WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal manure digestion

  1. [Anaerobic digestion of animal manure contaminated by tetracyclines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zi-Lin; Liu, Yuan-Lu; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yuan, Shou-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion of pig manure spiked with tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) and the degradation of the two antibiotics during the anaerobic digestion at 35 degrees C were investigated. The results indicate that propionate was the main volatile fatty acid produced during the anaerobic digestion followed by acetate. Compared with the CTC addition, TC + CTC addition showed obvious inhibitory effect on the hydrolysis and acidification of easily digestible organic components of pig manure. The cumulative methane production of TC, CTC, TC + CTC and CK2 during anaerobic digestion was 386.4 mL, 406.0 mL, 412.1 mL and 464.6 mL, respectively. Degradation of TC and CTC followed the first-order kinetic equation. The half-life of TC and CTC was 14-18 days and 10 days, respectively. After the treatment of 45-day anaerobic digestion, the degradation efficiency of TC was 88.6%-91.6% with 97.7%-98.2% of CTC. Therefore, anaerobic digestion shows the benefit on the management of animal manures contaminated by tetracyclines. PMID:22624404

  2. ANIMAL MANURE – REDUCED QUALITY BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun;

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion may reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, but we know little about its impact on soil fertility. Reduced concentrations of easily degradable C in the manure may imply less food for the soil fauna and microflora. A field experiment to study its effect on crop yields and soil...... caused the death of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms shortly after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. So far, we have observed only small differences in the effects of digested and undigested manure...

  3. Composting of solids separated from anaerobically digested animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulking agents (BA) and mixing ratios on greenhouse gas (GHG) and NH3 emissions from composting digested solids (DS), separated from anaerobically digested manure and other bio-wastes, in small-scale laboratory composters. BA evaluated were plastic tube pieces (PT...

  4. Co-digestion of animal manure and maize : is it sustainable, an update

    OpenAIRE

    Zwart, K.B.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Co-digestion has attracted increased attention in The Netherlands as a result of a subsidy for electricity that is produced environmentally safe (MEP and SDE subsidy). Production of bio-energy by means of co-digestion turned financially profitable due to this financial support. Co-digestion is the simultaneous digestion of manure and a co-substrate and its conversion into biogas. We report on a methodology to assess the sustainability of bio-energy from co-digestion with emphasis on energy an...

  5. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL MANURE – IMPLICATIONS FOR CROP YIELDS AND SOIL BIOTA IN ORGANIC FARMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh;

    2015-01-01

    organic matter levels over the first 2 years. Application of high levels of manure increased the mortality of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms just after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. Springtails...... negatively due to substrate shortage. Our knowledge on these processes and their influence on soil quality is scarce. Hence, a field experiment with two organic cropping systems (grass-clover ley and arable system; at two slurry-application levels) was established in 2011, to study how application......Anaerobic digestion of farmyard manures may help farmers to produce bioenergy instead of using fossil fuels, support cycling of nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emission. However, compared to pristine slurry, digested slurry has a reduced content of organic carbon which may impact the soil biota...

  6. Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure.

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, G

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERALIn this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestion process for energy production on dairy farms.2. Digestion of manure at lower temperatures.The goal of the first mentioned research was optimization of anaerobic digestion of cow manure in a mesophilic CSTR-system...

  7. Co-digestion of animal manure and maize : is it sustainable, an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, K.B.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Co-digestion has attracted increased attention in The Netherlands as a result of a subsidy for electricity that is produced environmentally safe (MEP and SDE subsidy). Production of bio-energy by means of co-digestion turned financially profitable due to this financial support. Co-digestion is the s

  8. Psychrophilic anaerobic co-digestion of highland barley straw with two animal manures at high altitude for enhancing biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High I/S ratio (>2/1) was favorable to both sole digestion and co-digestion. • Biogas production from BS was feasible at low temperature and low air pressure condition. • Long SRT (>80 days) is needed for biogas production at low temperature and low air pressure condition. • BS to manure ratio of 1/1 could increase biogas production. • IVS removal efficiency was correlated with biogas production. - Abstract: Biogas production from the co-digestion of highland barley straw (BS) with Tibet pig manure (TPM) and cow manure (CM) was investigated at Tibet plateau under low temperature (15 °C) condition. The effect of inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratio and BS to manure ratio on the biogas production was studied using a series of batch digesters performed at substrate concentration of 20%, based on total solid (TS). The results showed that biogas production from BS was feasible at low temperature and low air pressure condition. High I/S ratio (>2/1) and BS to manure ratio of 1/1 could increase the biogas production. Long solid retention time (SRT) (>80 days) was needed for biogas production at low temperature and low air pressure condition. The highest cumulative biogas production obtained from the co-digestion of BS with TPM and CM was 233.4 ml/gVS and 192.0 ml/gVS, respectively. Removal efficiencies of substrate showed that biogas production was correlated with the removal efficiency of water-insoluble volatile solids (IVS) but not with the change rate of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)

  9. Evaluation of biogas production by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass-animal manure mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application without adverse environmental effects. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Dry anaerobic digestion (> 15% TS; total solid) has an advantage ov...

  10. High rate manure supernatant digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bergland, Wenche Hennie; Dinamarca, Carlos; Toradzadegan, Mehrdad; Nordgård, Anne Synnøve Røstad; Bakke, Ingrid; Bakke, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The study shows that high rate anaerobic digestion may be an efficient way to obtain sustainable energy recovery from slurries such as pig manure. High process capacity and robustness to 5% daily load increases are observed in the 370mL sludge bed AD reactors investigated. The supernatant from partly settled, stored pig manure was fed at rates giving hydraulic retention times, HRT, gradually decreased from 42 to 1.7h imposing a maximum organic load of 400g COD L-1 reactor d-1. The reactors re...

  11. A dynamic model for calculating methane emissions from digestate based on co-digestion of animal manure and biogas crops in full scale German biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muha, Ivo; Linke, Bernd; Wittum, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    The focus of this work is the development of a model for the estimation of methane emissions for storage tanks of biogas plants. Those can be estimated depending on (i) hydraulic retention time in the digester, (ii) an arbitrary removal rate of the digestate from the storage tank and (iii) arbitrary temperature conditions in the storage tank. Furthermore, the model is capable of considering an arbitrary mixture of manure and crops in the input material. The model was validated by data from 21 full scale biogas plants in Germany digesting cow manure and crops. A realistic scenario for the removal rate and temperature conditions in the storage tank was then investigated and special emphasis was given to the effect of hydraulic retention time and proportion of crops in the mixture on the input VS methane yield from the digester and the storage tank.

  12. Mesophylic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERALIn this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).For this purpose were researched:1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestio

  13. Optimisation and inhibition of anaerobic digestion of livestock manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutaryo, S.

    2012-11-15

    The optimisation process during this PhD study focused on mixed enzyme (ME) addition, thermal pre-treatment and co-digestion of raw manure with solid fractions of acidified manure, while for inhibition processes, ammonia and sulphide inhibition were studied. ME addition increased methane yield of both dairy cow manure (DCM) and solid fractions of DCM (by 4.44% and 4.15% respectively, compared to the control) when ME was added to manure and incubated prior to anaerobic digestion (AD). However, no positive effect was found when ME was added to manure and fed immediately to either mesophilic (35 deg. C) or thermophilic (50 deg. C) digesters. Low-temperature pre-treatment (65 deg. C to 80 deg. C for 20 h) followed by batch assays increased the methane yield of pig manure in the range from 9.5% to 26.4% at 11 d incubation. These treatments also increased the methane yield of solid-fractions pig manure in the range from 6.1% to 25.3% at 11 d of the digestion test. However, at 90 d the increase in methane yield of pig manure was only significant at the 65 deg. C treatment, thus low-temperature thermal pre-treatment increased the rate of gas production, but did not increase the ultimate yield (B{sub o}). High-temperature pre-treatment (100 deg. C to 225 deg. C for 15 min.) increased the methane yield of DCM by 13% and 21% for treatments at 175 deg. C and 200 deg. C, respectively, at 27 d of batch assays. For pig manure, methane yield was increased by 29% following 200 deg. C treatment and 27 d of a batch digestion test. No positive effect was found of high-temperature pre-treatment on the methane yield of chicken manure. At the end of the experiment (90 d), high-temperature thermal pre-treatment was significantly increasing the B{sub 0} of pig manure and DCM. Acidification of animal manure using sulphuric acid is a well-known technology to reduce ammonia emission of animal manure. AD of acidified manure showed sulphide inhibition and consequently methane production was 45

  14. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P. [Resource Development Associates, Marietta, GA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  15. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  16. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. PMID:27396682

  17. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental...... and applying the material to the cereals in the rotation, possibly after digestion in a biogas reactor. Cereal grain protein content was increased more by the N in the grass-clover than from manure application, probably due to different timing ofN availability. Green-manure crops or manures with a relatively...

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and wheat straw for optimized biogas production by the addition of magnetite and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The additives of magnetite and zeolite in anaerobic digestion were studied. • Mineral additives increased methane production significantly. • Mineral additives provided a good environment for methanogens. • The optimum conditions for anaerobic digestion process were optimized. - Abstract: To enhance biogas production and identify new additive materials for the co-digestion of wheat straw, sheep manure, and chicken manure, batch experiments were investigated in this study. Experiments were conducted on the influence of additive materials on a range of manure/straw ratios (3:7, 5:5, and 7:3) and biogas production under a mesophilic temperature (35 °C). Results showed that the maximum increments of methane production (L/kg · VSadd) with the addition of 3 g magnetite and 1 g natural zeolite were 52.01% and 51.01%, respectively. The addition of magnetite and zeolite in the anaerobic digestion process produced a good fermentation environment. By using the response optimizer when the manure proportion was 52%, the best methane yield was obtained with the addition of 2.7 g magnetite. For zeolite, the best addition dose was 1 g and the optimum manure proportion is 63%. Magnetite had a more extensive increase in methane yield than zeolite

  19. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days < Salmonella sp. (133 days from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure, respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  20. Inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-07-14

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%-99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  1. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis;

    2012-01-01

    -scale anaerobic digester to enhance their methane productivity. Soaking in six different reagent concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 32%) was applied for 3 days at 22°C. An overall methane yield increase from 85% to 110% was achieved compared to controls (digested manure fibers where AAS...... in methane yield as the highest concentrations tested; it is anticipated that this will result to an even lower cost for recovery and recycling of ammonia in full-scale. Moreover, the effect of 1, 3, and 5 days AAS treatment on methane production from digested fibers was investigated with 5 and 25% w...

  2. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  3. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  4. Low temperature anaerobic digestion of mixtures of llama, cow and sheep manure for improved methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Rene [IIDEPROQ, UMSA, Plaza del Obelisco 1175, La Paz (Bolivia)]|[Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Liden, Gunnar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Biogas production in anaerobic digestion in farm-scale units is typically performed under mesophilic conditions when used for producing domestic fuel and stabilizing animal waste for the use of digested manure as a fertilizer. Previous studies on the digestion of llama and cow manure have shown the feasibility of producing biogas under altiplano conditions (low pressure and low temperature) and of llama manure as a promising feedstock. The present study concerns the utilization of various mixtures of feedstocks from the Bolivian altiplano under low temperature conditions (18-25 C). Laboratory scale experiments were performed on the digestion of mixtures of llama, sheep and cow manure in a semi-continuous process using ten 2-L stainless steel digesters to determine the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) and the feed composition. The semi-continuous operation of mixture of llama-cow-sheep manure proved to be a reliable system, which could be operated with good stability. The results suggest that in a system digesting a mixture of llama-cow-sheep manure at low temperature (18-25 C) the maximum OLR value is between 4 and 6 kg VS m{sup 3} d{sup -1}. The methane yields obtained in the mixture experiments were in the range 0.07-0.14 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} VS added, with a methane concentration in the gas of between 47 and 55%. (author)

  5. DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE FOR USE AS ANIMAL FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure have become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by drying. Dried manure can be utilized as a feed for ruminants because of its high nitrogen content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drying temperature and depth, as well as the nutritional profile of dried manure and its suitability as an animal feed. Dried poultry manure contained sufficient levels of digestible energy, crude fiber, crude protein, crude fat, cobalt and iodine. Although dried poultry manure did not meet the dietary requirements for calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, sulfur or zinc it could be used as a feed stuff for ruminants after supplementation with the required nutrients. Heated air drying was most efficient at 60°C and at a depth of 3 cm. During drying poultry manure decreased in pH (8.4-6.9, protein content (43 to 39-43% and amino acid content. The greatest reductions in microbial population occurred at the highest temperature (60°C and the lowest manure depth (1cm. Reductions in the number of bacteria, mold/yeast and E. coli were 65-99, 74-99 and 99.97% respectively, Salmonellae was not detected in the dried product. Dried poultry manure was found to have a non-offensive odor. Odor intensity and offensiveness were reduced by 65 and 69% respectively during drying. Thin layer heated air drying of poultry manure between 40 and 60°C created a safe and nutritionally appropriate feed for ruminants.

  6. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  7. Reconstitution of dewatered food processing residuals with manure to increase energy production from anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid residuals generated from dewatering food processing wastewater contain organic carbon that can potentially be reclaimed for energy through anaerobic digestion. This results in the diversion of waste from a landfill and uses it for a beneficial purpose. Dewatering the waste concentrates the carbon, reducing transportation costs to a farm digester where it can be blended with manure to increase biogas yield. Polymers are often used in the dewatering of the food waste but little is known regarding their impact on biogas production. Four 2 dm3 working volume, semi-continuous reactors, were used at a mesophilic temperature and a solids retention time (SRT) of 15 days. Reactors were fed daily with a blended feedstock containing a food processing sludge waste (FPSW)/manure ratio of 2.2:1 (by weight) as this produced the optimized carbon to nitrogen ratio. Results demonstrated that reconstitution of dewatered FPSW with dairy manure produced approximately 2 times more methane than animal manure alone for the same volume. However, only approximately 30% of volatile solids (VS) were consumed indicating energy potential still remained. Further, the efficiency of the conversion of VS to methane for the blended FPSW/manure was substantially less than for manure only. However, the overall result is an increase in energy production for a given tank volume, which can decrease life cycle costs. Because all FPSW is unique and the determination of dewatering additives is customized based on laboratory testing and field adjustment, generalizations are difficult and specific testing is required. -- Highlights: ► Energy production in anaerobic digestion can increase by co-blending food waste. ► Energy for transporting food waste to blend with manure is less when dewatered. ► Dewatered food waste in manure produced twice as much methane than manure. ► Efficiency of carbon to methane was low because of ammonium bicarbonate production. ► Carbon destruction was 30%, more

  8. Anaerobic digestion of manure and mixture of manure with lipids: biogas reactor performance and microbial community analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37degreesC. The reactor. codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield and a hi......Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37degreesC. The reactor. codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield...

  9. Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steroid hormone distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Popovic, Olga; Björklund, Erland;

    2015-01-01

    in the vertebrate steroidogenesis, may occur at substantial levels in animal manure and should be addressed. In agricultural practices the animal manure can be applied to the soil as raw manure, but also as a solid or liquid manure fraction, since current livestock production facilities utilizes a recently...... developed technology, which separates raw animal manure into a solid and a liquid fraction. This technology offers an improved handling and refined distribution of the manure nutrients to the farmlands and the possibility to reduce the environmental impact of manure nutrients, especially avoiding...... and integrated clean-up pressurized liquid extraction, and further cleaned by a two step solid-phase extraction before derivatization and finally analyzed by GC-MS/MS. It was found that the steroid hormones were predominant in the solid manure separate calling for manure management strategies to reduce...

  10. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure and glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamas Chetpattananondh, Sumate Chaiprapat, Chaisri Suksaroj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing biodiesel production causes a surplus of glycerol. This work aims to investigate the crude glycerol pretreatment method and then apply the glycerol as a co-substrate with pig manure for anaerobic digestion. The optimum crude glycerol pretreatment method was acidification with 6% of H2SO4 that highest glycerol recovery was obtained with lowest cost. Co-digestions of glycerol and pig manure enhanced biogas and methane productions compared with mono-digestions. Biogas and methane productions in semi-continuous digestions were highly effected by OLR. The optimum OLR was 3.06 kg SCOD/m3 that biogas production was maintained at 3 L/d with methane composition of 72% and SCOD removal higher than 80%.

  11. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer.

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadanaparthi, Sai Krishna Reddy

    Dairy and potato are two important agricultural commodities in Idaho. Both the dairy and potato processing industries produce a huge amount of waste which could cause environmental pollution. To minimize the impact of potential pollution associated with dairy manure (DM) and potato waste (PW), anaerobic co-digestion has been considered as one of the best treatment process. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste in terms of process stability, biogas generation, construction and operating costs, and potential revenue. For this purpose, I conducted 1) a literature review, 2) a lab study on anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste at three different temperature ranges (ambient (20-25°C), mesophilic (35-37°C) and thermophilic (55-57°C) with five mixing ratios (DM:PW-100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60), and 3) a financial analysis for anaerobic digesters based on assumed different capital costs and the results from the lab co-digestion study. The literature review indicates that several types of organic waste were co-digested with DM. Dairy manure is a suitable base matter for the co-digestion process in terms of digestion process stability and methane (CH4) production (Chapter 2). The lab tests showed that co-digestion of DM with PW was better than digestion of DM alone in terms of biogas and CH4 productions (Chapter 3). The financial analysis reveals DM and PW can be used as substrate for full size anaerobic digesters to generate positive cash flow within a ten year time period. Based on this research, the following conclusions and recommendations were made: ▸ The ratio of DM:PW-80:20 is recommended at thermophilic temperatures and the ratio of DM:PW-90:10 was recommended at mesophilic temperatures for optimum biogas and CH4 productions. ▸ In cases of anaerobic digesters operated with electricity generation equipment (generators), low cost plug flow digesters (capital cost of 600/cow

  13. Pathogen inactivation in liquid dairy manure during anaerobic and aerobic digestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Pandey, P.; Castillo, A. R.; Vaddella, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Controlling manure-borne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are crucial for protecting surface and ground water as well as mitigating risks to human health. In California dairy farms, flushing of dairy manure (mainly animal feces and urine) from freestall barns and subsequent liquid-solid manure separation is a common practice for handling animal waste. The liquid manure fraction is generally pumped into the settling ponds and it goes into aerobic and/or anaerobic lagoons for extended period of time. Considering the importance of controlling pathogens in animal waste, the objective of the study was to understand the effects of anaerobic and aerobic digestions on the survival of three human pathogens in animal waste. The pathogen inactivation was assessed at four temperatures (30, 35, 42, and 50 °C), and the relationships between temperature and pathogen decay were estimated. Results showed a steady decrease of E. coli levels in aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes over the time; however, the decay rates varied with pathogens. The effect of temperature on Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes survival was different than the E. coli survival. In thermophilic temperatures (42 and 50 °C), decay rate was considerable greater compared to the mesophilic temperatures (30 and 35°C). The E. coli log reductions at 50 °C were 2.1 in both aerobic and anaerobic digestions after 13 days of incubation. The Salmonella spp. log reductions at 50 °C were 5.5 in aerobic digestion, and 5.9 in anaerobic digestion. The Listeria monocytogenes log reductions at 50 °C were 5.0 in aerobic digestion, and 5.6 in anaerobic digestion. The log reduction of E. coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogens at 30 °C in aerobic environment were 0.1, 4.7, and 5.6, respectively. In anaerobic environment, the corresponding reductions were 0.4, 4.3, and 5.6, respectively. We anticipate that the outcomes of the study will help improving the

  14. ADM1-based modeling of anaerobic digestion of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers present challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal has been tested as a simple and cheap method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane potential and the biogas productivity of manure...... that the AAS had on the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion of manure. Kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting of the model to data from manure fed digesters. The model was able to satisfactorily simulate the behaviour of digesters fed with manure. However, the model predictions were poorer...

  15. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  16. Environmental assessment of untreated manure use, manure digestion and codigestion with silage maize : Deliverable for the 'EU-AGRO-BIOGAS' project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Corre, W.J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the environmental impact of untreated manure use, manure digestion, and co-digestion with silage maize for energy production. The life cycle assessment methodology was used. Environmental indicators included were, global warming potential, energy use, eutrophication, acidificat

  17. Two phase continuous digestion of solid manure on-farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, W.; Lehto, M. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Vihti (Finland). Animal Production Research; Evers, L.; Granstedt, A. [Biodynamic Research Inst., Jaerna (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Present commercially available biogas plants are mainly suitable for slurry and co-substrates. Cattle, horse and poultry farms using a solid manure chain experience a crucial competitive disadvantage, because conversion to slurry technology requires additional investments. Based on the technological progress of anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste, so called 'dry fermentation' prototype plants were developed for anaerobic digestion of organic material containing 15-50% total solids (Hoffman, 2001). These plants show added advantages compared to slurry digestion plants: Less reactor volume, less process energy, less transport capacity, less odour emissions. On-farm research (Gronauer and Aschmann, 2004; Kusch and Oechsner, 2004) and prototype research (Linke, 2004) on dry fermentation in batch reactors show that loading and discharging of batch reactors remains difficult and/or time-consuming compared to slurry reactors. Additionally a constant level of gas generation requires offset operation of several batch reactors. Baserga et al. (1994) developed a pilot plant of 9.6 m{sup 3} capacity for continuous digestion of solid beef cattle manure on-farm. However, on-farm dry fermentation plants are not common and rarely commercially available. We assume that lack of tested technical solutions and scarceness of on-farm research results are the main reason for low acceptance of dry fermentation technology on-farm. We report about an innovative two phase farm-scale biogas plant. The plant continuously digests dairy cattle manure and organic residues of the farm and the surrounding food processing units. The two phase reactor technology was chosen for two reasons: first it offers the separation of a liquid fraction and a solid fraction for composting after hydrolysis and secondly the methanation of the liquid fraction using fixed film technology results in a very short hydraulic retention time, reduction in reactor volume, and higher methane content of the

  18. The co-digestion of animal manure and food industry residues in the UK. The role of the NFFO as a catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukehurste, C.T.

    1997-08-01

    The adoption of AD (anaerobig digestion) in the UK has been sporadic and limited to small installations or farms. In 1993 the North Tamar LEADER Project embarked on the first large scale community initiative to use AD as an instrument for environmental management and integrated rural development. At the same time a new turn-key construction company began to use the NFFO process to stimulate AD adoption and sales. This paper examines the two approaches and their contribution of the NFFO process. (au)

  19. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Frison, A; Raga, R; Angelidaki, I

    2016-09-01

    Animal manure digestion is associated with limited methane production, due to the high content in fibers, which are hardly degradable lignocellulosic compounds. In this study, different mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment methods were applied to partially degradable fibers, separated from the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55°C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas plants can be increased by further exploiting the fraction of the digested manure fibers which are discarded in the post-storage tank.

  20. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Frison, A; Raga, R; Angelidaki, I

    2016-09-01

    Animal manure digestion is associated with limited methane production, due to the high content in fibers, which are hardly degradable lignocellulosic compounds. In this study, different mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment methods were applied to partially degradable fibers, separated from the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55°C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas plants can be increased by further exploiting the fraction of the digested manure fibers which are discarded in the post-storage tank. PMID:27268439

  1. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders;

    .  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk......  The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  2. Anaerobic digestion of manure - consequences for plant production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Pommeresche, Reidun; Johansen, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    of weed seeds and animal pathogens. A reduced proportion of easily degraded C in the AD-manure may however impact the soil fauna/microflora and humus levels. Mineralization of organic N during AD may increase nutrient availability and crop yields. Possibly, the increased levels of root and shoot residues...

  3. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.;

    2016-01-01

    pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1...... (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly...... contribute to the methane production. In the second place, ADM1 was used to describe biogas production from the codigestion of manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The model predictions regarding biogas production and methane content were in good agreement with the experimental data. It was shown that...

  4. On the effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on batch and continuous anaerobic digestion of digested swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis;

    2012-01-01

    to enhance their methane productivity in batch experiments. In the present study, continuous experiments at a mesophilic (38°C) CSTR-type anaerobic digester fed with swine manure first and a mixture of manure with AAS-treated digested fibers in the sequel, were performed. The methane yield of AAS...

  5. Effects of dairy manure and corn stover co-digestion on anaerobic microbes and corresponding digestion performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhengbo; Chen, Rui; Yang, Fan; MacLellan, James; Marsh, Terence; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of corn stover as a supplemental feed on anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under different hydraulic retention times (HRT). The results elucidated that both HRT and corn stover supplement significantly influenced microbial community and corresponding anaerobic digestion performance. The highest biogas production of 497 mL per gram total solid loading per day was observed at a HRT of 40 days from digestion of manure supplemented with corn stover. Biogas production was closely correlated with the populations of Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and methanogens. Composition of the solid digestate (AD fiber) from the co-digestion of corn stover and dairy manure was similar to the digestion of dairy manure. However, the hydrolysis of AD fiber was significantly (P < 0.05) different among the different digestions. Both HRT and feed composition influenced the hydrolyzability of AD fiber via shifting the composition of microbial community.

  6. Kinetics and energetics of producing animal-manure-based biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of animal manure produce biochar with multiple beneficial use potentials for improving soil quality and the environment. The kinetics and energetics of pyrolysis in producing manure-based biochar char were reviewed and analyzed. Kinetic analysis of pyrolysis showed that the higher the temp...

  7. Inhibitory effects on anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a laboratory study using anaerobic digestion for swine manure under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, with emphasis on the effects of inhibitory chemicals on biogas production. A series of batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of various process parameters by varying temperature, pH, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations. As well, continuous anaerobic digestion tests were conducted using a completely stirred reactor system with a sludge retention time of 15 days. The results showed that at the initial stage, biogas was generated rapidly in the thermophilic reactor, but was more and more inhibited during the later stage with the presence of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. In contrast, the biogas production was initially delayed in the mesophilic reactor but afterwards had an even higher total gas production. In order to take advantages of both temperature effects in each reactor, the dual-stage system that consists of a thermophilic reactor followed by a mesophilic reactor was suggested. (author)

  8. Co-digestion of ley crop silage, straw and manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aa.; Edstroem, M. [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of ley crop silage, wheat straw and liquid manure with liquid recirculation was investigated in laboratory- and pilot scale. An organic loading rate of 6.0 g Vs L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when 20% of liquid manure (TS-basis) was added, whereas an organic loading rate of 2.5 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when the manure was replaced with a trace element solution. The methane yield varied between 0.28 and 0.32 L g VS{sup -1}, with the value being lowest for a mixture containing 60% silage, 20% straw and 20% manure (TS-basis), and highest for 100% ley crop silage. The concentration of ammonia-N was maintained at ca 2 g L{sup -1} by adjusting the C:N-ratio with straw. To achieve good mixing characteristics with a reasonable energy input at TS-concentrations around 10%, the particle sizes of straw and silage had to be reduced with a meat mincer. The digester effluent was dewatered, resulting in a solid phase that could be composted without having to add amendments or bulking agents, and a liquid phase containing 7-8% TS (mainly soluble and suspended solids). The liquid phase, which should be used as an organic fertilizer, contained up to 90% of the N and 74% of the P present in the residues. Calculations of the costs for a full-scale plant showed that a biogas price of SEK 0.125 MJ{sup -1} (0.45 k Wh{sup -1}) is necessary to balance the costs of a 1-MW plant. An increase in plant size to 4 MW together with an increase in compost price from SEK 100 tonnes{sup -1} to SEK 370 tonnes{sup -1} and a 20% rise in the methane yield through post-digestion (20%) would decrease the price to SEK 0.061 MJ{sup -1} (0.22 kWh{sup -1}). (au) 15 refs.

  9. Dry Co-Digestion of Poultry Manure with Agriculture Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelenien, Fatma; Namba, Yuzaburo; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the effect on thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of poultry manure (PM) or treated poultry manure (TPM) by the addition of agriculture wastes (AWS) as a co-substrate under dry conditions. PM was co-digested with a mixture of AWS consisting of coconut waste, cassava waste, and coffee grounds. Results were increased methane content in biogas, with decreased ammonia accumulation and volatile acids. The highest performance occurred under mesophilic conditions, with a 63 and 41.3 % increase in methane production from addition of AWS to TPM (562 vs. 344 mL g VS(-1) from control) and PM (406 vs. 287 mL g VS(-1) from control), respectively. Thermophilic conditions showed lower performance than mesophilic conditions. Addition of AWS increased methane production by 150 and 69.6 % from PM (323.4 vs. 129 mL g VS(-1) from control) and TPM (297.6 vs. 175.5 mL g VS(-1) from control), respectively. In all experiments, 100 % acetate produced was degraded to methane. Maximum ammonia accumulation was lowered to 43.7 % by mixing of AWS (range 5.35-8.55 vs. 7.81-12.28 g N kg(-1) bed). The pH was held at 7.3-8.8, a range suitable for methanogenesis. PMID:26560702

  10. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Lansing, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion. In temperate climates, digesters require a considerable amount of additional heat energy to maintain temperatures at these levels. In this study, the effects of lower digestion temperatures (22 and 28°C), on the methane production from dairy digesters were evaluated and compared with 35°C using duplicate replicates of field-scale (FS) digesters with a 17-day hydraulic retention time. After acclimation, the FS digesters were operated for 12weeks using solids-separated manure at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.4kgVSm(-3)d(-1) and then for 8weeks using separated manure amended with manure solids at an OLR of 2.6kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Methane production values of the FS digesters at 22 and 28°C were about 70% and 87%, respectively, of the values from FS digesters at 35°C. The results suggest that anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure at 28°C were nearly as efficient as digesters operated at 35°C, with 70% of total methane achievable at 22°C. These results are relevant to small farms interested in anaerobic digestion for methane reduction without heat recovery from generators or for methane recovery from covered lagoon digesters.

  11. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberle, E. [Fachverband Biogas, Obermarchtat (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  12. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms. PMID:20922382

  13. Biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure in a two-phase digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongping; Chen, Shulin; Li, Xiujiu

    2010-01-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure in a two-phase digestion system was conducted in laboratory scale. Four influents of R0, R1, R2, and R3 were tested, which were made by mixing food waste with dairy manure at different ratios of 0:1, 1:1, 3:1, and 6:1, respectively. For each influent, three runs of experiments were performed with the same overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13 days but different HRT for acidification (1, 2, and 3 days) and methanogenesis (12, 11, and 10 days) in two-phase digesters. The results showed that the gas production rate (GPR) of co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure was enhanced by 0.8-5.5 times as compared to the digestion with dairy manure alone. Appropriate HRT for acidification was mainly determined by the biodegradability of the substrate digested. Three-, 2-, and 1-day HRT for acidification were found to be optimal for the digestion of R0, R1, and R2/R3, respectively, when overall HRT of 13 days was used. The highest GPR of 3.97 L/L.day was achieved for R3(6:1) in Run 1 (1 + 12 days), therefore, the mixing ratio of 6:1 and HRT of 1 day for acidification were considered to be the optimal ones and thus recommended for co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure. There were close correlations between degradation of organic matters and GPR. The highest VS removal rate was achieved at the same HRT for acidification and mixing ratio of food waste and dairy manure as GPR in the co-digestion. The two-phase digestion system showed good stability, which was mainly attributed to the strong buffering capacity with two-phase system and the high alkalinity from dairy manure when co-digested with food waste. PMID:19214795

  14. Feeding on microbiomes: effects of detritivory on the taxonomic and phylogenetic bacterial composition of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Bybee, Seth; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Domínguez, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Earthworms play a key role in nutrient cycling by interacting with microorganisms thus accelerating organic matter turnover in soil systems. As detritivores, some earthworm types ingest and digest a mixture of dead organic matter and microorganisms, like animal manures (i.e. animal gut microbiomes). Here we described the earthworm cast microbiome and the role ingested bacteria play on its composition. We fed Eisenia andrei with cow, horse and pig manures and determined the taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of the these manures before and after passage through the earthworm gut. Earthworm cast microbiomes showed a smaller diversity than the manure they fed on. Manures strongly differed in their taxonomic and phylogenetic composition, but these differences were markedly reduced once transformed into earthworm cast microbiomes after passage through the earthworm gut. The core earthworm cast microbiome comprised 30 OTUs (2.6% of OTUs from cast samples), of which 10 are possibly native to the earthworm gut. Most of the core cast microbiome OTUs belonged to phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, as opposed to already described animal core gut microbiomes, which are composed mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that earthworms build up their cast microbiome by selecting from the pool of ingested bacteria.

