specific productions of biogas and methane, reductions in solid and fibrous components in substrates prepared with dairy cattle manure and CG (containing 14 % glycerol. With these residues, experimental substrates were prepared and placed in 25 batch digesters. Initial content of the TS in the influent was 4 % and CG was added in increasing doses (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % relative to total solids (TS of the influent. Results were submitted to ANOVA and orthogonal contrasts to assess the effects of linear and quadratic order and thereby estimate the optimal CG doses through the adjusted models. The highest values for specific production of methane (0.19 and 0.26 L g−1 of TS and volatile solids (VS added, respectively were reached with the CG inclusions of 6 and 8 %, respectively. Total production of biogas with the inclusion of 6 % CG was 11 % higher when compared to the control treatment. The largest reduction in VS (48 % was achieved with the addition of 4 % CG. Addition of CG at levels between 3 and 8 % improved the efficiency of the process of anaerobic digestion with dairy cattle manure.

  17. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal models to improve our understanding and treatment of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, T D; Georgiou, P; Brenner, L A; Brundin, L; Can, A; Courtet, P; Donaldson, Z R; Dwivedi, Y; Guillaume, S; Gottesman, I I; Kanekar, S; Lowry, C A; Renshaw, P F; Rujescu, D; Smith, E G; Turecki, G; Zanos, P; Zarate, C A; Zunszain, P A; Postolache, T T

    2017-04-11

    Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes. Animal models are similarly a critical resource to help delineate treatment targets and pharmacological means to improve our ability to manage the risk of suicide. In particular, certain pathophysiological pathways to suicidal behavior, including stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, neurotransmitter system abnormalities, endocrine and neuroimmune changes, aggression, impulsivity and decision-making deficits, as well as the role of critical interactions between genetic and epigenetic factors, development and environmental risk factors can be modeled in laboratory animals. We broadly describe human biological findings, as well as protective effects of medications such as lithium, clozapine, and ketamine associated with modifying risk of engaging in suicidal behavior that are readily translatable to animal models. Endophenotypes of suicidal behavior, studied in animal models, are further useful for moving observed associations with harmful environmental factors (for example, childhood adversity, mechanical trauma aeroallergens, pathogens, inflammation triggers) from association to causation, and developing preventative strategies. Further study in animals will contribute to a more informed, comprehensive, accelerated and ultimately impactful suicide research portfolio.

  19. Operational experinece with large scale biogas production at the promest manure processing plant in Helmond, the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomaker, A.H.H.M.

    1992-01-01

    In The Netherlands a surplus of 15 million tons of liquid pig manure is produced yearly on intensive pig breeding farms. The dutch government has set a three-way policy to reduce this excess of manure: 1. conversion of animal fodder into a product with less and better ingestible nutrients; 2. distribution of the surplus to regions with a shortage of animal manure; 3. processing of the remainder of the surplus in large scale processing plants. The first large scale plant for the processing of liquid pig manure was put in operation in 1988 as a demonstration plant at Promest in Helmond. The design capacity of this plant is 100,000 tons of pig manure per year. The plant was initiated by the Manure Steering Committee of the province Noord-Brabant in order to prove at short notice whether large scale manure processing might contribute to the solution of the problem of the manure surplus in The Netherlands. This steering committee is a corporation of the national and provincial government and the agricultural industrial life. (au)

  20. Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child…

  1. Reduction of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in poultry manure by rearing of Musca domestica fly larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Fischer, C.; Bjerrum, L.

    2017-01-01

    A major barrier for using animal waste as substrate for production of insects for feed or food is the concern for safety of the end products. In this study we investigated how rearing of fly larvae of Musca domestica in poultry manure influenced the counts of three pathogenic test strains...... of the larvae stage. This study provides data for evaluation of feed safety of fly larvae reared on animal waste. Furthermore suggests a potential use for reduction of these pathogens in manure....

  2. Organic manure of the corn (Zea mays L.) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo V, Alvaro; Munoz A, Rodrigo; Diaz A; Carlos

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on the yield of com ICA V.303 variety, using four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, earthworm manure) in two doses (500 and 1.000 kg/ha), compared with a chemical treatment (300 kg/ha of 10-30-10 plus 150 kg of urea), and a control, an experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia), with 1.320 m.s.n.m. The experiment was established using an alluvial soil (tropofluvent), frank, with low content of organic matter (3.1%), and potassium (0.11 meq/l00 g), and medium content of phosphorus (2 ppm). The results, after four consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments, compared with the control. The highest yield (4.709 kg/ha) was obtained with the chemical treatment (300 kg/ha of 10-30-10 plus 150 kg of urea). The addition of 500 and 1.000 kg/ha of hen manure and pig manure showed an average yield of corn of 4.315,4.539 .4.246, and 4.487 kg/ha respectively. the control only produced 2.620 kg/ha. The great profitability was obtained with 500 kg/ ha of cow manure, 1.000 kg/ha of pig manure and the chemical treatment (300 kg/ha 10-30-10 and 150 kg/ha of urea y 1.000 kg/ha hen manure). There were not significative differences between the chemical fertilization and the organic fertilization; these results show that organic matter is an alternative for fertilization with respect to the development of a sustained and biological agriculture

  3. Effects of bamboo charcoal on antibiotic resistance genes during chicken manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichao; Duan, Manli; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Yajun; Qian, Xun; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2017-06-01

    Composting is widely used for animal waste disposal, and bamboo charcoal (BC) can be used for nitrogen conservation during composting. However, the effects of BC on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during chicken manure composting are still unclear. This study investigated the effects on ARGs of adding different proportions of BC (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% w/w) to chicken manure compost. After 26 days, the relative abundances (RAs) of most ARGs (tetC, tetG, tetW, tetX, sul2, drfA1, drfA7, ermB, ermF, ermQ, and ermX) and intI1 declined by 21.6-99.5%, whereas sul1 increased by 7.5-17.7 times. The average RAs reductions with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% BC were 0.85, 1.05, 1.08, and 1.15 logs, respectively. The most important environmental factor for the ARG profiles was temperature according to redundancy analysis. Furthermore, BC significantly decreased the bio-Cu and bio-Zn levels, thereby reducing the co-selection pressure from heavy metals. Different proportions of BC had no significant effects on the removal of tetG, tetW, tetX, sul2, drfA1, and ermB. Supplementation with 10% BC was more effective at removing tetC and drfA7 compared with the other treatments. The results suggested that 10% BC supplementation is appropriate for reducing ARGs in chicken manure compost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Wells, J E; Shelver, W L; Rice, C P; Armstrong, D L; Parker, D B

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of anaerobic digestion at 22, 38 and 55°C on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline (CTC) in swine manure or monensin (MON) in cattle manure. Swine or cattle were fed the respective growth promotant, manure was collected, and 2-l laboratory methane digesters were established at the various temperatures and sampled over 25 or 28 days. After 21 days, the concentration of CTC in the 22, 38 and 55°C swine digester slurries decreased 7, 80 and 98%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C digester slurries were still viable after 25 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 3 and 1 days, respectively. After 28 days, the concentration of MON in the 22, 38 and 55°C cattle digester slurries decreased 3, 8 and 27%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C cattle digester slurries were still viable after 28 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 14 and 1 days, respectively. These studies indicate that anaerobic digestion at 38 or 55°C may be an effective treatment to reduce coliforms and CTC; however, it is not an effective treatment to reduce MON. More studies are needed to determine which pharmaceuticals are susceptible to degradation by a specific manure treatment to prevent negative environmental consequences. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Antibiotic uptake by vegetable crops from manure-applied soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong Hee; Gupta, Satish; Rosen, Carl; Fritz, Vincent; Singh, Ashok; Chander, Yogesh; Murray, Helene; Rohwer, Charlie

    2013-10-23

    This study quantified the uptake of five antibiotics (chlortetracycline, monensin, sulfamethazine, tylosin, and virginiamycin) by 11 vegetable crops in two different soils that were fertilized with raw versus composted turkey and hog manures or inorganic fertilizer. Almost all vegetables showed some uptake of antibiotics from manure treatments. However, statistical testing showed that except for a few isolated treatments the concentrations of all antibiotics in vegetable tissues were generally less than the limits of quantification. Further testing of the significant treatments showed that antibiotic concentrations in vegetables from many of these treatments were not significantly different than the corresponding concentrations from the fertilizer treatment (matrix effect). All five antibiotic concentrations in the studied vegetables were antibiotic.

  6. Effects of Feeding Encapsulated Nitrate to Beef Cattle on Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Their Manure in a Short-Term Manure Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanhee; Araujo, Rafael C; Koenig, Karen M; Hile, Michael L; Fabian-Wheeler, Eileen E; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) to beef cattle on ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions from their manure. Eight beef heifers were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3% EN (55% forage dry matter; EN replaced encapsulated urea in the control diet and therefore all diets were iso-nitrogenous) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Urine and feces collected from individual animals were reconstituted into manure and incubated over 156 h using a steady-state flux chamber system to monitor NH, methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Urinary, fecal, and manure nitrate (NO)-N concentration linearly increased ( emissions of NH, CO, and NO (mg head h) were not affected, although NH emission rates tended to be lower ( = 0.070) for EN compared with Control at 0 to 12 h. Cumulative NH, CO, and NO emissions over 156 h were not affected, but CH emissions were less (4.5 vs. 7.4 g head; = 0.027) for EN compared with Control. In conclusion, although NH emissions were initially lower for EN manures, total NH emitted over 156 h was not affected. Dietary EN lowered CH emissions from manure, and, despite greater NO concentrations in EN manure, NO emissions were not affected in this short-term incubation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Manure Preferences and Postemergence Learning of Two Filth Fly Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Taylor

    Full Text Available The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is crucial to the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information garnered from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commercially available parasitoids of filth flies. Postemergence exposure to a specific manure may provide a way to increase parasitism in specific microhabitats found at livestock facilities upon release. In this study, female parasitoids of both species were exposed to equine manure, bovine manure, or clean pupae. Females from each emergence exposure were tested in a two-choice arena (house fly hosts in bovine manure versus clean pupae, equine manure versus clean pupae, and equine manure versus bovine manure for progeny production. There was a detectable but small effect of postemergence exposure on S. cameroni, but it was not sufficient to reverse innate preferences. Females consistently produced more progeny in hosts found in any manure over clean pupae, and in equine manure over bovine manure. The effect of postemergence exposure on M. raptor was also detectable but small. Females produced equal numbers of progeny in bovine manure versus clean pupae, as opposed to preferring to oviposit in clean pupae as with all other treatments. Preferences by M. raptor were overall less marked than for S. cameroni; indeed most of the variability observed for this species did not result from the treatment design. Residual host mortality was also detectably altered by exposure in both species, but the effect was small. Thus, postemergence exposure did not consistently and effectively manipulate these parasitoids to producing progeny in different exposure manures, suggesting that microhabitat preferences are largely determined by other factors.

  8. Gene therapy by electroporation for the treatment of chronic renal failure in companion animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Melissa A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH plasmid-based therapy for the treatment of chronic renal failure and its complications was examined. Companion dogs (13.1 ± 0.8 years, 29.4 ± 5.01 kg and cats (13.2 ± 0.9 years, 8.5 ± 0.37 kg received a single 0.4 mg or 0.1 mg species-specific plasmid injection, respectively, intramuscularly followed by electroporation, and analyzed up to 75 days post-treatment; controls underwent electroporation without plasmid administration. Results Plasmid-treated animals showed an increase in body weight (dogs 22.5% and cats 3.2% compared to control animals, and displayed improved quality of life parameters including significant increases in appetite, activity, mentation and exercise tolerance levels. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, the downstream effector of GHRH levels were increased in the plasmid treated animals. Hematological parameters were also significantly improved. Protein metabolism changes were observed suggesting a shift from a catabolic to an anabolic state in the treated animals. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine did not show any significant changes suggesting maintenance of kidney function whereas the control animal's renal function deteriorated. Treated animals survived longer than control animals with 70% of dogs and 80% of cats surviving until study day 75. Only 17% and 40% of the control dogs and cats, respectively, survived to day 75. Conclusion Improved quality of life, survival and general well-being indicate that further investigation is warranted, and show the potential of a plasmid-based therapy by electroporation in preventing and managing complications of renal insufficiency.

  9. Phosphate enhances uptake of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) applied with chicken manure bearing roxarsone and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixian; Huang, Lianxi; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changming; Li, Guoliang; Deng, Xiancai

    2015-03-01

    Roxarsone (ROX), a world widely used feed organoarsenic additive in animal production, can be excreted as itself and its metabolites in animal manure. Animal manure is commonly land applied with phosphorous (P) fertilizer to enhance the P phytoavailability in agriculture. We investigated the accumulation of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) plants fertilized with 1% (w/w, manure/soil) chicken manure bearing ROX and its metabolites, plus 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 g P2O5/kg, respectively. The results show that As(III) was the sole As compound in garland chrysanthemum shoots, and As(III) and As(V) were detectable in roots. Elevated phosphate level supplied more As(V) for garland chrysanthemum roots through competitive desorption in rhizosphere, leading to significantly enhanced accumulation of As species in plants. As(III) was the predominant As form in plants (85.0∼90.6%). Phosphate could not change the allocation of As species in plants. Hence, the traditional practice that animal manure is applied with P fertilizer may inadvertently increase the potential risk of As contamination in crop via the way ROX → animalanimal manure → soil → crop.

  10. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety.

  11. Reconstitution of dewatered food processing residuals with manure to increase energy production from anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, David M.; Wu-Haan, Wei; Safferman, Steven I.

    2012-01-01

    Solid residuals generated from dewatering food processing wastewater contain organic carbon that can potentially be reclaimed for energy through anaerobic digestion. This results in the diversion of waste from a landfill and uses it for a beneficial purpose. Dewatering the waste concentrates the carbon, reducing transportation costs to a farm digester where it can be blended with manure to increase biogas yield. Polymers are often used in the dewatering of the food waste but little is known regarding their impact on biogas production. Four 2 dm 3 working volume, semi-continuous reactors, were used at a mesophilic temperature and a solids retention time (SRT) of 15 days. Reactors were fed daily with a blended feedstock containing a food processing sludge waste (FPSW)/manure ratio of 2.2:1 (by weight) as this produced the optimized carbon to nitrogen ratio. Results demonstrated that reconstitution of dewatered FPSW with dairy manure produced approximately 2 times more methane than animal manure alone for the same volume. However, only approximately 30% of volatile solids (VS) were consumed indicating energy potential still remained. Further, the efficiency of the conversion of VS to methane for the blended FPSW/manure was substantially less than for manure only. However, the overall result is an increase in energy production for a given tank volume, which can decrease life cycle costs. Because all FPSW is unique and the determination of dewatering additives is customized based on laboratory testing and field adjustment, generalizations are difficult and specific testing is required. -- Highlights: ► Energy production in anaerobic digestion can increase by co-blending food waste. ► Energy for transporting food waste to blend with manure is less when dewatered. ► Dewatered food waste in manure produced twice as much methane than manure. ► Efficiency of carbon to methane was low because of ammonium bicarbonate production. ► Carbon destruction was 30%, more

  12. Characterization and observation of animals responsible for rabies post-exposure treatment in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynes, J M; Soares, J L; Keo, C; Ong, S; Heng, N Y; Vanhoye, B

    1999-06-01

    In order to provide relevant therapeutic answers to human patients exposed to risk of rabies infection who visit the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge for post-exposure treatment and to improve control of rabies in Cambodia, a pilot study was carried out in Phnom Penh Province in November and December 1997 with three objectives: characterization of the population of animals responsible for the exposure to rabies, observation of the animals concerned, and confirmation of the presence of rabies virus in the province. Between 18 November 1997 and 19 December 1997, 409 of the 741 patients treated at the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge because of an exposure to a known rabies vector were included in the study. The animals concerned were: 401 dogs (98%), six monkeys (1.5%) and two cats (0.5%). Three-hundred-and-seventy of the animals (90.5%) were owned, 4 (1%) were unowned but were available for characterization and observation, and 35 (8.6%) had an unknown ownership status and were not available for further study. The exposures occurred on private property in 84% of the cases, and 80 of the 370 owned animals (22%) lived in the same home as had the patient. The 374 animals with known ownership status were examined. Five were already dead and two of these five dogs had presented clinical signs typical of those of rabies. The male:female sex ratio of the dogs was 2.1:1. The 369 live animals were placed under observation for 10 d immediately after exposure of the humans had taken place. At the end of the period none of the animals had developed clinical signs of rabies, three had died of diseases other than rabies, and one was lost. Tests for the rabies nucleocapsid antigen were positive in two cases (the two suspected rabid dogs), confirming the presence of rabies in Phnom Penh Province. Consequently, we recommend measures to improve the control of rabies in Cambodia.

  13. Selection of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae during penicillin treatment in vitro and in three animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Odenholt, Inga; Erlendsdottir, Helga

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties for the selection of resistant pneumococci were studied by using three strains of the same serotype (6B) for mixed-culture infection in time-kill experiments in vitro and in three different animal models, the mouse peritonitis, the mouse....../ml was used in the rabbit tissue cage model. During the different treatment regimens, the differences in numbers of CFU between treated and control animals were calculated to measure the efficacies of the regimens. Selective media with erythromycin or different penicillin concentrations were used to quantify...

  14. Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Wichmann, Fabienne; Broderick, Nichole A; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-10-21

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global threat to public health. Agricultural use of antibiotics is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanisms by which many agricultural practices influence resistance remain obscure. Although manure from dairy farms is a common soil amendment in crop production, its impact on the soil microbiome and resistome is not known. To gain insight into this impact, we cultured bacteria from soil before and at 10 time points after application of manure from cows that had not received antibiotic treatment. Soil treated with manure contained a higher abundance of β-lactam-resistant bacteria than soil treated with inorganic fertilizer. Functional metagenomics identified β-lactam-resistance genes in treated and untreated soil, and indicated that the higher frequency of resistant bacteria in manure-amended soil was attributable to enrichment of resident soil bacteria that harbor β-lactamases. Quantitative PCR indicated that manure treatment enriched the blaCEP-04 gene, which is highly similar (96%) to a gene found previously in a Pseudomonas sp. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the abundance of Pseudomonas spp. increased in manure-amended soil. Populations of other soil bacteria that commonly harbor β-lactamases, including Janthinobacterium sp. and Psychrobacter pulmonis, also increased in response to manure treatment. These results indicate that manure amendment induced a bloom of certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil that was independent of antibiotic exposure of the cows from which the manure was derived. Our data illustrate the unintended consequences that can result from agricultural practices, and demonstrate the need for empirical analysis of the agroecosystem.

