WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal manure treatment

  1. Environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...

  2. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  3. Environmental concerns about animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Lenis, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of swine production has changed dramatically in the last four decades. Raw materials for swine feeds are often grown in regions other than where swine production takes place. Swine manure is mostly spread in the neighborhood of the facilities, which may lead to soil accumulation of

  4. Overview of the advances in environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing environmental concern over animal manure due to the volumes produced in modern intensified animal production. However, animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. Although research on environmental impacts of animal manure and associated...

  5. Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Andini, S.; Nazly, H.; Suwirma, S.; Danius, J.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement. Radiation treatment for disinfection of manure have been investigated on manure collected during the dry and rainy seasons. Total bacterial counts of non-irradiated dewatered manure with water content of around 13.44% were found to be 1.0x10 6 up to 1.4x10 8 per g during the dry season, and 2.0x10 5 up to 1.7x10 7 per g during the rainy season, while coliforms, enterobecteriacease, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pseudomonas were found to be 1.0x10 6 up to 1.4x10 8 per g, 1.0x10 4 up to 1.2x10 6 per g, 4.0x10 5 up to 2.2x10 7 per g, 1.8x10 3 per g, and 1.0x10 2 up to 5.4x10 3 per g, respectively. About 30% of the total coliforms were found to be escherichia coli. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy eliminated salmonella from all samples observed. No. Shigella Vibrio, and parasites were detected in the samples. Total nitrogen of the dewatered manure ranged between 1.87 and 2.33%, phosphorus between 1.25 and 4.38%, and potassium between 0.66 and 2.18%. Heavy metal elements were found only in very small amounts, hence the dewatered manure could be applied as animal feed or soil conditioner. A combination of irradiation at 4 kGy and storage for 3 months was synergistically effective to eliminate coliform, E. coli, and salmonella in the dewatered manure. From nutritional point of view, the manure is still acceptable for animal feed supplement. (author). 13 refs

  6. Applied and environmental chemistry of animal manure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure consists of predominantly urine and feces, but also may contain bedding materials, dropped feed, scurf and other farming wastes. The estimated amount of manure produced in 12 major livestock producing countries is 9 x109 Mg of manure annually. Manures are rich in plant nutrients. Howev...

  7. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  8. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  9. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  10. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.......  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  11. Effect of animal manures on selected soil chemical properties (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of animal manures on selected soil properties were studied in the laboratory. Manures of Rabbit (RBM), Swine (SWM), Poultry (POM), Goat, (GTM) and Cow (COM) were added at 10, 20, 30 and 40 t/ha to an acidic Ultisol. The amended soils were incubated at 70% water holding capacity for 3 weeks.

  12. Effect of animal manures on soil properties, growth, nutrients status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative field study was carried out at two sites in Akure, Southwest Nigeria to determine effect of different animal manures on soil physical and chemical properties and performance of tomato (Lycopersicm esculentus Mill). Analysis of cattle (CM), goat (GM), pig (PG) and poultry (PM) manures showed that N, K, Ca ...

  13. Apparatus for the ammonium recovery from liquid animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Timmerman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen present in animal manure can be a limiting factor when considering manure application rates onto arable land. EU-regulations triggered the development of a new ammonia exchange apparatus for the recovery of ammonia. The described apparatus has a liquid to liquid ammonia mass transfer

  14. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANIMAL MANURES ON SOIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    tons/ha and 13.4 tons/ha of poultry, goat and dairy cow manure will suffice the requirement of. 40 kg N/ha and 20 ..... supplementation with inorganic P sources. Rate. Manure ... organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science.

  15. Stakeholder perceptions of manure treatment technologies in Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Y.; Velthof, G.L.; Case, S.D.C.; Oelofse, M.; Grignani, C.; Balsari, P.; Zavattaro, L.; Gioelli, F.; Bernal, M.P.; Fangueiro, D.; Trindade, H.; Jensen, L.S.; Oenema, O.

    2018-01-01

    Manure treatment technologies have been developed in Europe to better use animal manures and to reduce their environmental impact, but the adoption of these technologies in practice is regionally diverse and still limited. Also, little is known about the opinions of stakeholders towards manure

  16. Ecosustainable animal manure treatment in countries with intensive breeding; Trattamento ecocompatibile delle deiezioni zootecniche in territori ad alta intensita' produttiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M. [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Bozzini, A. [Food Agricultural Organization, Rome (Italy); Montani, R. [INTEAM Srl., Verona (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In the Italian Veneto Region, a highly industrialized territory, the present intensive livestock farming (cattle, swine, chicken and rabbit) causes a series of serious problems to agricultural and industrial activities. In fact, if the raw (not digested) manure is directly spread on the soil, it leads to soil acidification and contamination, to possible water table contamination, to the diffusion of livestock and human infections and consequent damages to all production and commercialization chain and finally to all society. The organic amount coming from the livestock farms located in each of the 22 sanitary districts of the Veneto region (ASL) is calculated and the suitable manure treatment processes to obtain an organic fertilizer following the Italian and E.U. environmental regulations, is reported. The solid-liquid separation step, performed with traditional technologies (centrifuge, mechanical separation) can lead to a rational solution of the problem: the solid part is digested in special bioreactors and the liquid one is purified with membrane technologies. The paper suggests a strategic pathway for a sustainable manure management, based on a package of the following devices: the improvement of the hygiene in the buildings; the improvement with innovative and flexible technologies. In this way, the production of a precious and necessary organic manure for soil and agriculture development, coupled with an improvement of human and animal health, could be assured. [Italian] Nella regione Veneto, l'intensa attivita' zootecnica dovuta ad allevamenti di bovini, suini, avicoli e cunicoli, in un territorio particolarmente industrializzato crea complessi problemi di gestione delle deiezioni con preoccupanti ricadute sull'ambiente, sull'agricoltura e sulla salute dei cittadini. Lo spargimento fuori controllo delle deiezioni causa l'acidificazione e la sterilizzazione dei suoli, la contaminazione delle falde acquifere e la diffusione di

  17. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  18. An innovative intermittent-vacuum assisted thermophilic anaerobic digestion process for effective animal manure utilization and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renchuan; Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Deng, Xiangyuan; Kabir, Fayal; Lu, Qian; Ma, Yiwei; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent-vacuum stripping (IVS) was developed as a pretreatment for thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) to improve methanogenesis and hydrolysis activity through preventing free ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) inhibition from liquid swine manure (LSM). Over 98% of ammonia and 38% organic nitrogen were removed in 60min from 55°C to 85°C with vacuum pressure (from 100.63±3.79mmHg to 360.91±7.39mmHg) at initial pH 10.0 by IVS. Thermophilic methanogenesis and hydrolysis activity of pretreated LSM increased 52.25% (from 11.56±1.75% to 17.60±0.49%) in 25days and 40% (from 10days to 6days) in bio-methane potential assay. Over 80% H 2 S and total nitrogen were removed by IVS assistance, while around 70% nitrogen was recycled as ammonium sulfate. Therefore, IVS-TAD combination could be an effective strategy to improve TAD efficiency, whose elution is more easily utilized in algae cultivation and/or hydroponic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of manure treatment in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyon, L

    2017-03-01

    Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13.6milliontons corresponding to 11.3% of the total annual tonnage (120milliontons). The main processes, mostly applied on the farm, were composting (8.5milliontons), aerobic treatment (2.9milliontons of pig slurry) and anaerobic digestion (1milliontons). Other manure treatments, including physical-chemical treatment, were less frequent (0.4million of m 3 ). Treated manure was mainly used to fertilize the soil and crops on the farm concerned. Manure treatment can thus be considered to be underused in France. However, anaerobic digestion is expected to expand to reach the European target of 20% of energy from renewable sources. Nevertheless, this expansion will depend on overcoming the constraint requiring registration or normalization of the use of the digestate as fertilizer. Thus, to avoid penalizing farmers, the further development or creation of collective processing platforms is recommended, combined with an N recovery process that will enable the production of organic amendments and fertilizers in an easy marketable form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of sampling methods for animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, P.J.L.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Hoeksma, P.

    1997-01-01

    Currently available and recently developed sampling methods for slurry and solid manure were tested for bias and reproducibility in the determination of total phosphorus and nitrogen content of samples. Sampling methods were based on techniques in which samples were taken either during loading from

  1. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P. [Resource Development Associates, Marietta, GA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  2. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only provides pollution prevention but also can convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion (AD) of livestock manures is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the AD animal manures. U.S. livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: slurry, plug-flow, complete-mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Case studies of operating digesters, with project and maintenance histories and the operators ''lessons learned,'' are included as reality checks. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some AD projects fail, are provided. The role of farm management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at farms willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. More than two decades of research has provided much information about how manure can be converted to an energy source; however, the American farmer has

  3. Methane emissions during storage of different treatments from cattle manure in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Wang; Chiqing Duan; Yaqin Ji; Yichao Sun

    2010-01-01

    Many studies on methane emissions from animal manure have revealed that animal manure is a major source of methane emissions to the atmosphere that can have negative consequences for people,animals and environment.In general,the release of methane can be influenced by the type of feed taken by animals,temperature,manure characteristics and so on.This study aimed at quantifying and comparing methane release from dairy manure with different piling treatments.Four treatments were designed including manure piling height 30,45,60 cm and adding 6 cm manure every day until the piling height was 60 cm.Static chamber method and gas chromatography were adopted to measure the methane emissions from April to June in 2009.Methane emission rates of all four manure treatments were low in the first week and then increased sharply until reaching the peak values.Subsequently,all the methane emission rates decreased and fluctuated within the steady range till the end of the experiment.Wilcoxon nonparametric tests analysis indicated that methane emission rate was greatly influenced by manure piling height and manner.There were no significant relationships between methane emission rates and the temperatures of ambience and heap.However,regression analysis showed that the quadratic equations were found between emission rates of all treatments and the gas temperature in the barrels.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  5. The economics of energy from animal manure for greenhouse gas mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Emad

    2007-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has significant economies of scale, i.e. per unit processing costs decrease with increasing size. The economics of AD to produce biogas and in turn electric power in farm or feedlot based units as well as centralized plants is evaluated for two settings in Alberta: a mixed farming area, Red Deer County, and an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, Lethbridge County. A centralized plant drawing manure from 61 sources in the mixed farming area could produce power at a cost of 218 MWh-1 (2005 US). A centralized plant drawing manure from 560,000 beef cattle in Lethbridge County, can produce power at a cost of 138 MWh-1. Digestate processing, if commercially available, shifts the balance in favor of centralized processing. At larger scales, pipelines could be used to deliver manure to a centralized plant and return the processed digestate back to the manure source for spreading. Pipeline transport of beef cattle manure is more economic than truck transport for the manure produced by more than 90,000 animals. Pipeline transport of digestate is more economic when manure from more than 21,000 beef cattle is available and two-way pipelining of manure plus digestate is more economic when manure from more than 29,000 beef cattle is available. The value of carbon credits necessary to make AD profitable in a mixed farming region is also calculated based on a detailed analysis of manure and digestate transport and processing costs at an AD plant. Carbon emission reductions from power generation are calculated for displacement of power from coal and natural gas. The required carbon credit to cover the cost of AD processing of manure is greater than 150 per tonne of CO2. These results show that AD treatment of manure from mixed farming areas is not economic given current values of carbon credits. Power from biogas has a high cost relative to current power prices and to the cost of power from other large scale renewable sources. Power from biogas would

  6. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental....... Adjusting for these model-estimated side-effects resulted in wheat grain yields gains from manure application of 0.7-1.1 Mg DM ha-1. The apparent recovery efficiency of N in grains (N use efficiency, NUE) from NH4-N in applied manure varied from 23% to 44%. The NUE in the winter cereals of N accumulated......-estimated benefit of increasing N input in grass-clover from 100 to 500 kg N ha-1 varied from 0.8 to 2.0 Mg DM ha-1 between locations. This is a considerably smaller yield increase than obtained for manure application, and it suggests that the productivity in this system may be improved by removing the cuttings...

  7. The economics of energy from animal manure for greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoori, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the economic feasibility of using anaerobic digestion to produce biogas for the purpose of generating electricity. Centralized plants in 2 settings in Alberta were evaluated, notably a mixed farming area in Red Deer County and an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots in Lethbridge County. The cost of producing power at a centralized plant drawing manure from 61 sources in the mixed farming area was shown to be nearly double the cost of producing power at a centralized plant drawing manure from 560,000 beef cattle in Lethbridge County. Digestate processing shifts the balance in favour of centralized processing. At larger scales, pipelines could be used to transport manure to a centralized plant and return the processed digestate back to the manure source for spreading. Pipeline transport is more economic than truck transport in cases where manure is produced by more than 90,000 animals. Pipeline transport of digestate is more economic when manure from more than 21,000 beef cattle is available and two-way pipelining of manure plus digestate is more economic when manure from more than 29,000 beef cattle is available. The value of carbon credits needed to make AD profitable in a mixed farming region was calculated based on an analysis of manure and digestate transport and processing costs. Carbon emission reductions from power generation were calculated for displacement of power from coal and natural gas. The carbon credit needed to cover the cost of AD processing of manure is greater than $150 per tonne of carbon dioxide, indicating that AD treatment of manure from mixed farming areas is not economic given current values of carbon credits. It was concluded that power generated from biogas has a high cost compared to current power prices and the cost of power from other large scale renewable sources. As such, factors other than energy value, such as phosphate, pathogen or odour control would have to be considered in order to justify power

  8. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Infascelli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies and incentives aimed at controlling the amount of nitrate entering downstream water systems. The province of Caserta in southern Italy is characterized by high levels of animal manure loading. A comparison between manure nitrogen production and nitrate concentration in groundwater was carried out in this area, using geostatistical tools and spatial statistics. The results show a discrepancy between modelling of nitrate leaching and monitoring of the groundwater and, moreover, no spatial correlation between nitrogen production in livestock farms and nitrate concentration in groundwater, suggesting that producers are not following the regulatory procedures for the agronomic use of manure. The methodology developed in this paper could be applied also in other regions in which European Union fertilization plans are not adequately followed.

  9. Plant-availability to barley of phosphorus in ash from thermally treated animal manure in comparison to other manure based materials and commercial fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2010-01-01

    ), thermally gasified SS (GAs), thermally gasified poultry manure (GAp), crushed triple super phosphate (TSP) and disodium phosphate (DSP) was used as reference P fertilizer. For application of 20 kg P ha-1 mineral P fertilizer replacement value (RV) in the second year in the sandy soil was 76% and 99% for GA...... on both soils in the second year, and there was no detectable residual effect of the treatments on grass yield and P uptake. In conclusion, untreated ash and solid manures used in this study were not suitable as starter P fertilizer, but could be used to maintain the level of available P in soil......Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient and a limited resource, yet excess P is applied to agricultural land and can cause environmental problems in areas with intensive animal farming. In this study, the fertilizing effects of P in several animal manure-based products (including thermal treatment...

  10. Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organizing and managing the whole manure handling chain from the animal house through transport to the point of use (e.g. in the field) is a challenging task requiring consideration of manure type and operating conditions. Solid and liquid manure must be handled differently, using very different tec...

  11. Combustible gas and biochar production from co-pyrolysis of agricultural plastic wastes and animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers report that manure-derived biochar has considerable potential both for improving soil quality and reducing water pollution. One of obstacles in obtaining manure biochar is its high energy requirement for pyrolyzing wet and low-energy-density animal manures. The combustible gas produced f...

  12. Economic sustainability of biogas production from animal manure : a regional circular economy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazan, Devrim Murat; Cafagna, Davide; Fraccascia, Luca; Mes, Martijn; Pontrandolfo, Pierpaolo; Zijm, Henk

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to understand the implementation of a circular economic business where animal manure is used to produce biogas and alternative fertilizer in a regional network of manure suppliers and biogas producers and to reveal the impacts of five variables (manure quantity,

  13. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Thanh Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens......PCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid...

  14. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Agyarko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM, cattle manure (CM and pig manure (PG on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11 treatments which were: Control (soil only; 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. Available phosphorus and other parameters were assessed using standard methods. Results were statistically analyzed using the the GenStat (11th Edition statistical software package. The amount and type of animal manure in the amendment affected the amount of the available P released. The addition of 2.5g manure to 2.5g RP in a kg of soil significantly (P<0.05 increased available P by 4 to 7 times over the sole 2.5g RP/kg soil treatment. Doubling the amount of manure in the amendment (5g manure + 2.5g RP almost doubled the amount of P released, with the poultry manure combinations being more significant. The amount of available P in the soil positively related to the plant height (R2=63, leaf area (R2=0.55, dry weight (R2=0.73 and the percentage P in the leaf (R2=0.88 of lettuce. The PM at 2.5gRP + 5gPM recorded the highest significant (P<0.05 values. The study has provided further basis for manure selection and quantities to be used in enhancing the release of P from rock phosphate. However, investigations need to be continued using nuclear techniques.

  15. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  16. The Effect Different Irrigation Regimes and Animal Manure on Nutrient, Essential Oil and Chemical Composition on Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of water stress and animal manure on nutrients concentration, essential oil percentage and its chemical components in Cuminum cyminum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Zahak, Zabol, during 2003–2004 in a randomized complete block design arranged in factorial with four replicates. Treatments were there irrigation (I1: two times irrigation, I2: three times irrigation and I3: four times irrigation and two animal manure levels (F1: no manure and F2: 20 ton/ha manure. The chemical composition of the essential oil was examined by gas- chromatography (GC and GC-MS. The effect of water stress on Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, P and K percentages was significant but its effect on Mn, Zn and Cu was not significant. I1F1 had maximum of Na, Ca, Mg and minimum of micro nutrients. Using of animal manure was not effected on nutrients. The effect of water stress and animal manure were significant on essential oil and its chemical compositions. I2F2 had the highest of cuminaldehyde and ρ-cymene and the lowest of β-pinene, γ-terpinene and α-pinene. Result showed that there is a correlation among the main components of cumin essential oil under water and mineral stress.

  17. Characteristics and Availability of Different Forms of Phosphorus in Animal Manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Zheng-juan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of intensive livestock industry has greatly increased the discharge of animal manure. Reasonable utilization of large amounts of phosphorus(Pin animal manure can not only save the fertilizer resource, but also avoid water pollution from manure due to direct discharge or excess application in farmland. In this study, P contents and fractionation in 76 animal manures were analyzed using Hedley P fractionation method based on the survey for 52 livestock farms, and P mobility and environmental risks in different manures were evaluated as the reference for manure P management. The results showed that there were significant differences in total P content of animal manures. The mean P contents were 22.5, 13.7, 12.9, 9.6 g P·kg-1 and 7.5 g P·kg-1, in which the proportion of organic P in total P were 33.1%, 41.5%, 66.4%, 28.1%and 36.8%in pig, chicken, duck, cattle and sheep manures, respectively. The contents of total and organic P in non-ruminant animal manure(pig, chicken and duck manureswere 1.7~3.0 times and 2.1~3.0 times greater than that in ruminant manure (cattle and sheep manuresand the proportion of organic P in total P in poultry manure was higher than that in other manures. P mineraliza-tion was easier in non-ruminant animal manure with lower C/P ratio(19~29, compared with that in ruminant manure with C/P ratio of 38~45. Manure P was sequentially extracted by deionized water(H2O-P, NaHCO3(NaHCO3-P, NaOH(NaOH-Pand HCl(HCl-P. The pro-portion of H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P, HCl-P and residual-P in total P in ruminant animal manure were 27.8%, 32.8%, 18.1%, 15.2%and 6.1%, respectively, while that were 24.6%, 19.4%, 12.7%, 34.4% and 8.9% in non-ruminant animal manure. The significant differences were in NaHCO3-P and HCl-P between ruminant and non-ruminant animal manures. Ruminant manure had greater proportion of liable P (H2O-P and NaHCO3-Pin total P(>60%, but the characteristics of higher mineralization rate might result in

  18. Transfer of antibiotics from wastewater or animal manure to soil and edible crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotics are added to agricultural fields worldwide through wastewater irrigation or manure application, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks to terrestrial environments and humans. Most studies focused on antibiotic detection in different matrices or were conducted in a hydroponic environment. Little is known about the transfer of antibiotics from antibiotic-contaminated irrigation wastewater and animal manure to agricultural soil and edible crops. In this study, we evaluated the transfer of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) to different crops under two levels of antibiotic-contaminated wastewater irrigation and animal manure fertilization. The final distribution of tetracycline (TC), norfloxacin (NOR) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in the crop tissues under these four treatments were as follows: fruit > leaf/shoot > root, while an opposite order was found for sulfamethazine (SMZ) and erythromycin (ERY): root > leaf/shoot > fruit. The growth of crops could accelerate the dissipation of antibiotics by absorption from contaminated soil. A higher accumulation of antibiotics was observed in crop tissues under the wastewater treatment than under manure treatment, which was due to the continual irrigation that increased adsorption in soil and uptake by crops. The translocation of antibiotics in crops mainly depended on their physicochemical properties (e.g. log K ow ), crop species, and the concentrations of antibiotics applied to the soil. The levels of antibiotics ingested through the consumption of edible crops under the different treatments were much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Animal Manures and Chemical Fertilizer on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Milk Thistle Plant (Silybum marianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yazdani Biuki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum is one of the medicinal plants that has many drug properties. In order to evaluate effects of animal manures and chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of Milk Thistle plant, an experiment was conducted in the Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2008 based on completely randomized block design with three replications and four treatments. The treatments included: control (without any manure or fertilizer, chemical NPK fertilizer, cattle and sheep manures. The characteristics such as number of lateral stem per plant, height of plant, number of inflorescences per plant, inflorescence diameter, number of seeds per capitol, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, oil percentage, silymarin percentage (active ingredient, silybin percentage, oil yield and silymarin yield were recorded. The results showed that different treatments had no effect on yield components, but had significant effect on oil percentage, silymarin and silybin content of seeds. Cattle manure had more oil (21% and silybin (21.7% compared with other treatments. There was no significant difference in oil and silymarin percentage between control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Cattle manure and sheep manure had minimum percentage of silybin (16.4 and maximum percentage of silymarin (3.1 Compared with other treatments. There were positive correlation between height of plant with seed yield (r=0.86** and inflorescence diameter (r=0.6*, which represents importance of these traits for final yield assessment. There were no positive correlation between seed yield and other yields components. Keywords: Milk Thistle, Quantitative and qualitative characteristics, Animal manures, Medicinal plants

  20. A step towards the environmental prioritisation of veterinary medicines from animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahr, J.; Bondt, N.; Koeijer, de Tanja; Wipfler, E.L.; Berendsen, Bjorn; Hoeksma, Paul; Overbeek, van Leo; Mevius, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal manure from intensive livestock farming is spread on arable fields and grassland on a large scale in the Netherlands. This manure can contain residues of veterinary medicines that have been given to livestock. Some of these substances are increasingly found in groundwater and surface water.

  1. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkuyten, J.C.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms ''certification of the links within the chain''. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is ''certification''. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from ''waste'', is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  2. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkuyten, J C.A.M. [European Manure Association, EMA, Deventer (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms `certification of the links within the chain`. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is `certification`. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from `waste`, is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  3. Availability of P and K in ash from thermal gasification of animal manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubaek, G.H.; Soerensen, Peter [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agroecology, Tjele (Denmark); Stoholm, P. [Danish Fluid Bed Technology (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    In areas like Denmark where the livestock density is regulated on the basis of manure N content, surplus phosphorus is becoming a key environmental problem, which has to be solved in order to avoid increasing P losses to surface waters in the future. Combustion of animal manure or its solid fraction and the subsequent export of the ash to nutrient-poor areas could be a solution. However, combustion is difficult due to fouling and corrosion problems, and the ash will only be marketable if the fertiliser value of the remaining P and K is acceptable and if the content of contaminants (heavy metals) is sufficiently low. A combined fast pyrolysis and char gasification technique for treatment of biomass has been developed where organic material such as manure is processed in a fluidised bed reactor at temperatures and around 700 deg. C. After simple separation of a fine textured ash, the cleaned gas is suitable for combustion in a separate unit for energy production. One advantage of this technique is that the temperature can be finely controlled, and temperatures exceeding the melting point of e.g. potassium chloride can be avoided. The low and well-controlled temperature probably also prevents severe reductions in the availability of nutrients in the ash. However, the availability of P and K in the ash remains to be thoroughly tested. (au)

  4. ANIMAL MANURE – REDUCED QUALITY BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion may reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, but we know little about its impact on soil fertility. Reduced concentrations of easily degradable C in the manure may imply less food for the soil fauna and microflora. A field experiment to study its effect on crop yields and soil...... caused the death of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms shortly after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. So far, we have observed only small differences in the effects of digested and undigested manure...

  5. Field scale manure born animal waste management : GIS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive beef backgrounding often accumulate manure born soil nutrients, microbes, and pharmaceuticals at different site locations. Unless properly managed, such waste materials can pollute surrounding soil and water sources. Soil sampling from these sites helps determining waste material levels bu...

  6. Report from the working group on combustion of domestic animal manure fractions; Rapport fra arbejdsgruppen om afbraending af fraktioner af husdyrgoedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    During the past few years there has been a considerable development of new technology for treatment of domestic animal manure. The development implies that environmental problems connected with storage and use of domestic animal manure for fertilization are reduced. Through several years experiences with utilization of domestic animal manure's energy potential in biogas plants have been compiled, and the technological basis for connecting slurry separation and biogas production is present. In order to promote this development, the agricultural sector has a growing desire to be able to dispose of parts from the separated slurry through combustion, hereby using the energy content to the energy production. However, there are a number of barriers that make combustion of domestic animal manure impossible. In order to uncover existing barriers for combustion of domestic animal manure fractions the Danish Minister of food appointed an inter ministerial committee on 30 March 2005. The committee should: 1. Describe the regulations within the ministerial areas that affect combustion of domestic animal manure, and also describe the regulations that act as barriers, 2. Describe binding international agreements, directives and regulations that affect combustion of domestic animal manure and which of these that act as barriers, 3. Evaluate the potential for regulation adjustments and other actions, that might further the development of sustainable energy production in which domestic animal manure is a part, 4. Evaluate socio-economic pros and cons in the light of environmental and climatic impacts, and 5. Describe estimated governmental financial consequences of potential adjustments of regulations and other actions. (BA)

  7. A critical analysis of nitrous oxide emissions from animal manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemendtsson, Aa.K.; Klemedtsson, L.

    2002-01-01

    Emission of nitrous oxide, N 2 0, alter manure applications to agricultural soil is composed of two components. The first is the immediately increased potential for N 2 0 production due to favourable conditions in the manure-soil environment. More N 2 0 is produced and emitted when the nitrogen content of the manure is high, especially the mineral nitrogen content. The amount of carbon available for microbiological decomposition and water content regulate the oxygen availability, which is important for N 2 0 production in both nitrification and denitrification. The balance between mineralisation of organically bound nitrogen and immobilisation of mineral nitrogen by microorganisms and plants control the availability of N for N 2 0 production. The initial burst of N 2 0 to the atmosphere following manure application may last for two months, while a second component is long term and due to nitrogen in organic matter accumulating in the soil, resulting in a small increase in background emissions over many years due to nitrogen cycling. The IPCC emission factor for N 2 0 emission due to manure addition accounts for the increased emission of N 2 0 during the first year, whereas the long-term emission is not included. (au)

  8. Evaluation of biogas production potential by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass--animal manure mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Smith, M C; Kondrad, S L; White, J W

    2010-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application with reduced environmental impacts. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Dry anaerobic digestion [>15% total solid (TS)] has an advantage over wet digestion (anaerobic digestion of animal manure-switchgrass mixture was evaluated under dry (15% TS) and thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C). Three different mixtures of animal manure (swine, poultry, and dairy) and switchgrass were digested using batch-operated 1-L reactors. The swine manure test units showed 52.9% volatile solids (VS) removal during the 62-day trial, while dairy and poultry manure test units showed 9.3% and 20.2%, respectively. Over the 62 day digestion, the swine manure test units yielded the highest amount of methane 0.337 L CH4/g VS, while the dairy and poultry manure test units showed very poor methane yield 0.028 L CH4/g VS and 0.002 L CH4/g VS, respectively. Although dairy and poultry manure performed poorly, they may still have high potential as biomass for dry anaerobic digestion if appropriate designs are developed to prevent significant volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and pH drop.

  9. Evaluation of Four Farm-scale Systems for the Treatment of Liquid Pig Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Verdoes, N.

    2005-01-01

    In some regions in the Netherlands, high pig concentrations and limited availability of arable land have led to a surplus of manure which results in high off-farm manure disposal costs. The aim of manure treatment is to lower manure transport costs by reducing the volume and to improve market

  10. Energy conversion of animal manures: Feasibility analysis for thirteen western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Milward, R.; Churchill, G.; Searles, M.B. [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States); Moser, M. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Swanson, D.; Morgan, G. [Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The growth and concentration of the livestock industry has led to environmental disposal problems for large quantities of manure at feedlots, dairies, poultry production plants, animal holding areas and pasturelands. Consequently, waste management systems that facilitate energy recovery are becoming increasingly attractive since they address pollution problems and allow for energy generation from manure resources. This paper presents a manure resource assessment for the 13 US Department of Energy, Western Regional Biomass Energy Program states, describes and evaluates available energy conversion technologies, identifies environmental and regulatory factors associated with manure collection, storage and disposal, and identifies common disposal practices specific to animal types and areas within the WRBEP region. The paper also presents a pro forma economic analysis for selected manure-to-energy conversion technologies. The annual energy potential of various manures within the WRBEP region is equivalent to approximately 111 {times} 10{sup 13} Btu. Anaerobic digestion systems, both lagoon and plug flow, offer positive economic returns in a broad range of utility service territories.

  11. Response of some Citrus Rootstock Seedlings to Fertilization by the Aqueous Extract of some Irradiated Animal Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out during two consecutive seasons i.e. 2001 and 2002 on two citrus rootstocks namely Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings two-month-old planted in a sandy soil under greenhouse to study the feasibility of using the aqueous extract of some animal manures i.e. poultry, sheep and cattle treated by gamma irradiation at 10 kGay to keep the manure free from pathogenic organisms, pests and weed seeds and as a natural source of nutrients instead of mineral fertilizers, and it's effect on growth and leaf nutrients content of seedlings. Generally, results showed that all the tested treatments enhanced most of growth parameters such as seedling height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves/seedling, number of roots/seedling, and dry weight for both of stem, leaves, root and total dry weight/plant. Moreover, such treatments improved leaf nutrient content of both of Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings. Meanwhile, seedlings fertilized by the aqueous extract of poultry manure achieved the highest values of growth parameters and leaf nutrients content as well as mineral fertilizer followed by those treated by the aqueous extract of both sheep and cattle manures

  12. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies

  13. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena, E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Komakech, Allan John [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Agricultural & Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, Björn [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  14. Feeding on microbiomes: effects of detritivory on the taxonomic and phylogenetic bacterial composition of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Bybee, Seth; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Domínguez, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Earthworms play a key role in nutrient cycling by interacting with microorganisms thus accelerating organic matter turnover in soil systems. As detritivores, some earthworm types ingest and digest a mixture of dead organic matter and microorganisms, like animal manures (i.e. animal gut microbiomes). Here we described the earthworm cast microbiome and the role ingested bacteria play on its composition. We fed Eisenia andrei with cow, horse and pig manures and determined the taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of the these manures before and after passage through the earthworm gut. Earthworm cast microbiomes showed a smaller diversity than the manure they fed on. Manures strongly differed in their taxonomic and phylogenetic composition, but these differences were markedly reduced once transformed into earthworm cast microbiomes after passage through the earthworm gut. The core earthworm cast microbiome comprised 30 OTUs (2.6% of OTUs from cast samples), of which 10 are possibly native to the earthworm gut. Most of the core cast microbiome OTUs belonged to phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, as opposed to already described animal core gut microbiomes, which are composed mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that earthworms build up their cast microbiome by selecting from the pool of ingested bacteria. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Regulating manure application discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, Terence J.; Feitshans, Theodore A.

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, reducing pollution from agriculture has received attention due to data suggesting that this is the leading source of impairment of many waterbodies. The federal government revised its regulations governing concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to enhance governmental oversight over sources of pollution. For the application of manure resulting in pollutant discharges, CAFOs need to implement nutrient management plans. A federal court affirmed the ability of the US federal government to oversee the application of manure from CAFOs that have discharges. Simultaneously, owners and operators of CAFOs who have implemented an appropriate nutrient management plan may forgo securing a permit if their discharges qualify under the agricultural stormwater discharge exemption. - New rules applying to the application of manure by large concentrated animal feeding operations should reduce water contamination

  16. Changes in Soil C/N Ratio and Response of Growth of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. to Different Levels of Animal Manure and Chemical Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Laleh

    2018-05-01

    factors were animal manure (0, 10, 20 and 30 ton ha-1 well-rotted farmyard manure as the main plot, and factorial application of three levels of N (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1 as Urea with two levels of P (0 and 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 as triple superphosphate as sub-plot. Hemps were planted on rows 60 cm apart, with 30 cm distance between plants within a row, at the depth of 3-4 cm. In during experiment didn’t use any poison and pesticide. Measurements were performed in both vegetative (11th leaf pair and reproductive (50% of seeds hard stages. Measured traits included leaf, shoot weight, shoot height and diameter per square meter in sub-plot for female plants of hemp in vegetative and reproductive stages. Seed weight measured in reproductive stage too. Nitrogen of soil was determined by Kjeldahl method and soil carbon was measured by Walleky & Black method. Finally, all variables were analyzed by SAS software ver 9.1. The means were compared using LSD test at the 0.05 probability level. Results and Discussion The results showed that the measured traits were not affected by animal manure in the vegetative stage, but nitrogen fertilizer had significant effect on growth traits in this growth stage. Using manure and nitrogen fertilizers increased height and shoot diameter, leaf and shoot dry weight in reproductive stage. Biological and seed yield increased with increasing of nitrogen levels in different treatments of 0, 10 and 20 ton ha-1 animal manure. Combined usage of 30 ton ha-1 animal manure and 100 kg N ha-1 decreased biological and seed yields. Combined usage of 30 ton ha-1 animal manure and 50 kg N ha-1 and 20 ton ha-1 animal manure and 100 kg N ha-1 increased biological and seed yields. Harvest index decreased with increasing rate of animal manure and nitrogen fertilizers. So harvest index decreased 18.20 and 13.07 % in treatments of 30 ton ha-1 animal manure and 100 kg N ha-1 respectively, due to increasing the growth of hemp. Leaf allocation increased with increasing

  17. Growth and Productivity of Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Amanullah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha-1 each on the productivity profitability of small land rice (Oryza sativa L. grower under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P ha-1 fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1, impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep & poultry manures and P levels was studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied as check was investigated. In experiment (2, three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues & wheat straw and P levels was studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied as check. Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p≤0.05 less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues had resulted in higher rice productivity (90 = 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha-1. In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures. In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic resides had higher rice productivity over wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw. On the average, the rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than the rice grown under crop residues. We concluded from this study that application of 90 kg P ha-1 along with combined application of animal manures especially poultry manure could increase rice productivity. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha-1 along with combined application of animal

  18. Microbial and chemical markers: runoff transfer in animal manure-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrezic, Anne; Jardé, Emilie; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Gourmelon, Michèle; Caprais, Marie-Paule; Heddadj, Djilali; Cottinet, Patrice; Bilal, Muhamad; Derrien, Morgane; Marti, Romain; Mieszkin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Fecal contamination of water resources is evaluated by the enumeration of the fecal coliforms and Enterococci. However, the enumeration of these indicators does not allow us to differentiate between the sources of fecal contamination. Therefore, it is important to use alternative indicators of fecal contamination to identify livestock contamination in surface waters. The concentration of fecal indicators (, enteroccoci, and F-specific bacteriophages), microbiological markers (Rum-2-bac, Pig-2-bac, and ), and chemical fingerprints (sterols and stanols and other chemical compounds analyzed by 3D-fluorescence excitation-matrix spectroscopy) were determined in runoff waters generated by an artificial rainfall simulator. Three replicate plot experiments were conducted with swine slurry and cattle manure at agronomic nitrogen application rates. Low amounts of bacterial indicators (1.9-4.7%) are released in runoff water from swine-slurry-amended soils, whereas greater amounts (1.1-28.3%) of these indicators are released in runoff water from cattle-manure-amended soils. Microbial and chemical markers from animal manure were transferred to runoff water, allowing discrimination between swine and cattle fecal contamination in the environment via runoff after manure spreading. Host-specific bacterial and chemical markers were quantified for the first time in runoff waters samples after the experimental spreading of swine slurry or cattle manure. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  19. Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factors for Crop Residues and Animal Manure Common in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Zhao, Guanglu; Zhang, Yang; Han, Lujia; Xiao, Weihua

    2017-10-25

    Accurately determining protein content is essential in exploiting biomass as feed and fuel. A survey of biomass samples in China indicated protein contents from 2.65 to 3.98% for crop residues and from 6.07 to 10.24% for animal manure of dry basis. Conversion factors based on amino acid nitrogen (k A ) ranged from 5.42 to 6.00 for the former and from 4.78 to 5.36 for the latter, indicating that the traditional factor of 6.25 is not suitable for biomass samples. On the other hand, conversion factors from Kjeldahl nitrogen (k P ) ranged from 3.97 to 4.57 and from 2.76 to 4.31 for crop residues and animal manure, respectively. Of note, conversion factors were strongly affected by amino acid composition and levels of nonprotein nitrogen. Thus, k P values of 4.23 for crop residues, 4.11 for livestock manure, and 3.11 for poultry manure are recommended to better estimate protein content from total nitrogen.

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal waste: swine manure and tuna fish waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, L.; Alvarez, J. A.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion has become an established and proven technology for the treatment of solid wastes. Co-digestion offers several possible ecological, technology and economical advantages. Anaerobic co-digestion can increase CH{sub 4} production of manure diesters in a 50-200% according to the operation conditions and the co-substrates used. Last September 2007, PROBIOGAS project started up with the objective of improving the production and use of biogas from co-digestion of farming, agricultural and industrial waste. Our research group takes part in the study of co-digestion of swine manure firstly with tuna fish waste and secondly with glycerine (bio diesel production waste). (Author)

  1. Comparing heavy metal contents in crops receiving mineral fertilisers and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spring barley (grain, straw), grass-clover (two cuts), winter wheat (grain, straw) and silage maize grown in the Askov long-term experiment with different levels (0, ½, 1, 1½, 2) of mineral fertiliser (NPK) and animal manure (AM) had concentrations of As, Pb, Cd and Hg below the EC maximum permis...... of NPK and AM does not pose a threat in terms of feed quality. However, the long-term accumulation of heavy metals added with mineral fertilisers and animal manure is essentially irreversible and may threaten soil quality....... in the analysed metal contents between crops grown with NPK and AM. Crop contents of uranium and thallium were below the analytical detection limits regardless of nutrient source and addition rate. Thus in a farming context similar to that of the Askov experiment, the long-term application of standard rates...

  2. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    , but information on its effect on GHG emissions, especially nitrous oxide (N2O), is still limited. This thesis investigated the main processes and factors affecting the physicochemical composition of the compost and emissions of GHG and NH3 during composting of animal manure and other organic waste products...... organic wastes has been proposed as a potential strategy to reduce gaseous emissions, and is increasingly being used to handle large volumes of surplus manure in areas of intensive livestock production. Composting appears to have the potential for minimising gaseous emissions from organic wastes....... Laboratory studies showed that differences in the initial physical properties (moisture, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity) of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSF) had a considerable impact on the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 o C) and the time required (2...

  3. Prevalence and persistence of potentially pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion treatment of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; de Oliveira Fortunato, Samuel; da Costa Carneiro, Jailton; Otenio, Marcelo Henrique; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2014-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion figures as a sustainable alternative to avoid discharge of cattle manure in the environment, which results in biogas and biofertilizer. Persistence of potentially pathogenic and drug-resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion of cattle manure was evaluated. Selective cultures were performed for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined and a decay of all bacterial groups was observed after 60days. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected both the influent and effluent. GPC, the most prevalent group was highly resistant against penicillin and levofloxacin, whereas resistance to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam and chloramphenicol was frequently observed in the ENT and NFR groups. The data point out the need of discussions to better address management of biodigesters and the implementation of sanitary and microbiological safe treatments of animal manures to avoid consequences to human, animal and environmental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus pla...

  5. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  6. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D.; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC. PMID:27701451

  7. Effect of animal manure on quantitative and qualitative yield and chemical composition of essential oil in cumin (Cuminum cyminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahmad ahmadiyan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure on soil prepares essential elements and increase water holding capacity and quality of plants. To study the effects of animal manure on yield and its components, nutrients absorption, chemical composition and its percentages on Cuminum cyminum this experiment was conducted at the agricultural researcher station of Zahak-Zabol, during 2003 – 2004 in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Animal manure significantly enhanced number of umbers per plant, number of seed per plant, biological and seed yield. Use of animal manure had not significant affect on Ca, Mg, Fe, P, K, Mn, Zn, and Cu and protein percentage in cumin seed but decreased Na concentration. Animal manure significantly enhanced cumin aldehyde and ρ-cymene and decrease β-pinene, γ-terpinene and α-pinene in cumin oil. A relationship or correlation exists between the main components of cumin oil. This study showed that animal manure enhances seed yield, oil percentage and qualitative chemical composition in cumin oil.

  8. Immobilization of tetracyclines in manure and manure-amended soils using aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Elzinga, Evert J; Datta, Rupali

    2016-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants of concern in the environment, mainly due to the potential for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and effect on microbiota that could interfere with crucial ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and decomposition. High levels of VAs such as tetracyclines (TCs) have been reported in agricultural soils amended with manure, which also has the potential to cause surface and groundwater contamination. Several recent studies have focused on developing methods to immobilize VAs such as composting with straw, hardwood chips, commercial biochar, aeration, mixing, heat treatment, etc. The major shortcomings of these methods include high cost and limited effectiveness. In the current study, we assessed the effectiveness of aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) as a "green" sorbent to immobilize TCs in manure and manure-applied soils with varying physicochemical properties by laboratory incubation study. Results show that Al-WTR is very effective in immobilizing tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC). The presence of phosphate resulted in significant (p < 0.01) decrease in TTC/OTC sorption by Al-WTR, but the presence of sulfate did not. attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy indicate that TTC and OTC likely forming surface complexes via inner-sphere-type bonds in soils, manure, and manure-applied soils amended with Al-WTR.

  9. Composting of solids separated from anaerobically digested animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    ), woodchips (WC), bio-char (BC), barley straw (BS) and lupin residues (LR) and were included at a DS:BA of 3:1 or 6:1, resulting in nine treatments: CTDS (control, DS only), PT3:1, PT6:1, WC3:1, WC6:1, BC3:1, BC6:1, BS3:1 and LR3:1. Depending on treatment, C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 41...

  10. [Emission and control of gases and odorous substances from animal housing and manure depots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J

    1992-02-01

    Agricultural animal production in increasingly regarded as a source of gases which are both aggravating and ecologically harmful. An overview of the origin, number and quantity of trace gases emitted from animal housing and from manure stores is presented and possible means of preventing or reducing them are discussed. Of the 136 trace gases in the air of animal houses, odorous substances, ammonia and methane are most relevant to the environment. The role played by the remaining gases is largely unknown. Quantitative information is available for 23 gases. The gases are emitted principally from freshly deposited and stored faeces, from animal feed and from the animals themselves. Future work should determine sources and quantities of the gases emitted from animal housing more precisely and should aim to investigate the potential of these gases to cause damage in man, animals and environment. Odorous substances have an effect on the area immediately surrounding the animal housing. They can lead to considerable aggravation in humans. For years, VDI1 guidelines (3471/72), which prescribe distances between residential buildings and animal housing, have been valuable in preventing odour problems of this kind. Coverings are suitable for outside stores. The intensity of the odour from animal housing waste air increases from cattle through to hens and pigs; it is also further affected by the type of housing, the age of the animals and the purpose for which they are being kept. Methods of cleaning waste air (scrubbers/biofilters) are available for problematic cases. The need for guidelines to limit emissions from individual outside manure stores (lagoons) is recognised. Total ammonia emissions from animal production in the Federal Republic of Germany (up to 1989) are estimated at approximately 300,000 to 600,000 t/year. There is a shortage of satisfactory and precise research on the extent of emissions, in particular on those from naturally ventilated housing. It is

  11. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Pham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4 production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP (CH4 NL kg−1 VS of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05. The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%, while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC. This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC.