  15. Feeding on microbiomes: effects of detritivory on the taxonomic and phylogenetic bacterial composition of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Bybee, Seth; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Domínguez, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Earthworms play a key role in nutrient cycling by interacting with microorganisms thus accelerating organic matter turnover in soil systems. As detritivores, some earthworm types ingest and digest a mixture of dead organic matter and microorganisms, like animal manures (i.e. animal gut microbiomes). Here we described the earthworm cast microbiome and the role ingested bacteria play on its composition. We fed Eisenia andrei with cow, horse and pig manures and determined the taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of the these manures before and after passage through the earthworm gut. Earthworm cast microbiomes showed a smaller diversity than the manure they fed on. Manures strongly differed in their taxonomic and phylogenetic composition, but these differences were markedly reduced once transformed into earthworm cast microbiomes after passage through the earthworm gut. The core earthworm cast microbiome comprised 30 OTUs (2.6% of OTUs from cast samples), of which 10 are possibly native to the earthworm gut. Most of the core cast microbiome OTUs belonged to phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, as opposed to already described animal core gut microbiomes, which are composed mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that earthworms build up their cast microbiome by selecting from the pool of ingested bacteria. PMID:26432803

  16. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng Zhou; Jining Zhang; Guoyan Zou; Shohei Riya; Masaaki Hosomi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  17. Two-Stage Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Beach Cast Seaweed and Its Codigestion with Cow Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Nkongndem Nkemka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-stage, dry anaerobic codigestion of seaweed and solid cow manure was studied on a laboratory scale. A methane yield of 0.14 L/g VSadded was obtained when digesting solid cow manure in a leach bed process and a methane yield of 0.16 L/g VSadded and 0.11 L/g VSadded was obtained from seaweed and seaweed/solid manure in a two-stage anaerobic process, respectively. The results showed that it was beneficial to operate the second stage methane reactor for the digestion of seaweed, which produced 83% of the methane, while the remainder was produced in the first leach bed reactor. Also, the two-stage system was more stable for the codigestion for seaweed and manure when compared to their separate digestion. In addition, the initial ammonia inhibition observed for manure digestion and the acidification of the leach bed reactor in seaweed digestion were both avoided when the materials were codigested. The seaweed had a higher Cd content of 0.2 mg Cd/kg TS than the manure, 0.04 mg Cd/kg TS, and presents a risk of surpassing limit values set for fertiliser quality of seaweed digestate. Evaluation of the heavy metal content of seaweed or a mixture of seaweed and manure digestate is recommended before farmland application.

  18. Environmental assessment of untreated manure use, manure digestion and codigestion with silage maize : Deliverable for the 'EU-AGRO-BIOGAS' project

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, N.; Corre, W.J.; Dooren, van, H.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the environmental impact of untreated manure use, manure digestion, and co-digestion with silage maize for energy production. The life cycle assessment methodology was used. Environmental indicators included were, global warming potential, energy use, eutrophication, acidification and land use expressed per ton applied product. Digestion of manure and codigestion with silage maize resulted in an improved energy and greenhouse gas balance. However, compared to the use of ...

  19. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  20. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume...... distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield...... in the 90/10 and 80/20 configuration, respectively. VFA concentration in the serial CSTR was high in the first reactor but very low in the second reactor. The results from organic pulse load test showed that the second reactor in serial CSTR helped utilizing VFA produced from overloading in the first...

  1. Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking on the methane yield and composition of digested manure fibers applying different ammonia concentrations and treatment durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis;

    2014-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus...... and 5 days at 22°C was applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester. A methane yield increase from 76% to 104% was achieved during the first series of experiments, while the difference in reagent concentration did not considerably affect the...... concluded that AAS is a very promising treatment resulting to an overall increase of the methane yield of digested manure fibers from 76 to 265% depending on the conditions and the batch of digested fibers used (an even higher increase of 190-265% was achieved during the 2nd series of experiments, where...

  2. Methane and hydrogen sulfide production during co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage radish cover crops were investigated as a co-substrate to increase biogas production from dairy manure-based anaerobic digestion. Lab-scale batch digesters (300 mL) were operated under mesophilic conditions during two experiments. In the first experiment, the optimal co-digestion ratio for ...

  3. Dairy manure resource recovery utilizing two-stage anaerobic digestion - Implications of solids fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Edmond J; Coats, Erik R; Brinkman, Cynthia K

    2015-12-01

    Dairy manure management is increasingly becoming an environmental challenge. In this regard, manure anaerobic digestion (AD) can be applied to address environmental concerns; however, dairy manure AD remains economically uncompetitive. Ongoing research is focused on enhanced resource recovery from manure, including maximizing AD methane yield through a novel multi-stage AD configuration. Research presented herein centered on the hypothesis that separately digesting fine and coarse solids from fermented dairy manure would improve methane production; the hypothesis was disproven. While maximum methane concentration was realized on fine solids, combined solids AD yielded enhanced VS destruction. The diverse combined-solids substrate enriched for a more heterogeneous bacterial/archaeal consortium that balanced fermentation and methanogenesis to yield maximum product (methane). However, results suggest that targeted AD of the fat-rich fine solids could be a more optimal approach for processing manure; alternate (non-AD) methods could then be applied to extract value from the fibrous fraction. PMID:26398667

  4. ARC technology turns animal manure into new source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golka, V.

    2003-09-30

    Bio-based fertilizers, reusable water and reduced greenhouse gas emissions are the results of the Integrated Manure Utilization System (IMUS) began some five years ago at the Alberta Research Council. The process incorporates anaerobic digestion that produces biogas, which is then used to generate electricity, while the nutrient byproducts of the process are used to produce bio-based fertilizer and water, which is reusable for applications like irrigation. A pilot-scale IMUS plant was constructed at Highland Feeders in Vegreville, which will produce one MW of electricity from the manure produced by 7,500 head of cattle. Commercialization of the technology is underway as a joint venture involving the Alberta Research Council, industry, the federal and provincial governments and non-governmental agencies. Because IMUS is designed to overcome the challenges associated with high-solid manure typical of most outdoor feedlots in North America, the technology is adaptable to other biomass sources, including liquid manure, food processing waste and municipal waste; a significant development in the field of renewable energy technologies. The demonstration project is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 740,000 tonnes annually based on cattle manure only; more when other livestock, such as poultry and dairy are included.

  5. Anaerobic Slurry Co-Digestion of Poultry Manure and Straw: Effect of Organic Loading and Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Babaee; Jalal Shayegan; Anis Roshani

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain basic design criteria for anaerobic digestion of a mixture of poultry manure and wheat straw, the effects of different temperatures and organic loading rates on the biogas yield and methane contents were evaluated. Since poultry manure is a poor substrate, in term of the availability of the nutrients, external supplementation of carbon has to be regularly performed, in order to achieve a stable and efficient process. The complete-mix, pilot-scale digester with working volum...

  6. Applied manure research—looking forward to the benign roles of animal manure in agriculture and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    By definition, animal manure is discarded animal excreta and bedding materials usually applied to soils as a fertilizer for agricultural production. However, the impact of manure generation and disposal is far more than the role of organic fertilizers, even though the fertilizer function of animal m...

  7. Farm-scale anaerobic digestion of beef and dairy cattle manure for energy cogeneration at two farms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patni, N.; Monreal, C. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Li, X. [Highmark Renewables Research, Calgary, AB (Canada); Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C. [Guelph Univ., Alfred Campus, Alfred, ON (Canada); Barclay, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emerging Fuel Issues Div.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted in 2003 to 2005 at beef and diary cattle farms in Canada, where cattle manure was anaerobically digested for biogas production. The biogas was used for electrical and thermal energy cogeneration. Manure from about 7500 beef cattle at a feedlot was digested at a thermophilic temperature of 55 degrees C in two 1800 m{sup 3} above-ground digesters with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. The biogas had an average 58 per cent methane content and was combusted in a General Electric Jenbacher 999 kW cogeneration system. At the second farm, manure from about 165 lactating cows, 110 heifers and 40 calves was digested at a mesophilic temperature of 40 degrees C in a 500 m{sup 3} below-ground digester with a HRT of 28 days. The unique feature of this digester was that it was retrofitted in a pre-existing larger slurry storage tank. The biogas had an average 65 per cent methane content and was combusted in a 75 kW Perkins dual fuel diesel engine connected to a 65 kW Schnell generator. In 2007, when fats, oils and grease (FOG) from restaurant waste residue was added to the manure, biogas production increased by about 300 per cent and electrical energy generation increased by 180 per cent. Both systems have operated year-round from December to February at average ambient temperatures that ranged from -9 to -12 degrees Celsius. This paper addressed the long-term sustainability options for animal farm operations in terms of biogas production for electricity and thermal energy cogeneration.

  8. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) catch crop (with and without), and 2) manure (with and without). The four-course crop rotation was spring barley undersown with grass/clov...

  9. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    and screw press on average produced approximately 220l [CH4]kg-1 [VS]. Initial methane production can be described using a first-order kinetic model. The average rate constant for manure fibres was 0.030d-1 and for pig slurry 0.071d-1, showing that pig slurry is digested much faster than manure fibres...... press combined≈screw press. The maximum methane yield of manure fibres from decanter centrifuges and the combined shaking filter and screw press was approximately 330l [CH4]kg-1 [VS] at standard temperature and pressure (STP), while manure fibres from a screw press and a combination of belt press...

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of agricultural by-products with manure, for enhanced biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Marie M.; Fotidis, Ioannis; Kovalovszki, Adam;

    2015-01-01

    potential (BMP) of six agricultural organic byproducts were tested. Consecutively, the byproduct with the highest BMP was used as a co-digestion substrate with manure, in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Meadow grass had the highest BMP value [388 ± 30 NmL of CH4 g–1 of volatile solids (VS)] among......-digestion of 34 g L–1 raw meadow grass with manure increased the methane production rate of the CSTR reactor by 114% compared to the manure alone....

  11. Two-Stage Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Beach Cast Seaweed and Its Codigestion with Cow Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine Nkongndem Nkemka; Jorge Arenales-Rivera; Marika Murto

    2014-01-01

    Two-stage, dry anaerobic codigestion of seaweed and solid cow manure was studied on a laboratory scale. A methane yield of 0.14 L/g VSadded was obtained when digesting solid cow manure in a leach bed process and a methane yield of 0.16 L/g VSadded and 0.11 L/g VSadded was obtained from seaweed and seaweed/solid manure in a two-stage anaerobic process, respectively. The results showed that it was beneficial to operate the second stage methane reactor for the digestion of seaweed, which produce...

  12. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotidis, Ioannis A; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zaganas, Ioannis D; Kotsopoulos, Thomas A; Martzopoulos, Gerasimos G

    2014-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate due to its high content of proteins and amino acids. Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process, affecting biogas production and causing great economic losses to the biogas plants. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite dosages on the mesophilic AD of poultry manure inoculated with a non-acclimatized to ammonia inoculum (dairy manure) was investigated. Additionally, a comparative analysis was performed between the data extracted from this study and the results of a previous study, which has been conducted under the same experimental conditions but with the use of ammonia acclimatized inoculum (swine manure). At 5 and 10 g zeolite L(-1), the methane yield of poultry manure was 43.4% and 80.3% higher compared with the experimental set without zeolite addition. However, the ammonia non-acclimatized inoculum was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L(-1), due to low methane production (only 39%) compared with the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatized inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible 'synergistic effect', which led to a more efficient AD of poultry manure. The results of this study could potentially been used by the biogas plant operators to efficiently digest poultry manure. PMID:24701918

  13. Ethanol production from maize silage as lignocellulosic biomass in anaerobically digested and wet-oxidized manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Lisiecki, P.; Holm-Nielsen, J.B.;

    2008-01-01

    In this communication, pretreatment of the anaerobically digested (AD) manure and the application of the pretreated AD manure as liquid medium for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were described. Furthermore, fermentation of pretreated maize silage and wheat straw was inve......In this communication, pretreatment of the anaerobically digested (AD) manure and the application of the pretreated AD manure as liquid medium for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were described. Furthermore, fermentation of pretreated maize silage and wheat straw....... No extra nitrogen source was needed in the fermentation broth. It was shown that the AD manure could successfully substitute process water in SSF of pretreated lignocellulosic fibres. Theoretical ethanol yields of 82% were achieved, giving 30.8 kg ethanol per 100 kg dry mass of maize silage. (C) 2007...

  14. Testing the effect of different enzyme blends on increasing the biogas yield of straw and digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Jurado, Esperanza; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn;

    In this study, enzymatic treatment was tested to increase the biogas yield of wheat straw (WS) and digested manure fibers (DMF) in the Re-Injection Loop Concept, which combines anaerobic digestion with solid separation to enhance the biogas yield per ton of manure by: 1. Digestion of the easily d...

  15. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield in the 90/10 and 80/20 configuration, respectively. VFA concentration in the serial CSTR was high in the first reactor but very low in the second reactor. The results from organic pulse load test showed that the second reactor in serial CSTR helped utilizing VFA produced from overloading in the first reactor, which improved the effluent quality and conversion efficiency of the serial CSTR.

  16. Phosphorus reclamation through hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Steven M; Molde, Joseph S; Timler, Jacobe G; Wood, Brandon M; Mikula, Anthony L; Vozhdayev, Georgiy V; Colosky, Edward C; Spokas, Kurt A; Valentas, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    Projected shortages of global phosphate have prompted investigation of methods that could be employed to capture and recycle phosphate, rather than continue to allow the resource to be essentially irreversibly lost through dilution in surface waters. Hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures from large farms was investigated as a scenario for the reclamation of phosphate for agricultural use and mitigation of the negative environmental impact of phosphate pollution. Hydrothermal reaction conditions were identified for poultry, swine, and cattle manures that resulted in hydrochar yields of 50-60% for all three manures, and >90% of the total phosphorus present in these systems was contained in the hydrochars as precipitated phosphate salts. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 80-90% by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Phosphate recovery was achieved in yields of 81-87% based on starting manures by subsequent acid treatment of the hydrochars, addition of base to acid extracts to achieve a pH of 9, and filtration of principally calcium phosphate. Swine and cattle manures produced hydrochars with combustion energy contents comparable to those of high-end sub-bituminous coals. PMID:25111737

  17. Environmentally Sustainable Biogas? The Key Role of Manure Co-Digestion with Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Agostini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the environmental impacts of three biogas systems based on dairy manure, sorghum and maize. The geographical scope of the analysis is the Po valley, in Italy. The anaerobic digestion of manure guarantees high GHG (Green House Gases savings thanks to the avoided emissions from the traditional storage and management of raw manure as organic fertiliser. GHG emissions for maize and sorghum-based systems, on the other hand, are similar to those of the Italian electricity mix. In crop-based systems, the plants with open-tank storage of digestate emit 50% more GHG than those with gas-tight tanks. In all the environmental impact categories analysed (acidification, particulate matter emissions, and eutrophication, energy crops based systems have much higher impacts than the Italian electricity mix. Maize-based systems cause higher impacts than sorghum, due to more intensive cultivation. Manure-based pathways have always lower impacts than the energy crops based pathways, however, all biogas systems cause much higher impacts than the current Italian electricity mix. We conclude that manure digestion is the most efficient way to reduce GHG emissions; although there are trade-offs with other local environmental impacts. Biogas production from crops; although not providing environmental benefits per se; may be regarded as an option to facilitate the deployment of manure digestion.

  18. Seasonal Variation on Microbial Community and Methane Production during Anaerobic Digestion of Cattle Manure in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Arcuri, Pedro Braga; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Otenio, Marcelo Henrique; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2016-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an alternative method for the treatment of animal manure and wastewater. The anaerobic bioconversion of biomass requires a multi-step biological process, including microorganisms with distinct roles. The diversity and composition of microbial structure in pilot-scale anaerobic digestion operating at ambient temperature in Brazil were studied. Influence of the seasonal and temporal patterns on bacterial and archaeal communities were assessed by studying the variations in density, dynamic and diversity and structure. The average daily biogas produced in the summer and winter months was 18.7 and 16 L day(-1), respectively, and there was no difference in the average methane yield. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that no differences in abundances and dynamics were found for bacterial communities and the total number of Archaea in different seasons. Analysis of bacterial clone libraries revealed a predominance of Firmicutes (54.5 %/summer and 46.7 %/winter) and Bacteroidetes (31.4 %/summer and 44.4 %/winter). Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota was predominant in both digesters. Phylogenetic distribution showed changes in percentage between the phyla identified, but no alterations were recorded in the quality and amount of produced methane or community dynamics. The results may suggest that redundancy of microbial groups may have occurred, pointing to a more complex microbial community in the ecosystem related to this ambient temperature system.

  19. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Zaganas, Ioannis D.;

    2014-01-01

    zeolite dosages on the mesophilic AD of poultry manure inoculated with a non-acclimatised to ammonia inoculum (dairy manure) was investigated. Additionally, a comparative analysis was performed between the data extracted from this study and the results of a previous study which has been conducted under...... the same experimental conditions but with the use of ammonia acclimatised inoculum (swine manure). At 5 and 10 g zeolite L−1, the methane yield of poultry manure was 43.4% and 80.3% higher compared with the experimental set without zeolite addition. However, the ammonia non-acclimatised inoculum...... was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L−1, due to low methane production (only 39%) compared to the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatised inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible “synergistic effect” which led to a more efficient AD of poultry...

  20. INFLUENCE OF ENRICHED BIO-DIGESTER LIQUID MANURE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF FINGER MILLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHEENDRA SAUNCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of enriched bio-digester liquid manure (BDLM with poultry manure & rock phosphate equivalent to 60 kg N ha-1 had led lead to the significant grain yield (3893 kg ha-1 and straw yield (7228 kg ha -1 of finger millet compared to recommended practice which was in turn due to growth parameters viz., plant height, leaf area index, dry matter production and tillers

  1. Environmentally Sustainable Biogas? The Key Role of Manure Co-Digestion with Energy Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Agostini; Ferdinando Battini; Jacopo Giuntoli; Vincenzo Tabaglio; Monica Padella; David Baxter; Luisa Marelli; Stefano Amaducci

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the environmental impacts of three biogas systems based on dairy manure, sorghum and maize. The geog. scope of the anal. is the Po valley, in Italy. The anaerobic digestion of manure guarantees high GHG (Green House Gases) savings thanks to the avoided emissions from the traditional storage and management of raw manure as org. fertiliser. GHG emissions for maize and sorghum-based systems, on the other hand, are similar to those of the Italian electricity mix. In crop-based sys...

  2. A new model for calculating the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions through anaerobic co-digestion of manure and organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogenic emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N20) occur during handling, storage and after field application of animal manure. The emissions are linked to decomposition of volatile solids (VS), which provide energy for microorganisms. During anaerobic storage, turnover of VS drives the microbial processes which lead to CH4, production. Also, turnover of VS in slurry applied to fields will consume oxygen and can thereby stimulate N20 production. Anaerobic digestion of manure and organic wastes for biogas production removes VS prior to storage and field application, and therefore this treatment also reduces the potential for CH4, and N20 emissions. A model has been developed to evaluate the effect of anaerobic co-digestion of animal manure and organic waste on CH, and N20 emissions. The model estimates the reduction in VS during storage and digestion, and an algorithm for prediction of CH4, emissions from manure during storage relates the emission to VS, temperature and storage time. Nitrous oxide emissions from field-applied slurry are calculated using VS, slurry N, soil water potential and application method as input variables, thus linking C and N turnover. The amount of fossil fuel that is substituted by CH4, produced during digestion is also calculated in order to estimate the total effect of anaerobic digestion on greenhouse gas emissions from slurry. Model calculations show the potential of manure digestion to modify the emission of greenhouse gases from agriculture. The experience from application of the model to different scenarios is that the emission of greenhouse gases and their reduction must be calculated with dynamic and integrated models. Specifically, the results indicate that digestion of slurry and organic wastes could reduce Danish greenhouse gas emissions by as much as 3%. (au)

  3. Nutrient and Bacterial Transport From Agricultural Lands Fertlized With Different Animal Manures

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Anurag

    2003-01-01

    The increase of animal agriculture coupled with excess manure production, and the reduced availability of land has led to the over application of animal manure on agricultural fields. The excessive application of manure is responsible for nutrient and bacterial pollution of downstream waterbodies. Manure application based on the crop phosphorus (P) requirements has been recommended as a viable method to reduce nutrient pollution. A plot scale study was conducted to measure the loss of nutrien...

  4. Optimizing the performance of a reactor by reducing the retention time and addition of glycerin for anaerobically digesting manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.; Schuman, E.; Eekert, M.; Riel, van J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure is a widely accepted technology for energy production. However, only a minimal portion of the manure production in the EU is anaerobically digested and occurs predominantly in codigestion plants. There is substantial potential for biogas plants that primarily operate on

  5. Optimization of the Co-Digestion of Catch Crops with Manure Using a Central Composite Design and Reactor Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of catch crops as co-substrate on manure-based anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments were carried out for two catch crops, namely Italian ryegrass (IR) and oil seed radish (OSR), in co-digestion with manure. Methane yields in the range of 271–558 and 216–361 ml...

  6. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Infascelli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies and incentives aimed at controlling the amount of nitrate entering downstream water systems. The province of Caserta in southern Italy is characterized by high levels of animal manure loading. A comparison between manure nitrogen production and nitrate concentration in groundwater was carried out in this area, using geostatistical tools and spatial statistics. The results show a discrepancy between modelling of nitrate leaching and monitoring of the groundwater and, moreover, no spatial correlation between nitrogen production in livestock farms and nitrate concentration in groundwater, suggesting that producers are not following the regulatory procedures for the agronomic use of manure. The methodology developed in this paper could be applied also in other regions in which European Union fertilization plans are not adequately followed.

  7. Start-up strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge physicochemical composition, methane (CH4) yield, and methanogenic community structure and dynamics using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were determined after start-up of anaerobic digestion of pig manure. Eight thermophilic continuous stirred anaerobic digesters were used during 126 days. Four management strategies were investigated: a feedless and a non-feedless period followed by a gradual or an abrupt addition of pig manure (two digesters per strategy). During the first 43 days, VFA (volatile fatty acids) accumulations and low CH4 yield were observed in all digesters. After this period, digesters recovered their initial status being propionic acid the last parameter to be re-established. Non-feedless digesters with an abrupt addition of pig manure showed the best performances (lower VFA accumulation and higher CH4 yield). Differences in microbial orders and dynamics, however, were less evident among treatments. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, Methanomicrobiales first and Methanobacteriales second, was the dominant metabolic pathway in all digesters. Further research is needed to clarify the role and activity of hydrogenotrophic methanogens during the recovery start-up period and to identify the best molecular tools and methodologies to monitor microbial populations and dynamics reliably and accurately in anaerobic digesters. - Highlights: • Four start-up strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of pig manure were tested. • Physicochemical composition, methane yield and methanogenic community were determined. • During the first 43 days, a decline in reactor's performance occurred. • The best start-up strategy was non-feedless with an abrupt addition of pig slurry. • Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant metabolic pathway

  8. Enhancing anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery of dairy manure through microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Hu, Zhenhu; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion and struvite precipitation are two effective ways of treating dairy manure for recovering biogas and phosphorus. Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure is commonly limited by slow fiber degradation, while struvite precipitation is limited by the availability of orthophosphate. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment to simultaneously enhance manure anaerobic digestibility (through fiber degradation) and struvite precipitation (through phosphorus solubilization). Microwave heating combined with different chemicals (NaOH, CaO, H(2)SO(4), or HCl) enhanced solubilization of manure and degradation of glucan/xylan in dairy manure. However, sulfuric acid-based pretreatment resulted in a low anaerobic digestibility, probably due to the sulfur inhibition and Maillard side reaction. The pretreatments released 20-40% soluble phosphorus and 9-14% ammonium. However, CaO-based pretreatment resulted in lower orthophosphate releases and struvite precipitation efficiency as calcium interferes with phosphate to form calcium phosphate. Collectively, microwave heating combined with NaOH or HCl led to a high anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery. Using these two chemicals, the performance of microwave- and conventional-heating in thermochemical pretreatment was further compared. The microwave heating resulted in a better performance in terms of COD solubilization, glucan/xylan reduction, phosphorus solubilization and anaerobic digestibility. Lastly, temperature and heating time used in microwave treatment were optimized. The optimal values of temperature and heating time were 147 degrees C and 25.3 min for methane production, and 135 degrees C and 26 min for orthophosphate release, respectively. PMID:19555991

  9. Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organizing and managing the whole manure handling chain from the animal house through transport to the point of use (e.g. in the field) is a challenging task requiring consideration of manure type and operating conditions. Solid and liquid manure must be handled differently, using very different tec...

  10. Anaerobic digestion technology in livestock manure treatment for biogas production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Ismail M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Ghazi, Tinia I.; Omar, Rozita

    2012-06-15

    This article reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production from livestock manure wastes and compares the operating and performance data for various anaerobic process configurations. It examines different kinds of manure waste treatment techniques and the influence of several parameters on biogas and methane yield. The comparison indicates that a variety of different operational conditions, various reactor configurations such as batch reactors, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), and continuous one- and two-stage systems, present a suitable technology for the AD of livestock manure waste. Main performance indicators are biogas and methane yield, degradation of volatile solids (VS), higher loading, and process stability with a short retention time. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF FOOD WASTE AND DAIRY MANURE FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of continuously mixed anaerobic digesters was evaluated in the laboratory for treating manure, food waste and their mixtures at 35 ± 2oC and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The first mixture was composed of 32% and 68%, and the second was composed of 48% and 52% food waste and...

  12. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.;

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process...

  13. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure slurry in sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, D.I. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Food Research Branch; Droste, R.L. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    This work presents preliminary results of an ongoing laboratory study to evaluate the feasibility of psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for stabilizing, deodorizing and adding value to swine manure. Preliminary results show that the process is feasible. (author). 14 refs., 7 tabs.

  14. Effect of temperature and temperature fluctuation on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of cattle manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashad, El H.; Zeeman, G.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Bot, G.P.A.; Lettinga, G.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of temperature, 50 and 60 °C, at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 and 10 days, on the performance of anaerobic digestion of cow manure has been investigated in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Furthermore, the effect of both daily downward and daily upward temperature fl

  15. A Model of Solar Energy Utilisation in the Anaerobic Digestion of Cattle Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashad, El H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Zeeman, G.

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of cow manure has a higher destruction of pathogens and weed seeds under thermophilic conditions compared to mesophilic conditions. To maintain such conditions, solar energy can be used. In this research, the consequences of the use of solar energy under Egyptian conditions a

  16. Effects of dietary carbohydrates and buffering capacity on nutrient digestibility and manure characteristics in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mroz, Z.; Moeser, A.J.; Vreman, K.; Diepen, van J.T.; Kempen, van T.; Canh, T.T.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2000-01-01

    A 2 × 3 factorial experiment was conducted with 24 finishing pigs (Yorkshire x [Finnish Landrace x Dutch Landrace]) to determine the effects of dietary buffering capacity (BC) and carbohydrate sources on apparent total tract digestibility (TD), N retention, and manure characteristics. Twelve of thes

  17. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20:1 and 30:1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  18. Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from manure. In this study, the technology was enhanced using aeration instead of alkali chemicals to increase pH and the ammonia recovery rate. Digested effluents from covered anaerobic swine lagoons containing 1375 to 2089 milligram am...

  19. From animals to crops : environmental consequences of current and future strategies for manure management

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, N.

    2014-01-01

    Animal manure is a key component that links crop and livestock production as it contains valuable nutrients for the soil and crop. Manure is also a source of environmental pollution through losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and losses of carbon (C). These losses are largely determined by the way manure is managed. Technologies to reduce nutrient and C losses from manure mainly focused on reducing a single emission while unwillingly increasing another emission at th...

  20. Acidification of non-medicated and oxytetracycline-medicated cattle manures during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Cağri; Ince, Orhan; Türker, Gökhan; Ince, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Possible adverse effects of a commonly used veterinary antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC), on acidogenic phase of anaerobic digestion of cattle manure along with optimum operating conditions were investigated. A standard veterinary practice of 50 ml OTC solution (20 mg/kg cattle weight) was injected into the muscles of cattle and then manure samples were collected for 5 days following the injection. The 5-day samples were equally mixed and used throughout digestion experiments. Preliminary batch tests were conducted to obtain the optimum pH range and observe volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production. In this regard, different sets of batch digesters were operated at pH ranging from 5.2 +/- 0.1 to 5.8 +/- 0.1 at mesophilic conditions with total solids content of 6.0 +/- 0.2%. The pH of 5.5 +/- 0.1 was found to be the optimum value for acidification for both non-medicated and OTC-medicated conditions. Under predetermined conditions, maximum total VFA (VFAtot) of 830 +/- 3 mg (as acetic acid)/L was produced and maximum acidification rate was evaluated as 11% for OTC-medicated cattle manure, whereas they were 900 +/- 6 mg (as acetic acid)/L and 12% for non-medicated manure. Digestion studies were further continued in a semi-continuous mode at pH 5.5 +/- 0.1 and SRT/HRT of 5 days. VFAtot concentrations and maximum acidification rate increased up to 2181 +/- 19 mg (as acetic acid)/L and 29% for non-medicated cattle manure. For OTC-medicated cattle manure, lower acidification rate of 18% was observed. PMID:25145191

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide containing cassava pulp with pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanpracha, Naraporn; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide-containing cassava pulp with pig manure was evaluated using laboratory scale mesophilic digester. The digester was operated in a semi-continuous mode with the mixed feedstock having C/N ratio of 35:1. Digester startup was accomplished in 60days with loading of 0.5-1kgVS/m(3)d. Subsequently, the loading to digester was increased step-wise from 2 to 9kgVS/m(3)d. Digester performance was stable at loading between 2 and 6kgVS/m(3)d with an average volatile solid removal and methane yield of 82% and 0.38m(3)/kgVSadded, respectively. However, beyond loading of 7kgVS/m(3)d, solubilization of particulate matter did not take place efficiently. Cyanide present in cassava pulp was successfully degraded indicating that anaerobic sludge in the digester was well acclimatized to cyanide. The results show that cassava pulp can be successfully digested anaerobically with pig manure as co-substrate without any inhibitory effect of cyanide present in the cassava pulp. PMID:27128196

  2. Effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming in manure digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Kougias, Panagiotis; Pacheco, F.;

    2012-01-01

    Manure contains several compounds that can potentially cause foaming during anaerobic digestion. Understanding the effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming tendency and stability could facilitate strategies for foaming prevention and recovery of the process. In this study......, the effect of physicochemical properties of substrates and intermediate compounds on liquid properties such as surface tension, surfactant property, and hydrophobicity were investigated and compared with the effect on foaming tendency and foam stability. The results showed that there was no consistent...... potential to create foam in a manure digester. Moreover, high organic loading of lipids and protein, and high concentrations of acetic and butyric acids also showed a strong tendency to create foaming during anaerobic digestion. Due to their great ability to stabilize foam, high organic loadings of Na...