  15. Manure and tillage use in remediation of eroded land and impacts on soil chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikha, Maysoon M; Benjamin, Joseph G; Vigil, Merle F; Poss, David J

    2017-01-01

    Soil loss through wind and water erosion is an ongoing problem in semiarid regions. A thin layer of top soil loss over a hectare of cropland could be corresponding to tons of productive soil loss per hectare. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of beef feedlot manure, tillage and legume grass mixtures on changes in soil quality and nutrient components. The study was initiated in 2006 on an eroded site near Akron, Colorado, on a Norka-Colby very-fine sandy loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, Aridic, Argiustolls). Tillage treatments were no-tillage, shallow tillage (sweeps operations with V-blade) and deep tillage (DT; moldboard plow operations). In one set of plots, DT was implemented biannually (DT-2); and in another set the DT was done once at the initiation of the experiment in 2006. Amendments consisted of beef manure and urea (46-0-0), N fertilizer. Both amendments were added at low and high rates. A control treatment, with no fertilizer or manure added, was included with no-tillage and shallow tillage only. Six years of manure addition and tillage significantly altered soil chemical properties compared with fertilizer and grass legume mixtures. Across all the tillage treatments, at the 0-30 cm depth, soil pH from 2006 to 2012, was reduced 1.8 fold with high-manure compared with high-fertilizer treatment. Soil EC, Na, and SAR increased by 2.7 fold while soil P increase by 3.5 fold with high-manure treatment compared with low-manure from 2006 to 2012 across all the tillage treatments at the surface 0-30 cm. Soil organic carbon associated with high-manure was 71% higher than low-manure and 230% higher than high-fertilizer treatments in the 0-60 cm depth. Similar patterns were observed with soil total N. Overall, manure amendments greatly improved the soil nutrient status on this eroded site. However, the legume grass mixtures showed little effect on improving soils chemical properties. The micronutrients supplied by manure improved the soil

  16. A single cidofovir treatment rescues animals at progressive stages of lethal orthopoxvirus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israely Tomer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an event of a smallpox outbreak in humans, the window for efficacious treatment by vaccination with vaccinia viruses (VACV is believed to be limited to the first few days post-exposure (p.e.. We recently demonstrated in a mouse model for human smallpox, that active immunization 2–3 days p.e. with either VACV-Lister or modified VACV Ankara (MVA vaccines, can rescue animals from lethal challenge of ectromelia virus (ECTV, the causative agent of mousepox. The present study was carried out in order to determine whether a single dose of the anti-viral cidofovir (CDV, administered at different times and doses p.e. either alone or in conjunction with active vaccination, can rescue ECTV infected mice. Methods Animals were infected intranasally with ECTV, treated on different days with various single CDV doses and monitored for morbidity, mortality and humoral response. In addition, in order to determine the influence of CDV on the immune response following vaccination, both the "clinical take”, IFN-gamma and IgG Ab levels in the serum were evaluated as well as the ability of the mice to withstand a lethal challenge of ECTV. Finally the efficacy of a combined treatment regime of CDV and vaccination p.e. was determined. Results A single p.e. CDV treatment is sufficient for protection depending on the initiation time and dose (2.5 – 100 mg/kg of treatment. Solid protection was achieved by a low dose (5 mg/kg CDV treatment even if given at day 6 p.e., approximately 4 days before death of the control infected untreated mice (mean time to death (MTTD 10.2. At the same time point complete protection was achieved by single treatment with higher doses of CDV (25 or 100 mg/kg. Irrespective of treatment dose, all surviving animals developed a protective immune response even when the CDV treatment was initiated one day p.e.. After seven days post treatment with the highest dose (100 mg/kg, virus was still detected in some

  17. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....

  18. Survey of dairy housing and manure management practices in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D; Price, P L; Rossow, H A; Silva-del-Rio, N; Karle, B M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Fadel, J G

    2011-09-01

    In 2007, a descriptive survey was mailed to all dairies in Glenn (G) and Tulare (T) Counties to identify current and future opportunities of manure management practices on California dairies. The purpose was to provide baseline information for development of outreach curriculum and a decision support tool to quantify potential benefits of various N management options on dairy farms. Such baseline information is valuable to staff regulating dairy facilities (e.g., San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board), dairy trade association representatives, and technology vendors. Response rates for each county were similar at 29.7% (n=19; G) and 26.7% (n=88; T). Mean milking herd size averaged 570 (range 50 to 3,000) cows in G and 1,800 (range 196 to 9,286) cows in T. Survey data are reported by location due to differences between counties in herd size, housing facilities, and climate. Freestalls are common housing facilities (63.2%, G; 38.6%, T) and separated solids and corral scrapings are commonly used as bedding in freestalls (81.8% G and 79.4% T). The most common methods of manure collection were flushing and scraping (18.8%, G; 44.7%, T), only flushing (43.8%, G; 34.1%, T), or only scraping daily or less frequently than daily (37.5%, G; 20.0%, T). Most dairy farms in G (63.2%) and T (70.5%) used some method of separating solids from liquids. However, mechanical separation systems alone were used by 5.3% G and 11.4% T of dairy farms. Storage or treatment ponds were found on 95.9% of dairies. Respondents identified existing manure management practices and did not indicate any new technologies were in use or being considered for manure management. Survey results were used to describe the 2 predominant manure management pathways of manure collection, storage, treatment, and utilization. Survey results will be used to develop and disseminate targeted information on manure treatment technologies, and on

  19. A sheep model for fracture treatment in osteoporosis: benefits of the model versus animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egermann, M; Goldhahn, J; Holz, R; Schneider, E; Lill, C A

    2008-10-01

    Animal models are necessary to evaluate new options for the treatment of fractures in osteoporotic bone. They permit both the biological response of a living system and the influence of the pathological processes to be taken into account. A sheep model for osteoporosis was established by combining oestrogen deficiency, calcium and vitamin D-deficient diet with steroid medication. Bone mineral density (BMD) was reduced by >30% after 12 weeks of combined treatment. Osteoporosis similar to the human situation with corresponding changes in the micro-architecture and mechanical properties of bone was observed. This publication focuses on the impressive results obtained with the model and contrasts them with considerations of animal welfare. Considerable side-effects associated with steroid medication became manifest. Animals in the treatment groups showed signs of infection of various degrees due to the immunosuppressive effect of the medication. The infections were mostly caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Antibody testing revealed a 100% prevalence of infection in this breed of sheep. A modification of the steroid treatment, i.e. less-frequent injections, reduced the incidence of side-effects. This sheep model shows a significant and reproducible reduction in cancellous BMD of >30%, including relevant changes in biomechanical properties and increased fracture risk. However, the severity of the side-effects cannot be overlooked. The model must be improved if it is to be used in the future. Options to reduce the side-effects are discussed.

  20. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial combinations of eight weed control treatments which include application of (Atrazine + Acetochlor +. Terbuthylazine at a ratio of 1:1:1, Atrazine + Metolachlor at a ratio of 1:2 each at 3.0 and 4.0kg a.i/ha, Atrazine at. 4.0 ...

  1. [Perspective of peer helpers regarding their experience animating a self-treatment program for panic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Michel; Bouchard, Stéphane; Lapalme, Micheline; Laverdure, Anick; Audet, Denis; Cusson, Jean-Claude; Zacchia, Camillo; Milton, Diana; Sam Tion, Michaël; Chartier-Otis, Mariko; Marchand, André; Bélanger, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Support groups can help to reach individuals with anxiety disorders who are not or are only partly obtaining health services. The present study is based on a program that involves peer helpers as animators of a self-treatment group (Zéro-ATAQ). Their perspective has been documented in order to identify the aspects of the program which can be improved. Eleven peer helpers led the 12 sessions of the program, which was dispensed in four regions of Quebec for 32 persons having panic disorders with agoraphobia. The perspectives of ten peer animators were documented based on a semi-structured interview that took place at the end of the program, and a focus group that was held over six months later with peer animators from each of the groups. Their comments were transcribed and a thematic content analysis was conducted. All of the peer helper animators reported that they enjoyed participating in the program, that they appreciated being able to help others having an anxiety disorder, and that the program helped them in their role as animators of these types of activities. Nearly all of the peer helpers emphasized the importance of being able to count on the supervision of a professional when needed. This study revealed (1) the feasibility of implementing a program of this kind in partnership with peers, (2) the qualifications necessary to lead this type of program, (3) the requirements in terms of training and available material, and (4) the importance of supervision.

  2. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam....... Moreover, foaming presents adverse environmental impacts owing to the overflowing of the pre-storage or digester tanks. So far, there has never been thoroughly investigation of foaming problem in manure-based digester, which is the main anaerobic digestion applied in Denmark. The purpose of the present...... study was to identify potential causes of foaming in manure based digesters. Moreover, it was also an aim to investigate possible solutions to counteract foam formation with the use of antifoam agents. Thus, the impact of organic loading rate and content of feeding substrate on anaerobic digestion...

  3. Vitamin D for the Treatment of Epilepsy: Basic Mechanisms, Animal Models and Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Pendo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence supporting dietary and alternative therapies for epilepsy, including the ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin D is actively under investigation as a potential intervention for epilepsy. Vitamin D is fat soluble steroid which shows promise in animal models of epilepsy. Basic research has shed light on the possible mechanisms by which Vitamin D may reduce seizures, and animal data support the efficacy of Vitamin D in rat and mouse models of epilepsy. Very little clinical data exists to support the treatment of human epilepsy with Vitamin D, but positive findings from preliminary clinical trials warrant larger Phase I and II clinical trials in order to more rigorously determine the potential therapeutic value of Vitamin D as a treatment for human epilepsy.

  4. Biogas of manure and sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, F.; Gundermann, J.; Kofoed, E.; Nielsen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Biogas production from farmyard manures and sewage sludges is based on anaerobic processes (methane-bacteria) and aerobic processes (fermentative bacteria). Biogas product has high calorific value and a number of small, pilot-scale and full-scale municipal systems of biogas production is described inclusive technological solutions and cost-benefit analysis. Experience of electric power generators fueled by biogas is evaluated from the view point of competitiveness with other fuels.

  5. Growth, nodulation and yield response of soybean to biofertilizers and organic manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, A.; Mahmood, N.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain TAL-102 and a commercial biofertlizer EM (effective microorganisms) on growth, nodulation and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Wilczek] in soils amended either with farmyard manure or Trifolium alexandrinum L. green manure at the rate 20 tons ha/sup -1/ each. In green manure amendment, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced number and biomass of nodules resulting in a significant increase of 27, 65 and 55% in shoot biomass and number and biomass of pods, respectively. In farmyard manure amended soil, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced fresh biomass of nodules. As a result a significant increase of 45 and 47% in shoot biomass and number of pods was recorded, respectively. Generally, the effect of sole EM application on various studied parameters was insignificant in both the soil amendment systems. Combined application of EM and B. japonicum in green manure amended soil reduced shoot growth and number of pods as compared to sole B. japonicum inoculation. Conversely, in farmyard manure amendment, plants co-inoculated with B. japonicum and EM exhibited highest and significantly greater shoot biomass, and number and biomass of pods as compared to all other treatments. The present study concludes that soybean yield can be significantly enhanced by the application of B. japonicum and EM in farmyard manure amendment. (author)

  6. The fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons following the application of swine and dairy manure to soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Kyle D; LaPara, Timothy M

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and class 1 integrons following the application of swine and dairy manure to soil. Soil microcosms were amended with either manure from swine fed subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics or manure from dairy cows that were given antibiotics only rarely and strictly for veterinary purposes. Microcosms were monitored for 6 months using quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes (a measure of bacterial biomass), intI1, erm(B), tet(A), tet(W) and tet(X). Swine manure had 10- to 100-fold higher levels of ARGs than the dairy manure, all of which decayed over time after being applied to soil. A modified Collins-Selleck model described the decay of ARGs in the soil microcosms well, particularly the characteristic in which the decay rate declined over time. By the completion of the soil microcosm experiments, ARGs in the dairy manure-amended soils returned to background levels, whereas the ARGs in swine manure remained elevated compared to control microcosms. Our research suggests that the use of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in animal feed could lead to the accumulation of ARGs in soils to which manure is applied. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Carbon and nutrient losses during manure storage under traditional and improved practices in smallholder crop-livestock systems - evidence from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Rufino, M.C.; Janssen, B.H.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of mineral fertiliser, animal manure may be the only nutrient resource available to smallholder farmers in Africa, and manure is often the main input of C to the soil when crop residues are removed from the fields. Assessments of C and nutrient balances and cycling within

  8. Framework for estimating toxic releases from the application of manure on agricultural soil: National release inventories for heavy metals in 2000-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leclerc, Alexandra Segolene Corinne; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Livestock manure is commonly applied on agricultural land for its fertilising properties. However, the presence of toxic substances in animal manure such as pathogens, antibiotics and heavy metals, can result in damages to ecosystems and human health. To date, although relevant for policy-making, e...

  9. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  10. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL

    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestion process for energy production on dairy farms.
    2. Digestion of manure at lower temperatures.

    The goal of the first mentioned research w...

  11. Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage: Management and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Ogejo, Jactone Arogo

    2009-01-01

    To get the most benefit out of the manure, good management practices and observation of safety practices that minimize manure hazards on the farm are important. This publication provides guidelines for good management and safety practices for manure storage.

  12. Global asessment of manure management policies and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teenstra, E.D.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Aktasaeng, N.; Amatayaku, W.; Ndambi, A.; Pelster, D.; Germer, L.; Jenet, A.; Opio, C.; Andeweg, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Livestock and Manure Management Component (LMMC) of the CCAC Agriculture Initiative supports integrated manure management practices by increasing knowledge and awareness, removing barriers to action and enhancing practice change. This Global Assessment report provides an overview of manure

  13. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy

  14. Effects of manure storage additivies on manure composition and greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Storage of dairy manure slurry allows for flexibility in the timing of land application of manure to reduce environmental impacts related to water quality. Yet, manure storage can increase greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia emissions and cause operational issues due to the buildup of slurry ...

  15. An assessment tool applied to manure management systems using innovative technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus G.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2003-01-01

    of operational and cost-effective animal manure handling technologies. An assessment tool covering the whole chain of the manure handling system from the animal houses to the field has been developed. The tool enables a system-oriented evaluation of labour demand, machinery capacity and costs related...... tanker transport may reduce labour requirements, increase capacity, and open up new ways for reducing ammonia emission. In its most efficient configuration, the use of umbilical systems may reduce the labour requirement by about 40% and increase capacity by 80%. However, these systems are costly...

  16. [Effects of nitrogen application and winter green manure on soil active organic carbon and the soil carbon pool management index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Lan, Yan; Chen, Hong-Jun; Wang, Shu-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Based on a cropping system of "winter green manure-double rice", the 4 x 4 two-factor test was used to study the effects of different nitrogen (N) application levels and winter green manure application on soil active organic carbon (AOC) and the C pool management index. The aim was to explore the ecological effects of winter green manure on soil improvement and determine the appropriate application levels of N fertilizer and winter green manure for improved rice yield. Results were as follows: 1) Compared with the control, the SOC and AOC contents increased by 22.2% and 26.7%, respectively, under the green manure only treatment, but the SOC contents decreased by 0.6%-3.4% under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with the control, the soil C pool management index increased by 24.55 and 15.17 under the green manure only and green manure plus N fertilizer treatments, respectively, and reduced by 2.59 under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with no fertilization, the average microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased by 54.0%, 95.2% and 14.3% under the green manure, green manure plus N fertilizer and single N fertilizer treatments, respectively. 2) The soil AOC content was significantly positively correlated with the C pool management index (P management index, and the correlation coefficient was significantly greater than that with the total organic C. These results suggested that application of winter green manure at proper rates with inorganic fertilizer could increase SOC contents and the soil C pool management index, improve soil quality and fertility.

  17. Comparison of Dairy Manure Anaerobic Digestion Performance in Gas-lift and Bubble Column Digesters

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising management options for dairy manure treatment. Manure wastewater from dairy farms has been used for methane production for decades. However, performance failure due to inadequate mixing is routine. In general, the mixng of anaerobic digester is achived throguh mechnical stirring, liquid circulation, and gas circulation, among which the gas circulation proves to be the most effcient way. In this work, we studied the liquid flow pattern of tw...

  18. N transfer from green manures to lettuce in an intercropping cultivation system

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai,Rogério Haruo; Ambrosano,Edmilson José; Negrini,Ana Clarissa Alves; Trivelin,Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Schammass,Eliana Aparecida; Melo,Paulo César Tavares de

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the transfer of N via biological nitrogen fixation from green manures to intercropped lettuce using the 15N abundance method. The treatments consisted of lettuce with black oats, lettuce with cowpea, lettuce with white lupin and monocropped lettuce (control). Green manures were sown at two different times including the following: 60 days before transplanting of lettuce seedlings and simultaneous to transplanting of lettuce seedlings. N transfer was estimat...

  19. A novel phosphorus biofertilizer based on cattle manure and phytases-nanoclay complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel; Jorquera, Milko; Greiner, Ralf; Velasquez, Gabriela; Mora, María de la Luz

    2013-04-01

    Phytate and other phytase labile organic phosphorus (P) are abundant in both soils and manures. These recalcitrant forms of P accumulate in soils by their interaction with mineral particles. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of treating cattle manure with phytases stabilized in allophanic nanoclays, as a novel P biofertilization technology for crops grown in volcanic soils (Andisol). Two Andisols and two manures with contrasting inorganic Pcontent were used: Low P soil from Piedras Negras series (SPN-LP); High P soil from Freire Series (SF-HP); Low P Waste (WPN-LP); High P Waste (WF-HP). The used Andisols and manures were incubated with phytase-nanoclay complexes and the inorganic P was determined in the NaOH-EDTA and bicarbonate extracts. The WPN-LP was also inoculated with an alkaline β-propeller phytase (BPP) producing bacterium. The incubated SPN-LP and SPN-LP-WPN-LP mixture were evaluated for their P supplying capacity to wheat plants under greenhouse conditions. Our resultsindicated that the treatment of cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays resulted in a significant (P≤0.0.5) increase in the inorganic P. The use of phytase treated cattle manure increased 10% plant dry weight and 39% P concentration in wheat plants under greenhouse conditions, being equivalent to a P fertilizer dose of about 150 kg of P ha-1. In the case of low P cattle manure inoculated with BPP producing bacterium, inorganic P increased 10% in soil extracts (NaOH EDTA and Bicarbonate). However, the application of this treated manure did not result in a significant response to wheat growth and P acquisition. Our results suggest that this novel approach of incubating cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays enhances organic P cycling and P nutrition of plants grown under P-deficient soils.

  20. Chemical characterization of manure in relation to manure quality as a contribution to a reduced nitrogen emission to the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:manure composition, ammonia volatilization, free ions, Donnan Membrane Technique, manure additives, dietary changes, nitrogen dynamics,grasslandsoils.More insight in manure composition, ammonia (NH 3 )

  1. Lipid emulsions in the treatment of acute poisoning: a systematic review of human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaty, Chloé; Bailey, Benoit; Larocque, Alexandre; Notebaert, Eric; Sanogo, Karine; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    To assess the evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) in the management of poisoned patients. We performed a systematic review of the literature with no time or language restriction. The electronic databases were searched from their inception until June 1, 2009 (Medline, EMBASE, ISI web of science, Biological abstract, LILACS, ChemIndex, Toxnet, and Proquest). We also examined the references of identified articles and the gray literature. The target interventions eligible for inclusion were administration of any IFE before, during, or after poisoning in human or animals. All types of studies were reviewed. Eligibility for inclusion and study quality scores, based on criteria by Jadad and the STROBE statement, were evaluated by independent investigators. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included neurologic, hemodynamic, and electrocardiographic variables, as well as adverse effects. Of the 938 publications identified by the search strategies, 74 met the inclusion criteria. We identified 23 animal trials, 50 human, and 1 animal case reports. Overall, the quality of evidence was weak and significant heterogeneity prevented data pooling. Available data suggest some benefits of IFE in bupivacaine, verapamil, chlorpromazine, and some tricyclic antidepressants and beta-blockers toxicity. No trial assessed the safety of IFE in the treatment of acute poisoning. The evidence for the efficacy of IFE in reducing mortality and improving hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, and neurological parameters in the poisoned patients is solely based on animal studies and human case reports. The safety of IFE has not been established.

  2. Characterization the potential of biochar from cow and pig manure for geoecology application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunamantha, I. M.; Widana, G. A. B.

    2018-03-01

    Biochar is a solid product generated from the carbonization of biomass with various potential benefits. The utilisation of biochar should be adapted to its characteristic which is mainly influenced by its feedstock. In this study, cow and pig manure biochar generated by a conventional process, were characterized by its physical and chemical analysis and its potential to be used as soil amendment. For this purpose, several main parameters were analyzed: organic carbon, Nutrient (total-N, available P and K) status, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), proximate data analysis (moisture content, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon) and its ash composition. The comparison between biochar and feedstock will be based on these parameters. The results of this study show that the organic carbon, available P, ash, and fixed carbon content of pig-manure biochar is higher than cow manure-derived biochar; while total-N, available K, CEC and volatile matter is lower. On its ash composition, the pig manure-derived biochar is dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, P2O5, and CaO while the cow manure-derived biochar is dominated by SiO2, CaO, Al2O3, K2O, and P2O5. However, both biochar show potential for improving soil quality and reducing carbon emission from animal manure.