  12. Changes in antibiotic concentrations and antibiotic resistome during commercial composting of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Ying; Yang, Xin-Ping; Li, Qian; Wu, Long-Hua; Shen, Qi-Rong; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China. High concentrations of fluoroquinolones were found in the poultry and swine composts, suggesting insufficient removal of these antibiotics by commercial thermophilic composting. Total ARGs in the cattle and poultry manures were as high as 1.9 and 5.5 copies per bacterial cell, respectively. After thermophilic composting, the ARG abundance in the mature compost decreased to 9.6% and 31.7% of that in the cattle and poultry manure, respectively. However, some ARGs (e.g. aadA, aadA2, qacEΔ1, tetL) and MGE marker genes (e.g. cintI-1, intI-1 and tnpA-04) were persistent with high abundance in the composts. The antibiotics that were detected at high levels in the composts (e.g. norfloxacin and ofloxacin) might have posed a selection pressure on ARGs. MGE marker genes were found to correlate closely with ARGs at the levels of individual gene, resistance class and total abundance, suggesting that MGEs and ARGs are closely associated in their persistence in the composts under antibiotic selection. Our research shows potential disseminations of antibiotics and ARGs via compost utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Animal manure separation technologies diminish the environmental burden of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Erland; Popovic, Olga

    2015-01-01

    environmental risks associated with the release of steroid hormones to adjacent waterways. To assess the potential benefit of these technologies in reducing the level of release of steroid hormones to adjacent waterways, distribution profiles of nine steroid hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone......Newly developed treatment technologies are capable of separating livestock manure into a liquid fraction and a solid fraction using sedimentation, mechanical, and/or chemical methods. These technologies offer a potential means of distributing nutrients to agricultural lands without the unwanted...

  14. Joint stabilization of sewage sludge and separated manure fluid. Treatment and utilization of manure. Final report; Gemeinsame Stabilisierung von Klaerschlamm und separierter Guellefluessigkeit. Guellebehandlung und -verwertung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, W.F.; Kolisch, G.

    1994-12-01

    As an alternative to separate manure processing, anaerobic stabilization of surplus manure and sewage sludge in combination is possible at municipal sewage treatment plants. Subsequently to the removal of solids, pig manure is fed into existing digesters. The process concept comprises the following partial steps: preliminary treatment of crude manure, anarobic stabilization of the separated manure fluid, biological nitrogen elimination from the digested mixture of sewage sludge and manure, and dewatering of the mixed sludge in the dewatering systems of the sewage treatment plant. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Eine Alternative zu den Verfahren einer separaten Guelleaufbereitung stellt die gemeinsame anaerobe Stabilisierung von Ueberschussguelle und Klaerschlamm auf kommunalen Klaeranlagen dar, die eine Einspeisung feststoffseparierter Schweineguelle in bereits vorhandene Faulbehaelter vorsieht. Das Verfahrenskonzept besteht aus den Teilschritten Vorseparierung der Rohguelle, anaerobe Stabiliserung der separierten Guellefluessigkeit, biologische Stickstoffelimination aus dem ausgefaulten Klaerschlamm-Guelle-Gemisch sowie Entwaesserung der Mischschlaemme auf den Entwaesserungsaggregaten der Klaeranlage. (orig./SR)

  15. Modelling nitrogen and carbon interactions in composting of animal manure in naturally aerated piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudart, D; Robin, P; Paillat, J M; Paul, E

    2015-12-01

    Composting animal manure with natural aeration is a low-cost and low-energy process that can improve nitrogen recycling in millions of farms world-wide. Modelling can decrease the cost of choosing the best options for solid manure management in order to decrease the risk of loss of fertilizer value and ammonia emission. Semi-empirical models are suitable, considering the scarce data available in farm situations. Eleven static piles of pig or poultry manure were monitored to identify the main processes governing nitrogen transformations and losses. A new model was implemented to represent these processes in a pile considered as homogeneous. The model is based on four modules: biodegradation, nitrogen transformations and volatilization, thermal exchanges, and free air space evolution. When necessary, the parameters were calibrated with the data set. The results showed that microbial growth could reduce ammonia volatilization. Greatest nitrogen conservation is achieved when microbial growth was limited by nitrogen availability. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Combustion behaviour of Olive pruning/animal manure blends in a fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Vamvuka

    2017-09-01

    Both fuels burned mostly within the bed. The maximum temperature of animal manure was 50 °C lower than that of olive pruning, however efficiency was nearly 99%. CO emissions were low, SO2 emissions were negligible, whereas NOx emissions of blends exceeded legislation limits, when excess air ratio was over 1.4. Decreasing excess air from 50 to 30%, or reducing reactor loading, resulted in improved burnout. The optimum performance for the blends was achieved when the feed rate was 0.6 kg/h and excess air was 30%.

  17. Synergy of sewage water treatment plants and processing of manure; Synergie RWZI en mestverwerking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisschops, I.; Weijma, J.; Van Eekert, M.; Spanjers, H. [Lettinga Associates Foundation LeAF, Wageningen (Netherlands); Timmerman, M.; Fe Buisonje, F. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research WLR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    The goal of this study is to explore profitable ways of processing manure in sewage water treatment plants. Technological options are explored for processing manure, the availability of manure in the surroundings, the space taken up by manure digestion and annual costs and benefits [Dutch] Het doel van deze studie is te verkennen hoe mest op rendabele wijze in rwzi's (rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties) verwerkt kunnen worden. Er is gekeken naar de technologische mogelijkheden om mest te kunnen verwerken, de beschikbaarheid van mest in de omgeving, ruimtebeslag van mestvergisting, en jaarlijkse kosten en opbrengsten.

  18. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  19. Side-effects of application of manure from AFCF treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Hees, M. van; Brouwer, S. de; Vandenhove, H.

    1996-01-01

    AFCF (ammonium-ferric-hexacyano-ferrate) is a very effective caesium binder. Mixed with the animal feed, presented in the form of salt licks or introduced into the rumenas slow release boll, this compound is an efficient countermeasure to limit the gastro-intestinal uptake of radiocaesium by farm animals and wild ruminants. Less than 1 % of the ingested AFCF is excreted in urine or secreted in milk, suggesting that it crossed the gastro-intestinal tract unabsorbed and is finally excreted in faeces together with the caesium bound in the gut. This means that AFCF from treated animals returns directly to pastures while animals are grazing or that it can be spread on fields fertilized with animal manure. Although no toxicological problems have been observed on animals given hexacyanoferrates in the recommended doses, the fate of this molecule in the environment after excretion is not well documented. Except for limited data obtained in Norway and in the CIS, practically no information is available regarding its action on the availability of Cs present in the soil, nor concerning potential side-effects of its possible degradation to cyanides and other materials with a concomitant release of bound Cs over long periods of time. (author)

  20. The potential of animal manure, straw and grass for European biogas production in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Biogas is a diverse energy source, suitable as a flexible and storable energy form. In the European Union (EU), biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the energy policy targets. The sustainability of substrates used for biogas production has however been under a critical...... discussion. The aim of this study was to project and map the potentials of sustainable biomasses in 2030 in the EU. The investigated types of residual biomass were animal manure, straw from cereal production, and excess grass from both rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. In total the energy...... potential from the investigated resources was projected to range from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. In the perspectives of the energy political targets, the projected energy potential could cover 2.3-3.9% of the total EU energy consumption in 2030 or 8.4-14.3% of the total...

  1. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: II. A review of manure management mitigation options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montes, F.; Meinen, R.; Dell, C.; Rotz, A.; Hristov, A.N.; Oh, J.; Waghorn, G.; Gerber, P.J.; Henderson, B.L.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Reducing excreted nitrogen (N) and degradable organic carbon (C) by diet manipulation to improve the balance of nutrient inputs with production

  2. Anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure and crude glycerol derived from animal fat - Effect of hydraulic retention time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lymperatou, Anna; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2018-01-01

    Crude glycerol (CG), an abundant by-product of bio-diesel production, has been identified as a suitable co-substrate for improving the biogas production of livestock manure through anaerobic digestion (AD). In this study, the potential of utilizing CG generated from the esterification of animal......, biochemical methane potential tests indicated that the addition of 1% w/w CG to swine manure-AD is more efficient in terms of percent of theoretical amount of methane obtained than the addition of 3% w/w. However, in continuous experiments, co-digestion of manure with 3% w/w CG did not exhibit any sign...... fats for biogas production was studied in both batch and continuous AD experiments, with emphasis on the importance of the hydraulic retention time (HRT). Batch experiments showed that the limiting step in the methane production rate during CG mono-digestion was the 1,3-propanediol uptake. Additionally...

  3. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    the manure is applied, specific legislations governing the manure management practices, etc.). Further, it presents a reference manure composition for each of these reference systems, including key parameters such as dry matter, nitrogen (inorganic and total), phosphorus, carbon and volatile solids content......One major pre-condition for assessing a manure management technique in a whole system or LCA-approach is to define a reference system against which this technique can be assessed. This report thus presents and details the establishment of such reference systems, comprising eight different manure...... types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...

  4. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieying Huang

    Full Text Available Changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures and maturity of swine, cattle and chicken manures and composts during 70-day composting without addition of bulking agents were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics were measured by routine analyses and chemical structures by solid-state 13C NMR and FT-IR. Three manures were of distinct properties. Their changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures, and maturity were different not only from each other but also from those with addition of bulking agents during composting. Aromaticity in chicken manure composts decreased at first, and then increased whereas that in cattle and swine manure composts increased. Enhanced ammonia volatilization occurred without addition of bulking agents. NMR structural information indicated that cattle and chicken composts were relatively stable at day 36 and 56, respectively, but swine manure composts were not mature up to day 70. Finally, the days required for three manures to reach the threshold values of different maturity indices were different.

  5. Haalbaarheidsstudie terugwinning van mestnutriënten : Fase 1: Processchema en nutriëntenstromen = Feasibility study on nutrient recovery from animal manure : Phase 1: Process scheme and nutrient flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Melse, R.W.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A process scheme for a new manure treatment system for pig and cattle manure was formulated which aims to produce manure nutrient flows with added value. The basic process behind the treatment system is fermentation of manure, which is preceded by both stripping ammonia and chemical digestion of the

  6. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelme-Ayala, Pamela [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); El-Din, Mohamed Gamal, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Smith, Richard [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Code, Kenneth R. [IOWC Technologies Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Leonard, Jerry [Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. {yields} This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. {yields} Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. {yields} Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. {yields} Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH{sub 3}), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl{sup -}) and 50% of the phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH{sub 3}, nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  7. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; Di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V.

    1983-01-01

    The virucidal effect of 60 Co γ-radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses, 20 and 30 kGy, were determined in preliminary experiments. At a radiation dose of 30 kGy, the activity of extracellular and cell-associated test viruses, except swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), was completely destroyed both in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure. The infectivity of SVDV decreased significantly (P 10 TCID 50 , both in cell culture medium and in liquid manure and this value corresponded to the international effectiveness demand for a disinfectant. The results showed that the safe disinfection virus in liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  8. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. T. Cu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4 production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  9. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  10. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  11. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundharrajan Ilavenil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  12. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  13. Viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Seganfredo, Milton Antonio; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mmiele@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The swine manure treatment is based on several technologies, such as pond systems, composting, biodigesters, and compact process like the EMBRAPA's Swine Manure Treatment System. The last one can reach high quality effluent with reduced pollution, although it demands higher investment and costs. For this reason it is necessary to manage revenues with byproducts and carbon credit markets. The aim of this study was to present a viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system considering its potential revenues facing higher costs. Using market prices and measured data from a prototype running in south Brazil, the study calculated costs, revenues, profit, net present value and internal rate return. It also estimated these indicators assuming scale economies. The results showed that the investment can pay its costs by its insertion in the carbon credit market and other revenues like the energy substitution. It also showed the importance to reach scale economies. (author)

  14. Optimization of animal manure vermicomposting based on biomass production of earthworms and higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Yan V; Alves, Luciano; Bianchi, Ivan; Espíndola, Jonas C; Oliveira, Juahil M De; Radetski, Claudemir M; Somensi, Cleder A

    2017-11-02

    The goal of this study was to optimize the mixture of swine manure (SM) and cattle manure (CM) used in the vermicomposting process, seeking to increase the manure biodegradation rate and enhance the biomass production of both earthworms and higher plants. To achieve this goal, physico-chemical parameters were determined to assess the final compost quality after 50 days of vermicomposting. The different manure ratios used to produce the composts (C) were as follows (SM:CM, % m/m basis): C1 100:0, C2 (75:25), C3 (50:50), C4 (25:75), and C5 (0:100). In addition, the earthworm biomass and the phytoproductivity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants grown in mixtures (1:1) of natural soil and the most viable vermicomposts were investigated. The C1 and C2 compost compositions were associated with high earthworm mortality rates. The C3 compost provided the highest mineral concentrations and C5 showed the highest lettuce yield (wet biomass). The results verify that stabilized cattle manure is an excellent substrate for the vermicomposting process and that fresh swine manure must be mixed with pre-stabilized cattle manure to ensure an optimized vermicomposting process, which must be controlled in terms of temperature and ammonia levels. It is concluded that small livestock farmers could add value to swine manure by applying the vermicomposting process, without the need for high investments and with a minimal requirement for management of the biodegradation process. These are important technical aspects to be considered when circular economy principles are applied to small farms.

  15. Fermentation of animal manure by means of energy-rich additives: The Danish practice and Dutch perspectives. Vergisting van dierlijke mest energierijke additieven: Deense praktijk en Nederlandse perspectieven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boo, W. (Centrum voor Energiebesparing en schone technologie CE, Delft (Netherlands)); Schomaker, A.H.H.M. (Haskoning Koninklijke Ingenieurs- en Architectenbureau, Nijmegen (Netherlands)); Moen, A.R. (Gezondheidsdienst voor Dieren in Noord-Nederland, Drachten (Netherlands))

    1993-12-01

    In this report Danish biogas production from animal manure and organic wastes is compared with biogas production in the Netherlands. Proposals are made for chances in Dutch energy and environmental policy by which a friendly environment is created for biogas plants. Higher energy tariffs for energy sources based on 'sustainable' technology are important, as is an efficient legal basis for the use and the amount of organic wastes on agricultural soils is needed. Also environmental policy for the use of animal manure in the Netherlands should be further developed. Due to the extensive surplus of animal manure in Holland, a problem which on such scale does not exist in Denmark, there is much unclarity about future legislation on the use and amount of animal manure. It is expected that this uncertainty will remain up to the year 2000. Therefore, in the coming years the possibilities for commercial collective biogas plants in the Netherlands are not promising, as it is promising in Denmark. It is necessary to create better conditions by the introduction of several demonstration projects for biogas production from animal manure and organic wastes. By such demonstration projects it can be monitored when and how Dutch farmers are in a position for cooperation with biogas plants. The Danish example has shown that digestion of animal manure should be based on the cooperation with the farmers. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 10 appendices, 38 refs.

  16. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena; Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen; Scharf, Sigrid; Gans, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 μg/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria

  17. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Scharf, Sigrid [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gans, Oliver [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-15

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 {mu}g/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria.

  18. Aerobic treatment of swine manure to enhance anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoe, Dominic; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Bo; Scott Todd, Matthew; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic treatment of swine manure was coupled with anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation. A 14-day aerobic treatment reduced the total solid content of swine manure by >15%. Ammonia and carbon dioxide were stripped by the air supplied, and this off-gas was further used to aerate the culture of Chlorella vulgaris. The microalgal growth rates in Bristol medium and the wastewater with the off-gas increased from 0.08 to 0.22 g/L/d and from 0.15 to 0.24 g/L/d, respectively. Meanwhile, the aerobically treated swine manure showed a higher methane yield during anaerobic digestion. The experimental results were used to establish a demonstration unit consisting of a 100 L composter, a 200 L anaerobic digester, a 60 L tubular photobioreactor, and a 300 L micro-open raceway pond.

  19. Anaerobic digestion technology in livestock manure treatment for biogas production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Ismail M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Ghazi, Tinia I.; Omar, Rozita

    2012-06-15

    This article reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production from livestock manure wastes and compares the operating and performance data for various anaerobic process configurations. It examines different kinds of manure waste treatment techniques and the influence of several parameters on biogas and methane yield. The comparison indicates that a variety of different operational conditions, various reactor configurations such as batch reactors, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), and continuous one- and two-stage systems, present a suitable technology for the AD of livestock manure waste. Main performance indicators are biogas and methane yield, degradation of volatile solids (VS), higher loading, and process stability with a short retention time. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Performance of two swine manure treatment systems on chemical composition and on the reduction of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viancelli, A; Kunz, A; Steinmetz, R L R; Kich, J D; Souza, C K; Canal, C W; Coldebella, A; Esteves, P A; Barardi, C R M

    2013-01-01

    Swine effluents must be correctly handled to avoid negative environmental impacts. In this study, the profiles of two swine manure treatment systems were evaluated: a solid-liquid separation step, followed by an anaerobic reactor, and an aerobic step (System 1); and a biodigester followed by serial lagoons (System 2). Both systems were described by the assessment of chemical, bacterial and viral parameters. The results showed that in System 1, there was reduction of chemicals (COD, phosphorus, total Kjeldhal nitrogen - TKN - and NH(3)), total coliforms and Escherichia coli; however, the same reduction was not observed for Salmonella sp. Viral particles were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated from the effluent. In System 2, there was a reduction of chemicals, bacteria and viruses with no detection of Salmonella sp., circovirus, parvovirus, and torque teno virus in the effluent. The chemical results indicate that the treated effluent can be reused for cleaning swine facilities. However, the microbiological results show a need of additional treatment to achieve a complete inactivation for cases when direct contact with animals is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Prachoom, Norratouch; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-04-27

    Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products.

  2. Interaction of crude oil and manure treatments and its effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interaction of crude oil and manure treatments and its effects on the agronomic characteristics of maize (Zea mays l.) M.O Onu, N.C Ohazurike, D.K Madukwe. Abstract. An experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Imo State, University, Owerri ...

  3. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  4. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V.

    1983-01-01

    The virucidal effect of 60 Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  5. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J; Mocsari, E; di Gleria, M; Felkai, V [Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest [Hungary

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  6. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  7. Anaerobic digestion performance of sweet potato vine and animal manure under wet, semi-dry, and dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enlan; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Keqiang; Wang, Feng; Yang, Houhua; Zhi, Suli; Liu, Guangqing

    2018-03-22

    Sweet potato vine (SPV) is an abundant agricultural waste, which is easy to obtain at low cost and has the potential to produce clean energy via anaerobic digestion (AD). The main objectives of this study were to reveal methane production and process stability of SPV and the mixtures with animal manure under various total solid conditions, to verify synergetic effect in co-digestion of SPV and manure in AD systems, and to determine the kinetics characteristics during the full AD process. The results showed that SPV was desirable feedstock for AD with 200.22 mL/g VS added of methane yield in wet anaerobic digestion and 12.20 L methane /L working volume in dry anaerobic digestion (D-AD). Synergistic effects were found in semi-dry anaerobic digestion and D-AD with each two mixing feedstock. In contrast with SPV mono-digestion, co-digestion with manure increased methane yield within the range of 14.34-49.11% in different AD digesters. The values of final volatile fatty acids to total alkalinity (TA) were below 0.4 and the values of final pH were within the range of 7.4-8.2 in all the reactors, which supported a positive relationship between carbohydrate hydrolysis and methanogenesis during AD process. The mathematical modified first order model was applied to estimate substrate biodegradability and methane production potential well with conversion constant ranged from 0.0003 to 0.0953 1/day, which indicated that co-digestion increased hydrolysis efficiency and metabolic activity. This work provides useful information to improve the utilization and stability of digestion using SPV and livestock or poultry manure as substrates.

  8. Biogas production from animal manure and agri-organic by-products. An analysis of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boo, W.

    1997-12-01

    Growing interest in sustainable energy has been directed to the production of biogas from organic matter in animal manure and agri-organic by-products. The technology of biogas production by anaerobic digestion of organic materials is used in several parts of the world. Based on this experience and on positive results in a Novem study for the Netherlands situation in 1995, an actor survey has been carried out. The introduction of combined digestion of animal manure and agri-organic by-products has been discussed with companies, business associations and governmental organisations in the energy, agricultural and waste sectors. The survey has revealed that commercial exploitation of biogas plants with a capacity of 100 kton per year is possible under the following conditions: (1) costs of investment should not be higher than 100 Dutch Guilders (45 ECU) per ton processing capacity; (2) yield demands on investment capital, both equity and debt, should not be higher than 8%; (3) selling price for biogas should be around 0,30 Dutch Guilders (0,135 ECU) per m o 3 natural gas equivalents; (4) supply for processing of agri-organic by-products with a received minimum fee of 35 Dutch Guilders (15,7 ECU) per ton should be guaranteed; (5) dairy, pig and arable farmers involved in the biogas plant should have both financial and quality incentives to participation; (6) environmental legislation on the level of heavy metals in animal manure mixed with agri-organic byproducts should not be different from the accepted levels in 'normal' animal manure; and finally (7) the site of the biogas plant accepted by local authorities should be suitable by logistic standards for the transports of animal manure, agri-organic by-products, the digested mixture and biogas. It has been concluded that these conditions are not unrealistic, although there is no absolute certainty that they will be fulfilled. However, circumstances for the implementation of biogas plants have improved in recent years

  9. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL MANURE – IMPLICATIONS FOR CROP YIELDS AND SOIL BIOTA IN ORGANIC FARMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of farmyard manures may help farmers to produce bioenergy instead of using fossil fuels, support cycling of nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emission. However, compared to pristine slurry, digested slurry has a reduced content of organic carbon which may impact the soil biota...

  10. Laboratory and greenhouse assessment of plant availability of organic N in animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antil, R.S.; Janssen, B.H.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory data (thermal fractionation, pepsin extraction, C:No ratio) of dung and manure were mutually compared and contrasted with plant-availability of organic N (No) as found in a greenhouse experiment according to the double-pot technique. Two types of fresh cow dung (one with a relatively wide

  11. Labelling of animal manure nitrogen with 15N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.; Nielsen, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    A sheep was fed on N-15-labelled ryegrass hay during a period of 9 days in order to obtain N-15-labelled manure. After 9 days of feeding, the total N in faeces contained 3.70 atom % N-15 excess, which was equivalent to 82% of the N-15 enrichment of the hay N. The easily-decomposable fraction...

  12. Biogas Production from Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dalkılıç

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal manures are burned for heating in Turkey. It is also used as soil conditioner which has adverse environmental effects. Although, the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey is very limited, the application studies on biogas production from animal manure are increasing. 25-30% of total animal manures produced in Turkey are composed of chicken manure. The works on biogas production from chicken manure are very limited in Turkey. In this paper, biogas production studies from chicken manure in Turkey and in the World are reviewed.

  13. Enhancement of the nutritive value of bagasse using chicken manure.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of chicken manure droppings on the nutritive value of sugar cane bagasse upon fermentation. It was hypothesized that the use of the two low cost residues (bagasse and chicken manure) in an animal feed could present a great nutritional potential to livestock farmers. Five treatments were ...

  14. Borax and Octabor Treatment of Stored Swine Manure: Reduction in Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions and Phytotoxicity to Agronomic Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaseous emissions from stored manure have become environmental and health issues for humans and animals as the livestock industry becomes specialized and concentrated. Of particular concern is hydrogen sulfide, which is being targeted for regulatory control in concentrated animal farm operations. ...

  15. Effect of biochar amendment on soil's retention capacity for estrogenic hormones from poultry manure treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sukhjot MANN; Zhiming QI; Shiv O.PRASHER; Lanhai LI; Dongwei GUI; Qianjing JIANG

    2017-01-01

    Most animals,including humans,produce natural sex hormones such as estrogens:17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (El).These compounds are able to disrupt the reproductive systems of living organisms at trace concentrations (ng.L-1).This experiment tests the hypothesis that 1% slow pyrolysis biochar-amended sandy soil could retain significant amount of estrogens (El,E2) from poultry manure in its second year of application.The experiment was conducted over 46 days and consisted of a series of lysimeters containing sandy soil with biocharamended topsoil.The application rate of poultry manure was kept at 2.47 kg.m-2.The biochar held a significant concentration of hormone during the first year of its application.However,in the following year (current study),there was no significant retention of hormones in the biochar-amended soil.During the first year after application,the biochar was fresh,so its pores were available for hydrophobic interactions and held significant concentration of hormones.As time passed there were several biotic and abiotic changes on the surface of the biochar so that after some physical fragmentation,pores on the surface were no longer available for hydrophobic interactions.The biochar started releasing dissolved organic carbon,which facilitated greater mobility of hormones from poultry manure down the soil profile.

  16. Legal regulation of treatment of wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kolečkářová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...

  17. Enhanced biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry and horse manure with mechanical pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Madalena; Baptista, Patrícia; Duarte, Elizabeth; Moreira, António L N

    2018-01-02

    Enhanced biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry and horse manure with mechanical pre-treatment. In this study, co-digestion of horse manure and pig slurry was investigated in a continuously stirred tank reactor, with a mechanical pre-treatment. Experiments were conducted at 37°C, with hydraulic retention times of 23 days and increasing shares of horse manure, corresponding to different horse manure to pig slurry ratios (HM:PS) equal to 0:100, 10:90, 13:87 and 20:80, in terms of percentage of inlet volatile solids (%VS inlet). The results show that the best synergetic effect between the microbial consortia of pig slurry and the high Carbon to Nitrogen ratio (C/N) of horse manure is obtained for the mixture of 20:80%VS inlet, yielding the highest specific methane production (SMP = 142.6 L kg TCOD -1 ) and the highest soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) reduction (68.5%), due to the high volatile dissolved solids content and soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand ratio (SCOD/TCOD). Thus, co-digestion of horse manure and pig slurry is shown to be a promising approach for biogas production and as a waste treatment solution. Furthermore, the analysis provides a methodology for the pre-treatment of these substrates and to investigate into the best combination for improved biogas production.

  18. Removal of antimony (III) and cadmium (II) from aqueous solution using animal manure-derived hydrochars and pyrochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lanfang; Sun, Haoran; Ro, Kyoung S; Sun, Ke; Libra, Judy A; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-06-01

    In this study, hydrochars and pyrochars prepared from animal manures were characterized and were used to remove Sb (III) and Cd (II) from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the interaction between Cd (II) and CO and CO groups within biochars and between Sb (III) and CO, CO and OH groups, respectively. Additionally, the lower absolute value of zeta potential of biochar after loading Sb (III) and Cd (II) suggested the occurrence of surface complexation. Existing primarily in the form of Sb (OH) 3 , the maximum adsorption capacities (Q max ) for Sb (III) were lower than those for Cd (II). Due to the lower contents of surface polar functional groups and less negative surface charge, hydrochars exhibited lower Q max for Sb (III) and Cd (II) than pyrochars. However, hydrochars in this study had higher sorption capacities for Cd (II) than most of plant-based pyrochars reported by other literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of an analytical methodology for the determination of the antiparasitic drug toltrazuril and its two metabolites in surface water, soil and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A

    2012-01-01

    ... with an EC 50 of 3.16 mg L ‚àí1 for toltrazuril [9]. Due to toltrazurils frequent usage ... a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine toltrazuril , toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone in ... SPE), and in agricultural soil, animal manure and sediment using pressurized liquid extraction ( PLE ). ...

  20. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal manure management, 1990 - 2003 - Background document on the calculation method for the Dutch National Inventory Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek KW van der; Schijndel MW van; MNP; LVM

    2006-01-01

    Since 2005 the Netherlands has used a new country-specific method to calculate the methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal manure management. Compared to the default methods provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this method has led to a more realistic estimate of the

  1. Microbiome characterization of MFCs used for the treatment of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Puig, Sebastià; Pous, Narcís; Salcedo-Dávila, Inmaculada; Bañeras, Lluís; Balaguer, Maria Dolors; Colprim, Jesús

    2015-05-15

    Conventional swine manure treatment is performed by anaerobic digestion, but nitrogen is not treated. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) allow organic matter and nitrogen removal with concomitant electricity production. MFC microbiomes treating industrial wastewaters as swine manure have not been characterized. In this study, a multidisciplinary approach allowed microbiome relation with nutrient removal capacity and electricity production. Two different MFC configurations (C-1 and C-2) were used to treat swine manure. In C-1, the nitrification and denitrification processes took place in different compartments, while in C-2, simultaneous nitrification-denitrification occurred in the cathode. Clostridium disporicum and Geobacter sulfurreducens were identified in the anode compartments of both systems. C. disporicum was related to the degradation of complex organic matter compounds and G. sulfurreducens to electricity production. Different nitrifying bacteria populations were identified in both systems because of the different operational conditions. The highest microbial diversity was detected in cathode compartments of both configurations, including members of Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexiaceae and Proteobacteria. These communities allowed similar removal rates of organic matter (2.02-2.09 kg COD m(-3)d(-1)) and nitrogen (0.11-0.16 kg Nm(-3)d(-1)) in both systems. However, they differed in the generation of electric energy (20 and 2 mW m(-3) in C-1 and C-2, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pig Manure Contamination Marker Selection Based on the Influence of Biological Treatment on the Dominant Fecal Microbial Groups▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a microbial marker for pig manure contamination. We quantified the persistence of four dominant bacterial groups from the pig intestinal tract throughout manure handling at 10 livestock operations (including aerobic digestion) by using molecular typing. The partial 16S rRNA genes of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae, Bacillus-Streptococcus-Lactobacillus (BSL), and Bifidobacterium group isolates were amplified and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. The most dominant bacterial populations were identified by cloning and sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. The results showed that Bifidobacterium spp. and, to a lesser extent, members of the BSL group, were less affected by the aerobic treatment than either Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae or Bacteroides-Prevotella. Two Bifidobacterium species found in raw manure were still present in manure during land application, suggesting that they can survive outside the pig intestinal tract and also survive aerobic treatment. The 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer of one species, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum, was sequenced, and a specific pair of primers was designed for its detection in the environment. With this nested PCR assay, this potential marker was not detected in samples from 30 bovine, 30 poultry, and 28 human fecal samples or in 15 urban wastewater effluents. As it was detected in runoff waters after spreading of pig manure, we propose this marker as a suitable microbial indicator of pig manure contamination. PMID:19525269

  3. Pig manure contamination marker selection based on the influence of biological treatment on the dominant fecal microbial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a microbial marker for pig manure contamination. We quantified the persistence of four dominant bacterial groups from the pig intestinal tract throughout manure handling at 10 livestock operations (including aerobic digestion) by using molecular typing. The partial 16S rRNA genes of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae, Bacillus-Streptococcus-Lactobacillus (BSL), and Bifidobacterium group isolates were amplified and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. The most dominant bacterial populations were identified by cloning and sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. The results showed that Bifidobacterium spp. and, to a lesser extent, members of the BSL group, were less affected by the aerobic treatment than either Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae or Bacteroides-Prevotella. Two Bifidobacterium species found in raw manure were still present in manure during land application, suggesting that they can survive outside the pig intestinal tract and also survive aerobic treatment. The 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer of one species, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum, was sequenced, and a specific pair of primers was designed for its detection in the environment. With this nested PCR assay, this potential marker was not detected in samples from 30 bovine, 30 poultry, and 28 human fecal samples or in 15 urban wastewater effluents. As it was detected in runoff waters after spreading of pig manure, we propose this marker as a suitable microbial indicator of pig manure contamination.

  4. Development of an analytical methodology for the determination of the antiparasitic drug toltrazuril and its two metabolites in surface water, soil and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine the antiparasitic veterinary drug toltrazuril and its two main metabolites, toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone, in environmental surface water, soil and animal manure. Using solid...... phase extraction and selective pressurized liquid extraction with integrated clean-up, the analytical method allows for the determination of these compounds down to 0.06-0.13 ng L(-1) in water, 0.01-0.03 ng g(-1)dw in soil and 0.22-0.51 ng g(-1) dw in manure. The deuterated analog of toltrazuril...... was used as internal standard, and ensured method accuracy in the range 96-123% for water and 77-110% for soil samples. The developed method can also be applied to simultaneously determine steroid hormones in the solid samples. The antiparasitic drug and its metabolites were found in manure and soil up...

  5. Removal Characteristics of Nitrogen and Phosphorus and Their Land Application Rates During a Multi-level Treatment Process for Manure and Waste Water:An Example from Intensive Swine Farm in Water Network Region of Southern Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Hong-mei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The actual removal rates of nitrogen and phosphorus in animal manure and waste water during multi-level treatment process remain vague for large-scale farms. This limits its land application in water network regions of China. The aims of this study were:(1 to verify the removal characteristics of total nitrogen(TN and phosphorus(TP during a multi-level treatment process for swine manure and waste water, and(2 to calculate its land carrying capacity. An intensive swine farm in Southern Jiangsu, which possessed a typical manure and waste water treatment plant with two anaerobic digesters, three natural sediment ponds, and one aquatic plant ponds, was chosen to monitor for the four seasons during a whole year. The results showed that total productions of manure and urine were 4 086.9 t and 10 995.8 t, respectively, in 2016. The collection rate of manure was around 90.5%. The available TN and TP were 183.12 t and 148.97 t, respectively, for land application. The removal rates of TN and TP were less than 25.3% and 57.2% respectively, after secondary anaerobic digestion. The residual TN and TP in the digestates could be removed more than 80% by oxygen ponds treatments. Then the effluent was processed by aquatic plants, and the removal rates for TN and TP were more than 95%, which guaranteed the effluent to be up to the discharge standard. The multi-level processing technology could improve the land carrying capacity and reduce the manure and waste water treatment costs for the intensive animal farms, which were suitable for very intensive, economically developed and land resource limited regions.

  6. Integrated biological treatment of fowl manure for nitrogen recovery and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmanik, Roy; Nejidat, Ali; Bar-Sinay, Boaz; Gross, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Biowaste such as animal manure poses an environmental threat, due to among others, uncontrolled emissions of ammonia and additional hazardous gases to the atmosphere. This study presents a quantitative analysis of an alternative biowaste management approach aimed at nitrogen recovery and reduction of contamination risks. The suggested technology combines anaerobic digestion of nitrogen-rich biowaste with biofiltration of the resulting gaseous ammonia. A compost-based biofilter is used to capture the ammonia and convert it to nitrate by nitrifying microorganisms. Nitrogen mass balance was applied to quantify the system's capacity under various fowl manure-loading regimes and ammonia loading rates. The produced nitrate was recovered and its use as liquid fertilizer was evaluated with cucumber plant as a model crop. In addition, emissions of other hazardous gases (N(2)O, CH(4) and H(2)S) were monitored before and after biofiltration to evaluate the efficiency of the system for treating these gases. It was found that nitrate-rich liquid fertilizer can be continuously produced using the suggested approach, with an over 67 percentage of nitrogen recovery, under an ammonia loading rate of up to 40 g NH(3) per cubic meter biofilter per hour. Complete elimination of NH(3), H(2)S, CH(4) and N(2)O was achieved, demonstrating the potential of the suggested technology for mitigating emission of these gases from fowl manure. Moreover, the quality of the recovered fertilizer was demonstrated by higher yield performance of cucumber plant compared with control plants treated with a commonly applied organic liquid fertilizer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brazilian beef cattle feedlot manure management: a country survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C; Goulart, R S; Albertini, T Z; Feigl, B J; Cerri, C E P; Vasconcelos, J T; Bernoux, M; Lanna, D P D; Cerri, C C

    2013-04-01

    No information regarding the management of manure from beef cattle feedlots is available for Brazil. To fill this knowledge gap, a survey of 73 feedlots was conducted in 7 Brazilian states. In this survey, questions were asked regarding animal characteristics, their diets, and manure handling management from generation to disposal. These feedlots finished 831,450 animals in 2010. The predominant breed fed was Nellore, with average feeding periods of 60 to 135 d. Corn was the primary source of grain used in the feedlot diets (76% of surveyed animals) with concentrate inclusion levels ranging from 81 to 90% (38% of surveyed animals). The most representative manure management practice was the removal of manure from pens only at the end of the feeding period. Subsequently, the manure was stored in mounds before being applied to crop and pasture lands. Runoff, mainly from rainwater, was collected in retention ponds and used for agriculture. However, the quantity of runoff was not known. Manure was composted for only 20% of the animals in the survey and was treated in anaerobic digesters for only 1% of the animals. Manure from 59% of the cattle surveyed was used as fertilizer, providing a cost savings over the use of synthetic fertilizers. Overall, chemical analysis of the manure before application to fields was conducted for the manure of 56% of the surveyed animals, but the exact quantity applied (per hectare) was unknown for 48%. Feedlots representing 48% of the surveyed animals noted similar or greater crop and pasture yields when using manure, rather than synthetic fertilizers. In addition, 32% mentioned an increase in soil organic matter. Feedlots representing 88% of the surveyed cattle indicated that information concerning management practices that improve manure use efficiency is lacking. Feedlots representing 93% of the animals in the survey reported having basic information regarding the generation of energy and fertilizer with anaerobic digesters. However

  8. Method and apparatus for treatment of animal waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R R

    1977-12-15

    Animal wastes (fresh manure and urine) are converted to products useful on farmland or in animal feed by treating them with alkali metal hydroxides or carbonates and/or alkaline earth hydroxides to give slurries with pH 9.0 to 12.0, thus deactivating urease. Thus, a slurry of swine manure and urine adjusted with CaO to pH 11 has urea content 27.0 and 26.5 mg/L after 0 and 10 days, respectively, at 20/sup 0/, compared with 22.0 and 0, respectively, in the absence of base.

  9. Heterogeneity of O2 dynamics in soil amended with animal manure and implications for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Bruun, Sander; Larsen, Morten Kobæk

    2015-01-01

    in soils in which the same amount of solid fraction of pig manure had been distributed in three different ways (mixed, layered, single patch) and which were maintained at awater potential of 5 kPa (corresponding to 91% of water-filled pore space). In parallel, the greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CO2 and CH4...... the cumulative N2O emissions and reduced the cumulative CO2 fluxes. The faster the anoxia developed, the less the nitrification process appeared to contribute to N2O emissions. No treatment effects on CH4 emissions were observed. Combined high resolution imaging of O2 dynamics and measurements of N2O emission...

  10. Anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment of a mixture of cheese whey and dairy manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The integrated anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment system consisted of an anaerobic rotating biological reactor and an aerobic sequencing batch reactor. Three sequencing batch reactors were used in the aerobic process. A mixture of cheese whey and dairy manure was successfully digested in an anaerobic rotating biological contactor which served as a first step in the waste treatment process. The methane production rate, which is dependent on the organic loading rate, ranged between 1.43 and 3.74 litres methane per litre reactor per day. As the organic loading rate increased, total methane production also increased. In the anaerobic digestion step, over 46% of chemical oxygen demand was removed. The potential pollutants were further destroyed by the aerobic treatment. More than 93% of the remaining chemical oxygen demand was removed in the sequencing batch reactors operated at 22/sup 0/C. The treatment efficiency was lower for the aerobic reactor operated at a lower temperature (10/sup 0/C). (author).

  11. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Guang; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhu, Hong-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700m(3) chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35±1°C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5kg-COD/m(3)d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2m(3)/m(3)d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of swine manure: case studies in European’s N-surplus areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cruz García-González

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, eight different manure treatment plants were monitored. The plants were four on-farm and four centralized treatment plants, all of them at full-scale level. Assessment includes a total of seven pre-treatment and process units as follows: mechanical separation, with and without coagulant and flocculant addition, pasteurization, nitrification-denitrification, anaerobic digestion, and composting. The plants are located in nutrient surplus areas of three European Member States (Spain, Italy and Denmark, the majority of these areas being Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZ. Results presented herein are data collected over a six-month period and comprise performance data of the treatment plants, pathogen indicators (E.coli and Salmonella and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions data under two scenarios: 1 the baseline scenario and 2 the treatment plant scenario. The assessment includes GHG emissions of the storage facilities, transportation, and subsequent intermediate storage, electric consumption, electric production, composting, and land application. All treatment plants studied generated a significant reduction in GHG emissions (between 53 and 90 % in comparison to the baseline scenario. Organic matter and total solids (TS content in manure were also greatly reduced, with values ranging between 35-53 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD and, 24-61 % of TS for anaerobic digestion (AD treatment plants, 77-93 % COD and 70 % TS in the case of AD combined with nitrogen (N-removal unit plants. Nitrogen concentrations were also greatly reduced (between 65-85 % total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN and 68-83 % ammonium (NH4+-N in plants with N-removal units.

  13. Treatment of swine liquid manure by aerobic microbes and subsequent formation of yeast biomass. Aerob mikrobielle Behandlung von Schweineguelle mit anschliessender Hefebiomassebildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P

    1985-02-05

    A practical, hygienically satisfactory process for microbial upgrading of swine liquid manures ensuring a fair yield is by aerobic-thermophilic process with subsequent addition of yeast. The execution of this involves considerable expenditure. A problem consists furthermore in the sensitivity of the auto-oxidation stage to antibiotics, which might constitute an obstacle to the only possible sphere of application of the process anyway, namely in large-scale animal breeding, because this is the very sphere where the use of drugs is as yet indispensable. Stabilization by sewage treatment process can be achieved by a disproportionate effort only because of an unfavourable composition of the material and, is moreover out of the question on account of the high content of valuable nutrients. Renewed feeding of the substrate treated with yeast as a hygienically safe feeding stuff constitutes a useful recycling procedure for parts of the constituents of liquid manure and might help to reduce the import of expensive protein. Non-polluting disposal and appropriate utilization of liquid manure are always complicated and expensive. At the same time no solution has as yet been found that is entirely satisfactory, and late damage can never be entirely excluded.

  14. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiang Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1 non-treated; (2 chicken manure-treated and (3 organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  15. Temporal succession of soil antibiotic resistance genes following application of swine, cattle and poultry manures spiked with or without antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Gou, Min; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Land application of animal manure is a common agricultural practice potentially leading to dispersal and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental settings. However, the fate of resistome in agro-ecosystems over time following application of different manure sources has never been compared systematically. Here, soil microcosm incubation was conducted to compare effects of poultry, cattle and swine manures spiked with or without the antibiotic tylosin on the temporal changes of soil ARGs. The high-throughput quantitative PCR detected a total of 185 unique ARGs, with Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B resistance as the most frequently encountered ARG type. The diversity and abundance of ARGs significantly increased following application of manure and manure spiked with tylosin, with more pronounced effects observed in the swine and poultry manure treatments than in the cattle manure treatment. The level of antibiotic resistance gradually decreased over time in all manured soils but was still significantly higher in the soils treated with swine and poultry manures than in the untreated soils after 130 days’ incubation. Tylosin-amended soils consistently showed higher abundances of ARGs than soils treated with manure only, suggesting a strong selection pressure of antibiotic-spiked manure on soil ARGs. The relative abundance of ARGs had significantly positive correlations with integrase and transposase genes, indicative of horizontal transfer potential of ARGs in manure and tylosin treated soils. Our findings provide evidence that application of swine and poultry manures might enrich more soil ARGs than cattle manure, which necessitates the appropriate treatment of raw animal manures prior to land application to minimise the spread of environmental ARGs. - Highlights: • Application of poultry, swine, and cattle manure with or without tylosin increased the level of soil ARGs. • Poultry and swine manures had stronger selection pressure

  16. Influence of post-treatment strategies on the properties of activated chars from broiler manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Isabel M; Boykin, Debbie L; Thomas Klasson, K; Uchimiya, Minori

    2014-01-01

    There are a myriad of carbonaceous precursors that can be used advantageously to produce activated carbons or chars, due to their low cost, availability and intrinsic properties. Because of the nature of the raw material, production of granular activated chars from broiler manure results in a significant ash fraction. This study was conducted to determine the influence of several pre- and post-treatment strategies in various physicochemical and adsorptive properties of the resulting activated chars. Pelletized samples of broiler litter and cake were pyrolyzed at 700 °C for 1h followed by a 45 min steam activation at 800 °C at different water flow rates from 1 to 5 mL min(-1). For each activation strategy, samples were either water-rinsed or acid-washed and rinsed or used as is (no acid wash/rinse). Activated char's physicochemical and adsorptive properties towards copper ions were selectively affected by both pre- and post-treatments. Percent ash reduction after either rinsing or acid washing ranged from 1.1 to 15.1% but washed activated chars were still alkaline with pH ranging from 8.4 to 9.1. Acid washing or water rinsing had no significant effect in the ability of the activated char to adsorb copper ions, however it significantly affected surface area, pH, ash content and carbon content. Instead, manure type (litter versus cake) and the activation water flow rate were determining factors in copper ion adsorption which ranged from 38 mg g(-1) to 104 mg g(-1) of activated char. Moreover, strong positive correlations were found between copper uptake and concentration of certain elements in the activated char such as phosphorous, sulfur, calcium and sodium. Rinsing could suffice as a post treatment strategy for ash reduction since no significant differences in the carbon properties were observed between rinsed and acid wash treatments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Diluted Pig Manure Streams in Russia: From Laboratory Trials to Full-Scale Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Arkhipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Kovalev, A.; Nozhevnikova, A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater

  18. Culture of ceriodaphnia cornuta, using chicken manure as fertilizer: conversion of waste product into highly nutritive animal protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, K.; War, M.U.D.