  3. Anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Inhibition by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kaare Hvid; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1998-01-01

    A stable anaerobic degradation of swine manure with ammonia concentration of 6 g-N/litre was obtained in continuously stirred tank reactors with a hydraulic retention time of 15 days, at Four different temperatures. Methane yields of 188, 141, 67 and 22 ml-CH4/g-VS were obtained at 37, 45, 55...... and 60 degrees C, respectively. The yields were significantly lower than the potential biogas yield of the swine manure used (300 ml-CH4/g-VS). A free ammonia concentration of 1.1 g-N/litre or more was found to cause inhibition in batch cultures at pH 8.0 (reactor pH), and higher free ammonia...

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion of potato tuber and its industrial by-products with pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Rintala, Jukka [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland)

    2005-01-01

    The possible use of potato tuber and its industrial by-products (potato stillage and potato peels) on farm-scale co-digestion with pig manure was evaluated in a laboratory study. The methane yields (m{sup 3}kg{sup -1} volatile solids (VS){sub addedwaste}) achieved on semi-continuous co-digestion at loading rate of 2kgVSm{sup -3}day{sup -1} in continuously stirred tank reactors at 35{sup o}C were 0.13-0.15 at 100:0 (VS% pig manure to VS% potato co-substrate), 0.21-0.24 at 85:15 and 0.30-0.33 at 80:20 feed ratio. Increasing the loading rate from 2 to 3kgVSm{sup -3}day{sup -1} at a feed VS ratio of 80:20 (pig manure to potato waste) produced methane yields of 0.28-0.30m{sup 3}kg{sup -1} VS{sub addedwaste}. Post-digestion (60 days) of the digested materials in batches produced 0.12-0.15m{sup 3}kg{sup -1} VS{sub addedwaste} of methane at 35{sup o}C. The results suggest that successful digester operation can be achieved with feed containing potato material up to 15-20% of the feed VS and that under similar feed VS, loading rate, retention time and feed VS ratio, the methane yields and process performance for potato tuber would be similar to that of its industrial residues. Thus, co-digestion of potatoes and/or its industrial by-products with manures on a farm-scale level would generate renewable energy and provide a means of waste treatment for industry.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of aquatic flora and quinoa with manures from Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, René; Lidén, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 degrees C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m(-3) d(-1). Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process.

  6. Anaerobic co-digestion of aquatic flora and quinoa with manures from Bolivian Altiplano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 deg. C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m-3 d-1. Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of aquatic flora and quinoa with manures from Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, René; Lidén, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 degrees C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m(-3) d(-1). Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process. PMID:18155895

  8. Wastewater transformations and fertilizer value when co-digesting differing ratios of swine manure and used cooking grease in low-cost digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, Stephanie [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, 1445 Animal Sci./Ag. Eng. Bldg., College Park, MD 20742-2315 (United States); Martin, Jay F. [Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, 590 Woody Hayes Drive, Columbus, OH 43210-1057 (United States); Botero, Raul Botero; Nogueira da Silva, Tatiana; Dias da Silva, Ederson [EARTH University, Apartado Postal 4442 - 1000, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2010-12-15

    A nine-month co-digestion investigation was conducted in Costa Rica to optimize animal wastewater treatment, renewable energy production, and fertilizer creation using 12 Taiwanese-model, plug-flow digesters (250 L each) constructed of tubular polyethylene and PVC piping, operating without mechanical or heating components. The experiment tested three replications of four treatment groups: the control (T0), which contained only swine manure, and T2.5, T5, and T10, which contained 2.5%, 5%, and 10% used cooking grease (by volume) combined with swine manure. T2.5 had the greatest methane production (45 L d{sup -1}), a 124% increase from the control. No adverse effects were observed from co-digesting 2.5% grease in terms of organic matter removal, pathogen reduction, grease removal, and pH. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced 94.7% to 1.96 g L{sup -1}, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were reduced 99.2 and 97.1%, respectively, and grease removal was 99.9%. The average effluent pH (7.05) and alkalinity in T2.5 was within the optimal range for methanogens and increased significantly during the nine-month experiment, likely due to adaptation of the methanogenic organisms to the influent grease concentrations. Total nitrogen concentration decreased 34.0%, and NH{sub 4}-N increased 97.1% during digestion in T2.5, with no significant differences between T2.5 and T0. There was less phosphorus reduction with co-digestion, with 181 mg g{sup -1} of total phosphorus (TP) in T2.5 and only 90.6 mg g{sup -1} of TP in T0, resulting in lower N:P ratios in the grease treatment groups due to the greater concentration of phosphorus in the effluent. (author)

  9. Effects of Psychrophilic Storage on Manures as Substrate for Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Bergland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that storage can enhance manure quality as substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD to recover more methane is evaluated by studying storage time and temperature effects on manure composition. Volatile fatty acids (VFA and total dissolved organics (CODs were measured in full scale pig manure storage for a year and in multiple flasks at fixed temperatures, mainly relevant for colder climates. The CODs generation, influenced by the source of the pig manure, was highest initially (0.3 g COD L−1d−1 gradually dropping for 3 months towards a level of COD loss by methane production at 15°C. Methane emission was low ( 10°C in the full scale storage and almost no generation at lower temperatures (4–6°C. CODs consisted mainly of VFA, especially acetate. All VFAs were present at almost constant ratios. The naturally separated manure middle layer without sediment and coarser particles is suitable for sludge bed AD and improved further during an optimal storage time of 1–3 month(s. This implies that high rate AD can be integrated with regular manure slurry handling systems to obtain efficient biogas generation.

  10. Effect of Composting on Dissolved Organic Matter in Animal Manure and Its Binding with Cu

    OpenAIRE

    Fengsong Zhang; Yanxia Li; Xiong Xiong; Ming Yang; Wei Li

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural application of raw animal manure introduces large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into soil and would increase transport of heavy metals such as Cu which are widely present in animal manure. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the evolution of DOM from pig and cattle manures during composting through excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the binding ability of DOM toward copper (Cu) ions with the aid of fluorescence quenching titrat...

  11. Effects of Oxytetracycline on Methane Production and the Microbial Communities During Anaerobic Digestion of Cow Manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Xin; WANG Chun-yong; LI Run-dong; ZHANG Yun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (37°C) of cow manure were investigated. Before anaerobic digestion, OTC was added to digesters at concentrations of 20, 50, and 80 mg L-1, respectively. Compared with no-antibiotic control, all methane productions underwent different levels of inhibition at different concentrations of OTC. Changes in the bacterial and archaeal communities were discussed by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that OTC affected the richness and diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities. The bacterial genus Flavobacterium and an uncultured bacterium (JN256083.1) were detected throughout the entire process of anaerobic digestion and seemed to be the functional bacteria. Methanobrevibacter boviskoreani and an uncultured archaeon (FJ230982.1) dominated the archaeal communities during anaerobic digestion. These microorganisms may have high resistance to OTC and may play vital roles in methane production.

  12. Changes in heavy metal contents in animal feeds and manures in an intensive animal production region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Dong, Yuanhua; Yang, Yunya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhang, Xumei

    2013-12-01

    The 360 feed and manure samples were collected from 150 animal farms in Jiangsu Province, China and analyzed for heavy metals. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in animal feeds were 15.9-2041.8 and undetected-392.1 mg/kg respectively, while Hg, As, Pb, Cd, and Cr in all feeds were below 10 mg/kg. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Cr in animal manures were 8.4-1726, 39.5-11379, and 1.0-1602 mg/kg respectively, while As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were animal feed and manure were positively correlated (p animal manure have been greatly increased over 18 years and the contribution of manures to soil should be considered.

  13. Influence of animal manures on the biology of temperate earthworm, Eisenia fetida in tropical semiarid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulikeshi, M B; Amoji, S D; Shagoti, U M; Biradar, V A

    2001-04-01

    For understanding the potential utility in field scale production of vermicompost and vermiprotein economically, Eisenia fetida was cultured to establish the influence of (i) prevailing tropical semiarid (North-East region of Karnataka, India) environmental factors and (ii) different animal manures (cattle, horse and 1:1 mixture of cattle and horse) (on its growth, reproduction and life span. In three forms of diet, growth (mg/d/g live weight of worm) was almost similar, but the biomass in cattle manure (565.7 +/- 15.3) was significantly more than horse manure (494.9 +/- 22.8) and 1:1 mixture (470.3 +/- 22.0). Mean cocoon production (per worm/week) in horse manure (0.16) was significantly (Pmanure (1.6) and in 1:1 mixed manure (1.4). Cattle favoured biomass, growth and cocoon production. Horse manure inhibited cocoon production and the conserved energy in this process might have been added to the body weight almost equal to that in cattle manure. In 1:1 mixed manure, the biomass was less due to moderate cocoon production (presumably due to the stimulatory influence of 50% cattle manure) under semifavorable nutrients and environmental conditions. Fecundity of the worms declined with aging, despite favourable nutrients and environmental conditions. Worms survived up to 92, 68 and 66 weeks in cattle manure, 1:1 mixed manure and horse manure respectively.

  14. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J;

    One major pre-condition for assessing a manure management technique in a whole system or LCA-approach is to define a reference system against which this technique can be assessed. This report thus presents and details the establishment of such reference systems, comprising eight different manure...... of the manure for all main stages of the manure continuum (e.g. ex-animal, ex-housing, ex-storage). This report was prepared as part of Baltic Manure Work Package 5 - Assessing Sustainability of Manure Technology Chains....

  15. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy--a life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, J W; Vinken, T M W J; Hamelin, L; De Boer, I J M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for anaerobic digestion. Environmental impact categories considered were climate change, terrestrial acidification, marine and freshwater eutrophication, particulate matter formation, land use, and fossil fuel depletion. Six scenarios were evaluated: mono-digestion of manure, co-digestion with: maize silage, maize silage and glycerin, beet tails, wheat yeast concentrate (WYC), and roadside grass. Mono-digestion reduced most impacts, but represented a limited source for bio-energy. Co-digestion with maize silage, beet tails, and WYC (competing with animal feed), and glycerin increased bio-energy production (up to 568%), but at expense of increasing climate change (through LUC), marine eutrophication, and land use. Co-digestion with wastes or residues like roadside grass gave the best environmental performance. PMID:23026340

  16. The kinetics of methane production from co-digestion of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhov, Zh K; Korazbekova, K U; Lakhanova, K M

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the kinetics of methane production from co-digestion of liquid manure from cattle with the addition of winemaking waste, food waste and biowaste was investigated in order to describe and evaluate methanogenesis in terms of growth curve of methanogenic bacteria. Experiments were carried out in "Hohenheim"n biogas yield testing system at the temperature of 37 degrees C. The cumulative methane yield was 0.330 ± 0.038, 0.277 ± 0.041, 0.1480 ± 013 and 0.250 ± 0.025 m3 CH4 per kg oDM in normal condition, respectively in mono-digestion and co-digestion of liquid manure from cattle with winemaking, food and biowaste. The kinetic Gompertz parameters of methane production (P-potential yield of methane, R(m)-maximum methane production rate and λ-duration of lag phase) were analyzed. The highest potential methane yield (P) showed co-fermentation of liquid manure from cattle with biowaste 0.387 Nm3 (kg oDM)(-1), the highest methane production rate (R(m)) was 0.022 ± 0.003 Nm3 (kg oDM)(-1) day(-1) for mono-digestion of cattle slurry, the lowest 0.006 Nm3 (kg oDM)(-1) day(-1) was obtained during co-digestion with food waste. Duration of lag phase (λ) was within 10.17-14.60 days for all samples. Additional, the duration of digestion to produce 95% of the potential methane yield and efficient methane production was determined.

  17. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH4 and N2O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope “housing to field application” by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ∼ 80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO2eq per kg lwg−1). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO2eq kg lwg−1 or 95% (± 45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (± 47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions from beef production systems

  18. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Ciniro, E-mail: cinirojr@hotmail.com [University of São Paulo, Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Laboratory of Biogeochemistry, Avenida Centenário, 303, Piracicaba, SP 13416-000 (Brazil); Cerri, Carlos E.P., E-mail: cepcerri@usp.br [University of São Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900 (Brazil); Pires, Alexandre V., E-mail: pires.1@usp.br [University of São Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900 (Brazil); Cerri, Carlos C., E-mail: cerri@cena.usp.br [University of São Paulo, Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Laboratory of Biogeochemistry, Avenida Centenário, 303, Piracicaba, SP 13416-000 (Brazil)

    2015-02-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope “housing to field application” by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ∼ 80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO{sub 2}eq per kg lwg{sup −1}). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO{sub 2}eq kg lwg{sup −1} or 95% (± 45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (± 47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions

  19. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jingqing [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Guohui [School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yuan, Zhenhong, E-mail: yuanzh@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  20. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, Pan; Nopharatana, Annop; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2010-01-01

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic...... digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m...

  1. Economic feasibility and evaluation of a novel manure collection and anaerobic digestion system at a commercial swine finisher enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case study conducted at a commercial swine-finishing farm demonstrated that a novel manure management system increased economic feasibility of an anaerobic digester by eliminating the need for post-digestion manure storage construction at the farm. Uniquely designed underfloor manure storage pits collected manure for delivery to the digester, and then stored post-digested manure (digestate) in underfloor storage within the same swine houses. It was unknown if the introduction of biologically active digestate into these pits would produce pig living space air quality that was adverse to pig health, growth or survival, or if explosive methane levels would be generated within the buildings. Monitoring of air quality indicators both before and after digestate introduction to underfloor manure storage pits resulted in no observations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or methane (CH4) concentrations above critical safety levels in swine housing. Hourly mean ammonia (NH3) concentrations at pig level (0.15 m above the floor) before digestate was present in the buildings were higher (P < 0.05) compared to when digestate was present (24 ± 2.8 ppm vs. 17 ± 1.0 ppm). Air quality measures did not indicate that digestate introduction into underfloor manure pits caused degradations of air quality at pig level. No obvious etiologic effects on swine were observed. Evaluation of the electric cogeneration system showed that cost-savings of electricity produced from biogas combustion was approximately equal to the producer's debt service for capital investment. External funding and low interest financing were necessary for electric cost-savings to offset finance payments. - Highlights: • Swine dunging behavior used to collect 75% of manure for anaerobic digestion. • Digestate returned to housing without adverse etiologic or air quality effects. • System design offered some economic advantages. • Outside funding necessary for electric cost savings to offset capital

  2. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure and corn stover with biological and chemical pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yufang; Li, Xiujin; Yu, Liang; Zou, Dexun; Yuan, Hairong

    2015-12-01

    Biological and chemical pretreatment methods using liquid fraction of digestate (LFD), ammonia solution (AS), and NaOH were compared in the process of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure and corn stover. The results showed that LFD pretreatment could achieve the same effect as the chemical pretreatment (AS, NaOH) at the performance of anaerobic digestion (AD). Compared with the untreated corn stover, the cumulative biomethane production (CBP) and the volatile solid (VS) removal rate of three pretreatment methods were increased by 25.40-30.12% and 14.48-16.84%, respectively, in the co-digestion of cattle manure and corn stover. T80 was 20-37.14% shorter than that of the control test (35 ± 1 days). LFD pretreatment not only achieved the same effect as chemical pretreatment, but also reduced T80 and improved buffer capacity of anaerobic digestion system. Therefore, this study provides meaningful insight for exploring efficient pretreatment strategy to stabilize and enhance AD performance for practical application. PMID:26409855

  3. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37±1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9-70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  4. Biohydrogen production from specified risk materials co-digested with cattle manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilroyed, Brandon H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 4B1 (Canada); Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Li, Chunli; Hao, Xiying; McAllister, Tim A. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 4B1 (Canada); Chu, Angus [Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    Biohydrogen production from the anaerobic digestion of specified risk materials (SRM) co-digested with cattle manure was assessed in a 3 x 5 factorial design. Total organic loading rates (OLR) of 10, 20, and 40 g L{sup -1} volatile solids (VS) were tested using manure:SRM (wt/wt) mixtures of 100:0 (control), 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, and 50:50 using five 2 L continuously stirred biodigesters operating at 55 C. Gas samples were taken daily to determine hydrogen production, and slurry samples were analyzed daily for volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), and VS degradation. Hydrogen production (mL g{sup -1} VS fed) varied quadratically according to OLR (P < 0.01), with maximum production at OLR20, while production decreased linearly (P < 0.0001) as SRM concentration increased. Reduced hydrogen production associated with SRM inclusion at >10% VS may be attributed to a rapid increase in TAN (r = -0.55) or other inhibitors such as long chain fatty acids. Reduced hydrogen production (P < 0.01) at OLR40 versus OLR20 may be related to increased rate of VFA accumulation and final VFA concentration (P < 0.001), as well as inhibition due to hydrogen accumulation (P < 0.001). Biohydrogen production from SRM co-digested with cattle manure may not be feasible on an industrial scale due to reduced hydrogen production with increasing levels of SRM. (author)

  5. Manure digestate recycling - Technologies and manufacturers; Biogoedselfoeraedling - Tekniker och leverantoerer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Carl (SWECO Environment AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    Today, several biogas plants are planned. Some are large-scale or in localizations that means a long distance to croplands. The digestate indeed contain phosphorus and nitrogen but above all large quantities of water, which makes it tempting to try to refine the product. Low concentration of nutrients in the digestate means that the theoretically possible value is low which sets high demand on resource consumption of the processes to be used. In this report you can find ammonia stripping, evaporation, ultra filter + reverse osmosis and struvite precipitation, but there might be other methods. None of these methods will generate a profit, but are dependent of that the alternative, handling of not dewatered digestate, for some reason (e.g. transport distance) is to expensive. Dewatering of digestate followed by reject water treatment with aim to transform the ammonia and organic nitrogen to airborne nitrogen (disposal) has not been discussed in this report. In this project, visits have been made to three full scale plants and one pilot plant. The techniques on these plants have been ammonia stripping to ammonium sulphate, ammonia stripping to ammonia nitrate, ultra filter + reverse osmosis and struvite precipitation (pilot plant). Any appropriate plant where evaporation with developed energy recovery is used has not been found. Both plants with ammonia stripping work satisfying as well as the struvite precipitation plant. Struvite precipitation should be seen as a way to separate the phosphate from the reject water. Ultra filter + Reverse Osmosis are a functioning technique, but the concentrate was too dilute to be possible to transport any longer distance at the current facility

  6. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL WASTE: EFFECT OF MODE OF MIXING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory-scale digesters were operated to study the effect of mixing (via biogas recirculation, impeller mixing, and slurry recirculation) on biogas production. Three sets of experiments were performed using cow manure slurry feed with either 50, 100, or 150 g/L total solids (TS) concentrations (r...

  7. DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE FOR USE AS ANIMAL FEED

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Ghaly; K. N. MacDonald

    2012-01-01

    The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure have become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by...

  8. Manure Storage, Process Improvement for Animal Feeding Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, John; Smith, Dallen

    2004-01-01

    The capability to store manure reduces or eliminates the need to collect, remove, and spread manure on a daily basis. In past years, when liv estock operations were smaller, daily hauling or very short-term storage with frequent hauling was a common and manageable system. However, as operations increased in size, and manure management systems evolved from solid/semisolid systems to liquid systems, the need for storage became more pronounced.

  9. Investigation of the inorganic and organic phosphorus forms in animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliari, Paulo H; Laboski, Carrie A M

    2012-01-01

    The most viable way to beneficially use animal manure on most farms is land application. Over the past few decades, repeated manure application has shown adverse effects on environmental quality due to phosphorus (P) runoff with rainwater, leading to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Improved understanding of manure P chemistry may reduce this risk. In this research, 42 manure samples from seven animal species (beef and dairy cattle, swine, chicken, turkey, dairy goat, horse, and sheep) were sequentially fractionated with water, NaHCO₃, NaOH, and HCl. Inorganic (P(i)), organic (P(o)), enzymatic hydrolyzable (P(e); monoester-, DNA-, and phytate-like P), and nonhydrolyzable P were measured in each fraction. Total dry ash P (P(t)) was measured in all manures. Total fractionated P (P(ft)) and total P(i) (P(it)) showed a strong linear relationship with P(t). However, the ratios between P(ft)/P(t) and P(it)/P(t) varied from 59 to 117% and from 28 to 96%, respectively. Water and NaHCO₃ extracted most of the P(i) in manure from ruminant+horse, whereas in nonruminant species a large fraction of manure P was extracted in the HCl fraction. Manure P(e) summed over all fractions (P(et)) accounted for 41 to 69% of total P(0) and 4 to 29% of P(t). The hydrolyzable pool in the majority of the manures was dominated by phytate- and DNA-like P in water, monoester- and DNA-like P in NaHCO₃, and monoester- and phytate-like P in NaOH and HCl fractions. In conclusion, if one assumes that the P(et) and P(it) from the fractionation can become bioavailable, then from 34 to 100% of P(t) in animal manure would be bioavailable. This suggests the need for frequent monitoring of manure P for better manure management practices.

  10. Animal manure for biogas production - what happens to the soil?

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riley, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing animal slurry to produce biogas may reduce fossil fuel usage and emissions of greenhouse gases. However, there is limited information on how the recycling of digested slurry as a fertilizer impacts soil fertility in the long run. This is of concern because organic matter in the slurry is converted to methane, which escapes the on-farm carbon cycle. In 2010, a study of this question was initiated on the organic research farm in Tingvoll, Norway. So far, a biogas plant has been built,...

  11. Phosphorus movement and speciation in a sandy soil profile after long-term animal manure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Chardon, W.J.; McDowell, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term application of phosphorus (P) with animal manure in amounts exceeding removal with crops leads to buildup of P in soil and to increasing risk of P loss to surface water and eutrophication. In most manures, the majority of P is held within inorganic forms, but in soil leachates organic P fo

  12. From animals to crops : environmental consequences of current and future strategies for manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Animal manure is a key component that links crop and livestock production as it contains valuable nutrients for the soil and crop. Manure is also a source of environmental pollution through losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and losses of carbon (C). These losses are large

  13. Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking on the Methane Yield and Composition of Digested Manure Fibers Applying Different Ammonia Concentrations and Treatment Durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysoula Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most biogas plants. Thus, their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS at six different concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 32% and for 1, 3 and 5 days at 22 °C was applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester. A methane yield increase from 76% to 104% was achieved during the first series of experiments, while the difference in reagent concentration did not considerably affect the methane yield. It was shown that the optimal duration was three days for both 5% and 25% w/w reagent concentrations in ammonia tested. Carbohydrates and phosphorus content remained unaffected, while a slight decrease in Klason lignin and non-soluble organic nitrogen content was observed after AAS. It is concluded that AAS is a very promising treatment resulting to an overall increase of the methane yield of digested manure fibers from 76% to 265% depending on the conditions and the batch of digested fibers used (an even higher increase of 190%–265% was achieved during the 2nd series of experiments, where different AAS durations were tested, compared to the 1st series were different ammonia concentrations were applied.

  14. Toxicity of ozonated animal manure to the house fly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, S J; Kim-Yang, H; Walker, E D; Roman, H; Yokoyama, M T

    2001-01-01

    Swine manure slurries were ozonated at a dosage of 1 g/L and tested for their toxicity to the house fly (Musca domestica). The observed toxicity of ozonated swine manure was consistent and independent of origin of the swine manure. A dose (dilution) response curve was performed. A 50% dilution in the ozonated swine manure slurry resulted in 90% reduction in toxicity. Neither the synthetic nor ozonated synthetic swine manure, both of which contained higher concentrations of formaldehyde and three other unidentified carbonyl compounds than the ozonated swine manure, were toxic to the flies. Ozonated swine manure slurry was centrifuged and passed through a 0.45-microm filter. The liquid phase was as toxic as the unfiltered slurry; as such, the toxicant appears to be present in liquid phase. Neither ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde, nor other simple aldehydes appeared to be the toxic agent. The toxic agent appears to be a polar chemical compound and is concentrated in the urine. Several possible compounds have been identified. The toxicity of untreated and ozonated manure slurries from different livestock was compared. Six animal manure slurries (beef and dairy cattle, horse, poultry, sheep, and swine) were ozonated (dosage of 1 g/L) and tested for toxicity to the house fly. Ozonated dairy cattle manure slurry showed 78% mortality after 72 h, whereas ozonated swine manure slurry achieved a 100% mortality rate in 48 h. Neither the unozonated dairy nor swine manure slurries, nor any of the other raw or ozonated manure slurries, were toxic to the flies.

  15. Laboratory testing on the removal of the veterinary antibiotic doxycycline during long-term liquid pig manure and digestate storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyasari-Mehta, Arum; Suwito, Hanna Resti Kartika Ayu; Kreuzig, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The veterinary antibiotic doxycycline (DOXY) is today frequently applied in conventional pig husbandry for the control of respiratory diseases. After the treatment, pigs excrete major amounts of DOXY as the unchanged active substance. Thus, DOXY residues were found in liquid manures and digestates of biogas plants at concentrations of mg kg(-1) dry weight. In order to assess the impact of field applications of contaminated manures and digestates on the entry of DOXY residues into arable and grassland soils, thorough information about the removal of DOXY during long-term storage of farm fertilizers is required. Since this aspect has been only less investigated for manures but not for digestates, first long-term storage simulation tests were performed at laboratory scale. Within the 170-d incubation periods under strictly anaerobic conditions, doxycycline was removed in liquid pig manure by 61% and in digestate by 76%. The calculated half-lives of 120 d and 91 d thus emphasized the persistence of doxycycline in both matrices. Due to the substance specific properties of DOXY, this removal was caused neither by mineralization, epimerization nor biotransformation. According to the high affinity of DOXY to manure and digestate solids, however, the formation of non-extractable residues has to be taken into account as the predominant concentration determining process. This was indicated by the sequential extraction procedure applied. Hence, these results confirmed that a full removal capacity for doxycycline cannot be reached through the long-term storage of farm fertilizers. PMID:26855219

  16. Effects of dietary carbohydrates and buffering capacity on nutrient digestibility and manure characteristics in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Z; Moeser, A J; Vreman, K; van Diepen, J T; van Kempen, T; Canh, T T; Jongbloed, A W

    2000-12-01

    A 2 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted with 24 finishing pigs (Yorkshire x [Finnish Landrace x Dutch Landrace]) to determine the effects of dietary buffering capacity (BC) and carbohydrate sources on apparent total tract digestibility (TD), N retention, and manure characteristics. Twelve of these pigs were fitted with steered ileo-cecal value cannulas to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (ID) of N. Experimental variables were two levels of BC (High = 600 mEq/kg and Low = 530 mEq/kg) and three dietary carbohydrates (tapioca [28%], soybean hulls [25%], and sugar beet pulp [25%]). The two levels of BC were achieved by adjusting the amounts of alkalogenic limestone and acidogenic Ca sulfate in the diet. Pigs were fed twice daily at 2.4 x maintenance requirement for metabolizable energy (418 kJ ME/BW(0.75)). Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. Feces and urine were collected over 5 d for nutrient balance and in vitro measurements of pH and ammonia emission over 7 d. No significant interactions between BC and dietary carbohydrates on the ID, TD, N retention, or manure characteristics were observed. Lowering BC with Ca sulfate did not affect digestibility of most nutrients, except for a negative impact on the TD of Ca (P = 0.015) and Mg (P = 0.003). Although all pigs receiving Ca sulfate had more acidic urine (by 0.49 pH units; P = 0.001), ammonia emission from manure was not lowered, irrespective of the carbohydrate source. Carbohydrates affected significantly the ID and TD of most nutrients, whereas N retention remained similar (P > 0.10). Urinary N:fecal N ratios in manure of pigs fed diets with tapioca, soybean hulls, and beet pulp were 2.09, 1.35, and 1.67, respectively. These ratios corresponded with in vitro ammonia emission (169, 125, and 148 mmol/7 d; P = 0.023). In conclusion, these results indicate that the acidification of urine in pigs fed Ca sulfate in the presence of NSP-rich carbohydrates was achieved. However, acidity of manure and

  17. Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission from Animal Manure Using the Closed Chamber Method for Gas Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Călin VAC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure is an important source of anthropogenic GHG (greenhouse gas: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. The livestock contributes with 37% of global CH4 emission. The sources of GHG (CO2 and CH4 are the liquid manure or slurry storage and the compact solid manure. Measurement systems of GHG emission are important for the selection of the appropriate technology. By using the closed chamber method for soil, landfills, volcanoes etc., the present study evaluates the estimation of total emissions of methane and carbon dioxide from an experimental farm in Cluj County, Romania. The investigated area covered with sheep solid manure was about 579 m2 and ~5 cm thick, for cattle was about 12 m2 and 5 m thick and for swine was about 1.5 m5 and 0.5 m thick. The total methane emission measured for sheep manure was 0.83 t CH4/year and for cattle manure was 0.185 t CH4/year. The total carbon dioxide emission measured for sheep manure was 61.3 t CO2/year and for cattle manure was 4.7 t CO2/year. The measurement for pigs manure was high and this could be due to the freshness of the manure. The estimated emissions showed that a considerable amount of CH4 and CO2 is produced also by an experimental farm and an appropriate management of manure is important for reducing greenhouse gas. In this respect, we believe that the future solution for a green economy is to use manure in biogas plants.

  18. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon, E., E-mail: emara@uniovi.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Castrillon, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernandez-Nava, Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Gomez, L.; Garcia, M.M. [Zero Emissions Technology, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2-1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH{sub 4}/kg VS{sub feed} for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 Degree-Sign C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 Degree-Sign C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  19. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. ► Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. ► Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. ► Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. ► Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2–1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH4/kg VSfeed for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 °C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20–28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 °C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  20. Effect of temperature and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    separation was achieved when digested manure was allowed to settle at 55 degrees C with active biogas process (pre-incubated at 55 degrees C) compared to separation at 55 degrees C without active biogas process (autoclaved at 120 degrees C, for 20 min) or at 10 degrees C with active biogas process. Maximum...... solids separation was noticed 24 h after settling in column incubated at 55 degrees C, with active biogas process. Microbiological analyses revealed that proportion of Archaea and Bacteria, absent in the autoclaved material, varied with incubation temperature, time and sampling depth. Short rod shaped...

  1. Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangyang; Li, Yu; Zhang, Difang; Li, Guoxue; Lu, Jiaxin; Li, Shuyan

    2016-10-01

    Solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover was conducted at 20% total solids under 35°C for 45days. Results showed digestion of mixed tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover improved methane yields. The highest VS reduction (46.2%) and methane yield (415.4L/kg VSfeed) were achieved with the ternary mixtures of 33% corn stover, 54% dairy manure, and 13% tomato residues, lead to a 0.5-10.2-fold higher than that of individual feedstocks. Inhibition of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to biogas production occurred when more than 40% tomato residues were added. The results indicated that ternary mixtures diluted the inhibitors that would otherwise cause inhibition in the digestion of tomato residues as a mono-feedstock. PMID:26922003

  2. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of aloe peel waste with dairy manure in the batch digester: Focusing on mixing ratios and digestate stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinlei; Yun, Sining; Zhu, Jiang; Du, Tingting; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xue

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of aloe peel waste (APW) with dairy manure (DM) was evaluated in terms of biogas and methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal rate, and the stability of digestate. Batch experiments were performed under mesophilic condition (36±1°C) at five different APW/DM wet weight ratios (1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1). Experimental methane yield from the mixtures was higher than the yield from APW or DM alone, indicating the synergistic effect and benefits of co-digestion of APW with DM. The optimal mixing ratio of APW/DM was found to be 3:1. The cumulative methane yield was 195.1mL/g VS and the VS removal rate was 59.91%. The characteristics of the digestate were investigated by the thermal analysis which indicated the high stability in the samples of the co-digestion. The co-digestion can be an efficient way to improve the degradation efficiency of the bio-wastes and increase the energy output. PMID:27347799

  3. Upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) digestion of horse manure: Thermophilic vs. mesophilic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böske, Janina; Wirth, Benjamin; Garlipp, Felix; Mumme, Jan; Van den Weghe, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Energetic use of complex lignocellulosic wastes has gained global interest. Thermophilic digestion of horse manure based on straw was investigated using the upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) process. Increasing the organic loading rate from 2.5 to 5.5gvsL(-)(1)d(-)(1) enhanced the average methane production rate from 0.387 to 0.687LCH4L(-)(1)d(-)(1), whereas the yield decreased from 154.8 to 124.8LCH4kgvs(-)(1). A single-stage and two-stage process design showed almost the same performance. Compared to prior experiments at mesophilic conditions, thermophilic conditions showed a significantly higher efficiency with an increase of 59.8% in methane yield and 58.1% in methane production rate. Additional biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests with two types of horse manure and four different bedding materials showed that wheat straw obtained the highest BMP. The results show that the thermophilic UASS process can be the key to an efficient energy recovery from straw-based manures.