  3. Modeling manure colloid-facilitated transport of the weakly hydrophobic antibiotic florfenicol in saturated soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yonghong; Zheng, Wei

    2013-05-21

    Field application of livestock manure introduces animal hormones and veterinary antibiotics into the environment. Colloids present in manure may potentially intensify the environmental risk of groundwater pollution by colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. The transport behavior of the veterinary antibiotic florfenicol in saturated homogeneously packed soil columns has been investigated in both the presence and absence of manure colloids. Results show that facilitated transport of florfenicol is significant in the presence of manure colloids. Multiple chemical and physical processes caused by the presence of manure colloids were considered to contribute to facilitated transport. Florfenicol breakthrough curves (BTCs) were fit well by two models. The two-site nonequilibrium adsorption contaminant transport model suggested the mechanisms for facilitated florfenicol transport are as follows: manure colloids decrease the sorption capacity of florfenicol to soil, enhance the instantaneous equilibrium adsorption, and suppress the time-dependent kinetic adsorption processes. The colloid-facilitated model further evaluated the partition coefficient of florfenicol to colloids and indicated that cotransport has little contribution. A stepwise inverse model fitting approach resulted in robust parameter estimation. The adoption of the nonlinear Freundlich adsorption equation in the two-site nonequilibrium model significantly increased the fit of the model to the breakthrough curves.

  4. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolensky D

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dmitriy Smolensky,1,2 Kusum Rathore,1 Maria Cekanova1,2 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2UT-ORNL Graduate School of Genome Science and Technology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. Keywords: bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma, signaling pathways, clinical trials

  5. The owner-animal-environment triad in the treatment of canine periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Fraser A

    2003-06-01

    In a perfect world, all veterinarians and veterinary dental technicians would understand periodontal disease as well as the dental specialist. They would all be able to recognize the early signs of periodontal disease and recommend treatment to prevent its progression. The owners would have the financial resources, time, and desire to maintain their pet's oral health. The dogs would all be calm and compliant with home care and have no particular anesthetic risks. Unfortunately, this is not a perfect world. Some veterinarians do not understand periodontal disease any better that I understand cosmic string theory. Some owners have limited financial resources and are not particularly committed to their pet's oral health. Some animals will not tolerate any type or manner of home care. Given that animals, their mouths, and their owners come in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes (figuratively and literally), how can we talk about the treatment of periodontal disease as if it is a single condition with a single treatment, or even only a few treatment options? Each owner, animal, and its environment must be assessed on an individual basis to develop a treatment plan that is reasonable and attainable based on the unique circumstances of each case. So, what should be the goal when treating periodontal disease? Is it the preservation of all teeth at all costs? Is it the preservation of important teeth if the costs can be kept reasonable? I would suggest that the overriding goal of periodontal treatment should be the elimination and prevention of oral infection and oral pain. In the domestic environment, dogs have no real need to defend territory. They have no need to prehend and kill live prey animals. In short, the domesticated pet dog does not need teeth at all. This may seem like an odd statement for a veterinary dentist to make, but I feel quite strongly that a dog is far better off having no teeth than having bad teeth. My preference is that a dog should have a full

  6. Effect of monopolar radiofrequency treatment over soft-tissue fillers in an animal model: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, Peter R; England, Laura J; Dover, Jeffrey S; Ross, E Victor; Harford, Robert; Derienzo, Damian; Bogle, Melissa; Uebelhoer, Nathan; Jacoby, Mark; Pope, Karl

    2006-03-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) treatment is used by physicians to heat skin and promote tissue tightening and contouring. Cosmetic fillers are used to soften deep facial lines and wrinkles. Patients who have had dermal fillers implanted may also benefit from or are candidates for monopolar RF skin tightening. This study examined the effect of RF treatment on various dermal filler substances. This is the second part of a two-part study. A juvenile farm pig was injected with dermal fillers including cross-linked human collagen (Cosmoplast), polylactic acid (PLA) (Sculptra), liquid injectable silicone (Silikon 1000), calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) (Radiesse), and hyaluronic acid (Restylane). Skin injected with dermal fillers was RF-treated using a 1.5-cm2 treatment tip and treatment levels typically used in the clinical setting. Fillers were examined histologically 5 days, 2 weeks, or 1 month after treatment. Histological specimens were scored for inflammatory response, foreign body response, and fibrosis in order to assess the effect of treatment on early filler processes, such as inflammation and encapsulation. Each filler substance produced a characteristic inflammatory response. No immediate thermal effect of RF treatment was observed histologically. RF treatment resulted in statistically significant increases in the inflammatory, foreign body, and fibrotic responses associated with the filler substances. Monopolar RF treatment levels that are typically used in the clinical setting were employed in this animal study. RF treatment resulted in measurable and statistically significant histological changes associated with the various filler materials. Additional clinical and histological studies are required to determine the optimal timing of monopolar RF treatment and filler placement for maximal potential aesthetic outcome. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...... and C. jejuni. Pupae or newly hatched flies were not carriers of C. jejuni although larvae were grown in contaminated manure. Impact When composting poultry manure with Md fly larvae, it is possible both to reduce the amount of waste and to sanitize it from C. jejuni, thereby reducing the risk...

  8. Impact of charring on cereal grain characteristics: linking prehistoric manuring practice to 15N signatures in archaeobotanical material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Marie; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Mikkelsen, Peter Hambro

    2012-01-01

    Systematic use of animal manure has been demonstrated to be detectable in the plant δ15N value but evidence of manure affecting isotopic composition is mainly based on studies of fresh plant material. These findings can potentially be applied to archaeobotanical assemblages and thus provide...... information about prehistoric manuring practice. Prehistoric grains are generally found in a charred state of which the exact charring conditions are unknown but most likely often multifarious. In this study we examined the influence of grain weight and a range of charring conditions with regards duration...

  9. Novel hyperthermia applicator system allows adaptive treatment planning: Preliminary clinical results in tumour-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, S; Gosselin, M-C; Capstick, M H; Carrasco, E; Weyland, M S; Scheidegger, S; Neufeld, E; Kuster, N; Bodis, S; Rohrer Bley, C

    2017-09-11

    Hyperthermia (HT) as an adjuvant to radiation therapy (RT) is a multimodality treatment method to enhance therapeutic efficacy in different tumours. High demands are placed on the hardware and treatment planning software to guarantee adequately planned and applied HT treatments. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of the novel HT system in tumour-bearing dogs and cats in terms of local response and toxicity as well as to compare planned with actual achieved data during heating. A novel applicator with a flexible number of elements and integrated closed-loop temperature feedback control system, and a tool for patient-specific treatment planning were used in a combined thermoradiotherapy protocol. Good agreement between predictions from planning and clinical outcome was found in 7 of 8 cases. Effective HT treatments were planned and verified with the novel system and provided improved quality of life in all but 1 patient. This individualized treatment planning and controlled heat exposure allows adaptive, flexible and safe HT treatments in palliatively treated animal patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. What is to be gained by imaging the same animal before and after treatment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibe, Paul O.; Vera, David R.; Eckelman, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental design includes decisions to perform measurements with intact animals or truncated in vivo measurements followed by dissection and ex vivo measurements. The design may be driven by advantages and disadvantages of the choices. Analytical results are presented here that can provide a basis for certain experimental design choices. Design considerations include longitudinal studies in the single animal that bracket a treatment, joint observations by supplementing the imaging data with plasma and/or ex vivo sampling after dissection, multiple injections of increasing molar base or administration of a molar dose that results in the occupation of a significant fraction of the target receptors. Of particular interest when constructing an experimental design is the reduction of bias. Analysis tools for this purpose include reparameterization and model application without the formation of time-based averaging

  11. Steroid-associated osteonecrosis: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, animal model, prevention, and potential treatments (an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hui Xie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON is a common orthopaedic problem caused by administration of corticosteroids prescribed for many nonorthopaedic medical conditions. We summarised different pathophysiologies of SAON which have adverse effects on multiple systems such as bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs pool, bone matrix, cell apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and angiogenesis. Different animal models were introduced to mimic the pathophysiology of SAON and for testing the efficacy of both prevention and treatment effects of various chemical drugs, biological, and physical therapies. According to the classification of SAON, several prevention and treatment methods are applied at the different stages of SAON. For the current period, Chinese herbs may also have the potential to prevent the occurrence of SAON. In the future, genetic analysis might also be helpful to effectively predict the development of ON and provide information for personalised prevention and treatment of patients with SAON.

  12. Millet manuring as a driving force for the Late Neolithic agricultural expansion of north China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xin; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Zhang, Phengcheng

    2018-01-01

    in Chinese archaeology. Here we present an isotopic dataset for archaeological foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and common millet (Panicum miliaceum) grains as well as associated faunal remains (both domesticated and wild) from seven sites in the Baishui Valley of north China, in order to find direct...... evidence of organic manuring during the Late Neolithic period. The elevated nitrogen isotope values of the millet grains (5500-3500 cal BP) in comparison with the estimated local vegetation indicates that millets were organically manured by animal dung, mostly likely originating from domestic pigs....... Considering the low nitrogen contents of loess soils and their unsuitability for intensive cultivation, this organic manuring by animal dung would have played a key role in maintaining soil productivity and crop yield, which was necessary to support the demands of agriculture and cultural expansion during...

  13. The use of N-15 labelling to study the turnover and utilization of ruminant manure N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved understanding of the cycling of animal manure N is a prerequisite for malting better use of this N source. A sheep was fed N-15-Iabelled grass in order to study the fate of N-15-Iabelled ruminant manure N in the plant-soil system. The uniformity of labelling was found to be satisfactory...... when an appropriate feeding strategy was used. The mineralization of labelled faecal N was compared to the mineralization of labelled feed N and indigestible feed N by measuring residual labelled organic N in unplanted topsoil in the field. After18 months, 61% of both faecal N and feed N was recovered...... was low irrespective of the slurry distribution in soil. The results demonstrate that the contact between animal manure and the soil matrix significantly influences the short-term turnover and availability of faecal and ammonium N in slurry, especially in fine-textured soils....

  14. Cow power: the energy and emissions benefits of converting manure to biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuellar, Amanda D; Webber, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    This report consists of a top-level aggregate analysis of the total potential for converting livestock manure into a domestic renewable fuel source (biogas) that could be used to help states meet renewable portfolio standard requirements and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the US, livestock agriculture produces over one billion tons of manure annually on a renewable basis. Most of this manure is disposed of in lagoons or stored outdoors to decompose. Such disposal methods emit methane and nitrous oxide, two important GHGs with 21 and 310 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide, respectively. In total, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector in the US amounted to 536 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide equivalent, or 7% of the total US emissions in 2005. Of this agricultural contribution, 51 to 118 MMT of carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from livestock manure emissions alone, with trends showing this contribution increasing from 1990 to 2005. Thus, limiting GHG emissions from manure represents a valuable starting point for mitigating agricultural contributions to global climate change. Anaerobic digestion, a process that converts manure to methane-rich biogas, can lower GHG emissions from manure significantly. Using biogas as a substitute for other fossil fuels, such as coal for electricity generation, replaces two GHG sources-manure and coal combustion-with a less carbon-intensive source, namely biogas combustion. The biogas energy potential was calculated using values for the amount of biogas energy that can be produced per animal unit (defined as 1000 pounds of animal) per day and the number of animal units in the US. The 95 million animal units in the country could produce nearly 1 quad of renewable energy per year, amounting to approximately 1% of the US total energy consumption. Converting the biogas into electricity using standard microturbines could produce 88 ± 20 billion kWh, or 2.4 ± 0.6% of annual electricity

  15. Cow power: the energy and emissions benefits of converting manure to biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar, Amanda D.; Webber, Michael E.

    2008-07-01

    This report consists of a top-level aggregate analysis of the total potential for converting livestock manure into a domestic renewable fuel source (biogas) that could be used to help states meet renewable portfolio standard requirements and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the US, livestock agriculture produces over one billion tons of manure annually on a renewable basis. Most of this manure is disposed of in lagoons or stored outdoors to decompose. Such disposal methods emit methane and nitrous oxide, two important GHGs with 21 and 310 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide, respectively. In total, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector in the US amounted to 536 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide equivalent, or 7% of the total US emissions in 2005. Of this agricultural contribution, 51 to 118 MMT of carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from livestock manure emissions alone, with trends showing this contribution increasing from 1990 to 2005. Thus, limiting GHG emissions from manure represents a valuable starting point for mitigating agricultural contributions to global climate change. Anaerobic digestion, a process that converts manure to methane-rich biogas, can lower GHG emissions from manure significantly. Using biogas as a substitute for other fossil fuels, such as coal for electricity generation, replaces two GHG sources—manure and coal combustion—with a less carbon-intensive source, namely biogas combustion. The biogas energy potential was calculated using values for the amount of biogas energy that can be produced per animal unit (defined as 1000 pounds of animal) per day and the number of animal units in the US. The 95 million animal units in the country could produce nearly 1 quad of renewable energy per year, amounting to approximately 1% of the US total energy consumption. Converting the biogas into electricity using standard microturbines could produce 88 ± 20 billion kWh, or 2.4 ± 0.6% of annual electricity

  16. Effects of monopolar radiofrequency treatment over soft-tissue fillers in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Laura J; Tan, Mei-Heng; Shumaker, Peter R; Egbert, Barbara M; Pittelko, Kim; Orentreich, David; Pope, Karl

    2005-12-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) treatment is used by physicians to tighten and contour the skin of their patients. In many cases, patients have received prior treatment with other aesthetic modalities such as soft-tissue augmentation or they may wish to receive these treatment modalities simultaneously. Together, soft-tissue augmentation and monopolar RF treatment have the potential to restore tissue volume and improve facial laxity. To date, no published studies have documented the effects of RF treatment directly over soft-tissue fillers. We examined the tissue interactions of monopolar RF heating with five commonly injected fillers in a juvenile pig model. This is the first part of a two-part study. In this study, the interaction of monopolar RF and filler substances was examined over a period of 4 months. The five soft-tissue fillers examined were cross-linked human collagen (Cosmoplast), hyaluronic acid (Restylane), calcium hydroxylapatite (Radiesse), polylactic acid (Sculptra), and liquid injectable silicone (Silikon 1000). There was no apparent increase in the risk of local burns and no observable effect of RF treatment on filler persistence in the tissue. With monopolar RF treatment, an increase in fibroplasia and collagen deposition surrounding Restylane, Radiesse, and Sculptra was observed. When scored in a blinded fashion, the increase in collagen deposition was statistically significant for Radiesse. In this animal study, RF treatment had no observed adverse effect on filler collagen responses or persistence. Filler presence did not increase the risk of undesirable thermal effects with monopolar RF treatment. Further clinical studies are required to evaluate the effect of monopolar RF treatment over dermal fillers with respect to aesthetic outcome. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Effect of biofertilizer and organic manure application on yield and morphological index of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam nemati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of biological and manure fertilizer on quantity and quality characteristics of roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L., an experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Center of Zabol University, Iran during growing season of 2012-2013. Treatments included three manure level; 0, 10 and 20 t.h-1 and eight levels of biofertilizer such as control, nitroxin, bio - sulfur, biological phosphorus, nitroxin+ bio - sulfur, nitroxin+ biological phosphorus, bio - sulfur+ biological phosphorus, nitroxin+ bio - sulfur+ biological phosphorus. Different levels of manure and biofertilizer inoculation were considered as main plots and subplots, respectively. Add manure to the soil and seeds of rossel inoculant treatment was performed with bio - fertilizers before planting. Traits including plant high, stem diameter, number of branches, number of fruits per plant, biological yield and economic yield based on results, levels of manure and fertilizer treatments and their interactions on biological traits were significant. Bio- fertilizers treatments caused significant differences on all meantioned traits. Interaction between treatments showed that the maximum economic yield equal to 1290 kg.h-1 roselle consumption combined with 10 t.h-1 manure+ nitroxin. The results showed that combined use of manure and biological, rather than taking them separately in increasing economic yield and growth characteristics roselle can play an effective role.

  18. Increasing the biogas yield of manure by wet explosion of the digested fiber fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    Increasing the biodegradability of the lignocellulosic fiber fraction of manure can ensure higher methane productivity in biogas plants, leading to process profitability and thus larger production of renewable energy. A new pretreatment method, wet explosion (WEx), was investigated to treat...... digested manure fibers from the effluent of an anaerobic digester for enhancing biogas production and exploring the untapped biomass potential. The increase in methane yield of the digested manure fibers was investigated by applying the WEx treatment under 5 different process conditions. The pretreatment...... condition of 180 ºC and a retention time of 10 minutes without addition of chemicals was found to be optimal, resulting in 136% increase in methane yield as compared to the untreated digested manure fibers....

  19. (Vigna unguiculata) To Phosphorus Fertilizer And Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were carried out to determine the growth, yield and profitability of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), growth with different levels of phosphorus fertilizer and poultry manure. A randomised complete block design (RCBD) was used and the total treatments were four namely: 0.0kgP2O5/ha, 0.20kgP2O5/ha, 0.40kg ...

  20. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  1. Natural healers: a review of animal assisted therapy and activities as complementary treatment for chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Reiley; Ferrer, Lilian; Villegas, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this review is to synthesize the existing literature on the use of animal-assisted therapy and activity (AAT/A) as complementary treatment among people living with chronic disease and to discuss the possible application of this practice among children living with HIV. Relevant databases were searched between March 10 and April 11, 2011, using the words: animal assisted therapy or treatment and chronic conditions or diseases. Thirty-one articles were found and 18 followed the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Research suggests that AAT/A is effective for different patient profiles, particularly children. Interaction with dogs has been found to increase positive behaviors, such as sensitivity and focus, in children with social disabilities. Decreased levels of pain have also been reported among child patients as a result of AAT/A. More research should be done in the area of children living with chronic diseases that require strict adherence to treatment, such as HIV, and on AAT/A's prospective use as an educational tool to teach children about the importance of self-care for their medical conditions.

  2. STTARR: a radiation treatment and multi-modal imaging facility for fast tracking novel agent development in small animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Ivan; McKee, Trevor; Jaffray, David; Hill, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Small animal models play a pivotal role in the pipeline development of novel agents and strategies in personalized cancer therapy. The Spatio-Temporal Targeting and Amplification of Radiation Response Program (STTARR) consists of an animal imaging and precision radiation facility designed to provide innovative biologic imaging and targeted radiation treatment strategies in small animals. The design is to mirror the imaging and radiation treatment facility in a modern cancer center. The STTARR features imaging equipment of small animal scale including CT, MRI, PET, SPECT, Optical devices as well as image guided irradiators. The fleet of imaging and irradiation equipment provides a platform for identification of biological targets of the specific molecular pathways that influence both tumor progression and a patient's response to radiation therapy. Examples will be given in the utilization of the imaging facilities for development in novel approaches in cancer therapy including a PET-FAZA study for hypoxia measurement in a pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenograft model. In addition, the cone-beam image guided small animal irradiator developed at our institute will also be described. The animal platform (couch) provides motion in 3 dimensions to position the animal to the isocentre of the beam. A pair of rotational arms supporting the X-ray/detector pair enables acquisition of cone-beam images of the animal which give rise to image guided precision of 0.5 mm. The irradiation energy ranges from 50 to 225 kVp at a dose rate from 10-400 cGy/min. The gantry is able to direct X-ray beam of different directions to give conformal radiation treatment to the animal. A dedicated treatment planning system is able to perform treatment planning and provide commonly used clinical metrics in the animal treatment plan. Examples will be given to highlight the use of the image guided irradiator for research of drug/irradiation regimen in animal models. (author)

  3. Green manure affects cut flower yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ rose bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Fabiana Aparecida Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose cultivation requires many inputs for satisfactory production, making the process expensive. Nowadays, alternative practices have been used for sustainable crop production. Green manure is an agricultural practice that aims to maintain or improve soil fertility, increasing its yielding capacity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of green manure with legumes on the yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ roses. Grafted rose seedlings were cultivated in open field for 30 months. Legumes used as green manure and planted intercropped with rose bushes were forage peanut (Arachis pintoi and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan was grown in a separate area, cut, macerated, and applied in the rows between rose bushes every 3 months. Plants of control group received no green manure, only mineral fertilizer and cattle manure, as in all other treatments. The experimental design was randomized block with four treatments (three green manure species plus the control and seven replications. The highest yield and quality of flower stems in ‘Vegas’ occurred with addition of pigeon pea on the soil surface or chemically treated (control. Forage peanut and jack bean are not suitable for intercropping with ‘Vegas’ rose bushes due to possible nutrient and water competition.