    2010-01-01

    For finding a cheap and suitable feed for culture of Ceriodaphnia cornuta studies were carried out for 21 days using chicken manure as fertilizer whereupon C. cornuta population ranged between 50 +- 2 and 10,232 +- 202 Ind./L. (individuals/L). The culture peaked on the 17th day producing the maximum density of 10,232 +- 202 Ind./L. Thus chicken manure can be used as a fertilizer for mass culture of cladocerans, specially C. cornuta. (author)

  19. The effects of post-treatments and temperature on recovering the methane potential of > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Rintala, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of thermal and chemical treatments, mechanical maceration and freezing and thawing on recovering the remaining methane potential of the > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure - which accounted for 30% of the original potential of digested cow manure - were studied in laboratory...

  20. Implications from distinct sulfate-reducing bacteria populations between cattle manure and digestate in the elucidation of H2S production during anaerobic digestion of animal slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

    2017-07-01

    Biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of animal slurry consists mainly of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), but also includes other minor gases, such as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). Since it can act as a potent corrosive agent and presents a health hazard even at low concentrations, H 2 S is considered an undesirable by-product of anaerobic digestion. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) have been identified as the main biological source of H 2 S in a number of natural, biological, and human-made habitats, and thus represent likely candidate microorganisms responsible for the production of H 2 S in anaerobic manure digesters. Phylogenetically, SRBs form a divergent group of bacteria that share a common anaerobic respiration pathway that allows them to use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. While the composition and activity of SRBs have been well documented in other environments, their metabolic potential remains largely uncharacterized and their populations poorly defined in anaerobic manure digesters. In this context, a combination of in vitro culture-based studies and DNA-based approaches, respectively, were used to gain further insight. Unexpectedly, only low to nondetectable levels of H 2 S were produced by digestate collected from a manure biogas plant documented to have persistently high concentrations of H 2 S in its biogas (2000-3000 ppm). In contrast, combining digestate with untreated manure (a substrate with comparatively lower sulfate and SRB cell densities than digestate) was found to produce elevated H 2 S levels in culture. While a 16S rRNA gene-based community composition approach did not reveal likely candidate SRBs in digestate or untreated manure, the use of the dsrAB gene as a phylogenetic marker provided more insight. In digestate, the predominant SRBs were found to be uncharacterized species likely belonging to the genus Desulfosporosinus (Peptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Firmicutes), while Desulfovibrio-related SRBs

  1. Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective

  2. Occurrence and transformation of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in dairy manure treated by advanced anaerobic digestion and conventional treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joshua S; Garner, Emily; Pruden, Amy; Aga, Diana S

    2018-05-01

    Manure treatment technologies are rapidly developing to minimize eutrophication of surrounding environments and potentially decrease the introduction of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) into the environment. While laboratory and pilot-scale manure treatment systems boast promising results, antibiotic and ARG removals in full-scale systems receiving continuous manure input have not been evaluated. The effect of treatment on ARGs is similarly lacking. This study examines the occurrence and transformation of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, tetracycline degradation products, and related ARGs throughout a full-scale advanced anaerobic digester (AAD) receiving continuous manure and antibiotic input. Manure samples were collected throughout the AAD system to evaluate baseline antibiotic and ARG input (raw manure), the effect of hygenization (post-pasteurized manure) and anaerobic digestion (post-digestion manure) on antibiotic and ARG levels. Antibiotics were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the ARGs tet(O), tet(W), sul1 and sul2 were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Significant reductions in the concentrations of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and their degradation products were observed in manure liquids following treatment (p < 0.001), concomitant to significant increases in manure solids (p < 0.001). These results suggest sorption is the major removal route for tetracyclines during AAD. Significant decreases in the epimer-to-total residue ratios for chlortetracycline and tetracycline in manure solids further indicate degradation is desorption-limited. Moreover, sul1 and sul2 copies decreased significantly (p < 0.001) following AAD in the absence of sulfonamide antibiotics, while tetracyclines-resistant genes remained unchanged. A cross-sectional study of dairy farms utilizing natural aeration and liquid-solid separation treatments was additionally performed

  3. Development and analysis of microbial characteristics of an acidulocomposting system for the treatment of garbage and cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Ryoki; Otawa, Kenichi; Ozutsumi, Yuhei; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Abdel-Mohsein, Hosnia Swafy; Nakai, Yutaka

    2010-10-01

    An acidulocomposting system for the treatment of cattle manure with little emission of ammonia gas was developed, and the structure of its microbial community was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library construction. An acidulocomposting apparatus (BC20, 20 L) was operated for 79 days to treat 2 kg (wet wt) of garbage per 1 or 2 days. On day 80 of operation, the substrate was changed from garbage to cattle manure (1 kg of beef cattle manure was added to the apparatus every 2 or 3 days), and the system continued operating from days 80 to 158. The compost in the vessel was under acidic conditions at pH 5.2-5.8, and ammonia emission was below the detectable level (acidulocomposting treatment of cattle manure is not accompanied by ammonia emission and that Bacillus and LAB may be the key components in the system. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  5. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  6. Optimisation and inhibition of anaerobic digestion of livestock manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutaryo, S.

    2012-11-15

    The optimisation process during this PhD study focused on mixed enzyme (ME) addition, thermal pre-treatment and co-digestion of raw manure with solid fractions of acidified manure, while for inhibition processes, ammonia and sulphide inhibition were studied. ME addition increased methane yield of both dairy cow manure (DCM) and solid fractions of DCM (by 4.44% and 4.15% respectively, compared to the control) when ME was added to manure and incubated prior to anaerobic digestion (AD). However, no positive effect was found when ME was added to manure and fed immediately to either mesophilic (35 deg. C) or thermophilic (50 deg. C) digesters. Low-temperature pre-treatment (65 deg. C to 80 deg. C for 20 h) followed by batch assays increased the methane yield of pig manure in the range from 9.5% to 26.4% at 11 d incubation. These treatments also increased the methane yield of solid-fractions pig manure in the range from 6.1% to 25.3% at 11 d of the digestion test. However, at 90 d the increase in methane yield of pig manure was only significant at the 65 deg. C treatment, thus low-temperature thermal pre-treatment increased the rate of gas production, but did not increase the ultimate yield (B{sub o}). High-temperature pre-treatment (100 deg. C to 225 deg. C for 15 min.) increased the methane yield of DCM by 13% and 21% for treatments at 175 deg. C and 200 deg. C, respectively, at 27 d of batch assays. For pig manure, methane yield was increased by 29% following 200 deg. C treatment and 27 d of a batch digestion test. No positive effect was found of high-temperature pre-treatment on the methane yield of chicken manure. At the end of the experiment (90 d), high-temperature thermal pre-treatment was significantly increasing the B{sub 0} of pig manure and DCM. Acidification of animal manure using sulphuric acid is a well-known technology to reduce ammonia emission of animal manure. AD of acidified manure showed sulphide inhibition and consequently methane production was 45

  7. Association between stall surface and some animal welfare measurements in freestall dairy herds using recycled manure solids for bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husfeldt, A W; Endres, M I

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between stall surface and some animal welfare measurements in upper Midwest US dairy operations using recycled manure solids as bedding material. The study included 34 dairy operations with herd sizes ranging from 130 to 3,700 lactating cows. Forty-five percent of the herds had mattresses and 55% had deep-bedded stalls. Farms were visited once between July and October 2009. At the time of visit, at least 50% of the cows in each lactating pen were scored for locomotion, hygiene, and hock lesions. On-farm herd records were collected for the entire year and used to investigate mortality, culling, milk production, and mastitis incidence. Stall surface was associated with lameness and hock lesion prevalence. Lameness prevalence (locomotion score ≥ 3 on a 1 to 5 scale) was lower in deep-bedded freestalls (14.4%) than freestalls with mattresses (19.8%). Severe lameness prevalence (locomotion score ≥ 4) was also lower for cows housed in deep-bedded freestalls (3.6%) than for cows housed in freestalls with mattresses (5.9%). In addition, the prevalence of hock lesions (hock lesion scores ≥ 2 on a 1 to 3 scale, with 1=no lesion, 2=hair loss or mild lesion, and 3=swelling or severe lesion) and severe hock lesions (hock lesion score=3) was lower in herds with deep-bedded freestalls (49.4%; 6.4%) than in herds with mattresses (67.3%; 13.2%). Herd turnover rates were not associated with stall surface; however, the percentage of removals due to voluntary (low milk production, disposition, and dairy) and involuntary (death, illness, injury, and reproductive) reasons was different between deep-bedded and mattress-based freestalls. Voluntary removals averaged 16% of all herd removals in deep-bedded herds, whereas in mattress herds, these removals were 8%. Other welfare measurements such as cow hygiene, mortality rate, mastitis incidence, and milk production were not associated with stall surface

  8. Effect of manure vs. fertilizer inputs on productivity of forage crop models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caternolo, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Martiniello, Pasquale

    2011-06-01

    Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha(-1), respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha(-1) of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha(-1) under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  9. Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV. The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  10. Effects of thermal treatment on high solid anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Enhancement assessment and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Hu, Yu-Ying; Wang, Shi-Feng; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Li, Huai-Zhi; Fu, Xin-Mei; Wang, Kai-Jun; Zuo, Jian-E

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD), which is a process for generating biogas, can be applied to the treatment of organic wastes. Owing to its smaller footprint, lower energy consumption, and less digestate, high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) has attracted increasing attention. However, its biogas production is poor. In order to improve biogas production and decrease energy consumption, an improved thermal treatment process was proposed. Raw swine manure (>20% solid content) without any dilution was thermally treated at 70±1°C for different retention times, and then its effect on HSAD was investigated via batch AD experiments at 8.9% solid content. Results showed that the main organic components of swine manure hydrolyzed significantly during the thermal treatment, and HSAD's methane production rate was improved by up to 39.5%. Analysis using two kinetic models confirmed that the treatment could increase biodegradable organics (especially the readily biodegradable organics) in swine manure rather than upgrading its hydrolysis rate. It is worth noting that the superimposed first-order kinetics model was firstly applied in AD, and was a good tool to reveal the AD kinetics mechanism of substrates with complex components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychrophilic anaerobic co-digestion of highland barley straw with two animal manures at high altitude for enhancing biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Suzhen; Zhang, Hongfeng; Cai, Xiaobu; Xu, Jin; Fang, Jiangping; Liu, Heman

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High I/S ratio (>2/1) was favorable to both sole digestion and co-digestion. • Biogas production from BS was feasible at low temperature and low air pressure condition. • Long SRT (>80 days) is needed for biogas production at low temperature and low air pressure condition. • BS to manure ratio of 1/1 could increase biogas production. • IVS removal efficiency was correlated with biogas production. - Abstract: Biogas production from the co-digestion of highland barley straw (BS) with Tibet pig manure (TPM) and cow manure (CM) was investigated at Tibet plateau under low temperature (15 °C) condition. The effect of inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratio and BS to manure ratio on the biogas production was studied using a series of batch digesters performed at substrate concentration of 20%, based on total solid (TS). The results showed that biogas production from BS was feasible at low temperature and low air pressure condition. High I/S ratio (>2/1) and BS to manure ratio of 1/1 could increase the biogas production. Long solid retention time (SRT) (>80 days) was needed for biogas production at low temperature and low air pressure condition. The highest cumulative biogas production obtained from the co-digestion of BS with TPM and CM was 233.4 ml/gVS and 192.0 ml/gVS, respectively. Removal efficiencies of substrate showed that biogas production was correlated with the removal efficiency of water-insoluble volatile solids (IVS) but not with the change rate of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)

  12. Environmental assessment of alternative treatment schemes for energy and nutrient recovery from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedizzi, C; Noya, I; Sarli, J; González-García, S; Lema, J M; Moreira, M T; Carballa, M

    2018-04-20

    The application of livestock manure on agricultural land is being restricted due to its significant content of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), leading to eutrophication. At the same time, the growing demand for N and P mineral fertilizers is increasing their production costs and causing the depletion of natural phosphate rock deposits. In the present work, seven technologically feasible treatment schemes for energy (biogas) and nutrient recovery (e.g., struvite precipitation) and/or removal (e.g., partial nitritation/anammox) were evaluated from an environmental perspective. In general, while approaches based solely on energy recovery and use of digestate as fertilizer are commonly limited by community regulations, strategies pursuing the generation of high-quality struvite are not environmentally sound alternatives. In contrast, schemes that include further solid/liquid separation of the digestate improved the environmental profile, and their combination with an additional N-removal stage would lead to the most environmental-friendly framework. However, the preferred scenario was identified to be highly dependent on the particular conditions of each site, integrating environmental, social and economic criteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential responses in yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) and nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.) to the application of three animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, J O; Van Averbeke, W; Okorogbona, A O M

    2010-04-01

    Crop responses to different manures differs considerably, however, the factors responsible for it have not been conclusively elucidated. Consequently, this study examined the biomass response of Cucurbita maxima and Solanum retroflexum to application rates of chicken and kraal manures of cattle and goat, and soil factors related to salinity. The crops' biomass yield increased linearly with increase in application rates of kraal and chicken manures, but steeper in the latter. Results showed that significant decline in biomass yield in chicken manure at rates above 8.5 tons ha(-1) were not due to salinity. The crops' response to cattle and goat kraal manures was linear but polynomial (cubic) in layer chicken manure. It was concluded that the yield decline in chicken manure was due to other manure factors except salinity, probably toxicity effect of the manure fatty acids. Further research was however, recommended to elucidate this claim. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of manure and plants spacing on yield and flavonoid content of Elephantopus scaber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyana, D.; Widiyastuti, Y.; Widodo, H.; Purwanto, E.; Samanhudi

    2018-03-01

    This experiment is aimed to observe the growth and flavonoid contain of Tapak Liman (Elephantopus scaber L.) with different manure types and plants spacing treatment. This experiment is conducted at Tegal Gede Village, Karanganyar District on June until August 2016. The analysis of secondary metabolism was done in B2P2TOOT, Tawangamangu. This experiment is conducted with Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two treatment factors, those are manure and plants spacing. Animal manure treatment had 3 levels, those are without manure, cow manure with 20 ton/ha dose, and chicken manure with 20 ton/ha dose. Plants spacing treatment had 3 phrase, those are 20 cm × 20 cm; 30 × 30 cm; 40 cm × 40 cm. The result of this experiment shows that chicken manure with 20 ton/ha dosage increase the development of leaves’ lengthiness, header’s diameter, plant’s fresh weight, and plant’s dry weight. Plants spacing 40 cm × 40 cm increase for the development of leaves’ lengthiness, header’s diameter, plant’s wet weight, and plant’s dry weight. The combination between chicken manure with 20 ton/ha dose and plants spacing 40 cm × 40cm treatments show the highest amount of tapak liman extract and alleged having the biggest amount of flavonoid substance.

  15. Marine mud and manure treatment in Ultisols increase pH and phosphate availability and affectCapsicum annum L. grows and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Matulessy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine mud and manure has potentially to improve ultisol soil condition, especially in soil acidity, CEC, base saturation, neutralizing organic acid, improving soil structure, soil nutrient retention, aeration, soil humidity, capacity of water holding capacity and infiltration and enhance the rapid supply of phosphate for plant grows and development. Two treatments, namely planting media with 200 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure and 400 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure were able to increase pH from 4.6 to 5.6.Significant decrease of Alexcsolubility about 0.03 meq.100 g-1 was found in M1O3; M2O1; M2O3 and M3O1 treatment about. Increase of phosphate about 5.02 ppm was found at treatment 200 ton.ha-1 marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1 manure. There are significant interaction in plant high about 62.42 cm in the media without marine mud and 30 ton.ha-1manure treatments. The amount of 30 ton,ha-1manure produce plant with leaf size about 95,52 cm2.tan-1and produce fresh fruit about 9.81 ton.ha-1.

  16. The fate and effect of monensin during anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under mesophilic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman A Arikan

    Full Text Available There is growing concern about residual antibiotics and feed additives in the manure of treated animals because of the effects of these residues in the environment. Monensin is the most widely used ionophore coccidiostat in the U.S. The objective of this study was to determine the fate and effect of monensin during the anaerobic digestion of dairy manure. Duplicate plug flow field-scale digesters were operated using non-amended dairy manure and dairy manure amended with monensin to 1 and 10 mg/L for 56 days at 30°C at an organic loading rate of 1.4 kg VS/m3-d and 17-day hydraulic retention time. Results showed that monensin was reduced approximately 70% during anaerobic digestion. Methane production from digesters using manure amended with 1 mg/L monensin was comparable to that from digesters operated without added monensin. However, digesters using manure amended with 10 mg/L monensin yielded 75% less methane than digesters using manure without added monensin. These results suggest that anaerobic digestion is an effective treatment for reducing, but not eliminating, monensin in dairy manure. Monensin did not reduce methane production at concentrations expected in dairy manure at recommended dosage rates.

  17. Effects of Different Animal Waste Treatment Technologies on Detection and Viability of Porcine Enteric Viruses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Verónica P.; Azevedo, Ana C.; Li, Xin; Williams, Mike C.; Michel, Frederick C.; Saif, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Enteric pathogens in animal waste that is not properly processed can contaminate the environment and food. The persistence of pathogens in animal waste depends upon the waste treatment technology, but little is known about persistence of porcine viruses. Our objectives were to characterize the porcine enteric viruses (porcine noroviruses [PoNoVs], porcine sapoviruses [PoSaVs], rotavirus A [RV-A], RV-B, and RV-C) in fresh feces or manure and to evaluate the effects of different candidate environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for animal waste treatment on the detection of these viruses. Untreated manure and samples collected at different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms that used conventional waste management (CWM) and five different candidate ESTs. The RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or seminested PCR; PoSaV and RV-A were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) and experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine RV-A/C infectivity in posttreatment samples. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in pretreatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pretreatment feces from three of five and four of five farms using the candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment, PoSaV RNA was detected only in the samples from the farm using CWM and not from the farms using the candidate ESTs. RV-A and RV-C RNAs were detected in four of five and three of four candidate ESTs, respectively, after treatment, but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral infectivity, was detected after treatment. Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding swine production units. PMID:17601821

  18. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account...

  19. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  20. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans.

  1. 34 CFR 76.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 76.682 Section 76.682 Education... animals. If a State or a subgrantee uses an animal in a project, the State or subgrantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act of 1970...

  2. 34 CFR 75.682 - Treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of animals. 75.682 Section 75.682 Education... Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.682 Treatment of animals. If a grantee uses an animal in a project, the grantee shall provide the animal with proper care and humane treatment in...

  3. Irradiation of liquid manure for the purpose of utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Gleria, M. di; Szemeredi, Gy.

    1980-01-01

    The authors give an account of the use of ionizing radiation for disinfection of swine liquid manure. The most common representatives of pathogenic and facultative pathogenic microorganisms of swine liquid manure have been irradiated and their sensitivity to different doses of 60 Co has been examined. The microorganisms proved to be more resistant to irradiation in culture media than in swine liquid manure, where most of the studied bacteria were killed by radiation dose of 4 kGy. However, a very high resistance has been found at the saprophytic and pathogenic mycobacteria and at the spore containing Clostridium perfringens having required a lethal dose of 10 and 15 kGy respectively. After radiation-treatment the liquid manure can be used in agriculture for irrigation and it can be recycled to the stall cleaning procedures. The use of irradiated liquid manure as a possible animal food is also discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ogejo, Jactone Arogo

    2009-01-01

    Manure storage is part of the manure management system of a facility or property where animals and/or poultry are raised. Manure should be considered a resource not a waste to be discarded. Manure contains valuable organic matter and nutrients that can be used as a fertilizer and/or to produce energy. If not managed properly, manure will accumulate very quickly and pose the potential for polluting the environment from odors and contamination of surface water and ground water.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of six soil organic matter models applied to the decomposition of animal manures and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two features distinguishing soil organic matter simulation models are the type of kinetics used to calculate pool decomposition rates, and the algorithm used to handle the effects of nitrogen (N shortage on carbon (C decomposition. Compared to widely used first-order kinetics, Monod kinetics more realistically represent organic matter decomposition, because they relate decomposition to both substrate and decomposer size. Most models impose a fixed C to N ratio for microbial biomass. When N required by microbial biomass to decompose a given amount of substrate-C is larger than soil available N, carbon decomposition rates are limited proportionally to N deficit (N inhibition hypothesis. Alternatively, C-overflow was proposed as a way of getting rid of excess C, by allocating it to a storage pool of polysaccharides. We built six models to compare the combinations of three decomposition kinetics (first-order, Monod, and reverse Monod, and two ways to simulate the effect of N shortage on C decomposition (N inhibition and C-overflow. We conducted sensitivity analysis to identify model parameters that mostly affected CO2 emissions and soil mineral N during a simulated 189-day laboratory incubation assuming constant water content and temperature. We evaluated model outputs sensitivity at different stages of organic matter decomposition in a soil amended with three inputs of increasing C to N ratio: liquid manure, solid manure, and low-N crop residue. Only few model parameters and their interactions were responsible for consistent variations of CO2 and soil mineral N. These parameters were mostly related to microbial biomass and to the partitioning of applied C among input pools, as well as their decomposition constants. In addition, in models with Monod kinetics, CO2 was also sensitive to a variation of the half-saturation constants. C-overflow enhanced pool decomposition compared to N inhibition hypothesis when N shortage occurred. Accumulated C in the

  6. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  7. A biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry wastes manure as a feed ingredient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Jalil, M.H. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco). Biology Dept.; Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Faid, M. [Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Elyachioui, M. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2001-07-01

    Poultry wastes manure was diluted by adding the same amount of water 50-50 (w/v). They were then mixed with 10% molasses. The mixture was inoculated with a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidolactici, and incubated at 30{sup o}C for 10 days. Changes in nutritional quality and biochemical properties (pH, total nitrogen, total volatile nitrogen, non protein nitrogen, carbohydrates and ash) were determined for the raw and the transformed product. In parallel, microbiological analyses, including standard plant count, enterobacteria and enterococci, were performed. Results indicated that the product obtained from the wastes fermentation showed low counts of enterobacteria and enterococci. Chemical determinations showed a net decrease of the pH to around 4.0 and the growth curve of the lactic acid bacteria showed the success of the acidification process. The total nitrogen was conserved in the product and the total volatile nitrogen was totally eliminated. The product was used for substituting some protein sources in a conventional formula used in laying feeding of three lots. Two formulae containing, respectively, 20% and 40% of the product was compared to the control (0%). The food consumption and laying performances were monitored for 30 days. The nutritional test indicted that the incorporation of the poultry manure silage of up to 40% gave laying performances similar to those obtained with the conventional formula. These results show that it is possible to transform poultry manure by controlled fermentation and that the product has an added value as a feed ingredient. (Author)

  8. Development of an efficient extraction method for oxytetracycline in animal manure for high performance liquid chromatography analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4-dimethylamino-5,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene- 1,3,12-trione) is a majormember of the tetracycline antibiotics family ofwhich are widely administered to animals in concentrated animal feeding operations for purposes o...

  9. Inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, H.D.; Shannon, E.E.; Derbyshire, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55/sup 0/C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35/sup 0/C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70/sup 0/C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  10. Low-temperature anaerobic treatment of hog manure and transformation of biogas into green energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van-Anh Truong, L.; Royer, R.

    2004-08-01

    A new environmental solution for hog manure management has been developed by Bio-Terre Systems Inc. in collaboration with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. The technical approach combines low-temperature anaerobic digestion, concentration of solids and production of biogas, a renewable energy source. Both small and large agricultural producers can benefit from this approach which helps transform organic matter into value-added by-products. They can fertilize their land with the liquid fraction, supply energy for their buildings with the biogas produced, and export surplus nutrients with the solid fraction. The technology also solves odour problems and destroys pathogenic microorganisms. No pretreatment is needed for this technology which makes use of robust anaerobic microorganisms that are low temperature tolerant. It is a stable process that provides continuous production of biogas with high energy potential. The automated system does not require much monitoring or maintenance. The environmental advantages include the production of biogas rich in methane, which can be used for electrical energy on the farm or sent to the electric power grids; production of high-value, odorless liquid fertilizer; a 50 per cent reduction of the amount of phosphorous in the liquid fraction; and, a 90 per cent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from hog manure. The profitability of capital investment is assured by both the energy-savings and the agricultural benefits. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  11. Pre-digestion to enhance volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration as a carbon source for denitrification in treatment of liquid swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah Xiao; Chen, Lide; Zhu, Jun; Walquist, McKenzie; Christian, David

    2018-04-30

    Insufficient denitrification in biological treatment is often a result of the lack of a carbon source. In this study, use of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) generated via pre-digestion as a carbon source to improve denitrification in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment of liquid swine manure was investigated. The pre-digestion of swine manure was realized by storing the manure in a sealed container in room temperature and samples were taken periodically from the container to determine the VFA levels. The results showed that after 14 days of pre-digestion, the VFA level in the digested liquid was increased by 200%. A polynomial relationship for the VFA level in the digested manure with the digestion time was observed with a correlation coefficient being 0.9748. Two identical SBRs were built and operated on 8-h cycles in parallel, with one fed with pre-digested and the other raw swine manure. There were five phases included in each cycle, i.e., anaerobic (90 min), anoxic (150 min), anoxic/anaerobic (90 min), anoxic/aerobic (120 min), and settle/decant (30 min), and the feeding was split to 600 mL/200 mL and performed at the beginning of and 240 min into the cycle. The SBR fed on pre-digested swine manure achieved successful denitrification with only 0.35 mg/L nitrate left in the effluent, compared to 15.9 mg/L found in the effluent of the other SBR. Nitrite was not detected in the effluent from both SBRs. The results also indicated that there was no negative impact of feeding SBRs with the pre-digested liquid swine manure for treatment on the removal of other constituents such as total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD). Therefore, anaerobic digestion as a pretreatment can be an effective way to condition liquid swine manure for SBR treatment to achieve sufficient nitrate removal.

  12. Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking on the methane yield and composition of digested manure fibers applying different ammonia concentrations and treatment durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) in six different concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 32%) and for 1, 3 and 5 days...... at 22°C was applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester. A methane yield increase from 76% to 104% was achieved during the first series of experiments, while the difference in reagent concentration did not considerably affect the methane yield...... is a very promising treatment resulting to an overall increase of the methane yield of digested manure fibers from 76 to 265% depending on the conditions and the batch of digested fibers used (an even higher increase of 190-265% was achieved during the 2nd series of experiments, where different AAS...

  13. 45 CFR 63.33 - Treatment of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of animals. 63.33 Section 63.33 Public... animals. If animals are utilized in any project receiving assistance, the applicant for such assistance shall provide assurances satisfactory to the Assistant Secretary that such animals will be provided with...

  14. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha

    2009-01-01

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm 2 , and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics

  15. Decolorization and COD reduction of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater by electrocoagulation process: A post-treatment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Ilhan, Fatih; Sapci-Zengin, Zehra; Sakar, Suleyman; Gonullu, M. Talha [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    The performance of electrocoagulation (EC) technique for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater was investigated in a laboratory batch study. Two identical 15.7-L up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were first run under various organic and hydraulic loading conditions for 216 days. Effects of operating parameters such as type of sacrificial electrode material, time of electrolysis, current density, initial pH, and electrolyte concentration were further studied to optimize conditions for the post-treatment of UASB pretreated poultry manure wastewater. Preliminary tests conducted with two types of sacrificial electrodes (Al and Fe) resulted that Al electrodes were found to be more effective for both COD and color removals than Fe electrodes. The subsequent EC tests performed with Al electrodes showed that optimal operating conditions were determined to be an initial pH of 5.0, a current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, and an electrolysis time of 20 min. The results indicated that under the optimal conditions, about 90% of COD and 92% of residual color could be effectively removed from the UASB effluent with the further contribution of the EC technology used as a post-treatment unit. In this study, the possible acute toxicity of the EC effluent was also evaluated by a static bioassay test procedure using guppy fish (Lebistes reticulatus). Findings of this study clearly indicated that incorporation of a toxicological test into conventional physicochemical analyses provided a better evaluation of final discharge characteristics.

  16. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Etesami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality and quantity of the product to follow. Manure is a valuable source of biological, ecological and environmental benefits is positive and its main use is for agricultural use. Radish is an important root vegetable that belongs to the cruciferous (Brassicaceae. Value radish on high levels of dietary is related to soluble fiber and antioxidants. Radish is a native plant to Asia, China and Europe. The oral part of the botanical garden radish is important and that kind of traditional varieties have long hypocotyls include root and hypocotyls made.The purpose of this test is to evaluate the different mixture amount of animal fertilizers on the growth and yield of radish plants and compare them to each other. Materials and Methods: In order to study of different manure effect on radish growth and yield, an experiment carried out in 2012-2013 in the greenhouse of Gonbad- Kavos University with geographical characteristics 37.16 degrees north, 55.12 ° east and with a height of 45 meters above sea level in a completely randomized design with four replications. Soil and fertilizers used to this experiment were made of the soil and livestock of Gonbad- Kavos University. Soil texture was Clay loam and pH was 7.7 obtained from soil analysis. To obtain the required levels of fertilizer treatments (25, 50, 75, 100, a measure was considered as the basis of each treatment on the basis of the ratio were calculated. The treatments included control (soil, 25 percent cow manure+ 75

  17. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  18. Towards improving the manure management chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Animal manures are major sources of nutrients and organic matter, to be used to fertilize crops and improve soil quality. However, when not properly managed, these manures release considerable amounts of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) into the air, and nitrogen (N) and

  19. Anaerobic treatment of apple waste with swine manure for biogas production: Batch and continuous operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Apple waste (AW) was co-digested with swine manure (SM). ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield than SM only. ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield at 55 °C than at 36.5 °C. ► Modified Gompertz model best fitted to the substrates used. ► Positive synergetic effect up to 33% AW during continuous digestion. -- Abstract: This study evaluated the performance of anaerobic digesters using a mixture of apple waste (AW) and swine manure (SM). Tests were performed using both batch and continuous digesters. The batch test evaluated the gas potential, gas production rate of the AW and SM (Experiment I), and the effect of AW co-digestion with SM (33:67,% volatile solids (VSs) basis) (Experiment II) at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The first-order kinetic model and modified Gompertz model were also evaluated for methane yield. The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with different mixture ratios of AW and SM at mesophilic temperature. The ultimate biogas and methane productivity of AW in terms of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was determined to be 510 and 252 mL/g TCOD added, respectively. The mixture of AW and SM improved the biogas yield by approximately 16% and 48% at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, respectively, compared to the use of SM only, but no significant difference was found in the methane yield. The difference between the predicted and measured methane yield was higher with a first order kinetic model (4.6–18.1%) than with a modified Gompertz model (1.2–3.4%). When testing continuous digestion, the methane yield increased from 146 to 190 mL/g TCOD added when the AW content in the feed was increased from 25% to 33% (VS basis) at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.6 g VS/L/d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days. However, the total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) accumulation increased rapidly and the p

  20. DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE, AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND HPLC-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes from poultry houses is currently unregulated and poses a potential environmental concern. Determination of roxarsone and its transformation products in chicken manure is necessary to understand their possible impacts on human health and ...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Manure application to agricultural lands from confined animal feeding operations by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean livestock manure application to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006....

  2. Methanic fermentation of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadeo, M

    1954-06-01

    A comparison between the chemical composition of manure ripened in conventional ditches and that of manure anaerobically fermented in tanks led to the conclusion that the latter was not satisfactory; the resulting manure was less valuable.

  3. The antibiotic resistome of swine manure is significantly altered by association with the Musca domestica larvae gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Sangwan, Naseer; Li, Hong-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Oyang, Wei-Yin; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Gilbert, Jack A; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ping, Fan; Zhang, Han-Luo

    2017-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics as veterinary feed additives is potentially contributing to a significant reservoir of antibiotic resistance in agricultural farmlands via the application of antibiotic-contaminated manure. Vermicomposting of swine manure using housefly larvae is a promising biotechnology for waste reduction and control of antibiotic pollution. To determine how vermicomposting influences antibiotic resistance traits in swine manure, we explored the resistome and associated bacterial community dynamics during larvae gut transit over 6 days of treatment. In total, 94 out of 158 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were significantly attenuated (by 85%), while 23 were significantly enriched (3.9-fold) following vermicomposting. The manure-borne bacterial community showed a decrease in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, and an increase in Proteobacteria, specifically Ignatzschineria, following gut transit. ARG attenuation was significantly correlated with changes in microbial community succession, especially reduction in Clostridiales and Bacteroidales. Six genomes were assembled from the manure, vermicompost (final product) and gut samples, including Pseudomonas, Providencia, Enterococcus, Bacteroides and Alcanivorax. Transposon-linked ARGs were more abundant in gut-associated bacteria compared with those from manure and vermicompost. Further, ARG-transposon gene cassettes had a high degree of synteny between metagenomic assemblies from gut and vermicompost samples, highlighting the significant contribution of gut microbiota through horizontal gene transfer to the resistome of vermicompost. In conclusion, the larvae gut microbiome significantly influences manure-borne community succession and the antibiotic resistome during animal manure processing.

  4. Effects of different types and rates of organic manures on Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Perss. control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Orooji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different types and rates of animal manure and spent mushroom compost on controlling Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Perss. in tomato (Mill. Lycopersicon esculentum, two studies were conducted on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research green house, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Nemooneh field of Astane Ghods Razavi during two years of 2009 and 2010. Greenhouse study treatments were consist of poultry, cow, sheep manure and spent mushroom compost, which each one applied at four rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 t.ha-1. Field experiment treatments were included of poultry, cow and sheep manure that each one applied at two rates (20 and 40 t.ha-1. Result of the greenhouse study indicated that poultry manure significantly reduced orobanch infestation and increase tomato dry weight compared to control. But in the field experiment, the maximum fruit yield (68 t.ha-1 with the minimum orobanch dry weight were obtained with sheep manure. The effect of cow manure was similar to poultry manure in all measured traits. In the field study, rates of manure application had no significant effect on orobanch fresh and dry weights. The findings indicated that all treatments of animal manure reduced orobanch infestation. But the mechanism of orobanch growth suppression due to animal manures application is unknown. It seems fermentation of different organic matters can produced heat and the resulting toxic compounds such as certain organic acids, ammonia and ammonium salts that may reduce orobanch growth at proper concentrations.

  5. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Naotake

    1979-01-01

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  6. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge.

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and wheat straw for optimized biogas production by the addition of magnetite and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Haiwen; Chen, Yuanlin; Wang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Gaihe; Ren, Guangxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The additives of magnetite and zeolite in anaerobic digestion were studied. • Mineral additives increased methane production significantly. • Mineral additives provided a good environment for methanogens. • The optimum conditions for anaerobic digestion process were optimized. - Abstract: To enhance biogas production and identify new additive materials for the co-digestion of wheat straw, sheep manure, and chicken manure, batch experiments were investigated in this study. Experiments were conducted on the influence of additive materials on a range of manure/straw ratios (3:7, 5:5, and 7:3) and biogas production under a mesophilic temperature (35 °C). Results showed that the maximum increments of methane production (L/kg · VS add ) with the addition of 3 g magnetite and 1 g natural zeolite were 52.01% and 51.01%, respectively. The addition of magnetite and zeolite in the anaerobic digestion process produced a good fermentation environment. By using the response optimizer when the manure proportion was 52%, the best methane yield was obtained with the addition of 2.7 g magnetite. For zeolite, the best addition dose was 1 g and the optimum manure proportion is 63%. Magnetite had a more extensive increase in methane yield than zeolite

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from liquid dairy manure: Prediction and mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.

    2017-01-01

    The handling and use of manure on livestock farms contributes to emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CH4 and N2O, especially with liquid manure management. Dairy farms are diverse with respect to manure management, with practices ranging from daily spreading to long-term storage for more......, and use of treatment technologies. Also, effects of treatment and handling on the properties of field-applied manure must be taken into account. Storage conditions and manure composition importantly define carbon and nitrogen transformations, and the resulting emissions of CH4 and N2O, as well as CO2...... application, manure and soil together define the equilibrium distribution of labile carbon and nitrogen between bulk soil and manure hotspots. This introduces heterogeneity with respect to potential for N2O emissions, which is not represented in existing prediction models. Manure treatment and management...

  9. Degradation of Insecticides in Poultry Manure: Determining the Insecticidal Treatment Interval for Managing House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Ahmad, Hamdan

    2016-04-01

    It is crucial to understand the degradation pattern of insecticides when designing a sustainable control program for the house fly, Musca domestica (L.), on poultry farms. The aim of this study was to determine the half-life and degradation rates of cyromazine, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin by spiking these insecticides into poultry manure, and then quantitatively analyzing the insecticide residue using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The insecticides were later tested in the field in order to study the appropriate insecticidal treatment intervals. Bio-assays on manure samples were later tested at 3, 7, 10, and 15 d for bio-efficacy on susceptible house fly larvae. Degradation analysis demonstrated that cyromazine has the shortest half-life (3.01 d) compared with chlorpyrifos (4.36 d) and cypermethrin (3.75 d). Cyromazine also had a significantly greater degradation rate compared with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. For the field insecticidal treatment interval study, 10 d was the interval that had been determined for cyromazine due to its significantly lower residue; for ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin), the suggested interval was 7 d. Future work should focus on the effects of insecticide metabolites on targeted pests and the poultry manure environment.

  10. PERAN MIKROBA STARTER DALAM DEKOMPOSISI KOTORAN TERNAK DAN PERBAIKAN KUALITAS PUPUK KANDANG (The Role of Microbial Starter in Animal Dung Decomposition and Manure Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyono Agus

    2014-10-01

    microbial decomposer population and requires a condusive environment. Those two factors influence on the  rate of organic material decomposition and limites the negative impact of this organic fertilizer on the aspect of social, ethic, and health of living organism. Cow dung was used as the material for decomposition of organic fertilizer. Two treatments were applied: with or without microbial decomposer (microbial starter followed by incubation in the dark condition under room temperature. The cow dung was sampled in 0, 6, and 24 hours after microbial starter application.The cow dung pH, color, smell, water content, and electrical conductivity were analyzed.  Furthermore, microbial pathogen (Eschericia coli and Salmonella, cow dung total nutrition (C,N,P,K,Ca,Mg,Na,S,Cd,Cr,B,Fe,Cu,Zn, and available N (NH4 dan NO3 were also determined. Amonia emision (NH3, oxygen (O2, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, NOx, NO, and SO2were analyzed as well. The result showed that microbial starter contained of important microbial for the process of cow dung decomposition. Application of microbial starter in cow dung reduced E. coli dan Salmonella sp. by the length of incubation time.Variation of nutrition, i.a. P, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, and heavy metal, i.a. Cr was found during incubation, both in chicken and cow manure.Application of microbial starter reduced sulfur in organic matter to be SO2 without smell, and inhibited H2S production. Decomposition by application of microbial starter should be conducted in aerob condition to reduce H2S production.  This research implied that application of microbial starter is crucially important in improving manure nutrition and quality.

  11. Ethnobiological survey of plants and animals used for the treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobiological survey of plants and animals used for the treatment of acute respiratory ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Methods: It is a descriptive exploratory study with a quantitative approach, ...

  12. Interaction and coupling in the emission of greenhouse gases from animal husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.; Groenestein, C.M.; Hilhorst, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming, while N2O also affects the ozone layer. Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in animal husbandry include animals, animal houses (indoor storage of animal excreta), outdoor storage, manure and slurry treatment (e.g.,

  13. Present status of radiation treatment of animal feeds in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Iizuka, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the studies in Japan on the irradiation of laboratory animal diets and farm animal feedstuffs. From the microbiological inactivation curve of laboratory animal diets, the irradiation doses of 2.5 approximately 3.5 Mrad seem to be suitable for sterilization of animal diets. The absence of toxic effects on animals can be demonstrated by feeding studies. The elimination of salmonellae and other species of Enterobacteriaceae in feedstuffs could be achieved by irradiation with 0.5 approximately 0.6 Mrad. The growth of moulds in feeds would not occur at this dose level. However, an adverse effect is observed on chicks fed with fatty diet irradiated at 3 and 6 Mrad. It is suggested that a promising application of radiation treatment to the feeding of farm animals is irradiation at low dose levels of 0.5 approximately 0.6 Mrad. (author)

  14. Demiwater uit mest = Demineralised water from manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report is about the commercialization of permeate water from manure treatment using reversed osmosis treatment. The goal is to use the permeate as a resource in the production of demineralized water.

  15. Borax and octabor treatment of stored swine manure to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorous gas emissions from stored swine manure are becoming serious environmental and health issues as the livestock industry becomes more specialized, concentrated, and industrialized. These nuisance gasses include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia, and methane, which are produced as a result of ana...

  16. Renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. The objective of this paper is to review the use of soybean peroxidase (SBP) and peroxides as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odor...

  17. Potential of biogas production with young bulls manure on batch biodigesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M.; Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The feedlot system concerning the young bull model allows that animals gain weight in a shorter time since there is higher daily intake of protein when compared to fiber. This change on animals' diet alters particularly manure characteristics and thus interferes on performance of biological systems of treatment. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of biogas production using manure of young bulls that received two different diets on batch biodigesters under three temperatures, with and without inoculum use. The results showed that manure from animals that received more protein on diet (80% concentrate + 20% roughage) had greater reductions on volatile solids when submitted to anaerobic biodigestion. Although the speed of biogas production was superior on treatments with inoculum, it was observed negative effect on inoculum use. There was no effect on temperature during biogas production. Regarding diet effect, manure of animals fed on diet with more protein produced larger amounts of biogas per kg of total added solids (0.2543) when compared to those who received less protein on diet (65% concentrate + 35% roughage), which meant 0.1001 m{sup 3} biogas/kg/total solids. (author)

  18. Persistence of pathogens in liquid pig manure processed in manure tanks and biodigesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Betancur H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the study and another one at the end of the process in manure tanks and biodigesters. For the manure tank, a 250 liters tank was filled with fresh pig manure and was analyzed after three days of storage. The biodigesters were of continuous flow and its effluents were analyzed, according to the specific hydraulic retention times. The diagnostic techniques were those recommended specifically for each microorganism and were carried out in certified labs by the Colombian Animal Health authority. Results. Of the 26 pathogens that were investigated, 15 appeared in the fresh pig manure used in pig manure tanks and 12 in the one used in biodigestors. In manure tanks, Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, mold, yeast, Salmonella spp., Balantidium coli and Strongylids did not persist. In biodigesters, PCV2, yeast, Strongylids, B. coli and Strongyloides spp., did not persist. Conclusions. In both manure tanks and biodigesters, a variation could be seen in pathogen persistency, indicating that they act as transformation systems of pig manure for the removal of the latter, as long as the storage times are increased if the efficiency wants to be improved.

  19. Microwave/vacuum drying treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zongming; Zhang Yinsheng; Teng Hongdi; Zhu Chongde; Ge Lixin; Wang Jinliang

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a microwave/vacuum drying process for the treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses. The experiment demonstrated the feasibility of the process. The treatment process could completely remove the water from carcasses and effectively extend the preservation period. No radiological impact was found on workplace and environment

  20. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  1. 农村规模化养猪场粪污危害与处理措施%Manure Hazards and Treatment Measures in Rural Large-Scale Hoggery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小芬; 彭有义

    2014-01-01

    With the scale development of rural pig breeding industry, there are more and more waste farm emissions, in which the manure emissions severely contaminate the surrounding air, soil and water, whose harm is becoming more and more serious. So we must carry on the harmless treatment. The rural large-scale pig farms should give full play to their own advantages, prefer dry dung cleaning process, implement rain and sewage separation, use suitable manure treatment facilities, scientifically treat piggery wastewater, to make it harmless, resource development, so as to reduce the pollution of the environment, protect human and animal health, to achieve healthy, sustainable development of the pig industry.%随着农村牲猪养殖业的规模化发展,猪场排放的废弃物越来越多,其中排放的粪污严重污染着周边大气、土壤和水体,其危害日趋严重,必须对其进行无害化处理。农村规模化养猪场应充分发挥自身优势,优先选用干清粪工艺,实施雨污分离,采用适宜的粪污处理设施,科学处理猪场粪污,使之向无害化、资源化方向发展,从而减少环境污染,保障人畜健康,实现养猪业可持续性健康发展。

  2. Treatment planning for a small animal using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, James C. L.; Leung, Michael K. K.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a small animal model for radiotherapy research requires a complete setup of customized imaging equipment, irradiators, and planning software that matches the sizes of the subjects. The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate the use of a flexible in-house research environment for treatment planning on small animals. The software package, called DOSCTP, provides a user-friendly platform for DICOM computed tomography-based Monte Carlo dose calculation using the EGSnrcMP-based DOSXYZnrc code. Validation of the treatment planning was performed by comparing the dose distributions for simple photon beam geometries calculated through the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system and measurements. A treatment plan for a mouse based on a CT image set by a 360-deg photon arc is demonstrated. It is shown that it is possible to create 3D conformal treatment plans for small animals with consideration of inhomogeneities using small photon beam field sizes in the diameter range of 0.5-5 cm, with conformal dose covering the target volume while sparing the surrounding critical tissue. It is also found that Monte Carlo simulation is suitable to carry out treatment planning dose calculation for small animal anatomy with voxel size about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the human

  3. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  4. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  5. Carbon sequestration in soils with annual inputs of maize biomass and maize-derived animal manure: Evidence from 13C abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2010-01-01

    (beet roots, Beta vulgaris L.). After nine years of maize cropping, soil C from stubbles and roots accounted for 12 and 16% of the total-C in the LUN and ASK soil, respectively. Without additional organic amendment the content of total-C in the ASK soil remained constant and similar to that of soil...... biomass averaged 19% while the retention of C added in maize-derived faeces was 30%. Our study infers that that ruminant manure C contributes about 50% more to soil C sequestration than C applied in crop residues...