  4. Temperature response of methane production in liquid manures and co-digestates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olsen, Anne B; Petersen, Søren O

    2016-01-01

    Intensification of livestock production makes correct estimation of methanogenesis in liquid manure increasingly important for inventories of CH4 emissions. Such inventories currently rely on fixed methane conversion factors as knowledge gaps remain with respect to detailed temperature responses of CH4 emissions from liquid manure. Here, we describe the temperature response of CH4 production in liquid cattle slurry, pig slurry, and fresh and stored co-digested slurry from a thermophilic biogas plant. Subsamples of slurry were anoxically incubated at 20 temperatures from 5-52°C in a temperature gradient incubator and CH4 production was measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace gas after a 17-h incubation period. Methane production potentials at 5-37°C were described by the Arrhenius equation (modelling efficiencies, 79.2-98.1%), and the four materials showed a consistent activation energy (Ea) which averaged 81.0kJmol(-1) (95% confidence interval, 74.9-87.1kJmol(-1)) corresponding to a temperature sensitivity (Q10) of 3.4. In contrast, the frequency factor (A) differed among the slurry materials (30.1temperature sensitivity parameters may be applicable to dynamic modelling of CH4 emissions from livestock manure.

  5. Upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) digestion of horse manure: Thermophilic vs. mesophilic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böske, Janina; Wirth, Benjamin; Garlipp, Felix; Mumme, Jan; Van den Weghe, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Energetic use of complex lignocellulosic wastes has gained global interest. Thermophilic digestion of horse manure based on straw was investigated using the upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) process. Increasing the organic loading rate from 2.5 to 5.5gvsL(-)(1)d(-)(1) enhanced the average methane production rate from 0.387 to 0.687LCH4L(-)(1)d(-)(1), whereas the yield decreased from 154.8 to 124.8LCH4kgvs(-)(1). A single-stage and two-stage process design showed almost the same performance. Compared to prior experiments at mesophilic conditions, thermophilic conditions showed a significantly higher efficiency with an increase of 59.8% in methane yield and 58.1% in methane production rate. Additional biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests with two types of horse manure and four different bedding materials showed that wheat straw obtained the highest BMP. The results show that the thermophilic UASS process can be the key to an efficient energy recovery from straw-based manures. PMID:25459798

  6. Anaerobic Slurry Co-Digestion of Poultry Manure and Straw: Effect of Organic Loading and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Babaee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain basic design criteria for anaerobic digestion of a mixture of poultry manure and wheat straw, the effects of different temperatures and organic loading rates on the biogas yield and methane contents were evaluated. Since poultry manure is a poor substrate, in term of the availability of the nutrients, external supplementation of carbon has to be regularly performed, in order to achieve a stable and efficient process. The complete-mix, pilot-scale digester with working volume of 70 L was used. The digestion operated at 25[degree sign]C, 30[degree sign]C and 35[degree sign]C with organic loading rates of 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 kg Volatile solid/m3d and a HRT of 15 days. At a temperature of 35[degree sign]C, the methane yield was increased by 43% compared to 25[degree sign]C. Anaerobic co-digestion appeared feasible with a loading rate of 3.0 kg VS/m3d at 35[degree sign]C. At this state, the specific methane yield was calculated about 0.12 m3/kg VS with a methane content of 53--70.2% in the biogas. The volatile solid (VS removal was 72%. As a result of volatile fatty acid accumulation and decrease in pH, when the loading rate was less than 1 or greater than 4 kg VS/m3d, the process was inhibited or overloaded, respectively. Both the lower and higher loading rates resulted in a decline in the methane yield.

  7. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Guang; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhu, Hong-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700m(3) chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35±1°C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5kg-COD/m(3)d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2m(3)/m(3)d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9.

  8. Nutrient removal from separated pig manure digestate liquid using hybrid biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingchuan; Lawlor, Peadar G; Hu, Zhenhu; Zhan, Xinmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, laboratory-scale hybrid biofilters were set up to treat the separated pig manure digestate liquid at two loading rates of 0.12 and 0.07 kg N m(-3) per day. The hybrid biofilters were operated with a sequencing batch reactor mode. Over the operation of 136 days, 84% and 88% of total nitrogen was removed on average in addition with complete nitrification at the high loading rate and low loading rate, respectively. In the anoxic phase, the nitrate reduction rates were 0.31 and 0.24 mg L(-1) min(-1); and in the aerobic phase, nitrification rates were 0.29 and 0.18 mg L(-1) min(-1) at the high loading rate and low loading rate, respectively. It was found that in the hybrid biofilters, biofilm biomass had much higher nitrification and denitrification activities than suspended growth biomass. Phosphorus removals achieved were up to 88%. The results show the hybrid biofilter technology is valid for high nutrient pig manure digestate liquid treatment.

  9. Cereal β-glucan alters nutrient digestibility and microbial activity in the intestinal tract of pigs, and lower manure ammonia emission: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Zebeli, Q

    2013-07-01

    Cereal β-glucan may be detrimental in pig production because of negative effects on nutrient digestibility, but they may act as functional ingredients by stimulating the intestinal microbiota. This study primarily aimed to investigate relations between dietary β-glucan and nutrient digestibility, intestinal fermentation, and manure NH3 emission in weaned, growing, and finishing pigs. Effects of dietary xylose, NDF, and CP, and pig BW on animal responses were also evaluated. A meta-analytical approach, accounting for inter- and intraexperiment variations, was used to compute prediction models. Data from 26 studies including 107 different dietary treatments with appropriate dietary and physiological measurements were used to parameterize these models. Dietary β-glucan inclusion ranged from 0 to 6.7%. Increasing dietary β-glucan reduced apparent ileal (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP and energy (R(2) = 0.12 to 0.29; P pigs counteracted (P Pig BW also enhanced effects of β-glucan on cecal total VFA, colonic iso-butyrate, ileal butyrate, and NH3 emission (P < 0.05). Dietary CP potentiated (P < 0.01) the β-glucan effects on cecal total VFA, cecal butyrate, and colonic iso-butyrate. In conclusion, this study indicates that β-glucan can stimulate cecal butyrate and ameliorate manure NH3 emission, thereby decreasing nutrient digestibility. Because greater BW ameliorates β-glucan effects, finishing diets may be formulated to contain more β-glucan than weaner diets.

  10. Semi-continuous co-digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste, manure, and fruit and vegetable waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Rene [IIDEPROQ, UMSA, Plaza del Obelisco 1175, La Paz (Bolivia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Liden, Gunnar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    The potential of semi-continuous mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) for the treatment of solid slaughterhouse waste, fruit-vegetable wastes, and manure in a co-digestion process has been experimentally evaluated. A study was made at laboratory scale using four 2 L reactors working semi-continuously at 35 C. The effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) was initially examined (using equal proportion of the three components on a volatile solids, VS, basis). Anaerobic co-digestion with OLRs in the range 0.3-1.3 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} resulted in methane yields of 0.3 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} VS added, with a methane content in the biogas of 54-56%. However, at a further increased loading, the biogas production decreased and there was a reduction in the methane yield indicating organic overload or insufficient buffering capacity in the digester. In the second part of the investigation, co-digestion was studied in a mixture experiment using 10 different feed compositions. The digestion of mixed substrates was in all cases better than that of the pure substrates, with the exception of the mixture of equal amounts of (VS/VS) solid cattle-swine slaughterhouse waste (SCSSW) with fruit and vegetable waste (FVW). For all other mixtures, the steady-state biogas production for the mixture was in the range 1.1-1.6 L d{sup -1}, with a methane content of 50-57% after 60 days of operation. The methane yields were in the range 0.27-0.35 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} VS added and VS reductions of more than 50% and up to 67% were obtained. (author)

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure in complete mix digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmers are increasingly using forage radish as a winter cover crop to achieve multiple soil and environmental benefits. In this study, pilot-scale mixed digesters were used to quantify methane (CH4) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production when using forage radish, a sulfur-rich cover crop, as a co-d...

  12. Enhancement of biogas potential of primary sludge by co-digestion with cow manure and brewery sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Nansubuga, Irene Genevieve; Banadda, Noble; Babu, Mohammed; De Vrieze, Jo; Verstraete, Willy; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has long been used to treat different types of organic wastes especially in the developed world. However, organic wastes are still more often considered as a waste instead of a resource in the developing world, which contributes to environmental pollution arising from their disposal. This study has been conducted at Bugolobi Sewage Treatment Plant (BSTP), where two organic wastes, cow manure and brewery sludge were co-digested with primary sludge in different proporti...

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of cassava peels and manure: a technological approach for biogas generation and bio-fertilizer production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern global society faces great challenges in supply of energy and management of wastes in sustainable ways. One way of resolving the local challenges is to develop environmentally appropriate and socio economically viable biotechnological processes for converting biomass to energy. The general principles of anaerobic bio-digestion, digester design and features of bio-digestion are presented in the feature article, focusing on the prospects of utilizing cassava peels as a readily available lignocellulose feedstock for co-digestion with manure for the production of biogas and bio-fertilizer. Aside of the high cyanogenic properties, cassava peels would require pre-treatment before use as a substrate, hence, a multi-stage and high rate digestion system might be adopted in efficient digestion of cassava peels. To optimize carbon-nitrogen ratio for efficient digestion, cassava should be co-digested with manure. The socio-economic benefits of the anaerobic co-digestion technology and key policy measures to be implemented to harness bio-energy from agricultural wastes are also outlined. (au)

  14. Improving the Environmental and Economic Sustainability of Dairy Farming using Value-Added Products derived from the Anaerobic Digestion of Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how manure-derived value-added products via anaerobic digestion impact the environment and economics of dairy farming. An on-farm anaerobic digester (AD) at Virginia dairy was used in this study. The AD performance evaluated for: (i) biogas production (ii) waste stabilization; and (iii) production of organic fertilizer. Locally available organic waste streams were evaluated for co-digestion with dairy manure to increase biomethane production at the on-far...

  15. Co-digestion of manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge using nutrient additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelqvist, Alina; Granström, Karin

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing worldwide demand for biogas. Anaerobic co-digestion involves the treatment of different substrates with the aim of improving the production of biogas and the stability of the process. This study evaluates how methane production is affected by the co-digestion of pig and dairy manure with grass silage and pulp and paper mill sludge and assesses whether methane production is affected by factors other than nutrient deficiency, low buffering capacity, inadequate dilution, and an insufficient activity and amount of microorganism culture. Anaerobic digestion was performed in batch reactors under mesophilic conditions for 20 days. The season of grass silage and manure collection proved to be an important factor affecting methane production. Spring grass silage produced a maximum of 250 mL/VSadded and spring manure 150 mL/VSadded, whereas autumn grass silage produced at most 140 ml/VSadded and autumn manure 45 mL/VSadded. The pulp mill sludge used is comprised of both primary and secondary sludge and produced at most 50 mL/VSadded regardless of season; this substrate benefitted most from co-digestion.

  16. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundharrajan Ilavenil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  17. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichnumsin, Pornpan [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Excellent Center of Waste Utilization and Management, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Nopharatana, Annop [Pilot Plant Development and Training Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Ahring, Birgitte [AAU, Copenhagen Institute of Technology, Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup (Denmark); Chaiprasert, Pawinee [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkhuntien, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 C) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g{sup -1} VS{sub added} and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity. (author)

  18. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava pulp is a major by-product produced in a cassava starch factory, containing 50-60% of starch (dry basis). Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp (CP) with pig manure (PM) was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated under mesophilic condition (37 oC) and at a constant OLR of 3.5 kg VS m-3 d-1 and a HRT of 15 days. The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids (VS) but lower buffering capacity. Compared to the digestion of PM alone, the specific methane yield increased 41% higher when co-digested with CP in concentrations up to 60% of the incoming VS. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 306 mL g-1 VSadded and 61%, respectively, were achieved with good process stability (VFA:Alkalinity ratio < 0.1) when CP accounted for 60% of the feedstock VS. A further increase of CP of the feedstock led to a decrease in methane yield and solid reductions. This appeared to be caused by an extremely high C:N ratio of the feedstock resulting in a deficiency of ammonium nitrogen for microbial growth and buffering capacity.

  19. Biochar from swine manure solids: influence on carbon sequestration and Olsen phosphorus and mineral nitrogen dynamics in soil with and without digestate incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marchetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biochar (BC has grown dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the fact that its incorporation into soil reportedly enhances carbon sequestration and fertility. Currently, BC types most under investigation are those obtained from organic matter (OM of plant origin. As great amounts of manure solids are expected to become available in the near future, thanks to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents, processing of manure solids for BC production seems an interesting possibility for the recycling of OM of high nutrient value. The aim of this study was to investigate carbon (C sequestration and nutrient dynamics in soil amended with BC from dried swine manure solids. The experiment was carried out in laboratory microcosms on a silty clay soil. The effect on nutrient dynamics of interaction between BC and fresh digestate obtained from a biogas plant was also investigated to test the hypothesis that BC can retain nutrients. A comparison was made of the following treatments: soil amended with swine manure solids (LC, soil amended with charred swine manure solids (LT, soil amended with wood chip (CC, soil amended with charred wood chip (CT, soil with no amendment as control (Cs, each one of them with and without incorporation of digestate (D for a total of 10 treatments. Biochar was obtained by treating OM (wood chip or swine manure with moisture content of less than 10% at 420°C in anoxic conditions. The CO2-C release and organic C, available phosphorus (P (Olsen P, POls and inorganic (ammonium+nitrate nitrogen (N (Nmin contents at the start and three months after the start of the experiment were measured in the amended and control soils. After three months of incubation at 30°C, the CO2-C emissions from soil with BC (CT and LT, ±D were the same as those in the control soil (Cs and were lower than those in the soils with untreated amendments (CC and LC, ±D. The organic C content

  20. Enhancement of methane production from co-digestion of chicken manure with agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelenien, Fatma; Namba, Yuzaburo; Kosseva, Maria R; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    The potential for methane production from semi-solid chicken manure (CM) and mixture of agricultural wastes (AWS) in a co-digestion process has been experimentally evaluated at thermophilic and mesophilic temperatures. To the best of author(')s knowledge, it is the first time that CM is co-digested with mixture of AWS consisting of coconut waste, cassava waste, and coffee grounds. Two types of anaerobic digestion processes (AD process) were used, process 1 (P1) using fresh CM (FCM) and process 2 (P2) using treated CM (TCM), ammonia stripped CM, were conducted. Methane production in P1 was increased by 93% and 50% compared to control (no AWS added) with maximum methane production of 502 and 506 mL g(-1)VS obtained at 55°C and 35°C, respectively. Additionally, 42% increase in methane production was observed with maximum volume of 695 mL g(-1)VS comparing P2 test with P2 control under 55°C. Ammonia accumulation was reduced by 39% and 32% in P1 and P2 tests.

  1. Neochloris oleoabundans grown on anaerobically digested dairy manure for concomitant nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microalgae have been investigated as a promising biodiesel feedstock; however, large-scale production is not currently cost-competitive with petroleum diesel, and its environmental impacts have received little attention. Using wastewater to supply nutrients for algal growth obviates synthetic fertilizer use, provides on-site nutrient removal, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. In this work, anaerobically digested dairy manure was used to grow the oleaginous green alga Neochloris oleoabundans. In batch culture experiments with both synthetic media and anaerobic digester effluent, N. oleoabundans assimilated 90-95% of the initial nitrate and ammonium after 6 d and yielded 10-30% fatty acid methyl esters on a dry weight basis. Cellular lipid content and the N concentration in the growth media were inversely correlated. In addition, the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e. C16:3, C18:2, and C18:3) decreased with N concentration over time while the proportion of C18:1 fatty acid increased. Although N deficiency is likely the primary driver behind lipid accumulation, the influence of culture pH confounded results and requires further study. Other living microorganisms in the digester effluent were not observed to affect algal growth and lipid productivity, though the breakdown of organic nitrogen may have hindered lipid accumulation traditionally achieved through the manipulation of synthetic media. This work highlights the potential for waste-grown mono-algal cultures to produce high quality biodiesel while accomplishing simultaneous wastewater treatment.

  2. Biogas production from undiluted chicken manure and maize silage: A study of ammonia inhibition in high solids anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Banks, Charles J; Heaven, Sonia; Liu, Ronghou

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of chicken manure (CM) and maize silage (MS) without water dilution was investigated in 5-L digesters. Specific methane production (SMP) of 0.309LCH4g(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved but only at lower %CM. Above a critical threshold for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), estimated at 7gNL(-1), VFA accumulated with a characteristic increase in acetic acid followed by its reduction and an increase in propionic acid. During this transition the predominant methanogenic pathway was hydrogenotrophic. Methanogenesis was completely inhibited at TAN of 9gNL(-1). The low digestibility of the mixed feedstock led to a rise in digestate TS and a reduction in SMP over the 297-day experimental period. Methanogenesis appeared to be failing in one digester but was recovered by reducing the %CM. Co-digestion was feasible with CM ⩽20% of feedstock VS, and the main limiting factor was ammonia inhibition.

  3. Biogas production from undiluted chicken manure and maize silage: A study of ammonia inhibition in high solids anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Banks, Charles J; Heaven, Sonia; Liu, Ronghou

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of chicken manure (CM) and maize silage (MS) without water dilution was investigated in 5-L digesters. Specific methane production (SMP) of 0.309LCH4g(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved but only at lower %CM. Above a critical threshold for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), estimated at 7gNL(-1), VFA accumulated with a characteristic increase in acetic acid followed by its reduction and an increase in propionic acid. During this transition the predominant methanogenic pathway was hydrogenotrophic. Methanogenesis was completely inhibited at TAN of 9gNL(-1). The low digestibility of the mixed feedstock led to a rise in digestate TS and a reduction in SMP over the 297-day experimental period. Methanogenesis appeared to be failing in one digester but was recovered by reducing the %CM. Co-digestion was feasible with CM ⩽20% of feedstock VS, and the main limiting factor was ammonia inhibition. PMID:27474956

  4. Pilot-scale application of an online VFA sensor for monitoring and control of a manure digester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A volatile fatty acids (VFA) sensor based on headspace chromatography was tested for online monitoring and control of a pilot-scale manure digester. The sensor showed satisfying results in terms of sensitivity and reliability for monitoring of the digester. The online VFA and biogas production data...... were used for automatic control of the digester based on feed flow manipulation. The control approach was based on optimization of biogas production while using VFA concentration as the alarm threshold. A rule-based supervisory system with a cascade controller was used to optimize the biogas production...

  5. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena, E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Komakech, Allan John [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Agricultural & Bio-systems Engineering, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, Björn [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  6. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies

  7. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies. PMID:25728090

  8. Effect of maize silage addition on biomethane recovery from mesophilic co-digestion of chicken and cattle manure to suppress ammonia inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Daily biomethane and total energy productions improved 1.2 fold when maize silage is co-digested with the animal wastes. • Heat produced is sufficient for successful mesophilic co-digestion with an energy saving ∼36 × 103 kW h with maize silage. • Excess heat up to 16 × 103 kW h can be utilized elsewhere in the premises of the biogas plant. • Biogas plants including co-digestion of manure with a suitable co-substrate are becoming net producers of renewable energy. • pH values above 7.4 may cause severe inhibition of methanogenic cultures for an unadapted process to NH3. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the biogas recovery potential if mesophilic (35 ± 2 °C) anaerobic co-digestion of two different types of manure sources (from chicken and cattle) is applied at a biogas plant. In order to evaluate the improvement in biogas production in the presence of the co-substrate, maize silage is digested together with the animal manure. Results indicated that daily biomethane and total energy (power + heat) productions improved about 1.2 fold when maize silage is co-digested with cattle and chicken wastes. The heat and power energy potentials from the produced biogas were determined using the conversion rates of a CHP unit. Significant energy recovery could be achieved for both cases; i.e. total methane productions were calculated as 5800 and 6580 m3/day corresponding to total energy productions of some 45.05 × 103 and 51.06 × 103 kW h without and with maize silage addition, respectively. A heat analysis was also performed where the resulting biomethane productions were the basis of the heat requirements. Results indicated that the major part of the heating requirements consisted of slurry heating to the operating temperature (in this study 35 °C). When the overall heat requirements are compared to the heat potential from a CHP unit, it is clear that the heat produced is sufficient for successful mesophilic co-digestion giving

  9. Comparison based on environmental effects of nitrogen management techniques in a manure digestate case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccanelli, Nicola; Teli, Aronne; Scaglione, Davide; Insabato, Gabriele; Casula, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate issues and favourable energy market, biogas is spreading as a manure management technique. Digestate is rich in nutrient and has to be handled in order to respect the 'nitrate directive' that limits nitrogen field application in areas defined as vulnerable. In this study, we compared different nitrogen management scenarios: a non-treatment option, a biological short-cut nitrification, a complete autotrophic process (anammox) and ammonia stripping from membrane filtration concentrate. The environmental effect comparison was obtained with 'Cross media effects analysis' and life cycle assessment (LCA). The results were different in some aspects, especially the impacts on eutrophication. According to cross media, the best process is DENO 2, while LCA shows similar impacts for all techniques and the best solution would be the no-treatment option. The main reason to adopt a digestate treatment technique is the lack of area for a correct disposal. If LCA eutrophication results are multiplied with the hectares necessary for each technology, a result similar to that of cross media is obtained. PMID:26020425

  10. Laboratory Study of Oxytetracycline Degradation Kinetics in Animal Manure and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a major member of tetracyclines, oxytetracycline (OTC) is widely administered to animals in confined feeding operations. To diminish the contamination of OTC in the environment resulting from the application of OTC-contained manure as fertilizers to agriculture lands, OTC degradation kinetics in ...

  11. Bioaugmentation of a Two-Stage Thermophilic (68°C/55°C) Anaerobic Digestion Concept for Improvement of the Methane Yield From Cattle Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of improving a two-stage (68°C/55°C) anaerobic digestion concept for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, a 10-24% increase of the specific methane yield from cattle manure and its fractions was obtained, when the substrates were inoculated with bacteria of...... of the two-stage setup....

  12. Optimization of Anaerobic Digestion of Cattle Manure. Effect of its Association with the Aquatic Weed Pistia (Pistia stratiotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zennaki, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the improvement of performance of anaerobic fermentation of cattle manure mixed with the water lettuce Pistia stratiotes, a macrophyte plant growing in the effluent of an anaerobic digestor. The experiments used a series of continuous fermentors, using mixtures of cattle manure and water lettuce in the following proportions : 12.5 %, 16.6 %, 25 % and 50 % of Pistia stratiotes. The best biogas yields were achieved with a proportion of 50 % of water lettuce in the mixture giving a biogas yield of 0.62 m3/(m3. d. with a methane content of 76.8 % over a 15-days hydraulic retention time, at a constant temperature of 35° C. The kinetic study based on batch fermentation shows that the process is well represented by the Monod Model. These performances are better than those obtained in anaerobic digestion of cattle manure used alone.

  13. Nutrient Digestion and Utilization in Farm Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present current research in modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and fish. The book is organised into six sections that cover a range of topics and modelling approaches; these are (i) absorption and passage; (ii) growth and devel

  14. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  15. Thermal and enzymatic treatment of digested manure fibers in the re-injection loop concept to increase biogas yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escobar, Esperanza Jurado; Uellendahl, Hinrich Wilhelm; Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu;

    2015-01-01

    treatment of the digested manure fibers (DMF) in combination with the re-injection loop concept were tested. Thermal treatment of DMF at 105oC showed an increase of the specific methane yield of DMF by 65% while no siginificant effect was observed for enzymatic treatment of DMF for 1 h prior to......The re-injection loop concept proposes the recirculation of lignocellulosic organic matter after a first cycle of anaerobic digestion in order to increase the conversion into biogas. This re-circulation can potentially increase the methane yield up to 20%. In this study thermal and enzymatic...

  16. Changes in microbial community structures due to varying operational conditions in the anaerobic digestion of oxytetracycline-medicated cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Gokhan; Aydin, Sevcan; Akyol, Çağrı; Yenigun, Orhan; Ince, Orhan; Ince, Bahar

    2016-07-01

    Management of manure containing veterinary antibiotics is a major concern in anaerobic treatment systems because of their possible adverse effects on microbial communities. Therefore, the aim of study was to investigate how oxytetracycline (OTC) influences bacteria and acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens under varying operational conditions in OTC-medicated and non-medicated anaerobic cow manure digesters. Concentrations of OTC and its metabolites throughout the anaerobic digestion were determined using ultraviolet-high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-HPLC) and tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), respectively. Fluorescent in situ hybridization, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning, and sequencing analyses were used to monitor changes in microbial community structures. According to the results of analytical and molecular approaches, operating conditions highly influence active microbial community dynamics and associate with biogas production and elimination of OTC and its metabolites during anaerobic digestion of cow manure in the presence of an average initial concentration of 2.2 mg OTC/L. The impact of operating conditions has a drastic effect on acetoclastic methanogens than hydrogenotrophic methanogens and bacteria. PMID:27026176

  17. Anaerobic digestion of caprine manure in different seasons; Biodigestao anaerobica de dejetos de caprinos obtidos nas diferentes estacoes do ano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Ana C. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Programa de Producao Animal]. E-mail: amorim@fcav.unesp.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural]. E-mail: jlucas@fcav.unesp.br; Resende, Kleber T. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Zootecnia

    2004-04-01

    The dejections produced by caprine were used in different physiologic states and submitted to the same alimentary regime, in the four seasons of the year. This study was carried out in 60 L batch digesters at ambient temperature and aimed to evaluate the effect of the season on the anaerobic digestion of caprine manure. The biogas production, volatile solids (VS) reduction, the potential production (m{sup 3}) of biogas/kg of substrate, manure, total solids (TS) or (VS), the removal of total and fecal coliforms and the biogas composition were evaluated. The VS reductions were of 38: 34: 33 and 39% for Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring, respectively. The biogas production were of 1.06 m{sup 3} in summer, 0.88 m{sup 3} in autumn, 0,88 m{sup 3} in winter and 0.99 m{sup 3} in spring and the mean potential production were of 0.02 m{sup 3} of biogas/kg of substrate and 0.2 m{sup 3} of biogas/kg of manure for all seasons. The batch digesters reduced total and fecal coliforms densities in 99.99% and the CH{sub 4} contents in biogas were 88.3; 84.6; 80.6 and 79.2% for Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring respectively. (author)

  18. Environmental implications of anaerobic digestion for manure management in dairy farms in Mexico: a life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-García, Pasiano; Botello-Álvarez, José E; Abel Seabra, Joaquim E; da Silva Walter, Arnaldo C; Estrada-Baltazar, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The environmental profile of milk production in Mexico was analysed for three manure management scenarios: fertilization (F), anaerobic digestion (AD) and enhanced anaerobic digestion (EAD). The study used the life cycle assessment (LCA) technique, considering a 'cradle-to-gate' approach. The assessment model was constructed using SimaPro LCA software, and the life cycle impact assessment was performed according to the ReCiPe method. Dairy farms with AD and EAD scenarios were found to exhibit, respectively, 12% and 27% less greenhouse gas emissions, 58% and 31% less terrestrial acidification, and 3% and 18% less freshwater eutrophication than the F scenario. A different trend was observed in the damage to resource availability indicator, as the F scenario presented 6% and 22% less damage than the EAD and AD scenarios, respectively. The magnitude of environmental damage from milk production in the three dairy manure management scenarios, using a general single score indicator, was 0.118, 0.107 and 0.081 Pt/L of milk for the F, AD and EAD scenarios, respectively. These results indicate that manure management systems with anaerobic digestion can improve the environmental profile of each litre of milk produced. PMID:25732709

  19. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Agyarko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM, cattle manure (CM and pig manure (PG on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11 treatments which were: Control (soil only; 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. Available phosphorus and other parameters were assessed using standard methods. Results were statistically analyzed using the the GenStat (11th Edition statistical software package. The amount and type of animal manure in the amendment affected the amount of the available P released. The addition of 2.5g manure to 2.5g RP in a kg of soil significantly (P<0.05 increased available P by 4 to 7 times over the sole 2.5g RP/kg soil treatment. Doubling the amount of manure in the amendment (5g manure + 2.5g RP almost doubled the amount of P released, with the poultry manure combinations being more significant. The amount of available P in the soil positively related to the plant height (R2=63, leaf area (R2=0.55, dry weight (R2=0.73 and the percentage P in the leaf (R2=0.88 of lettuce. The PM at 2.5gRP + 5gPM recorded the highest significant (P<0.05 values. The study has provided further basis for manure selection and quantities to be used in enhancing the release of P from rock phosphate. However, investigations need to be continued using nuclear techniques.

  20. Caracterização e biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos de caprinos Characterization and anaerobic digestion of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. A. Orrico

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantificar e caracterizar os dejetos gerados por cabras Saanen em quatro categorias de idade e alimentadas com três dietas e na seqüência, e promover a biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos constituíram os objetivos deste trabalho. Para a produção de dejetos, foram utilizadas 36 cabras Saanen, com idades entre 2 e 4 (C1, 4 e 8 (C2, 8 e 12 (C3 e acima de 12 meses (C4, alimentadas com as dietas 1 (D1: 80% volumoso (Vol e 20% concentrado (Con; 2 (D2: 60% Vol e 40% Con e 3 (D3: 40% Vol e 20% Con. Foram quantificadas as produções diárias de fezes e urina e seus teores em N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn. Com a mistura das fezes e urina de todas as categorias, separadas segundo as dietas, foram abastecidos biodigestores batelada, com capacidade para 4 L de substrato em fermentação. A C1 apresentou menor (PThis study aimed quantify and characterize the manure generated by Saanen goats in four categories of age, fed with three diets and then promote the anaerobic digestion of the manures. Thirty six goats were used with ages between 2 and 4 (C1, 4 and 8 (C2, 8 and 12 (C3 and above 12 months (C4, fed with the diets 1 (D1: 80% forage (Fo and 20% concentrated (Co, 2 (D2: 60% Fo and 40% Co and 3 (D3: 40% Fo and 20% Co. The daily productions of feces and urine and its contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were quantified. A mixture of feces and urine of all the categories of age was used; separated according to the diets, for the supply of batch digesters, with capacity of 4.0 liters of substrate in fermentation. The C1 presented smaller excretion (P<0.05 of feces (164.1 g of MS/animal per day and the smallest food consumption (362.16 g MS/animal per day. The largest concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and K occurred in the feces and urine generated by goats of C4 and fed by D3. The prepared substrate with manures originating from of D3 presented 45% of reduction in the contents of volatile solids (VS. The prepared substrate with

  1. Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Elias Nunes Martins; Tadeu Orlandi Xavier; Mariana Michelato; Themis Sakaguti Graciano

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one....