  4. Neuroethics, painience, and neurocentric criteria for the moral treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sherry E; Giordano, James

    2014-04-01

    Neuroscience affords knowledge that can be leveraged in the ontological valuation of individuals, groups, and species. Sociocultural sentiments, norms, and mores may impede embracing such knowledge to revise moral attitudes, ethics, and policies. We argue that the practices of neuroethics will be valuable in that they ground ethico-legal discourse in (1) naturalistic philosophy; (2) the current epistemological capital of neuroscience; (3) the issues, problems, and solutions arising in and from neuroscientific research and its applications; and 4) the use of neurocentric criteria-such as painience-to define and resolve ethical decisions regarding attitudes toward and treatment of nonhuman animals.

  5. Lime treatment of shrimp head waste for the generation of highly digestible animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward-Kelly, Guillermo; Agbogbo, Frank K; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2006-09-01

    In addition to approximately 20% ash, shrimp processing by-products contain 64% protein and chitin, both of which can be used to generate several valuable products. Chitin and chitosan production is currently based on several crustacean wastes, and at the present time the protein fraction is not being used. This paper describes the thermo-chemical treatment of shrimp processing wastes with lime to generate a protein-rich material with a well-balanced amino acid content that can be used as a monogastric animal feed supplement. The residual solid, rich in calcium carbonate and chitin, can still be used to generate chitin and chitosan through well-established processes.

  6. Effects of different ratios of pig manure to fungus residue on physicochemical parameters during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangming; Wang, Litong; Wang, Houming; Jiang, Long; Jiang, Xinyou

    2016-05-01

    This study examined physicochemical parameters to assess their effectiveness as stability and maturity indicators during the process of composting pig manure and fungus residue at different ratios. The results showed that composting mixtures with all ratios of pig manure to fungus residue maintained a temperature exceeding 50 °C for more than 10 days during composting and met the requirement for pathogen destruction. The treatment containing mainly pig manure showed higher nitrogen loss and a shorter thermophilic phase and maturity time than the treatment containing mainly fungus residue. The germination index (GI) values indicated that compost maturity was achieved in the final compost with initial ratios of pig manure to fungus residue of 9:1-7:3 (GIs of 101.4%, 91.2%, and 81.3%); the ratio of 6:4 did not reach compost maturity (GI of 63.8%) and had an inhibitory effect on seed germination. The results of this study suggest that a ratio of pig manure to fungus residue of approximately 8:2 can be considered suitable for the efficient and quality composting of pig manure and fungus residue. Co-composting of pig manure and edible fungi residue with appropriate proportion can effectively reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes, as well as achieve a safer and high-quality organic fertilizer, which can be used to improve physical and chemical properties of the soil, increase crop yields, and promote agricultural sustainable development. Therefore, technique of co-composting of pig manure and edible fungi residue has a wide prospect of application in practical production all over the world.

  7. Tracing copper derived from pig manure in calcareous soils and soil leachates by 65Cu labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Anne; He, Yao; Siemens, Jan; Welp, Gerhard; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Münker, Carsten; Xue, Qiaoyun; Lin, Xianyong; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-04-07

    Copper is used as a growth promoter in animal husbandry, resulting in high Cu concentrations in animal manure. We tested whether Cu would be mobilized in soils receiving excessive loads of manure, both from recently added and from aged fractions. To discriminate between these Cu sources, manure was labeled with (65)Cu. After soil application of 0, 15, and 30 Mg manure ha(-1), leachate was collected in free-draining lysimeters (40 cm depth) under undisturbed soil over a 53 day period. Determining the total amounts of Cu and the fractions of (65)Cu in leachate and the soil profile enabled us to trace the translocation of Cu derived from labeled manure. More than 84% of the applied Cu was retained in the top 2 cm of soil. Less than 0.01% of the applied Cu was detected overall in the leachate. Of this amount, however, 38% (± 8.9 SE) was leached within 8 days after application. The total Cu concentration in leachates (32-164 μg L(-1)) frequently exceeded the Chinese groundwater quality standard of 50 μg L(-1). The added (65)Cu, however, accounted for less than 3.6% of the total Cu leaching load, suggesting that Cu from older sources and/or geological background controls contamination, regardless of current land management.

  8. The Effects of Manure at Saline Soil on Growth, Dry Matter Production and Crude Protein of Sesbania grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmiyati, F.; Purbajanti, E. D.; Surahmanto

    2018-02-01

    Saline soil is one of major abiotic stress in Indonesia. The research was conducted to evaluate growth, dry matter production and crude protein of Sesbania grandiflora at saline soil with different application dosage of manure. The research was done during June - December 2016at saline soil (EC = 4.1 dS/m) in Kaliori sub-district area, Rembang Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The treatments were dosage of manure (0, 10 and 20 tonnes/ha). Sesbania grandiflora was planted as sole legume and inter-planted with P. maximum.Parameters measured were plant height, number of leaves, dry matter production and crude protein at first cutting and second cuttings. Results showed that plant growth was higher with application manure at saline soil. The effect of manure was obvious at second cutting. The highest dry matter production was obtained at application 20 ton/ha manure. Application manure at saline soil affected crude protein of S. grandiflora at first cutting. Manure was not affected crude protein S. grandiflora at second cutting. The conclusion was application of 20 ton/ha manure at saline soil (EC = 4.1 dS/m) increased growth, dry matter production and crude protein of Sesbania grandiflora.

  9. Current and Potential Treatments for Reducing Campylobacter Colonization in Animal Hosts and Disease in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J.; Shank, Janette M.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance, emergence of post-infectious diseases, and economic burden associated with Campylobacter increases, it is becoming urgent that novel treatments are developed to reduce Campylobacter numbers in commercial poultry and campylobacteriosis in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide the current status of present and proposed treatments to combat Campylobacter infection in humans and colonization in animal reservoirs. These treatments include anti-Campylobacter compounds, probiotics, bacteriophage, vaccines, and anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins, all of which may be successful at reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans and/or colonization loads in poultry. In addition to reviewing treatments, we will also address several proposed targets that may be used in future development of novel anti-Campylobacter treatments. PMID:28386253

  10. Application of gamma radiation for the treatment of laboratory animal diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation for the treatment of laboratory animal diets has proved particularly successful. The effective inactivation of microorganisms, insects and parasites etc. is well demonstrated and the absence of adverse effects on the dietary components is inferred from many years of practical use. Adequate packaging of the pelleted diets is essential to avoid recontamination after irradiation; this aspect needs particular attention. The economics of the process are such that it would not be warranted to invest in a 60 Co plant specifically for the treatment of laboratory diets. However, a throughput in the order of 1000 to 1500 tonnes per annum, as estimated to meet UK current demand, can be catered for adequately and economically in a large-scale general service facility. (author)

  11. Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Reproductive Disorders of Large Animals in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZH Zuo, TY Zhang, J Chu, Q Zhang, YX Guo, ZQ Shen and C He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive diseases have been a great threat in large animal herds. Before induction of western medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM that is based on the use of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage and other forms of therapy has been practiced in China for thousands of years. The foundational text of Chinese medicine dated back to 5th century to 3rd century BCE, humans in China began developing the TCM therapy by maintaining normal homeostasis and body functions. Traditional Chinese medicine prophylaxis is a very different strategy from that of the western medicine, targeting the balance of the diseased animals as compared to the single lesion. Traditional Chinese medicine was also applied to cure ruminant’s reproductive disorders such as infertility, abortion and retained placenta. With the increasing concerns of the antibiotic resistance and drug abuse happened, TCM has acquired re-recognition as compared to western medicines due to eco-friendly consumer-driven developments and less residue in food chains. More importantly, a growing number of active substances or extracts with the reliable efficacy are being identified, meanwhile, the quality control measures are satisfied in the large-scale production already. However, few TCM is recognized to be used internationally as the popular human medication. Even less TCM is prescribed legally to animal industry due to poor understanding TCM philosophy and lack of the right guidelines of the registration. This summary aims to elucidate the TCM application in the treatment of the reproductive disorder in large animals and offer alternative strategies for prophylaxis.

  12. Stimulation of N2O emission by manure application to agricultural soils may largely offset carbon benefits: a global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Shijie; Zhu, Xinyu; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure application as organic fertilizer does not only sustain agricultural productivity and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, but also affects soil nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions. However, given that the sign and magnitude of manure effects on soil N 2 O emissions is uncertain, the net climatic impact of manure application in arable land is unknown. Here, we performed a global meta-analysis using field experimental data published in peer-reviewed journals prior to December 2015. In this meta-analysis, we quantified the responses of N 2 O emissions to manure application relative to synthetic N fertilizer application from individual studies and analyzed manure characteristics, experimental duration, climate, and soil properties as explanatory factors. Manure application significantly increased N 2 O emissions by an average 32.7% (95% confidence interval: 5.1-58.2%) compared to application of synthetic N fertilizer alone. The significant stimulation of N 2 O emissions occurred following cattle and poultry manure applications, subsurface manure application, and raw manure application. Furthermore, the significant stimulatory effects on N 2 O emissions were also observed for warm temperate climate, acid soils (pH < 6.5), and soil texture classes of sandy loam and clay loam. Average direct N 2 O emission factors (EFs) of 1.87% and 0.24% were estimated for upland soils and rice paddy soils receiving manure application, respectively. Although manure application increased SOC stocks, our study suggested that the benefit of increasing SOC stocks as GHG sinks could be largely offset by stimulation of soil N 2 O emissions and aggravated by CH 4 emissions if, particularly for rice paddy soils, the stimulation of CH 4 emissions by manure application was taken into account. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Accumulation of ractopamine residues in hair and ocular tissues of animals during and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Vulic, Ana; Persi, Nina; Terzic, Svjetlana; Andrisic, Miroslav; Zarkovic, Irena; Sandor, Ksenija; Perak, Eleonora; Mihaljevic, Zeljko

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine residues in the hair and ocular tissues of guinea pigs during repeated ractopamine administration and after treatment. The experiment was conducted in 38 guinea pigs (30 treated and eight controls). Treated animals were orally administered ractopamine hydrochloride in a dose of 3.5 mg/kg body mass per day using probes for seven consecutive days. Ractopamine concentration was determined in hair during the treatment (Days 1, 3 and 7) with ractopamine hydrochloride and in ocular tissues and hair on defined days after exposure (Days 1, 10, 20 and 30). Residues were present in hair in high concentrations as early as Day 3 (86.15 ± 87.71 ng/g) and Day 7 (85.25 ± 56.97 ng/g). After exposure, residues were found to persist, having depleted from 68.06 ± 30.54 ng/g on Day 1 to 8.01 ± 2.22 ng/g on Day 30, with a significantly higher concentration in hair in contrast to low residue levels in ocular tissues (1.20-0.34 ng/g). The results of the study pointed to high ractopamine accumulation, even in non-pigmented hair, suggesting hair to be used as a matrix in the control of ractopamine abuse in farm animals because of its many advantages over ocular tissues.

  14. The use of antioxidant agents for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy treatment in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Larissa F; Silva, Ana Maria F; Carvalho, Adriana A

    2017-10-01

    Antineoplastic drugs such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel and vincristin are widely used in the treatment of several solid and blood tumours. However, the severity of peripheral neuropathy caused by these agents can affect the patient's quality of life. The major symptoms of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) involve: sensory loss, paresthesia, dysesthaesia, numbness, tingling, temperature sensitivity, allodynia and hyperalgesia, in a "stocking and glove" distribution. Why many different chemotherapeutic agents result in similar neuropathy profiles is unclear. Many drug classes such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antispastic agents and others have been used in clinical practice, but there is no scientific evidence to prove their effectiveness. But drugs as the antioxidant have shown a protective effect against free radical damage. In order to find out a successful treatment for CIPN, animal studies (ie pharmacological and mechanical tests and histopathological immunohistochemical analyses) have been developed to try to determinate the action of the antioxidant agents. This review provides an overview of the major antioxidant agents recently investigated to treat CIPN and the animal models used for this purpose. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. The ALFAM2 database on ammonia emission from field-applied manure: description and illustrative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from animal manure contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation, and is a loss of reactive nitrogen (N) from agricultural systems. Estimates of NH3 emission are necessary for national inventories and nutrient management. Many studies have made measurements of NH3 emi...

  16. CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MANURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA and the USDA convened a three-day Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated with Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures, and Other Organic By-Products on June 4-6, 2001 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the effe...

  17. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Dmitriy; Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27784990

  18. Life cycle assessment of superheated steam drying technology as a novel cow manure management method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifzadeh, Mohammadmatin; Nabati, Zahra; Longka, Pairote; Malakul, Pomthong; Apul, Defne; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2017-09-01

    Common methods of managing dairy manure are directly applying it to the farm field as a fertilizer. For direct application without any type of treatment, the majority of nutrients in the manure run off to the local river and lake during precipitation periods. The algae bloom is one of the environmental outcomes due to eutrophication of the lakes, which may jeopardize the quality of drinking water. In this study, superheated steam drying (SSD) technology is investigated as an alternative manure management method. Rapidly dried cow manure can be used as alternative fuel. Evaluations of energy payback time (EPBT) and life cycle assessment (LCA) of the SSD technology are presented in the SSD scenario and the results are compared with those of the direct field application (FA) of fresh manure and anaerobic digestion (AD). The heat required for the generation of superheated steam in the SSD scenario is provided from combustion of the dry manure to reduce energy costs. The results for the SSD process show 95% and 70% lower eutrophication and global warming potential in comparison to the FA scenario. Acidification potential for SSD turned out to be 35% higher than FA. The comparison of SSD with AD for their EPBT and normalized impacts indicated that the proposed SSD scenario has higher environmental sustainability than AD (70% lower impact), and is likely an economically better choice compared to conventional AD method (87% lower EPBT) for the future investment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil microbial response to tetracycline in two different soils amended with cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Luigi; Pusino, Alba; Garau, Giovanni; Mangia, Nicoletta Pasqualina; Pinna, Maria Vittoria

    2016-03-01

    High amounts of antibiotics are introduced in the soil environment by manure amendment, which is the most important spreading route in soil, with a potential ecotoxicological impact on the environment. The objectives of this study were (a) to assess the tetracycline (Tc) bioavailability in a clay and in a sandy soil, and (b) to evaluate the effects of the Tc and cow manure on the structure and function of soil microbial communities. Clay and sandy soils were spiked with Tc at the concentrations of 100 and 500 mg Tc kg(-1) soil, and were amended or not with cow manure. The clay soil showed greater Tc sorption capacity and bioavailable Tc was between 0.157 and 4.602 mg kg(-1) soil. Tc dose and time-dependent effects on soil microbial communities were investigated by fluorescein diacetate activity, phospholipid fatty acids analysis, as well as by Biolog community level physiological profile and microbial counts at 2, 7 and 60 days after Tc and/or manure addition. The added Tc caused detrimental effect on the microbial activity and structure, particularly in the short term at the highest concentrations. However, the Tc effect was transient' it decreased after 7 days and totally disappeared within 60 days. Cow manure shifted the bacterial structure in both soils, increased the microbial activity in clay soil and contributed to recover the microbial structure in Tc-spiked manure treatments.

  20. Highly polygenic architecture of antidepressant treatment response: Comparative analysis of SSRI and NRI treatment in an animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Karim; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Mouriño-Talín, Héctor; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Sabela; Pain, Oliver; Jumhaboy, Irfan; Liu, Tina; Parpas, Panos; Newman, Stuart; Malykh, Artem; Carboni, Lucia; Uher, Rudolf; McGuffin, Peter; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Bryson, Kevin; Herbster, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Response to antidepressant (AD) treatment may be a more polygenic trait than previously hypothesized, with many genetic variants interacting in yet unclear ways. In this study we used methods that can automatically learn to detect patterns of statistical regularity from a sparsely distributed signal across hippocampal transcriptome measurements in a large-scale animal pharmacogenomic study to uncover genomic variations associated with AD. The study used four inbred mouse strains of both sexes, two drug treatments, and a control group (escitalopram, nortriptyline, and saline). Multi-class and binary classification using Machine Learning (ML) and regularization algorithms using iterative and univariate feature selection methods, including InfoGain, mRMR, ANOVA, and Chi Square, were used to uncover genomic markers associated with AD response. Relevant genes were selected based on Jaccard distance and carried forward for gene-network analysis. Linear association methods uncovered only one gene associated with drug treatment response. The implementation of ML algorithms, together with feature reduction methods, revealed a set of 204 genes associated with SSRI and 241 genes associated with NRI response. Although only 10% of genes overlapped across the two drugs, network analysis shows that both drugs modulated the CREB pathway, through different molecular mechanisms. Through careful implementation and optimisations, the algorithms detected a weak signal used to predict whether an animal was treated with nortriptyline (77%) or escitalopram (67%) on an independent testing set. The results from this study indicate that the molecular signature of AD treatment may include a much broader range of genomic markers than previously hypothesized, suggesting that response to medication may be as complex as the pathology. The search for biomarkers of antidepressant treatment response could therefore consider a higher number of genetic markers and their interactions. Through

  1. Dutch dairy farms after milk quota abolition: Economic and environmental consequences of a new manure policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klootwijk, C W; Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; de Boer, I J M

    2016-10-01

    The abolition of the Dutch milk quota system has been accompanied by the introduction of a new manure policy to limit phosphate production (i.e., excretion via manure) on expanding dairy farms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these recent policy changes on the farm structure, management, labor income, nitrogen and phosphate surpluses, and greenhouse gas emissions of an average Dutch dairy farm. The new manure policy requires that any increase in phosphate production be partly processed and partly applied to additional farmland. In addition, phosphate quotas have been introduced. Herein, we used a whole-farm optimization model to simulate an average farm before and after quota abolition and introduction of the new manure policy. The objective function of the model maximized labor income. We combined the model with a farm nutrient balance and life-cycle assessment to determine environmental impact. Based on current prices, increasing the number of cows after quota abolition was profitable until manure processing or additional land was required to comply with the new manure policy. Manure processing involved treatment so that phosphate was removed from the national manure market. Farm intensity in terms of milk per hectare increased by about 4%, from 13,578kg before quota abolition to 14,130kg after quota abolition. Labor income increased by €505/yr. When costs of manure processing decreased from €13 to €8/t of manure or land costs decreased from €1,187 to €573/ha, farm intensity could increase up to 20% until the phosphate quota became limiting. Farms that had already increased their barn capacity to prepare for expansion after milk quota abolition could benefit from purchasing extra phosphate quota to use their full barn capacity. If milk prices increased from €355 to €420/t, farms could grow unlimited, provided that the availability of external inputs such as labor, land, barn capacity, feed, and phosphate quota at current

  2. EFFECT OF FORMS AND DOSAGE BEEF MANURE ON GROWTH, YIELD, QUALITY PATCHOULI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Heru Pamungkas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out on 1 April to 1 September 2011 in village of paddy fields Argorejo, District Sedayu, Bantul, at altitude 112 m and a minimum temperature 24˚C up to 30˚C. Research is 2x3 +1 factorial experiments in field with complete randomized block design. First factor of manures forms: solid and liquid. Second factor manure doses: 5, 10, 15 t per ha and control (no cow manure solid or liquid, but is given inorganic fertilizer 200 kg per ha of urea, 100 kg per ha SP-36, 90 kg per ha of KCl, seven combined treatment, each of three replications. Replicates the form of plots each 3.5 x 4 m2 with 42 plants. Parameters observed: growth, yield, and quality patchouli. Analyzed data variance to determine effect of single treatment or interaction. Furthermore, Duncan's multiple range test was done. Results: no interaction effect of dosage and forms cow manure on growth, yield, and quality patchouli. Liquid or solid form, not significantly different. Both treatments compared with controls was also not significantly different. Dose of cows manure 5, 10, and 15 tons per hectare, no significantly different effects on growth, yield, and quality of patchouli. Three treatments compared with controls was also not significantly different.