  6. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu; Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi

    1979-01-01

    A new method of waste treatment of animal carcass contaminated with plutonium was proposed. A multi-step process was designed and tested at a laboratory scale which was composed of the following processes; microwave dehydration, heat decomposition and ashing. Microwave dehydration was found the most adequate as the first step of the treatment because of the negligible release of nonvolatile radioactivity. About 70% of body weight was reduced by microwave dehydration. Dehydrated animal carcass was decomposed by graded electric heating under anaerobic condition. Burnable gas and vapour produced by the heat decomposition were oxidized by passing through a reheating tube with excess air. The exhaust gas had no significant radioactivity. The residue of charred carcass was oxidized by heating with excess air. The weight of final product was up to 8% of original wet weight. The proposed multi-step process provided to be adequate for the waste disporsal of Pu contaminated animal carcass. (author)

  7. Treatment, promotion, commotion: Antibiotic alternatives in food-producing animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatives to antibiotics in animal agriculture are urgently needed but present a complex problem because of their various uses: disease treatment, disease prevention, and feed efficiency improvement. Numerous antibiotic alternatives, such as feed amended with pre- and probiotics, have been propos...

  8. Assessment of heavy metal flows in animal husbandry and development of a stategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into agro-ecosystems by animal manures; Erfassung von Schwermetallstroemen in landwirtschaftlichen Tierproduktionsbetrieben und Erarbeitung einer Konzeption zur Verringerung der Schwermetalleintraege durch Wirtschaftsduenger tierischer Herkunft in Agraroekosysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, U.; Doehler, H.; Roth, U.; Eckel, H.; Goldbach, H.; Kuehnen, V.; Wilcke, W.; Uihlein, A.; Fruechtenicht, K.; Steffens, G.

    2004-07-01

    The overall objectives of the project were to assess heavy metal flows on livestock farms and to develop a strategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into animal manures. For the experiments 20 farms with animal husbandry in various regions of Germany were selected. On the farms the inputs and outputs of the elements copper and zinc, as well as lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel were balanced at the stable level. The effect of abatement measures was evaluated using a calculation tool for stable balances. It is shown, the main input pathways for heavy metals into animal manures are, apart from copper disinfectants, feeding stuffs and feed supplements. Home grown feeds are the major source of heavy metal input into the stable because they are fed in large quantities. However, the heavy metal content of the home grown feeds in particular of roughages for ruminants is low. Purchased feed stuffs (supplementary feeding stuffs and complete feeding stuffs) were found to have a higher content of heavy metals (due to supplementation with trace elements) compared to home grown feeds. Thus, pig and poultry husbandry rather than ruminant husbandry is susceptible to heavy metal accumulation of manures. Heavy metals are cycling within the farm which is of importance when discussing the environmental impact. The turnover within the farm can hardly be controlled by the farmer. Thus, effective strategies have to be targeted at the inputs, e. g. the purchased feed stuffs. A main option to reduce the heavy metal input is to lower the trace element concentrations in supplementary feed stuffs either by legislation of maximum threshold values (e. g. EG 1334/2003) or by volunteer agreements of the feed industry and agriculture. In addition, the absorption of copper and zinc by the animals should be improved using better absorbable trace element compounds and phytase. (orig.)

  9. The Contrasting Effects of Alum-Treated Chicken Manures and KH2PO4 on Phosphorus Behavior in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lidong; Yang, Junming; Xu, Yuting; Lei, Jiayan; Luo, Xiaoshan; Cade-Menun, Barbara J

    2018-03-01

    Alum [KAl(SO)⋅12HO] is often added to chicken manure to limit P solubility after land application. This is generally ascribed to the formation of Al-PO complexes. However, Al-PO complex formation could be affected by the matrix of chicken manure, which varies with animal diet. Alum was added to KHPO (as a reference material) and two manures from typical chicken farms in China, one from an intensive farm (CMIF) and another from free-ranging chickens (CMFR). These were subsequently incubated with soils for 100 d to investigate P transformations. Alum reduced water-soluble colorimetrically reactive phosphorus (RP) from soils amended with manure more effectively than in soils amended with KHPO. Alum addition lowered Mehlich-3 RP in soils with CMFR but had no influence on Mehlich-3 RP in CMIF- or KHPO-amended soils. A comparison of P in digested Mehlich-3 extracts with RP in undigested samples showed significantly increased P in digests of alum-treated CMFR only. Fractionation data indicated that alum treatment increased P in the NHF-RP (Al-P) fraction only in soils with KHPO, but not in soils with manure treatments. Furthermore, NaOH-extracted nonreactive P was markedly higher in soil with alum-treated CMFR relative to normal CMFR. The CMFR manure was assumed to contain higher concentrations of organic P because these chickens were fed grains only. These results suggest that the formation of alum-organic P complexes may reduce P solubility. By comparing alum-treated KHPO and manures, it appears that organic matter in manure could interfere with the formation of Al-PO complexes. Copyright © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and AgriFood Canada.

  10. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus...... in methane yield as the highest concentrations tested; it is anticipated that this will result to an even lower cost for recovery and recycling of ammonia in full-scale. Moreover, the effect of 1, 3, and 5 days AAS treatment on methane production from digested fibers was investigated with 5 and 25% w....../w reagent concentrations in ammonia. It was shown that the optimal duration among the ones tested was the three days for both reagent concentrations....

  11. Changes in physical properties and organic carbon of a Kandiudox fertilized with manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Patricia Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Successive applications of pig slurry and poultry manure can improve the soil structure, according to the land use conditions and amounts applied. This study evaluated the effect of manure fertilization on the physical properties and organic carbon of a Rhodic Kandiudox. Treatments included land use and management and time of pig slurry and poultry litter application, namely: native forest (NF; yerba mate after 20 years of animal waste application (YM20; pasture after 15 years of application (P15; grassland after 20 years of manuring (PP20; grassland after 3 years of manuring (P3; pasture without application (P0, maize after 20 years of application (M20; and maize after 7 years of application (M7. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20cm layers, in which density, porosity, aggregate stability, flocculation, penetration resistance, available water, and total clay content, total and particulate organic carbon, and C:N ratio were analyzed. The total organic carbon is sensitive to management and was not related to waste application, except in the 10-20cm layer of ryegrass pasture after three years of manuring. Reponses to waste application and land use and management systems were observed in the variables soil density and penetration resistance.

  12. NH3 dynamics in composting : assessment of the integration of composting in manure management chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch animal production sector copes with a manure problem. Their high nitrogen content makes manures popular fertilizers, but most of this nitrogen is emitted before it could be used by plants. Ammonia is the main emission form during the manure management chain of storage, transportation and

  13. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: Laboratory-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does no...

  14. Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Oun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

  15. Impacts of delayed addition of N-rich and acidic substrates on nitrogen loss and compost quality during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishao; Kang, Kang; Chen, Dan; Liu, Ningning

    2018-02-01

    Delayed addition of Nitrogen (N)-rich and acidic substrates was investigated to evaluate its effects on N loss and compost quality during the composting process. Three different delayed adding methods of N-rich (pig manure) and acidic substrates (phosphate fertilizer and rotten apples) were tested during the pig manure and wheat straw is composting. The results showed that delayed addition of pig manure and acidic materials led two temperature peaks, and the durations of two separate thermophilic phase were closely related to the amount of pig manure. Delayed addition reduced total N loss by up to 14% when using superphosphate as acidic substrates, and by up to 12% when using rotten apples as acidic substrates, which is mainly due to the decreased NH 3 emissions. At the end of composting, delayed the addition of pig manure caused a significant increase in the HS (humus substance) content, and the highest HS content was observed when 70% of the pig manure was applied at day 0 and the remaining 30% was applied on day 27. In the final compost, the GI in all treatments almost reached the maturity requirement by exceeding 80%. The results suggest that delayed addition of animal manure and acidic substrates could prevent the N loss during composting and improve the compost quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  17. Leaching impact assessment in liquid manure application to Tulip tree experimental site using Root Zone Water Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure recycling as a fertilizer is one of solutions for the environmental problem related with livestock manure treatment as well as the ocean dumping ban act prohibiting manure disposal to the ocean in Korea. For the manure disposal, tree plantation area is being a candidate place. However, the ma...

  18. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  19. 21 CFR 579.22 - Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets..., AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.22 Ionizing radiation for treatment of animal diets. Ionizing radiation for treatment of complete diets for animals may be...

  20. Anaerobic digestion of nitrogen rich poultry manure: Impact of thermophilic biogas process on metal release and microbial resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Reshma; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Krakat, Niclas

    2017-02-01

    Poultry manure is a nitrogen rich fertilizer, which is usually recycled and spread on agricultural fields. Due to its high nutrient content, chicken manure is considered to be one of the most valuable animal wastes as organic fertilizer. However, when chicken litter is applied in its native form, concerns are raised as such fertilizers also include high amounts of antibiotic resistant pathogenic Bacteria and heavy metals. We studied the impact of an anaerobic thermophilic digestion process on poultry manure. Particularly, microbial antibiotic resistance profiles, mobile genetic elements promoting the resistance dissemination in the environment as well as the presence of heavy metals were focused in this study. The initiated heat treatment fostered a community shift from pathogenic to less pathogenic bacterial groups. Phenotypic and molecular studies demonstrated a clear reduction of multiple resistant pathogens and self-transmissible plasmids in the heat treated manure. That treatment also induced a higher release of metals and macroelements. Especially, Zn and Cu exceeded toxic thresholds. Although the concentrations of a few metals reached toxic levels after the anaerobic thermophilic treatment, the quality of poultry manure as organic fertilizer may raise significantly due to the elimination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) and self-transmissible plasmids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of cattle and poultry manures on organic matter content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    ferrallitic soils amended with cattle and poultry manures under cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivation. Therefore ... The manure treatment significantly increased the soil organic matter contents from ...... Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia.

  2. Interaction of micro and macro elements with manure on barley feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... on barley feed yield and soil nutrient content in Sistan region ... In order to study the effect of interaction of 'micro' and 'macro' ... different proportions of manure and chemical fertilizer treatment were: 100% manure (F1), 100%.

  3. Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure storages, and in particular those storing digested manure, are a source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Permeable manure storage covers can reduce NH3 emissions, however performance can decline as they degrade. Thermochemical conversion of biomass through pyrolysis and steam treatment could incre...

  4. Tracing heavy metals in 'swine manure - maggot - chicken' production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanqiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Qizhi; Zhu, Fen

    2017-08-21

    With the development of large-scale livestock farming, manure pollution has drawn much attention. Conversion by insects is a rapid and cost-effective new method for manure management. Swine manure conversion with maggots (Musca domestica larvae) has developed, and the harvested maggots are often used as animal feed. However, the flow of heavy metals from manure to downstream processes cannot be ignored, and therefore, heavy metal content was measured in untreated raw manure, maggot-treated manure, harvested maggots and maggot-eating chickens (chest muscle and liver) to evaluate potential heavy metal risks. The levels of zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead had significant differences between untreated raw manure and maggot-treated manure. The concentrations of all detected heavy metals, except for cadmium and selenium, in maggots met the limits established by the feed or feed additive standards of many countries. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals decreased with the increase of the maggot instar, indicating that heavy metals were discharged from the bodies of maggots with the growth of maggots. Also, the contents of overall heavy metals in chickens fed harvested maggots met the standards for food. In conclusion, regarding heavy metals, it is eco-safe to use maggots in manure management.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of manure - consequences for plant production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Pommeresche, Reidun; Johansen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming systems are today dependent upon fossil energy. Another challenge are soil nutrient concentrations, which may be depleted with time even in animal husbandry systems (Løes & Øgaard 2001). Anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal manure may produce biogas to replace fossil fuels, and reduce...... methane (CH4) emissions during manure storage. Co-digestion of substrates rich in energy increases the economic viability of the biogas plant, and off-farm substrates such as fish silage or household waste may add nutrients to the farming system. AD may also ease manure handling, while reducing the amount...

  6. Farm-scale testing of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for surficial swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-10-01

    The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide (CaO2) was found to be effective in mitigating gaseous emissions from swine manure. Thus, a farm-scale experiment was conducted at the university's 178-pig, shallow-pit, mechanically-ventilated swine barn to evaluate SBP/CaO2 as a surficial manure pit additive under field conditions. The SBP was applied once at the beginning of the 42-day experiment at an application rate of 2.28 kg m-2 with 4.2% CaO2 added by weight. Gas samples were collected from the primary barn exhaust fans. As compared to the control, significant reductions in gaseous emissions were observed for ammonia (NH3, 21.7%), hydrogen sulfide (H2S, 79.7%), n-butyric acid (37.2%), valeric acid (47.7%), isovaleric acid (39.3%), indole (31.2%), and skatole (43.5%). Emissions of dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT) increased by 30.6%. Emissions of p-cresol were reduced by 14.4% but were not statistically significant. There were no significant changes to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The total (material + labor) treatment cost was 2.62 per marketed pig, equivalent to 1.5% of the pig market price. The cost of CaO2 catalyst was ∼60% of materials cost. The cost of soybean hulls (SBP source) was 0.60 per marketed pig, i.e., only 40% of materials cost.

  7. Dissecting OCD Circuits: From Animal Models to Targeted Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari, Susanne E.; Dougherty, Darin D.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic, severe mental illness with up to 2–3% prevalence worldwide, which has been classified as one of the world’s 10 leading causes of illness-related disability according to the World Health Organization, largely because of the chronic nature of disabling symptoms 1. Despite the severity and high prevalence of this chronic and disabling disorder, there is still relatively limited understanding of its pathophysiology. However, this is now rapidly changing due to development of powerful technologies that can be used to dissect the neural circuits underlying pathologic behaviors. In this article, we describe recent technical advances that have allowed neuroscientists to start identifying the circuits underlying complex repetitive behaviors using animal model systems. In addition, we review current surgical and stimulation-based treatments for OCD that target circuit dysfunction. Finally, we discuss how findings from animal models may be applied in the clinical arena to help inform and refine targeted brain stimulation-based treatment approaches. PMID:25952989

  8. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  9. Effects of anaerobic digestion on chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline degradation efficiency for swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fubin; Dong, Hongmin; Ji, Chao; Tao, Xiuping; Chen, Yongxing

    2016-10-01

    Manure containing antibiotics is considered a hazardous substance that poses a serious health risk to the environment and to human health. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could not only treatment animal waste but also generate valuable biogas. However, the interaction between antibiotics in manure and the AD process has not been clearly understood. In this study, experiments on biochemical methane potential (BMP) were conducted to determine the inhibition of the AD process from antibiotics and the threshold of complete antibiotic removal. The thresholds of the complete antibiotic removal were 60 and 40mg/kg·TS for CTC and OTC, respectively. CTC and OTC with concentrations below thresholds could increase the BMP of manure. When the CTC and OTC concentrations exceeded the thresholds, they inhibited manure fermentation, and the CTC removal rate declined exponentially with concentration (60-500mg/kg·TS). The relationship between OTC antibiotic concentration and its removal rate in AD treatment was described with exponential (40-100mg/kg·TS) and linear equations (100-500mg/kg·TS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Criterious preparation and characterization of earthworm-composts in view of animal waste recycling. Part I. Correlation between chemical, thermal and FTIR spectroscopic analyses of four humic acids from earthworm-composted animal manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangrich Antonio S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids (HA were extracted from sheep (SH, cow (CO, goat (GO and rabbit (RA manures which were vermicomposted with the earthworm Eisenia foetida. HA DSC curves showed well-defined thermal events indicative of intramolecular bonds (300 ºC and intermolecular organo-mineral linkages (500 ºC. All samples showed high nitrogen contents (from peptide chains and probably N-heterocycles and aromatic and/or unsaturated aliphatic conjugated structures, as well as a low carboxylic functionality content. The SH-HA was the most similar to a medium soil HA and the RA-HA being the least similar. The results show that it is possible to prepare distinct worm-composts to solve specific problems of degraded soils.

  11. Anaerobic treatment of animal byproducts from slaughterhouses at laboratory and pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Mats; Nordberg, Ake; Thyselius, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    Different mixtures of animal byproducts, other slaughterhouse waste (i.e., rumen, stomach and intestinal content), food waste, and liquid manure were codigested at mesophilic conditions (37 degrees C) at laboratory and pilot scale. Animal byproducts, including blood, represent 70-80% of the total biogas potential from waste generated during slaughter of animals. The total biogas potential from waste generated during slaughter is about 1300 MJ/cattle and about 140 MJ/pig. Fed-batch digestion of pasteurized (70 degrees C, 1 h) animal byproducts resulted in a fourfold increase in biogas yield (1.14 L/g of volatile solids [VS]) compared with nonpasteurized animal byproducts (0.31 L/g of VS). Mixtures with animal byproducts representing 19-38% of the total dry matter were digested in continuous-flow stirred tank reactors at laboratory and pilot scale. Stable processes at organic loading rates (OLRs) exceeding 2.5 g of VS/(L.d) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) less than 40 d could be obtained with total ammonia nitrogen concentrations (NH4-N + NH3-N) in the range of 4.0-5.0 g/L. After operating one process for more than 1.5 yr at total ammonia nitrogen concentrations >4 g/L, an increase in OLR to 5 g of VS/(L.d) and a decrease in HRT to 22 d was possible without accumulation of volatile fatty acids.

  12. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Etesami; F. Tajpour; M. Khosravi; A. Biabani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality a...

  13. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1980-01-01

    A method of dehydration for the waste treatment of radioactive animal carcass by microwave heating was developed. A heating apparatus was devised by annexing the microwave output controlling circuit to a 600 W commercial microwave oven, and the aqueous vapour from the animal carcass was collected by duplex cold traps. Body weight of the carcass was reduced to 20-30% by dehydration, and a three-year storage test proved that the dehydrated carcass was very hard to decompose. Time needed for dehydration was about 10 min for a 25 g mouse, and about 1 hr for 668 g dog. Violent rupture of the carcass, and/or fuming due to overheating that had often been observed during dehydration were proved to be avoidable by controlling the microwave output during the process. The ratio of radioactivity ( 60 Co, 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 144 Ce) that escaped from the carcass during dehydration was found to be less than 3 x 10 -4 by a series of experiment. Some related radiation safety problems were discussed. (author)

  14. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  15. Ovarian cysts in domestic animals: etiopathogenesis and treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M. Marinho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available . This literature review aims to address ovarian cysts on their etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, seeking to clarify and inform, because it is a high prevalence and pathogenicity that causes damage to the segments of production and reproduction of animals, especially dairy cows high production. Given the significant occurrence of ovarian alterations, the study covers the main types and their ratings also address predisposing factors, interference due to cystic formations and what types of cysts may or may not cause changes in the physiology of the estrous cycle of females, work also seeks to emphasize the importance of monitoring and early diagnosis in order to minimize the costs and disposal of matrices.

  16. effect of farmyard manure on senescence, nitrogen and protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    treatment (manurex2) at the ratio of 5:1 soil to manure and the control (no manure added). Plastic pots of ... seasons, senescence started earlier rainy season than in dry season. On the other hand ... These changes, visible to the naked eye are.

  17. Poultry manure application and varietal effects of chilli-pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural practices such as organic manure application can affect soil fertility and also insect pest and disease incidence on the plant. The effect of poultry manure application was therefore evaluated in relation to the infestation by major insect pests and disease of pepper in a humid tropical agro-ecosystem. Treatments ...

  18. Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil properties and rice yield in rice-based cropping systems. ... The effects of treatments on rice yield and its components were also investigated. ... Based on the results, BBRH and PTS are good practices for production of green manure in paddy soil. Chemical ...

  19. DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE. AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND UHPLC -ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic animal-feed additives have been extensively used in the United States for their growth- promoting and disease-controlling properties. In particular most broiler chickens are fed roxarsone(3- nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) to control coccidiosis. Disposal of the result...

  20. Method for extraction of proteins and phosphate minerals from swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recovery of phosphorus and proteins from manure could be advantageous to both offset costs and to improve and lessen the environmental impacts of manure storage and treatment. Phosphorous in manure can contaminate rivers, lakes, and bays through runoff, if applied onto a cropland excessively. Th...

  1. Accumulation of sulfonamide resistance genes in arable soils due to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-04-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  2. SWINE MANURE SOLIDS SEPARATION AND THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO HEAVY OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation of solids from liquid swine manure and subsequent thermo-chemical conversion (TCC of the solids fraction into oil is one way of reducing the waste strength and odor emission. Such processing also provides a potential means of producing renewable energy from animal wastes. Gravity settling and mechanical separation techniques, by means of a centrifuge and belt press, were used to remove the solids from liquid swine manure. The solid fractions from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for the TCC process for oil production. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor with a steady temperature 305 oC, and the corresponding pressure was 10.34 Mpa. Gravity settling was demonstrated to be capable of increasing the total solids content of manure from 1% to 9%. Both of the mechanical separation systems were able to produce solids with dry matter around 18% for manure, with 1% to 2% initial total solids. A significant amount of volatile solid (75.7% was also obtained from the liquid fraction using the belt press process. The oil yields of shallow pit manure solids and deep pit manure solids with belt press separation were 28.72% and 29.8% of the total volatile solids, respectively. There was no visible oil product obtained from the deep pit manure solids with centrifuge separation. It is believed that it is the volatile solid content and the other components in the manure chemical composition which mainly deter-mine the oil production.

  3. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  4. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  5. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms.

  6. Exploring the ethical basis of animal treatment in Malawi | Kayange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper argues that the maltreatment/cruelty and destruction of animals common in Malawi is rooted in an African form of utilitarian ethics and a biased conception of animals that is promoted by Umunthu/Ubuntu ethical discourse. It explores the possibility of developing or discovering a moral ground for animal ethics ...

  7. Impact of colistin sulfate treatment of broilers on the presence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes in stored or composted manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Devendec, Laetitia; Mourand, Gwenaelle; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Léaustic, Julien; Jouy, Eric; Keita, Alassane; Couet, William; Rousset, Nathalie; Kempf, Isabelle

    2016-10-15

    The application of manure may result in contamination of the environment with antimicrobials, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, resistance genes and plasmids. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the administration of colistin and of manure management on (i) the presence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and (ii) the prevalence of various antimicrobial resistance genes in feces and in composted or stored manure. One flock of chickens was treated with colistin at the recommended dosage and a second flock was kept as an untreated control. Samples of feces, litter and stored or composted manure from both flocks were collected for isolation and determination of the colistin-susceptibility of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa and quantification of genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobials. The persistence of plasmids in stored or composted manure from colistin-treated broilers was also evaluated by plasmid capturing experiments. Results revealed that colistin administration to chickens had no apparent impact on the antimicrobial resistance of the dominant Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa populations in the chicken gut. Composting stimulated an apparently limited decrease in genes coding for resistance to different antimicrobial families. Importantly, it was shown that even after six weeks of composting or storage, plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes could still be transferred to a recipient E. coli. In conclusion, composting is insufficient to completely eliminate the risk of spreading antimicrobial resistance through chicken manure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An Assessment Tool applied to Manure Management Systems using Innovative Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Jacobsen, B.H.; Sommer, Sven Gjedde

    2003-01-01

    of operational and cost-effective animal manure handling technologies. An assessment tool covering the whole chain of the manure handling system from the animal houses to the field has been developed. The tool enables a system-oriented evaluation of labour demand, machinery capacity and costs related......In Denmark, stringent new regulations, placing strict time limits on manure application and setting thresholds for nitrogen utilisation, have been imposed in order to increase the efficiency of uptake of plant nutrients from manure. An important factor in meeting these requirements is the use...

  9. Manure application and ammonia volatilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: manure application, ammonia volatilization, environmental conditions, application technique, incorporation technique, draught force, work organization, costs Livestock manure applied on farmland is an important source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, and NH3 is a major atmospheric

  10. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration [it

  11. Exploring the ethical basis of animal treatment in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    City councils in Malawi have often considered shooting animals, especially .... believed that a hyena's tail makes people fall into a deep slumber and facilitates the .... Observing such animals performing acts akin to human beings helps us to love ... of indirect duties a human being who kills a dog belonging to someone or.

  12. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm 3 ). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Centrifuge separation effect on bacterial indicator reduction in dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zong; Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C; Roa-Espinosa, Aicardo; Runge, Troy

    2017-04-15

    Centrifugation is a commonly applied separation method for manure processing on large farms to separate solids and nutrients. Pathogen reduction is also an important consideration for managing manure. Appropriate treatment reduces risks from pathogen exposure when manure is used as soil amendments or the processed liquid stream is recycled to flush the barn. This study investigated the effects of centrifugation and polymer addition on bacterial indicator removal from the liquid fraction of manure slurries. Farm samples were taken from a manure centrifuge processing system. There were negligible changes of quantified pathogen indicator concentrations in the low-solids centrate compared to the influent slurry. To study if possible improvements could be made to the system, lab scale experiments were performed investigating a range of g-forces and flocculating polymer addition. The results demonstrated that polymer addition had a negligible effect on the indicator bacteria levels when centrifuged at high g forces. However, the higher g force centrifugation was capable of reducing bacterial indicator levels up to two-log 10 in the liquid stream of the manure, although at speeds higher than typical centrifuge operations currently used for manure processing applications. This study suggests manure centrifuge equipment could be redesigned to provide pathogen reduction to meet emerging issues, such as zoonotic pathogen control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelos não lineares para a liberação de potássio de estercos animais em latossolos Non linear models to potassium release from animals manure in Latosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmes Marques Zeviani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modelos não lineares são adequados para a descrição da liberação de nutrientes, uma vez que estimam quantidades de interesse prático e apresentam boa qualidade de ajuste. Embora seu processo inferencial seja baseado em argumentos assintóticos, existem meios de se conhecer a intensidade da não linearidade. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a não linearidade de dois modelos de regressão não linear por meio das curvaturas de Bates e Watts, vício de Box e do estudo das propriedades amostrais dos estimadores de mínimos quadrados, obtido por simulação. Os dados são provenientes do estudo, ao longo do tempo, da liberação de K de quatro estercos animais em combinação com dois solos. O modelo Exponencial foi mais adequado, em termos inferenciais e para aplicação prática, uma vez que por todas as medidas apresentou menor não linearidade.Nonlinear models are appropriate to describe nutrient release, since they estimate quantities of practical interest and they have goodness of fit. Although its inferential process is based on asymptotic arguments, there are ways to know the nonlinearity intensity. In this work, we evaluate the nonlinearity of two nonlinear regression models through the curvatures of Bates e Watts, bias of Box and the least squares estimator sampling properties by simulation study. The data are from the study, over time, of the K release from 4 animal manure in combination with 2 soils. The exponential model was more appropriate in terms of inferential and practical aspects, since by all measures showed lower nonlinearity.

  16. Trace metal concentrations in Tilapia fed with pig and chicken manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H.; Chan, K.M.; Liu, W.K.

    1984-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effects of adding pig manure and chicken manure as supplementary feeds for rearing Sarotherodon mossambicus (Tilapia mossambica) in the laboratory. The feeding test lasted for four weeks under stable aerated conditions. Various portions (10%, 40%, 60% w/w) of the two types of manure were mixed with dried tubifex worm pellets, whilst the control group consisted of tubifex worm alone. The metals studied were Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb. The diets supplemented with 40% and 60% manure contained significantly (p < 0.05) greater amounts of all the metals tested except iron. The concentration of metals in the fish tissues (gill, viscera, flesh) was related to the amount of manure supplement. Harmful effects were reflected by significantly lower (p < 0.05) protein content in fish fed on manure-supplement diets, with the sole exception of the 10% pig manure supplement. Histological damage was also observed in the gills and the hepatopancreas of fish fed on diets supplemented with 60% pig manure and with 40% or 60% chicken manure. Of the two kinds of animal manure investigated as potential supplementary feeds for rearing tilapia, the results indicate that pig manure is likely to be the better choice.

  17. The Kinetic of Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure in Batch Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Budiyono; I N. Widiasa; S. Johari; Sunarso

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the kinetic of biogas production was studied by performing a series laboratory experiment using rumen fluid of animal ruminant as inoculums. Cattle manure as substrate was inoculated by rumen fluid to the anaerobic biodigester. Laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid by manure : rumen weight ratio of 1:1 (MR11). The operating temperatures...

  18. Response of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) to Farmyard Manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2Department of Crop Production, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria. ... of roselle to farmyard manure, nitrogen and their interaction on the growth and yield of roselle. Treatment ..... roselle as an industrial crop in Nigeria.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun, E-mail: qichun.yang@pnnl.gov [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Tian, Hanqin, E-mail: tianhan@auburn.edu [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Li, Xia [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Ren, Wei [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Zhang, Bowen [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhang, Xuesong [Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wolf, Julie [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.{sup −1} (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr.{sup −1} (1 Tg = 10{sup 12} g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in

  20. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr. −1 (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr. −1 (1 Tg = 10 12 g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of

  1. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) effect on methane yield: verification in continuously fed digesters. • AAS resulted in 98% increase of the methane yield of swine manure fibers in continuously fed digesters. • ADM1 was successfully adapted to simulating anaerobic digestion of swine manure. • Modification of hydrolysis kinetics was necessary for an adequate simulation of the digestion of AAS-treated fibers. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per 0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly contribute to the methane production. In the second place, ADM1 was used to describe biogas production from the codigestion of manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The model predictions regarding biogas production and methane content were in good agreement with the experimental data. It was shown that, AAS treatment significantly increased the disintegration and hydrolysis rate of the carbohydrate compounds of the fibers. The effect of the addition of AAS treated fibers on the kinetics of the conversion of other key compounds such as volatile fatty acids was negligible.

  2. Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Rene; Villca, Saul; Liden, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Methane production from llama and cow manures from the Bolivian high plateau (The 'Altiplano') was studied using a parallel reactor set-up consisting of 10 lab-scale biogasifiers. The effects of pressure (495 and 760mmHg), temperature (11 and 35 deg. C), hydraulic retention time (20 and 50 days), and manure content in the slurry (10%, 20% and 50%) were evaluated with respect to productivity and methane yields based on two 2 4-1 fractional factorial designs with 8 treatments for each kind of manure. The reactors were operated semi-continuously with daily manure feeding for periods between 50 and 100 days. Temperature was the main factor effect found, and the hydraulic retention time and the manure content in feed were also found significant whereas the effect of pressure was not significant in the range studied. The methane yield obtained with cow manure at 11 - bar C was between 6.4 and 33.6lCH 4 kg -1 VS (volatile solids added) whereas at 35 deg. C the methane yield was between 49.6 and 131.3lCH 4 kg -1 VS. The methane yield from llama manure was somewhat lower than for cow manure (between 3.3 and 19.3lCH 4 kg -1 VS at 11 deg. C and between 35.6 and 84.1lCH 4 kg -1 VS at 35 deg. C, respectively). However, overall llama manure was found to be the best raw material of the two for biogas production, due to its high content of volatile solid-higher than has been previously reported for most manures-and also its high nitrogen and phosphorous content

  3. Qualidade de esterco de ave poedeira submetido a dois tipos de tratamentos de compostagem Quality of poultry manure submitted to two types of composting treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano G. dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se avaliou a qualidade de compostos de esterco de ave poedeira produzidos em pilhas de compostagem e se testaram os seguintes tratamentos: 1 sem gesso e sem revolvimento; 2 com gesso e sem revolvimento; 3 sem gesso e com revolvimento e 4 com gesso e com revolvimento. Para avaliar a qualidade dos compostos foram considerados os padrões do Ministério de Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA, estabelecidos para ovos e larvas de helmintos, Salmonella sp, coliformes totais e fecais, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, C, N, umidade, relações C:N, C:CTC (Capacidade de troca de cátions e pH. Os compostos obtidos nas pilhas revolvidas atenderam aos padrões de qualidade, exceto o teor de C, que foi menor. Nos compostos das pilhas com gesso e não revolvidas, o teor deste elemento excedeu o mínimo exigido mas os valores de N, de ovos de helmintos e de umidade, não corresponderam ao padrão do MAPA. Os teores de metais e de Se dos compostos foram menores que o máximo permitido, exceto o de Cd, cujo teor foi elevado no esterco utilizado nas pilhas sem gesso. Este aditivo decresceu o valor do pH dos compostos e aumentou o teor de N das pilhas não revolvidas. Em relação a todos os atributos avaliados, os melhores compostos foram obtidos nas pilhas revolvidas.The quality of poultry manure composts obtained from composting heaps were evaluated, in the following treatments: 1 without gypsum and turning; 2 without gypsum and with turning; 3 with gypsum and turning; 4 with gypsum and without turning. The quality of composts was evaluated with the Department of Agricultural (DA standards established to the occurrence of eggs and grubs of helminthes, Salmonella sp, fecal and total coliforms, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, C, N, humidity, C:N and C:CEC rations, and pH. The quality of composts from the turned heaps agrees with the DA standards, except the C content, which was lower. In the composts obtained from heaps with gypsum addition and without turner

  4. Combination of borax and quebracho condensed tannins treatment to reduce hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock producers are acutely aware for the need to reduce gaseous emissions from stored livestock waste and have been trying to identify new technologies to address the chronic problem. Besides the malodor issue, toxic gases emitted from stored livestock manure, especially hydrogen sulfide (H2S)...

  5. Farm animal health managements and treatment practices at Diga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal sex, age, species and body condition were considered. Cases were characterized and determined using tentative diagnosis and patho-gnomonic signs. The owners were also interviewed for local name of the disease. The respective therapeutic drugs used were also assessed. Male cattle (57.7%), poultry (76.3%) ...

  6. Accumulation of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Arable Soils Due to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-01-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  7. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberle, E. [Fachverband Biogas, Obermarchtat (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  8. The ALFAM2 database on ammonia emission from field-applied manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Pacholski, Andreas; Bittman, Shabtai; Burchill, William; Bussink, Wim; Chantigny, Martin; Carozzi, Marco; Génermont, Sophie; Häni, Christoph; Hansen, Martin N.; Huijsmans, Jan; Hunt, Derek; Kupper, Thomas; Lanigan, Gary; Loubet, Benjamin; Misselbrook, Tom; Meisinger, John J.; Neftel, Albrecht; Nyord, Tavs; Pedersen, Simon V.; Sintermann, Jörg; Thompson, Rodney B.; Vermeulen, Bert; Voylokov, Polina; Williams, John R.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2018-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from animal manure contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation, and the loss of reactive nitrogen (N) from agricultural systems. Estimates of NH3 emission are necessary for national inventories and nutrient management, and NH3 emission from field-applied manure has

  9. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-08-01

    Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of N-15 labelling to study the turnover and utilization of ruminant manure N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved understanding of the cycling of animal manure N is a prerequisite for malting better use of this N source. A sheep was fed N-15-Iabelled grass in order to study the fate of N-15-Iabelled ruminant manure N in the plant-soil system. The uniformity of labelling was found to be satisfactory...

  11. The effect of poultry manure application rate and AlCl(3) treatment on bacterial fecal indicators in runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J P; Adeli, A; McLaughlin, M R; Miles, D M

    2012-12-01

    Increasing costs associated with inorganic fertilizer have led to widespread use of broiler litter. Proper land application, typically limiting nutrient loss, is essential to protect surface water. This study was designed to evaluate litter-borne microbial runoff (heterotrophic plate count bacteria, staphylococci, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens) while applying typical nutrient-control methods. Field studies were conducted in which plots with high and low litter rates, inorganic fertilizer, AlCl(3)-treated litter, and controls were rained on five times using a rain generator. Overall, microbial runoff from poultry litter applied plots was consistently greater (2-5 log(10) plot(-1)) than controls. No appreciable effect on microbial runoff was noted from variable litter application rate or AlCl(3) treatments, though rain event, not time, significantly affected runoff load. C. perfringens and staphylococci runoff were consistently associated with poultry litter application, during early rain events, while other indicators were unreliable. Large microbial runoff pulses were observed, ranging from 10(2) to 10(10) CFU plot(-1); however, only a small fraction of litter-borne microbes were recoverable in runoff. This study indicated that microbial runoff from litter-applied plots can be substantial, and that methods intended to reduce nutrient losses do not necessarily reduce microbial runoff.

  12. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette

    The spreading of manure on agricultural land is an economic and practical solution for improving soil quality; however, animal manure frequently contains zoonotic pathogenic bacteria, such as certain Eschericia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The present experiment was conducted...... as a large multidisciplinary project. Pig manure with a natural content of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicator organisms was followed in soil columns and a field scale experiment. In the field experiment pig manure was injected into agricultural soil. The distribution and survival of natural...... occurring indicator bacteria around a manure slurry slit in the soil was followed. During a period of two months, sections of soils with different distance to the manure string were assayed to obtain information on survival and spread of bacteriophage, faecal indicators (Enterococci, Bacterioides, E. coli...

  13. Water Quality Impacts of Cover Crop/Manure Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, James Donald

    1997-01-01

    Crop production, soil system, water quality, and economic impacts of four corn silage production systems were compared through a field study including 16 plots (4 replications of each treatment). Systems included a rye cover crop and application of liquid dairy manure in the spring and fall. The four management systems were: 1) traditional, 2) double- crop, 3) roll-down, and 4) undercut. In the fourth system, manure was applied below the soil surface during the ...

  14. Short communication: Environmental mastitis pathogen counts in freestalls bedded with composted and fresh recycled manure solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K J; Hogan, J S

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of environmental mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids bedding with those in fresh recycled manure solids. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with composted recycled manure solids. The second row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with fresh recycled manure solids. The back one-third of stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 to 50 mm of bedding. Samples were taken from the back one-third of 4 stalls for both treatments on d 0, 1, 2, and 6 of each week. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were switched between rows, making the total duration 6 wk. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts were approximately 0.5 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in the composted recycled manure solids on d 0 compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Klebsiella species, coliform, and Streptococcus species counts were at least 1.0 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in composted compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0. Only gram-negative bacterial counts on d 1 were reduced in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Differences were not observed between treatments in gram-negative bacterial, coliform, Klebsiella species, or Streptococcus species counts on d 2 and 6. Ash content was higher in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Despite the increase in ash after composting, bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids were comparable with those in fresh recycled manure when used as freestall bedding. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Field experiment with liquid manure and enhanced biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Field experiments with low amounts of various liquid manure enhanced biochars. In 2016 a new machine was developed to inject liquid biochar based fertilizer directly into the crop root zone. A large-scale field experiment with corn and oil seed pumpkin was set-up on 42 hectares on 15 different fields in the south East of Austria. Three treatments were compared: (1) surface spreading of liquid manure as control (common practice), (2) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure, and (3) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure mixed with 1 to 2 tons of various nutrient enhanced biochars. The biochar were quenched with the liquid phase from a separated digestate from a biogas plant (feedstock: cow manure). From May to October nitrate and ammonium content was analyzed monthly from 0-30cm and 30-60cm soil horizons. At the end of the growing season the yield was determined. The root zone injection of the liquid manure reduced the nitrate content during the first two months at 13-16% compared to the control. When the liquid manure was blended with biochar, Nitrate soil content was lowest (reduction 40-47%). On average the root zone injection of manure-biochar increased the yield by 7% compared to the surface applied control and 3% compared to the root zone injected manure without biochar. The results shows, that biochar is able to reduce the Nitrate load in soils and increase the yield of corn at the same time. The nutrient efficiency of organic liquid fertilizers can be increased.

  16. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  17. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  18. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  19. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-22

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  20. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure. PMID:27444518

  1. GROWTH AND YIELD OF ORGANIC RICE WITH COW MANURE APPLICATION IN THE FIRST CROPPING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Arif Sudarsono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was addressed to investigating the effect of cow manure application rate on organic rice growth and yield in the first cropping season. The study was conducted from January to April 2012 in Blora, Central Java, Indonesia. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design, consisting of four treatments and four replications. There were two types of control treatments i.e. organic fertilizer treatments (statistically analyzed and conventional fertilizer (not statistically analyzed. The treatments were corn biomass, corn biomass+cow manure (7.5 tons ha-1, corn biomass+cow manure (10 tons ha-1 and cow manure (10 tons ha-1 with square spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm. The organic control treatments were corn biomass+sheep manure (7.5 tons ha-1 with spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm and corn biomass+cow manure (7.5 tons ha-1 with double-row spacing of 40 cm x 25 cm x 15 cm. For every treatment, the rate of corn biomass was 3 tons ha-1. All organic treatments were also added with 3 tons rice hull ash ha-1. The application of cow manure (10 tons ha-1 with square spacing or corn biomass+cow manure (7.5 tons ha-1 with double-row spacing resulted in better performance than those of other treatments.

  2. Methods for increasing the biogas potential from the recalcitrant organic matter contained in manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Angelidaki, Irini

    1998-01-01

    The biogas potential of manure could be significantly increased by treatment of the recalcitrant organic matter (biofibers) contained in the manure. Several treatment methods were tested. Mechanical maceration resulted in an average increase of the biogas potential of approx. 17% as shown...

  3. Effects of Combined Application of Manure and Nitrogen in a Semi-Arid Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted under field conditions at Masii to examine maize response to a combined application of cattle manure and nitrogen (N) in a sandy soil. The treatments consisted of 0, 10 and 20 tons of manure per hectare (t ha -1 ) applied in a brand along the maize rows. the manure was combined with 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha -1 all applied at planting in the first year, and o, 40, 90 and 150 kg N ha -1 split into two applications in the second year. Maize plants grown without either manure or nitrogen were stunted and yellow. Grain yields were low ranging from 175 to 246 kg ha -1 , in the two years of study when no manure or fertilizer was applied. Application of 10 t ha -1 of manure alone increased the grain yield to a maximum of 1529 kg ha -1 . Grain yield increased significantly with combined application of manure and nitrogen to 3145 kg ha -1 , when a combination of 20 t ha - 1 of manure and 120 kg N ha -1 was applied in the year. Even the a yield plateau could not be attained. The study indicated that low soil fertility is a major limitation to maize growth and production in the study area. Maize production can be improved by application of manure or nitrogen, however, higher yields could be achieved when manure and nitrogen are applied in combination

  4. [Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy animal model and its treatment applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuman, Hideki

    2014-04-01

    Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is one of the most common acute unilaterally onset optic nerve diseases. One management problem in terms of NAION is the difficulty of differential diagnosis between NAION and anterior optic neuritis (ON). A second problem is that there is no established treatment for the acute stage of NAION. A third problem is that there is no preventive treatment for a subsequent attack on the fellow eye, estimated to occur in 15 to 25% of patients with NAION. For differentiation of acute NAION from anterior optic neuritis, we investigated the usefulness of laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG). In the normal control group, the tissue blood flow did not significantly differ between the right and left eyes. In the NAION group, all 6 patients had 29.5% decreased mean blur rate (MBR), which correlates to optic disc blood flow, of the NAION eye compared with the unaffected eye. In the anterior ON group, all 6 cases had 15.9% increased MBR of the anterior ON eye compared with the unaffected eye. Thus, LSFG showed a difference of the underlying pathophysiology between NAION and anterior ON despite showing disc swelling in both groups and could be useful for differentiating both groups. For the treatment of acute stage of NAION, we tried to reproduce the rodent model of NAION (rNAION) developed by Bernstein and colleagues. To induce rNAION, after the administration of rose bengal(RB) (2.5 mM) into the tail vein of SD rats, the small vessels of the left optic nerve were photoactivated using a 514 nm argon green laser (RB-laser-induction). In the RB-laser-induction eyes, the capillaries within the optic disc were reduced markedly, the optic disc became swollen, and fluorescein angiography showed filling defect in the choroid and the optic disc at an early stage, followed by hyperfluorescence at a late stage. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed that visual evoked potential (VEP) amplitude was significantly decreased but an electroretinogram

  5. Legume Logic & Green Manuring

    OpenAIRE

    Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh

    2014-01-01

    Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...