  2. Effect of temperature and temperature fluctuation on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mashad, Hamed M; Zeeman, Grietje; van Loon, Wilko K P; Bot, Gerard P A; Lettinga, Gatze

    2004-11-01

    The influence of temperature, 50 and 60 degrees C, at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 and 10 days, on the performance of anaerobic digestion of cow manure has been investigated in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Furthermore, the effect of both daily downward and daily upward temperature fluctuations has been studied. In the daily downward temperature fluctuation regime the temperatures of each reactor was reduced by 10 degrees C for 10 h while in the daily upward fluctuation regime the temperature of each reactor was increased 10 degrees C for 5 h. The results show that the methane production rate at 60 degrees C is lower than that at 50 degrees C at all experimental conditions of imposed HRT except when downward temperature fluctuations were applied at an HRT of 10 days. It also was found that the free ammonia concentration not only affects the acetate-utilising bacteria but also the hydrolysis and acidification process. The upward temperature fluctuation affects the maximum specific methanogenesis activity more severely as compared to imposed downward temperature fluctuations. The results clearly reveal the possibility of using available solar energy at daytime to heat up the reactor(s) without the need of heat storage during nights, especially at an operational temperature of 50 degrees C and at a 20 days HRT, and without the jeopardising of the overheating. PMID:15246444

  3. Comparing heavy metal contents in crops receiving mineral fertilisers and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spring barley (grain, straw), grass-clover (two cuts), winter wheat (grain, straw) and silage maize grown in the Askov long-term experiment with different levels (0, ½, 1, 1½, 2) of mineral fertiliser (NPK) and animal manure (AM) had concentrations of As, Pb, Cd and Hg below the EC maximum...... in crops grown on unmanured soil and soil with AM were similar and below that of crops grown with NPK. For a range of other elements including Cr and Ni, we found no general relationship between fertilisation rate and their concentration in the crops. Except for Cd, no systematic differences were found...... of NPK and AM does not pose a threat in terms of feed quality. However, the long-term accumulation of heavy metals added with mineral fertilisers and animal manure is essentially irreversible and may threaten soil quality....

  4. Spatial assessment of animal manure spreading and groundwater nitrate pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Infascelli; Raffaele Pelorosso; Lorenzo Boccia

    2009-01-01

    Nitrate concentration in groundwater has frequently been linked to non-point pollution. At the same time the existence of intensive agriculture and extremely intensive livestock activity increases the potential for nitrate pollution in shallow groundwater. Nitrate used in agriculture could cause adverse effects on human and animal health. In order to evaluate the groundwater nitrate pollution, and how it might evolve in time, it is essential to develop control systems and to improve policies ...

  5. Mathematical modeling for digestible protein in animal feeds for tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1 = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900 of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710, reducing the crude protein content and quality.

  6. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, C. H.; Triolo, J. M.; Cu, T. T. T.; Pedersen, L; Sommer, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journal...

  7. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study

    OpenAIRE

    Lalander, Cecilia; Komakech, Allan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomp...

  8. Agricultural biogas: easier spreading of the digested manure; Biogaz agricole: amelioration de l'epandage du fumier digere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membrez, Y.; Martin, G. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    A new trend in agricultural biogas installations is co-digestion, i.e. the addition of other liquid or solid substrates to agricultural manure. These substrates originate primarily from the food industry, the catering industry or from communities (e.g. cut lawn). The goal of these additions is an increased production of biogas and consequently a higher cost-effectiveness of the installation. However, the addition of solid substrates will modify the consistency of the digested product and this may make more difficult its subsequent handling. In the present work various systems were evaluated for separating the solid from the liquid fraction. A screw type separator was finally chosen to complete the present installation for co-digestion, and positive results were obtained. The cost of such a separator increases the cost of the original biogas installation by 12 to 20%.

  9. County-Level Estimates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Animal Manure for the Conterminous United States, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of county estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus in kilograms from animal manure in the conterminous United States for 2002. These estimates...

  10. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solli, Linn, E-mail: linn.solli@bioforsk.no; Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • New results from continuous anaerobic co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM). • Co-digestion of FWS and CM has a high biogas potential. • Optimal mixing ratio of FWS/CM is 13–16/87–84 volume%. • High input of FWS leads to accumulation of NH4+ and VFAs and process failure. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8 L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% – 6% – 13% – 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS{sup −1}, obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids.

  11. [Emission and control of gases and odorous substances from animal housing and manure depots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J

    1992-02-01

    Agricultural animal production in increasingly regarded as a source of gases which are both aggravating and ecologically harmful. An overview of the origin, number and quantity of trace gases emitted from animal housing and from manure stores is presented and possible means of preventing or reducing them are discussed. Of the 136 trace gases in the air of animal houses, odorous substances, ammonia and methane are most relevant to the environment. The role played by the remaining gases is largely unknown. Quantitative information is available for 23 gases. The gases are emitted principally from freshly deposited and stored faeces, from animal feed and from the animals themselves. Future work should determine sources and quantities of the gases emitted from animal housing more precisely and should aim to investigate the potential of these gases to cause damage in man, animals and environment. Odorous substances have an effect on the area immediately surrounding the animal housing. They can lead to considerable aggravation in humans. For years, VDI1 guidelines (3471/72), which prescribe distances between residential buildings and animal housing, have been valuable in preventing odour problems of this kind. Coverings are suitable for outside stores. The intensity of the odour from animal housing waste air increases from cattle through to hens and pigs; it is also further affected by the type of housing, the age of the animals and the purpose for which they are being kept. Methods of cleaning waste air (scrubbers/biofilters) are available for problematic cases. The need for guidelines to limit emissions from individual outside manure stores (lagoons) is recognised. Total ammonia emissions from animal production in the Federal Republic of Germany (up to 1989) are estimated at approximately 300,000 to 600,000 t/year. There is a shortage of satisfactory and precise research on the extent of emissions, in particular on those from naturally ventilated housing. It is

  12. Microbial anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters) as an approach to the decontamination of animal wastes in pollution control and the generation of renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications. PMID:24048207

  13. Microbial anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters) as an approach to the decontamination of animal wastes in pollution control and the generation of renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-09-17

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  14. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Makaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  15. Speciation and transformation of heavy metals during vermicomposting of animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of vermicomposting on the speciation and mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, and Cu) in cattle dung (CD) and pig manure (PM) using tessier sequential extraction method. Results showed that the pH, total organic carbon and C/N ratio were reduced, while the electric conductivity and humic acid increased after 90days vermicomposting. Moreover, the addition of earthworm could accelerate organic stabilization in vermicomposting. The total heavy metals in final vermicompost from CD and PM were higher than the initial values and the control without worms. Sequential extraction indicated that vermicomposting decreased the migration and availability of heavy metals, and the earthworm could reduce the mobile fraction, while increase the stable fraction of heavy metals. Furthermore, these results indicated that vermicomposting played a positive role in stabilizing heavy metals in the treatment of animal manure. PMID:26976060

  16. Breakdown of Azadirachtin A in a Tropical Soil Amended with Neem Leaves and Animal Manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted to assess the breakdown of azadirachtin A in a tropical coastal savanna soil amended with neem leaves (NL) combined with poultry manure (PM) or cow dung (CD) using gas chromatography. Samples in polythene bags 15 cm long and 4.8 cm in diameter were randomly placed to a depth of 14 cm in the soil, and azadirachtin A concentration was assessed on days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84. Azadirachtin A degradation in the soil followed first-order reaction kinetics with different half-lives obtained for varying combinations of the amendments. Higher neem amendment levels of 100 g gave shorter half-lives of azadirachtin A than the lower levels of 50 g. Within the 50 g NL group the additions of the poultry manure and the cow dung gave significantly shorter (P < 0.05) half-lives of azadirachtin A than the sole neem amendment, whereas in the 100 g NL group only additions of 10 g CD and 10 g PM were significantly less (P < 0.05) than the sole neem amendment. Different changes resulting from the kind and quantity of animal manure added were observed in the half-lives of azadirachtin A. The 100 g NL group had significantly higher (P < 0.05) moisture content, which, coupled with the likely differences in microbial biomass, could be the major factor responsible for variations in the half-life of the compound. Therefore, the quantity of the neem leaves applied and the addition of animal manure affected the breakdown of azadirachtin A in the soil amended with neem leaves.

  17. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, C. H.; Triolo, J. M.; Cu, T. T. T.; Pedersen, L.; Sommer, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4) production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) (CH4 NL kg−1 VS) of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05). The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP) was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr) for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%), while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR) varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM) were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC). This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC. PMID:25049861

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and corn stover in batch and continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong; He, Yanfeng; Zhang, Chenyu; Liu, Xiaoying; Chen, Chang; Liu, Guangqing

    2014-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and corn stover in batch and CSTR were investigated. The batch co-digestion tests were performed at an initial volatile solid (VS) concentration of 3gVS/L, carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 20, and retention time of 30d. The methane yield was determined to be 281±12mL/gVSadded. Continuous reactor was carried out with feeding concentration of 12% total solids and C/N ratio of 20 at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1-4gVS/L/d. Results showed that at OLR of 4gVS/L/d, stable and preferable methane yield of 223±7mL/gVSadded was found, which was equal to energy yield (EY) of 8.0±0.3MJ/kgVSadded. Post-digestion of digestate gave extra EY of 1.5-2.6MJ/kgVSadded. Pyrolysis of digestate provided additional EY of 6.1MJ/kgVSadded. Pyrolysis can be a promising technique to reduce biogas residues and to produce valuable gas products simultaneously.

  19. Digestion of cattle manure under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions: characterization of organic matter applying thermal analysis and 1H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, X; Blanco, D; Lobato, A; Calleja, A; Martínez-Núñez, F; Martin-Villacorta, J

    2011-06-01

    Digestion of cattle manure collected from a livestock farm together with bedding material (straw) has been studied under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in batch reactors. The digestion was carried out for a prolonged period with the aim of evaluating the changes undergone by the organic matter. The mesophilic digestion carried out revealed a greater capacity to produce gas and transform organic matter, while a higher conversion rate, but a lower gas yield, was obtained under thermophilic conditions. Degradation of the organic matter was evaluated by means of thermal analysis and (1)H NMR. Stabilisation through anaerobic digestion (either mesophilic or thermophilic) resulted in an increase in the quality of the organic matter, as characterised by an enrichment in thermostable compounds, and an accumulation of long chain aliphatic materials. The experiments performed demonstrated the transformation of organic matter into complex materials under anaerobic conditions with an accumulation of aliphatic components under both types of conditions tested. Degradation through mesophilic digestion, in comparison to the thermophilic process, resulted in a greater destruction of straw particles. PMID:21082330

  20. From the application of antibiotics to antibiotic residues in liquid manures and digestates: A screening study in one European center of conventional pig husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyasari-Mehta, Arum; Hartung, Susen; Kreuzig, Robert

    2016-07-15

    In conventional pig husbandry, antibiotics are frequently applied. Together with excreta, antibiotic residues enter liquid manures finally used as organic soil fertilizers or input materials for biogas plants. Therefore, this first screening study was performed to survey the application patterns of antibiotics from fall 2011 until spring 2013. Manures and digestates were then analyzed for selected antibiotic residues from spring 2012 to 2013. The data analysis of veterinary drug application documents revealed the use of 34 different antibiotics belonging to 11 substance classes at 21 farms under study. Antibiotics, particularly tetracyclines, frequently administered to larger pig groups were detected in manure samples up to higher mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) concentrations. Antibiotic residues in digestates, furthermore, show that a full removal capacity cannot be guaranteed through the anaerobic digestion process in biogas plants. PMID:27088209

  1. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Thanh Xuan;

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens......PCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid...

  2. Availability of P and K in ash from thermal gasification of animal manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubaek, G.H.; Soerensen, Peter [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agroecology, Tjele (Denmark); Stoholm, P. [Danish Fluid Bed Technology (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    In areas like Denmark where the livestock density is regulated on the basis of manure N content, surplus phosphorus is becoming a key environmental problem, which has to be solved in order to avoid increasing P losses to surface waters in the future. Combustion of animal manure or its solid fraction and the subsequent export of the ash to nutrient-poor areas could be a solution. However, combustion is difficult due to fouling and corrosion problems, and the ash will only be marketable if the fertiliser value of the remaining P and K is acceptable and if the content of contaminants (heavy metals) is sufficiently low. A combined fast pyrolysis and char gasification technique for treatment of biomass has been developed where organic material such as manure is processed in a fluidised bed reactor at temperatures and around 700 deg. C. After simple separation of a fine textured ash, the cleaned gas is suitable for combustion in a separate unit for energy production. One advantage of this technique is that the temperature can be finely controlled, and temperatures exceeding the melting point of e.g. potassium chloride can be avoided. The low and well-controlled temperature probably also prevents severe reductions in the availability of nutrients in the ash. However, the availability of P and K in the ash remains to be thoroughly tested. (au)

  3. Chemical evaluation of odor reduction by soil injection of animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilberg Tavs Nyord, Anders; Hansen, Martin Nørregaard; Lindholst, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Field application of animal manure is a major cause of odor nuisance in the local environment. Therefore, there is a need for methods for measuring the effect of technologies for reducing odor after manure application. In this work, chemical methods were used to identify key odorants from field application of pig manure based on experiments with surface application by trailing hoses and soil injection. Results from three consecutive years of field trials with full-scale equipment are reported. Methods applied were: membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), gold-film hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) detection, all performed on site, and thermal desorption gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) based on laboratory analyses of field samples. Samples were collected from a static flux chamber often used for obtaining samples for dynamic olfactometry. While all methods were capable of detecting relevant odorants, PTR-MS gave the most comprehensive results. Based on odor threshold values, 4-methylphenol, H₂S, and methanethiol are suggested as key odorants. Significant odorant reductions by soil injection were consistently observed in all trials. The flux chamber technique was demonstrated to be associated with critical errors due to compound instabilities in the chamber. This was most apparent for H₂S, on a time scale of a few minutes, and on a longer time scale for methanethiol.

  4. Inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, H.D.; Shannon, E.E.; Derbyshire, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55/sup 0/C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35/sup 0/C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70/sup 0/C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  5. The inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, H D; Shannon, E E; Derbyshire, J B

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70 degrees C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  6. Mesophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and lipid rich solid slaughterhouse wastes: process efficiency, limitations and floating granules formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Palatsi, Jordi; Kaparaju, Prasad; Fernández, Belén; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-08-01

    Lipid and protein rich solid slaughterhouse wastes are attractive co-substrates to increase volumetric biogas production in co-digestion with dairy manure. Addition of decanter sludge (DS), containing 42.2% of lipids and 35.8% of proteins (total solids basis), up to 5% of feed mixture resulted in a stable process without any indication of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) or free ammonia (NH3) inhibition and in 3.5-fold increase of volumetric biogas production. Contrary, only lipids addition as technical fat (TF) at over 2% of feed mixture resulted in formation of floating granules (FG) and process efficiency decrease. Formed FG had low biodegradability and its organic part was composed of lipids and calcium salts of LCFAs. Anaerobic digestion process intentionally directed to FG formation, could be a viable option for mitigation and control of lipids overload and derived LCFA inhibition. PMID:24907576

  7. Comparison of two-stage thermophilic (68 degrees C/55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion with one-stage thermophilic (55 degrees C) digestion of cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Westermann, Peter;

    2004-01-01

    A two-stage 68degreesC/55degreesC anaerobic degradation process for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, an increase of the specific methane yield, ranging from 24% to 56%, was obtained when cattle manure and its fractions (fibers and liquid) were pretreated at 68degrees......C for periods of 36, 108, and 168 h, and subsequently digested at 55degreesC. In a lab-scale experiment, the performance of a two-stage reactor system, consisting of a digester operating at 68degreesC with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, connected to a 55degreesC reactor with 12-day HRT, was...... compared with a conventional single-stage reactor running at 55degreesC with 15-days HRT. When an organic loading of 3 g volatile solids (VS) per liter per day was applied, the two-stage setup had a 6% to 8% higher specific methane yield and a 9% more effective VS-removal than the conventional single...

  8. Effect of Compost versus Animal Manure Fertilization on Crop Development, Yield and Nitrogen Residue in the Organic Cultivation of Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Willekens, Koen; De Vliegher, Alex; Vandecasteele, Bart; Carlier, Lucien

    2008-01-01

    Organic farmers in Flanders use manure from extensive conventional livestock systems due to a lack of animal manure from organic producers. The research question was if on-farm prepared compost mainly consisting of vegetal residues can be a good alternative. A long-term fertilization trial with a 4-year crop rotation of maize - potatoes - spring barley - red clover is carried out on two fields with a time difference of one year. The fertilization treatments are on-farm prepared compost, appli...

  9. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  10. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  11. Enhancement of biogas production by co-digestion of potato pulp with cow manure in a CSTR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei-Moghadam, Akbar; Abbaspour-Fard, Mohammad Hossein; Aghel, Hasan; Aghkhani, Mohammad Hossein; Abedini-Torghabeh, Javad

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) process is a well-established method to generate energy from the organic wastes both from the environmental and economical perspectives. The purpose of present study is to evaluate energy production from potato wastes by incorporating cow manure into the process. Firstly, a laboratory pilot of one-stage biogas production was designed and built according to continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The setup was able to automatically control the environmental conditions of the process including temperature, duration, and rate of stirring. AD experiment was exclusively performed on co-digestion of potato peel (PP) and cow manure (CM) in three levels of mixing ratio including 20:80, 50:50, 80:20 (PP:CM), and 0:100 as control treatment based on the volatile solid (VS) weight without adding initial inoculums. After hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 days on average 193, 256, 348, and 149 norm liter (LN) (kg VS)(-1), methane was produced for different mixing ratios, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that these gas productions are significantly different. The average energy was determined based on the produced methane which was about 2.8 kWh (kg VS)(-1), implying a significant energy production potential. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of treatments was about 61%, showing that it can be leached significantly with high organic matter by the employed pilot. The energy efficiency of 92% of the process also showed the optimum control of the process by the pilot.

  12. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Kim

    Full Text Available Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4 production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009, fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW ha-1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg-1 and swine (460 g kg-1 manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered.

  13. Dry anaerobic digestion of high solids content dairy manure at high organic loading rates in psychrophilic sequence batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2015-05-01

    Cow manure with bedding is renewable organic biomass available around the year on dairy farms. Developing efficient and cost-effective psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) processes could contribute to solving farm-related environmental, energy, and manure management problems in cold-climate regions. This study was to increase the organic loading rate (OLR), fed to a novel psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion of 27% total solid dairy manure (cow feces and wheat straw) in sequence batch reactor (PDAD-SBR), by 133 to 160%. The PDAD-SBR process operated at treatment cycle length of 21 days and OLR of 7.0 and 8.0 g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1) (5.2 ± 0.1 and 5.8 ± 0.0 g volatile solids (VS) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1)) for four successive cycles (84 days) produced average specific methane yields (SMYs) of 147.1 ± 17.2 and 143.2 ± 11.7 normalized liters (NL) CH4 kg(-1) VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.45 at OLR of 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction. The VS removal averaged around 57.4 ± 0.5 and 60.5 ± 5.7% at OLR 7.0 and 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1), respectively. PMID:25773978

  14. Yield, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Copper and Zinc Uptake by Barley Forage Amended with Anaerobically Digested Cattle Feedlot Manure (ADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao X.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing production of bio-gas and availability of anaerobically digested cattle feedlot manure (ADM, we need a better understanding of the impact of its application on crop production and the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate nutrient and heavy metal uptake by barley forage from soil amended with ADM. A four-year field study was conducted in southern Alberta to compare annual application of ADM liquid (ADML, and the solid fraction separated from the ADM (ADMS to raw undigested cattle feedlot manure (CFMR. An unamended control (CK was also included for comparison. Treatments were replicated four times using a split plot experimental design. All amendments were applied in spring each year prior to seeding and barley was grown and harvested at the soft dough stage for making cattle silage feed. All amendments were applied at rates supplying 100 or 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1, assuming 100% mineral N and 50% organic N was available to crops in the year of application. Averaged over four years, the highest yields were found from ADML (9.55 and 9.6 Mg ha-1 yr-1, and lowest from CK (6.93 Mg ha-1 yr-1, with ADMS and CFMR (7.80 to 8.66 Mg ha-1 in between. Contents and total uptake of nutrients and heavy metals (N, P, Cu and Zn by barley forage from ADML were higher than ADMS and CFMR. and higher at 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1 than 100 kg N ha-1yr-1. Our data suggest that anaerobic digestion increases nutrients and heavy metal availability in cattle feedlot manure, but most increases occurred in the liquid fraction. Our data also suggest that the impact of organic amendment application on forage barley production is not only affected by the types of amendment used, but also by agronomic practices (e.g., seeding date as well as growing conditions.

  15. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Linn; Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37°C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% - 6% - 13% - 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS(-1), obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids.

  16. Mitigating the environmental impacts of milk production via anaerobic digestion of manure: case study of a dairy farm in the Po Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, F; Agostini, A; Boulamanti, A K; Giuntoli, J; Amaducci, S

    2014-05-15

    This work analyzes the environmental impacts of milk production in an intensive dairy farm situated in the Northern Italy region of the Po Valley. Three manure management scenarios are compared: in Scenario 1 the animal slurry is stored in an open tank and then used as fertilizer. In scenario 2 the manure is processed in an anaerobic digestion plant and the biogas produced is combusted in an internal combustion engine to produce heat (required by the digester) and electricity (exported). Scenario 3 is similar to scenario 2 but the digestate is stored in a gas-tight tank. In scenario 1 the GHG emissions are estimated to be equal to 1.21 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) without allocation of the environmental burden to the by-product meat. With mass allocation, the GHG emissions associated to the milk are reduced to 1.18 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. Using an economic allocation approach the GHG emissions allocated to the milk are 1.13 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. In scenarios 2 and 3, without allocation, the GHG emissions are reduced respectively to 0.92 (-23.7%) and 0.77 (-36.5%) kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. If land use change due to soybean production is accounted for, an additional emission of 0.53 kg CO2 eq. should be added, raising the GHG emissions to 1.74, 1.45 and 1.30 kg CO2 eq kg(-1) FPCM in scenarios 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Primary energy from non-renewable resources decreases by 36.2% and 40.6% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively, with the valorization of the manure in the biogas plant. The other environmental impact mitigated is marine eutrophication that decreases by 8.1% in both scenarios 2 and 3, mostly because of the lower field emissions. There is, however, a trade-off between non-renewable energy and GHG savings and other environmental impacts: acidification (+6.1% and +5.5% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively), particulate matter emissions (+1.4% and +0.7%) and photochemical ozone formation potential (+41.6% and +42.3%) increase with the

  17. Nitrogen Mineralization from Animal Manures and Its Relation to Organic N Fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling-ling; LI Shu-tian

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory aerobic incubation was conducted for 161 d to study N mineralization and the changes of organic N fractions of nine different manures (3 chicken manures, 3 pig manures and 3 cattle manures) from different farms/locations. Results indicated that signiifcant (P<0.01 orP<0.001) difference existed in N mineralization between manures. The rapid N mineralization in manures occurred during 56 to 84 d of incubation. First order exponential model can be used to describe N mineralization from chicken manures and pig manures, while quadratic equation can predict mineralization of organic N from cattle manures. An average of 21, 19 and 13% added organic N from chicken manure, pig manure and cattle manure was mineralized during 161 d of incubation. Amino acid-N was the main source of N mineralization. The changes of amino acid-N together with ammonium N could explain signiifcantly 97 and 96% of the variation in mineralized N from manured soils and manures. Amino acid-N and ammonium N are two main N fractions in determining N mineralization potential from manures. Amino acid-N contributed more to the mineralized N than ammonium N.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from passive composting of manure and digestate with crop residues and biochar on small-scale livestock farms in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Quynh Duong; de Neergaard, Andreas; Tran, Toan Duc; Hoang, Huong Thi Thu; Vu, Van Thi Khanh; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different mixing ratios of crop residues and biochar with liquid digestate from anaerobically treated pig manure on CH₄, CO₂, and N₂O emissions over 84 days in a system of passive aeration composting, resembling typical Vietnamese solid manure storage conditions. Two treatments with solid manure were included for comparison. The results showed that C losses through CH4 and CO₂emissions accounted for 0.06-0.28% and 1.9-26.7%, respectively, of initial total C. CH4 losses accounted for just 0.4-4.0% of total C losses. Total N losses accounted for 27.1-40% of initial total N in which N₂O emissions corresponded to 0.01-0.57% of initial total N, and hence accounted for only 0.1-1.8% of total N losses. It is assumed that the remainder was either the result of denitrification losses to N₂or ammonia volatilization. The composting of biochar (B) or crop residue with digestate (D) showed significantly lower CH4 and N₂O emissions compared with composting manure (M) (p composting of digestate with biochar showed significantly lower CO₂and CH₄emissions and significantly higher N₂O emissions compared to the composting of digestate with rice straw (RS) (p composting of digestate with biochar and rice straw (D + B + RS5:0.3:1) showed significantly reduced N₂O emissions compared with composting digestate with biochar with alone (p Composting sugar cane bagasse (SC) with digestate (D + SC) significantly reduced CH₄and N₂O emissions compared with the composting of rice straw with digestate (D + RS3.5:1 and D + RS5:1) (p < .05).

  19. Effects of green manure herbage management and its digestate from biogas production on barley yield, N recovery, soil structure and earthworm populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøseth, Randi Berland; Bakken, Anne Kjersti; Bleken, Marina Azzaroli;

    2014-01-01

    In repeatedly mown and mulched green manure leys, the mulched herbage contains substantial amounts of nitrogen (N), which may only slightly contribute to the following crops’ nutrient demand. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of alternative strategies for green manure...... management on the yield and N recovery of a subsequent spring barley crop, and their short term effects on soil structure and earthworm populations. A field trial was run from 2008 to 2011 at four sites with contrasting soils under cold climate conditions. We compared several options for on-site herbage...... removing it. Digestate did not affect the earthworm population, but contributed to higher soil aggregate stability. In conclusion, for spring barley production after green manure ley, the digestate strategy increased N recovery and reduced the risk of N losses. The yield of the succeeding barley crop yield...

  20. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy – A life cycle perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Vinken, T.M.W.J.; Hamelin, L.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for anaer

  1. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy – A life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vries, J.W.; Vinken, T.M.W.J; Hamelin, Lorie;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for an...

  2. Increasing the biogas yield of manure by wet explosion of the digested fiber fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    Increasing the biodegradability of the lignocellulosic fiber fraction of manure can ensure higher methane productivity in biogas plants, leading to process profitability and thus larger production of renewable energy. A new pretreatment method, wet explosion (WEx), was investigated to treat diges...

  3. Assessing anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure with agroindustrial wastes: the link between environmental impacts and operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Verde, Ivan; Regueiro, Leticia; Carballa, Marta; Hospido, Almudena; Lema, Juan M

    2014-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) is established as a techno-economic profitable process by incrementing biogas yield (increased cost-efficiency) and improving the nutrient balance (better quality digestate) in comparison to mono-digestion of livestock wastes. However, few data are available on the environmental consequences of AcoD and most of them are mainly related to the use of energy crops as co-substrates. This work analysed the environmental impact of the AcoD of pig manure (PM) with several agroindustrial wastes (molasses, fish, biodiesel and vinasses residues) using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. For comparative purposes, mono digestion of PM has also been evaluated. Four out of six selected categories (acidification, eutrophication, global warming and photochemical oxidation potentials) showed environmental impacts in all the scenarios assessed, whereas the other two (abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion potentials) showed environmental credits, remarking the benefit of replacing fossil fuels by biogas. This was also confirmed by the sensitivity analysis applied to the PM quality (i.e. organic matter content) and the avoided energy source demonstrating the importance of the energy recovery step. The influence of the type of co-substrate could not be discerned; however, a link between the environmental performance and the hydraulic retention time, the organic loading rate and the nutrient content in the digestate could be established. Therefore, LCA results were successfully correlated to process variables involved in AcoD, going a step further in the combination of techno-economic and environmental feasibilities. PMID:25150742

  4. Synergism and effect of high initial volatile fatty acid concentrations during food waste and pig manure anaerobic co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Conor; Lawlor, Peadar G; Croize, Thomas; Jiang, Yan; Morrison, Liam; Gardiner, Gillian E; Zhan, Xinmin

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste (FW) and pig manure (PM) was undertaken in batch mode at 37°C in order to identify and quantify the synergistic effects of co-digestion on the specific methane yield (SMY) and reaction kinetics. The effects of the high initial volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in PM on synergy observed during co-digestion, and on kinetic modelling were investigated. PM to FW mixing ratios of 1/0, 4/1, 3/2, 2/3, 1/4 and 0/1 (VS basis) were examined. No VFA or ammonia inhibition was observed. The highest SMY of 521±29ml CH4/gVS was achieved at a PM/FW mixing ratio of 1/4. Synergy in terms of both reaction kinetics and SMY occurred at PM/FW mixing ratios of 3/2, 2/3 and 1/4. Initial VFA concentrations did not explain the synergy observed. Throughout the study the conversion of butyric acid was inhibited. Due to the high initial VFA content of PM, conventional first order and Gompertz models were inappropriate for determining reaction kinetics. A dual pooled first order model was found to provide the best fit for the data generated in this study. The optimal mixing ratio in terms of both reaction kinetics and SMY was found at a PM/FW mixing ratio of 1/4. PMID:27389859

  5. Thermophilic digestion of pig manure slurries at 48 deg. C; Termofil udraadning af svinegylle ved 48 grader C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, J.; Joergensen, P.; Hannibal, E.