  3. Assessing Nutrient Removal Kinetics in Flushed Manure Using Chlorella vulgaris Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Pandey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of dairy wastewater for producing algal biomass is seen as a two-fold opportunity to treat wastewater and produce algae biomass, which can be potentially used for production of biofuels. In animal agriculture system, one of the major waste streams is dairy manure that contains high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Furthermore, it is produced abundantly in California’s dairy industry, as well as many other parts of the world. We hypothesized that flushed manure, wastewater from a dairy farm, can be used as a potential feedstock after pretreatment to grow Chlorella vulgaris biomass and to reduce nutrients of manure. In this study, we focused on investigating the use of flushed manure, produced in a dairy farm for growing C. vulgaris biomass. A series of batch-mode experiments, fed with manure feedstock and synthetic medium, were conducted and corresponding C. vulgaris production was analyzed. Impacts of varying levels of sterilized manure feedstock (SMF and synthetic culture medium (SCM (20–100% on biomass production, and consequential changes in total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP were determined. C. vulgaris production data (Shi et al., 2016 were fitted into a model (Aslan and Kapdan, 2006 for calculating kinetics of TN and TP removal. Results showed that the highest C. vulgaris biomass production occurs, when SMF and SCM were mixed with ratio of 40%:60%. With this mixture, biomass on Day 9 was increased by 1,740% compared to initial biomass; and on Day 30, it was increased by 2,456.9%. The production was relatively low, when either only SCM or manure feedstock medium (without pretreatment, i.e., no sterilization was used as a culture medium. On this ratio, TN and TP were reduced by 29.9 and 12.3% on Day 9, and these reductions on Day 30 were 76 and 26.9%, respectively.

  4. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p < 0.001) quadratically from -31??? to -15 ???. The relationship between cumulative ammonia losses and ??15N of manure was highly significant (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76). In Exp. 2, using a mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  5. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic Digesters Change the Phosphorus Leaching Behavior of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjerison, R.; Gooch, C.; Pronto, J.; Walter, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    This study analyzed how anaerobic digestion of dairy manure might change the amount, form, and rate of phosphorus (P) leached by rainfall. Anaerobic digestion has become an increasingly popular manure management option because it generates methane that can be used to make energy, but little is known about the behavior of P when digested manure is applied to fields. Leaching experiments were performed using simulated rainfall on digester influent (undigested manure) and effluent (digested manure) collected from a dairy farm near Ithaca, NY. A previously published manure-P model was applied to the experimental data to quantify rates of P leaching. Dissolved P-leaching from digested and undigested manures were similar to each other, although digested manures appear to generally leach more dissolved P. Interestingly, both digester influent and effluent leached dissolved P more rapidly and in greater quantities than fresh manure, i.e., manure from a dairy barn floor. It is suggested that the key difference between the liquid manures in this study and “fresh” manure is that fresh manure has a higher solids content, i.e., it is less liquid than the manure used in anaerobic digesters. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to avoid field spreading of liquid manures when rainfall is imminent or fields are wet in order to prevent nonpoint P loading to streams and lakes.

  7. Enhancement of Apoptosis by Titanium Alloy Internal Fixations during Microwave Treatments for Fractures: An Animal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Microwaves are used in one method of physical therapy and can increase muscle tissue temperature which is useful for improving muscle, tendon and bone injuries. In the study, we sought to determine whether titanium alloy internal fixations influence apoptosis in tissues subjected to microwave treatments at 2,450 MHz and 40 W during the healing of fractures because this issue is not yet fully understood.In this study, titanium alloy internal fixations were used to treat 3.0-mm transverse osteotomies in the middle of New Zealand rabbits' femurs. After the operation, 30-day microwave treatments were applied to the 3.0 mm transverse osteotomies 3 days after the operation. The changes in the temperatures of the muscle tissues in front of the implants or the 3.0 mm transverse osteotomies were measured during the microwave treatments. To characterize the effects of titanium alloy internal fixations on apoptosis in the muscles after microwave treatment, we performed TUNEL assays, fluorescent real-time (quantitative PCR, western blotting analyses, reactive oxygen species (ROS detection and transmission electron microscopy examinations.The temperatures were markedly increased in the animals with the titanium alloy implants. Apoptosis in the muscle cells of the implanted group was significantly more extensive than that in the non-implanted control group at different time points. Transmission electron microscopy examinations of the skeletal muscles of the implanted groups revealed muscular mitochondrial swelling, vacuolization. ROS, Bax and Hsp70 were up-regulated, and Bcl-2 was down-regulated in the implanted group.Our results suggest that titanium alloy internal fixations caused greater muscular tissue cell apoptosis following 2,450 MHz, 40 W microwave treatments in this rabbit femur fracture models.

  8. Information on the presence of 2- Alkylcyclobutanones in animal feed after ionizing radiation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.M.; Barbezan, A.B.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H., E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In agribusiness, it is related to the development of the activities of creation, production and commercialization of pets in the Pet segment. This market grew 7.6% between 2014/2015, generated R$ 18 million in Brazil and 67.3% of this value refers to products for animal feed, commonly called pet food. In animal feed, the raw materials are chosen according to the method (s) of processing (s) in which the product is submitted, its stability in the process and its nutritional source during the validity of the product. In food preservation, the irradiation process is a treatment that seeks to reduce the microbial load of foods, however, it can also alter the composition of the present ingredients and form radiolytic products in the formulation that are still under study. In products containing the presence of fat, the main concern is 2-Alkylciclobutanones (2-ACBs), which are radiolytic products formed exclusively post-processing with ionizing radiation. The formation of 2-ACBs is directly related to the lipid concentration and the dose of irradiation. The objective of this work is to describe the possible radiolytic by-products formed in canine rations containing extruded fat after irradiation and to determine if the formation of 2-ACBs depends on the increase of the radiation dose and, as a consequence, verify their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. (author)

  9. Information on the presence of 2- Alkylcyclobutanones in animal feed after ionizing radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, A.M.; Barbezan, A.B.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2017-01-01

    In agribusiness, it is related to the development of the activities of creation, production and commercialization of pets in the Pet segment. This market grew 7.6% between 2014/2015, generated R$ 18 million in Brazil and 67.3% of this value refers to products for animal feed, commonly called pet food. In animal feed, the raw materials are chosen according to the method (s) of processing (s) in which the product is submitted, its stability in the process and its nutritional source during the validity of the product. In food preservation, the irradiation process is a treatment that seeks to reduce the microbial load of foods, however, it can also alter the composition of the present ingredients and form radiolytic products in the formulation that are still under study. In products containing the presence of fat, the main concern is 2-Alkylciclobutanones (2-ACBs), which are radiolytic products formed exclusively post-processing with ionizing radiation. The formation of 2-ACBs is directly related to the lipid concentration and the dose of irradiation. The objective of this work is to describe the possible radiolytic by-products formed in canine rations containing extruded fat after irradiation and to determine if the formation of 2-ACBs depends on the increase of the radiation dose and, as a consequence, verify their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. (author)

  10. Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Shoji; Mutaat, H.H.; Awang, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author)

  11. Selection of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae during penicillin treatment in vitro and in three animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Odenholt, Inga; Erlendsdottir, Helga

    2003-01-01

    thigh, and the rabbit tissue cage models. Treatment regimens with penicillin were designed to give a wide range of T(>MIC)s, the amounts of time for which the drug concentrations in serum were above the MIC. The mixed culture of the three pneumococcal strains, 10(7) CFU of strain A (MIC of penicillin, 0....../ml was used in the rabbit tissue cage model. During the different treatment regimens, the differences in numbers of CFU between treated and control animals were calculated to measure the efficacies of the regimens. Selective media with erythromycin or different penicillin concentrations were used to quantify...... and PD rules for treatment with beta-lactams: a maximum efficacy was seen when the T(>MIC) was >40 to 50% of the observation time and the ratio of the maximum concentration of the drug in serum to the MIC was >10. It was possible in all three models to select for the less-susceptible strains by using...

  12. Cocaine choice procedures in animals, humans, and treatment-seekers: Can we bridge the divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J.; Stoops, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder chronically self-administer cocaine to the detriment of other rewarding activities, a phenomenon best modeled in laboratory drug-choice procedures. These procedures can evaluate the reinforcing effects of drugs versus comparably valuable alternatives under multiple behavioral arrangements and schedules of reinforcement. However, assessing drug-choice in treatment-seeking or abstaining humans poses unique challenges: for ethical reasons, these populations typically cannot receive active drugs during research studies. Researchers have thus needed to rely on alternative approaches that approximate drug-choice behavior or assess more general forms of decision-making, but whether these alternatives have relevance to real-world drug-taking that can inform clinical trials is not well-understood. In this mini-review, we (A) summarize several important modulatory variables that influence cocaine choice in nonhuman animals and non-treatment seeking humans; (B) discuss some of the ethical considerations that could arise if treatment-seekers are enrolled in drug-choice studies; (C) consider the efficacy of alternative procedures, including non-drug-related decision-making and ‘simulated’ drug-choice (a choice is made, but no drug is administered) to approximate drug choice; and (D) suggest opportunities for new translational work to bridge the current divide between preclinical and clinical research. PMID:26432174

  13. Temporal changes of antibiotic-resistance genes and bacterial communities in two contrasting soils treated with cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Han, Xue-Mei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Tao; Han, Li-Li; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-02-01

    The emerging environmental spread of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) and their subsequent acquisition by clinically relevant microorganisms is a major threat to public health. Animal manure has been recognized as an important reservoir of ARGs; however, the dissemination of manure-derived ARGs and the impacts of manure application on the soil resistome remain obscure. Here, we conducted a microcosm study to assess the temporal succession of total bacteria and a broad spectrum of ARGs in two contrasting soils following manure application from cattle that had not been treated with antibiotics. High-capacity quantitative PCR detected 52 unique ARGs across all the samples, with β-lactamase as the most dominant ARG type. Several genes of soil indigenous bacteria conferring resistance to β-lactam, which could not be detected in manure, were found to be highly enriched in manure-treated soils, and the level of enrichment was maintained over the entire course of 140 days. The enriched β-lactam resistance genes had significantly positive relationships with the relative abundance of the integrase intI1 gene, suggesting an increasing mobility potential in manure-treated soils. The changes in ARG patterns were accompanied by a significant effect of cattle manure on the total bacterial community compositions. Our study indicates that even in the absence of selective pressure imposed by agricultural use of antibiotics, manure application could still strongly impact the abundance, diversity and mobility potential of a broad spectrum of soil ARGs. Our findings are important for reliable prediction of ARG behaviors in soil environment and development of appropriate strategies to minimize their dissemination. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Technical protocol for laboratory tests of transformation of veterinary medicinal products and biocides in liquid manures. Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The technical protocol under consideration describes a laboratory test method to evaluate the transformation of chemicals in liquid bovine and pig manures under anaerobic conditions and primarily is designed for veterinary medicinal products and biocides. The environmentally relevant entry routes into liquid manures occur via urine and feces of cattle and pigs in stable housings after excretion of veterinary medicinal products as parent compounds or metabolites and after the application of biocides in animal housings. Further entry routes such as solid dung application and direct dung pat deposition by production animals on pasture are not considered by this technical protocol. Thus, this technical protocol focused on the sampling of excrements from cattles and pigs kept in stables and fed under standard nutrition conditions. This approach additionally ensures that excrement samples are operationally free of any contamination by veterinary medicinal products and biocides. After the matrix characterization, reference-manure samples are prepared from the excrement samples by adding tap water to adjust defined dry substance contents typical for bovine or pig manures. This technical protocol comprehends a tiered experimental design in two parts: (a) Sampling of excrements and preparation of reference bovine and pig manures; (b) Testing of anaerobic transformation of chemicals in reference manures.

  15. Comparison between Urea and Goat Manure as Sources of Nitrogen for Napier Grass Grown on Terraced Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman, M.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of two nitrogen (N sources on dry matter (DM yield and nutritive value of Napier grass were evaluated. The nitrogen (N fertiliser (at rate of 300 kg N ha?1 year?1 was applied by dividing the terraces of a hill under two treatments: T1 (urea and T2 (goat manure. There were three replicates of each treatment arranged within three blocks in a completely randomised design. Grass was cut at about 60?day interval. In the first to fourth harvests, grass receiving manure had higher plant height than those with urea application. Grass receiving manure had higher DM yield than urea in almost all of the cuttings. In the fourth harvest, grass receiving urea contained higher DM and organic matter (OM than manure. Similar result was found for fifth harvest where urea gave higher crude protein (CP than manure. Irrespective of harvesting frequencies, average DM, OM, CP and neutral detergent fibre contents were not significantly different between grasses fertilised with manure and urea. In conclusion, manure is recommended for economical cultivation of Napier grass on terrace of hill.

  16. Evaluating animal-assisted therapy in group treatment for child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy J; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child Advocacy Center participated in the study. Results indicate that children in the groups that included therapy dogs showed significant decreases in trauma symptoms including anxiety, depression, anger, post-traumatic stress disorder, dissociation, and sexual concerns. In addition, results show that children who participated in the group with therapeutic stories showed significantly more change than the other groups. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  17. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    New information is presented on impacts on groundwater by manure storage in deep ground pits. - Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal

  18. Proton radiography for inline treatment planning and positioning verification of small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Neubert, Christian; von Neubeck, Cläre; Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Bütof, Rebecca; Dietrich, Antje; Lühr, Armin

    2017-11-01

    As proton therapy becomes increasingly well established, there is a need for high-quality clinically relevant in vivo data to gain better insight into the radiobiological effects of proton irradiation on both healthy and tumor tissue. This requires the development of easily applicable setups that allow for efficient, fractionated, image-guided proton irradiation of small animals, the most widely used pre-clinical model. Here, a method is proposed to perform dual-energy proton radiography for inline positioning verification and treatment planning. Dual-energy proton radiography exploits the differential enhancement of object features in two successively measured two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions at two different proton energies. The two raw images show structures that are dominated by energy absorption (absorption mode) or scattering (scattering mode) of protons in the object, respectively. Data post-processing allowed for the separation of both signal contributions in the respective images. The images were evaluated regarding recognizable object details and feasibility of rigid registration to acquired planar X-ray scans. Robust, automated rigid registration of proton radiography and planar X-ray images in scattering mode could be reliably achieved with the animal bedding unit used as registration landmark. Distinguishable external and internal features of the imaged mouse included the outer body contour, the skull with substructures, the lung, abdominal structures and the hind legs. Image analysis based on the combined information of both imaging modes allowed image enhancement and calculation of 2D water-equivalent path length (WEPL) maps of the object along the beam direction. Fractionated irradiation of exposed target volumes (e.g., subcutaneous tumor model or brain) can be realized with the suggested method being used for daily positioning and range determination. Robust registration of X-ray and proton radiography images allows for the irradiation of

  19. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  20. Manure- and Biosolids-Resident Murine Norovirus 1 Attachment to and Internalization by Romaine Lettuce▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Jin, Yan; Sims, Tom; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2010-01-01

    The attachment of murine norovirus 1 (MNV) in biosolids, swine manure, and dairy manure to Romaine lettuce and internalization of this virus were evaluated. The MNV in animal manures had behavior similar to that of pure MNV; however, MNV in biosolids had significantly higher levels of attachment and internalization than pure MNV or MNV in manures. The incubation time did not affect the attachment of MNV in biosolids or manure. Confocal microscopy was used to observe MNV on lettuce after SYBR gold-labeled MNV was added directly to lettuce or after lettuce was submersed in labeled virus. MNV was observed on the lettuce surface, inside open cuts, and occasionally within stomata. In general, lettuce pieces with a long cut on the edge and short cuts on the stem was more likely to contain internalized MNV than intact lettuce pieces, as observed by confocal microscopy; however, while the difference was visible, it was not statistically significant. This study showed that the presence of MNV in biosolids may increase the risk of fresh produce contamination and that the MNV in open cuts and stomata is likely to be protected from sanitization. PMID:19933344

  1. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manur...... to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found....... on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management...

  2. Semi-continuous forced aeration of liquid pig manure; Aireacion forzada del purin porcino en regimen semicontinuo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espona, J.; Turet, J.; Vivier, J. [Servei d`Assaigs i Recerca Tecnologica, Escola Universitaria Politecnica d`Osana, Estudis Universitaris de Vic, Barcelona (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    A semicontinous forced aeration process of pig liquid manure to laboratory scale, has been studied in this work. The reactor that has been used, worked as a completely stirring reactor whit no recirculation and the hydraulic retention time was 11.7 days. Several pollution effect indicative parameters of pig liquid manure were evaluated and it was found that forced aeration treatment of pig liquid manure reduce its polluting effects. Those effects were even more reduced when the aeration process was followed by a sedimentation process.. (Author) 11 refs.

  3. Bioaugmentation of a Two-Stage Thermophilic (68°C/55°C) Anaerobic Digestion Concept for Improvement of the Methane Yield From Cattle Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of improving a two-stage (68°C/55°C) anaerobic digestion concept for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, a 10-24% increase of the specific methane yield from cattle manure and its fractions was obtained, when the substrates were inoculated with bacteria...

  4. Inner ear manifestations in CHARGE: Abnormalities, treatments, animal models, and progress toward treatments in auditory and vestibular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Daniel I; Tawfik, Kareem O; Martin, Donna M; Raphael, Yehoash

    2017-12-01

    The inner ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. Both hearing and balance are commonly affected in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene. Semicircular canal dysplasia or aplasia is the single most prevalent feature in individuals with CHARGE leading to deficient gross motor skills and ambulation. Identification of CHD7 as the major gene affected in CHARGE has enabled acceleration of research in this field. Great progress has been made in understanding the role of CHD7 in the development and function of the inner ear, as well as in related organs such as the middle ear and auditory and vestibular neural pathways. The goals of current research on CHD7 and CS are to (a) improve our understanding of the pathology caused by CHD7 pathogenic variants and (b) to provide better tools for prognosis and treatment. Current studies utilize cells and whole animals, from flies to mammals. The mouse is an excellent model for exploring mechanisms of Chd7 function in the ear, given the evolutionary conservation of ear structure, function, Chd7 expression, and similarity of mutant phenotypes between mice and humans. Newly recognized developmental functions for mouse Chd7 are shedding light on how abnormalities in CHD7 might lead to CS symptoms in humans. Here we review known human inner ear phenotypes associated with CHD7 pathogenic variants and CS, summarize progress toward diagnosis and treatment of inner ear-related pathologies, and explore new avenues for treatment based on basic science discoveries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Thermochemical treatment of biogas digestate solids to produce organic fertilisers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelopoulos, Athanasios

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manures has been proposed as a process with twofold advantage. The production of biogas, a renewable source of energy, and the treatment of animal manures to increase their agronomic value and reduce their environmental impact. However, the residual of anaerobic...... in the N cycle in the solidssoil- plant system, 15N has been utilized at the second and third study. In conclusion, drying of digestate solids resulted in an end-product with increased stability and reduced mass/volume which can facilitate its storage and transportation. Nevertheless, dried digestate....... For a full utilization of acidification and drying as digestate solids treatment, a more systematic assessment of the effect of the thermochemical treatment on P availability is required. Moreover, the ameliorating properties of thermo-chemically treated solids should be assessed in comparison with known...