  6. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to dire...

  7. Reduction of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in poultry manure by rearing of Musca domestica fly larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Fischer, C.; Bjerrum, L.

    2017-01-01

    A major barrier for using animal waste as substrate for production of insects for feed or food is the concern for safety of the end products. In this study we investigated how rearing of fly larvae of Musca domestica in poultry manure influenced the counts of three pathogenic test strains...... of the larvae stage. This study provides data for evaluation of feed safety of fly larvae reared on animal waste. Furthermore suggests a potential use for reduction of these pathogens in manure........ Enteritidis, and C. jejuni was faster in manure with rearing of fly larvae than in manure without larvae; an 8 log10 reduction of all three test bacteria was observed within four days in manure with larvae; compared to manure without larvae where a 1 to 2 log10 was observed. We found no sign of propagation...

  8. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.22 Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. Cars and other...

  9. Manure digestion in the Netherlands. Mestvergisting in Nederland; Tien jaar kennis en ervaring in de praktijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nes, W.J.; Van Diemen, F.M.P. (Centrum voor Energiebesparing en Schone Technologie (CE), Delft (Netherlands)); Schomaker, A.H.H.M. (Haskoning BV, Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1990-05-01

    The experiences with digestion of effluent animal manure in the Netherlands are complemented with relevant information from other sources. Mesophylic manure digestion at farmscale is discussed. This type of manure digestion is most used in the Netherlands. With the surplus of manure in large parts of the Netherlands and the increasing awareness of the environmental issue, digestion is regularly mentioned as a manner to deal more efficiently with materials from manure and to improve the processability. Furthermore digestion offers a source of energy by way of biogas and environmental hygienic advantages, such as stench reduction and destruction of bacteria and seeds. With the modest research done so far, the agricultural and environmental effects are only quantified very superficially. These effects are not financially valued. Opposing the advantages manure digestion offers, are the relatively high investments as well as possible technical and processing problems with the system management. Given the experience with 5 existing manure digestion plants as well as other results from research and practice, the issue is thoroughly discussed, so that many problems can already be avoided in the design phase. Based on the present results, at a gas production of 18 m{sup 3} manure gas per m{sup 3} supplied (cattle) manure, a manure digestion plant is not cost-efffectively exploitable. With regard to the present price of energy of Hfl. 12.00 per GJ, the price of energy from manure gas is Hfl. 24.00-32.00 per GJ. The future of manure digestion depends on the degree to which gas production can be improved as well as the value that is assigned to agricultural and environmental aspects. For both fields an increase of value is expected in the near future. In Denmark, with adding organic matter, already double the amount of gas per kg organic matter is extracted compared to the Netherlands. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Culture of Daphnia sp. (crustacean – cladocera): the effect of manure variation on the growth, natality, and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, H.; Andriani, Y.; Sahidin, A.; Hidayat, T.; Herawati, T.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the growth rate, reproduction rate, and mortality rate of Daphnia sp. which cultured in variant organic manure. This research used experimental method Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with four treatment and three replications. The treatments in this research were the variant manures from chicken, quail, goat, and cow with same of growth (2,4 g/l). Daphnia cultured with using 100 breeders since from neonets (0 day) until growth up and died in one life cycle. At the 3-days, culture of Daphnia sp was give peak population with maximum age of culture using quail manure is 7 days, and other treatments are 8 days. The growth rate and the reproduction rate of using quail manure was higher than using chicken manure, goat manure, and cow manure (mean GR = 3.68 : 2.32 : 2.74 : 2.97; mean RR = 3.87 : 2.59 : 3.00 : 3.31; p culture, quail manure give the lowest of mortality rate than using chicken manure, goat manure, and cow manure (mean MR = 0.19 : 0.28 : 0.26 : 0.34).

  11. Inactivation of dairy manure-borne pathogens by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure has the potential to inactivate enteric pathogens, thereby reducing exposures to livestock and humans when the products of digestion are disposed by land-spreading or irrigation or returned to livestock uses such as bedding. Data on digester effectiv...

  12. Effect of tillage and rainfall on transport of manure-applied Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Norma E; Wang, Ping; Lejeune, Jeff; Shipitalo, Martin J; Ward, Lucy A; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Dick, Warren A

    2009-01-01

    Most waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been attributed to agricultural sources due to the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal wastes and manure spreading on farmlands. No-till, an effective conservation practice, often results in soil having higher water infiltration and percolation rates than conventional tillage. We treated six undisturbed no-till and six tilled soil blocks (30 by 30 by 30 cm) with 1 L liquid dairy manure containing 10(5) C. parvum oocysts per milliliter to test the effect of tillage and rainfall on oocyst transport. The blocks were subjected to rainfall treatments consisting of 5 mm or 30 mm in 30 min. Leachate was collected from the base of the blocks in 35-mL increments using a 64-cell grid lysimeter. Even before any rain was applied, approximately 300 mL of water from the liquid manure (30% of that applied) was transported through the no-till soil, but none through the tilled blocks. After rain was applied, a greater number and percentage of first leachate samples from the no-till soil blocks compared to the tilled blocks tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. In contrast to leachate, greater numbers of oocysts were recovered from the tilled soil, itself, than from the no-till soil. Although tillage was the most important factor affecting oocyst transport, rainfall timing and intensity were also important. To minimize transport of Cryptosporidium in no-till fields, manure should be applied at least 48 h before heavy rainfall is anticipated or methods of disrupting the direct linkage of surface soil to drains, via macropores, need to be used.

  13. The effect of anaerobic digestion and storage on indicator microorganisms in swine and dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Annamaria; Gusmara, Claudia; Gardoni, Davide; Zaninelli, Mauro; Tambone, Fulvia; Sala, Vittorio; Guarino, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the influence of anaerobic digestion and storage on indicator microorganisms in swine and dairy excreta. Samples were collected every 90 days for 15 months at eight farms, four pig, and four dairy farms, four of them having a biogas plant. Moreover, to evaluate storage effects on samples, 20 l of manure and slurry taken at each farm (digested manure only in farms with a biogas plant) were stored in a controlled climatic chamber at 18 °C, for 6 months. The bacterial load and the chemical-physical characteristics of excreta were evaluated at each sampling time, stored slurry, and manure were sampled and analyzed every 2 months. A high variability of the concentration of bacteria in the different excreta types was observed during the experiment, mainly depending on the type and time of treatment. No sample revealed either the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or of Salmonella, usually linked to the temporary rearing of infected animals in facilities. Anaerobic digestion and storage affected in a significant way the reduction of indicator bacteria like lactobacilli, coliforms, and streptococci. Anaerobic digestion lowered coliforms in pig slurry (- 2.80 log, P manure (- 2.44 log, P < 0.001) and in pig slurry (- 1.43 log, P < 0.05), and lactobacilli in pig slurry (- 3.03 log, P < 0.05). Storage lowered coliforms and the other indicators counts, in particular in fresh wastes, while clostridia did not show a reduction in concentration.

  14. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Eunjong Kim; Dong-Hyun Lee; Seunggun Won; Heekwon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdu...

  15. Mitigation of Nitrogen Emissions from Animal Agriculture in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenema, O.

    2011-12-01

    More than 70% of the utilized agricultural area (187 Mha) in the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU-27) is used for animal production. In addition, a considerable amount of animal feed is imported. Dairy and beef cattle, pigs, and poultry are the dominant animal species. Total livestock density is highest in the Netherlands, Belgium, Ireland, Denmark and some regions in France, Germany and Italy. The mean nitrogen (N) retention in animal products in EU-27 in 2005 was 20% for milk, 8% for beef, 25% for pork, 38% for poultry and 28% for egg production. This indicates that dairy cows excreted on average 80% of the N intake, beef cattle 92%, pigs 75%, poultry 62% and layers 72%. There was a large variation in N retention between countries. Animal manures and nitrogen (N) fertilizers are main sources of N emissions. In 2005, mean N excretion by animals ranged from less than 25 kg per ha per year in Bulgaria to nearly 250 kg per ha in The Netherlands. On average 25% of the total amount of N excreted was lost as ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere, though with a considerable variation between countries. About 10% was lost as NH3-N from housing systems, 9% from manure application to land, 4% from manure storage and treatment facilities, and 3% from grazing. Nitrogen leaching was in the same order of magnitude. Animal production also had a considerable share in the total emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere (range 5-25%). Especially dairy cattle and beef cattle contribute to the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. Considerable efforts are being made to decrease N emissions from agriculture in EU-27. Good agricultural practices and mandatory emission mitigation measures are enforced through EU environmental policies, including Nitrates Directive, National Emissions Ceiling Directive, and Water Framework Directive. Some countries have succeeded to decrease the NH3 emissions to air and N leaching losses to groundwater and

  16. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics used in animal feeding operations have been detected in the environment. There is a growing concern about the impact of these pharmaceutical compounds in the manure and the effect they may have on aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and the potential development of antibiotic resistant m...

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions from manure handling - effects of storage conditions and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, S.G.; Petersen, S.O.

    2002-01-01

    Stored animal manure and manure applied in the field contributes an estimated 20% to the total anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 0) in Denmark. Manure composition, handling and climatic conditions may all influence the emission level during storage, but there are relatively few experimental data on emissions of N 2 0 from manure management, including animal houses, slurry stores and manure heaps. Among animal housing systems, very high emission rates have been found with pig deep lifter, and N 2 0 emissions are further stimulated by mechanical mixing. Slurry stores are anaerobic, but a recent study showed that N 2 0 can be produced in porous surface covers such as natural surface crusts, straw or leca pebbles, while no N 2 0 was emitted from uncovered slurry. The emission was significantly related to the water balance, i.e., the difference between evaporation and rain, during dry periods; during wet periods no N 2 0 was emitted. For solid manure, previous studies have typically found that less than 1 % of total N is emitted as N 2 0. Nitrous oxide may be produced throughout the manure heap, provided an environment with both aerobic and anaerobic pockets exists. Profiles from an experimental heap indicated that most of the N 2 0 emitted from solid manure was produced near the surface of the heap. Increasing density appears to stimulate N 2 0 emissions up to a point, where the air exchange is significantly impeded. The IPCC methodology calculates N 2 0 emissions from manure on the basis of total N content (that is, on the basis of volume) and climate region only. Possibly, estimates of N 2 0 emissions from slurry stores could be improved by considering surface area, ammonium content and water balance as input variables. Emissions from solid manure heaps should consider surface area and the potential for composting, as reflected in bulk density and moisture content. (au)

  18. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Ospina, A. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Dao, Thanh H. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Van Kessel, J.A. [Animal Waste Pathogens Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Reeves, J.B. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)]. E-mail: jreeves@anri.barc.usda.gov

    2005-05-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213 g L{sup -1}, in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m{sup -1}). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP{sub s}) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP{sub s}) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP{sub s} = 0.471 x MRP{sub s} + 1102 (r{sup 2} = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r{sup 2} = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH {<=} 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r{sup 2}) for the MRP{sub s} and RQFlex-DP{sub s} relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r{sup 2} = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r{sup 2} = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. - The dissolved phosphorous quick test can provide real-time information on soluble manure nutrient control.

  19. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo-Ospina, A.; Dao, Thanh H.; Van Kessel, J.A.; Reeves, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213 g L -1 , in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m -1 ). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP s ) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP s ) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP s = 0.471 x MRP s + 1102 (r 2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r 2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH ≤ 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r 2 ) for the MRP s and RQFlex-DP s relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r 2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r 2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. - The dissolved phosphorous quick test can provide real-time information on soluble manure nutrient control

  20. CONVERSION OF ORGANIC MANURE INTO BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Brdarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biogas with anaerobic degradation from organic waste is one of the pledge alternative energetic solutions, especially from organic manure made from animal farming and other residuals of agricultural production. According to 2005 livestock manufacture data daily quantity of animal excrements in Croatia, based on LSU number, is 784 015.26 m3. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of production of biogas from the most common types of domestic animals in Croatia. Anaerobic fermentation period of 40 days in mesophilic conditions produced from 1 kg of beef, 31 litres of biogas slurry and from pig slurry 14.83 litres of biogas. From our study it follows that the Republic of Croatia (based on the number of UG could produce 426,995,250.00 Nm3 biogas annually. Exploitation of biogas can decrease import of the referred energents, especially electric energy.

  1. The Effect of Organic Phosphorus and Nitrogen Enriched Manure on Nutritive Value of Sweet Corn Stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukiwati, D. R.; Pujaningsih, R. I.; Murwani, R.

    2018-02-01

    The experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of some manure enriched with phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) organic (‘manure plus’) on crude protein and mineral production of sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata)and quality of fermented stover as livestock feed. A field experiment was conducted on a vertisol soil (low pH, nitrogen and low available Bray II extractable P). Randomized block design with 9 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this experiment. The treatments were T1(TSP), T2 (SA), T3 (TSP+SA), T4 (manure), T5 (manure+PR), T6 (manure+guano), T7 (manure+N-legume), T8 (manure+PR+N-legume), T9 (manure +guano+N-legume). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences between treatment means were examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Results of the experiment showed that the treatment significantly affected to the crude protein and calcium production of stover and nutrient concentration of fermented stover, but it is not affected to P production of stover. The result of DMRT showed that the effect of ‘manure plus’ was not significantly different on CP and Ca production of stover, mineral concentration, in vitro DMD and OMD of fermented stover, compared to inorganic fertilization. Conclusion, manure enriched with organic NP, resulted in similar on CP and Ca production of stover and nutrient concentration of fermented stover compared to inorganic fertilizer. Thus, organic-NP enriched manure could be an alternative and viable technology to utilize low grade of phosphate rock, guano and Gliricidea sepium to produce sweet corn in vertisol soil.

  2. Airborne pathogens from dairy manure aerial irrigation and the human health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Burch, Tucker R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy manure, like the fecal excrement from any domesticated or wild animal, can contain pathogens capable of infecting humans and causing illness or even death. Pathogens in dairy manure can be broadly divided into categories of taxonomy or infectiousness. Dividing by taxonomy there are three pathogen groups in dairy manure: viruses (e.g., bovine rotavirus), bacteria (e.g., Salmonella species), and protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum). There are two categories of infectiousness for pathogens found in animals: those that are zoonotic and those that are not. A zoonotic pathogen is one that can infect both human and animal hosts. Some zoonotic pathogens found in dairy manure cause illness in both hosts (e.g., Salmonella) while other zoonotic pathogens, like Escherichia coli O157:H7, (enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)) cause illness only in humans. As a general rule, the gastrointestinal viruses found in dairy manure are not zoonotic. While there are exceptions (e.g., rare reports of bovine rotavirus infecting children), for the most part the viruses in dairy manure are not a human health concern. The primary concerns are the zoonotic bacteria and protozoa in dairy manure.

  3. Long term treatment with gabapentin in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup, C. S.; Andrews, N.; Wegener, Gregers

    2013-01-01

    . Daily treatment with gabapentin 30 mg/kg sc. or saline for 6 consecutive weeks. Mechanical sensitivity thresholds (MST) to von Frey stimulation of hindpaws and thorax measured by both reflex withdrawal and supra-spinal responses. Anxiety-like behaviour using the openfield paradigm. Drug effect...... was measured after initial dose, 1 and 6 weeks of treatment. Preliminary results show that saline-treated SCC animals (N=10) have significantly lower MST with supra-spinal responses on the thorax compared to saline-treated shams (N=10), and gabapentin-treated SCC (N=10) and sham animals (N=10) throughout...... the study. The SCC animals had significantly decreased MST with reflex responses on the hindpaws in the two first time points compared with gabapentin-treated SCC animals (and both sham groups). There was no effect of injury on the MST with supra-spinal responses on the hindpaws and thus no effect...

  4. Improving biogas yields using an innovative pretreatment concept for conversion of the fiber fraction of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    A new concept to enable economically feasible operation of manure based biogas plants was tested in lab-scale. Wet explosion (WEx) was implemented as treatment of the residual manure fibers separated after the anaerobic digestion process for enhancing the biogas production before reintroducing...

  5. Influence of Sources and Rates of Manure on Yield and Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of University of Maiduguri to assess the effects of sources and rates of manure ... Cow manure treatment on average, produced the best of growth, yield and nutrient uptake (N,P, and K ... fertilizers coupled with their inability to condition the soil.

  6. Fertiliser value of human manure from pilot urine-diversion toilets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mnkeni, PNS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available and good practice in ecological sanitation. Treatments were arranged in a randomised complete block design with 4 replications and consisted of a control, 100 kg N.ha-1 as goat manure, and 4 non-zero rates of human manure and NPK fertiliser applied...

  7. 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manure Management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhele Edmond Moeletsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc. were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal, sows (25.23 kg/year/animal and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal. Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO2 Equivalent. Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO2 Equivalent and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options from manure management must be taken with care due to divergent conducive requirements of methane and nitrous oxide emissions requirements.

  8. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  9. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  10. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Nugroho, R. A.; Pinandoyo; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Media culture is an important factor for the growth and quality of Daphnia magna nutrient value. This study has purpose to find the increasing of nutritional content, biomass production and growth performance of D. magna using different animal wastes fermented by probiotic bacteria. This study conducted using completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments and 3 replicates. Those media used different animal manures such as chicken manure, goat manure and quail manure mixed by rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 24 days. The results showed that the media which used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D.magna about 2111788.9 ind/L for population; 342 grams biomass production and 68.85% protein content. The highest fatty acid profile is 6.37% of linoleic and the highest essential amino acid is 22.8% of lysine. Generally, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna’s life. This research has conclusion that media used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D. magna.

  11. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2013-01-01

    and accessible during subsequent anaerobic digestion. This finding has confirmed earlier experimental results, showing that delignification was not necessarily the limiting factor during conversion of manure fibers into methane while cellulose accessibility during digestion seemed more crucial.......AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning...

  12. Quality of shallow groundwater and manure effluents in a livestock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoroń Sylwester

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the quality of shallow groundwater on the site pens and runoff from livestock manure heaps, in three selected farms involved in animal production and vegetable crops in the area of Plateau Proszowice. The analysis mainly included water from farm wells and effluents from manure. Additionally, water from drainage ditch running nearby farms was collected, before inflow of effluent (i.e. ditch water without manure effluent and below inflow of effluent from heap of manure (i.e. ditch water containing manure effluent. Samples of the research material were collected from April 2012 to March 2014 at monthly intervals and analysed for the content of NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, K, Na and Cl. Based on the obtained results it was found that water from the farm wells near the livestock buildings and from manure storage sites, was heavily polluted by the majority of these contaminants. The highest concentration of these pollutants, except for the NO3-N, was found in manure effluent – it exceeded a few dozen to a few hundred to any standards for water quality. There was also a significant deterioration in the quality of drainage ditch water because of the penetration of contaminants into ditch water from heaps of improperly stored manure. The water of the farm wells was characterized by excessive concentrations of NO3-N which disqualified it for drinking purposes.

  13. Utilisation of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser for food production in central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Muhereza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertiliser use in small-holder peri-urban crop-livestock farms in Uganda was investigated by conducting a socio-economic survey of 40 farms in the central districts of Wakiso and Kampala where cattle manure is commonly applied to address the issue of declining crop yields. The major benefits obtained from cattle manure application were increased yields and low cost, while negative effects were poor hygienic conditions and bad odour. The challenges associated with the use of cattle manure included its weight and bulkiness, lack of labour, insufficient quantities, high transportation and application costs, lack of storage facilities to maintain quality attributes of manure and the incidence of chaffer grubs and worms; a nuisance during application which affected crop growth. The survey indicated that of the farmers using cattle manure, only 5% also supplemented with inorganic fertilisers. Other animal manures applied included poultry, pig, goat and rabbit where available. The nutrient content of cattle manure was generally low, as a result of livestock diet and storage. There was little education available to farmers as to optimum strategies and rates of fertiliser (including both inorganic and organic fertilisers to improve crop yield and this needed addressing to improve food security and economic development in Uganda. Keywords: cattle manure; fertiliser; urea

  14. Treatment of bovine cancer-eye (and other animal tumors) with heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doss, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Hyperthermia appears to be an excellent technique for the treatment of a variety of animal tumors. While this report has emphasized the application of hyperthermia to bovine cancer-eye, there cannot be serious doubt about the potential for wider applications of the technique. We have collaborated with the Animal Resource Facility at the University of New Mexico in the successful treatment of a variety of tumors in small animals which would not be a particular interest to stockmen, but the program included the successful treatment of a number of sarcoids in horses. This investigation involving heat effects on sarcoids will continue, but early results appear to be promising. Other veterinarians are using the commercial hyperthermia instruments to treat a variety of small-animal tumors; these practitioners are enthusiastic about the results but no data have been published to date. We have treated an equine lid tumor with good results, and others are pursuing investigations in this area. Use of commercial hyperthermia instruments for treatment of any condition other than bovine cancer-eye or similar small tumors on animals cannot be justified. Like other therapeutic techniques, hyperthermia must be applied to appropriate cases and retreatment will be necessary in some instances

  15. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  16. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.8 9 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg Pyr.(-1) (1 Tg = 10(12)g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  17. A new model for calculating the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions through anaerobic co-digestion of manure and organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, S.G.; Moeller, H.B.; Petersen, S.O.

    2002-01-01

    Biogenic emissions of methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 0) occur during handling, storage and after field application of animal manure. The emissions are linked to decomposition of volatile solids (VS), which provide energy for microorganisms. During anaerobic storage, turnover of VS drives the microbial processes which lead to CH 4 , production. Also, turnover of VS in slurry applied to fields will consume oxygen and can thereby stimulate N 2 0 production. Anaerobic digestion of manure and organic wastes for biogas production removes VS prior to storage and field application, and therefore this treatment also reduces the potential for CH 4 , and N 2 0 emissions. A model has been developed to evaluate the effect of anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and organic waste on CH, and N 2 0 emissions. The model estimates the reduction in VS during storage and digestion, and an algorithm for prediction of CH 4 , emissions from manure during storage relates the emission to VS, temperature and storage time. Nitrous oxide emissions from field-applied slurry are calculated using VS, slurry N, soil water potential and application method as input variables, thus linking C and N turnover. The amount of fossil fuel that is substituted by CH 4 , produced during digestion is also calculated in order to estimate the total effect of anaerobic digestion on greenhouse gas emissions from slurry. Model calculations show the potential of manure digestion to modify the emission of greenhouse gases from agriculture. The experience from application of the model to different scenarios is that the emission of greenhouse gases and their reduction must be calculated with dynamic and integrated models. Specifically, the results indicate that digestion of slurry and organic wastes could reduce Danish greenhouse gas emissions by as much as 3%. (au)

  18. Effect of antimicrobial compounds tylosin and chlortetracycline during batch anaerobic swine manure digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A; Zhu, Zhenwei; Wong, Kwok L; Porath, Laura R; Spellman, Garth M

    2009-10-01

    Tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) are antimicrobial chemicals that are fed to >45% of the US swine herds at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dosages to enhance growth rates and treat swine health problems. These compounds are poorly absorbed during digestion so that the bioactive compound or metabolites are excreted. This study investigated the degradation and stabilization of swine manure that contained no additives and compared the observed processes with those of manure containing either tylosin or CTC. The batch anaerobic incubation lasted 216 days. The breakdown of insoluble organic matter through anaerobic hydrolysis reactions was faster for manure containing CTC compared with tylosin or no-antimicrobial treatments. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation, including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, was greater for CTC-containing manure compared to tylosin and no-antimicrobial treatments. The relative abundance of two aceticlastic methanogens, Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae spp., were less for CTC manure than manure with no-antimicrobial treatment. In addition, generation of methane and carbon dioxide was inhibited by 27.8% and 28.4%, respectively, due to the presence of CTC. Tylosin effects on manure degradation were limited, however the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae spp. was greater than found in the CTC or no-antimicrobial manures. These data suggest that acetate and other C-1 VFA compounds would be effectively utilized during methanogenesis in the presence of tylosin.

  19. Biochar from swine manure solids: influence on carbon sequestration and Olsen phosphorus and mineral nitrogen dynamics in soil with and without digestate incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marchetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biochar (BC has grown dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the fact that its incorporation into soil reportedly enhances carbon sequestration and fertility. Currently, BC types most under investigation are those obtained from organic matter (OM of plant origin. As great amounts of manure solids are expected to become available in the near future, thanks to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents, processing of manure solids for BC production seems an interesting possibility for the recycling of OM of high nutrient value. The aim of this study was to investigate carbon (C sequestration and nutrient dynamics in soil amended with BC from dried swine manure solids. The experiment was carried out in laboratory microcosms on a silty clay soil. The effect on nutrient dynamics of interaction between BC and fresh digestate obtained from a biogas plant was also investigated to test the hypothesis that BC can retain nutrients. A comparison was made of the following treatments: soil amended with swine manure solids (LC, soil amended with charred swine manure solids (LT, soil amended with wood chip (CC, soil amended with charred wood chip (CT, soil with no amendment as control (Cs, each one of them with and without incorporation of digestate (D for a total of 10 treatments. Biochar was obtained by treating OM (wood chip or swine manure with moisture content of less than 10% at 420°C in anoxic conditions. The CO2-C release and organic C, available phosphorus (P (Olsen P, POls and inorganic (ammonium+nitrate nitrogen (N (Nmin contents at the start and three months after the start of the experiment were measured in the amended and control soils. After three months of incubation at 30°C, the CO2-C emissions from soil with BC (CT and LT, ±D were the same as those in the control soil (Cs and were lower than those in the soils with untreated amendments (CC and LC, ±D. The organic C content

  20. A theoretical perspective to inform assessment and treatment strategies for animal hoarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patronek, Gary J; Nathanson, Jane N

    2009-04-01

    Animal hoarding is a poorly understood, maladaptive, destructive behavior whose etiology and pathology are only beginning to emerge. We compare and contrast animal hoarding to the compulsive hoarding of objects and proceed to draw upon attachment theory, the literature of personality disorder and trauma, and our own clinical experience to propose a developmental trajectory. Throughout life, there is a persistent struggle to form a functional attachment style and achieve positive social integration. For some people, particularly those affected by a dysfunctional primary attachment experience in childhood, a protective, comforting relationship with animals may form an indelible imprint. In adulthood, when human attachment has been chronically problematic, compulsive caregiving of animals can become the primary means of maintaining or building a sense of self. Improving assessment and treatment of animal hoarders requires attention to contributing psychosocial conditions, while taking into account the centrality of the animals to the hoarder's identity, self-esteem and sense of control. It is our hope that the information presented will provide a basis upon which clinicians can focus their own counseling style, assessment, and methods of treatment.

  1. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH Clinical Center | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Therapy Dogs Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH ... is unlike any other." A self-described "huge animal lover," she coordinates 14 teams of trained and ...

  2. Antibiotics and Manure Effects on Microbial Communities Responsible for Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, M.; Song, B.; Sparrer, T.; Crozier, C.; Tobias, C. R.; Phillips, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Agroecosystems are major contributors of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Denitrification and nitrification are the primary pathways of N2O emission in soils. However, there is uncertainty regarding the organisms responsible for N2O production. Bacteria were previously considered the only microbial N2O source, however, current studies indicate that fungi also produce N2O by denitrification. Denitrifying bacteria can be a source or sink of N2O depending on the presence and expression of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ), encoding for the enzyme converting N2O to N2. Fungal denitrification may produce only N2O as an end product due to missing the nosZ gene. Animal manures applied to agricultural fields can transfer antibiotics to soils as a result of antibiotic use in the livestock industry. These antibiotics target mostly bacteria and may promote fungal growth. The growth inhibition of denitrifying bacteria may favor fungal denitrifiers potentially enhancing N2O emissions. Our objective is to examine the effects of antibiotic exposure and manure fertilization on the microbial communities responsible for N2 and N2O production in grasslands. Soil slurry incubations were conducted with tetracycline at different concentrations. A mesocosm experiment was also performed with soil cores exposed to tetracycline and cow manure. Production of N2O and N2 was measured using gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), respectively. Antibiotic inhibition of soil N2 production was found to be dose dependent, reaching up to 80% inhibition with 1g Kg-1 of tetracycline treatment, while N2O production was enhanced up to 8 times. These results suggest higher fungal denitrification with a concomitant decrease in bacterial denitrification after antibiotic exposure. We also found higher N2O fluxes in the soil mesocosms treated with manure plus tetracycline. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) will be conducted to examine the changes in

  3. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p rights reserved.

  4. UTIs in small animal patients: part 2: diagnosis, treatment, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, Nicole; Loyd, Kimberly; Grauer, Gregory F

    2013-01-01

    There are multiple considerations when making a treatment plan for patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). In part 2 of this review the authors discuss the clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and complications associated with bacterial UTIs in dogs and cats. Part 1 of this review summarized etiology and pathogenesis (see the Jan/Feb 2013 issue of the Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association).

  5. Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child…

  6. Manure management practices on biogas and non-biogas pig farms in developing countries - using livestock farms in Vietnam as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cu, T. T. T.; Cuong, P. H.; Hang, L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production...... to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients...... such as public sewers or ponds. On biogas farms, most of the manure collected was used for bio-digestion. The farmers used the fermented manure (digestate) as a source of nutrients for crops, but on more than 50% of the interviewed biogas farms digestate was discharged to the environment. On non-biogas farms...

  7. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is filtered. Hence, it is not possible to scale up the experiments, and it is therefore difficult to optimize the flocculation and estimate the needed filter media area. Similar problems have been observed when sewage sludge and synthetic core-shell colloids are filtered, and it has been suggested......, and the mixing procedure affect the result, and lab-scale experiments are often used to study how these pre-treatments influence the filtration process. However, the existing mathematical filtration models are based on filtration of inorganic particles and cannot simulate the filtration data obtained when manure...

  8. Dry anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and cattle manure: Impact of total solids, substrate ratio and thermal pre treatment on methane yield and quality of biomanure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelli, Vijayalakshmi; Begum, Sameena; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao; Kuruti, Kranti; S, Shailaja

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of TS concentration, substrate mixing ratio (co digestion) and thermal pretreatment on biogas production, methane yield, VS reduction (%) and quality of biomanure through dry anaerobic digestion (DAD) of food waste (FW) and cattle manure (CM). Results divulged that the optimum methane yield and biomanure of 0.18 and 0.21 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 3.15 and 2.8 kg/kg waste was obtained from FW at TS of 25% and 30% at an HRT of 41 and 31 days respectively whereas it was 0.32 and 0.43 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 2.2 and 1.15 kg/kg waste from pretreated FW at an HRT of 16 and 20 days correspondingly. Improvement of methane from 62 to 81% was obtained due to thermal pretreatment. The highest nutrient recovery in terms of N, P, K was found to be 5.14, 2.6 and 3.2 respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gene therapy by electroporation for the treatment of chronic renal failure in companion animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Melissa A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH plasmid-based therapy for the treatment of chronic renal failure and its complications was examined. Companion dogs (13.1 ± 0.8 years, 29.4 ± 5.01 kg and cats (13.2 ± 0.9 years, 8.5 ± 0.37 kg received a single 0.4 mg or 0.1 mg species-specific plasmid injection, respectively, intramuscularly followed by electroporation, and analyzed up to 75 days post-treatment; controls underwent electroporation without plasmid administration. Results Plasmid-treated animals showed an increase in body weight (dogs 22.5% and cats 3.2% compared to control animals, and displayed improved quality of life parameters including significant increases in appetite, activity, mentation and exercise tolerance levels. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, the downstream effector of GHRH levels were increased in the plasmid treated animals. Hematological parameters were also significantly improved. Protein metabolism changes were observed suggesting a shift from a catabolic to an anabolic state in the treated animals. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine did not show any significant changes suggesting maintenance of kidney function whereas the control animal's renal function deteriorated. Treated animals survived longer than control animals with 70% of dogs and 80% of cats surviving until study day 75. Only 17% and 40% of the control dogs and cats, respectively, survived to day 75. Conclusion Improved quality of life, survival and general well-being indicate that further investigation is warranted, and show the potential of a plasmid-based therapy by electroporation in preventing and managing complications of renal insufficiency.

  10. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety.

  11. On the effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on batch and continuous anaerobic digestion of digested swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) has been successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester......-pretreated digested manure fibers on the kinetics of anaerobic digestion process. It was found that AAS treatment had a profound effect mainly on the hydrolysis rate of particulate carbohydrates....

  12. Selection of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae during penicillin treatment in vitro and in three animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Odenholt, Inga; Erlendsdottir, Helga

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties for the selection of resistant pneumococci were studied by using three strains of the same serotype (6B) for mixed-culture infection in time-kill experiments in vitro and in three different animal models, the mouse peritonitis, the mouse....../ml was used in the rabbit tissue cage model. During the different treatment regimens, the differences in numbers of CFU between treated and control animals were calculated to measure the efficacies of the regimens. Selective media with erythromycin or different penicillin concentrations were used to quantify...

  13. 典型粪污处理模式下规模养猪场农牧结合规模配置研究*Ⅱ粪污直接厌氧发酵处理模式%Pig farm-cropland configuration under typical waste treatment mode- A case study of direct anaerobic fermentation of manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛婧; 孙国峰; 郑建初

    2015-01-01

    anaerobic fermentation of manure are important for reducing pollution from livestock excrement and for promoting sustainable development of animal husbandry. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal farmland area needed for large-scale pig farming so as to provide scientific basis and reference for the establishment of ecological modes for agriculture and animal husbandry. Based on data of proportion of pig population and discharges of nitrogen and phosphorus for different types of swine, rate of nutrient loss during waste treatment and nutrient demands by different crops, the study estimated areas of farmlands matching waste consumption and waste carrying capacities of farmlands with different planting patterns under the typical mode of direct anaerobic fermentation of manure in farm with 10 000 pigs. The results showed that under waste treatment mode of direct anaerobic fermentation of manure, the configuration with 10 000 pig farm needed an farm area of 272.5285.4 hm2 grain/oilcrop field, 149.4188.2 hm2 solanaceous vegetable field or 599.41 248.8 hm2 orchard/seedling field for safe disposal of biogas residue and slurry. One hectare of grain/oil crop field, solanaceous vegetable field and orchard/seedlings field were enough for the disposal of biogas residue and slurry produced respectively by 3537 heads, 5367 heads, 817 heads of pig. From the above results, waste treatment patterns and crop types should be rationally determined based on the number of swine bred on a farm and the surrounding farmland area. To ensure the crop nutrient demand was met, there was the need to supplement all crop planting patterns with certain amount of chemical fertilizers after biogas residue and slurry application. Nine patterns of cropping tested in the study needed the application of potassium fertilizer. Among the nine patterns, the potassium supplement for pepper-cucumber pattern was the highest, accounting for 48.0% of potassium demand. Cucumber

  14. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial ...

  15. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2−–N and NH4+–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge deodorization reactor and anaerobic digestion-partial oxidation treatment process treating swine manure and its corresponding control artificial wastewaters. Ammonium removal dropped from 98.0 ± 0.6% to 66.9 ± 2.7% and nearly absent when the organic load in the feeding increased from 232 mg COD/L to 1160 mg COD/L and 2320 mg COD/L. The presence of organic carbon had limited effect on nitrite and total nitrogen removal. At a COD to N ratio of 0.9, COD inhibitory organic load threshold concentration was 727 mg COD/L. Mass balance indicated that denitrifiers played an important role in nitrite, nitrate and organic carbon removal. These results demonstrated that anammox system had the potential to effectively treat swine manure that can achieve high nitrogen standards at reduced costs.

  16. Organic and chemical manure of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo V, Alvaro; Munoz A, Rodrigo

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on bean production ICA CITARA variety, four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, and earthworm manure) in four doses 280,500 y 1.000 kg/ha with the same doses of chemical fertilization, were evaluated the experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia) of medium climate with 1.320 m.s.n.m. This was established using an alluvial soil (Tropofluvent), frenk, with low contents of organic, matter (2,2%), phosphorus (10 ppm), and potassium (0,10 meq/l00 g). the results, after six consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments. The highest yield (1.836 kg/ha) was obtained when to the chemical fertilization (300 kg of 10-30-10) was added with 250 kg/ha of hen manure, followed by the application of 100 kg/ha, of cow manure (1.812 kg/ha). Chemical fertilization without organic matter produced 1.640 kg/ha of bean, which was very similar to the addition of 1.000 kg/ha of cow manure and earthworm manure with yields of 1.688 kg/ha and 1.635 kg/ha respectively

  17. Effect of goat manure on some soil properties and growth, yield and nutrient status of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeniyi, S.O.; Awodun, M.A.; Akanni, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment were conducted at Akure, Negeria, in a rainforest zone of Southwest Nigeria to study the effect of goat manure (droppings) on some soil physical and chemical properties and nutrient status, growth and yied of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Five levels of manure (0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha) were applied on the soil surface to two crops of tomato at each of two sites, namely, Federal College of Agriculture and Federal University of Technology. Soils were deficient in organic matter (OM), total N, exchangeable Ca and available P. Soil OM, total N, available P and moisture content increased with the level of manure, while soil bulk density decreased. Leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, growth and fruit yield of tomato were significantly increased by goat manure treatments. Leaf K, Ca and Mg, plant height, number of branches, leaf area, root length, number of fruits and fruit diameter increased with the level of manure, However, the 25 t/ha manure gave optimum values of number and weight of fruits. The mean fruit yields recorded for 0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha goat manure were 15.0, 19.7, 23.7, 24.3 and 22.3 t/ha, respectively. It is concluded that goat manure is suitable for impoving soil physical and chemical properties and growth and yield of tomato.(Author)

  18. Spring barley yield and nitrogen recovery after application of peat manure and pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. MATTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of peat manure, manufactured of pig slurry and moderately humified Sphagnum peat (slurry:peat ca. 1:1.5 v/v, as nitrogen (N source for spring barley was investigated in a four.year field experiment on a clay loam soil in south-western Finland. Pig slurry, NPK fertilizer and plain peat were used as references. Manures were incorporated before sowing or surface-applied after sowing in spring at an ammoniacal N rate of.54.106 kg.ha-1 with or without supplementary NPK fertilizer (40.kg N.ha-1. Soil moisture conditions were varied by different irrigation treatments. Peat manure produced 5.15% higher grain yields than pig slurry, with the largest difference after surface application. Incorporation was more important for slurry than for peat manure in increasing N uptake and yield. Soil moisture deficit in spring and early summer limited the availability of manure N. Part of the manure N that was not available in the early growing period was apparently taken up by the crop later. Consequently, N concentration tended to be higher with lower yields, and differences in the recovery of manure N were smaller than the differences in grain yield. Supplementation of manures with inorganic fertilizer N increased yield by 37%, on average, and improved the N recovery.;

  19. Anaerobic digestion of chicken feather with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Massé, Daniel I; McAllister, Tim A; Beaulieu, Carole; Ungerfeld, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of chicken feathers with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge was assessed in two separate experiments. Ground feathers without any pre-treatment were added to 42-L digesters inoculated with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge, representing 37% and 23% of total solids, respectively and incubated at 25°C in batch mode. Compared to the control without feather addition, total CH(4) production increased by 130% (Pswine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. Mixed liquor NH(4)N concentration increased (Pdigestion to 6.9 and 3.5 g/L at the end of digestion in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. The fraction of proteolytic microorganisms increased (Pdigestion from 12.5% to 14.5% and 11.3% to 13.0% in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters with feather addition, respectively, but decreased in the controls. These results are reflective of feather digestion. Feather addition did not affect CH(4) yields of the swine manure digesters (P=0.082) and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters (P=0.21), indicating that feathers can be digested together with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge without negatively affecting the digestion of swine manure and slaughterhouse sludge. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A single cidofovir treatment rescues animals at progressive stages of lethal orthopoxvirus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israely Tomer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an event of a smallpox outbreak in humans, the window for efficacious treatment by vaccination with vaccinia viruses (VACV is believed to be limited to the first few days post-exposure (p.e.. We recently demonstrated in a mouse model for human smallpox, that active immunization 2–3 days p.e. with either VACV-Lister or modified VACV Ankara (MVA vaccines, can rescue animals from lethal challenge of ectromelia virus (ECTV, the causative agent of mousepox. The present study was carried out in order to determine whether a single dose of the anti-viral cidofovir (CDV, administered at different times and doses p.e. either alone or in conjunction with active vaccination, can rescue ECTV infected mice. Methods Animals were infected intranasally with ECTV, treated on different days with various single CDV doses and monitored for morbidity, mortality and humoral response. In addition, in order to determine the influence of CDV on the immune response following vaccination, both the "clinical take”, IFN-gamma and IgG Ab levels in the serum were evaluated as well as the ability of the mice to withstand a lethal challenge of ECTV. Finally the efficacy of a combined treatment regime of CDV and vaccination p.e. was determined. Results A single p.e. CDV treatment is sufficient for protection depending on the initiation time and dose (2.5 – 100 mg/kg of treatment. Solid protection was achieved by a low dose (5 mg/kg CDV treatment even if given at day 6 p.e., approximately 4 days before death of the control infected untreated mice (mean time to death (MTTD 10.2. At the same time point complete protection was achieved by single treatment with higher doses of CDV (25 or 100 mg/kg. Irrespective of treatment dose, all surviving animals developed a protective immune response even when the CDV treatment was initiated one day p.e.. After seven days post treatment with the highest dose (100 mg/kg, virus was still detected in some

  1. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Nkechi V; Makama, Sunday; Elisha, Ishaku L; Makoshi, Micah S; Gotep, Jurbe G; Dawurung, Christiana J; Oladipo, Olusola O; Lohlum, Ann S; Shamaki, David

    2011-07-11

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed

  3. Animal and human tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices among animal keeping households in Bugiri District, South-Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Waiswa, Charles; Mencke, Norbert; Eneku, Wilfred; Andrew, Tamale; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    Zoonotic tungiasis caused by Tunga penetrans remains a serious public and animal health problem among endemic villages in Uganda and many sub Saharan African countries. Studies on human and animal tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices in endemic communities have never been undertaken, a limitation to development of sustainable control measures. A cross sectional study using semi-structured questionnaires (Supplementary file S1) was conducted among 236 animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District, South-Eastern Uganda. Focus group discussions and observation checklists were used to validate and clarify the findings. Most respondents knew the aetiology (89.4%), clinical signs (98%) and the ecology of T. penetrans as well as the major risk factors of human tungiasis (65.2%). In contrast, very few respondents were aware of animal tungiasis. Only 4.8% of those with infected animals on the compound knew that some of their animals were infected and 13.6% of the respondents had ever seen tungiasis-affected animals. Pigs (13.1%, n=31) and dogs (0.85%, n=2) were the only T. penetrans animal hosts known to animal owners. Affected humans were treated by extraction of embedded sand fleas using non-sterile sharp instruments in all households that reported occurrence of human tungiasis at least once (n=227). Also, affected animals were mainly treated by mechanical removal of embedded sand fleas in households that have ever experienced animal tungiasis (four out of 12; 33.3%). In a few instances, plant and animal pesticides (n=3) and other chemicals such as grease, paraffin and wood preservative (n=3) were also used to treat animal tungiasis. The study revealed a high level of knowledge on human tungiasis but inadequate knowledge on the zoonotic nature of tungiasis. Commonly applied methods for treatment of human and animal tungiasis are a health hazard by themselves. Concerted i.e. One Health-based efforts aiming at promoting appropriate

  4. Operational experinece with large scale biogas production at the promest manure processing plant in Helmond, the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomaker, A.H.H.M.