    1995-06-01

    Thermophilic digestion of pig manure slurries can give problems because of its high nitrogen content that, together with high concentrations of ammonia content, can encumber the growth activities of the bacteria so that the production of methane will be stopped. A series of experiments were carried out on a biomass conversion plant located on a farm in order to address this problem. These are described and the resulting data are given. It was concluded that it is possible to solve the problem by operating at a temperature of 48 deg. C, a low thermophilic temperature. The production of methane was also increased under these conditions, to 0.53 cubic meters per kilogram organic dry matter. Methane production is also highly dependent on residence time in the reactor, which is recommended as being 16 days and nights. Bentonite can have a stabilizing effect on the ammonia-binding process. (AB)

  6. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from swine manure through short-term dry anaerobic digestion and its separation from nitrogen and phosphorus resources in the digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Huang, Wenli; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Ziwen; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-03-01

    The sustainability of an agricultural system depends highly upon the recycling of all useful substances from agricultural wastes. This study explored the feasibility of comprehensive utilization of C, N and P resources in swine manure (SM) through short-term dry anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by dry ammonia stripping, aiming at achieving (1) effective total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and separation; (2) ammonia recovery from the digestate; and (3) preservation of high P bioavailability in the solid residue for further applications. Specifically, two ammonia stripping strategies were applied and compared in this work: (I) ammonia stripping was directly performed with the digestate from dry AD of SM (i.e. dry ammonia stripping); and (II) wet ammonia stripping was conducted by using the resultant filtrate from solid-liquid separation of the mixture of digestate and added water. Results showed that dry AD of the tested SM at 55 °C, 20% TS and unadjusted initial pH (8.6) for 8 days produced relatively high concentrations of total VFAs (94.4 mg-COD/g-VS) and ammonia-N (20.0 mg/g-VS) with high potentially bioavailable P (10.6 mg/g-TS) remained in the digestate, which was considered optimal in this study. In addition, high ammonia removal efficiencies of 96.2% and 99.7% were achieved through 3 h' dry and wet stripping (at 55 °C and initial pH 11.0), respectively, while the total VFAs concentration in the digestate/filtrate remained favorably unchanged. All experimental data from the two stripping processes well fitted to the pseudo first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9916-0.9997) with comparable theoretical maximum ammonia removal efficiencies (Aeq, >90%) being obtained under the tested dry and wet stripping conditions, implying that the former was more advantageous due to its much higher volumetric total ammonia-N removal rate thus much smaller reactor volume, less energy/chemicals consumption and no foaming problems. After 8 days' dry AD and 3

  7. Production and structure of massai grass pastures fertilized with animal manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Virgínio Emerenciano Júnior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on the structure and production of Panicum maximum cv. Massai forage. The experiment was conducted at the teaching farm of Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte, Apodi Campus. The treatments evaluated were organic sources of nitrogen (wastes of pig, poultry and sheep farming and a mineral source (urea, set at 150 kg N/ha. Forage production, morphological components, pasture height, light interception, leaf area index, and chlorophyll content were evaluated in samples obtained at intervals of 60 days. Canopy height was affected by the type of fertilizer applied and the greatest height was observed for pasture fertilized with urea (50.97 cm. The highest light interception by the canopy was observed for pastures receiving urea, but 95% light interception was not reached. The leaf area index was higher for pastures fertilized with urea compared to the other treatments and the values obtained for pastures receiving organic fertilizers were considered very low. Forage, leaf blade, stem and dead material mass was affected by the type of fertilizer and was higher for pastures receiving urea. The total chlorophyll content of leaf blades did not differ between the types of fertilizer evaluated. Forage structure or production in massai grass pastures is not affected by the type of animal manure used as nitrogen source. The efficiency of these organic fertilizers as a nitrogen source is lower than that of mineral fertilization. The animal manures evaluated can be used as nitrogen sources for massai grass pastures to reduce costs and environmental impacts.

  8. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: II. A review of manure management mitigation options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montes, F.; Meinen, R.; Dell, C.; Rotz, A.; Hristov, A.N.; Oh, J.; Waghorn, G.; Gerber, P.J.; Henderson, B.L.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Reducing excreted nitrogen (N) and degradable organic carbon (C) by diet manipulation to improve the balance of nutrient inputs with production

  9. Influence of microbial composition on foam formation in a manure-based digester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; O-Thong, Sompong;

    2012-01-01

    Foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in the biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process and results in adverse operational, economical and environmental impacts. The most dominant factors contributing to foaming are organic overloading, feedstock...

  10. Comparison on batch anaerobic digestion of five different livestock manures and prediction of biochemical methane potential (BMP) using different statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Chen, Lide

    2016-02-01

    There is a lack of literature reporting the methane potential of several livestock manures under the same anaerobic digestion conditions (same inoculum, temperature, time, and size of the digester). To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported biochemical methane potential (BMP) predicting models developed and evaluated by solely using at least five different livestock manure tests results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the BMP of five different livestock manures (dairy manure (DM), horse manure (HM), goat manure (GM), chicken manure (CM) and swine manure (SM)) and to predict the BMP using different statistical models. Nutrients of the digested different manures were also monitored. The BMP tests were conducted under mesophilic temperatures with a manure loading factor of 3.5g volatile solids (VS)/L and a feed to inoculum ratio (F/I) of 0.5. Single variable and multiple variable regression models were developed using manure total carbohydrate (TC), crude protein (CP), total fat (TF), lignin (LIG) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), and measured BMP data. Three different kinetic models (first order kinetic model, modified Gompertz model and Chen and Hashimoto model) were evaluated for BMP predictions. The BMPs of DM, HM, GM, CM and SM were measured to be 204, 155, 159, 259, and 323mL/g VS, respectively and the VS removals were calculated to be 58.6%, 52.9%, 46.4%, 81.4%, 81.4%, respectively. The technical digestion time (T80-90, time required to produce 80-90% of total biogas production) for DM, HM, GM, CM and SM was calculated to be in the ranges of 19-28, 27-37, 31-44, 13-18, 12-17days, respectively. The effluents from the HM showed the lowest nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations. The effluents from the CM digesters showed highest nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and digested SM showed highest potassium concentration. Based on the results of the regression analysis, the model using the variable of LIG showed the best (R(2

  11. Dark fermentation, anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells: An integrated system to valorize swine manure and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Sciarria, Tommy Pepè; Gao, Yong Chang; Scaglia, Barbara; Salati, Silvia; Zanardo, Marina; Quiao, Wei; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    This work describes how dark fermentation (DF), anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial fuel cells (MFC) and solid-liquid separation can be integrated to co-produce valuable biochemicals (hydrogen and methane), bioelectricity and biofertilizers. Two integrated systems (System 1: AD+MFC, and System 2: DF+AD+MFC) are described and compared to a traditional one-stage AD system in converting a mixture (COD=124±8.1gO2kg(-1)Fresh Matter) of swine manure and rice bran. System 1 gave a biomethane yield of 182 LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, while System 2 gave L yields of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane of 27.3±7.2LH2kg(-1)COD-added and 154±14LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, respectively. A solid-liquid separation (SLS) step was applied to the digested slurry, giving solid and liquid fractions. The liquid fraction was treated via the MFC-steps, showing power densities of 12-13Wm(-3) (500Ω) and average bioelectricity yields of 39.8Whkg(-1)COD to 54.2Whkg(-1)COD.

  12. Production of methane from sugar beet silage without manure addition by a single-stage anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, B.; Scherer, P. [Lifetec Process Engineering, Faculty of Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Lohbruegger Kirchstrasse 65, 21033 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Single-stage continuous anaerobic conversion of sugar beet silage without manure to methane was investigated in this experimental work, using a laboratory-scale mesophilic anaerobic biogas digester. The sugar beet silage had an extreme low pH of 3.3. The reactor was operated in a hydraulic retention time (HRT) range of between 95 and 15 days, and an organic loading rate (OLR) range of between 0.937 and 6.33 g{sup -1} VS l{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The highest specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) of 0.72 l g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} could be obtained at 25 days of HRT, with an average methane content of about 63%, at a pH of around 6.8. Since sugar beet silage without the leaves is a poor substrate, in terms of the availability of the nutrients and the buffering capacity, external supplementation of nitrogen and buffering agents has to be regularly performed, in order to achieve a stable and an efficient process. Sodium or potassium hydrogen carbonate addition seemed to function best in our case, among the other agents used, to provide adequate buffering capacity and to keep the digester pH stable during the operation. Use of a new harvest (a new charge of substrate) also affected the spec. GPR values significantly. (author)

  13. The anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and horse manure mixtures in a bench-scale, two-phase anaerobic digestion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B; Almquist, Catherine B

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the anaerobic digestion of mixtures of food waste (FW) and horse manure was investigated using a bench-scale two-phase reactor system. Both phases were maintained at 35 degrees C for the duration of the 30-day study period. The first phase reactors were prepared with biomass mixtures in deionized water such that each mixture had an initial total solids (TS) concentration of 6 wt%. The second phase reactors were inoculated with cow manure in water two weeks prior to the study period at 3 wt% TS. The biogas from all second phase reactors contained greater than 60 vol% methane in the biogas before they were used in the study, thus indicating the presence of active methanogens. Filtrate (5 mL) from the first phase was used as feed to the second phase reactor. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon, and volatile solids (VS) of the feed from Phase 1 increased with FW content in the biomass mixture, and so the organic loading rates (OLRs) to the Phase 2 reactors also increased. Accordingly, the volume ofbiogas and methane generated from Phase 2 also increased with FW content. The low OLR (<0.2 g VS/L/day), the use of a two-phase system, and the use of filtrate from Phase las feed to Phase 2 allowed for high utilization of the feed; the observed specific methane yields (mL/g COD) were greater than 80% of the theoretical yields for all mixtures. The methane yields were statistically similar to within a 95% confidence interval.

  14. AN INNOVATIVE DESIGN FOR ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF ANIMAL WASTES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the aim of the Phase I project to develop an innovative anaerobic co-digestion design for the treatment of dairy manure and poultry waste, our Phase I team has evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of the anaerobic co-digestion design concept with a thorough in...

  15. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of spent tea leaves for biogas and manure generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, B; Pant, D C; Kishore, V V

    2001-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of spent tea leaves from an instant tea manufacturing factory was studied in a two-phase digester. The hydrolysis and acidification phase resulted in the formation of high organic strength liquid called leachate, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 12,880 mg/l, within the retention time of 10 days. The leachate was tested in a batch methanaogensis reactor for biogas production. An average biogas yield of 0.48 m3/kg of COD destroyed was obtained with an average COD reduction of 93%. The biogas was analyzed for 73% methane content. PMID:11563707

  16. Plant-availability to barley of phosphorus in ash from thermally treated animal manure in comparison to other manure based materials and commercial fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Rubæk, Gitte Holton;

    2010-01-01

     kg P ha-1 in both soils had no significant effect on barley DM yield and P uptake. The overall efficiency for liquid fertilizers was much higher than for solid ones and relative effectiveness (RE) of ExL was comparable to RE of DSP. Despite the low P level in soils, the ryegrass crop grew very well......Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient and a limited resource, yet excess P is applied to agricultural land and can cause environmental problems in areas with intensive animal farming. In this study, the fertilizing effects of P in several animal manure-based products (including thermal treatment......), thermally gasified SS (GAs), thermally gasified poultry manure (GAp), crushed triple super phosphate (TSP) and disodium phosphate (DSP) was used as reference P fertilizer. For application of 20 kg P ha-1 mineral P fertilizer replacement value (RV) in the second year in the sandy soil was 76% and 99% for GA...

  17. Manure management practices on biogas and non-biogas pig farms in developing countries - using livestock farms in Vietnam as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cu, T. T. T.; Cuong, P. H.; Hang, L. T.;

    2012-01-01

    This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production...... to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients...... such as public sewers or ponds. On biogas farms, most of the manure collected was used for bio-digestion. The farmers used the fermented manure (digestate) as a source of nutrients for crops, but on more than 50% of the interviewed biogas farms digestate was discharged to the environment. On non-biogas farms...

  18. Recovery of ammonia in digestates of calf manure through a struvite precipitation process using unconventional reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, A; De Rosa, S

    2014-01-01

    Land spreading of digestates causes the discharge of large quantities of nutrients into the environment, which contributes to eutrophication and depletion of dissolved oxygen in water bodies. For the removal of ammonia nitrogen, there is increasing interest in the chemical precipitation of struvite, which is a mineral that can be reused as a slow-release fertilizer. However, this process is an expensive treatment of digestate because large amounts of magnesium and phosphorus reagents are required. In this paper, a struvite precipitation-based process is proposed for an efficient recovery of digestate nutrients using low-cost reagents. In particular, seawater bittern, a by-product of marine salt manufacturing and bone meal, a by-product of the thermal treatment of meat waste, have been used as low-cost sources of magnesium and phosphorus, respectively. Once the operating conditions are defined, the process enables the removal of more than 90% ammonia load, the almost complete recovery of magnesium and phosphorus and the production of a potentially valuable precipitate containing struvite crystals. PMID:24645466

  19. Use of coffee mucilage as a new substrate for hydrogen production in anaerobic co-digestion with swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Mario Andrés; Rodríguez Susa, Manuel; Andres, Yves

    2014-09-01

    Coffee mucilage (CM), a novel substrate produced as waste from agricultural activity in Colombia, the largest fourth coffee producer in the world, was used for hydrogen production. The study evaluated three ratios (C1-3) for co-digestion of CM and swine manure (SM), and an increase in organic load to improve hydrogen production (C4). The hydrogen production was improved by a C/N ratio of 53.4 used in C2 and C4. The average hydrogen production rate in C4 was 7.6 NL H2/LCMd, which indicates a high hydrogen potential compare to substrates such as POME and wheat starch. In this condition, the biogas composition was 0.1%, 50.6% and 39.0% of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, respectively. The butyric and acetic fermentation pathways were the main routes identified during hydrogen production which kept a Bu/Ac ratio at around 1.0. A direct relationship between coffee mucilage, biogas and cumulative hydrogen volume was established. PMID:24656548

  20. Biogas production and microbial community shift through neutral pH control during the anaerobic digestion of pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Fenwu; Yong, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xiayuan; Zheng, Tao; Jiang, Min; Jia, Honghua

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory-scale reactors, in which the pH could be auto-adjusted, were employed to investigate the mesophilic methane fermentation with pig manure (7.8% total solids) at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0. Results showed that the performance of anaerobic digestion was strongly dependent on pH value. Biogas production and methane content at neutral pH 7.0 were significantly higher (16,607mL, 51.81%) than those at pH 6.0 (6916mL, 42.9%) and 8.0 (9739mL, 35.6%). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and Shannon's index indicated that the samples contained highly diverse microbial communities. The major genus at pH 7.0 was Methanocorpusculum, compared with that was Methanosarcina at both pH 6.0 and 8.0. Our research revealed that cultures maintained at pH 7.0 could support increased biogas production, which has significant implications for the scale-up biogas engineering. PMID:26944458

  1. Microbial community structure and performance of an anaerobic reactor digesting cassava pulp and pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichnumsin, P; Ahring, B; Nopharatana, A; Chaiprasert, P

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community dynamics in response to changes in substrate types (i.e. pig manure (PM), cassava pulp (CP) and mixtures of PM and CP) were investigated in an anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Molecular identification of bacterial and archaeal domains were performed, using a 16S rDNA clone library with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) screening and phylogenetic analysis. Analysis of bacterial clone libraries revealed that the differences in the community structure corresponded to the substrate types. However, the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant group in all substrates, followed by the Clostridia. With pure PM, the dominant bacterial groups were Bacteroidales, Clostridia and Paludibacter. With a co-substrate, at CP to PM (CP:PM) ratio of 50:50, the sequences analysis revealed the greatest diversity of bacterial communities at class level, and the sequences affiliated with Cytophaga sp. became an exclusive predominant. With CP alone, Bacteroides sp. was the dominant species and this reactor had the lowest diversity of bacteria. Archaea observed in the CSTR fed with all substrate types were Methanosaeta sp., Methanosaeta concilii and Methanospirillum hungatei. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive predominant. The relative distribution of Archaea also changed regarding to the substrate types.

  2. Comparing mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chicken manure: Microbial community dynamics and process resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qigui; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-01

    While methane fermentation is considered as the most successful bioenergy treatment for chicken manure, the relationship between operational performance and the dynamic transition of archaeal and bacterial communities remains poorly understood. Two continuous stirred-tank reactors were investigated under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions feeding with 10%TS. The tolerance of thermophilic reactor on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was found to be 8000mg/L with free ammonia (FA) 2000mg/L compared to 16,000mg/L (FA1500mg/L) of mesophilic reactor. Biomethane production was 0.29 L/gVSin in the steady stage and decreased following TAN increase. After serious inhibition, the mesophilic reactor was recovered successfully by dilution and washing stratagem compared to the unrecoverable of thermophilic reactor. The relationship between the microbial community structure, the bioreactor performance and inhibitors such as TAN, FA, and volatile fatty acid was evaluated by canonical correspondence analysis. The performance of methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency were changed significantly correlating with the community evenness and phylogenetic structure. The resilient archaeal community was found even after serious inhibition in both reactors. Obvious dynamics of bacterial communities were observed in acidogenic and hydrolytic functional bacteria following TAN variation in the different stages. PMID:26054964

  3. Phosphorus Leaching in Soils Amended with Animal Manures Generated from Modified Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Gurpal S; Sims, J Thomas

    2016-07-01

    New dietary modifications for dairy (reducing P content in feed) and poultry (addition of feed additives such as phytase) aim to reduce P excretion in manures. Our objective was to investigate if dietary changes were effective at reducing P leaching loss on land application of manures. We used 54 undisturbed lysimeters (30 cm diameter, 50 cm deep) collected from three typical mid-Atlantic soils. Lysimeters received 85 kg total P ha from fertilizer (superphosphate), dairy manures generated from low- or high-P diets, or broiler litters generated from normal diet or reduced P- and phytase-amended diets. Lysimeters were irrigated with 50 mm of water each week for 9 wk. The major forms of P in the leachate were dissolved (dissolved unreactive > dissolved reactive P [DRP]) rather than particulate (total particulate P). The higher P solubility (100%) in superphosphate resulted in greater leaching of DRP, whereas the lower P solubility (superphosphate-amended than in the manure/litter-amended lysimeters. The dairy and poultry dietary modification was effective at reducing the amount of P in manures and litters. However, the application of treatments at similar P rate (85 kg ha) resulted in the addition of a higher amount of manure (54-66%) in lysimeters that received low-P dairy manure-amended and phytase-amended broiler litter, which then controlled P leaching from soils. PMID:27380088

  4. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  5. Response of Sunflower Yield and Phytohormonal Changes to Azotobacter,Azospirillum,Pseudomonas and Animal Manure in a Chemical Free Agroecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Maziyar, Mehran; M. Reza, Ardakani; Hamid, Madani; Mohammad , Zahedi; Mohsen, Amirabadi; Saeed, Mafakheri

    2011-01-01

    There are new trends in agriculture to move toward the low input systems with the lower application of chemical fertilizers. To reach this goal, different methods, such as the application of biofertilizers, may be used. So this experiment was conducted in 2010 at a research farm in Arak, Iran, in factorial in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications and four factors: animal manure (M), Pseudomonas putida (P), Azotobacter chroococcum (A)and Azospirillum lipoferum ...

  6. Response of some Citrus Rootstock Seedlings to Fertilization by the Aqueous Extract of some Irradiated Animal Manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was carried out during two consecutive seasons i.e. 2001 and 2002 on two citrus rootstocks namely Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings two-month-old planted in a sandy soil under greenhouse to study the feasibility of using the aqueous extract of some animal manures i.e. poultry, sheep and cattle treated by gamma irradiation at 10 kGay to keep the manure free from pathogenic organisms, pests and weed seeds and as a natural source of nutrients instead of mineral fertilizers, and it's effect on growth and leaf nutrients content of seedlings. Generally, results showed that all the tested treatments enhanced most of growth parameters such as seedling height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves/seedling, number of roots/seedling, and dry weight for both of stem, leaves, root and total dry weight/plant. Moreover, such treatments improved leaf nutrient content of both of Sour orange and Volkamer lemon seedlings. Meanwhile, seedlings fertilized by the aqueous extract of poultry manure achieved the highest values of growth parameters and leaf nutrients content as well as mineral fertilizer followed by those treated by the aqueous extract of both sheep and cattle manures

  7. Impact of Organic Loading Rate on Psychrophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Dairy Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori M. Cata Saady

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the feed total solids to anaerobic digester improves the process economics and decreases the volume of liquid effluent from current wet anaerobic digestion. The objective of this study was to develop a novel psychrophilic (20 °C anaerobic digestion technology of undiluted cow feces (total solids of 11%–16%. Two sets of duplicate laboratory-scale sequence batch bioreactors have been operated at organic loading rates (OLR of 6.0 to 8.0 g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD kg−1 inoculum day−1 (d−1 during 210 days. The results demonstrated that the process is feasible at treatment cycle length (TCL of 21 days; however, the quality of cow feces rather than the OLR had a direct influence on the specific methane yield (SMY. The SMY ranged between 124.5 ± 1.4 and 227.9 ± 4.8 normalized liter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS fed d−1. Substrate-to-inoculum mass ratio (SIR was 0.63 ± 0.05, 0.90 ± 0.09, and 1.06 ± 0.07 at OLR of 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 g TCOD kg−1 inoculum d−1, respectively. No volatile fatty acids (VFAs accumulation has been observed which indicated that hydrolysis was the rate limiting step and VFAs have been consumed immediately. Bioreactors performance consistency in terms of the level of SMYs, VFAs concentrations at end of the TCL, pH stability and volatile solids reduction indicates a stable and reproducible process during the entire operation.

  8. Comparing mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chicken manure: Microbial community dynamics and process resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Qigui; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kengo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Li, Yu-You, E-mail: yyli@epl1.civil.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Key Lab of Northwest Water Resource, Environment and Ecology, MOE, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Microbial community dynamics and process functional resilience were investigated. • The threshold of TAN in mesophilic reactor was higher than the thermophilic reactor. • The recoverable archaeal community dynamic sustained the process resilience. • Methanosarcina was more sensitive than Methanoculleus on ammonia inhibition. • TAN and FA effects the dynamic of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria obviously. - Abstract: While methane fermentation is considered as the most successful bioenergy treatment for chicken manure, the relationship between operational performance and the dynamic transition of archaeal and bacterial communities remains poorly understood. Two continuous stirred-tank reactors were investigated under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions feeding with 10%TS. The tolerance of thermophilic reactor on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was found to be 8000 mg/L with free ammonia (FA) 2000 mg/L compared to 16,000 mg/L (FA1500 mg/L) of mesophilic reactor. Biomethane production was 0.29 L/gV S{sub in} in the steady stage and decreased following TAN increase. After serious inhibition, the mesophilic reactor was recovered successfully by dilution and washing stratagem compared to the unrecoverable of thermophilic reactor. The relationship between the microbial community structure, the bioreactor performance and inhibitors such as TAN, FA, and volatile fatty acid was evaluated by canonical correspondence analysis. The performance of methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency were changed significantly correlating with the community evenness and phylogenetic structure. The resilient archaeal community was found even after serious inhibition in both reactors. Obvious dynamics of bacterial communities were observed in acidogenic and hydrolytic functional bacteria following TAN variation in the different stages.

  9. Comparing mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chicken manure: Microbial community dynamics and process resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microbial community dynamics and process functional resilience were investigated. • The threshold of TAN in mesophilic reactor was higher than the thermophilic reactor. • The recoverable archaeal community dynamic sustained the process resilience. • Methanosarcina was more sensitive than Methanoculleus on ammonia inhibition. • TAN and FA effects the dynamic of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria obviously. - Abstract: While methane fermentation is considered as the most successful bioenergy treatment for chicken manure, the relationship between operational performance and the dynamic transition of archaeal and bacterial communities remains poorly understood. Two continuous stirred-tank reactors were investigated under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions feeding with 10%TS. The tolerance of thermophilic reactor on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was found to be 8000 mg/L with free ammonia (FA) 2000 mg/L compared to 16,000 mg/L (FA1500 mg/L) of mesophilic reactor. Biomethane production was 0.29 L/gV Sin in the steady stage and decreased following TAN increase. After serious inhibition, the mesophilic reactor was recovered successfully by dilution and washing stratagem compared to the unrecoverable of thermophilic reactor. The relationship between the microbial community structure, the bioreactor performance and inhibitors such as TAN, FA, and volatile fatty acid was evaluated by canonical correspondence analysis. The performance of methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency were changed significantly correlating with the community evenness and phylogenetic structure. The resilient archaeal community was found even after serious inhibition in both reactors. Obvious dynamics of bacterial communities were observed in acidogenic and hydrolytic functional bacteria following TAN variation in the different stages

  10. Report from the working group on combustion of domestic animal manure fractions; Rapport fra arbejdsgruppen om afbraending af fraktioner af husdyrgoedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    During the past few years there has been a considerable development of new technology for treatment of domestic animal manure. The development implies that environmental problems connected with storage and use of domestic animal manure for fertilization are reduced. Through several years experiences with utilization of domestic animal manure's energy potential in biogas plants have been compiled, and the technological basis for connecting slurry separation and biogas production is present. In order to promote this development, the agricultural sector has a growing desire to be able to dispose of parts from the separated slurry through combustion, hereby using the energy content to the energy production. However, there are a number of barriers that make combustion of domestic animal manure impossible. In order to uncover existing barriers for combustion of domestic animal manure fractions the Danish Minister of food appointed an inter ministerial committee on 30 March 2005. The committee should: 1. Describe the regulations within the ministerial areas that affect combustion of domestic animal manure, and also describe the regulations that act as barriers, 2. Describe binding international agreements, directives and regulations that affect combustion of domestic animal manure and which of these that act as barriers, 3. Evaluate the potential for regulation adjustments and other actions, that might further the development of sustainable energy production in which domestic animal manure is a part, 4. Evaluate socio-economic pros and cons in the light of environmental and climatic impacts, and 5. Describe estimated governmental financial consequences of potential adjustments of regulations and other actions. (BA)

  11. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Scharf, Sigrid [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gans, Oliver [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: oliver.gans@umweltbundesamt.at

    2007-07-15

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 {mu}g/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria.

  12. Evaluation of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with food wastes via bio-methane potential assay and CSTR reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yulin; Zamalloa, Carlos; Lin, Hongjian; Yan, Mi; Schmidt, David; Hu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of food wastes into anaerobic digestion (AD) brings a promising scenario of increasing feedstock availability and overall energy production from AD. This study evaluated the biodegradability and methane potential from co-digestion of two typical food wastes, kitchen waste and chicken fat, with dairy manure. For single substrate, the bio-methane potential assays showed that kitchen waste had the highest methane yield of 352 L-CH4 kg(-1)-VS added, 92% more than dairy manure alone. Chicken fat at the same Volatile Solid (VS) level (2 g L(-1)) inhibited bio-methane production. Addition of kitchen waste and chicken fat to a VS percentage of up to 40% improved overall methane yield by 44% and 34%, respectively. Synergistic effect was observed when either combining two or three substrates as AD feedstock, possibly as a result of increased biodegradability of organic materials in chicken fat and kitchen waste compared with dairy manure. Addition of chicken fat improved methane yield more than kitchen waste. However, addition of chicken fat VS over 0.8 g L(-1) should be cautiously done because it may cause reactor failure due to decrease in pH. The maximum methane yield was 425 L-CH4 kg(-1)-VS, achieved at a VS ratio of 2:2:1 for kitchen waste, chicken fat, and dairy manure. Results from batch AD experiment demonstrated that supplementing dairy manure to chicken fat and/or kitchen waste improved alkalinity of substrate due to the inclusion of more titratable bases in dairy manure, and therefore stabilized the methanogenesis and substantially improved biogas yield. A mixture of substrates of kitchen waste, chicken fat, and dairy manure at a ratio of 1:1:3 was fed to a continuously stirred tank reactor operated at organic loading rates of 3.28, 6.55, and 2.18 g-COD L(-1)-day (hydraulic retention time of 20, 10, and 30 days, respectively) under mesophilic condition, and methane production rate reached 0.65, 0.95, and 0.34 L-CH4 L(-1)-reactor-day.

  13. Vermicomposting of sludge from animal wastewater treatment plant mixed with cow dung or swine manure using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Weibing; Hao, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Xuewei; Bai, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Vermicomposting of animal wastewater treatment plant sludge (S) mixed with cow dung (CD) or swine manure (SM) employing Eisenia fetida was tested. The numbers, weights, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored for 60 days at a detecting interval of 15 days. The results indicated that 100 % of the sludge can be the suitable food for growth and fecundity of E. fetida, while addition of CD or SM in sludge significantly (P theory basic both for management of animal wastes and the production of earthworm proteins using E. fetida. PMID:26755173

  14. Parameters to design batch digesters running with dairy cow manure with and without inoculum; Parametro de dimensionamento para biodigestores batelada operados com dejetos de vacas leiteiras com e sem uso de inoculo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Cristiane de A.N. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Jaboticabal, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)], email: crisanx@yahoo.com.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], email: jlucas@fcav.unesp.br

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the inoculum addition on the anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure recycled in batch digesters by biogas yield, volatile solids reduction and biogas potential production to obtain design parameters. Twelve field batch digesters (60 L each) filled with dairy cattle manure, water and four different inoculum additions (0, 20, 30 and 40%, v/v) were used. Average times of hydraulic retention of 75 and 150 days were adopted for treatments with and without inoculum, respectively, during three periods of the year (intermediary, rainy and dry). The greatest daily biogas yields occurred in higher room temperatures (rainy period). Higher biogas potential production was obtained by using 40% of inoculum, 0.07 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} manure, with rapid use of biogas from the four days. Times of hydraulic retention of 45 days may be adopted, which reduces the volume of the digester and the implementation costs. (author)

  15. Microbial community structure and dynamics during co-digestion of whey permeate and cow manure in continuous stirred tank reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Live Heldal; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Linjordet, Roar; Pope, Phillip B; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2014-11-01

    Microbial community profiles in two parallel CSTR biogas reactors fed with whey permeate and cow manure were investigated. The operating conditions for these two reactors were identical, yet only one of them (R1) showed stable performance, whereas the other (R2) showed a decrease in methane production accompanied by accumulation of propionic acid and, later, acetic acid. This gave a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of the microbial communities in two biogas reactors apparently operating close to the edge of stability. The microbial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the methanogens Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales in both reactors, but with larger fluctuations in R2. Correlation analyses showed that the depletion of propionic acid in R1 and the late increase of acetic acid in R2 was related to several bacterial groups. The biogas production in R1 shows that stable co-digestion of manure and whey can be achieved with reasonable yields.

  16. A start-up of psychrophilic anaerobic sequence batch reactor digesting a 35 % total solids feed of dairy manure and wheat straw

    OpenAIRE

    Saady, Noori M. Cata; Massé, Daniel I.

    2015-01-01

    Zero liquid discharge is currently an objective in livestock manure management to minimize water pollution. This paper reports the start-up phase of a novel psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion of dairy manure with bedding fed at 35 % total solids and an organic loading rate of 3.0 g total chemical oxygen demand kg−1 inoculum day−1 in anaerobic sequence batch reactors. The specific methane (CH4) yield ranged from 165.4 ± 9.8 to 213.9 ± 13.6 NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS) with an ov...

  17. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mocsari, E.; di Gleria, M.; Felkai, V. (Phylaxia Oltoanyag- es Tapszertermeloe Vallalat, Budapest (Hungary); Orszagos Allategeszseguegyi Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-03-01

    The virucidal effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy.

  18. Effect of radiation on certain animal viruses in liquid swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The virucidal effect of 60Co gamma radiation was studied in cell culture medium and in liquid swine manure involving the most important porcine viruses that can be spread by liquid manure. The radiation doses (20 kGy and 30 kGy) were determined in preliminary experiments employing a porcine enterovirus from the serogroup 1 (Teschen group). In the main experiment, the following viruses were employed: swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus, type C foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, a field strain of Aujeszky's disease (AD) virus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, as well as bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus. The latter strain served as a model for hog cholera virus. The results of the experiments indicate that safe disinfection of the virus infected liquid swine manure by ionizing radiation requires a radiation dose of 30 kGy. (author)

  19. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kofi Agyarko; Akwasi Adutwum Abunyewa; Emmanuel Kwasi Asiedu; Emmanuel Heva

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM), cattle manure (CM) and pig manure (PG) on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP) and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11) treatments which were: Control (soil only); 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design...

  20. Anaerobic Digestion Scale Levels and Their Energy Yields. A comparison of energy yields of different manure-and co-digestion scale levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konneman, Bram

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process whereby, in the absence of oxygen, organic matter is converted into biogas and digestate. In recent years anaerobic digestion has received re-newed attention in the Dutch agricultural sector. Co-digestion, in wh

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF CO-PRODUCTS OF THE PILOT DIGESTERS TO ANIMAL BIOMASS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work consists in evaluating the Co-products of the biomethanisation applied to the animal biomass on the level of various types of digesters (experimental I, II, III and IV, rural and industrial.This work made it possible to arise certain number of observations: The energy performances are more interesting in the case of the digesters powered with the avicolous droppings; the reduction of the polluting load as of SM is more important in the case of the industrial digester, whereas for the BDO5, it is in favor of the experimental digester II; The agronomic use of the secondary by-products proves very encouraging and powerful.