  6. Unexpected competitiveness of Methanosaeta populations at elevated acetate concentrations in methanogenic treatment of animal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Cheng, Huicai; Liu, Jiang; Hazen, Terry C; Huang, Vicki; He, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Acetoclastic methanogenesis is a key metabolic process in anaerobic digestion, a technology with broad applications in biogas production and waste treatment. Acetoclastic methanogenesis is known to be performed by two archaeal genera, Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina. The conventional model posits that Methanosaeta populations are more competitive at low acetate levels (<1 mM) than Methanosarcina and vice versa at higher acetate concentrations. While this model is supported by an extensive body of studies, reports of inconsistency have grown that Methanosaeta were observed to outnumber Methanosarcina at elevated acetate levels. In this study, monitoring of anaerobic digesters treating animal wastewater unexpectedly identified Methanosaeta as the dominant acetoclastic methanogen population at both low and high acetate levels during organic overloading. The surprising competitiveness of Methanosaeta at elevated acetate was further supported by the enrichment of Methanosaeta with high concentrations of acetate (20 mM). The dominance of Methanosaeta in the methanogen community could be reproduced in anaerobic digesters with the direct addition of acetate to above 20 mM, again supporting the competitiveness of Methanosaeta over Methanosarcina at elevated acetate levels. This study for the first time systematically demonstrated that the dominance of Methanosaeta populations in anaerobic digestion could be linked to the competitiveness of Methanosaeta at elevated acetate concentrations. Given the importance of acetoclastic methanogenesis in biological methane production, findings from this study could have major implications for developing strategies for more effective control of methanogenic treatment processes.

  7. Abundance of 13C and 15N in emmer, spelt and naked barley grown on differently manured soils: towards a method for identifying past manuring practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Marie; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Andersen, Astrid Junker

    2011-01-01

    fractions of the ancient cereal types; differences in δ15N between unmanured and PK treatments were insignificant. The offset in straw and grain δ15N due to manure averaged 7.9 and 8.8 ‰, respectively, while the soil offset was 1.9 ‰. The soil and biomass δ13C values were not affected by nutrient amendments...

  8. Hygienisation and nutrient conservation of sewage sludge or cattle manure by lactic acid fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A Scheinemann

    Full Text Available Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. This potential problem can increase with the global connectedness of animal herds fed imported feed grown on fields fertilized with local manures. This paper describes a simple, easy-to-use, low-tech hygienization method which conserves nutrients and does not require large investments in infrastructure. The proposed method uses the microbiotic shift during mesophilic fermentation of cow manure or sewage sludge during which gram-negative bacteria, enterococci and yeasts were inactivated below the detection limit of 3 log10 cfu/g while lactobacilli increased up to a thousand fold. Pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli EHEC O:157 and vegetative Clostridium perfringens were inactivated within 3 days of fermentation. In addition, ECBO-viruses and eggs of Ascaris suum were inactivated within 7 and 56 days, respectively. Compared to the mass lost through composting (15-57%, the loss of mass during fermentation (< 2.45% is very low and provides strong economic and ecological benefits for this process. This method might be an acceptable hygienization method for developed as well as undeveloped countries, and could play a key role in public and animal health while safely closing the nutrient cycle by reducing the necessity of using energy-inefficient inorganic fertilizer for crop production.

  9. Recycling manure as cow bedding: Potential benefits and risks for UK dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Katharine A; Archer, Simon C; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J; Ohnstad, Ian C; Tuer, Sally; Bradley, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such 'recycling' of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of ash and goat dung manure on leaf nutrients composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three field experiments were conducted to examine the separate and combined effects of wood ash and goat dung manure on leaf nutrients composition, growth and yield of Amaranthus cruentus at Akure, Southwest Nigeria. The treatments compared were: no treatment, 2t/ha goat dung, 2t/ha ash + 2t/ha dung, 2t/ha ash + ...

  11. Exploring Post-Treatment Reversion of Antimicrobial Resistance in Enteric Bacteria of Food Animals as a Resistance Mitigation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Victoriya V; KuKanich, Butch; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial drug use in food animals is associated with an elevation in relative abundance of bacteria resistant to the drug among the animal enteric bacteria. Some of these bacteria are potential foodborne pathogens. Evidence suggests that at least in the enteric nontype-specific Escherichia coli, after treatment the resistance abundance reverts to the background pre-treatment levels, without further interventions. We hypothesize that it is possible to define the distribution of the time period after treatment within which resistance to the administered drug, and possibly other drugs in case of coselection, in fecal bacteria of the treated animals returns to the background pre-treatment levels. Furthermore, it is possible that a novel resistance mitigation strategy for microbiological food safety could be developed based on this resistance reversion phenomenon. The strategy would be conceptually similar to existing antimicrobial drug withdrawal periods, which is a well-established and accepted mitigation strategy for avoiding violative drug residues in the edible products from the treated animals. For developing resistance-relevant withdrawals, a mathematical framework can be used to join the necessary pharmacological, microbiological, and animal production components to project the distributions of the post-treatment resistance reversion periods in the production animal populations for major antimicrobial drug classes in use. The framework can also help guide design of empirical studies into the resistance-relevant withdrawal periods and development of mitigation approaches to reduce the treatment-associated elevation of resistance in animal enteric bacteria. We outline this framework, schematically and through exemplar equations, and how its components could be formulated.

  12. The effect of feeding high fat diet to beef cattle on manure composition and gaseous emission from a feedlot pen surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhan Prasad Gautam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary manipulation is a common practice to mitigate gaseous emission from livestock production facilities, and the variation of fat level in the diet has shown great influence on ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA and enteric methane generation. The changes in dietary fat levels influence rumen chemistry that could modify manure nutrient composition along with odor and gaseous emissions from manure management facilities. Methods A field experiment was carried out on beef cattle feedlots to investigate the effect of four levels of dietary fat concentrations (3 to 5.5 % on the manure composition and gaseous emissions (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S from the feedlot pen surface. The experiment was carried out over a 5-month period from June to October during North Dakota’s summer-fall climatic condition. Air and manure sampling was conducted five times at a 20–30 day intervals. Results Overall, this research indicated that fat levels in diet have no or little effect on the nutrient composition of manure and gaseous emission from the pens with cattle fed with different diet. Though significant variation of gaseous emission and manure composition were observed between different sampling periods, no effect of high fat diet was observed on manure composition and gaseous emission. Conclusions It can be concluded that addition of fat to animal diet may not have any impact on gaseous emission and manure compositions.

  13. The effect of feeding high fat diet to beef cattle on manure composition and gaseous emission from a feedlot pen surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad; Rahman, Shafiqur; Borhan, Md Saidul; Engel, Chanda

    2016-01-01

    Dietary manipulation is a common practice to mitigate gaseous emission from livestock production facilities, and the variation of fat level in the diet has shown great influence on ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) and enteric methane generation. The changes in dietary fat levels influence rumen chemistry that could modify manure nutrient composition along with odor and gaseous emissions from manure management facilities. A field experiment was carried out on beef cattle feedlots to investigate the effect of four levels of dietary fat concentrations (3 to 5.5 %) on the manure composition and gaseous emissions (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S) from the feedlot pen surface. The experiment was carried out over a 5-month period from June to October during North Dakota's summer-fall climatic condition. Air and manure sampling was conducted five times at a 20-30 day intervals. Overall, this research indicated that fat levels in diet have no or little effect on the nutrient composition of manure and gaseous emission from the pens with cattle fed with different diet. Though significant variation of gaseous emission and manure composition were observed between different sampling periods, no effect of high fat diet was observed on manure composition and gaseous emission. It can be concluded that addition of fat to animal diet may not have any impact on gaseous emission and manure compositions.

  14. Plant Richness and Diversity Response to Different Treatments of Animal in Kalashak Rangelands (Case Study: Kermanshah Province)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sadeghirad; H. Arzani; H. Azarnivand

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of plant richness and diversity is important in rangeland ecosystems because biological control, conservation of genetic resources and the control of natural ecosystems are possible by identifying diversity. One of the factors affecting the richness and diversity is animals' utilization of the vegetation. Therefore, this research was done to study the plant richness and diversity response to different treatments of animals. To this end, four sites with none, half, equal and twice a...

  15. Mitochondrial-Based Treatments that Prevent Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis in a Translational Large Animal Intraarticular Fracture Survival Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    treatments that prevent ROS overproduction, scavenge ROS , or dissolve the cytoskeleton in mitochondria on preventing PTOA in a large animal IAF...Aim 1. Specific Aim 3: Determine the efficacy of treatments that prevent ROS overproduction, scavenge ROS , or dissolve the cytoskeleton in...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0583 TITLE: Mitochondrial-Based Treatments that Prevent Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis in a Translational Large

  16. Enhancing the biomethane potential of liquid dairy cow manure by addition of solid manure fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Israel; Figueroa-González, Ivonne; Miguel, José Ángel; Bonilla-Morte, Luis; Quijano, Guillermo

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effect of adding solid manure fractions on the biomethane potential (BMP) of liquid dairy cow manure and on the biokinetic parameters of the process. The methanogenic potential of liquid dairy cow manure was strongly effected by adding a solid manure fraction. The 90/10 % (w/w) liquid/solid manure fraction mixture was the best substrate for CH 4 production. This substrate mixture improved by 50 % the final CH 4 production per g substrate and decreased the lag time by 220 % relative to the reference BMP test without the addition. Moreover, the addition of 20 % solid manure fraction adversely affected both the final CH 4 production and the maximum methane production rate, while increased the lag time by 400 % compared to the reference BMP test without addition. Liquid dairy cow manure should be supplemented with no more than 10 % of solid manure fraction in order to improve the biomethane potential of this important agro-industrial residue.

  17. Mixing rare earth elements with manures to control phosphorus loss in runoff and track manure fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern over the enrichment of agricultural runoff with phosphorus (P) from land applied livestock manures has prompted the development of manure amendments that minimize P solubility. We evaluated the effect of mixing two rare earth chlorides, lanthanum chloride and ytterbium chloride, with poultr...

  18. REAC regenerative treatment efficacy in experimental chondral lesions: a pilot study on ovine animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Passino E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eraldo Sanna Passino,1,2 Stefano Rocca,1 Sabrina Caggiu,1 Nicolò Columbano,1,2 Alessandro Castagna,3 Vania Fontani,3–5 Salvatore Rinaldi3–51Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 2Comparative Surgery Research Laboratory, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 3Department of Regenerative Medicine, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, Italy; 4Research Department, Rinaldi Fontani Foundation, Florence, Italy; 5Research Department, IRF Shanghai Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC technology is a platform designed to optimize cell polarity. Cell polarity is a universal biological phenomenon that is implicated in cell differentiation, proliferation, morphogenesis, aging, and rejuvenation. In this work, we investigate a timing and administration protocol for tissue optimization regenerative treatment type C, in order to treat aging-related chondral damage or injuries and gain insights into regenerative processes of articular cartilage in humans. The chondral lesion produced in this study in an animal model (6 knee joints of 4 adult sheep was 6 mm in diameter and about 2 mm deep. These lesions, which did not involve subchondral bone, tend to increase in size and depth and are not completely repaired with normal hyaline articular cartilage since adult articular cartilage is avascular and has a very slow turnover at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the hydration of articular cartilage is reduced with aging and with decreased mitotic activity, synthesis, and population size of chondrocytes. Six months posttreatment, lesions appeared filled, though not completely, with newly generated tissue of the light opalescent color of healthy articular cartilage, which otherwise covered the underlying subchondral bone. The newly formed tissue surface appeared to be quite regular. Nearly complete regeneration of subchondral bone occurred, with

  19. of integrated application of farmyard manure, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on production of canola (Brassica napus L. in saline soil of Qum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sabahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil seed crops. In order to evaluate the effects of integrated fertilization (chemical, manure and biofertilizers on canola (B. napus variety Hyola 401 yield and uptake of mineral nutrients in saline soil and water, a field experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks (RCBD arrangement with eight treatments in three replications in Qum Province, Iran. Treatments were: (1 Control, P%100 (Phosphorus %100, (2 P%75B1 (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar biofertilizer, (3 P%75B2 (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin biofertilizer, (4 P%75M (Phosphorus %75+ farmyard manure, (5 P%75B1M (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar + Farmyard manure, (6 P%75B2M (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin+ Farmyard manure, (7 P%100B1 (Phosphorus %100 + Barvar and (8 P%125B2 (Phosphorus %125+ Nitroxin. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained from P%75B1M. Difference between integrated fertilization of farmyard manure and other treatments was significant. Farmyard manure increased canola yield which was attributed to increase in availability of mineral nutrients, decreasing effects of salinity and toxic ions. Integrated application of 5 t. ha-1 of farmyard manure and %75 recommended chemical P increased yield and decreased fertilizer consumption. The results revealed that integrated applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer and after that integrated use of bio- and chemical fertilizer are the best strategies to increase nutrient availability and improving canola yield in saline soil.

  20. Approval of raxibacumab for the treatment of inhalation anthrax under the US Food and Drug Administration Animal rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei eTsai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 14, 2012, the FDA approved raxibacumab, the first product developed under Project BioShield to achieve this milestone, and the first biologic product to be approved through the FDA animal efficacy rule (or Animal Rule. Raxibacumab is approved for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis in combination with appropriate antibiotic drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or are not appropriate. The approval of Raxibacumab illustrates many of the challenges that product developers may encounter when pursuing approval under the Animal Rule and highlights a number of important regulatory and policy issues.

  1. Using biochar in animal farming to recycle nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Wilson, Kelpie; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal has been used to treat digestive disorder in animals since several thousand years. But only since about 2010 biochar has increasingly been used as regular feed additive in animal farming usually mixed with standard feed at approximately 1% of the daily feed intake. The use of biochar as feed additive has the potential to improve animal health, feed efficiency and the animal-stable environment; to reduce nutrient losses and GHG emissions; and to increase soil organic mater and thus soil fertility. The evaluation of more than 150 scientific papers on feeding (activated) biochar showed in most of the studies and for all investigated livestock species positive effects on parameters like toxin adsorption, digestion, blood values, feed use efficiency and livestock weight gain, meat quality and GHG emissions. The facilitation of direct electron transfers between different species of bacteria or microbial consortia via the biochar mediator in the animal digestion tract is hypothesized to be the main reason for a more energy efficient digestion and thus higher feed efficiency, for its selective probiotic effect, for reduced N-losses and eventually for less GHG emissions. While chicken, pigs, fish and other omnivore animals provoke GHG-emissions (mainly NH3, CH4, N2O) when their liquid and solid excretions decompose anaerobically, ruminants cause direct methane emissions through flatulence and burps (eructation). Preliminary studies demonstrated that feeding high temperature biochars might reduce ruminant CH4 emissions though more systematic research is needed. It is likely that microbial decomposition of manure containing digested biochar produces less ammonia, less methane and thus retain more nitrogen, as seen when manure was composted with and without biochar or when biochar is used as bedding or manure treatment additive. Laboratory adsorption trials estimated that using biochar for liquid manure treatment could safe 57,000 t NH4 and 4,600 t P2O5 fertilizer per

  2. Effect of application time of integratedchemical fertilizer with cattle manure on the growth, yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aliye salehi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the important aspects of the medicinal plants production is using less chemical inputs. It could be effective for increasing of production and environmental purposes. In order to investigate the effects of application time of integrated chemical fertilizer with cattle manure on growth, yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with nine treatments and three replications in Research Farm of Shahrekord University during growing season 2011-2012. The treatments consisted of control (no amended nitrogen, cattle manure, urea, three levels of split integrated fertilizers such as cattle manure + urea, cattle manure + cattle manure + urea, and three levels of full integrated fertilizers including cattle manure + urea, cattle manure + cattle manure + urea. The results indicated that integrated application of cattle manure with chemical fertilizer caused significant increase in number of main branch per plant (%11.5, number of capsules per plant (%9.5, 1000-seed weight (%7.4, capsule weight (%5.9, biological yield (%36.7 of black cumin. Full dose application of urea fertilizer with cattle manure (50:50 due to improve of capsules per plant and 1000-seed weight increased significantly grain yield (2397 kg.ha-1. In general, use of integrated cattle manure with chemical fertilizer, full dose application of urea specially, with increasing of fertilizer efficiency led to improve of quantitative characteristic in black cumin. This method caused to cost eliminate of top dressing fertilizer and it can be effective for environment and medicinal plant health.

  3. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  4. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  5. Report on power generation potential using manure gas from Ontario farms. Appendix B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for manure gas power generation in Ontario is assessed. Since biogas cannot be easily liquefied for reserve use applications, it must be consumed as it is produced, or stored as a gas under low or medium pressure. Simultaneous conversion of fuel into both thermal and electrical energy is known as cogeneration, and offers the potential of electrical power sales through utility interconnection. Typical electrical production results available on a per mature animal basis are: cow, 75 W; swine, 10 W; and poultry, 0.65 W. A supplementary benefit is that digestion greatly reduces manure odour. The potential number of manure biogas power plant units (MBU) by size can be determined from livestock data, farm size and animal type. There are ca 17,000 potential MBU (361 MW continuous power) related to cattle operations, 3,200 MBU (49 MW) associated with swine operations, and 14,000 MBU (42 MW) related to poultry, for a total technical potential of 452 MW. Based on available equipment packages and installation costs, it is estimated that 15 kW is the minimum capacity cogeneration unit worthy of consideration. Estimated cost of an on-farm biogas cogeneration plant ranges from $200,000 for a 15 kW installation to $500,000 for a 150 kW plant. Appendices present properties of manure gases, representative installations, involved groups, a literature search, selected equipment manufacturers, and case study data sheets. 27 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  6. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: fate and transport of bioaerosols associated with livestock operations and manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, R S

    2010-11-01

    Airborne microorganisms and microbial by-products from intensive livestock and manure management systems are a potential health risk to workers and individuals in nearby communities. This report presents information on zoonotic pathogens in animal wastes and the generation, fate, and transport of bioaerosols associated with animal feeding operations and land applied manures. Though many bioaerosol studies have been conducted at animal production facilities, few have investigated the transport of bioaerosols during the land application of animal manures. As communities in rural areas converge with land application sites, concerns over bioaerosol exposure will certainly increase. Although most studies at animal operations and wastewater spray irrigation sites suggest a decreased risk of bioaerosol exposure with increasing distance from the source, many challenges remain in evaluating the health effects of aerosolized pathogens and allergens in outdoor environments. To improve our ability to understand the off-site transport and diffusion of human and livestock diseases, various dispersion models have been utilized. Most studies investigating the transport of bioaerosols during land application events have used a modified Gaussian plume model. Because of the disparity among collection and analytical techniques utilized in outdoor studies, it is often difficult to evaluate health effects associated with aerosolized pathogens and allergens. Invaluable improvements in assessing the health effects from intensive livestock practices could be made if standardized bioaerosol collection and analytical techniques, as well as the use of specific target microorganisms, were adopted.

  7. Peran People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (Peta) Dalam Kasus Animal Testing Terhadap Hewan Luwak Di Indonesia Tahun 2012-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Harto, Syafri; Ambarrini, Tantin

    2015-01-01

    More than 100 million animals every year suffer and die by fierce chemical test, medical, food, and cosmetic by giving poisonous, blinding and killing million animals every year for irresponsible companies. In medical world, all procedures that are done against the animals called animal testing.Animal testing happens in Indonesia against civet cat animal. The animal eats coffee fruit and digests it to be coffee fruit seed that is put out with its feces. This seed that has unique taste and hig...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wastewater treatment plants in Tunisia: occurrence of human and animal associated lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Meriam; Abbassi, Mohamed Salah; Gómez, Paula; Ruiz-Ripa, Laura; Sghaier, Senda; Ibrahim, Chourouk; Torres, Carmen; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolated from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in Tunis City (Tunisia), during the period 2014-2015. Genetic lineages, antibiotic resistance mechanisms and virulence factors were determined for the recovered isolates. S. aureus isolates were recovered from 12 of the 62 wastewater samples tested (19.35%), and one isolate/sample was characterized, all of them being methicillin-susceptible (MSSA). Six spa types (t587, t674, t224, t127, t701 and t1534) were found among the 12 isolates, and the spa-t587, associated with the new sequence type ST3245, was the most predominant one (7 isolates). The remaining isolates were assigned to five clonal complexes (CC5, CC97, CC1, CC6 and CC522) according to the sequence-type determined and/or the spa-type detected. S. aureus isolates were ascribed to agrI (n = 3), agrII (n = 7) and agrIII (n = 1); however, one isolate was non-typeable. S. aureus showed resistance to (number of isolates): penicillin (12), erythromycin (7), tetracycline (one) and clindamycin (one). Among the virulence factors investigated, only one isolate harboured the tst gene, encoding the TSST-1 (toxic shock syndrome toxin 1). Despite the low number of studied isolates, the present study reports the occurrence of both human- and animal-associated S. aureus clonal complexes in WWTPs in Tunisia.