    1992-01-01

    In The Netherlands a surplus of 15 million tons of liquid pig manure is produced yearly on intensive pig breeding farms. The dutch government has set a three-way policy to reduce this excess of manure: 1. conversion of animal fodder into a product with less and better ingestible nutrients; 2. distribution of the surplus to regions with a shortage of animal manure; 3. processing of the remainder of the surplus in large scale processing plants. The first large scale plant for the processing of liquid pig manure was put in operation in 1988 as a demonstration plant at Promest in Helmond. The design capacity of this plant is 100,000 tons of pig manure per year. The plant was initiated by the Manure Steering Committee of the province Noord-Brabant in order to prove at short notice whether large scale manure processing might contribute to the solution of the problem of the manure surplus in The Netherlands. This steering committee is a corporation of the national and provincial government and the agricultural industrial life. (au)

  5. Animal models to improve our understanding and treatment of suicidal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, T D; Georgiou, P; Brenner, L A; Brundin, L; Can, A; Courtet, P; Donaldson, Z R; Dwivedi, Y; Guillaume, S; Gottesman, I I; Kanekar, S; Lowry, C A; Renshaw, P F; Rujescu, D; Smith, E G; Turecki, G; Zanos, P; Zarate, C A; Zunszain, P A; Postolache, T T

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes. Animal models are similarly a critical resource to help delineate treatment targets and pharmacological means to improve our ability to manage the risk of suicide. In particular, certain pathophysiological pathways to suicidal behavior, including stress and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysfunction, neurotransmitter system abnormalities, endocrine and neuroimmune changes, aggression, impulsivity and decision-making deficits, as well as the role of critical interactions between genetic and epigenetic factors, development and environmental risk factors can be modeled in laboratory animals. We broadly describe human biological findings, as well as protective effects of medications such as lithium, clozapine, and ketamine associated with modifying risk of engaging in suicidal behavior that are readily translatable to animal models. Endophenotypes of suicidal behavior, studied in animal models, are further useful for moving observed associations with harmful environmental factors (for example, childhood adversity, mechanical trauma aeroallergens, pathogens, inflammation triggers) from association to causation, and developing preventative strategies. Further study in animals will contribute to a more informed, comprehensive, accelerated and ultimately impactful suicide research portfolio. PMID:28398339

  6. Novel treatment strategies for chronic kidney disease: insights from the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvinkel, Peter; Painer, Johanna; Kuro-O, Makoto; Lanaspa, Miguel; Arnold, Walter; Ruf, Thomas; Shiels, Paul G; Johnson, Richard J

    2018-04-01

    Many of the >2 million animal species that inhabit Earth have developed survival mechanisms that aid in the prevention of obesity, kidney disease, starvation, dehydration and vascular ageing; however, some animals remain susceptible to these complications. Domestic and captive wild felids, for example, show susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD), potentially linked to the high protein intake of these animals. By contrast, naked mole rats are a model of longevity and are protected from extreme environmental conditions through mechanisms that provide resistance to oxidative stress. Biomimetic studies suggest that the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) offers protection in extreme environmental conditions and promotes longevity in the animal kingdom. Similarly, during months of fasting, immobilization and anuria, hibernating bears are protected from muscle wasting, azotaemia, thrombotic complications, organ damage and osteoporosis - features that are often associated with CKD. Improved understanding of the susceptibility and protective mechanisms of these animals and others could provide insights into novel strategies to prevent and treat several human diseases, such as CKD and ageing-associated complications. An integrated collaboration between nephrologists and experts from other fields, such as veterinarians, zoologists, biologists, anthropologists and ecologists, could introduce a novel approach for improving human health and help nephrologists to find novel treatment strategies for CKD.

  7. [Perspective of peer helpers regarding their experience animating a self-treatment program for panic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Michel; Bouchard, Stéphane; Lapalme, Micheline; Laverdure, Anick; Audet, Denis; Cusson, Jean-Claude; Zacchia, Camillo; Milton, Diana; Sam Tion, Michaël; Chartier-Otis, Mariko; Marchand, André; Bélanger, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Support groups can help to reach individuals with anxiety disorders who are not or are only partly obtaining health services. The present study is based on a program that involves peer helpers as animators of a self-treatment group (Zéro-ATAQ). Their perspective has been documented in order to identify the aspects of the program which can be improved. Eleven peer helpers led the 12 sessions of the program, which was dispensed in four regions of Quebec for 32 persons having panic disorders with agoraphobia. The perspectives of ten peer animators were documented based on a semi-structured interview that took place at the end of the program, and a focus group that was held over six months later with peer animators from each of the groups. Their comments were transcribed and a thematic content analysis was conducted. All of the peer helper animators reported that they enjoyed participating in the program, that they appreciated being able to help others having an anxiety disorder, and that the program helped them in their role as animators of these types of activities. Nearly all of the peer helpers emphasized the importance of being able to count on the supervision of a professional when needed. This study revealed (1) the feasibility of implementing a program of this kind in partnership with peers, (2) the qualifications necessary to lead this type of program, (3) the requirements in terms of training and available material, and (4) the importance of supervision.

  8. Thermal pretreatment of the solid fraction of manure: Impact on the biogas reactor performance and microbial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Z; Hartmann, H.; Kvist, T.

    2006-01-01

    Application of thermal treatment at 100-140 degrees C as a pretreatment method prior to anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cattle and swine manure was investigated. In a batch test, biogasification of manure with thermally pretreated solid fraction proceeded faster and resulted in the increase...... of methane yield. The performances of two thermophilic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) treating manure with solid fraction pretreated for 40 minutes at 140 degrees C and non-treated manure were compared. The digester fed with the thermally pretreated manure had a higher methane productivity...... and butyrate - was low. The kinetic parameters of the VFA conversion revealed a reduced affinity of the microbial community from the CSTR fed with thermally pre-treated manure for acetate, propionate and butyrate. The bacterial and archaeal populations identified by t-RLFP analysis of 16S rRNA genes were found...

  9. Thermophilic hydrolysis of liquid manures. Termofil hydrolyse af gylle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The aim was to examine the influence of various factors on the decomposition of separated cattle manures. No effects from enzyme treatment either before or after batch decomposition or after NaOH treatment of the separated manures were found. Treatment with NaOH before batch decomposition of the manures gave no effect. The addition of propionic acid before batch decompostion showed an inhibiting effect with propionic acid concentrations of up to 4.000 mg/l or just over. Where propionic concentrations were up to 4.000 mg/l, increased gas production was observed, this was caused by the breakdown of the propionic acid. The addition of triolein before batch decomposition had an inhibiting effect with high concentration independent of whether the inoculated material was adapted to fat or not. In the case of low concentrations no inhibitions were observed. The addition of grease trap fat such as COD with continual experimentation on separated cattle manures, cellulose and soya flour as substrates gave no results. (AB) 32 refs.

  10. Vitamin D for the Treatment of Epilepsy: Basic Mechanisms, Animal Models and Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Pendo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence supporting dietary and alternative therapies for epilepsy, including the ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin D is actively under investigation as a potential intervention for epilepsy. Vitamin D is fat soluble steroid which shows promise in animal models of epilepsy. Basic research has shed light on the possible mechanisms by which Vitamin D may reduce seizures, and animal data support the efficacy of Vitamin D in rat and mouse models of epilepsy. Very little clinical data exists to support the treatment of human epilepsy with Vitamin D, but positive findings from preliminary clinical trials warrant larger Phase I and II clinical trials in order to more rigorously determine the potential therapeutic value of Vitamin D as a treatment for human epilepsy.

  11. Organic manure of the corn (Zea mays L.) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo V, Alvaro; Munoz A, Rodrigo; Diaz A; Carlos

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on the yield of com ICA V.303 variety, using four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, earthworm manure) in two doses (500 and 1.000 kg/ha), compared with a chemical treatment (300 kg/ha of 10-30-10 plus 150 kg of urea), and a control, an experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia), with 1.320 m.s.n.m. The experiment was established using an alluvial soil (tropofluvent), frank, with low content of organic matter (3.1%), and potassium (0.11 meq/l00 g), and medium content of phosphorus (2 ppm). The results, after four consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments, compared with the control. The highest yield (4.709 kg/ha) was obtained with the chemical treatment (300 kg/ha of 10-30-10 plus 150 kg of urea). The addition of 500 and 1.000 kg/ha of hen manure and pig manure showed an average yield of corn of 4.315,4.539 .4.246, and 4.487 kg/ha respectively. the control only produced 2.620 kg/ha. The great profitability was obtained with 500 kg/ ha of cow manure, 1.000 kg/ha of pig manure and the chemical treatment (300 kg/ha 10-30-10 and 150 kg/ha of urea y 1.000 kg/ha hen manure). There were not significative differences between the chemical fertilization and the organic fertilization; these results show that organic matter is an alternative for fertilization with respect to the development of a sustained and biological agriculture

  12. The Effect of Organic Manure and Super Absorbent on Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Potato (Solanum tubersum, cv Marfona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rashidi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate effect of organic manure and super absorbent on physiological and biochemical traits of potato (Solanum tubersum, cv Marfona, a split plot experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm, Agriculture College, University of Razi in 2010. Main factor included two levels of super absorbent A200 (0 and 70 Kg/ha, and split plot included nine levels (0, chemical fertilizer (according to soil test, granule chicken manure (1000 kg/ ha, common chicken manure (12 ton/ha, soil mix (1000 kg/ha, cow manure (20 ton/ha, vermicompost (20 ton/ha, compost (20 ton/ha and tea compost (soaking tubers and spraying at four times. Investigating physiological traits such as leaf chlorophyll index, chlorophyll florescence and stomata conductance showed that only leaf chlorophyll index was affected by superabsorbent (P < 0.01 and organic manure (P < 0.05, while stomata conductance wad significant under it’s interaction effect at (P < 0.05. Quality and biochemical traits show that phosphorous amount of tuber was significant in superabsorbent treatment in compare to control. Crude oil percentage, protein, fiber, starch, sugar, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium content were not affected by organic manure. The highest amount of oil and fiber were obtained under compost and cow manure respectively. Sugar and nitrogen content were high under cow manure treatment. The highest amount of potassium and phosphorous content were belonging to chicken and Khakparvar manure respectively.

  13. Manure Preferences and Postemergence Learning of Two Filth Fly Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Taylor

    Full Text Available The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is crucial to the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information garnered from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commercially available parasitoids of filth flies. Postemergence exposure to a specific manure may provide a way to increase parasitism in specific microhabitats found at livestock facilities upon release. In this study, female parasitoids of both species were exposed to equine manure, bovine manure, or clean pupae. Females from each emergence exposure were tested in a two-choice arena (house fly hosts in bovine manure versus clean pupae, equine manure versus clean pupae, and equine manure versus bovine manure for progeny production. There was a detectable but small effect of postemergence exposure on S. cameroni, but it was not sufficient to reverse innate preferences. Females consistently produced more progeny in hosts found in any manure over clean pupae, and in equine manure over bovine manure. The effect of postemergence exposure on M. raptor was also detectable but small. Females produced equal numbers of progeny in bovine manure versus clean pupae, as opposed to preferring to oviposit in clean pupae as with all other treatments. Preferences by M. raptor were overall less marked than for S. cameroni; indeed most of the variability observed for this species did not result from the treatment design. Residual host mortality was also detectably altered by exposure in both species, but the effect was small. Thus, postemergence exposure did not consistently and effectively manipulate these parasitoids to producing progeny in different exposure manures, suggesting that microhabitat preferences are largely determined by other factors.

  14. Acute Clinically Mastitic Animals in villages of Assiut Governance: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayed and Ahmed Abdel Rady

    Full Text Available This investigation was run in some villages in Assiut governance during summer 2007 to diagnose acute clinical mastitis in different animal species and to apply different lines of treatment for evaluating which treatment line of choice giving cure, aiming to another goal by preventing the conversion of acute mastitis towards the chronic one which is difficult to be treated and the dairy animal will be excluded. Therefore, 2150 animals were clinically examined in 5 villages located north to Assiut city, Egypt, including 400 cows, 950 ewes and 800 she goats, and the incidence of acute clinical mastitis was 22.50%, 2.63% and 4.63%, respectively. Milk samples were collected from all clinically mastitic cows for bacteriological examination to identify the causative agents of the intra-mammary infection (IMI. It was found the major causative agents isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium pyogenes, causing either single or mixed type of infection. When applying different lines of treatment, all diseased animals were classified into 3 groups: 1st group received local treatment by intra-mammary infusion antibiotic. 2nd group received systematic treatment by intra-muscular (I/M injection of both antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs. While, 3rd group received combination of both local and systematic treatment lines together. Cure% was achieved as 50% for 1st group, 90% for 2nd group, while 3rd group gave complete cure by 100%. It was noticed that the incidence of acute clinical mastitis among examined cows was worrisome and can be considered as indicator of the epidemiology of the disease. While, spreading of the disease among ewes and she goats was somewhat low in comparison with that of cows. In conclusion, combination of both local and systematic treatment lines together should be advised in treatment of acute clinical mastitis to ensure complete cure. The obtained results highlighted the

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  16. Effect of anaerobic digestion temperature on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline in swine manure or monensin in cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Wells, J E; Shelver, W L; Rice, C P; Armstrong, D L; Parker, D B

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of anaerobic digestion at 22, 38 and 55°C on odour, coliforms and chlortetracycline (CTC) in swine manure or monensin (MON) in cattle manure. Swine or cattle were fed the respective growth promotant, manure was collected, and 2-l laboratory methane digesters were established at the various temperatures and sampled over 25 or 28 days. After 21 days, the concentration of CTC in the 22, 38 and 55°C swine digester slurries decreased 7, 80 and 98%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C digester slurries were still viable after 25 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 3 and 1 days, respectively. After 28 days, the concentration of MON in the 22, 38 and 55°C cattle digester slurries decreased 3, 8 and 27%, respectively. Coliforms in the 22°C cattle digester slurries were still viable after 28 days; however, they were not detectable in the 38 and 55°C slurries after 14 and 1 days, respectively. These studies indicate that anaerobic digestion at 38 or 55°C may be an effective treatment to reduce coliforms and CTC; however, it is not an effective treatment to reduce MON. More studies are needed to determine which pharmaceuticals are susceptible to degradation by a specific manure treatment to prevent negative environmental consequences. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Nutrient Runoff Losses from Liquid Dairy Manure Applied with Low-Disturbance Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, William; Sherman, Jessica; Cavadini, Jason

    2016-09-01

    Manure applied to cropland is a source of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in surface runoff and can contribute to impairment of surface waters. Tillage immediately after application incorporates manure into the soil, which may reduce nutrient loss in runoff as well as N loss via NH volatilization. However, tillage also incorporates crop residue, which reduces surface cover and may increase erosion potential. We applied liquid dairy manure in a silage corn ( L.)-cereal rye ( L.) cover crop system in late October using methods designed to incorporate manure with minimal soil and residue disturbance. These include strip-till injection and tine aerator-band manure application, which were compared with standard broadcast application, either incorporated with a disk or left on the surface. Runoff was generated with a portable rainfall simulator (42 mm h for 30 min) three separate times: (i) 2 to 5 d after the October manure application, (ii) in early spring, and (iii) after tillage and planting. In the postmanure application runoff, the highest losses of total P and dissolved reactive P were from surface-applied manure. Dissolved P loss was reduced 98% by strip-till injection; this result was not statistically different from the no-manure control. Reductions from the aerator band method and disk incorporation were 53 and 80%, respectively. Total P losses followed a similar pattern, with 87% reduction from injected manure. Runoff losses of N had generally similar patterns to those of P. Losses of P and N were, in most cases, lower in the spring rain simulations with fewer significant treatment effects. Overall, results show that low-disturbance manure application methods can significantly reduce nutrient runoff losses compared with surface application while maintaining residue cover better than incorporation by tillage. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Reconstitution of dewatered food processing residuals with manure to increase energy production from anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, David M.; Wu-Haan, Wei; Safferman, Steven I.

    2012-01-01

    Solid residuals generated from dewatering food processing wastewater contain organic carbon that can potentially be reclaimed for energy through anaerobic digestion. This results in the diversion of waste from a landfill and uses it for a beneficial purpose. Dewatering the waste concentrates the carbon, reducing transportation costs to a farm digester where it can be blended with manure to increase biogas yield. Polymers are often used in the dewatering of the food waste but little is known regarding their impact on biogas production. Four 2 dm 3 working volume, semi-continuous reactors, were used at a mesophilic temperature and a solids retention time (SRT) of 15 days. Reactors were fed daily with a blended feedstock containing a food processing sludge waste (FPSW)/manure ratio of 2.2:1 (by weight) as this produced the optimized carbon to nitrogen ratio. Results demonstrated that reconstitution of dewatered FPSW with dairy manure produced approximately 2 times more methane than animal manure alone for the same volume. However, only approximately 30% of volatile solids (VS) were consumed indicating energy potential still remained. Further, the efficiency of the conversion of VS to methane for the blended FPSW/manure was substantially less than for manure only. However, the overall result is an increase in energy production for a given tank volume, which can decrease life cycle costs. Because all FPSW is unique and the determination of dewatering additives is customized based on laboratory testing and field adjustment, generalizations are difficult and specific testing is required. -- Highlights: ► Energy production in anaerobic digestion can increase by co-blending food waste. ► Energy for transporting food waste to blend with manure is less when dewatered. ► Dewatered food waste in manure produced twice as much methane than manure. ► Efficiency of carbon to methane was low because of ammonium bicarbonate production. ► Carbon destruction was 30%, more

  19. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I.; Cata Saady, Noori M.; Gilbert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Beside their use to treat infections, antibiotics are used excessively as growth promoting factors in livestock industry. Animals discharge in their feces and urine between 70%–90% of the antibiotic administrated unchanged or in active metabolites. Because livestock manure is re-applied to land as a fertilizer, concerns are growing over spread of antibiotics in water and soil. Development of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major risk. This paper reviewed the potential of anaerobic digestion to degrade antibiotics in livestock manure. Anaerobic digestion can degrade manure-laden antibiotic to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Abstract Degrading antibiotics discharged in the livestock manure in a well-controlled bioprocess contributes to a more sustainable and environment-friendly livestock breeding. Although most antibiotics remain stable during manure storage, anaerobic digestion can degrade and remove them to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Generally, antibiotics are degraded during composting > anaerobic digestion > manure storage > soil. Manure matrix variation influences extraction, quantification, and degradation of antibiotics, but it has not been well investigated. Fractioning of manure-laden antibiotics into liquid and solid phases and its effects on their anaerobic degradation and the contribution of abiotic (physical and chemical) versus biotic degradation mechanisms need to be quantified for various manures, antibiotics types, reactor designs and temperature of operations. More research is required to determine the kinetics of antibiotics’ metabolites degradation during anaerobic digestion. Further investigations are required to assess the degradation of antibiotics during psychrophilic anaerobic digestion. PMID

  20. The chemistry of chicken manure labelled with 65Zn in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; L'Annunziata, M.F.; Ortega, M.L.; Alvarado, R.

    1979-01-01

    The radioactive tracer 65 Zn was used to obtain labelled chicken manure with a view to studying various aspects of the chemical behaviour of zinc in this form of manure, together with some of the transformations occurring after the manure has been incorporated into a sandy soil. During the first stage of the study we obtained the labelled manure from 24 chickens to which 65 Zn with known activity had been orally administered. The manure was collected every 24 hours, with a total of 13 samplings. Having determined the specific activity in each manure sample, we found that roughly 75% of the total activity administered was recovered during the first sampling. Seven different treatments were then tried out, using acrylic columns, including the application of 65 Zn, formaldehyde, sucrose and NH 4 NO 3 , together with labelled and non-labelled chicken manure. These treatments were studied at 45 days of degradation so as to obtain fractions from each of the columns. In the fractions we measured (a) the available 65 Zn; (b) the organic 65 Zn; and (c) the fixed 65 Zn. The data obtained show the virtually zero mobility of the zinc in this soil. The same fractions were used to obtain extracts for the identification and measurement of some of the organic complexes of the zinc, using the following techniques: paper electrophoresis, electrodialysis, filtration using G-10 and G-25 Sephadex gel, and paper chromatography. (author)

  1. The owner-animal-environment triad in the treatment of canine periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Fraser A

    2003-06-01

    In a perfect world, all veterinarians and veterinary dental technicians would understand periodontal disease as well as the dental specialist. They would all be able to recognize the early signs of periodontal disease and recommend treatment to prevent its progression. The owners would have the financial resources, time, and desire to maintain their pet's oral health. The dogs would all be calm and compliant with home care and have no particular anesthetic risks. Unfortunately, this is not a perfect world. Some veterinarians do not understand periodontal disease any better that I understand cosmic string theory. Some owners have limited financial resources and are not particularly committed to their pet's oral health. Some animals will not tolerate any type or manner of home care. Given that animals, their mouths, and their owners come in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes (figuratively and literally), how can we talk about the treatment of periodontal disease as if it is a single condition with a single treatment, or even only a few treatment options? Each owner, animal, and its environment must be assessed on an individual basis to develop a treatment plan that is reasonable and attainable based on the unique circumstances of each case. So, what should be the goal when treating periodontal disease? Is it the preservation of all teeth at all costs? Is it the preservation of important teeth if the costs can be kept reasonable? I would suggest that the overriding goal of periodontal treatment should be the elimination and prevention of oral infection and oral pain. In the domestic environment, dogs have no real need to defend territory. They have no need to prehend and kill live prey animals. In short, the domesticated pet dog does not need teeth at all. This may seem like an odd statement for a veterinary dentist to make, but I feel quite strongly that a dog is far better off having no teeth than having bad teeth. My preference is that a dog should have a full

  2. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....

  3. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  4. Testing the effect of different enzyme blends on increasing the biogas yield of straw and digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Jurado, Esperanza; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn

    In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily d...... degradable fraction of manure in the biogas process. 2. Separation of the residual recalcitrant digested fiber fraction project. 3. Ultrasound and/or enzymatic treatment of the digested fiber fraction. 4. Recirculation of the treated fiber fraction into the reactor.......In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily...

  5. Effect of monopolar radiofrequency treatment over soft-tissue fillers in an animal model: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, Peter R; England, Laura J; Dover, Jeffrey S; Ross, E Victor; Harford, Robert; Derienzo, Damian; Bogle, Melissa; Uebelhoer, Nathan; Jacoby, Mark; Pope, Karl

    2006-03-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) treatment is used by physicians to heat skin and promote tissue tightening and contouring. Cosmetic fillers are used to soften deep facial lines and wrinkles. Patients who have had dermal fillers implanted may also benefit from or are candidates for monopolar RF skin tightening. This study examined the effect of RF treatment on various dermal filler substances. This is the second part of a two-part study. A juvenile farm pig was injected with dermal fillers including cross-linked human collagen (Cosmoplast), polylactic acid (PLA) (Sculptra), liquid injectable silicone (Silikon 1000), calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) (Radiesse), and hyaluronic acid (Restylane). Skin injected with dermal fillers was RF-treated using a 1.5-cm2 treatment tip and treatment levels typically used in the clinical setting. Fillers were examined histologically 5 days, 2 weeks, or 1 month after treatment. Histological specimens were scored for inflammatory response, foreign body response, and fibrosis in order to assess the effect of treatment on early filler processes, such as inflammation and encapsulation. Each filler substance produced a characteristic inflammatory response. No immediate thermal effect of RF treatment was observed histologically. RF treatment resulted in statistically significant increases in the inflammatory, foreign body, and fibrotic responses associated with the filler substances. Monopolar RF treatment levels that are typically used in the clinical setting were employed in this animal study. RF treatment resulted in measurable and statistically significant histological changes associated with the various filler materials. Additional clinical and histological studies are required to determine the optimal timing of monopolar RF treatment and filler placement for maximal potential aesthetic outcome. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Antibiotic losses from unprotected manure stockpiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolliver, Holly A S; Gupta, Satish C

    2008-01-01

    Manure management is a major concern in livestock production systems. Although historically the primary concerns have been nutrients and pathogens, manure is also a source of emerging contaminants, such as antibiotics, to the environment. There is a growing concern that antibiotics in manure are reaching surface and ground waters and contributing to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. One such pathway is through leaching and runoff from manure stockpiles. In this study, we quantified chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin losses in runoff from beef manure stockpiles during two separate but consecutive experiments representing different weather conditions (i.e., temperature and precipitation amount and form). Concentrations of chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin in runoff were positively correlated with initial concentrations of antibiotics in manure. The highest concentrations of chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin in runoff were 210, 3175, and 2544 microg L(-1), respectively. Relative antibiotic losses were primarily a function of water losses. In the experiment that had higher runoff water losses, antibiotic losses ranged from 1.2 to 1.8% of total extractable antibiotics in manure. In the experiment with lower runoff water losses, antibiotic losses varied from 0.2 to 0.6% of the total extractable antibiotics in manure. Manure analysis over time suggests that in situ degradation is an important mechanism for antibiotic losses. Degradation losses during manure stockpiling may exceed cumulative losses from runoff events. Storing manure in protected (i.e., covered) facilities could reduce the risk of aquatic contamination associated with manure stockpiling and other outdoor manure management practices.

  7. Novel hyperthermia applicator system allows adaptive treatment planning: Preliminary clinical results in tumour-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, S; Gosselin, M-C; Capstick, M H; Carrasco, E; Weyland, M S; Scheidegger, S; Neufeld, E; Kuster, N; Bodis, S; Rohrer Bley, C

    2017-09-11

    Hyperthermia (HT) as an adjuvant to radiation therapy (RT) is a multimodality treatment method to enhance therapeutic efficacy in different tumours. High demands are placed on the hardware and treatment planning software to guarantee adequately planned and applied HT treatments. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of the novel HT system in tumour-bearing dogs and cats in terms of local response and toxicity as well as to compare planned with actual achieved data during heating. A novel applicator with a flexible number of elements and integrated closed-loop temperature feedback control system, and a tool for patient-specific treatment planning were used in a combined thermoradiotherapy protocol. Good agreement between predictions from planning and clinical outcome was found in 7 of 8 cases. Effective HT treatments were planned and verified with the novel system and provided improved quality of life in all but 1 patient. This individualized treatment planning and controlled heat exposure allows adaptive, flexible and safe HT treatments in palliatively treated animal patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy as new treatment for clear cell sarcoma: Trial on different animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Tooru; Fujimoto, Takuya; Sudo, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sakuma, Toshiko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Epstein, Alan L.; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In our previous study, the tumor disappeared under boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on subcutaneously-transplanted CCS-bearing animals. In the present study, the tumor disappeared under this therapy on model mice intramuscularly implanted with three different human CCS cells. BNCT led to the suppression of tumor-growth in each of the different model mice, suggesting its potentiality as an alternative to, or integrative option for, the treatment of CCS. - Highlights: • BNCT with the use of L-BPA was applied for three human clear cell sarcoma (CCS) cell lines. • BNCT trial was performed on a newly established intramuscularly CCS-bearing animal model. • A significant decrease of the tumor-volume was seen by single BNCT with the use of L-BPA. • A multiple BNCT application would be required for controlling the growth of any residual tumors

  9. Agmatine for combined treatment of epilepsy, depression and cognitive impairment in chronic epileptic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanveer; Bagga, Neetu; Kaur, Anureet; Kaur, Navjot; Gawande, Dinesh Yugraj; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Epilepsy is fourth most common neurological disorders associated with depression and cognitive deficits. As per present scenario, none of the antiseizure drugs have been reported successful to have ameliorative effect on epilepsy associated depression and cognitive deficits. Thus, the study was envisioned to assess an ameliorative potential of agmatine on epilepsy and its efficacy and safety for management of associated depression and cognitive deficits. The animals were made epileptic employing pentylenetetrazole (35mg/kg i.p. every 48±2h) kindling model of epilepsy and subsequently were treated with vehicle, valproic acid (300mg/kg/day i.p.) and agmatine (2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg)/day/i.p. for 15days. Except naïve, all the groups were challenged with same pentylenetetrazole dose as employed during kindling on days 5, 10, and 15 to evaluate seizure severity. Two hours after seizure severity test, tail suspension test and passive shock avoidance paradigm was employed to evaluate depression and cognitive behavior respectively. Results suggested that epileptic animals were significantly associated with depression and cognitive impairment. Chronic valproate treatment significantly reduced seizure severity, but was found unable to mitigate depression and cognitive deficits. However, agmatine treatment dose dependently ameliorated seizure severity as well as associated depression and cognitive deficits. On 15th day, animals were euthanized and pertinent neurochemical estimations were carried out in cortical and hippocampal areas of the mice brain. Thus, study concluded that agmatine ameliorated seizure severity, depression and cognitive impairment in epileptic animals, possibly via restoring glutamate-GABA neurotransmission and serotonin synthesis with decreased nitrosative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamics of soil bacterial communities in response to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.

  11. Dynamics of soil bacterial communities in response to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Chun Ding

    Full Text Available Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.

  12. Dynamics of Soil Bacterial Communities in Response to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ. PMID:24671113

  13. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operation and all manure, litter, and process wastewater generated by those animals or the production of... owned, rented, or leased, to which manure, litter or process wastewater from the production area is or... turkeys; (ix) 30,000 laying hens or broilers, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system; (x) 125,000...

  14. Natural healers: a review of animal assisted therapy and activities as complementary treatment for chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Reiley; Ferrer, Lilian; Villegas, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this review is to synthesize the existing literature on the use of animal-assisted therapy and activity (AAT/A) as complementary treatment among people living with chronic disease and to discuss the possible application of this practice among children living with HIV. Relevant databases were searched between March 10 and April 11, 2011, using the words: animal assisted therapy or treatment and chronic conditions or diseases. Thirty-one articles were found and 18 followed the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Research suggests that AAT/A is effective for different patient profiles, particularly children. Interaction with dogs has been found to increase positive behaviors, such as sensitivity and focus, in children with social disabilities. Decreased levels of pain have also been reported among child patients as a result of AAT/A. More research should be done in the area of children living with chronic diseases that require strict adherence to treatment, such as HIV, and on AAT/A's prospective use as an educational tool to teach children about the importance of self-care for their medical conditions.

  15. Product quality and microbial dynamics during vermicomposting and maturation of compost from pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Iria; Alves, David; Mato, Salustiano

    2017-11-01

    This research evaluates, through microbial dynamics, the use of earthworms Eisenia andrei for maturation of pre-composted pig manure in comparison with maturation under static conditions and with vermicomposting of fresh pig manure. Therefore, two substrates were used (fresh and pre-composted pig manure) and four treatments were developed: fresh manure vermicomposting, control of fresh manure without earthworms, pre-composting followed by vermicomposting and static maturation of pre-composted manure. In order to determine the microbial dynamics, the enzymatic activities and profiles of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were evaluated over a 112-days period. Physicochemical and biological parameters of the obtained products were also analyzed. The presence of earthworms significantly reduced (pquality values, it is necessary to optimize the vermicompost aging phase period to improve the stability. Static maturation presented stability on microbial dynamics that indicated a slow degradation of organic compounds so that, maturation of pre-composted manure through vermicomposting is better option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth, nodulation and yield response of soybean to biofertilizers and organic manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, A.; Mahmood, N.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain TAL-102 and a commercial biofertlizer EM (effective microorganisms) on growth, nodulation and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Wilczek] in soils amended either with farmyard manure or Trifolium alexandrinum L. green manure at the rate 20 tons ha/sup -1/ each. In green manure amendment, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced number and biomass of nodules resulting in a significant increase of 27, 65 and 55% in shoot biomass and number and biomass of pods, respectively. In farmyard manure amended soil, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced fresh biomass of nodules. As a result a significant increase of 45 and 47% in shoot biomass and number of pods was recorded, respectively. Generally, the effect of sole EM application on various studied parameters was insignificant in both the soil amendment systems. Combined application of EM and B. japonicum in green manure amended soil reduced shoot growth and number of pods as compared to sole B. japonicum inoculation. Conversely, in farmyard manure amendment, plants co-inoculated with B. japonicum and EM exhibited highest and significantly greater shoot biomass, and number and biomass of pods as compared to all other treatments. The present study concludes that soybean yield can be significantly enhanced by the application of B. japonicum and EM in farmyard manure amendment. (author)

  17. USE MANURE AND ORGANIC WASTE AS PLANTING MEDIA OF SEED POTATOES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meksy Dianawati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Manure and organic waste could be used as organic media at potato seed production of G1. The goal of this research was to increase production of potato seed G1 by several kinds of manure and organic waste. This research was conducted at plastic house in Lembang, West Java, from June to September 2014. This research used randomized completed block design with two treatment factors and six replications. The first factor was kinds of manure i.e chicken manure and sheep manure. The second factor was kinds of organic waste. Data was analysed by F test and followed by Duncan and correlation test at 95 percent confidence level. The results showed that media of husk waste with chicken and sheep manure has higher tuber weight and number of big-size tuber per plant than one of cocopeat significantly. Media of sheep manure with husk and bamboo waste has highest tuber weight per plant significantly. Number of total tuber was effected by number of smallsized tuber by 84 percent.

  18. STTARR: a radiation treatment and multi-modal imaging facility for fast tracking novel agent development in small animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Ivan; McKee, Trevor; Jaffray, David; Hill, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Small animal models play a pivotal role in the pipeline development of novel agents and strategies in personalized cancer therapy. The Spatio-Temporal Targeting and Amplification of Radiation Response Program (STTARR) consists of an animal imaging and precision radiation facility designed to provide innovative biologic imaging and targeted radiation treatment strategies in small animals. The design is to mirror the imaging and radiation treatment facility in a modern cancer center. The STTARR features imaging equipment of small animal scale including CT, MRI, PET, SPECT, Optical devices as well as image guided irradiators. The fleet of imaging and irradiation equipment provides a platform for identification of biological targets of the specific molecular pathways that influence both tumor progression and a patient's response to radiation therapy. Examples will be given in the utilization of the imaging facilities for development in novel approaches in cancer therapy including a PET-FAZA study for hypoxia measurement in a pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenograft model. In addition, the cone-beam image guided small animal irradiator developed at our institute will also be described. The animal platform (couch) provides motion in 3 dimensions to position the animal to the isocentre of the beam. A pair of rotational arms supporting the X-ray/detector pair enables acquisition of cone-beam images of the animal which give rise to image guided precision of 0.5 mm. The irradiation energy ranges from 50 to 225 kVp at a dose rate from 10-400 cGy/min. The gantry is able to direct X-ray beam of different directions to give conformal radiation treatment to the animal. A dedicated treatment planning system is able to perform treatment planning and provide commonly used clinical metrics in the animal treatment plan. Examples will be given to highlight the use of the image guided irradiator for research of drug/irradiation regimen in animal models. (author)

  19. Effect of nitrogen and fish manure fertilization on growth and chemical composition of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ertan; Kul, Raziye; Turan, Metin; Ekinci, Melek; Alak, Gonca; Atamanalp, Muhammet

    2016-04-01

    Present experiment was designed to determine the response of various dozes of fish manure (FM) and commercial fertilizers on plant growth, yield and nutrient content of lettuce. The treatments consisted of fish manure, commercial fertilizer and the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer with four dozes of nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha and 200 kg/ha). The results of the study showed that treatments significantly affected the growth and chemical characteristics of lettuce. The best results in regard to plant growth and yield were obtained from 100 and 150 kg kg/ha nitrogen dozes of the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer.

  20. Diversity and Abundance of Soil Animals as Influenced by Long-Term Fertilization in Grey Desert Soil, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maibo Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between soil fauna and different fertilizer management practices is of growing concern. The aim of this research was to investigate the response of soil fauna to fertilization regimes, to explore the relationships among the community of soil animals, soil moisture and crop yields. The application of organic fertilizers (i.e., sheep manure or crop residues increased crop yields and promoted the number of individuals and species of soil fauna owing to the exogenous organic matter that fertilizers provided for the survival and development of soil fauna. Furthermore, the treatments that applied sheep manure (i.e., sheep manure only or nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sheep manure plus were significantly beneficial for increasing crop yields and diversity of soil fauna compared to treatments with crop residues returned (i.e., crop residues returned only or nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and crop residues returned to the field (p < 0.05 due to the response of soil fauna to diverse exogenous nutrients and the effect of soil fertility. Therefore, the finding that soil fauna abundance is significantly positively correlated with soil moisture and crop yield may mean the effects of fertilizer applications on soil animals were partly masked by the soil moisture and crop yield.

  1. Global asessment of manure management policies and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teenstra, E.D.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Aktasaeng, N.; Amatayaku, W.; Ndambi, A.; Pelster, D.; Germer, L.; Jenet, A.; Opio, C.; Andeweg, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Livestock and Manure Management Component (LMMC) of the CCAC Agriculture Initiative supports integrated manure management practices by increasing knowledge and awareness, removing barriers to action and enhancing practice change. This Global Assessment report provides an overview of manure

  2. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  3. The Effect of Different Organic Manures Treatments on Methane Emission from Single-cropping Paddy Fields%不同种类有机肥施用对一季稻田CH4排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家梅; 纪雄辉; 彭华; 霍莲杰; 刘勇; 朱坚

    2011-01-01

    Methane emission fluxes from single-cropping paddy fields with application different fertilization treatments were studied by using the static chamber-gas chromatograph techniques with manual method. Results showed that the treatments with application fertilizer increased methane emission compared with no fertilizer treatments (NF). Seasonal average methane emission flux of the incorporation of rice straw and mineral fertilizer( RS) was 31.04 mg·m-2·h-1 which increased by 326.4%( P<0.05) and 211.7% compared with that of the mineral fertilized MF) and incorporation of pig manure and mineral fertilizer( PM), respectively. Seasonal average methane emission flux from the incorporation of chicken manure and the mineral fertilizer( CM) increased by 140.4%( P<0.05) and 75.7%(P<0.05) as compared with MF and PM, respectively. The results indicated there was the obvious influence for RS and CM to methane emission. However, there was no significant difference between NF and PM. According to the analysis of related environmental factors, there was significant correlation between methane emission fluxes and the soil temperature at S cm depth, and the same as the soil Eh. No significant correlation was found between CH4 flux and water depth. The unit yield of Global warming Potential (GWP) in PM treatment was 0.83 kg·kg-1 which suggested PM was a better recommend fertilization during the rice growth. The application of PM took the slight advantages not only in reducing the GWP but also in improving the grain yield.%选取不同施肥处理的一季中稻田为研究对象,采用静态箱-气相色谱法对一季稻CH4排放通量进行手动观测.结果表明,与不施肥相比,各施肥处理CH4平均排放通量均有不同程度增加.其中稻草还田+化肥处理(稻草处理)CH4平均排放通量为31.04mg· m-2· h-1,比化肥处理和猪粪+化肥处理(猪粪处理)分别增加326.4%( P<0.05)和211.7%(P<0.05),鸡粪+化肥处理(鸡粪处理)比化

  4. A microwave evaporation system for the waste treatment of radioactive animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tomoo; Nishiyama, Yumiko; Hikita, Akio; Takaoka, Ayako; Nakamura, Aiko.

    1979-01-01

    A microwave evaporation system was developed for the waste treatment of animal wastes contaminated with tritium or carbon-14. The apparatus composed of a 2450 MHz microwave range, a cooling unit, a receiver, a 3 H and 14 C sampler, an evacuating system and an automatic controller unit gave satisfactory results. The extent of evaporation can be optionally controlled in the range of 80% to 100%. The maximum rate of evaporation under reduced pressure reaches 10 g of water per minute at 480 W high frequency power level and 12.5 g per minute at 600 W. The evaporation of water in the carcass weighing 1 kg is generally completed in about 1 hour, and the weight is reduced by approximately 70%. The distribution in the apparatus of tritium or carbon-14 released from carcass by the microwave evaporation was studied using such labelled compounds as [ 3 H] water, [6- 3 H] thymidine, [methyl- 3 H] thymidine, [2- 14 C] thymidine, [U- 14 C] glutamic acid, [U- 14 C] fructose and [U- 14 C] glucose. The difference in activity trapped by the cooler and sampler was observed between the case of aqueous solutions of labelled compounds and that of animals administered with the same labelled compounds. The reason for this difference probably lies in metabolism of labelled compounds or exchange of tritium atoms within the animal body. (author)

  5. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...

  6. Effects of manure storage additivies on manure composition and greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Storage of dairy manure slurry allows for flexibility in the timing of land application of manure to reduce environmental impacts related to water quality. Yet, manure storage can increase greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia emissions and cause operational issues due to the buildup of slurry ...

  7. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy

  8. Coupling Cover Crops with Alternative Swine Manure Application Strategies: Manure-15N Tracer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of rye cover crops with alternative liquid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure application strategies may enhance retention of manure N in corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cropping systems. The objective of this study was to quantify uptake of manure derived-N by a rye (Seca...

  9. Effect of alkaline microwaving pretreatment on anaerobic digestion and biogas production of swine manure

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Yu; Yihuan Deng; Hongyu Liu; Chunping Yang; Bingwen Wu; Guangming Zeng; Li Lu; Fumitake Nishimura

    2017-01-01

    Microwave assisted with alkaline (MW-A) condition was applied in the pretreatment of swine manure, and the effect of the pretreatment on anaerobic treatment and biogas production was evaluated in this study. The two main microwaving (MW) parameters, microwaving power and reaction time, were optimized for the pretreatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of alkaline microwaving process for manure pretreatment at various values of pH and energy input. Resul...

  10. Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Reproductive Disorders of Large Animals in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZH Zuo, TY Zhang, J Chu, Q Zhang, YX Guo, ZQ Shen and C He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive diseases have been a great threat in large animal herds. Before induction of western medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM that is based on the use of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage and other forms of therapy has been practiced in China for thousands of years. The foundational text of Chinese medicine dated back to 5th century to 3rd century BCE, humans in China began developing the TCM therapy by maintaining normal homeostasis and body functions. Traditional Chinese medicine prophylaxis is a very different strategy from that of the western medicine, targeting the balance of the diseased animals as compared to the single lesion. Traditional Chinese medicine was also applied to cure ruminant’s reproductive disorders such as infertility, abortion and retained placenta. With the increasing concerns of the antibiotic resistance and drug abuse happened, TCM has acquired re-recognition as compared to western medicines due to eco-friendly consumer-driven developments and less residue in food chains. More importantly, a growing number of active substances or extracts with the reliable efficacy are being identified, meanwhile, the quality control measures are satisfied in the large-scale production already. However, few TCM is recognized to be used internationally as the popular human medication. Even less TCM is prescribed legally to animal industry due to poor understanding TCM philosophy and lack of the right guidelines of the registration. This summary aims to elucidate the TCM application in the treatment of the reproductive disorder in large animals and offer alternative strategies for prophylaxis.

  11. A novel phosphorus biofertilizer based on cattle manure and phytases-nanoclay complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel; Jorquera, Milko; Greiner, Ralf; Velasquez, Gabriela; Mora, María de la Luz

    2013-04-01

    Phytate and other phytase labile organic phosphorus (P) are abundant in both soils and manures. These recalcitrant forms of P accumulate in soils by their interaction with mineral particles. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of treating cattle manure with phytases stabilized in allophanic nanoclays, as a novel P biofertilization technology for crops grown in volcanic soils (Andisol). Two Andisols and two manures with contrasting inorganic Pcontent were used: Low P soil from Piedras Negras series (SPN-LP); High P soil from Freire Series (SF-HP); Low P Waste (WPN-LP); High P Waste (WF-HP). The used Andisols and manures were incubated with phytase-nanoclay complexes and the inorganic P was determined in the NaOH-EDTA and bicarbonate extracts. The WPN-LP was also inoculated with an alkaline β-propeller phytase (BPP) producing bacterium. The incubated SPN-LP and SPN-LP-WPN-LP mixture were evaluated for their P supplying capacity to wheat plants under greenhouse conditions. Our resultsindicated that the treatment of cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays resulted in a significant (P≤0.0.5) increase in the inorganic P. The use of phytase treated cattle manure increased 10% plant dry weight and 39% P concentration in wheat plants under greenhouse conditions, being equivalent to a P fertilizer dose of about 150 kg of P ha-1. In the case of low P cattle manure inoculated with BPP producing bacterium, inorganic P increased 10% in soil extracts (NaOH EDTA and Bicarbonate). However, the application of this treated manure did not result in a significant response to wheat growth and P acquisition. Our results suggest that this novel approach of incubating cattle manure with phytase stabilized in nanoclays enhances organic P cycling and P nutrition of plants grown under P-deficient soils.

  12. Successful treatment of advanced Ebola virus infection with T-705 (favipiravir) in a small animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Wurr, Stephanie; Rieger, Toni; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Günther, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a vaccine nor an effective antiviral treatment is available for use in humans. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the pyrazinecarboxamide derivative T-705 (favipiravir) against Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) in vitro and in vivo. T-705 suppressed replication of Zaire EBOV in cell culture by 4log units with an IC90 of 110μM. Mice lacking the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR(-)(/)(-)) were used as in vivo model for Zaire EBOV-induced disease. Initiation of T-705 administration at day 6 post infection induced rapid virus clearance, reduced biochemical parameters of disease severity, and prevented a lethal outcome in 100% of the animals. The findings suggest that T-705 is a candidate for treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of gamma radiation for the treatment of laboratory animal diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation for the treatment of laboratory animal diets has proved particularly successful. The effective inactivation of microorganisms, insects and parasites etc. is well demonstrated and the absence of adverse effects on the dietary components is inferred from many years of practical use. Adequate packaging of the pelleted diets is essential to avoid recontamination after irradiation; this aspect needs particular attention. The economics of the process are such that it would not be warranted to invest in a 60 Co plant specifically for the treatment of laboratory diets. However, a throughput in the order of 1000 to 1500 tonnes per annum, as estimated to meet UK current demand, can be catered for adequately and economically in a large-scale general service facility. (author)

  14. Characterization the potential of biochar from cow and pig manure for geoecology application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunamantha, I. M.; Widana, G. A. B.