  2. Comparative performance and microbial community of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic systems co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panichnumsin, P.; Ahring, B.K.; Nopharatana, A.;

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, while...... those of singlephase CSTR were 59 ± 1% and 1670 ± 60 ml l-1 d-1, respectively. Codigestion in two-phase CSTR gave higher 12% solid degradation and 25% methane production than single-phase CSTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA clone library revealed that the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant group...

  3. Ecosustainable animal manure treatment in countries with intensive breeding; Trattamento ecocompatibile delle deiezioni zootecniche in territori ad alta intensita' produttiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichini, M. [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Bozzini, A. [Food Agricultural Organization, Rome (Italy); Montani, R. [INTEAM Srl., Verona (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In the Italian Veneto Region, a highly industrialized territory, the present intensive livestock farming (cattle, swine, chicken and rabbit) causes a series of serious problems to agricultural and industrial activities. In fact, if the raw (not digested) manure is directly spread on the soil, it leads to soil acidification and contamination, to possible water table contamination, to the diffusion of livestock and human infections and consequent damages to all production and commercialization chain and finally to all society. The organic amount coming from the livestock farms located in each of the 22 sanitary districts of the Veneto region (ASL) is calculated and the suitable manure treatment processes to obtain an organic fertilizer following the Italian and E.U. environmental regulations, is reported. The solid-liquid separation step, performed with traditional technologies (centrifuge, mechanical separation) can lead to a rational solution of the problem: the solid part is digested in special bioreactors and the liquid one is purified with membrane technologies. The paper suggests a strategic pathway for a sustainable manure management, based on a package of the following devices: the improvement of the hygiene in the buildings; the improvement with innovative and flexible technologies. In this way, the production of a precious and necessary organic manure for soil and agriculture development, coupled with an improvement of human and animal health, could be assured. [Italian] Nella regione Veneto, l'intensa attivita' zootecnica dovuta ad allevamenti di bovini, suini, avicoli e cunicoli, in un territorio particolarmente industrializzato crea complessi problemi di gestione delle deiezioni con preoccupanti ricadute sull'ambiente, sull'agricoltura e sulla salute dei cittadini. Lo spargimento fuori controllo delle deiezioni causa l'acidificazione e la sterilizzazione dei suoli, la contaminazione delle falde acquifere e la diffusione di

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Manure Management Chains on Smallholder Livestock Farms with and without Biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, Quynh Vu

    Vietnam is now facing the risk of environmental pollution from inappropriate animal manure management chain. Comparative research on manure management chains between livestock farms with and without biogas showed that non-biogas livestock households discharged approximately 15 % of the total manure...... produced into the environment while biogas livestock farms discharged a large volume of digestate (up to 50 %) into the environment because of its low nutrient content and high transportation costs. The filtration experiment therefore was conducted to treat the digestate by using crop residue filtration....... The results showed that filtration of digestate by different crop residues does not work well with some nutrients, such as nitrogen and potassium from crop residue diluted in digestate, resulting in additional polluted digestate. The passive aeration composting experiment showed that the composting of biochar...

  5. Batch anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure and waste milk in two-stage process for hydrogen and methane productions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateef, Suraju A; Beneragama, Nilmini; Yamashiro, Takaki; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2014-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure (CM) and waste milk (WM), produced by sick cows during treatment with antibiotics, was evaluated in two-stage process under thermophilic condition (55 °C) to determine the effect of WM addition on hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) production potentials, volatile solids (VS) removal, and energy recovery. Six CM to WM VS ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 10:90 were examined using 1-L batch digesters. The WM VS ratio of 30 % was found to be the minimum limit for significant increases in specific H2 and CH4 yields, and VS removal as compared to digestion of manure alone (P < 0.05). The highest specific H2 and CH4 yields, VS removal and energy yield were 38.2 mL/g VS, 627.6 mL/g VS, 78.4 % and 25,459.8 kJ/kg VS, respectively, in CM:WM 30:70. Lag phases to H2 and CH4 productions were observed in CM-WM mixtures, increased with increasing the amount of WM in the feedstock and were greater than 72 h in CM:WM 50:50 and 30:70. The digestion system failed in CM:WM 10:90. The results suggest that CM:WM 30:70 was optimum, however, due to limited amount of WM usually generated and long lag phase at this ratio which may make the process uneconomical, CM:WM 70:30 is recommended in practice. PMID:23820823

  6. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    small areas without sufficient nearby farm land for application. In addition to significant impacts on climate due to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) from manure management, losses of nitrogen to the environment reduce the fertiliser value of manure and have negative effects.......4-22.5% and 0.001-0.17% of initial Tot-C, respectively, while N losses as 2O and x NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.10% and 0.81-26.5% of initial Tot-N, respectively. There was strong evidence that high emissions of CH4-C and N2O-N gases can occur simultaneously, even during the thermophilic phase of composting...

  7. A start-up of psychrophilic anaerobic sequence batch reactor digesting a 35 % total solids feed of dairy manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-12-01

    Zero liquid discharge is currently an objective in livestock manure management to minimize water pollution. This paper reports the start-up phase of a novel psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion of dairy manure with bedding fed at 35 % total solids and an organic loading rate of 3.0 g total chemical oxygen demand kg(-1) inoculum day(-1) in anaerobic sequence batch reactors. The specific methane (CH4) yield ranged from 165.4 ± 9.8 to 213.9 ± 13.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) with an overall average of 188 ± 17 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS during 11 successive start-up cycles (231 days) and a maximum CH4 production rate of 10.2 ± 0.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS day(-1). The inoculum-to-substrate (VS-based) ratio ranged from 4.06 to 4.47. Although methanogenesis proceeded fairly well the hydrolysis seemed to be the rate limiting step. It is possible start up psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of cow feces and wheat straw at feed TS of 35 % within 7-10 successive cycles (147-210 days). PMID:26289773

  8. Nutritional composition and digestibility by ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) of whole animals and a commercial diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Cynthia L; Booth-Binczik, Susan D; Steele, Suzy R E

    2010-01-01

    Felids are adapted to eat whole prey, but in North American zoos are usually fed processed diets based on muscle meat. We analyzed proximate nutrient composition and digestibility by ocelots of a commercial processed diet and whole animals of five species. The processed diet did not differ significantly from the whole animals in proximate composition, although it was at one end of the range of results for all nutrients. Domestic chicks were significantly lower than all other dietary items tested in digestibility of energy and fat, and lower than rabbits and quail in digestibility of dry matter. There were no other significant differences. These results suggest that the commercial diet tested provides an appropriate nutritional environment for ocelots with respect to proximate constituents. Studies of vitamin and mineral composition and digestibility and comparisons to wild prey species should be conducted to permit a full evaluation. PMID:20024961

  9. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2016-01-01

    Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans. PMID:27571092

  10. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-01-01

    Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans. PMID:27571092

  11. Enhanced recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membranes and aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric ammonia pollution from livestock wastes can be reduced using gas-permeable membrane technology by converting ammonia contained in the manure into ammonium salt for use in fertilizers. In this study, gas-permeable membrane technology was enhanced using aeration combined with nitrificatio...

  12. Bioenergy from cattle manure? Implications of anaerobic digestion and subsequent pyrolysis for carbon and nitrogen dynamics in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, S.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Oenema, O.; Cayuela, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Cattle manure can be processed to produce bioenergy, resulting in by-products with different physicochemical characteristics. To evaluate whether application of such bioenergy by-products to soils would be beneficial compared with their unprocessed counterpart, we quantified differences in greenhous

  13. Evaluation of methane generation and process stability from anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet by-product and cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboudi, Kaoutar; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Romero-García, Luis Isidoro

    2016-05-01

    The effect of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of dried pellets of exhausted sugar beet cossettes (ESBC-DP) and cow manure (CM) on the enhancement of methane generation and process stability were studied with the aim to select the best substrate mixture ratio. A series of batch experiments was conducted using the following five mixture ratios of ESBC-DP:CM: 0:100; 25:75; 50:50; 75:25 and 100:0. Best results were obtained from mixture ratios with ESBC-DP proportions in the range of 25-50%. Mixture ratio of 50:50 showed a specific methane production (SMP) increase of 81.4% and 25.5%, respectively, in comparison with mono-digestion of ESBC-DP and CM. Evolution of the indirect parameter named acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC) could be used to provide more insight about the process stability of anaerobic digestion. ASC accumulation was observed in reactors with higher ESBC-DP proportions leading to a delay in VFAs consumption and conversion into methane. PMID:26711843

  14. The use of manures for detection and quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene in animal husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; García-Falcón, Mercedes Sonia; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2008-11-15

    PAHs from a polluted atmosphere are generally transferred to plants by particle-phase deposition on the waxy leaf cuticle or by uptake in the gas phase through stomata. Thus, they are also present in ingredients for animal feed. Generally, toxic substances are metabolized before or after absorption through the intestinal tract. This is the case of 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, which can be found free or in its glucuronide and/or sulphate conjugate forms. This article develops a procedure to monitor the carry-over of PAHs from feed to food of animal origin based on the analysis of animal manure. Eleven PAHs and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene were measured in four animal manures (cow, horse, rabbit and pig) by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[k]fluoranthene were found in all the selected samples, but their total levels were not alarming (benzo[a]pyrene equivalents (microg/kg)manure. The highest total PAH levels were detected in cow manure (9.0 microg/kg), while the highest 3-OH-B[a]P level was determined in horse samples (13 microg/kg).

  15. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal manure management, 1990 - 2003 - Background document on the calculation method for the Dutch National Inventory Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek KW van der; Schijndel MW van; MNP; LVM

    2006-01-01

    Since 2005 the Netherlands has used a new country-specific method to calculate the methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal manure management. Compared to the default methods provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this method has led to a more realistic estimate of the emi

  16. Co-digestion of manure and whey for in situ biogas upgrading by the addition of H2: process performance and microbial insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    H in the anaerobic reactor with the addition of hydrogen could be maintained below 8.0, which did not have inhibition to the anaerobic process. The H2 distribution systems (diffusers with different pore sizes) and liquid mixing intensities were demonstrated to affect the gas-liquid mass transfer of H2 and the biogas......In situ biogas upgrading was conducted by introducing H2 directly to the anaerobic reactor. As H2 addition is associated with consumption of the CO2 in the biogas reactor, pH increased to higher than 8.0 when manure alone was used as substrate. By co-digestion of manure with acidic whey, the p...... composition. The best biogas composition (75:6.6:18.4) was obtained at stirring speed 150 rpmand using ceramic diffuser, while the biogas in the control reactor consisted of CH4 and CO2 at a ratio of 55:45. The consumed hydrogen was almost completely converted to CH4, and there was no significant accumulation...

  17. Application of Simplified Anaerobic Digestion Models (SADM’s for Studying the Biodegradability and Kinetics of Cow Manure at Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf O.L. MOMOH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of a set of simplified anaerobic digestion models (SADM’s to describe the anaerobic biodegradability and kinetics of cow manure at ambient temperature was conducted in this study. It was observed that the Hill’s based biogas yield rate model was the most appropriate in describing biogas yield rate from cow manure. Parameter estimation revealed that the half saturation constant expressed as acidified substrate and volatile solids (VS equivalent were 0.163g/l and 21.9g VS/l respectively while the maximum biogas yield rate was estimated to be 1.957ml/g VS/day. The coefficient of acidogenic bacteria adaptation (n and coefficient of acetogenic/methanogenic bacterial cooperativity (m were estimated to be 1.28 and 0.65 respectively. The poor cooperativity amongst the acetogenic/methanogenic bacterial species can be attributed to poor adaptation, possibly due to interaction between ammonia and volatile fatty acids. In addition, the biodegradability and recalcitrance was estimated to be 0.42 and 0.433 respectively, while hydrolysis/acidogenesis was identified as the rate limiting step.

  18. Determination of phosphorus speciation in dairy manure using XRD and XANES spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Kerem; Jürgensen, Astrid; Karthikeyan, K G

    2007-01-01

    Intensive manure application is an important source of diffuse phosphorus (P) pollution. Phosphorus availability from animal manure is influenced by its chemical speciation. The major objective of this study was to investigate the P speciation in raw and anaerobically digested dairy manure with an emphasis on the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphate phases. Influent and effluent from an on-farm digester in Wisconsin were sampled and sieved, and the 25 to 53 microm size fraction was dried for X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and P K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses. Struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O) was identified in both the raw (influent) and anaerobically digested (effluent) manure using XRD. Qualitative analysis of P K-edge XANES spectra indicated that the Ca orthophosphate phases, except dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) or monetite (CaHPO4), were not abundant in dairy manure. Linear combination fitting (LCF) of the P standard compounds showed that 57.0 and 43.0% of P was associated with DCPA and struvite, respectively, in the raw manure. In the anaerobically digested sample, 78.2% of P was present as struvite and 21.8% of P was associated with hydroxylapatite (HAp). The P speciation shifted toward Mg orthophosphates and least soluble Ca orthophosphates following anaerobic digestion. Similarity between the aqueous orthophosphate (aq-PO4), newberyite (MgHPO4.3H2O), and struvite spectra can cause inaccurate P speciation determination when dairy manure is analyzed solely using P K-edge XANES spectroscopy; however, XANES can be used in conjunction with XRD to quantify the distribution of inorganic P species in animal manure. PMID:17965388

  19. Effects of solid-liquid separation on recovering residual methane and nitrogen from digested dairy cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Rintala, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    . Mass-balances revealed that digested material mainly consists of 2 mm (18-27%) fractions, while fractions between 2 and 0.25 mm made the rest. Incubation of solid fractions >0.25 mm of digester material at 35 degrees C resulted in specific methane yields of 0.060-0.085 m(3) kg(-1) volatile solids (VS...

  20. Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Digestive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Digestive System Print A A ... body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  1. Report on the design and operation of a full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppinger, E.; Brautigam, J.; Lenart, J.; Baylon, D.

    1979-12-01

    A full-scale anaerobic digester on the Monroe State Dairy Farm was operated and monitored for 24 months with funding provided by the United States Department of Energy, Fuels from Biomass Systems Branch. During the period of operation, operating parameters were varied and the impact of those changes is described. Operational experiences and system component performance are discussed. Internal digester mixing equipment was found to be unnecessary, and data supporting this conclusion are given. An influent/effluent heat exchanger was installed and tested, and results of the tests are included. Recommendations for digester design and operation are presented. Biological stability was monitored, and test results are given. Gas production rates and system net energy are analyzed. The economics of anaerobic digestion are evaluated based on various financing options, design scales, and expected benefits. Under many circumstances digesters are feasible today, and a means of analysis is given.

  2. Determination of Organic Carbon and Organic Matter in Animal Manure%畜禽粪便中有机碳和有机质的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石奥; 刘岩; 李鹏

    2016-01-01

    A method for determination of organic carbon and organic matter in animal manure was established in this study, which was subsequently used to assess the content of organic carbon and organic matter in animal manure samples collected from 16 intensive livestock and poultry farms in Beijing. We found that the content of organic carbon and organic matter varied in manure samples from different animal species. The highest (35.15%) and lowest (15.14%) content of organic carbon were found in porcine manure sample and bovine manure sample, respectively. Whilst, the highest (70.76%) and lowest (32.58%) content of organic matter were observed in chicken manure sample and bovine manure sample, respectively. The correction equation for determination of organic carbon and organic matter in animal manure established in this study was:w (OC)=0.5129w (OM)-2.3377, and R2 was 0.9255.%优化了畜禽粪便中有机碳和有机质的检测方法,利用该方法分析了北京地区16家规模化畜禽场的粪便样品。结果表明,各类畜禽粪便中的有机碳和有机质含量差异较大:有机碳含量最高值为35.15%(猪粪),最低值为15.14%(牛粪),有机质含量最高值为70.76%(鸡粪),最低值为32.58%(牛粪);畜禽粪便中有机碳和有机质的校正方程为w(有机碳)=0.5129w(有机质)-2.3377,R2=0.9255。

  3. Biological degradation and greenhouse gas emissions during pre-storage of liquid animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    digestion may be a significant source of CH4 and could reduce the potential CH4 production in the biogas reactor. Degradation of energy-rich organic components in slurry and emissions of CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) from aerobic and anaerobic degradation processes during pre-storage were examined...... in the laboratory. Newly mixed slurry was added to vessels and stored at 15 and 20degreesC for 100 to 220 d. During storage, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured with a dynamic chamber technique. The ratio of decomposition in the subsurface to that at the surface indicated that the aerobic surface processes...... contributed significantly to CO2 emission. The measured CH4 emission was used to calculate the methane conversion factor (MCF) in relation to storage time and temperature, and the total carbon-C emission was used to calculate the decrease in potential CH4 production by anaerobic digestion following pre-storage...

  4. Ecosustainable biomethane and fertilizerproduction through anaerobic co-digestionof animal manure and energy crops

    OpenAIRE

    Brizio, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    In Italy and many European countries energy production from biomass is encouraged by strong economic subsidies so that renewable energy plants, anaerobic digestion plant producing biogas in particular, are getting large diffusion. Nevertheless, it is necessary to define the environmental compatibility as well as technological and economic issues dealing with the emerging renewable energy scenario. This evaluation should take into account global parameters as well as environmental impacts at r...

  5. Development of an analytical methodology for the determination of the antiparasitic drug toltrazuril and its two metabolites in surface water, soil and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A;

    2012-01-01

    phase extraction and selective pressurized liquid extraction with integrated clean-up, the analytical method allows for the determination of these compounds down to 0.06-0.13 ng L(-1) in water, 0.01-0.03 ng g(-1)dw in soil and 0.22-0.51 ng g(-1) dw in manure. The deuterated analog of toltrazuril......This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine the antiparasitic veterinary drug toltrazuril and its two main metabolites, toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone, in environmental surface water, soil and animal manure. Using solid...... was used as internal standard, and ensured method accuracy in the range 96-123% for water and 77-110% for soil samples. The developed method can also be applied to simultaneously determine steroid hormones in the solid samples. The antiparasitic drug and its metabolites were found in manure and soil up...

  6. An investigation into the removal of Salmonella and enteric indicator bacteria from the separated liquid fraction of raw or anaerobically digested pig manure using novel on-farm woodchip biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G; Lawlor, P G; Carney, K N; Zhan, X; Gutierrez, M; Gardiner, G E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the removal of Salmonella and enteric indicator bacteria from the liquid fraction of raw and anaerobically digested (AD) pig manure in woodchip biofilters over a 14 week (98 day) period. Antibiotic susceptible Salmonella Infantis was detected in one influent material (liquid fraction of raw manure) on two occasions but was not found in the effluent at any time point. Furthermore, mean coliform reductions of 56% were observed in the biofilters treating the liquid fraction of raw manure. However, a mean increase of 228% was found in those treating the liquid from AD manure, despite the fact that the microbial challenge to these biofilters was lower. In addition, relatively high coliform counts were still present in the effluent from both biofilter treatments, especially in the systems treating the liquid fraction of AD manure. However, findings for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus were more promising, with reductions observed for both treatments (10 and 18.5% for E. coli and 71 and 87% for Enterococcus). Moreover, E. coli and Enterococcus were at, or just above, the limit of detection in the final effluents. Overall, although, there are no microbial limits for discharge or washwaters, the woodchip filter effluent would appear safe for discharge to waterways or use on-farm as regards Salmonella, E. coli and Enterococcus but not coliform. In conclusion, woodchip biofilters offer potential as a low-cost sustainable novel treatment option for the removal of pathogens from the liquid fraction of pig manure.

  7. Manure Use

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Renee Raiden

    2006-01-01

    Explains the proper use of manure in the garden, including the appropriate temperature of compost to kill pathogens, reducing the contact of produce with feces, and prevention of cross-contamination of raw manure and composted manure.

  8. Biogas production from co-digestion of corn stover and chicken manure under anaerobic wet, hemi-solid, and solid state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong; Chen, Chang; Liu, Guangqing; He, Yanfeng; Liu, Xiaoying

    2013-12-01

    Corn stover (CS) and chicken manure (CM) are ubiquitous agricultural wastes at low cost and have the potential to achieve a nutrient-balance when mixed together to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion (AD). The main objective of this work was to investigate methane production at different CS to CM ratios and to evaluate the process stability under wet (W-AD), hemi-solid state (HSS-AD) and solid state (SS-AD) conditions. Results showed that synergistic effects were found when mixing two substrates at CS:CM ratios of 3:1 and 1:1 (on volatile solid basis). The highest methane yield of 218.8 mL/g VS added was achieved in W-AD at CS:CM ratio of 3:1. In SS-AD, the highest volumetric methane productivity of 14.2L methane/L reactor volume was found at CS:CM of 1:1. The results of this work provide useful information to improve the efficiency and stability of co-digestion of CS and CM under different AD conditions.

  9. Performance and microbial community dynamics in a two-phase anaerobic co-digestion system using cassava dregs and pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiwei; Yuan, Xufeng; Li, Jie; Ma, Xuguang; Zhao, Ye; Zhu, Wanbing; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

    2014-03-01

    The two-phase anaerobic co-digestion of cassava dregs (CD) with pig manure (PM) was evaluated using four sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The effect of seven different PM to CD volatile solid ratios (10:0, 8:2, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 2:8 and 0:10) on the acidification phase was investigated. Results indicated the concentrations of soluble chemical oxygen demand, NH4-N and volatile fatty acids increased substantially at seven ratios. Co-acidification of PM and CD performed well. Methanogenic fermentation of the acidification products at seven ratios was steady in CSTR. The highest methane yield and VS removal of 0.352m(3)/kg VSadded and 68.5% were achieved at PM:CD (4:6). The microbial population in CSTR was analyzed using molecular methods. Findings revealed that bacteria such as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, archaea such as Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales were advantageous populations. Co-digestion of PM and CD supported higher quantity and diversity of methanogens. PMID:24463413

  10. Vermicomposting of sludge from animal wastewater treatment plant mixed with cow dung or swine manure using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Weibing; Hao, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Xuewei; Bai, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Vermicomposting of animal wastewater treatment plant sludge (S) mixed with cow dung (CD) or swine manure (SM) employing Eisenia fetida was tested. The numbers, weights, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored for 60 days at a detecting interval of 15 days. The results indicated that 100 % of the sludge can be the suitable food for growth and fecundity of E. fetida, while addition of CD or SM in sludge significantly (P < 0.05) increased the worm biomass and reproduction. The sludge amended with 40 % SM can be a great medium for the growth of E. fetida, and the sludge amended with 40 % CD can be a suitable medium for the fecundity of E. fetida. The addition of CD in sludge provided a better environment for the fecundity of earthworm than SM did. Moreover, vermicomposts obtained in the study had lower pH value, lower total organic carbon (TOC), lower NH4 (+)-N, lower C/N ratio, higher total available phosphorous (TAP) contents, optimal stability, and maturity. NH4 (+)-N, pH and TAP of the initial mixtures explained high earthworm growth. The results provided the theory basic both for management of animal wastes and the production of earthworm proteins using E. fetida.

  11. Lipolytic activity levels and colipase presence in digestive glands of some marine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smichi, Nabil; Fendri, Ahmed; Zarai, Zied; Bouchaala, Emna; Chérif, Slim; Gargouri, Youssef; Miled, Nabil

    2012-10-01

    Studies on the digestive secretions in aquatic animals can elucidate certain aspects of their nutritive physiology. The aim of the present study was to compare the digestive lipase and phospholipase activities in ten marine species belonging to four classes following the taxonomic classification of marine organisms. All aquatic digestive tissues tested are equipped with lipase and phospholipase activities, assuming the hydrolysis of fat-rich food. The lipolytic activities determined in the pancreases of cartilaginous fishes were greater than those in bony fishes, molluscs and crustaceans. This finding might be explained by the strong digestive utilization of fat-rich macronutrients by these carnivorous fishes. A trend of activities and stabilities at different pH and temperatures for crude lipases and phospholipases from these aquatic animals suggests that the optimum pH and temperature for marine lipases are species dependent. Interestingly, the sardine caecal lipase and phospholipase were found to be mostly stable in a broad range of acidic pH values. The maximum activities of lipolytic enzymes from the hepatopancreases of Hexaplex trunculus (molluscs) and Carcinus mediterranus (crustaceans) were found to be 50 and 60 °C, respectively, whereas the optimal temperature of lipolytic enzymes for the other species was classically around 40 °C. Thermoactivity of molluscs' lipolytic preparations makes them potential candidates in industrial applications. Among digestive glands studied, only pancreas (cartilaginous fish) contained the classically known colipase. Regarded as the most primitive living jawed vertebrates, cartilaginous fishes represented by sharks and rays could be considered as the oldest vertebrates possessing a complex digestive system like that of mammals. PMID:22457120

  12. Co-digestion of manure and whey for in situ biogas upgrading by the addition of H(2): process performance and microbial insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-02-01

    In situ biogas upgrading was conducted by introducing H(2) directly to the anaerobic reactor. As H(2) addition is associated with consumption of the CO(2) in the biogas reactor, pH increased to higher than 8.0 when manure alone was used as substrate. By co-digestion of manure with acidic whey, the pH in the anaerobic reactor with the addition of hydrogen could be maintained below 8.0, which did not have inhibition to the anaerobic process. The H(2) distribution systems (diffusers with different pore sizes) and liquid mixing intensities were demonstrated to affect the gas-liquid mass transfer of H(2) and the biogas composition. The best biogas composition (75:6.6:18.4) was obtained at stirring speed 150 rpm and using ceramic diffuser, while the biogas in the control reactor consisted of CH(4) and CO(2) at a ratio of 55:45. The consumed hydrogen was almost completely converted to CH(4), and there was no significant accumulation of VFA in the effluent. The study showed that addition of hydrogen had positive effect on the methanogenesis, but had no obvious effect on the acetogenesis. Both hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity and the concentration of coenzyme F(420) involved in methanogenesis were increased. The archaeal community was also altered with the addition of hydrogen, and a Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus related band appeared in a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gel from the sample of the reactor with hydrogen addition. Though the addition of hydrogen increased the dissolved hydrogen concentration, the degradation of propionate was still thermodynamically feasible at the reactor conditions.

  13. Production of value-added chars and activated carbons from animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a strong agricultural foundation that leaves behind large quantities of animal wastes. In the United States, an estimated 9 billion broilers, 256 million turkeys, 62 million pigs and 97 million dairy cows were produced in 2006 producing 5 times the waste of the U.S. human popu...

  14. Effects of organic matter in livestock manure digester liquid on microbial community structure and in situ activity of anammox granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindaichi, Tomonori; Awata, Takanori; Mugimoto, Yuichiro; Rathnayake, Rathnayake M L D; Kasahara, Shinsuke; Satoh, Hisashi

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a promising process for NH4(+)-rich wastewaters such as anaerobic digester liquids. In the present study, we investigated various properties of an up-flow column reactor containing anammox granules and fed with a real digester liquid at four different concentrations (Phases 1 to 4). The efficiencies of NH4(+) and NO2(-) removal decreased by up to 32% and 42%, respectively, in the digester-liquid-fed reactor (reactor-DL). When the performance of reactor-DL deteriorated, the community structure, spatial distribution, and in situ anammox activity in the two reactors were further investigated using 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microelectrode measurements. The phylogenetic analysis and FISH results showed that non-anammox bacteria were predominant in the granule outer layers in reactor-DL, whereas anammox bacteria still dominated the granule interiors. Microelectrode measurements showed clear evidence of NH4(+) oxidation activity in the interiors of granules from reactor-DL. Batch experiments using anammox granules at different acetate concentrations indicated that concentrations up to 50 mM had no effects on the anammox activity, whereas inorganic carbon uptake decreased in the presence of acetate. The present study clearly shows that the anammox activity and anammox bacterial density in the granules were maintained after feeding the digester liquid to the reactor for 140 days. PMID:27314631

  15. A pH-based control of ammonia in biogas during anaerobic digestion of artificial pig manure and maize silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Domnanovich, A.M.; Braun, R.; Holubar, P.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to prove that ammonia can be present in biogas from anaerobic digestion and to control this ammonia by reducing the reactor pH. Ammonia containing biogas was produced for a period of more than 100 days, with a maximum of 332 ppm. Especially during periods of high free

  16. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  17. Role of Inorganic and Organic Fractions in Animal Manure Compost in Lead Immobilization and Microbial Activity in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Katoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify how the ratio of inorganic-to-organic components in animal manure compost (AMC affected both lead immobilization and microbial activity in lead-contaminated soil. When AMC containing 50% or more inorganic fraction with high phosphorous content was applied to contaminated soil, the amounts of water-soluble lead in it were suppressed by over 88% from the values in the soil without compost. The residual fraction under sequential extraction increased with the inorganic fraction in the AMC; however, in those AMCs, the levels of microbial enzyme activity were the same or less than those in the control soil. The application of AMC containing 25% inorganic fraction could alter the lead phases to be more insoluble while improving microbial enzyme activities; however, no suppression of the level of water-soluble lead existed during the first 30 days. These results indicate that compost containing an inorganic component of 50% or more with high phosphorus content is suitable for immobilizing lead; however, in the case where low precipitation is expected for a month, AMC containing 25% inorganic component could be used to both immobilize lead and restore microbial activity.

  18. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (pmethane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester.