  9. Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Role of Cannabidiol Treatment in Animal Model of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Vuolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma represents a public health problem and traditionally is classified as an atopic disease, where the allergen can induce clinical airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reversible obstruction of airways. Studies have demonstrated the presence of T-helper 2 lymphocytes in the lung of patients with asthma. These cells are involved in cytokine production that regulates immunoglobulin synthesis. Recognizing that T cell interaction with antigens/allergens is key to the development of inflammatory diseases, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of cannabidiol (CBD in this setting. Asthma was induced in 8-week-old Wistar rats by ovalbumin (OVA. In the last 2 days of OVA challenge animals received CBD (5 mg/kg, i.p. and were killed 24 hours after. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were determinate in the serum. CBD treatment was able to decrease the serum levels of all analyzed cytokines except for IL-10 levels. CBD seems to be a potential new drug to modulate inflammatory response in asthma.

  10. Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Role of Cannabidiol Treatment in Animal Model of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Francieli; Petronilho, Fabricia; Sonai, Beatriz; Ritter, Cristiane; Hallak, Jaime E. C.; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A.; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Asthma represents a public health problem and traditionally is classified as an atopic disease, where the allergen can induce clinical airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reversible obstruction of airways. Studies have demonstrated the presence of T-helper 2 lymphocytes in the lung of patients with asthma. These cells are involved in cytokine production that regulates immunoglobulin synthesis. Recognizing that T cell interaction with antigens/allergens is key to the development of inflammatory diseases, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of cannabidiol (CBD) in this setting. Asthma was induced in 8-week-old Wistar rats by ovalbumin (OVA). In the last 2 days of OVA challenge animals received CBD (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and were killed 24 hours after. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were determinate in the serum. CBD treatment was able to decrease the serum levels of all analyzed cytokines except for IL-10 levels. CBD seems to be a potential new drug to modulate inflammatory response in asthma. PMID:26101464

  11. Treatment of a multiple sclerosis animal model by a novel nanodrop formulation of a natural antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, Orli; Larush, Liraz; Frid, Kati; Keller, Guy; Friedman-Levi, Yael; Ovadia, Haim; Abramsky, Oded; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is associated with demyelination, neurodegeneration, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. In this work, we administered a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil (PSO), denominated Nano-PSO, to mice induced for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of MS. PSO comprises high levels of punicic acid, a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid considered as one of the strongest natural antioxidants. We show here that while EAE-induced mice treated with natural PSO presented some reduction in disease burden, this beneficial effect increased significantly when EAE mice were treated with Nano-PSO of specific size nanodroplets at much lower concentrations of the oil. Pathological examinations revealed that Nano-PSO administration dramatically reduced demyelination and oxidation of lipids in the brains of the affected animals, which are hallmarks of this severe neurological disease. We propose that novel formulations of natural antioxidants such as Nano-PSO may be considered for the treatment of patients suffering from demyelinating diseases. On the mechanistic side, our results demonstrate that lipid oxidation may be a seminal feature in both demyelination and neurodegeneration.

  12. Anaerobic Digestion of Cattle Manure Influenced by Swirling Jet Induced Hydrodynamic Cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Michela; Soldano, Mariangela; Fabbri, Claudio; Pirozzi, Francesco; Andreottola, Gianni

    2017-10-04

    In this work, a modified swirling jet-induced cavitation has been employed for increasing anaerobic digestion efficiency of cattle manure. The hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) treatment improved the organic matter solubilization and the anaerobic biodegradability of cattle manure. The degree of disintegration increased by 5.8, 8.9, and 15.8% after the HC treatment at 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 bars, respectively. However, the HC treatment at 7.0 bars had better results in terms of methane production. This result may be attributed to the possible formation of toxic and refractory compounds at higher inlet pressures, which could inhibit the methanization process. Further, total Kjeldahl nitrogen content was found to decrease with increasing inlet pressures, as the pH and the turbulent mixing favored the ammonia stripping processes. HC treatment decreased the viscosity of the treated cattle manure, favoring the manure pumping and mixing. Considerations on the energy input due to the HC pre-treatment and the energy output due to the enhanced methane yield have been presented. A positive energy balance can be obtained looking at the improved operational practices in the anaerobic digesters after the implementation of the HC pre-treatment.

  13. Field measurement of beef pen manure methane and nitrous oxide reveals a surprise for inventory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, M R; Devereux, J; Phillips, F; Lewis, R; Naylor, T; Kearton, T; Hill, C J; Weidemann, S

    2015-05-01

    Few data exist on direct greenhouse gas emissions from pen manure at beef feedlots. However, emission inventories attempt to account for these emissions. This study used a large chamber to isolate NO and CH emissions from pen manure at two Australian commercial beef feedlots (stocking densities, 13-27 m head) and related these emissions to a range of potential emission control factors, including masses and concentrations of volatile solids, NO, total N, NH, and organic C (OC), and additional factors such as total manure mass, cattle numbers, manure pack depth and density, temperature, and moisture content. Mean measured pen NO emissions were 0.428 kg ha d (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.252-0.691) and 0.00405 kg ha d (95% CI, 0.00114-0.0110) for the northern and southern feedlots, respectively. Mean measured CH emission was 0.236 kg ha d (95% CI, 0.163-0.332) for the northern feedlot and 3.93 kg ha d (95% CI, 2.58-5.81) for the southern feedlot. Nitrous oxide emission increased with density, pH, temperature, and manure mass, whereas negative relationships were evident with moisture and OC. Strong relationships were not evident between NO emission and masses or concentrations of NO or total N in the manure. This is significant because many standard inventory calculation protocols predict NO emissions using the mass of N excreted by the animal. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with Croton membranaceus in an experimental animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriyie, Daniel K; Asare, George A; Bugyei, K; Adjei, Samuel; Lin, Jiu-mao; Peng, Jun; Hong, Zhen-feng

    2014-11-18

    Croton membranaceus leaf extracts are used in the Bahamas to aromatize tobacco. In Nigeria it is used to improve digestion and in Ghana, the root extract is used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Despite claims of efficacy no data exists to support this. The aim of this study was to determine if Croton membranaceus aqueous root extract (CMARE) could attenuate the development of BPH in an animal model. Fifty (50) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250g were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 served as the control and received normal saline p.o. Groups 2-5 were castrated and injected with 5mg/kg b.wt. testosterone propionate subcutaneously for 28 days. Group 2 (model group) had no further treatment. Group 3 was simultaneously given 0.5mg/kg b.wt. finasteride p.o. throughout. Groups 4 and 5 received 30mg/kg b.wt. [low dose (LD)] and 300mg/kg b.wt. [high dose (HD)] CMARE, respectively, for 28 days. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the study and all prostate organs harvested. Wet weights, volumes and prostatic index (PI) were determined. Tissues were histologically examined. Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels were determined. Prostate volume of the control group was 0.67±0.23cm(3). The model, finasteride, CMARE LD and HD groups had the following volumes: 0.92±0.12, 0.84±0.16, 0.79±0.16 and 0.80±0.19cm(3), respectively. Only the model group showed significant statistical differences with the control (p=0.007). PI for control, model, finasteride, LD and HD groups was as follows: 0.19±0.04, 0.30±0.04, 0.25±0.04, 0.21±0.05 and 0.22±0.05. No statistical differences between the control PI and the CMARE treated groups were observed. Histologically, the model group had massive growth of columnar stromal and epithelial cells. CMARE and finasteride attenuated this growth with a resultant thin layer of stromal and epithelial cells similar to the control. PSA levels were significantly lower in

  15. Manure and Inorganic Nitrogen Affect Trace Gas Emissions under Semi-Arid Irrigated Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Stewart, Catherine E

    2016-05-01

    Dairy manure is often applied to cropped soils as a substitute for inorganic N fertilizers, but the impacts of manure on soil trace gas fluxes, yields, and soil N are uncertain in the semiarid western United States. Soil carbon dioxide (CO-C), methane (CH-C), nitrous oxide (NO-N), and ammonia (NH-N) emissions were monitored using surface chambers from five N treatments: (i) partially composted solid dairy manure (DM) (412 kg N ha), (ii) DM + AgrotainPlus (DM+AP), (iii) enhanced efficiency N fertilizer (SuperU [SU]) (179 kg N ha), (iv) urea (179 kg N ha), and (v) check (no N applied), to determine their effect on growing season (GS) and nongrowing season emissions from a tilled clay loam soil under irrigated, continuous corn production for 3 yr. SuperU and AgrotainPlus contain urease and nitrification inhibitors. Averaged over years, GS soil CO-C emissions were greater for DM and DM+AP than for urea, SU, and check treatments due to the large amount of C added with the manure; CH-C emissions did not vary among N treatments; and NO-N emissions decreased in the order urea = DM = DM+AP > SU > check. AgrotainPlus added to the DM did not reduce NO-N emissions compared with DM. Cumulative NH-N emissions after manure application decreased in the order urea > SU > check, with no significant differences between SU, DM, and DM+AP. Dairy manure provided slow-release N with nitrate intensities lower than urea and NO-N emissions similar to urea. These results highlight the importance of best-management practices such as immediate irrigation after N application and use of urease and nitrification inhibitors to minimize N losses. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Codigestion of Taihu blue algae with swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Hengfeng; Wang, Shouquan; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Codigestion of blue algae with swine manure has the highest CH 4 yield at ISR 2.0. • pH, TAN, N-NH 3 and VFAs confirmed the appropriate stability of the codigestion. • 35.44% VS reduction was achieved by codigestion of blue algae with swine manure. • Three key enzyme characteristics demonstrated the higher efficiencies of codigestion. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of Taihu blue algae and its codigestion with swine manure was evaluated at different inoculum substrate ratios (ISRs) from 0.5 to 3.0. Results showed that codigestion of blue algae with swine manure led to the highest methane (CH 4 ) production of 212.7 mL g −1 VS at ISR 2.0, while digestion of blue algae inoculated with granular sludge brought out the optimized CH 4 production of 73.5 mL g −1 VS at ISR 3.0. The values of pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), free ammonia nitrogen (N-NH 3 ) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) showed no significant difference between the digestion and codigestion, confirming the appropriate stability of the two batch anaerobic processes. Closer examination of VS removal rates and key enzymes variation proved codigestion had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation, which demonstrated that AD of blue algae with swine manure was a promising technology for both solid wastes treatment and renewable-energy production

  17. Evaluation of calcium superphosphate as an additive to reduce gas emissions from rabbit manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Estellés Barber

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques to reduce the emission of air pollutants from livestock production are demanded. In this study, the effect of an additive (calcium superphosphate on gas emissions from rabbit manure was investigated and compared with a control where no additive was used. Calcium superphosphate was applied at a rate of 100 g/m2 per week in a manure pit during 2 cycles of growing rabbits. Manure samples were collected weekly and then chemically and microbiologically analysed. Gas emissions (ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide were determined in 2 open flux chambers. No differences were observed in gas emissions between the treated and control samples except for ammonia emissions, which were reduced by 33% when the additive was applied (P<0.05. No statistical differences were obtained in the microbial content between control and treatment, as results showed a high variability. Dry matter content and pH were the most influential parameters on the emission of gases from manure. According to these results, the application of calcium superphosphate may be considered as an effective technique to reduce ammonia emission from rabbit manure. The additive may also be potentially effective in other species, but additional research is necessary to investigate its performance.

  18. Low-temperature anaerobic digestion of swine manure in a plug-flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Gilbert, Yan; Saady, N M C; Liu, Charle

    2013-01-01

    A low-temperature (25 degrees C) anaerobic eight-compartment (PF01 to PF08) cascade reactor simulating a plug-flow reactor (PFR) treating pig manure was monitored for a year. The bioreactor was fed at an average loading rate of 2.4 +/- 0.2 g of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) per litre of reactor per day for a theoretical hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 67 +/- 7 d. An average of 79% of TCOD was removed from pig manure (converted into biogas and in sediments), whereas specific methane yields ranging from 397 to 482 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS (148.6 to 171.4 NL CH4 kg(-1) TCOD) were obtained. After 150 d, fluctuating performances of the process were observed, associated with solids accumulation in the upstream compartments, preventing the complete anaerobic digestion of swine manure in the compartments PF01 to PF04. Low-temperature anaerobic PFR represents an interesting alternative for the treatment of pig manure and recovery of green energy. Further investigations regarding a modified design, with better accumulating solids management, are needed to optimize the performance of this low-temperature PFR treating pig manure.

  19. Effects of nitrocompounds on uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W K; Weeks, L J; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J; Dunkley, K; Ricke, S C

    2009-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of nitrocompounds on growth of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, nitrogen retention, and microbial community in laying hen manure. There were three treatments: control, 100 mM nitropropanol (NPL), and 100 mM nitropropionic acid (NPC). The mixed laying hen manure was divided into 3 groups and incubated at 23 degrees C for 7 days. On Days 0, 3, and 7, samples were collected to measure the quantity of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, total nitrogen retention, and microbial community changes. Both nitrocompounds significantly reduced growth of the uric acid-utilizing microorganisms on Day 3 (P nitrocompounds remained until Day 7 when the experiment was terminated. NPL treatment retained significantly more manure nitrogen compared to the control on both Days 3 and 7. Manure nitrogen levels of NPC treatment were also significantly higher than the control on Day 7. We further investigated the effects of NPL and NPC on microbial community changes during a 7-day incubation. NPC treatment and control on Day 7 exhibited 94% community similarity. NPC on Day 3 and NPL on Day 7 also showed high community similarity (approximately 94%). Control on Day 0 and Day 7 yielded less than 80% community similarity. Control and NPL treatment groups on Day 3 gave the lowest community similarity (approximately 64%) compared to the other groups. This result indicated that incubation time and treatment moderately influenced microbial community changes. In summary, these results indicate that both nitrocompounds increased manure nitrogen retention by inhibiting the growth of uric acid-utilizing microorganisms, and that NPL and NPC could be used as manure treatments in order to reduce ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention in poultry manure. Moreover, nitrocompounds may have potential as feed additives to reduce ammonia volatilization.

  20. Mineralização de esterco de ovinos e sua influência na produção de alface Mineralization of sheep manure and its influence on lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Célio de Figueiredo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversos resíduos orgânicos são utilizados na agricultura sem o adequado conhecimento da sua dinâmica de mineralização. Avaliou-se a mineralização de esterco de ovinos e sua influência na produção de alface. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram utilizadas 25 t ha-1 como dose de esterco para cada um dos seguintes tratamentos: 1 esterco de ovinos que se alimentaram de feno de mandioca (PAM; 2 esterco de ovinos que se alimentaram de subproduto de ervilha (ERV; 3 esterco de ovinos que se alimentaram de feno de capim coast-cross (FCC; 4 esterco de ovinos que se alimentaram de subproduto de saccharina (SAC e 5 solo sem aplicação de esterco (testemunha. Foi determinada semanalmente a respiração basal do solo, utilizada como indicador de mineralização da matéria orgânica. A massa fresca de alface foi avaliada como medida de produção. Os tratamentos ERV, FCC e SAC apresentaram ganhos de massa fresca na ordem de 68, 65 e 62% em relação à testemunha e de 43, 39 e 33% em relação ao PAM, respectivamente. A produção menor promovida pelo PAM, em relação às demais, pode ser explicada pela forma de mineralização da matéria orgânica que apresentou elevada respiração microbiana cinco dias após o transplantio, com acentuado declínio, nas medições subseqüentes, ao longo do ciclo da cultura. Os demais tratamentos apresentaram mineralização sincronizada com conseqüente aumento na produção de massa fresca.Several organic wastes are used in agriculture with no precise knowledge about the mineralization dynamics of these materials. In this study the sheep manure mineralization and its influence on the lettuce production was evaluated. A randomized block design with three replications was used. Five treatments were studied using 25 t ha-1 as dose of manure: 1 sheep manure obtained from animals fed with cassava straw (PAM; 2 sheep manure obtained from animals fed with residue

  1. Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improving cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms for animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Holly; Geyer, Mark A; Carter, Cameron S; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-11-01

    Over the past two decades, the awareness of the disabling and treatment-refractory effects of impaired cognition in schizophrenia has increased dramatically. In response to this still unmet need in the treatment of schizophrenia, the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative was developed. The goal of CNTRICS is to harness cognitive neuroscience to develop a brain-based set of tools for measuring cognition in schizophrenia and to test new treatments. CNTRICS meetings focused on development of tasks with cognitive construct validity for use in both human and animal model studies. This special issue presents papers discussing the cognitive testing paradigms selected by CNTRICS for animal model systems. These paradigms are designed to measure cognitive constructs within the domains of perception, attention, executive function, working memory, object/relational long-term memory, and social/affective processes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Facilitating Spatial Perspective Taking through Animation: Evidence from an Aptitude-Treatment-Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the facilitating function of animations for spatial perspective taking. The task demanded to estimate directions to memorized objects in a spatial scene from an imagined position and orientation within the scene. Static pictures which required imagined reorientation of the self were compared to animations showing the…

  3. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  4. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    . Using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, it was shown that codigestion of OME with swine manure (up to 50% OME) was successful with a COD reduction up to 75%. The process was adapted for degradation of OME with stepwise increase of the OME load to the UASB reactor. The results showed...... that the high content of ammonia in swine manure, together with content of other nutrients, make it possible to degrade OME without addition of external alkalinity and without addition of external nitrogen source. Anaerobic treatment of OME in UASB reactors resulted in reduction of simple phenolic compounds...

  5. Data on the irradiation of liquid manure artificially infected with foot-and mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Solyom, F.; Felkai, V.; Oroszlany, P.

    1976-01-01

    Research on the application of an ionizing radiation treatment to liquid manure infected with Foot- and Mouth disease virus is described. Virus suspensions diluted with a phosphate buffer solution showed a considerable decrease of virulence already at an exposure to 0.4 - 0.8 Mrad at low initial titre. 1.2 Mrad proved to be effective also against high concentrations of the virus. However, with liquid manure used as diluent, a certain protective effect was noted against the destructive influence of radiation on the virus. (author)

  6. Innovative process scheme for removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen from pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    blanket (UASB) reactor, partial oxidation), nitrogen (oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification, OLAND) and phosphorus (phosphorus removal by precipitation as struvite, PRS) from pig manure were tested. Results obtained showed that microfiltration was unsuitable for pig manure treatment....... PRS treated effluent was negatively affecting the further processing of the pig manure in UASB, and was therefore not included in the final process flow scheme. In a final scheme (PIGMAN concept) combination of the following successive process steps was used: thermophilic anaerobic digestion...... with sequential separation by decanter centrifuge, post-digestion in UASB reactor, partial oxidation and finally OLAND process. This combination resulted in reduction of the total organic, nitrogen and phosphorus contents by 96%, 88%, and 81%, respectively....

  7. The use of Yucca schidigera and microbial preparation for poultry manure deodorization and hygienization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiak, Katarzyna; Oleksy, Magdalena; Borowski, Sebastian; Nowak, Adriana; Korczyński, Mariusz; Dobrzański, Zbigniew; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of microbial preparation and Yucca schidigera in the removal of odorous volatile compounds from poultry manure as well as to evaluate antimicrobial properties of these amendments. It was demonstrated that the combined treatment of poultry manure (PM) with the microbial preparation and Y. schidigera extract can reduce the concentration of odorants by 58%-73%, depending on the tested compound. When Y. schidigera extract and the microbial preparation were applied at a time interval of 48 h, the deodorization efficiency was improved by 6-24%. Furthermore, Y. schidigera extract has antimicrobial properties, which affect poultry manure hygienization. It was found that when the microbial preparation was enriched with Lactobacillus plantarum, it became insensitive to the antimicrobial properties of Y. schidigera. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.