    2018-03-01

    Biochar is a solid product generated from the carbonization of biomass with various potential benefits. The utilisation of biochar should be adapted to its characteristic which is mainly influenced by its feedstock. In this study, cow and pig manure biochar generated by a conventional process, were characterized by its physical and chemical analysis and its potential to be used as soil amendment. For this purpose, several main parameters were analyzed: organic carbon, Nutrient (total-N, available P and K) status, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), proximate data analysis (moisture content, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon) and its ash composition. The comparison between biochar and feedstock will be based on these parameters. The results of this study show that the organic carbon, available P, ash, and fixed carbon content of pig-manure biochar is higher than cow manure-derived biochar; while total-N, available K, CEC and volatile matter is lower. On its ash composition, the pig manure-derived biochar is dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, P2O5, and CaO while the cow manure-derived biochar is dominated by SiO2, CaO, Al2O3, K2O, and P2O5. However, both biochar show potential for improving soil quality and reducing carbon emission from animal manure.

  15. Transport of lincomycin to surface and ground water from manure-amended cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Sandra L; Cessna, Allan J; Elliott, Jane A; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2009-01-01

    Livestock manure containing antimicrobials becomes a possible source of these compounds to surface and ground waters when applied to cropland as a nutrient source. The potential for transport of the veterinary antimicrobial lincomycin to surface waters via surface runoff and to leach to ground water was assessed by monitoring manure-amended soil, simulated rainfall runoff, snowmelt runoff, and ground water over a 2-yr period in Saskatchewan, Canada, after fall application of liquid swine manure to cropland. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify lincomycin in all matrix extracts. Initial concentrations in soil (46.3-117 mug kg(-1)) were not significantly different (p > 0.05) for manure application rates ranging from 60,000 to 95,000 L ha(-1) and had decreased to nondetectable levels by mid-summer the following year. After fall manure application, lincomycin was present in all simulated rainfall runoff (0.07-2.7 mug L(-1)) and all snowmelt runoff (0.038-3.2 mug L(-1)) samples. Concentrations in snowmelt runoff were not significantly different from those in simulated rainfall runoff the previous fall. On average, lincomycin concentrations in ephemeral wetlands dissipated by 50% after 31 d. Concentrations of lincomycin in ground water were generally <0.005 mug L(-1). This study demonstrates that the management practice of using livestock manure from confined animal feeding operations as a plant nutrient source on cropland may result in antimicrobial transport to surface and ground waters.

  16. Chemical characterization of manure in relation to manure quality as a contribution to a reduced nitrogen emission to the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:manure composition, ammonia volatilization, free ions, Donnan Membrane Technique, manure additives, dietary changes, nitrogen dynamics,grasslandsoils.More insight in manure composition, ammonia (NH 3 )

  17. Image-guided small animal radiation research platform: calibration of treatment beam alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Iordachita, Iulian; Kazanzides, Peter; Ford, Eric; Wong, John

    2009-01-01

    Small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression and response to therapy with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) is a portable system for precision irradiation with beam sizes down to approximately 0.5 mm and optimally planned radiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. This paper focuses on the geometric calibration of the system for high-precision irradiation. A novel technique for the calibration of the treatment beam is presented, which employs an x-ray camera whose precise positioning need not be known. Using the camera system we acquired a digitally reconstructed 3D 'star shot' for gantry calibration and then developed a technique to align each beam to a common isocenter with the robotic animal positioning stages. The calibration incorporates localization by cone-beam CT guidance. Uncorrected offsets of the beams with respect to the calibration origin ranged from 0.4 mm to 5.2 mm. With corrections, these alignment errors can be reduced to the sub-millimeter range. The calibration technique was used to deliver a stereotactic-like arc treatment to a phantom constructed with EBT Gafchromic films. All beams were shown to intersect at a common isocenter with a measured beam (FWHM) of approximately 1.07 mm using the 0.5 mm collimated beam. The desired positioning accuracy of the SARRP is 0.25 mm and the results indicate an accuracy of 0.2 mm. To fully realize the radiation localization capabilities of the SARRP, precise geometric calibration is required, as with any such system. The x-ray camera-based technique presented here provides a straightforward and semi-automatic method for system calibration.

  18. Use of poultry manure for amendment of oil-polluted soils in relation to growth of maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amadi, A. Ue Bari, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The use of poultry manure for amelioration of oil-polluted soil was investigated by growing maize (Zea mays L.) under two experimental conditions: increasing the poultry manure rate from 0-20 kg ha -1 at 0.03 L/kg oil treatment level; and increasing the rate of oil treatment from 0-0.2 between the rate of poultry manure added and the enhancement of maize growth. But only a 16-kg ha -1 poultry manure rate and above exerted some beneficial effects on the maize growth relative to the unpolluted, unamended soil. Conversely, increasing oil concentration, regardless of the poultry manure level added, depressed maize growth, but only at oil levels of 0.03 L/kg. A positive correlation was recorded between maize height and leaf area growing in oil-treated soil amended with different poultry manure rates and growing in oil-treated amended with 20 kg ha -1 poultry manure. Amending oil-contaminated soils with poultry manure, should possibly improve soil fertility and maize production

  19. Surface runoff and transport of sulfonamide antibiotics and tracers on manured grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Michael; Stamm, Christian; Waul, Christopher; Singer, Heinz; Müller, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    Despite their common use in animal production the environmental fate of the veterinary sulfonamide antibiotics after excretion is only poorly understood. We performed irrigation experiments to investigate the transport of these substances with surface runoff on grassland. Liquid manure from pigs treated with sulfadimidine was spiked with sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, the herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and the conservative tracer bromide and spread onto eight plots. Four plots received the same amounts of the spiked substances in aqueous solution (controls). Apart from the application matrix we varied the time between application and irrigation. Manure increased the runoff volume up to six times compared with the controls. It seemed that manure enhanced the runoff by sealing the soil surface. On manured plots the relative antibiotic concentrations in runoff were higher than on the controls, reaching an average of 0.3% (sulfadiazine), 0.8% (sulfathiazole), and 1.4% (sulfadimidine) of the input concentrations after a 1-d contact time. The corresponding values on the controls were 0.16% for sulfadiazine and 0.08% for sulfathiazole. After 3 d, the maximum values on the manured plots were even higher, whereas they had fallen below the limit of quantification on the controls. As a consequence, the sulfonamide losses were 10 to 40 times larger on the manured plots. The relative mobility of the sulfonamides on the control plots followed the trend expected from their chromatographic separation but the opposite was found on the manured plots. Hence it is important to consider explicitly the physical and chemical effects of manure when assessing the environmental fate of sulfonamides.

  20. Use and Environmental Occurrence of Antibiotics in Freestall Dairy Farms with Manured Forage Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Naoko; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Harter, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Environmental releases of antibiotics from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are of increasing regulatory concern. This study investigates the use and occurrence of antibiotics in dairy CAFOs and their potential transport into first-encountered groundwater. On two dairies we conducted four seasonal sampling campaigns, each across 13 animal production and waste management systems and associated environmental pathways: application to animals, excretion to surfaces, manure collectio...

  1. Cow power: the energy and emissions benefits of converting manure to biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuellar, Amanda D; Webber, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    This report consists of a top-level aggregate analysis of the total potential for converting livestock manure into a domestic renewable fuel source (biogas) that could be used to help states meet renewable portfolio standard requirements and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the US, livestock agriculture produces over one billion tons of manure annually on a renewable basis. Most of this manure is disposed of in lagoons or stored outdoors to decompose. Such disposal methods emit methane and nitrous oxide, two important GHGs with 21 and 310 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide, respectively. In total, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector in the US amounted to 536 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide equivalent, or 7% of the total US emissions in 2005. Of this agricultural contribution, 51 to 118 MMT of carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from livestock manure emissions alone, with trends showing this contribution increasing from 1990 to 2005. Thus, limiting GHG emissions from manure represents a valuable starting point for mitigating agricultural contributions to global climate change. Anaerobic digestion, a process that converts manure to methane-rich biogas, can lower GHG emissions from manure significantly. Using biogas as a substitute for other fossil fuels, such as coal for electricity generation, replaces two GHG sources-manure and coal combustion-with a less carbon-intensive source, namely biogas combustion. The biogas energy potential was calculated using values for the amount of biogas energy that can be produced per animal unit (defined as 1000 pounds of animal) per day and the number of animal units in the US. The 95 million animal units in the country could produce nearly 1 quad of renewable energy per year, amounting to approximately 1% of the US total energy consumption. Converting the biogas into electricity using standard microturbines could produce 88 ± 20 billion kWh, or 2.4 ± 0.6% of annual electricity

  2. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Dmitriy; Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27784990

  3. Efficacy of Alkaline Hydrolysis as an Alternative Method for Treatment and Disposal of Infectious Animal Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Gordon; Weber, Peter; Evans, Ann; Venezia, Richard

    1998-05-01

    The efficacy of alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative for incineration or autoclaving during treatment and disposal of infectious waste was evaluated by testing for the destruction of samples of pure cultures of selected infectious microorganisms during digestion of 114 to 136-kg loads of animal carcasses in an animal tissue digestor at the Albany Medical College. Ten milliliter samples of pure cultures of each microorganism were divided among 3 dialysis bags made from narrow diameter dialysis tubing, and each of these bags was placed inside another dialysis bag made from larger diameter dialysis tubing. Each double-bagged sample was suspended from the cover of the carcass basket of the tissue digestor so that it was completely covered by hot alkaline digestion solution during the carcass digestion process. The following organisms were required by the New York State Department of Health as representative pathogens for testing sterilization capabilities of the procedure: Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, MS-2 bacteriophage, and Giardia muris. Animal carcasses included pigs, sheep, rabbits, dogs, rats, mice, and guinea pigs. The tissue digestor was operated at 110 to 120 C and approximately 15 lb/in2 (gauge) for 18 h before the system was allowed to cool to 50 C and dialysis bags were retrieved and submitted for microbial culture. None of the samples obtained from the dialysis bags after the digestion process yielded indicator bacteria or yeast. Giardia cysts were completely destroyed; only small fragments of what appeared to be cyst wall could be recognized with light microscopic examination. No plaque-forming units were detected with MS-2 bacteriophage after digestion. Samples of the hydrolyzate also did not yield growth on culture media. Animal carcasses were completely solubilized and digested, with only the inorganic components of the bones

  4. ZTI-01 Treatment Improves Survival of Animals Infected with Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Matthew B; denDekker, Ashley Eb; Cramer, Daniel E; Gabbard, Jon D; Lafoe, Kathryn M; Pfeffer, Tia L; Sotsky, Julie B; Vanover, Carol D; Ellis-Grosse, Evelyn J; Warawa, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background ZTI-01 (fosfomycin, FOS, for injection) is currently under US development to treat complicated urinary tract infections. ZTI-01 is unique compared with other antimicrobials in that it inhibits an early step in cell wall synthesis via covalent binding to MurA. ZTI-01 demonstrates broad in vitro activity against Gram-negative (GN) and -positive (GP) bacteria, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms. Our study goals were to determine the efficacy of ZTI-01 as a monotherapy or in combination with meropenem against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a preclinical model of pulmonary infection. Methods 8 week old neutropenic mice were infected with a MDR strain of P. aeruginosa via intubation-mediated intratracheal (IMIT) instillation. 3 hours after instillation, mice received treatment with ZTI-01, meropenem, or ZTI-01 plus meropenem (combination therapy) q8h for 5 days. Mice were monitored every 8 hours for 7 days for development of disease and moribund animals were humanely euthanized. Lungs and spleens were harvested at euthanasia, or at 7 days for survivors, and processed for bacterial enumeration and development of pathology. Results Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of P. aeruginosa UNC-D. Mock treated animals succumbed to infection within 36 hours post-infection. Animals that received 6 g/kg/day ZTI-01 showed an increase in the MTD (52 hours) and 25% of the cohort were protected from lethal disease. Combining ZTI-01 with meropenem resulted in a significant increase in survival (≥75% of cohorts survived infection). Combination therapy also significantly decreased bacterial numbers in the lungs and inhibited dissemination to the spleens. Furthermore, animals receiving combination therapy were protected from significant inflammation in the lungs and the development of pneumonia. Conclusion Here we report that combination therapy with ZTI-01 and meropenem provides significant improvements in all disease manifestations over treatment with

  5. Effect of biofertilizer and organic manure application on yield and morphological index of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam nemati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of biological and manure fertilizer on quantity and quality characteristics of roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L., an experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Center of Zabol University, Iran during growing season of 2012-2013. Treatments included three manure level; 0, 10 and 20 t.h-1 and eight levels of biofertilizer such as control, nitroxin, bio - sulfur, biological phosphorus, nitroxin+ bio - sulfur, nitroxin+ biological phosphorus, bio - sulfur+ biological phosphorus, nitroxin+ bio - sulfur+ biological phosphorus. Different levels of manure and biofertilizer inoculation were considered as main plots and subplots, respectively. Add manure to the soil and seeds of rossel inoculant treatment was performed with bio - fertilizers before planting. Traits including plant high, stem diameter, number of branches, number of fruits per plant, biological yield and economic yield based on results, levels of manure and fertilizer treatments and their interactions on biological traits were significant. Bio- fertilizers treatments caused significant differences on all meantioned traits. Interaction between treatments showed that the maximum economic yield equal to 1290 kg.h-1 roselle consumption combined with 10 t.h-1 manure+ nitroxin. The results showed that combined use of manure and biological, rather than taking them separately in increasing economic yield and growth characteristics roselle can play an effective role.

  6. The Effects of Organic Manures, Soil Cover and Drying Temperature on Some Growth and Phytochemical Characteristics of Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Vojodi Mehrabani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of some pre and post -harvest treatments on growth characteristics of Calendula officinalis. The first experiment as RCBD with three replication studied the effects of organic fertilizers as vermicompost, cow and poultry manure with control plus soil cover (plastic white and black. Organic manure application +mulch had positive effects on flower fresh weight. The greatest amount for chlorophyll b content was recorded in vermicompost + black plastic cover. In the second experiment, the effects of nutrition with organic manure +soil cover and post-harvest flower drying temperature (natural drying in shade condition and oven drying at 40 and 60 0C as a factorial based on RCBD were evaluated. The highest methanolic extract amount and total anthocyanin content were recorded with vermicompost + black cover + natural drying. For essential oil content and carotenoids gross amount poultry manure + black cover and drying at 60 0C was the preferred treatments. The highest recorded data for total flavonoids was traced in vermicompot and cow manure with white cover at natural drying condition. For total phenolics content, cow manure + black cover at 40 0C used for drying was selected as the treatment of choice. Also, vermicompost+ black mulch and natural drying were nice treatment combinations for the highest total phenolics content. In total, all the treatment applied i.e. organic manures, soil covers and drying methods at varying levels and combinations had suitable effectiveness on the growth characteristics and phytochemicals content of Calendula officinalis.

  7. Substrates with green manure compost and leaf application of biofertilizer on seedlings of yellow passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Muniz Barbosa Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Substrates and fertilization are fundamental for seedling production, which well nourished can produce earlier and are more resistant to stresses. Animal manures are often used in non-industrialized substrates with good results, but their costs are increasing. Other residues may be used for plant nutrition, in substrates or in leaf fertilization. The aim of this work was to evaluate substrates prepared with green manure composts and the leaf application of biofertilizer on the formation of yellow passion fruit seedlings. A greenhouse experiment was conducted between December 2009 and February 2010, with a split-plot random block design. Plots received or not leaf application of supermagro biofertilizer. Subplots consisted of different substrates: soil; soil + cattle manure; soil + cattle manure composted with black oats straw; soil + cattle manure composted with ryegrass straw; soil + cattle manure composted with turnip straw; and soil + cattle manure composted with vetch straw. There were three dates of leaf fertilization: 10, 25 and 40 days after emergence (DAE. At 50 DAE plants were collected for evaluation of growth and accumulation of biomass and nutrients: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn and Zn. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test. The substrate soil + cattle manure promoted higher stem diameter, plant height, leaf area, root length and volume and nutrient accumulation. Among substrates with green manure composts, those prepared with black oats and turnip straw outranked the others. The use of leaf biofertilizer showed diverse results on seedling formation, being beneficial when combined to substrates with black oats composted straw, and prejudicial when combined to soil + cattle manure and soil + turnip composted straw substrates. The accumulation of nutrients by the seedlings occurred in the following order: K>Ca>N>Mg>P>Zn>Cu=Mn.

  8. On the effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on batch and continuous anaerobic digestion of digested swine manure fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Mirtsou Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus, their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) has been ...

  9. Highly polygenic architecture of antidepressant treatment response: Comparative analysis of SSRI and NRI treatment in an animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Karim; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Mouriño-Talín, Héctor; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Sabela; Pain, Oliver; Jumhaboy, Irfan; Liu, Tina; Parpas, Panos; Newman, Stuart; Malykh, Artem; Carboni, Lucia; Uher, Rudolf; McGuffin, Peter; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Bryson, Kevin; Herbster, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Response to antidepressant (AD) treatment may be a more polygenic trait than previously hypothesized, with many genetic variants interacting in yet unclear ways. In this study we used methods that can automatically learn to detect patterns of statistical regularity from a sparsely distributed signal across hippocampal transcriptome measurements in a large-scale animal pharmacogenomic study to uncover genomic variations associated with AD. The study used four inbred mouse strains of both sexes, two drug treatments, and a control group (escitalopram, nortriptyline, and saline). Multi-class and binary classification using Machine Learning (ML) and regularization algorithms using iterative and univariate feature selection methods, including InfoGain, mRMR, ANOVA, and Chi Square, were used to uncover genomic markers associated with AD response. Relevant genes were selected based on Jaccard distance and carried forward for gene-network analysis. Linear association methods uncovered only one gene associated with drug treatment response. The implementation of ML algorithms, together with feature reduction methods, revealed a set of 204 genes associated with SSRI and 241 genes associated with NRI response. Although only 10% of genes overlapped across the two drugs, network analysis shows that both drugs modulated the CREB pathway, through different molecular mechanisms. Through careful implementation and optimisations, the algorithms detected a weak signal used to predict whether an animal was treated with nortriptyline (77%) or escitalopram (67%) on an independent testing set. The results from this study indicate that the molecular signature of AD treatment may include a much broader range of genomic markers than previously hypothesized, suggesting that response to medication may be as complex as the pathology. The search for biomarkers of antidepressant treatment response could therefore consider a higher number of genetic markers and their interactions. Through

  10. Effect of farmyard manure rate on water erosion of a Mediterranean soil: determination of the critical point of inefficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi, Mohamed; Bahri, Haithem; Cheick M'Hamed, Hatem; Hermessi, Taoufik

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cultivation of soils, using multiple soil tillage, led to the decrease of their organic matter content and structural stability in several cultivated area of the Mediterranean countries. In these degraded soils, the addition of organic products, traditionally the animal manure, should improve soil health among them the resistance of soil to water erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate after 1 year of the addition to a cambisoil different doses of farmyard manure on soil organic matter content, on microbial activity and on aggregate stability (proxy to soil resistance to water erosion). The statistical process (bilinear model) was used to found a point at which the addition of the organic product no longer influences the soil resistance to erosion. The farmyard manure issued from a cow breeding was composted passively during 4 months and used to amend a small plots of a cultivated cambisol (silty-clay texture, 0.9% TOC) located in the northeast of Tunisia (Morneg region). The manure was intimately incorporate to the soil. The manure organic matter content was 31%, and its isohumic coefficient was 49%. Twelve dose of manure were tested: from 0 to 220 t C.ha-1. The experiment was started on September 2011. In November 2012, soil sampling was done and soil organic carbon content (Walkley-Black method) and soil aggregate stability (wet method of Le Bissonnais) were assessed. A laboratory incubations of soil+manure mixtures, with the same proportions as tested in the field conditions, was carried at 28°C and at 75% of the mixture field capacity water retention. Carbon mineralization was monitored during three months incubation. Results show that the addition of farmyard manure stimulated the microbial activity proportionally to the added dose. This activation is due to the presence of easily biodegradable carbon in the manure, which increases with increasing manure dose. On the other hand, the addition of manure increased the aggregate stability with

  11. Increasing the biogas yield of manure by wet explosion of the digested fiber fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    digested manure fibers from the effluent of an anaerobic digester for enhancing biogas production and exploring the untapped biomass potential. The increase in methane yield of the digested manure fibers was investigated by applying the WEx treatment under 5 different process conditions. The pretreatment......Increasing the biodegradability of the lignocellulosic fiber fraction of manure can ensure higher methane productivity in biogas plants, leading to process profitability and thus larger production of renewable energy. A new pretreatment method, wet explosion (WEx), was investigated to treat...... condition of 180 ºC and a retention time of 10 minutes without addition of chemicals was found to be optimal, resulting in 136% increase in methane yield as compared to the untreated digested manure fibers....

  12. Spatial oxygen distribution and nitrous oxide emissions from soil after manure application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Bruun, Sander; Larsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The availability and spatial distribution of oxygen (O2) in agricultural soil are controlling factors in the production and emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but most experiments investigating the effects of various factors on N2O emissions in soil have been conducted without...... to interpret data on N2O emissions following a uniform or layered amendment of manure to agricultural soil. The spatial distribution of O2 and gas emission rates were monitored for 12 h. An anoxic layer formed rapidly around the layered manure, whereas the uniformly distributed manure led to a more widespread...... anoxia. Nitrous oxide emissions increased immediately after depletion of O2 in the manure-amended treatments. Greater understanding and improved knowledge of the spatial distribution of O2 is clearly beneficial and can be used to devise improved application strategies for mitigating N2O emissions from...

  13. Green manure affects cut flower yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ rose bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Fabiana Aparecida Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose cultivation requires many inputs for satisfactory production, making the process expensive. Nowadays, alternative practices have been used for sustainable crop production. Green manure is an agricultural practice that aims to maintain or improve soil fertility, increasing its yielding capacity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of green manure with legumes on the yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ roses. Grafted rose seedlings were cultivated in open field for 30 months. Legumes used as green manure and planted intercropped with rose bushes were forage peanut (Arachis pintoi and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan was grown in a separate area, cut, macerated, and applied in the rows between rose bushes every 3 months. Plants of control group received no green manure, only mineral fertilizer and cattle manure, as in all other treatments. The experimental design was randomized block with four treatments (three green manure species plus the control and seven replications. The highest yield and quality of flower stems in ‘Vegas’ occurred with addition of pigeon pea on the soil surface or chemically treated (control. Forage peanut and jack bean are not suitable for intercropping with ‘Vegas’ rose bushes due to possible nutrient and water competition.

  14. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS BOKASHI MANURE - TEAK LEAF IN GUNUNG KIDUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartatik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available “IBM” activities aim to improve the efficiency of farm businesses and Gunung Dowo farmer groups in Gunung Kidul through the use of technology bokashi fermentation produces manure - leaf. “IBM”activities carried on farm work and cattle ranchers in the hamlet of Gunung Dowo Village , Giring, Paliyan , Gunung Kidul . Beef cattle breeders are educated and trained in the use of cow dung and teak leaves falling into manure Bokashi - teak leaves and fermentation technology to improve the quality of animal feed hay. To farmers are educated and trained in the use of manure Bokashi - teak leaves to plant peppers cassava , banana , mango, and forage . Measure of the success of this activity seen from the participants' responses and practice the skills of participants in a given technology. The participants were very enthusiastic in participating in education, and training activities. Bokashi produced has good physical qualities are colored black and crumb. The results of the analysis of the content of N , P, and K bokashi made by farmers in Gunung Dowo is 0.887 percent N , 0.313 percent P, and 1.55 percent K

  15. Microbial pollution in wildlife: Linking agricultural manuring and bacterial antibiotic resistance in red-billed choughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A; Grande, Javier

    2009-05-01

    The spread of pathogens in the environment due to human activities (pathogen pollution) may be involved in the emergence of many diseases in humans, livestock and wildlife. When manure from medicated livestock and urban effluents is spread onto agricultural land, both residues of antibiotics and bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance may be introduced into the environment. The transmission of bacterial resistance from livestock and humans to wildlife remains poorly understood even while wild animals may act as reservoirs of resistance that may be amplified and spread in the environment. We determined bacterial resistance to antibiotics in wildlife using the red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax as a potential bioindicator of soil health, and evaluated the role of agricultural manuring with waste of different origins in the acquisition and characteristics of such resistance. Agricultural manure was found to harbor high levels of bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics. Choughs from areas where manure landspreading is a common agricultural practice harbor a high bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics, resembling the resistance profile found in the waste (pig slurry and sewage sludge) used in each area. The transfer of bacterial resistance to wildlife should be considered as an important risk for environmental health when agricultural manuring involves fecal material containing multiresistant enteric bacteria including pathogens from livestock operations and urban areas. The assessment of bacterial resistance in wild animals may be valuable for the monitoring of environmental health and for the management of emergent infectious diseases influenced by the impact of different human activities in the environment.

  16. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  17. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  18. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure...

  19. Costs of emission-reducing manure application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Verwijs, B.; Rodhe, L.; Smith, K.

    2004-01-01

    Favourable economics of handling and application of manure are of fundamental importance to encourage the implementation of emission-reducing application techniques. The economics of manure application depend on the costs of the equipment and the time to carry out the field operation. In this study

  20. Compliance of the legal treatment of experimental animals in Serbian legislation with the legislation of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić-Trninić Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author focuses on compliance of the legal treatment of experimental animals in Serbian law with the provisions of the European legislation. Analysing, on one hand, the treatment that experimental animals have under the law of European Union, and on the other hand, the treatment that they have in the law of Serbia, in accordance with the relevant acts and subordinate legislation acts, this article seeks to answer the question whether the degree of legal protection of experimental animals in domestic law is satisfactory, as well as whether and to what extent the relevant national legislation complies with the European standards. At the same time, the article attempts to point out the appropriate measures necessary to be taken in the future in order to achieve as high quality and comprehensive protection of experimental animals as possible in Serbian law.

  1. Selection of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae during penicillin treatment in vitro and in three animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Odenholt, Inga; Erlendsdottir, Helga

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties for the selection of resistant pneumococci were studied by using three strains of the same serotype (6B) for mixed-culture infection in time-kill experiments in vitro and in three different animal models, the mouse peritonitis, the mouse.......016 micro g/ml; erythromycin resistant)/ml, 10(6) CFU of strain B (MIC of penicillin, 0.25 micro g/ml)/ml, and 10(5) CFU of strain C (MIC of penicillin, 4 micro g/ml)/ml, was used in the two mouse models, and a mixture of 10(5) CFU of strain A/ml, 10(4) CFU of strain B/ml, and 10(3) CFU of strain C....../ml was used in the rabbit tissue cage model. During the different treatment regimens, the differences in numbers of CFU between treated and control animals were calculated to measure the efficacies of the regimens. Selective media with erythromycin or different penicillin concentrations were used to quantify...

  2. Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Shoji; Mutaat, H.H.; Awang, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author)

  3. Detecting tau in serum of transgenic animal models after tau immunotherapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Abramo, Cristina; Acker, Christopher M; Schachter, Joel B; Terracina, Giuseppe; Wang, Xiaohai; Forest, Stefanie K; Davies, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the attempt to elucidate if the "peripheral sink hypothesis" could be a potential mechanism of action for tau removal in passive immunotherapy experiments, we have examined tau levels in serum of chronically injected JNPL3 and Tg4510 transgenic animals. Measurement of tau in serum of mice treated with tau antibodies is challenging because of the antibody interference in sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. To address this issue, we have developed a heat-treatment protocol at acidic pH to remove interfering molecules from serum, with excellent recovery of tau. The present data show that pan-tau and conformational antibodies do increase tau in mouse sera. However, these concentrations in serum do not consistently correlate with reductions of tau pathology in brain, suggesting that large elevations of tau species measured in serum are not predictive of efficacy. Here, we describe a reliable method to detect tau in serum of transgenic animals that have undergone tau immunotherapy. Levels of tau in human serum are less than the sensitivity of current assays, although artifactual signals are common. The method may be useful in similarly treated humans, a situation in which false positive signals are likely. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Information on the presence of 2- Alkylcyclobutanones in animal feed after ionizing radiation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.M.; Barbezan, A.B.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H., E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In agribusiness, it is related to the development of the activities of creation, production and commercialization of pets in the Pet segment. This market grew 7.6% between 2014/2015, generated R$ 18 million in Brazil and 67.3% of this value refers to products for animal feed, commonly called pet food. In animal feed, the raw materials are chosen according to the method (s) of processing (s) in which the product is submitted, its stability in the process and its nutritional source during the validity of the product. In food preservation, the irradiation process is a treatment that seeks to reduce the microbial load of foods, however, it can also alter the composition of the present ingredients and form radiolytic products in the formulation that are still under study. In products containing the presence of fat, the main concern is 2-Alkylciclobutanones (2-ACBs), which are radiolytic products formed exclusively post-processing with ionizing radiation. The formation of 2-ACBs is directly related to the lipid concentration and the dose of irradiation. The objective of this work is to describe the possible radiolytic by-products formed in canine rations containing extruded fat after irradiation and to determine if the formation of 2-ACBs depends on the increase of the radiation dose and, as a consequence, verify their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. (author)

  5. Information on the presence of 2- Alkylcyclobutanones in animal feed after ionizing radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, A.M.; Barbezan, A.B.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2017-01-01

    In agribusiness, it is related to the development of the activities of creation, production and commercialization of pets in the Pet segment. This market grew 7.6% between 2014/2015, generated R$ 18 million in Brazil and 67.3% of this value refers to products for animal feed, commonly called pet food. In animal feed, the raw materials are chosen according to the method (s) of processing (s) in which the product is submitted, its stability in the process and its nutritional source during the validity of the product. In food preservation, the irradiation process is a treatment that seeks to reduce the microbial load of foods, however, it can also alter the composition of the present ingredients and form radiolytic products in the formulation that are still under study. In products containing the presence of fat, the main concern is 2-Alkylciclobutanones (2-ACBs), which are radiolytic products formed exclusively post-processing with ionizing radiation. The formation of 2-ACBs is directly related to the lipid concentration and the dose of irradiation. The objective of this work is to describe the possible radiolytic by-products formed in canine rations containing extruded fat after irradiation and to determine if the formation of 2-ACBs depends on the increase of the radiation dose and, as a consequence, verify their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. (author)

  6. Enhancement of Apoptosis by Titanium Alloy Internal Fixations during Microwave Treatments for Fractures: An Animal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Microwaves are used in one method of physical therapy and can increase muscle tissue temperature which is useful for improving muscle, tendon and bone injuries. In the study, we sought to determine whether titanium alloy internal fixations influence apoptosis in tissues subjected to microwave treatments at 2,450 MHz and 40 W during the healing of fractures because this issue is not yet fully understood.In this study, titanium alloy internal fixations were used to treat 3.0-mm transverse osteotomies in the middle of New Zealand rabbits' femurs. After the operation, 30-day microwave treatments were applied to the 3.0 mm transverse osteotomies 3 days after the operation. The changes in the temperatures of the muscle tissues in front of the implants or the 3.0 mm transverse osteotomies were measured during the microwave treatments. To characterize the effects of titanium alloy internal fixations on apoptosis in the muscles after microwave treatment, we performed TUNEL assays, fluorescent real-time (quantitative PCR, western blotting analyses, reactive oxygen species (ROS detection and transmission electron microscopy examinations.The temperatures were markedly increased in the animals with the titanium alloy implants. Apoptosis in the muscle cells of the implanted group was significantly more extensive than that in the non-implanted control group at different time points. Transmission electron microscopy examinations of the skeletal muscles of the implanted groups revealed muscular mitochondrial swelling, vacuolization. ROS, Bax and Hsp70 were up-regulated, and Bcl-2 was down-regulated in the implanted group.Our results suggest that titanium alloy internal fixations caused greater muscular tissue cell apoptosis following 2,450 MHz, 40 W microwave treatments in this rabbit femur fracture models.

  7. Cocaine choice procedures in animals, humans, and treatment-seekers: Can we bridge the divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J.; Stoops, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder chronically self-administer cocaine to the detriment of other rewarding activities, a phenomenon best modeled in laboratory drug-choice procedures. These procedures can evaluate the reinforcing effects of drugs versus comparably valuable alternatives under multiple behavioral arrangements and schedules of reinforcement. However, assessing drug-choice in treatment-seeking or abstaining humans poses unique challenges: for ethical reasons, these populations typically cannot receive active drugs during research studies. Researchers have thus needed to rely on alternative approaches that approximate drug-choice behavior or assess more general forms of decision-making, but whether these alternatives have relevance to real-world drug-taking that can inform clinical trials is not well-understood. In this mini-review, we (A) summarize several important modulatory variables that influence cocaine choice in nonhuman animals and non-treatment seeking humans; (B) discuss some of the ethical considerations that could arise if treatment-seekers are enrolled in drug-choice studies; (C) consider the efficacy of alternative procedures, including non-drug-related decision-making and ‘simulated’ drug-choice (a choice is made, but no drug is administered) to approximate drug choice; and (D) suggest opportunities for new translational work to bridge the current divide between preclinical and clinical research. PMID:26432174

  8. Traceability of sulfonamide antibiotic treatment by immunochemical analysis of farm animal hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Javier; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Garcia Regueiro, Jose-Antonio; Castellari, Massimo; Marco, M-Pilar

    2009-10-01

    The use of hair to trace use of unauthorized substances, therapeutic agents, or their misuse is becoming very attractive since residues can be detected for a long time after treatment. For this purpose, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been evaluated for its capability to trace sulfonamide antibiotic treatment by analyzing cattle and pig hair samples. Pigmented and nonpigmented hair samples from control and sulfamethazine (SMZ)-treated pigs and calves were collected, extracted under different alkaline conditions, and analyzed by ELISA after just diluting the extracts with the assay buffer. Data analysis following the European recommendations for screening methods demonstrates that the ELISA can detect SMZ in hair samples with a limit of detection (90% of the zero dose (IC(90))) between 30 and 75 ng g(-1). The same samples have been analyzed by HPLC after a dual solid-phase extraction. The ELISA results matched very well those obtained by the chromatographic method, demonstrating that the immunochemical method can be used as a screening tool to trace animal treatments. Between the benefits of this method are the possibility to directly analyze hair extracts with sufficient detectability and its high-throughput capability. Preliminary validation data are reported using an experimental approach inspired on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria for screening methods.

  9. Methane production from stable manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, M

    1955-04-01

    A brief description of the methane-bacteria is given, their classification, biochemistry, and ecology, and a table of gas production expected from a dozen waste materials. Descriptions of three fermentation systems are given. The Ducellier-Isman, Massaux consists of 2 or 3 tanks of 6 to 14 m/sup 3/ capacity which daily produces 5 to 17 m/sup 3/ gas. Rotted manure is placed in the tanks, covered with water and liquid manure, and allowed to ferment for 3 months. The older tanks are unmixed, but the newest have provision for breaking the scum layer. Gas production virtually ceases during the winter, much manual labor is involved, and high losses of organic matter are caused by use of already rotted manure. The Darmstadt system, developed by Reinhold and similar to the systems of Harnisch and Mueller, consists of a 15 m/sup 3/ covered pit into which farm wastes and household wastes are fed through piping. The tank is heated and stirred, solids making their way from one end of the tank to the outlet in a matter of weeks, from which they are shoveled and stacked. Gas production is 0.3 to 0.5 m/sup 3/ gas/m/sup 3/ tank daily. A good deal of manual labor is involved, and losses of nutrients occur after the solids are extracted from the tank and piled. A fully mechanized Schmidt-Egersgluess system, the Biological Humus Gasworks (Bihugas), consists of heated (30/sup 0/ to 35/sup 0/), mixed tanks, gas compressor, gas storage tank, and effluent storage tank. Three m/sup 3/ tank capacity are required per head of cattle and gas production is 2 to 2.5 m/sup 3//livestock unit/day. Straw is stored to be ready for use as fermentation feedstock when the cattle are in the fields. The length of digestion in the process is 18 to 20 days.

  10. Biogas production from steer manures in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cuong H.; Saggar, Surinder; Vu, Cuong C.

    2017-01-01

    manures collected from two different experiments of steers fed diets containing feed supplements. BMP was 110.1 (NLkg-1 VS) for manure from steers receiving a control diet, significantly lower 79.0 (NL kg-1 VS) for manure from steers fed a diet containing 0.3% tannin (%DM), but then showed an increasing...... trend to 90.9 and 91.2 (NL kg-1 VS) for manures from steers receiving 0.4 and 0.5% tannin (%DM) supplements, respectively. Similarly, the CH4 production (NL kg-1 VS) of manure from steers was 174 for control, 142 for control supplemented concentrate (C), 143 for control added rice straw treated...

  11. Treatment of keloid scars with a 1210-nm diode laser in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philandrianos, Cécile; Bertrand, Baptiste; Andrac-Meyer, Lucile; Magalon, Guy; Casanova, Dominique; Kerfant, Nathalie; Mordon, Serge

    2015-12-01

    A temperature increase can improve wound healing by activation of heat shock protein 70 and stimulation of fibroblasts. Since keloids are a dysfunction of collagen fiber synthesis and organization, this study aimed to evaluate if a 1,210 nm diode laser could have effects in a new animal model of keloid scars. A total of 39 nude mice were used for this study. Phototypes IV and V human keloids were grafted into their backs and after 1 month of healing, the mice were divided into four groups: Control, Laser, Resection, Resection/Laser. In the Laser group, the keloids were treated with a 1,210-nm diode-laser with the following parameters: 4 W; 10 seconds; fluence: 51 J/cm(2) ; spot: 18.9 × 3.7 mm(2) . In the Resection group, surgical intra-lesional excision was performed. In the Resection/Laser group, keloids were treated with the 1,210-nm laser-diode after surgical intra-lesional excision. Temperature measurements were made during the laser treatment. Clinical examination and histological study were performed on the day of treatment and 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months later. Mean temperature measurement was of 44.8°C (42-48°) in the Laser groups. No healing complications or keloid proliferation was observed in any group. Keloid histologic characters were confirmed in all grafts. No histologic particularity was observed in the laser groups in comparison with the Control and Resection groups. First, this keloid animal model appears to be adapted for laser study. Secondly, the 1,210-nm diode laser does not induce keloid thermal damage in vivo. Further studies with different 1,210-nm laser diode parameters should be performed in order to observe significant effects on keloids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The fate and effect of monensin during anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under mesophilic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing concern about environmental impact of residual antibiotics and feed additives in the manure of treated animals. Monensin, a polyether ionophore coccidiostat, is the only feed additive permitted for use in the U.S. for lactating dairy cows. Previous research has shown that up to 5...

  13. Distillers by-product cattle diets enhance reduced sulfur gas fluxes from feedlot soils and manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times duri...

  14. The ALFAM2 database on ammonia emission from field-applied manure: description and illustrative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from animal manure contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation, and is a loss of reactive nitrogen (N) from agricultural systems. Estimates of NH3 emission are necessary for national inventories and nutrient management. Many studies have made measurements of NH3 emi...

  15. CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MANURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA and the USDA convened a three-day Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated with Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures, and Other Organic By-Products on June 4-6, 2001 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the effe...

  16. Characterization of manure from conventional and phytase transgenic pigs by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-point phosphorus (P) pollution from animal manure is becoming a serious global problem. The current solution for the swine industry is including the enzyme phytase as a component of the cereal grain diet. A very real possibility in the future is the production of transgenic pigs that express phy...

  17. Inner ear manifestations in CHARGE: Abnormalities, treatments, animal models, and progress toward treatments in auditory and vestibular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Daniel I; Tawfik, Kareem O; Martin, Donna M; Raphael, Yehoash

    2017-12-01

    The inner ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. Both hearing and balance are commonly affected in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene. Semicircular canal dysplasia or aplasia is the single most prevalent feature in individuals with CHARGE leading to deficient gross motor skills and ambulation. Identification of CHD7 as the major gene affected in CHARGE has enabled acceleration of research in this field. Great progress has been made in understanding the role of CHD7 in the development and function of the inner ear, as well as in related organs such as the middle ear and auditory and vestibular neural pathways. The goals of current research on CHD7 and CS are to (a) improve our understanding of the pathology caused by CHD7 pathogenic variants and (b) to provide better tools for prognosis and treatment. Current studies utilize cells and whole animals, from flies to mammals. The mouse is an excellent model for exploring mechanisms of Chd7 function in the ear, given the evolutionary conservation of ear structure, function, Chd7 expression, and similarity of mutant phenotypes between mice and humans. Newly recognized developmental functions for mouse Chd7 are shedding light on how abnormalities in CHD7 might lead to CS symptoms in humans. Here we review known human inner ear phenotypes associated with CHD7 pathogenic variants and CS, summarize progress toward diagnosis and treatment of inner ear-related pathologies, and explore new avenues for treatment based on basic science discoveries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Microbial community dynamics and biogas production from manure fractions in sludge bed anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgård, A S R; Bergland, W H; Bakke, R; Vadstein, O; Østgaard, K; Bakke, I

    2015-12-01

    To elucidate how granular sludge inoculum and particle-rich organic loading affect the structure of the microbial communities and process performance in upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. We investigated four reactors run on dairy manure filtrate and four on pig manure supernatant for three months achieving similar methane yields. The reactors fed with less particle rich pig manure stabilized faster and had highest capacity. Microbial community dynamics analysed by a PCR/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach showed that influent was a major determinant for the composition of the reactor communities. Comparisons of pre- and non-adapted inoculum in the reactors run on pig manure supernatant showed that the community structure of the nonadapted inoculum adapted in approximately two months. Microbiota variance partitioning analysis revealed that running time, organic loading rate and inoculum together explained 26 and 31% of the variance in bacterial and archaeal communities respectively. The microbial communities of UASBs adapted to the reactor conditions in treatment of particle rich manure fractions, obtaining high capacity, especially on pig manure supernatant. These findings provide relevant insight into the microbial community dynamics in startup and operation of sludge bed reactors for methane production from slurry fractions, a major potential source of biogas. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Exploring Post-Treatment Reversion of Antimicrobial Resistance in Enteric Bacteria of Food Animals as a Resistance Mitigation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Victoriya V; KuKanich, Butch; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial drug use in food animals is associated with an elevation in relative abundance of bacteria resistant to the drug among the animal enteric bacteria. Some of these bacteria are potential foodborne pathogens. Evidence suggests that at least in the enteric nontype-specific Escherichia coli, after treatment the resistance abundance reverts to the background pre-treatment levels, without further interventions. We hypothesize that it is possible to define the distribution of the time period after treatment within which resistance to the administered drug, and possibly other drugs in case of coselection, in fecal bacteria of the treated animals returns to the background pre-treatment levels. Furthermore, it is possible that a novel resistance mitigation strategy for microbiological food safety could be developed based on this resistance reversion phenomenon. The strategy would be conceptually similar to existing antimicrobial drug withdrawal periods, which is a well-established and accepted mitigation strategy for avoiding violative drug residues in the edible products from the treated animals. For developing resistance-relevant withdrawals, a mathematical framework can be used to join the necessary pharmacological, microbiological, and animal production components to project the distributions of the post-treatment resistance reversion periods in the production animal populations for major antimicrobial drug classes in use. The framework can also help guide design of empirical studies into the resistance-relevant withdrawal periods and development of mitigation approaches to reduce the treatment-associated elevation of resistance in animal enteric bacteria. We outline this framework, schematically and through exemplar equations, and how its components could be formulated.

  20. Electricity generation and nutrients removal from high-strength liquid manure by air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongjian; Wu, Xiao; Nelson, Chad; Miller, Curtis; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are widely tested to recover electrical energy from waste streams containing organic matter. When high-strength wastewater, such as liquid animal manure, is used as a medium, inhibition on anode and cathode catalysts potentially impairs the effectiveness of MFC performance in power generation and pollutant removal. This study evaluated possible inhibitive effects of liquid swine manure components on MFC power generation, improved liquid manure-fed MFCs performance by pretreatment (dilution and selective adsorption), and modeled the kinetics of organic matter and nutrients removal kinetics. Parameters monitored included pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations. The removals of VFA and TAN were efficient, indicated by the short half-life times of 4.99 and 7.84 d, respectively. The mechanism for phosphate decrease was principally the salt precipitation on cathode, but the removal was incomplete after 42-d operation. MFC with an external resistor of 2.2 kΩ and fed with swine wastewater generated relatively small power (28.2 μW), energy efficiency (0.37%) and Coulombic efficiency (1.5%). Dilution of swine wastewater dramatically improved the power generation as the inhibitory effect was decreased. Zeolite and granular activated carbon were effective in the selective adsorption of ammonia or organic matter in swine wastewater, and so substantially improved the power generation, energy efficiency, and Coulombic efficiency. A smaller external resistor in the circuit was also observed to promote the organic matter degradation and thus to shorten the treatment time. Overall, air-cathode MFCs are promising for generating electrical power from livestock wastewater and meanwhile reducing the level of organic matter and nutrients.

  1. Manure placement method influenced growth, phenology and bunch yield of three Musagenotypes in a humid zone of Southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. Tenkouano; O. O. Ndukwe; K. P. Baiyeri

    2013-01-01

    Manure placement methods earlier evaluated in a greenhouse using the banana cultivar PITA 14 as a test-crop significantly influenced root system development, vegetative growth, nutrient uptake, whole plant dry matter yield and distribution of the crop. These placement methods plus an additional treatment were re-evaluated in a field experiment over two cropping cycles using three Musa genotypes. The treatments were: a full dose of poultry manure placed on the soil surface – top dressing(T1),a...

  2. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical surface composition by Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR–FTIR) showed that no delignification of the lignocellulose took place during ...

  3. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Approval of raxibacumab for the treatment of inhalation anthrax under the US Food and Drug Administration Animal rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei eTsai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 14, 2012, the FDA approved raxibacumab, the first product developed under Project BioShield to achieve this milestone, and the first biologic product to be approved through the FDA animal efficacy rule (or Animal Rule. Raxibacumab is approved for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis in combination with appropriate antibiotic drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or are not appropriate. The approval of Raxibacumab illustrates many of the challenges that product developers may encounter when pursuing approval under the Animal Rule and highlights a number of important regulatory and policy issues.

  5. Sewage sludge and liquid pig manure as possible sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Christina S; Schwaiger, Karin; Harms, Katrin; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Kunz, Anne; Meyer, Karsten; Müller, Christa; Bauer, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Within the last decades, the environmental spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a topic of concern. In this study, liquid pig manure (n=305) and sewage sludge (n=111) - used as agricultural fertilizers between 2002 and 2005 - were investigated for the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Bacteria were tested for their resistance against 40 chemotherapeutics including several "reserve drugs". E. coli (n=613) from pig manure were at a significantly higher degree resistant to streptomycin, doxycycline, spectinomycin, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol than E. coli (n=116) from sewage sludge. Enterococci (Ent. faecalis, n=387, and Ent. faecium, n=183) from pig manure were significantly more often resistant to high levels of doxycycline, rifampicin, erythromycin, and streptomycin than Ent. faecalis (n=44) and Ent. faecium (n=125) from sewage sludge. Significant differences in enterococcal resistance were also seen for tylosin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin high level, fosfomycin, clindamicin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. By contrast, aminopenicillins were more effective in enterococci from pig manure, and mean MIC-values of piperacillin+tazobactam and third generation cefalosporines were significantly lower in E. coli from pig manure than in E. coli from sewage sludge. 13.4% (E. coli) to 25.3% (Ent. faecium) of pig manure isolates were high-level multiresistant to substances from more than three different classes of antimicrobial agents. In sewage sludge, high-level-multiresistance reached from 0% (Ent. faecalis) to 16% (Ent. faecium). High rates of (multi-) resistant bacteria in pig manure emphasize the need for a prudent - cautious - use of antibiotics in farm animals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p < 0.001) quadratically from -31??? to -15 ???. The relationship between cumulative ammonia losses and ??15N of manure was highly significant (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76). In Exp. 2, using a mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  7. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  8. REAC regenerative treatment efficacy in experimental chondral lesions: a pilot study on ovine animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Passino E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eraldo Sanna Passino,1,2 Stefano Rocca,1 Sabrina Caggiu,1 Nicolò Columbano,1,2 Alessandro Castagna,3 Vania Fontani,3–5 Salvatore Rinaldi3–51Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 2Comparative Surgery Research Laboratory, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 3Department of Regenerative Medicine, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, Italy; 4Research Department, Rinaldi Fontani Foundation, Florence, Italy; 5Research Department, IRF Shanghai Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC technology is a platform designed to optimize cell polarity. Cell polarity is a universal biological phenomenon that is implicated in cell differentiation, proliferation, morphogenesis, aging, and rejuvenation. In this work, we investigate a timing and administration protocol for tissue optimization regenerative treatment type C, in order to treat aging-related chondral damage or injuries and gain insights into regenerative processes of articular cartilage in humans. The chondral lesion produced in this study in an animal model (6 knee joints of 4 adult sheep was 6 mm in diameter and about 2 mm deep. These lesions, which did not involve subchondral bone, tend to increase in size and depth and are not completely repaired with normal hyaline articular cartilage since adult articular cartilage is avascular and has a very slow turnover at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the hydration of articular cartilage is reduced with aging and with decreased mitotic activity, synthesis, and population size of chondrocytes. Six months posttreatment, lesions appeared filled, though not completely, with newly generated tissue of the light opalescent color of healthy articular cartilage, which otherwise covered the underlying subchondral bone. The newly formed tissue surface appeared to be quite regular. Nearly complete regeneration of subchondral bone occurred, with

  9. Technical protocol for laboratory tests of transformation of veterinary medicinal products and biocides in liquid manures. Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The technical protocol under consideration describes a laboratory test method to evaluate the transformation of chemicals in liquid bovine and pig manures under anaerobic conditions and primarily is designed for veterinary medicinal products and biocides. The environmentally relevant entry routes into liquid manures occur via urine and feces of cattle and pigs in stable housings after excretion of veterinary medicinal products as parent compounds or metabolites and after the application of biocides in animal housings. Further entry routes such as solid dung application and direct dung pat deposition by production animals on pasture are not considered by this technical protocol. Thus, this technical protocol focused on the sampling of excrements from cattles and pigs kept in stables and fed under standard nutrition conditions. This approach additionally ensures that excrement samples are operationally free of any contamination by veterinary medicinal products and biocides. After the matrix characterization, reference-manure samples are prepared from the excrement samples by adding tap water to adjust defined dry substance contents typical for bovine or pig manures. This technical protocol comprehends a tiered experimental design in two parts: (a) Sampling of excrements and preparation of reference bovine and pig manures; (b) Testing of anaerobic transformation of chemicals in reference manures.

  10. Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal Manures on Soil ... Discovery and Innovation ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... into the effectiveness of locally available agricultural by-products as source of nutrient.

  11. Comparison between Urea and Goat Manure as Sources of Nitrogen for Napier Grass Grown on Terraced Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman, M.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of two nitrogen (N sources on dry matter (DM yield and nutritive value of Napier grass were evaluated. The nitrogen (N fertiliser (at rate of 300 kg N ha?1 year?1 was applied by dividing the terraces of a hill under two treatments: T1 (urea and T2 (goat manure. There were three replicates of each treatment arranged within three blocks in a completely randomised design. Grass was cut at about 60?day interval. In the first to fourth harvests, grass receiving manure had higher plant height than those with urea application. Grass receiving manure had higher DM yield than urea in almost all of the cuttings. In the fourth harvest, grass receiving urea contained higher DM and organic matter (OM than manure. Similar result was found for fifth harvest where urea gave higher crude protein (CP than manure. Irrespective of harvesting frequencies, average DM, OM, CP and neutral detergent fibre contents were not significantly different between grasses fertilised with manure and urea. In conclusion, manure is recommended for economical cultivation of Napier grass on terrace of hill.

  12. Fouling mitigation in membrane distillation processes during ammonia stripping from pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarebska, Agata; Amor, Angel Cid; Ciurkot, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Over time fouling leads to membrane wetting. This is the biggest obstacle to widespread use of membrane distillation (MD) for ammonia removal from animal slurry. Feed pretreatment and cleaning strategies of membrane surfaces are the most common methods to prevent or diminish fouling phenomena....... This study investigates preliminary fouling of polypropylene (PP) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes. A model manure solution was used as feed. In addition cleaning efficiencies with deionized water, NaOH/citric acid, and Novadan agents were studied. Further microfiltration and ultrafiltration were...... examined as manure pretreatment to diminish fouling. To this end polyvinylidene fluoride membranes (PVDF 0.2 µm and 150 kDa respectively) were used. Organic fouling was shown to be dominant. For the model manure solution the fouling comprised lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. For pig slurry the fouling...

  13. Peran People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (Peta) Dalam Kasus Animal Testing Terhadap Hewan Luwak Di Indonesia Tahun 2012-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Harto, Syafri; Ambarrini, Tantin

    2015-01-01

    More than 100 million animals every year suffer and die by fierce chemical test, medical, food, and cosmetic by giving poisonous, blinding and killing million animals every year for irresponsible companies. In medical world, all procedures that are done against the animals called animal testing.Animal testing happens in Indonesia against civet cat animal. The animal eats coffee fruit and digests it to be coffee fruit seed that is put out with its feces. This seed that has unique taste and hig...

  14. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    New information is presented on impacts on groundwater by manure storage in deep ground pits. - Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal

  15. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D

    2002-12-01

    New information is presented on impacts on groundwater by manure storage in deep ground pits. - Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 18}O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human

  16. Impact of narasin on manure composition, microbial ecology, and gas emissions from finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean meal or a corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with solubles diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Brian J; Trabue, Steven L; van Weelden, Mark B; Andersen, Daniel S; Pepple, Laura M

    2018-04-14

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding finishing pigs a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with or without a growth-promoting ionophore (0 or 30 mg narasin/kg of diet), has on manure composition, microbial ecology, and gas emissions. Two separate groups of 24 gilts (initial BW = 145.1 kg, SD = 7.8 kg) were allotted to individual metabolism crates that allowed for total but separate collection of feces and urine during the 48-d collection period. After each of the twice-daily feedings, feces and urine from each crate was collected and added to its assigned enclosed manure storage tank. Each tank contained an individual fan system that pulled a constant stream of air over the manure surface for 2 wk prior to air (day 52) and manure sampling (day 53). After manure sampling, the manure in the tanks was dumped and the tanks cleaned for the second group of pigs. Except for total manure Ca and P output as a percent of intake and for manure methane product rate and biochemical methane potential (P ≤ 0.08), there were no interactions between diet composition and narasin supplementation. Narasin supplementation resulted in increased manure C (P = 0.05), increased manure DM, C, S, Ca, and phosphorus as a percent of animal intake (P ≤ 0.07), and increased manure volatile solids and foaming capacity (P ≤ 0.09). No effect of narasin supplementation was noted on manure VFA concentrations or any of the gas emission parameters measured (P ≥ 0.29). In contrast, feeding finishing pigs a diet containing DDGS dramatically affected manure composition as indicated by increased concentration of DM, C, ammonia, N, and total and volatile solids (P = 0.01), increased manure DM, N, and C as a percent of animal intake (P = 0.01), increased manure total VFA and phenols (P ≤ 0.05), decreased gas emissions of ammonia and volatile sulfur compounds (VSC; P = 0.01), increased

  17. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  18. Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Role of Cannabidiol Treatment in Animal Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Francieli; Petronilho, Fabricia; Sonai, Beatriz; Ritter, Cristiane; Hallak, Jaime E C; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Asthma represents a public health problem and traditionally is classified as an atopic disease, where the allergen can induce clinical airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reversible obstruction of airways. Studies have demonstrated the presence of T-helper 2 lymphocytes in the lung of patients with asthma. These cells are involved in cytokine production that regulates immunoglobulin synthesis. Recognizing that T cell interaction with antigens/allergens is key to the development of inflammatory diseases, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of cannabidiol (CBD) in this setting. Asthma was induced in 8-week-old Wistar rats by ovalbumin (OVA). In the last 2 days of OVA challenge animals received CBD (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and were killed 24 hours after. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were determinate in the serum. CBD treatment was able to decrease the serum levels of all analyzed cytokines except for IL-10 levels. CBD seems to be a potential new drug to modulate inflammatory response in asthma.

  19. Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Role of Cannabidiol Treatment in Animal Model of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Vuolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma represents a public health problem and traditionally is classified as an atopic disease, where the allergen can induce clinical airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reversible obstruction of airways. Studies have demonstrated the presence of T-helper 2 lymphocytes in the lung of patients with asthma. These cells are involved in cytokine production that regulates immunoglobulin synthesis. Recognizing that T cell interaction with antigens/allergens is key to the development of inflammatory diseases, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of cannabidiol (CBD in this setting. Asthma was induced in 8-week-old Wistar rats by ovalbumin (OVA. In the last 2 days of OVA challenge animals received CBD (5 mg/kg, i.p. and were killed 24 hours after. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were determinate in the serum. CBD treatment was able to decrease the serum levels of all analyzed cytokines except for IL-10 levels. CBD seems to be a potential new drug to modulate inflammatory response in asthma.

  20. Treatment of a multiple sclerosis animal model by a novel nanodrop formulation of a natural antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, Orli; Larush, Liraz; Frid, Kati; Keller, Guy; Friedman-Levi, Yael; Ovadia, Haim; Abramsky, Oded; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is associated with demyelination, neurodegeneration, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. In this work, we administered a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil (PSO), denominated Nano-PSO, to mice induced for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of MS. PSO comprises high levels of punicic acid, a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid considered as one of the strongest natural antioxidants. We show here that while EAE-induced mice treated with natural PSO presented some reduction in disease burden, this beneficial effect increased significantly when EAE mice were treated with Nano-PSO of specific size nanodroplets at much lower concentrations of the oil. Pathological examinations revealed that Nano-PSO administration dramatically reduced demyelination and oxidation of lipids in the brains of the affected animals, which are hallmarks of this severe neurological disease. We propose that novel formulations of natural antioxidants such as Nano-PSO may be considered for the treatment of patients suffering from demyelinating diseases. On the mechanistic side, our results demonstrate that lipid oxidation may be a seminal feature in both demyelination and neurodegeneration.

  1. Using biochar in animal farming to recycle nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Wilson, Kelpie; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal has been used to treat digestive disorder in animals since several thousand years. But only since about 2010 biochar has increasingly been used as regular feed additive in animal farming usually mixed with standard feed at approximately 1% of the daily feed intake. The use of biochar as feed additive has the potential to improve animal health, feed efficiency and the animal-stable environment; to reduce nutrient losses and GHG emissions; and to increase soil organic mater and thus soil fertility. The evaluation of more than 150 scientific papers on feeding (activated) biochar showed in most of the studies and for all investigated livestock species positive effects on parameters like toxin adsorption, digestion, blood values, feed use efficiency and livestock weight gain, meat quality and GHG emissions. The facilitation of direct electron transfers between different species of bacteria or microbial consortia via the biochar mediator in the animal digestion tract is hypothesized to be the main reason for a more energy efficient digestion and thus higher feed efficiency, for its selective probiotic effect, for reduced N-losses and eventually for less GHG emissions. While chicken, pigs, fish and other omnivore animals provoke GHG-emissions (mainly NH3, CH4, N2O) when their liquid and solid excretions decompose anaerobically, ruminants cause direct methane emissions through flatulence and burps (eructation). Preliminary studies demonstrated that feeding high temperature biochars might reduce ruminant CH4 emissions though more systematic research is needed. It is likely that microbial decomposition of manure containing digested biochar produces less ammonia, less methane and thus retain more nitrogen, as seen when manure was composted with and without biochar or when biochar is used as bedding or manure treatment additive. Laboratory adsorption trials estimated that using biochar for liquid manure treatment could safe 57,000 t NH4 and 4,600 t P2O5 fertilizer per

  2. Modeling Phosphorous Losses from Seasonal Manure Application Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, E.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Excess nutrient loading, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters is a common and significant problem throughout the United States. While pollution remediation efforts are continuously improving, the most effective treatment remains to limit the source. Appropriate timing of fertilizer application to reduce nutrient losses is currently a hotly debated topic in the Northeastern United States; winter spreading of manure is under special scrutiny. We plan to evaluate the loss of phosphorous to surface waters from agricultural systems under varying seasonal fertilization schemes in an effort to determine the impacts of fertilizers applied throughout the year. The Cayuga Lake basin, located in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, is a watershed dominated by agriculture where a wide array of land management strategies can be found. The evaluation will be conducted on the Fall Creek Watershed, a large sub basin in the Cayuga Lake Watershed. The Fall Creek Watershed covers approximately 33,000 ha in central New York State with approximately 50% of this land being used for agriculture. We plan to use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model a number of seasonal fertilization regimes such as summer only spreading and year round spreading (including winter applications), as well as others. We will use the model to quantify the phosphorous load to surface waters from these different fertilization schemes and determine the impacts of manure applied at different times throughout the year. More detailed knowledge about how seasonal fertilization schemes impact phosphorous losses will provide more information to stakeholders concerning the impacts of agriculture on surface water quality. Our results will help farmers and extensionists make more informed decisions about appropriate timing of manure application for reduced phosphorous losses and surface water degradation as well as aid law makers in improving policy surrounding manure application.

  3. Diversity of the Tetracycline Mobilome within a Chinese Pig Manure Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sébastien Olivier; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Yaxin; Wu, Hai; Du, Xiaochen; Liu, Zhipei; Feng, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Tetracycline antibiotics are widely used in livestock, and tetracycline resistance genes (TRG) are frequently reported in the manure of farmed animals. However, the diversity of TRG-carrying transposons in manure has still been rarely investigated. Using a culture-free functional metagenomic procedure, combined with large-insert library construction and sequencing, bioinformatic analyses, and functional experiments, we identified 17 distinct TRGs in a single pig manure sample, including two new tet genes: tet(59), encoding a tetracycline efflux pump, and tet(W/N/W), encoding mosaic ribosomal protection. Our study also revealed six new TRG-carrying putative nonconjugative transposons: Tn5706-like transposon Tn6298, IS200/605-related transposon Tn6303, Tn3 family transposon Tn6299, and three ISCR2-related transposons, Tn62300, Tn62301, and Tn62302 IMPORTANCE: Fertilization of agricultural fields with animal manure is believed to play a major role in antibiotic resistance dissemination in the environment. There is growing concern for the possible spread of antibiotic resistance from the environment to humans since genetic resistance determinants may be located in transposons and other mobile genetic elements potentially transferable to pathogens. Among the various antibiotic resistance genes found in manure, tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) are some of the most common. The present study provides a detailed snapshot of the tetracycline mobilome in a single pig manure sample, revealing an unappreciated diversity of TRGs and potential TRG mobility vectors. Our precise identification of the TRG-carrying units will enable us to investigate in more details their mobility effectiveness. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Recycling manure as cow bedding: Potential benefits and risks for UK dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Katharine A; Archer, Simon C; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J; Ohnstad, Ian C; Tuer, Sally; Bradley, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such 'recycling' of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil physical indicators of management systems in traditional agricultural areas under manure application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rauber

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies of the successive application of manure as fertilizer and its combined effect with long-term soil management systems are important to the identification of the interdependence of physical attributes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the physical properties of a Rhodic Kandiudox under management systems employing successive applications of pig slurry and poultry litter, and select physical indicators that distinguish these systems using canonical discriminant analysis (CDA. The systems consisting of treatments including land use, management and the application time of organic fertilizers are described as follows: silage maize under no-tillage (NT-M7 years; silage maize under conventional tillage (CT-M20 years; annual pasture with chisel plowing (CP-P3 years; annual pasture with chisel plowing (CP-P15 years; perennial pasture without tillage (NT-PP20 years; and no-tillage yerba mate (NT-YM20 years and were compared with native forest (NF and native pasture (NP. Soil samples were collected from the layers at the following depths: 0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.20 m, and were analyzed for bulk density, porosity, aggregation, flocculation, penetration resistance, water availability and total clay content. Canonical discriminant analysis was an important tool in the study of physical indicators of soil quality. Organic fertilization, along with soil management, influences soil structure and its porosity. Total porosity was the most important physical property in the distinction of areas with management systems and application times of manure for the 0.0-0.05 and 0.10-0.20 m layers. Soil aeration and micropores differentiated areas in the 0.05-0.10 m layer. Animal trampling and machinery traffic were the main factors inducing compaction of this clayey soil.

  6. Biological production of gas from farmyard manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, F; Kemmler, G

    1953-01-08

    Under anaerobic conditions of farmyard-manure storage, the products include organic acids from which methane is formed. The Schmidt-Eggersgluss method is described in which 5 to 7m/sup 3/ of gas is formed per 100 kg of fresh manure, without loss of N, P, K, or Ca from the residual sludge which is of high nutrient content. Large N losses occur if the sludge comes long in contact with atmosphere.

  7. effect of combined use of urea and goat dung manure on celosia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three field experiments were conducted to investigate the separate and combined effects of urea and goat dung manure on leaf nutrient contents, growth and yield of Celosia argentea in southwest Nigeria. Each experiment involved 7 treatments namely: no treatment, 10t/ha goat dung, 125 kg/ha urea, 125 kg/ha urea + ...

  8. The effect of feeding high fat diet to beef cattle on manure composition and gaseous emission from a feedlot pen surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhan Prasad Gautam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary manipulation is a common practice to mitigate gaseous emission from livestock production facilities, and the variation of fat level in the diet has shown great influence on ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA and enteric methane generation. The changes in dietary fat levels influence rumen chemistry that could modify manure nutrient composition along with odor and gaseous emissions from manure management facilities. Methods A field experiment was carried out on beef cattle feedlots to investigate the effect of four levels of dietary fat concentrations (3 to 5.5 % on the manure composition and gaseous emissions (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S from the feedlot pen surface. The experiment was carried out over a 5-month period from June to October during North Dakota’s summer-fall climatic condition. Air and manure sampling was conducted five times at a 20–30 day intervals. Results Overall, this research indicated that fat levels in diet have no or little effect on the nutrient composition of manure and gaseous emission from the pens with cattle fed with different diet. Though significant variation of gaseous emission and manure composition were observed between different sampling periods, no effect of high fat diet was observed on manure composition and gaseous emission. Conclusions It can be concluded that addition of fat to animal diet may not have any impact on gaseous emission and manure compositions.

  9. The effect of feeding high fat diet to beef cattle on manure composition and gaseous emission from a feedlot pen surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad; Rahman, Shafiqur; Borhan, Md Saidul; Engel, Chanda

    2016-01-01

    Dietary manipulation is a common practice to mitigate gaseous emission from livestock production facilities, and the variation of fat level in the diet has shown great influence on ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) and enteric methane generation. The changes in dietary fat levels influence rumen chemistry that could modify manure nutrient composition along with odor and gaseous emissions from manure management facilities. A field experiment was carried out on beef cattle feedlots to investigate the effect of four levels of dietary fat concentrations (3 to 5.5 %) on the manure composition and gaseous emissions (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S) from the feedlot pen surface. The experiment was carried out over a 5-month period from June to October during North Dakota's summer-fall climatic condition. Air and manure sampling was conducted five times at a 20-30 day intervals. Overall, this research indicated that fat levels in diet have no or little effect on the nutrient composition of manure and gaseous emission from the pens with cattle fed with different diet. Though significant variation of gaseous emission and manure composition were observed between different sampling periods, no effect of high fat diet was observed on manure composition and gaseous emission. It can be concluded that addition of fat to animal diet may not have any impact on gaseous emission and manure compositions.

  10. Effects of green manure storage and incorporation methods on nitrogen release and N2O emissions after soil application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Sørensen, Peter; Petersen, Søren O.

    2014-01-01

    More efficient use of green manure-derived nitrogen (N) may improve crop yields and reduce environmental impacts in stockless organic arable farming. In this 3-month incubation study, we tested a new strategy where green manure leys are harvested and preserved until the following spring either...... as compost mixed with straw or as silage of harvested ley biomass. Grass-clover compost or silage was soil-incorporated by either simulated ploughing (green manure placed at 15 cm depth) or harrowing (green manure mixed into the upper 5-cm soil horizon) in order to assess treatment effects on net release...... total N. Possibly N2O production via denitrification was stimulated by oxygen-limited conditions near the decomposing silage. In contrast, compost incorporated by harrowing caused net N2O uptake, presumably an effect of reduced mineral N availability in this treatment. Overall, our study revealed...

  11. of integrated application of farmyard manure, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on production of canola (Brassica napus L. in saline soil of Qum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sabahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil seed crops. In order to evaluate the effects of integrated fertilization (chemical, manure and biofertilizers on canola (B. napus variety Hyola 401 yield and uptake of mineral nutrients in saline soil and water, a field experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks (RCBD arrangement with eight treatments in three replications in Qum Province, Iran. Treatments were: (1 Control, P%100 (Phosphorus %100, (2 P%75B1 (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar biofertilizer, (3 P%75B2 (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin biofertilizer, (4 P%75M (Phosphorus %75+ farmyard manure, (5 P%75B1M (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar + Farmyard manure, (6 P%75B2M (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin+ Farmyard manure, (7 P%100B1 (Phosphorus %100 + Barvar and (8 P%125B2 (Phosphorus %125+ Nitroxin. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained from P%75B1M. Difference between integrated fertilization of farmyard manure and other treatments was significant. Farmyard manure increased canola yield which was attributed to increase in availability of mineral nutrients, decreasing effects of salinity and toxic ions. Integrated application of 5 t. ha-1 of farmyard manure and %75 recommended chemical P increased yield and decreased fertilizer consumption. The results revealed that integrated applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer and after that integrated use of bio- and chemical fertilizer are the best strategies to increase nutrient availability and improving canola yield in saline soil.

  12. Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, J. (ed.) [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Young, B.A. (ed.) [The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343 (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Reports from interdisciplinary areas including microbiology, biochemistry, animal nutrition, agricultural engineering and economics are integrated in this proceedings. The major theme of this book is environmental preservation by controlling release of undesirable greenhouse gases to realize the sustainable development of animal agriculture. Technology exists for the effective collection of methane generated from anaerobic fermentation of animal effluent and its use as a biomass energy source. Fossil fuel consumption can be reduced and there can be increased use of locally available energy sources. In addition, promoting environmentally-conscious agriculture which does not rely on the chemical fertilizer can be realized by effective use of animal manure and compost products.

  13. Technology for recycling of manure and organic residues in a whole-farm perspective. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Soeren O. (ed.)

    2006-08-15

    Efficient use of agricultural residues and imported waste materials within agriculture is increasingly viewed from a whole-farm perspective. A wide range of management decisions - including feeding, manure collection systems, and treatment for hygienization or energy production - influence the nutrient value and environmental impact of agricultural residues. Field application of manure and urban wastes are affected by societal constraints, such as legislation, tradition, consumer attitudes towards waste recycling, and pollution risks. Hence, the optimal use of manure and organic wastes as a nutrient source and soil conditioner interacts strongly with many other aspects of farming. The objective behind this 12th International Conference of the Ramiran network is to present and discuss on-farm interactions between manure and waste management practices, and to consider methods to describe and quantify the overall effects of a given strategy or treatment practice. Accordingly, the research presented at the conference and in the proceedings cover a wide range of topics, from feed impact on manure composition to environmental losses in the field, from energy production to odour control, from biochemistry to modelling. We hope that everyone involved in the conference will see this as an opportunity to discover interfaces with other research areas that can strengthen the whole-farm perspective of future research. (au)

  14. Technology for recycling of manure and organic residues in a whole-farm perspective. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Soeren O. (ed.)

    2006-08-15

    Efficient use of agricultural residues and imported waste materials within agriculture is increasingly viewed from a whole-farm perspective. A wide range of management decisions - including feeding, manure collection systems, and treatment for hygienization or energy production - influence the nutrient value and environmental impact of agricultural residues. Field application of manure and urban wastes are affected by societal constraints, such as legislation, tradition, consumer attitudes towards waste recycling, and pollution risks. Hence, the optimal use of manure and organic wastes as a nutrient source and soil conditioner interacts strongly with many other aspects of farming. The objective behind this 12th International Conference of the Ramiran network is to present and discuss on-farm interactions between manure and waste management practices, and to consider methods to describe and quantify the overall effects of a given strategy or treatment practice. Accordingly, the research presented at the conference and in the proceedings cover a wide range of topics, from feed impact on manure composition to environmental losses in the field, from energy production to odour control, from biochemistry to modelling. We hope that everyone involved in the conference will see this as an opportunity to discover interfaces with other research areas that can strengthen the whole-farm perspective of future research. (au)

  15. Influence of Irradiated Chicken Manure on Productivity and Fruit Quality of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out on Strawberry fruits (Fragaria×ananassa) cv. camarosa at Atomic Energy Authority, Experimental farm, Inshas, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2011 and 2012. Chicken manure at rates of 15 and 30 m 3 fed -1 were irradiated with 10 KGy gamma were applied in combination with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 . Untreated control but fertilized with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed-1was also included. Generally chicken manure rates significantly increased vegetative growth, and total yield quality of strawberry fruits. The superiority data with 30 m 3 fed -1 irradiated chicken manure was observed on strawberry of plant height, number of leaves plant, and number of crowns plant, root length and dry weight of shoots. Also total soluble solids and acidity, vitamin C, total sugars and anthocyanin content were significantly increased comparable to control. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents non significantly affected most of treatments except the combined treatment of chicken manure at rate 30 m 3 fed -1 and 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 that induced the best results. This was true at the 2nd season. Moreover these results were nearly closed those of irradiated dry chicken manure at rate of 30 m 3 fed -1 plus 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 , for both seasons

  16. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting.

  17. Recovery in the soil-plant system of nitrogen from green manure applied on cabbage crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Urquiaga, Segundo; Boddey, Robert Michael; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Martelleto, Luiz Aurelio Peres

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine, in the soil-plant system, the recovery efficiency of N derived from green manure applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) crop. The experiment was divided into two stages: the first one consisted of the straw production of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), velvet bean (Mucuna cinereum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), in substrate enriched with 15 N. The second stage consisted of the application of 15 N-labeled green manure on the cabbage beds. Treatments consisted of: fresh residues of jack bean; fresh residues of velvet bean; fresh residues of sorghum; mixture of residues of jack bean, velvet bean, and sorghum at 1:1:1; and control without green manure addition. The N recovery in the soil plant system was influenced by the green manure species used, and the recovery efficiency of the N derived from the green manure legumes varied from 9 to 16%. The jack bean treatment shows a greater recovery efficiency of nitrogen and, therefore, the best synchrony of N supply, by straw decomposition, with the cabbage crop demand. (author)

  18. Treatment of a multiple sclerosis animal model by a novel nanodrop formulation of a natural antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyamin O

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orli Binyamin,1,* Liraz Larush,2,* Kati Frid,1 Guy Keller,1 Yael Friedman-Levi,1 Haim Ovadia,1 Oded Abramsky,1 Shlomo Magdassi,2 Ruth Gabizon1 1Department of Neurology, The Agnes Ginges Center of Human Neurogenetics, Hadassah University Hospital, 2Casali Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is associated with demyelination, neurodegeneration, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. In this work, we administered a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil (PSO, denominated Nano-PSO, to mice induced for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an established model of MS. PSO comprises high levels of punicic acid, a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid considered as one of the strongest natural antioxidants. We show here that while EAE-induced mice treated with natural PSO presented some reduction in disease burden, this beneficial effect increased significantly when EAE mice were treated with Nano-PSO of specific size nanodroplets at much lower concentrations of the oil. Pathological examinations revealed that Nano-PSO administration dramatically reduced demyelination and oxidation of lipids in the brains of the affected animals, which are hallmarks of this severe neurological disease. We propose that novel formulations of natural antioxidants such as Nano-PSO may be considered for the treatment of patients suffering from demyelinating diseases. On the mechanistic side, our results demonstrate that lipid oxidation may be a seminal feature in both demyelination and neurodegeneration. Keywords: nanodrops, PSO, EAE, oxidative stress, neurodegeneration

  19. Swine manure injection with low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, J L; Moorman, T B; Singer, J W; Cambardella, C A; Tomer, M D

    2011-01-01

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. We determined the effect of two manure application methods on P fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system, with and without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop. Treatments included: (i) no manure; (ii) knife injection; and (iii) low-disturbance injection, each with and without the cover crop. Simulated rainfall runoff was analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP). Rainfall was applied 8 d after manure application (early November) and again in May after emergence of the corn crop. Manure application increased soil bioavailable P in the 20- to 30-cm layer following knife injection and in the 5- to 20-cm layer following low-disturbance injection. The low-disturbance system caused less damage to the cover crop, so that P uptake was more than threefold greater. Losses of DRP were greater in both fall and spring following low-disturbance injection; however, application method had no effect on TP loads in runoff in either season. The cover crop reduced fall TP losses from plots with manure applied by either method. In spring, DRP losses were significantly higher from plots with the recently killed cover crop, but TP losses were not affected. Low-disturbance injection of swine manure into a standing cover crop can minimize plant damage and P losses in surface runoff while providing optimum P availability to a subsequent agronomic crop.

  20. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0....

  1. Report on power generation potential using manure gas from Ontario farms. Appendix B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for manure gas power generation in Ontario is assessed. Since biogas cannot be easily liquefied for reserve use applications, it must be consumed as it is produced, or stored as a gas under low or medium pressure. Simultaneous conversion of fuel into both thermal and electrical energy is known as cogeneration, and offers the potential of electrical power sales through utility interconnection. Typical electrical production results available on a per mature animal basis are: cow, 75 W; swine, 10 W; and poultry, 0.65 W. A supplementary benefit is that digestion greatly reduces manure odour. The potential number of manure biogas power plant units (MBU) by size can be determined from livestock data, farm size and animal type. There are ca 17,000 potential MBU (361 MW continuous power) related to cattle operations, 3,200 MBU (49 MW) associated with swine operations, and 14,000 MBU (42 MW) related to poultry, for a total technical potential of 452 MW. Based on available equipment packages and installation costs, it is estimated that 15 kW is the minimum capacity cogeneration unit worthy of consideration. Estimated cost of an on-farm biogas cogeneration plant ranges from $200,000 for a 15 kW installation to $500,000 for a 150 kW plant. Appendices present properties of manure gases, representative installations, involved groups, a literature search, selected equipment manufacturers, and case study data sheets. 27 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Anaerobic Digestion of Cattle Manure Influenced by Swirling Jet Induced Hydrodynamic Cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Michela; Soldano, Mariangela; Fabbri, Claudio; Pirozzi, Francesco; Andreottola, Gianni

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a modified swirling jet-induced cavitation has been employed for increasing anaerobic digestion efficiency of cattle manure. The hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) treatment improved the organic matter solubilization and the anaerobic biodegradability of cattle manure. The degree of disintegration increased by 5.8, 8.9, and 15.8% after the HC treatment at 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 bars, respectively. However, the HC treatment at 7.0 bars had better results in terms of methane production. This result may be attributed to the possible formation of toxic and refractory compounds at higher inlet pressures, which could inhibit the methanization process. Further, total Kjeldahl nitrogen content was found to decrease with increasing inlet pressures, as the pH and the turbulent mixing favored the ammonia stripping processes. HC treatment decreased the viscosity of the treated cattle manure, favoring the manure pumping and mixing. Considerations on the energy input due to the HC pre-treatment and the energy output due to the enhanced methane yield have been presented. A positive energy balance can be obtained looking at the improved operational practices in the anaerobic digesters after the implementation of the HC pre-treatment.

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus in swine manure and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Griffin, Timothy S; Honeycutt, C Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Organic phosphorus (Po) exists in many chemical forms that differ in their susceptibility to hydrolysis and, therefore, bioavailability to plants and microorganisms. Identification and quantification of these forms may significantly contribute to effective agricultural P management. Phosphatases catalyze reactions that release orthophosphate (Pi) from Po compounds. Alkaline phosphatase in tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.0), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phytase in potassium acetate buffer (pH 5.0), and nuclease P1 in potassium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) can be used to classify and quantify Po in animal manure. Background error associated with different pH and buffer systems is observed. In this study, we improved the enzymatic hydrolysis approach and tested its applicability for investigating Po in soils, recognizing that soil and manure differ in numerous physicochemical properties. We applied (i) acid phosphatase from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), (ii) acid phosphatases from both potato and wheat germ, and (iii) both enzymes plus nuclease P1 to identify and quantify simple labile monoester P, phytate (myo-inositol hexakis phosphate)-like P, and DNA-like P, respectively, in a single pH/buffer system (100 mM sodium acetate, pH 5.0). This hydrolysis procedure released Po in sequentially extracted H2O, NaHCO3, and NaOH fractions of swine (Sus scrofa) manure, and of three sandy loam soils. Further refinement of the approach may provide a universal tool for evaluating hydrolyzable Po from a wide range of sources.

  4. Framework for estimating toxic releases from the application of manure on agricultural soil: National release inventories for heavy metals in 2000-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leclerc, Alexandra Segolene Corinne; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Livestock manure is commonly applied on agricultural land for its fertilising properties. However, the presence of toxic substances in animal manure such as pathogens, antibiotics and heavy metals, can result in damages to ecosystems and human health. To date, although relevant for policy-making, e...... of uncertainties and limitations were identified. In particular, the need for harmonising sampling and analytical methods for estimating heavy metal contents in manure and generating more country-differentiated data, especially for developing countries, should be prioritised by future research studies. Using life...

  5. Anaerobic digestion of manure and mixture of manure with lipids: biogas reactor performance and microbial community analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37degreesC. The reactor. codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield and a hi......Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37degreesC. The reactor. codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield...

  6. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  7. Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadudvari, I.

    1979-01-01

    The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

  8. Evaluation of calcium superphosphate as an additive to reduce gas emissions from rabbit manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Estellés Barber

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques to reduce the emission of air pollutants from livestock production are demanded. In this study, the effect of an additive (calcium superphosphate on gas emissions from rabbit manure was investigated and compared with a control where no additive was used. Calcium superphosphate was applied at a rate of 100 g/m2 per week in a manure pit during 2 cycles of growing rabbits. Manure samples were collected weekly and then chemically and microbiologically analysed. Gas emissions (ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide were determined in 2 open flux chambers. No differences were observed in gas emissions between the treated and control samples except for ammonia emissions, which were reduced by 33% when the additive was applied (P<0.05. No statistical differences were obtained in the microbial content between control and treatment, as results showed a high variability. Dry matter content and pH were the most influential parameters on the emission of gases from manure. According to these results, the application of calcium superphosphate may be considered as an effective technique to reduce ammonia emission from rabbit manure. The additive may also be potentially effective in other species, but additional research is necessary to investigate its performance.

  9. Life cycle assessment of manure management and nutrient recycling from a Chinese pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiming; Stichnothe, Heinz; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Huaitalla, Roxana Mendoza; Xu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the growing numbers of intensified pig farms around cities in China, there are problems of nutrient surplus and shortage of arable land for utilising the manure. Hence, sustainable livestock systems with effective manure management are needed. The objective of this study is to compare the existing manure treatment of a typical pig farm in Beijing area (separate collection of faeces; 'Gan qing fen' system) with an alternative system and to identify the nutrients flow of the whole farm in order to quantify environmental burdens and to estimate the arable land required for sustainable nutrients recycling. Life cycle assessment is used for this purpose. Acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) are analysed in detail; the functional unit is the annual production of the pig farm. The results show that the cropland area demand for sustainable land application of the effluent can be reduced from 238 to 139 ha with the alternative system. It is possible to transfer 29% of total nitrogen, 87% of phosphorus, 34% of potassium and 75% of magnesium to the compost, and to reduce the total AP, EP and GWP of manure management on the farm by 64.1%, 96.7% and 22%, respectively, compared with the current system. Besides an effective manure management system, a full inventory of the regional nutrients flow is needed for sustainable development of livestock systems around big cities in China.

  10. Low-temperature anaerobic digestion of swine manure in a plug-flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Gilbert, Yan; Saady, N M C; Liu, Charle

    2013-01-01

    A low-temperature (25 degrees C) anaerobic eight-compartment (PF01 to PF08) cascade reactor simulating a plug-flow reactor (PFR) treating pig manure was monitored for a year. The bioreactor was fed at an average loading rate of 2.4 +/- 0.2 g of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) per litre of reactor per day for a theoretical hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 67 +/- 7 d. An average of 79% of TCOD was removed from pig manure (converted into biogas and in sediments), whereas specific methane yields ranging from 397 to 482 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS (148.6 to 171.4 NL CH4 kg(-1) TCOD) were obtained. After 150 d, fluctuating performances of the process were observed, associated with solids accumulation in the upstream compartments, preventing the complete anaerobic digestion of swine manure in the compartments PF01 to PF04. Low-temperature anaerobic PFR represents an interesting alternative for the treatment of pig manure and recovery of green energy. Further investigations regarding a modified design, with better accumulating solids management, are needed to optimize the performance of this low-temperature PFR treating pig manure.

  11. Codigestion of Taihu blue algae with swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Hengfeng; Wang, Shouquan; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Codigestion of blue algae with swine manure has the highest CH 4 yield at ISR 2.0. • pH, TAN, N-NH 3 and VFAs confirmed the appropriate stability of the codigestion. • 35.44% VS reduction was achieved by codigestion of blue algae with swine manure. • Three key enzyme characteristics demonstrated the higher efficiencies of codigestion. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of Taihu blue algae and its codigestion with swine manure was evaluated at different inoculum substrate ratios (ISRs) from 0.5 to 3.0. Results showed that codigestion of blue algae with swine manure led to the highest methane (CH 4 ) production of 212.7 mL g −1 VS at ISR 2.0, while digestion of blue algae inoculated with granular sludge brought out the optimized CH 4 production of 73.5 mL g −1 VS at ISR 3.0. The values of pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), free ammonia nitrogen (N-NH 3 ) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) showed no significant difference between the digestion and codigestion, confirming the appropriate stability of the two batch anaerobic processes. Closer examination of VS removal rates and key enzymes variation proved codigestion had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation, which demonstrated that AD of blue algae with swine manure was a promising technology for both solid wastes treatment and renewable-energy production

  12. A perspective on the contribution of animal models to the pharmacological treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaina-Anglade, Valerie; O'Connor, Susan M; Andriambeloson, Emile

    2017-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, chronic, disabling disorder that may develop following exposure to a traumatic event. This review summarizes currently used animal models of PTSD and their potential role in the development of better therapeutics. Heterogeneity is one of the main characteristics of PTSD with the consequence that many pharmacological approaches are used to relieve symptoms of PTSD. To address the translational properties of the animal models, we discuss the types of stressors used, the rodent correlates of human PTSD (DSM-5) symptoms, and the efficacy of approved, recommended and off-label drugs used to treat PTSD in 'PTSD-animals'. Currently available animal models reproduce most PTSD symptoms and are validated by existing therapeutics. However, novel therapeutics are needed for this disorder as not one drug alleviates all symptoms and many have side effects that lead to non-compliance among PTSD patients. The true translational power of animal models of PTSD will only be demonstrated when new therapeutics acting through novel mechanisms become available for clinical practice.

  13. Manure gas, a new national resource of heat and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creplet, L E

    1951-11-01

    Installations for the production of combustible gases from farmyard manure are described and the chemistry of the fermentation is outlined. It is claimed that the fertilizing value of the manure is increased by the process.

  14. Data on the irradiation of liquid manure artificially infected with foot-and mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Solyom, F.; Felkai, V.; Oroszlany, P.

    1976-01-01

    Research on the application of an ionizing radiation treatment to liquid manure infected with Foot- and Mouth disease virus is described. Virus suspensions diluted with a phosphate buffer solution showed a considerable decrease of virulence already at an exposure to 0.4 - 0.8 Mrad at low initial titre. 1.2 Mrad proved to be effective also against high concentrations of the virus. However, with liquid manure used as diluent, a certain protective effect was noted against the destructive influence of radiation on the virus. (author)

  15. Preliminary design and economical study of a biogas production-plant using cow manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents considerations and results from designing a large- scale biogas production-plant using cow manure. The so designed plant capacity allowed processing the dung from 1,300 cows, producing 500 kW of electrical energy from operating a generator which works on a mixture of diesel and biogas fuel. The design included sizing the cowsheds, the manure-collecting systems, transporting the dung, the digester, the effluent tank and the biogas treatment system. An economic study was also done, concluding that project was viable and the importance of the cost of diesel evolving for determining return on investment time.

  16. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cheese whey and dairy manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.; Chiu, C.

    1988-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cheese whey and dairy manure was investigated using an anaerobic rotating biological contact reactor operated over a range of hydraulic retention time at various organic loading rates. Dairy manure provided nutrients and acted as a buffer to the cheese whey. Rates of production of methane from the mixture were between those of cheese whey and screened dairy manure and in agreement with calculated theoretical methane production rates. Methane production rate showed a linear relationship with the organic loading rate. The highest methane production rate was 3.74 liter methane litre/sup -1/ day/sup -1/. Reduction in the chemical oxygen demand ranged from 46.3% to 67.5%. Anaerobic digestion of such mixtures could be used as an initial waste treatment for cheese whey.

  17. Innovative process scheme for removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen from pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    blanket (UASB) reactor, partial oxidation), nitrogen (oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification, OLAND) and phosphorus (phosphorus removal by precipitation as struvite, PRS) from pig manure were tested. Results obtained showed that microfiltration was unsuitable for pig manure treatment....... PRS treated effluent was negatively affecting the further processing of the pig manure in UASB, and was therefore not included in the final process flow scheme. In a final scheme (PIGMAN concept) combination of the following successive process steps was used: thermophilic anaerobic digestion...... with sequential separation by decanter centrifuge, post-digestion in UASB reactor, partial oxidation and finally OLAND process. This combination resulted in reduction of the total organic, nitrogen and phosphorus contents by 96%, 88%, and 81%, respectively....

  18. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.