  9. Evaluation of heavy metal content in irradiated sludge, chicken manure and fertilized soil in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Suwirma, S.; Surtipanti, S.; Harsojo

    1997-01-01

    The contents of heavy metals, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Co, were determined in two irradiated sludges, chicken manure and fertilized soil. Sludge I was collected from a treatment plant in Jakarta city, Sludge II from a sludge reservoir in a Jakarta suburb, chicken manure was obtained from a farm south of Jakarta, and the soil had been treated with phosphate fertilizer since 1967. The sludges and chicken manure were collected during the rainy and dry seasons, and the heavy-metal contents were determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry and neutron-activation analysis. The results obtained are compared with data from Canada, and are discussed in terms of permissible limits in the environment. (author)

  10. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, Aqueous Ammonia Soaking was successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full......-scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS...... was not applied). The difference in reagent concentration at the range of 5-25% w/w in ammonia did not affect that much the overall methane yield resulting to an increase of 104-110% compared to the non AAS-treated fibers. Thus, an ammonia concentration as low as 5% is adequate for achieving the same increase...

  11. Effect of integrated forage rotation and manure management on yield, nutrient balance and soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Tomasoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a field experiment established in 1995 and still on going. It is located in Lodi, in the irrigated lowlands of Lombardy, Northern Italy. The experiment compares two rotations: the annual double cropping system, Italian ryegrass + silage maize (R1; and the 6-year rotation, in which three years of double crop Italian ryegrass + silage maize are followed by three years of alfalfa harvested for hay (R6 Each rotation have received two types of dairy manure: i farmyard manure (FYM; ii semi-liquid manure (SLM. The intent was to apply to each unit land area the excreta produced by the number of adult dairy cows sustained, in terms of net energy, by the forage produced in each rotation, corresponding to about 6 adult cows ha-1 for R1 and 4 adult cows ha-1 for R6. Manure was applied with (N1 or without (N0 an extra supply of mineral N in the form of urea. The objectives of this study were: i to assess whether the recycling of two types of manure in two forage rotation systems can sustain crop yields in the medium and long term without additional N fertilization; ii to evaluate the nutrient balance of these integrated forage rotations and manure management systems; iii to compare the effects of farmyard manure and semi-liquid manure on soil organic matter. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased yield of silage maize by 19% and alfalfa by 23%, while Italian ryegrass was not influenced by the manure treatment. Yet, silage maize produced 6% more in rotation R6 compared to rotation R1. The mineral nitrogen fertilization increased yield of Italian ryegrass by 11% and of silage maize by 10%. Alfalfa, not directly fertilized with mineral nitrogen, was not influenced by the nitrogen applied to the other crops in rotation. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased soil organic matter (SOM by +37 % for the rotation R1, and by +20% for the rotation R6. Conversely, no significant difference on SOM was observed

  12. Treatment of a multiple sclerosis animal model by a novel nanodrop formulation of a natural antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyamin O

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orli Binyamin,1,* Liraz Larush,2,* Kati Frid,1 Guy Keller,1 Yael Friedman-Levi,1 Haim Ovadia,1 Oded Abramsky,1 Shlomo Magdassi,2 Ruth Gabizon1 1Department of Neurology, The Agnes Ginges Center of Human Neurogenetics, Hadassah University Hospital, 2Casali Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is associated with demyelination, neurodegeneration, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. In this work, we administered a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil (PSO, denominated Nano-PSO, to mice induced for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an established model of MS. PSO comprises high levels of punicic acid, a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid considered as one of the strongest natural antioxidants. We show here that while EAE-induced mice treated with natural PSO presented some reduction in disease burden, this beneficial effect increased significantly when EAE mice were treated with Nano-PSO of specific size nanodroplets at much lower concentrations of the oil. Pathological examinations revealed that Nano-PSO administration dramatically reduced demyelination and oxidation of lipids in the brains of the affected animals, which are hallmarks of this severe neurological disease. We propose that novel formulations of natural antioxidants such as Nano-PSO may be considered for the treatment of patients suffering from demyelinating diseases. On the mechanistic side, our results demonstrate that lipid oxidation may be a seminal feature in both demyelination and neurodegeneration. Keywords: nanodrops, PSO, EAE, oxidative stress, neurodegeneration

  13. Green manure and inorganic fertiliser as management strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To alleviate the problem of Striga and soil fertility, green-manure applications could be an alternative strategy. Ths study was conducted to (a) evaluate the potential of green manure against Striga, and (b) determine the potential of inducing Striga suicidal germination by selected green manures. For the first part of the study, ...

  14. Recovery of amino acids and phosphorus from manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background & Objectives: The recovery of phosphorus and proteins from manure could be advantageous to both offset costs and to improve and lessen the environmental impacts of manure. Phosphorous in manure can contaminate rivers, lakes, and bays through runoff, if applied onto a cropland excessively....

  15. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a gas sensor array to estimate the manure nutrient contents. Three metal-oxide gas sensors including methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were used. Forty manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ...

  16. Evaluation of Poultry Manure Application Rates on the Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total carotenoid content was not significantly affected by poultry manure application. The phosphorus, calcium and magnesium contents were significantly affected by poultry manure application. Water and oil absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of poultry manure while the bulk density was not ...

  17. Effect of Sources of Organic Manure on Growth and Yields of Okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow, Sheep and Poultry Manure) on growth and yield of okra was carried out at the Teaching and Research Fadama Farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria during 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 dry seasons. Treatments were laid ...

  18. Clays Can Decrease Gaseous Nutrient Losses from Soil-Applied Livestock Manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Chris; Redding, Matthew; Hill, Jaye; Brown, Grant; Westermann, Maren

    2016-03-01

    Clays could underpin a viable agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement technology given their affinity for nitrogen and carbon compounds. We provide the first investigation into the efficacy of clays to decrease agricultural nitrogen GHG emissions (i.e., NO and NH). Via laboratory experiments using an automated closed-vessel analysis system, we tested the capacity of two clays (vermiculite and bentonite) to decrease NO and NH emissions and organic carbon losses from livestock manures (beef, pig, poultry, and egg layer) incorporated into an agricultural soil. Clay addition levels varied, with a maximum of 1:1 to manure (dry weight). Cumulative gas emissions were modeled using the biological logistic function, with 15 of 16 treatments successfully fitted ( clay addition level compared with no clay addition, but this difference was not significant ( = 0.17). Nitrous oxide emissions were significantly lower (×3; clay addition level compared with no clay addition. When assessing manures individually, we observed generally decreasing trends in NH and NO emissions with increasing clay addition, albeit with widely varying statistical significance between manure types. Most of the treatments also showed strong evidence of increased C retention with increasing clay additions, with up to 10 times more carbon retained in treatments containing clay compared with treatments containing no clay. This preliminary assessment of the efficacy of clays to mitigate agricultural GHG emissions indicates strong promise. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Composted manure application promotes long-term invasion of semi-arid rangeland by Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composted organic matter derived from sewage treatment facilities or livestock manure from feedlots is often applied to rangelands of western North America to increase soil fertility, forage production, forage quality, and soil carbon (C) storage. This practice can have a number of undesirable side ...

  20. Effects of organic manure on soil chemical properties and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted during the 1999 cropping season at University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria to determine the effects of organic manure on the yield components of ginger. There were five treatments, namely, two levels of cow dung (15t and 30t ha-1) and two levels of Poultry litter (10t and 20t ha-1). Organic ...

  1. Effect of tillage and poultry manure application on soil infiltration rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in Abeokuta, South-western Nigeria in 2008 and 2009 to assess the impact of tillage and poultry manure (PM) on soil infiltration rate and maize root growth. The experiment was a split-plot design with three replications. The main plot consisted of three tillage treatments: zero tillage (ZT), minimum ...

  2. Effects of weed control and cow dung manure on growth indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research farm Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of quality protein maize. The trials consisted of factorial ...

  3. Current Evidence of Adult Stem Cells to Enhance Anterior Cruciate Ligament Treatment: A Systematic Review of Animal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruipeng; Gao, Liang; Xu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    To systematically review the available preclinical evidence of adult stem cells as a biological augmentation in the treatment of animal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Systematic review. PubMed (MEDLINE) and Embase were searched for the eligible studies. The inclusion criteria were controlled animal trials of adult stem cells used in ACL treatment (repair or reconstruction). Studies of natural ACL healing without intervention, in vitro studies, ex vivo studies, and studies without controls were excluded. Evidence level, methodologic quality, and risk of bias of each included study were identified using previously established tools. Thirteen animal studies were included. Six of 7 studies using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (BMSCs) reported a positive enhancement in histology, biomechanics, and biochemistry within 12 weeks postoperatively. Four studies using ACL-derived vascular stem cells showed a promoting effect in histology, biomechanics, and imaging within 8 weeks postoperatively. Two studies focusing on animal tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) and human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) reported promotable effects for the early healing in a small animal ACL model. BMSCs, ACL-derived vascular stem cells, TDSCs, and hUCB-MSCs were shown to enhance the healing of ACL injury during the early phase in small animal models. Results of clinical trials using adult stem cells in ACL treatment are conflicting, and a systematic review of the current best preclinical evidence is crucial to guide further application. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-07-14

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%-99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  5. On the effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on batch and continuous anaerobic digestion of digested swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus...

  6. Bedding additives reduce ammonia emission and improve crop N uptake after soil application of solid cattle manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Ghulam Abbas; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Traore, Bouba; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the influences of three potential additives, i.e., lava meal, sandy soil top-layer and zeolite (used in animal bedding) amended solid cattle manures on (i) ammonia (NH3), dinitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and (ii) maize crop or grassland

  7. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  8. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  9. Response of Artemisia annua L. to shade and manure fertilizer application in lowland altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, H. H.; Widyastuti, Y.; Samanhudi; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    Artemisia is a plant producing artemisinin substance which is the main compound in the treatment of malaria. Artemisia comes from China, usually grows wild in native habitats in the plains with an altitude of 1,000-1,500 meters above the sea level. Artemisia development efforts in Indonesia hampered by limited land with the required altitude due to their competition with vegetable crops. Based on this reason, this research is conducted to observe the growth of artemisia planted in lowland with the help of shade and manure. This study aims to determine the level of shade and best manure on the growth of Artemisia. Research conducted at the Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture UNS Jumantono using nested design with two factors, shade as main factor and manure fertilizer as sub factor. The data analysis used F test with confidence level of 5%, if significant, then continued with DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test). The results showed the treatment of shade gave no difference in growth within 50% shade, 75% shade as well as without shade treatment. Goat manure fertilizer gave the highest result and able to increase plant height, number of branches, flower weight and root volume.

  10. Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadudvari, I.

    1979-01-01

    The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

  11. Study on the Effect of Combined Application of Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Some Properties of Thompson Novel Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shahsavani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Citrus are one of the important orchard fruit production that after banana is second in production at the world level and every year, Chemical fertilizers having most important role in increasing crops productions, but in long application of fertilizers cause soil destructions and polluting underground water. Also soils of dry regions are very poor in organic matter level. Nowadays in most countries, climatically condition and poor management cause poor organic matter content of soils. In Iran more than 60 percent of cultivated lands having less than 0.5 up to 1 percent organic matter. This may be due to intensive cultivation and poor managements For this reason if we have combine applications of manure and chemical fertilizers, the results would be much better. The aim of this research was to evaluate suitable ratio of manure and chemical fertilizer in order to reduce the chemical fertilizer use in citrus orchard in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted in one of the orchard at Sari district with low organic C. This research carried out on five years old citrus threes. This experiment carried out as factorial experiment on the base of complete randomized block design with 9 treatments and three replications. Treatments included three manure levels (0, 6 and 12 kg per tree and three levels of macro fertilizer including potassium sulphate, ammonium sulphate and super phosphate triple (o, 30 and 60 percent on the bases of soil test. Total treatment were 27 plots, (each plots were includes two threes.all treatments were applied at March. All analysis was done with standard methods. This experiment was done as factorial on the bases of complete randomized block design with 9 treatments and three replications. The treatments were as follows: T1: Zero percent chemical fertilizer and zero kg manure T2: 30 percent chemical fertilizer (potassium sulphate 50 kgha-1, ammonium sulphate 30 kg ha-1 and super

  12. THE IMPACT OF FRESH SAWDUST AND DRY PIG MANURE PRODUCED ON SAWDUST BEDDING APPLICATION ON THE NUTRIENTS MOBILITY IN SOIL AND SUGAR BEET YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the pot trial carried out at the area of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra was to determine the impact of dry pig manure produced on the sawdust bedding and sawdust litter on the level of nutrients’ mobility in the soil and sugar beet yield. The achieved results showed that one month after the sawdust and manure application to the soil, the contents of mobile nutrients (Nan, P, K, Ca, Mg in soil were lower than in the control unfertilized treatment. The sawdust litter immobilized nutrients more considerably than manure. Four months after the manure application into soil, its immobilization effect was not evident. On the contrary, the manure increased the mobile nutrients content in soil. In the second year of experiment the immobilization effect of sawdust litter was proved even four months after its application into soil. The application of manure increased considerably the beet root yield. The maximum root yield was determined in the treatment where the highest dose of manure was applied. The minimum root yield was detected in the treatment where the highest dose of sawdust litter was applied.

  13. Biohydrogen production from dairy manures with acidification pretreatment by anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Li, Zhuo; Fan, Yaoting; Hou, Hongwei

    2010-02-01

    Hydrogen is a clean and efficient energy source and has been deemed as one of the most promising carriers of new energy for the future. From an engineering point of view, producing hydrogen by mixed cultures is generally preferred because of lower cost, ease of control, and the possible use of organic waste as feedstock. The biological hydrogen production has been intensively studied in recent decades. So far, most investigates of biohydrogen production are still confined to using pure carbohydrates and carbohydrate-rich wastewater. Nowadays, the large amounts of livestock manure, which come from cattle feedlots, poultry, and swine buildings, are causing a major environmental issue because it has become a primary source of odors, gases, dust, and groundwater contamination. The increasingly stringent requirements for pollution control on livestock manures are challenging the scientific community to develop new waste treatment strategies. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop nonpolluting and renewable energy source utilizing the organic waste (e.g., livestock manure). It is well known that anaerobic digestion had successfully been used for the disposal of manures to produce methane in the last two decades. Recently, an alternative strategy has been developed to convert livestock manures (e.g., dairy manures) to biohydrogen as a high value-added clean energy source instead of methane. However, little information is available on hydrogen production from dairy manure via the mixed anaerobic microbe. As far as we know, the hydrogen production is habitually accompanied with production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, which are also an optimal feedstock for production of methane by anaerobic digestion. Provided that the biohydrogen production from dairy manure is further combined with the anaerobic digestion of the effluent from the producing hydrogen reactor that would be a one-stone two-bird paradigm, it not only produces a

  14. Increased Abundance and Transferability of Resistance Genes after Field Application of Manure from Sulfadiazine-Treated Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechalke, Sven; Kopmann, Christoph; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Groeneweg, Joost; Weichelt, Viola; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Brandes, Nikola; Nordwig, Mathias; Ding, Guo-Chun; Siemens, Jan; Heuer, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Spreading manure containing antibiotics in agriculture is assumed to stimulate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in soil bacterial populations. Plant roots influencing the soil environment and its microflora by exudation of growth substrates might considerably increase this effect. In this study, the effects of manure from pigs treated with sulfadiazine (SDZ), here called SDZ manure, on the abundance and transferability of sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 in the rhizosphere of maize and grass were compared to the effects in bulk soil in a field experiment. In plots that repeatedly received SDZ manure, a significantly higher abundance of both sul genes was detected compared to that in plots where manure from untreated pigs was applied. Significantly lower abundances of sul genes relative to bacterial ribosomal genes were encountered in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil. However, in contrast to results for bulk soil, the sul gene abundance in the SDZ manure-treated rhizosphere constantly deviated from control treatments over a period of 6 weeks after manuring, suggesting ongoing antibiotic selection over this period. Transferability of sulfonamide resistance was analyzed by capturing resistance plasmids from soil communities into Escherichia coli. Increased rates of plasmid capture were observed in samples from SDZ manure-treated bulk soil and the rhizosphere of maize and grass. More than 97% of the captured plasmids belonged to the LowGC type (having low G+C content), giving further evidence for their important contribution to the environmental spread of antibiotic resistance. In conclusion, differences between bulk soil and rhizosphere need to be considered when assessing the risks associated with the spreading of antibiotic resistance. PMID:23315733

  15. Drug delivery systems for ovarian cancer treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Raavé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current ovarian cancer treatment involves chemotherapy that has serious limitations, such as rapid clearance, unfavorable biodistribution and severe side effects. To overcome these limitations, drug delivery systems (DDS have been developed to encapsulate chemotherapeutics for delivery to tumor cells. However, no systematic assessment of the efficacy of chemotherapy by DDS compared to free chemotherapy (not in a DDS has been performed for animal studies. Here, we assess the efficacy of chemotherapy in DDS on survival and tumor growth inhibition in animal studies. We searched PubMed and EMBASE (via OvidSP to systematically identify studies evaluating chemotherapeutics encapsulated in DDS for ovarian cancer treatment in animal studies. Studies were assessed for quality and risk of bias. Study characteristics were collected and outcome data (survival/hazard ratio or tumor growth inhibition were extracted and used for meta-analyses. Meta-analysis was performed to identify and explore which characteristics of DDS influenced treatment efficacy. A total of 44 studies were included after thorough literature screening (2,735 studies found after initial search. The risk of bias was difficult to assess, mainly because of incomplete reporting. A total of 17 studies (377 animals and 16 studies (259 animals could be included in the meta-analysis for survival and tumor growth inhibition, respectively. In the majority of the included studies chemotherapeutics entrapped in a DDS significantly improved efficacy over free chemotherapeutics regarding both survival and tumor growth inhibition. Subgroup analyses, however, revealed that cisplatin entrapped in a DDS did not result in additional tumor growth inhibition compared to free cisplatin, although it did result in improved survival. Micelles did not show a significant tumor growth inhibition compared to free chemotherapeutics, which indicates that micelles may not be a suitable DDS for ovarian cancer treatment

  16. INFLUENCE OF WEED CONTROL METHODS, POULTRY MANURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Mando Kaduna, in the Northern Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria, to determine the Influence of weed control methods, poultry manure and ... t /ha in Latin America, and 1.7 t/ha in India. Brazil currently stands out as one of the ..... for soil management for sustainable production of maize. In support of this, (Boateng et al., ...

  17. Manure Management, Quality and Mineralization for Sustaining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in the Upper East region of Ghana to seek information on the fertility status of the soils, manure production, its management options and nutrient concentration that could be associated with quality. Analysis of soils from farmers' fields showed that the soils are coarse textured, with low exchange ...

  18. manure management, quality and mineraliztion for sustaining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. A survey was conducted in the Upper East region of Ghana to seek information on the fertility status of the soils, manure production, its management options and nutrient concentration that could be associated with quality. Analysis of soils from farmers' fields showed that the soils are coarse textured, with low ...

  19. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL

    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion

  20. Measuring ammonia emissions from manured fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.C.; Hoff, G.R.; Bergwerff, J.B.; Swart, D.P.J.; Hensen, A.; Kraai, A.; Bleeker, A.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Mosquera Losada, J.; Pul, van W.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, 2 novel instruments are described that are able to measure the ammonia emissions of manured fields. The 1st instrument, developed and operated by ECN, is a tuneable diode laser spectrometer (TDL), mounted in a van. It is used to measure the ammonia concentration patterns downwind