  19. Distribution of Cu and Zn in System of Animal Manures/Excrement-Subsoil Under Natural Stacking of Animal Manures in Jilin, China%吉林省畜禽粪便自然堆放条件下粪便/土壤体系中Cu、Zn的分布规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢忠雷; 朱洪双; 李文艳; 李小滢; 蔡文达; 牛海玉; 李晶

    2011-01-01

    With the development of poultry breeding and increasing of Cu and Zn additive amount in feed, Cu and Zn in animal manures have become the considering resource of heavy metals in soils, therefore, there will be of the significance to study the migration and accumulation of Cu and Zn in system of animal manures/excrement-subsoil under natural stacking of animal manures for rightly assessing the pollution effect of Cu and Zn in animal manures. The contents of Cu and Zn in animal manures and effects of animal manures stacking under natural condition on the contents of Cu and Zn in the excrement-subsoil were studied in the paper by sampling different kinds of animal manures excre- mental-subsoil located in Jilin Province. The results showed that the contents of Cu in chicken manure, pig excrement and cow dung were the range of 7.12~26.04 mg·kg-1 (air-dried sample, being the same as the following)(average of 18.24 mg·kg-1, the same meaning as this in the following), 87.99~463.7 mg·kg-1(243.6 mg·kg-1) and 3.95~27.63 mg·kg-1( 12.28 mg·kg-1), and the contents of Zn in chicken manure, pig excrement and cow dung were the range of 179.2-340.8 mg·kg-1( 276.9 mg·kg-1), 140.5-455.8 mg·kg-1( 381.8 mg·kg-1) and 150.5-292.3 mg·kg-1( 188.1 mg·kg-1), respectively. The contents of Cu and Zn were the order of pig excrement>chicken manure>cow dung in the different kinds of animal manures and were the order of Zn>Cu in the same animal manures. Under the natural condition stacking, Cu could move from pig excrement and chicken manure to excremental-subsoil and the amount of Cu from animal manures into soils increased with the increasing of contents of Cu in animal manures, consequently Cu accumulated nearly in the topsoil, however, the effect of cow dung on the content of Cu in excremental-subsoil was not obvious. Generally, the contents of Cu in the excremental-subsoil was in the order of pig excrement>chicken manure>cow dung. Meanwhile, the content of Zn in the excremental

  20. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff. PMID:21367596

  1. 香蕉秸秆与牲畜粪便固体联合厌氧发酵产沼气的特性%Biogas production characteristics of solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of banana stalks and manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田梦; 刘晓玲; 李十中; 刘建双; 赵云飞

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of banana stalks with swine manure or with cow manure, the effect of manure to banana stalks ratio on the biogas production potential was evaluated in a laboratory scale, which operated at mesophilic (35℃±1℃) and solid-state (20% total solids) conditions. The experimental results showed that cumulative biogas from the co-digestion mixture with 75%of manure increased 1.3 to 2.0 times compared with banana stalks alone. Adding manure could enhance the bioconversion of biogas, but the improved efficiency was different for the two kinds of manure. The anaerobic digestibility of the mixture (swine manure with banana stalks) was higher than that of the mixture (cow manure with banana stalks). The highest methane yield of 191 mL/g and the highest cumulative methane of 12.7 L were both achieved by the co-digestion mixture with 50%of swine manure, which respectively increased by 69%and 92%above that obtained from the co-digestion of cow manure with banana stalks. As for the highest biogas yield and the highest cumulative biogas, they were observed in the co-digestion mixture with 75%of swine manure and separately reached 365 mL/g and 23.9 L. These were about 18%and 32%higher than those of the mixture of cow manure with banana stalks, respectively. In addition, it was found that the two kinds of manure could enhance the degradation of cellulose and semi-cellulose in the mixture, and that their maximum degradation ratios could increase by 1.2 times and by 3.6 times respectively as compared with the digestion of banana stalks alone. The results of this paper will provide a reference for biogas projects of solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of banana stalks with manure.%  为了探讨香蕉秸秆与牲畜粪便的组合对固体厌氧发酵产沼气特性的影响,该文在20%的固体质量分数和中温(35±1)℃条件下,分别开展了不同质量分数的牛粪或猪粪与香

  2. 动物消化机制用于木质纤维素的厌氧消化%Anaerobic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass with Animal Digestion Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 张盼月; 郭建斌; 吴永杰

    2013-01-01

    木质纤维素是地球上最丰富的可再生资源,食草动物和食木昆虫能高效消化植物中的木质纤维素,模拟动物消化系统的厌氧消化反应器却达不到相应的效果.为了更好地理解动物消化机理,并应用于厌氧消化反应器的设计和运行,对食草动物和食木昆虫的消化机制以及木质纤维素厌氧消化工艺的发展趋势进行了综述.动物消化系统的高效消化是其消化道中各种酶的协同作用以及一系列物理和生物化学活动的结果.强大的预处理过程能有效支持微生物发酵系统,如反刍动物的反刍、食木昆虫分泌的纤维素酶的催化及食木昆虫其消化道中的碱处理等;沿消化道形成的氧浓度梯度可能刺激一些微生物的水解活性;固体停留时间、消化物流动和终产物排除的有序安排,均能促进动物高效消化木质纤维素.源于瘤胃的厌氧消化工艺接种了瘤胃中的微生物降解木质纤维素,但其厌氧反应器内的环境条件对发酵的限制远远大于瘤胃发酵或后肠发酵的情况.因此,模拟动物消化机制可以更有效促进厌氧消化工艺降解木质纤维素类固体有机物废物.%Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation

  3. STUDIES CONCERNING THE UTILISATION OF DIGESTATE IN BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to expose the many possibilities of using digestate in biogas plants and the advantages of its using. In agricultural animal farms is produced a big quantity of animal manure, which must be adequate managed, mainly as fertiliser. The most advantageous solution of using animal manure and slurry is using it in biogas plants, where, due to degradation of organic matter, digestate is easier to pump and easier to apply as fertiliser, with reduced need of stirring, compared to untreated slurry. The researches made showes that digestate has lower C/N ratio, compared to raw manure. This property means that digestate has a better effect in fertilisation with Nitrogen on short term. The paper also shows the effects of digestate application on soil, compared to compost application of digestate as fertiliser, must be done on the basis of a fertiliser plan. The fertiliser plan with digestate is elaborated for each agricultural farm, according to the type of crop.

  4. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    The methane productivity of manure in terms of volatile solids (VS), volume and livestock production was determined. The theoretical methane productivity is higher in pig (516 1 kg(-1) VS) and sow (530 1 kg(-1) VS) manure than in dairy cattle manure (469 1 kg(-1) VS), while the ultimate methane...... yield in terms of VS is considerably higher in pig (356 1 kg(-1) VS) and sow manure (275 1 kg(-1) VS) than in dairy cattle manure (148 1 kg(-1) VS). Methane productivity based on livestock units (LU) shows the lowest methane productivity for sows (165 m(3) CH4 LU-1), while the other animal categories...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  5. 膨润土改善鸡粪厌氧消化产酸产甲烷特性%Improving production characteristics of methane and organic acid during anaerobic batch digestion of poultry manure by adding bentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘君廷; 马俊怡; 郜天磊; 邱凌; 刘宏斌

    2016-01-01

    There were approximately 20 billion chickens in the world in 2010, with 23% of the chicken population found in China. In 2009, the rapid development of chicken farms in China resulted in the production of 126 million tons of poultry manure. If managed inappropriately, poultry manure can cause serious environmental problems by polluting water, air, and soil. Anaerobic digestion is a complex bioconversion process that can treat organic waste and generate biogas with a high methane content that can be used as renewable energy, hence reducing the consumption of fossil fuel and curtailing greenhouse gas emissions. Ca2+-betonite is an environmental friendly material and is widely used in compost, heavy metal removal, pollutant adsorption, etc. In order to investigate the effect of betonite addition on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure, an orthogonal experiment L8(23)was conducted to determine amount of poultry manure (organic loading rate (OLR)), amount of bentonite and inoculum concentration on characteristics of methane production and organic acid production during anaerobic batch digestion of poultry manure under mesophilic condition (35±1)℃. The results showed that bentonite addition could significantly increase methane production per VS by 22.72% and 27.72% with 3.0% and 1.5% betonite addition (based on poultry manure total solids), respectively compared to the control group under low OLR condition. Methane production from poultry manure with 3.0% or 1.5% betonite addition had no significant (P>0.05) difference under low OLR condition. Specifically, methane production could be very significantly (P<0.05) increased by adding betonite under high OLR condition. Methane production was increased by 78.68% and 55.41% with 3.0% and 1.5% betonite addition, respectively, compared to the control group under high OLR condition. Methane production from poultry manure with 3.0% or 1.5% betonite addition had significant (P<0.05) difference under high OLR condition. In the

  6. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    this new manure system we observed great decrease in the occurrence of typical confined kids diseases, like diarrhea, pneumonia and omphalophlebitis, and lower overall mortality rate until slaughter when compared with goats reared in pens with dirt and litter. The investment for installation of the system was assessed $ 722.50 (U.S. $ 48.16/m². Considering the potential use of the stall, placing 10 adult animals (1.5 m²/head, with average production of the adult animal of 600 kg of manure/year, can be obtained easily, 6000 kg of manure, with average price of $ 0.13/kg., which could revert to $ 780.00/production cycle, this feature would pay the investment in about two years. In order to improve the investment cost it can be used in the construction of treated pine wooden pallets, in view of durability, ease of working wood and the lowest price. In order to facilitate a return on investment, can be treated pine used in the construction of wooden pallets, in view of its durability, workability and lower price, which can replace other more expensive types of wood, with the same efficiency and advantage of being lighter, which facilitates the management and operational cleaning of pallets. Furthermore, the capture system can be strong allies on the aggregation of producers of small ruminants, increasing the production of humus, energy source for anaerobic digesters, manure crops and organic manure use in integrated agriculture systems, pastures and forest. The validated system made possible the manpower needed to maintain the stall tested, improving the management and performance of goats, other income generating activities for productive and sustainable.

  7. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum.

  8. Spare capacity and phenotypic flexibility in the digestive system of a migratory bird: defining the limits of animal design

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, Scott R.; William H Karasov

    2014-01-01

    Flexible phenotypes enable animals to live in environments that change over space and time, and knowing the limits to and the required time scale for this flexibility provides insights into constraints on energy and nutrient intake, diet diversity and niche width. We quantified the level of immediate and ultimate spare capacity, and thus the extent of phenotypic flexibility, in the digestive system of a migratory bird in response to increased energy demand, and identified the digestive constr...

  9. Glycerin and essential oils in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance and apparent digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrayny Galoro da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the effect of partial replacing corn by glycerin and essential oils addition in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot on feed intake, animal performance and three markers were assessed to estimate apparent digestibility. Thirty bulls with average weight 400 ± 34.1 kg and 22 ± 2 months old were housed in collective pens (10 x 20 m2 for 63 days. The bulls were randomly assigned to 3 diets (10 bulls per treatment: CON – Control (without glycerin or Essential® oils; GLY – Glycerin (15% on dry matter - DM; and GEO – Glycerin (15% on DM and Essential® oils (3 g animal day-1. Three different markers were used to estimate apparent digestibility in the diets: indigestible dry matter –iDM; indigestible neutral detergent fiber – iNDF; and purified lignin – LIPE®. Feed efficiency and animal performance were not affected by the corn partial replacing by glycerin. No effects were found in partial corn replacing by glycerin and Essential® oils addition in the diets on the fecal output, crude protein and ether extract digestibility among the diets. The DM and OM apparent digestibility were higher for bulls fed with glycerin and Essential® oils. The CHO digestibility was higher for CON diet. The markers iDM, iNDF and LIPE® were similarly to estimate apparent digestibility to all nutrients in the diets.

  10. 玉米秸与鸡粪混合厌氧消化产气性能与协同作用%Performance and synergistic effect of anaerobic co-digestion of corn stover and chicken manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯亚君; 袁海荣; 张良; 李超; 高健; 李秀金

    2013-01-01

    Performance and synergistic effect of anaerobic co-digestion of corn stover and chicken manure were investigated. Nine ratios of corn stover to chicken manure ( CS/CM) (1:0,1: 1,1:2,1:3,1:4,2: 1,3: 1, 4:l,and 0: 1)) and three loading rates of total solids (TS) (50, 65 and 80 g/L) were used. The results showed that compared to co-digestion of untreated corn stover and chicken manure, 5. 5% ~ 62% more biogas productions were obtained for co-digestion of NaOH pretreated ones. The co-digestion with CS/CM of 1: 2 and loading rate of 50 g TS/L obtained the highest total methane production of 19 488 mL, which was 32. 6% and 11.4% higher than that of the CS/CM ratios of 1:0 and 0: 1 at the same loading rate. The synergistic effect of co-digestion of chicken manure with NaOH pretreated corn stover contributed to methane yield increase of 7. 1% ~ 17. 7% . The synergistic effect of the co-digestion with CS/CM of 1: 2 was 25% ~ 150% higher than other radios. This study would provide the parameters for effective operation and optimal design of anaerobic co-digestion facility of straw and manure.%研究了玉米秸与鸡粪在不同混合比例条件下的厌氧消化产气性能和协同作用效果.设计了9种玉米秸与鸡粪的混合比例(1∶0、1∶1、1∶2、1∶3、1∶4、2∶1、3∶1、4∶1、0:1),每种比例分别在3个不同负荷(50、65和80 g/L)下进行混合厌氧消化.结果表明,与未预处理玉米秸与鸡粪混合厌氧消化相比,NaOH预处理玉米秸与鸡粪混合厌氧消化的单位TS产气量提高了5.5% ~ 62%.当预处理玉米秸与鸡粪的混合比例为1∶2、上料负荷为50 g/L时消化产气性能最好,此时的累积甲烷产量达到19 488 mL,比相同负荷下单一玉米秸厌氧消化的累积甲烷产量高出32.6%,比单一鸡粪厌氧消化的累积甲烷产量高出11.4%.混合厌氧消化协同作用的贡献率达到7.1% ~17.7%,其中玉米秸与鸡粪的比例为1∶2时,其贡献率

  11. Survival and Persistence of Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and Attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Soils Amended with Animal Manure in a Greenhouse Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manan; Millner, Patricia D; Hashem, Fawzy; Camp, Mary; Whyte, Celia; Graham, Lorna; Cotton, Corrie P

    2016-06-01

    Animal manure provides benefits to agriculture but may contain pathogens that contaminate ready-to-eat produce. U.S. Food and Drug Administration standards include 90- or 120-day intervals between application of manure and harvest of crop to minimize risks of pathogen contamination of fresh produce. Data on factors affecting survival of Escherichia coli in soils under greenhouse conditions are needed. Three separate studies were conducted to evaluate survival of nonpathogenic E. coli (gEc) and attenuated E. coli O157:H7 (attO157) inoculated at either low (4 log CFU/ml) or high (6 log CFU/ml) populations over 56 days. Studies involved two pot sizes (small, 398 cm(3); large, 89 liters), three soil types (sandy loam, SL; clay loam, CL; silt loam, SIL), and four amendments (poultry litter, PL; dairy manure liquids, DML; horse manure, HM; unamended). Amendments were applied to the surface of the soil in either small or large containers. Study 1, conducted in regularly irrigated small containers, showed that populations of gEc and attO157 (2.84 to 2.88 log CFU/g) in PL-amended soils were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those in DML-amended (0.29 to 0.32 log CFU/g [dry weight] [gdw]) or unamended (0.25 to 0.28 log CFU/gdw) soils; soil type did not affect E. coli survival. Results from study 2, in large pots with CL and SIL, showed that PL-amended soils supported significantly higher attO157 and gEc populations compared with HM-amended or unamended soils. Study 3 compared results from small and large containers that received high inoculum simultaneously. Overall, in both small and large containers, PLamended soils supported higher gEc and attO157 populations compared with HM-amended and unamended soils. Populations of attO157 were significantly greater in small containers (1.83 log CFU/gdw) than in large containers (0.65 log CFU/gdw) at week 8, perhaps because small containers received more regular irrigation than large pots. Regular irrigation of small pots may have

  12. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, J W; Groenestein, C M; De Boer, I J M

    2012-07-15

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid mineral concentrate used as mineral nitrogen and potassium fertilizer and a solid fraction used for bio-energy production or as phosphorus fertilizer. Five environmental impact categories were quantified using life cycle assessment: climate change (CC), terrestrial acidification (TA), marine eutrophication (ME), particulate matter formation (PMF), and fossil fuel depletion (FFD). For pig as well as dairy cattle manure, we compared a scenario with the processing method and a scenario with additional anaerobic digestion of the solid fraction to a reference situation applying only liquid manure. Comparisons were based on a functional unit of 1 ton liquid manure. System boundaries were set from the manure storage under the animal house to the field application of all end products. Scenarios with only manure processing increased the environmental impact for most impact categories compared to the reference: ME did not change, whereas, TA and PMF increased up to 44% as a result of NH3 and NO(x) emissions from processing and storage of solid fraction. Including digestion reduced CC by 117% for pig manure and 104% for dairy cattle manure, mainly because of substituted electricity and avoided N2O emission from storage of solid fraction. FFD decreased by 59% for pig manure and increased 19% for dairy cattle manure. TA and PMF remained higher compared to the reference. Sensitivity analysis showed that CH4 emission from manure storage, NH3 emission from processing, and the replaced nitrogen

  13. Heterogeneity of O2 dynamics in soil amended with animal manure and implications for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Bruun, Sander; Larsen, Morten Kobæk;

    2015-01-01

    ) from soil at high temporal resolution were monitored. At the end of the incubations, vertical profiles of mineral nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) in the soil matrix were quantified. The optode results revealed that anoxia rapidly developed in zones with manure addition and gradually expanded......Soil oxygen (O2) availability influences nitrification and denitrification, the major biological processes responsible for nitrous oxide (N2O) production and missions from soil. In this study O2-specific planar optodes were used to visualise O2 distribution with high spatial and temporal resolution...... in soils in which the same amount of solid fraction of pig manure had been distributed in three different ways (mixed, layered, single patch) and which were maintained at awater potential of 5 kPa (corresponding to 91% of water-filled pore space). In parallel, the greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CO2 and CH4...

  14. Effects of Soil Leachate on Release of Nitrogenous and Phosphorous Non-point Source Pollutants from Animal Manure%淋溶对畜禽粪便释放氮磷面源污染物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 梁勤爽; 杨志敏; 陈玉成

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis was made of the leaching losses of total N(TN) and total P(TP) in pig manure(ZF),cow manure(NF) and chick manure(JF),and the influences of application rate and leaching amount of animal manure on the release quantity,release speed and release rate of TN and TP were estimated.The results showed that the cumulative release of TN and TP increased with the application rate of animal manure and the leaching amount.The release speed of TN from the 3 kinds of animal manure was greater than that of TP.The TN released from pig manure was the greatest,followed in order by cow manure and chick manure,and the TP released from pig manure was the greatest,followed in sequence by chick manure and cow manure The influences on the release rate of TN and TP was in the order of pig manurecow manurechick manure.With similar manure application amount,the release rate increased with leaching amount,and with similar leaching amount,the release rate was greater in the low application rate treatment.%在淋溶条件下,分别对施入的猪粪(ZF)、牛粪(NF)、鸡粪(JF)中TN,TP的流失进行定量化;估算畜禽粪便的施用量与淋溶量对TN,TP的释放量、释放速率、释放率的影响.结果表明,对于TN,TP的释放量而言,施用量以及淋溶量越大,则累积释放量也就越大;3种畜禽粪便对TN,TP的释放速率的影响为TN〉TP.对于TN,由大到小依次为:猪粪,牛粪,鸡粪;而对于TP,由大到小依次为:猪粪,鸡粪,牛粪;对释放率的影响由大到小依次为:猪粪,牛粪,鸡粪;且粪便施用量相同时淋溶量高的释放率高,淋溶量相同时施入量低的释放率高.

  15. Phytoremediation of Anaerobic Digester Effluent for Water Purification and Production of Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of phytoremediation for purification of an anaerobically treated dairy manure and production of forage crops was investigated. Four crops (two cereals and two grasses were examined for their ability to grow hydroponically and to remove pollutants (nutrients from dairy wastewater. The preliminary experiments showed that timothygrass and orchardgrass did not perform well as aquatic plants. Only 24 and 29% of the seeds germinated after 19-21 days giving a crop yield of 21 and 19 t haˉ1 for timotygrass and orchardgrass, respectively. Wheat and barley grow very well as aquatic plants with a seed germination of 83 and 73 (in 7 days and a crop yield of 106 and 86 t haˉ1 for wheat and barley, respectively. The effect of light duration, seeding rate, wastewater application rate and fungicidal treatment on the wheat crop yield and pollution potential reduction were studied. The results indicated that with this system, a wheat forage crop could be produced in 21 days from germination to harvest. A treatment combination of wastewater application rate of 900 mL dayˉ1, a seeding rate of 400 g and a light duration of 12 hrs gave the best results for crop yield (3.81 kg of wheat trayˉ1. Based on thirteen harvests per year, a total possible yield of 3300 t haˉ1 per year can be achieved with the system. This is more than 102 times grater than the yield obtainable from a filed grown conventional forage of 245 t haˉ1 per year. Wheat had a superior nutritional value (higher digestible energy, higher carbohydrates, fat, protein and mineral contents and less crude fiber compared to the other field forage crops. It also contained higher macro and micro nutrients (Sodium, Magnesium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Boron, Selenium, Iodine and Cobalt than field forage crops. Removal efficiencies of 72.4, 88.6 and 60.8 % can be achieved for the total solids, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and ammonium nitrogen, respectively. A nitrate nitrogen concentration of

  16. Environmental assessment of digestate treatment technologies using LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Golkowska, Katarzyna; Lebuf, Viooltje; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The production of biogas from energy crops, organic waste and manure has augmented considerably the amounts of digestate available in Flanders. This has pushed authorities to steadily introduce legislative changes to promote its use as a fertilising agent. There is limited arable land in Flanders, which entails that digestate has to compete with animal manure to be spread. This forces many anaerobic digestion plants to further treat digestate in such a way that it can either be exported or the nitrogen be removed. Nevertheless, the environmental impact of these treatment options is still widely unknown, as well as the influence of these impacts on the sustainability of Flemish anaerobic digestion plants in comparison to other regions where spreading of raw digestate is allowed. Despite important economic aspects that must be considered, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is suggested in this study to identify the environmental impacts of spreading digestate directly as compared to four different treatment technologies. Results suggest relevant environmental gains when the digestate mix is treated using the examined conversion technologies prior to spreading, although important trade-offs between impact categories were observed and discussed. The promising results of digestate conversion technologies suggest that further LCA analyses should be performed to delve into, for instance, the appropriateness to shift to nutrient recovery technologies rather than digestate conversion treatments.

  17. Assessing the effect of different treatments on decomposition rate of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Tariq M; Higgins, Stewart S; Ndegwa, Pius M; Frear, Craig S; Stöckle, Claudio O

    2016-11-01

    Confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) contribute to greenhouse gas emission, but the magnitude of these emissions as a function of operation size, infrastructure, and manure management are difficult to assess. Modeling is a viable option to estimate gaseous emission and nutrient flows from CAFOs. These models use a decomposition rate constant for carbon mineralization. However, this constant is usually determined assuming a homogenous mix of manure, ignoring the effects of emerging manure treatments. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the decomposition rate constants of dairy manure in single and three-pool decomposition models, and to develop an empirical model based on chemical composition of manure for prediction of a decomposition rate constant. Decomposition rate constants of manure before and after an anaerobic digester (AD), following coarse fiber separation, and fine solids removal were determined under anaerobic conditions for single and three-pool decomposition models. The decomposition rates of treated manure effluents differed significantly from untreated manure for both single and three-pool decomposition models. In the single-pool decomposition model, AD effluent containing only suspended solids had a relatively high decomposition rate of 0.060 d(-1), while liquid with coarse fiber and fine solids removed had the lowest rate of 0.013 d(-1). In the three-pool decomposition model, fast and slow decomposition rate constants (0.25 d(-1) and 0.016 d(-1) respectively) of untreated AD influent were also significantly different from treated manure fractions. A regression model to predict the decomposition rate of treated dairy manure fitted well (R(2) = 0.83) to observed data. PMID:27479239

  18. Effect of temperature and pH on the kinetics of methane production, organic nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the batch anaerobic digestion process of cattle manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, E. [Consultores Ambientales (CONAM), Havanna (Cuba); Borja, R. [Instituto de la Grasa (C.S.I.C.)., Sevilla (Spain); Weiland, P. [Institute of Technology, Federal Research Center of Agriculture (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany); Travieso, L. [Departamento de Estudios sobre Contaminacion Ambiental (DECA-CNIC), Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas (CNIC), La Habana (Cuba); Martin, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Cordoba (Spain)

    2000-03-01

    A study of the effect of temperature and pH on the kinetics of methane production and organic nitrogen and phosphorus degradation in the anaerobic digestion process of cattle manure was carried out. Two laboratory-scale batch completely mixed reactors, operating at 35 C (mesophilic temperature), and other two, operating at 60 C (thermophilic temperature) were used. For each temperature selected, the influent pH values were 7.6 (initial pH of the waste used) and 7.0. The apparent kinetic constants of the biomethanization process increased 2.3 times when the initial pH of the influent was increased from 7.0 to 7.6 at mesophilic temperature. The values found at thermophilic temperature were similar. The kinetic constants of methane production decreased 2.6 and 7.2 times when the operating temperature increased from 35 C to 60 C for the experiments carried out at initial pH of 7.0 and 7.6, respectively. The methane yield coefficient (l CH{sub 4} STP/g VS removed) also decreased when the temperature increased from 35 C to 60 C for the two initial pH values studied. This behaviour agreed with the major inhibition level observed at thermophilic temperature as a result of the higher organic nitrogen removal and ammonia nitrogen production observed at 60 C. Specifically, the specific rate constants for organic nitrogen removal and ammonia nitrogen production increased 3.6 and 12 times when the temperature was increased from 35 C to 60 C for the experiments carried out at initial pH values of 7.0 and 7.6, respectively. In the same way, the values of the kinetic constant for phosphorus removal were 44% and 80% higher than those obtained at 35 C for the two initial pH values above-mentioned, respectively. Finally, the experimental values of organic nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were reproduced with deviations equal to or less than 10% and 15% in every case, respectively. (orig.)

  19. Anaerobic fermentation of duckweed and swine manure in a plug-flow anaerobic digestion system%推流式反应器厌氧消化浮萍和猪粪混合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卫东; 张东旭; 夏维东

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of anaerobic digestion of swine manure combined with duckweed ( 1: 1 ) and swine manure was carried out in a pilot scale plug-flow baffled reactor( volume :4 m3). The digesters were run under controlled temperature at (35±5)℃. The length of experiment was 50 days and the organic loading rate was 3. 5 g(VS)/(L o d). The results showed that the VS biogas yield,the COD conversion rate and the volumetric biogas production of swine manure combined with duckweed( 1: 1 ) were 0.31 L/g,63. 2% and 1. 00 m3/( m3 o d) Respectively. And the VS biogas yield, the COD conversion rate, the volumetric biogas production of swine manure were 0. 28 L/g,57. 1% and 0. 71 m3/( m3 o d),respectively. The mean COD and SS in influent were 19. 19 g/L and 14. 28 g/L, respectively; and the mean removal efficiencies for COD and SS were 59. 7% and 68. 7% , respectively, in the anaerobic treating system. The result indicates that the plug-flow anaerobic baffled reactor performed well in anaerobic digestion and the digestion of swine manure combined with duckweed (1:1) more easily than swine manure.%使用带隔板的推流式反应器(体积约为4 m3),对浮萍与猪粪(干重比1:1,湿重比7:1)的混合物、猪粪进行为期50 d的中温厌氧消化产气性能比较研究,结果表明,在有机负荷为3.5 g(VS)/(L·d)时,浮萍与猪粪(干重比1:1,湿重比7:1)混合物的VS产气率为0.31 L/g,COD转化率为63.2%,反应器容积产气率为1.00 m3/(m3·d);猪粪的VS产气率为0.28 L/g,COD转化率为57.1%,反应器容积产气率为0.71m3/(m3·d).进料COD和SS的平均浓度分别为19.19 g/L和14.28 g/L,推流式反应器对其平均去除率分别为59.7%和68.7%.由此说明,带隔板的推流式厌氧反应器对浮萍和猪粪的混合物有较好的厌氧消化能力,浮萍与猪粪混合物的厌氧消化性能优于猪粪.

  20. [Study of the elements determination method in animal fur by microwave digestion ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tian-ping; Wang, Song-jun; Cao, Lin; Chang, Ping; Hou, Yue

    2008-08-01

    Considering the complex matrix of the sample, the animal fur is carried on to the sample pretreatment method studies specially. The microwave closed system has its unique merit: The microwave radiation has the very strong penetrability and the rapid in-depth heating function. After absorbing microwave the sample and the molecules of reactant may carry on the reaction in short time. But the microwave power is very weak, reaction consumes much time, the resolution is also incomplete. Besides the output excessively is high dispels in the pot the reagent differential pressure to increase the test solution to produce the storm rapidly to boil. As a result of those flaws, the minute step microwave heating digestion method is used to digest test specimen after treated by the acid pickling over night. In the experiment, the specialized microwave reactor is replaced by civil microwave; the microwave heating technology is adopted. According to the different characteristics of reagents, different allocated proportion and the test solution volume of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and the water are tested separately. Meanwhile, in order to optimize the experimental condition, the different response power and respond time is also studied. At last, the experimental condition is determined: HNO3-H2O2-HCl-H2O acid system is chose(four reagent allocated proportions are 8:1:1:5); test specimen is heated up 10 minutes when the output is 150 W and 5 minutes when the output is 360 W continuously; carries on the test specimen airtight resolution processing animal fur by the sample. To guarantee the standard solution system is consistent with the biological sample substrate, the artificial simulation biology sample substrate is used to match law configuration standard solution; the ration the substrate element calcium is added. To eliminate disturbance of the sample complex substrate, the substrate match law, which reduces the substrate element disturbance is used

  1. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives in

  2. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs...... hour later. The antifoam potential was defined using two parameters: foaming tendency and foam stability. Foaming tendency (mL-foam/(mL-air·min)) was calculated from the volume of foam (mL) right after aeration divided by air flow rate (mL/min). Foam stability was determined as percentage of foam...

  3. Parâmetros de dimensionamento para biodigestores batelada operados com dejetos de vacas leiteiras com e sem uso de inóculo Parameters to design batch digesters running with dairy cow manure with and without inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de A. N Xavier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a adição de inóculo na biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de vacas leiteiras reciclados em biodigestores bateladas pela quantidade de biogás produzida, pela redução dos sólidos voláteis e pelos potenciais de produção de biogás para obtenção de parâmetros de dimensionamento. Foram utilizados 12 biodigestores bateladas de campo de 60 L, cujos substratos continham dejetos de vacas leiteiras, água e quatro adições de inóculo (0; 20; 30 e 40% v/v. Adotaram-se tempos médios de retenção hidráulica de 75 e 150 dias para os tratamentos contendo inóculo e sem inóculo, respectivamente, nos períodos intermediário, chuvoso e seco do ano. Maiores produções de biogás ocorreram com maiores temperaturas médias do ar. Maiores potenciais de produção de biogás foram obtidas com uso de 40% de inóculo, de 0,07 m³ de biogás por kg de dejetos, com a utilização rápida do biogás, a partir de quatro dias. Tempos de retenção hidráulica de 45 dias podem ser adotados, o que reduz o volume do biodigestor e custos de implantação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the inoculum addition on the anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure recycled in batch digesters by biogas yield, volatile solids reduction and biogas potential production to obtain design parameters. Twelve field batch digesters (60 L each filled with dairy catlle manure, water and four different inoculum additions (0, 20, 30 and 40%, v/v were used. Average times of hydraulic retention of 75 and 150 days were adopted for treatments with and without inoculum, respectively, during three periods of the year (intermediary, rainy and dry. The greatest daily biogas yields occurred in higher room temperatures (rainy period. Higher biogas potential production was obtained by using 40% of inoculum, 0.07 m³ kg-1 manure, with rapid use of biogas from the four days. Times of hydraulic retention of 45 days may be adopted, which reduces the volume of the

  4. Characteristics and Availability of Different Forms of Phosphorus in Animal Manures%不同动物粪肥的磷素形态特征及有效性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严正娟; 陈硕; 王敏锋; 宋梓玮; 贾伟; 陈清

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of intensive livestock industry has greatly increased the discharge of animal manure. Reasonable utilization of large amounts of phosphorus(P)in animal manure can not only save the fertilizer resource, but also avoid water pollution from manure due to direct discharge or excess application in farmland. In this study, P contents and fractionation in 76 animal manures were analyzed using Hedley P fractionation method based on the survey for 52 livestock farms, and P mobility and environmental risks in different manures were evaluated as the reference for manure P management. The results showed that there were significant differences in total P content of animal manures. The mean P contents were 22.5, 13.7, 12.9, 9.6 g P·kg-1 and 7.5 g P·kg-1, in which the proportion of organic P in total P were 33.1%, 41.5%, 66.4%, 28.1%and 36.8%in pig, chicken, duck, cattle and sheep manures, respectively. The contents of total and organic P in non-ruminant animal manure(pig, chicken and duck manures)were 1.7~3.0 times and 2.1~3.0 times greater than that in ruminant manure (cattle and sheep manures)and the proportion of organic P in total P in poultry manure was higher than that in other manures. P mineraliza-tion was easier in non-ruminant animal manure with lower C/P ratio(19~29), compared with that in ruminant manure with C/P ratio of 38~45. Manure P was sequentially extracted by deionized water(H2O-P), NaHCO3(NaHCO3-P ), NaOH(NaOH-P)and HCl(HCl-P). The pro-portion of H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P, HCl-P and residual-P in total P in ruminant animal manure were 27.8%, 32.8%, 18.1%, 15.2%and 6.1%, respectively, while that were 24.6%, 19.4%, 12.7%, 34.4% and 8.9% in non-ruminant animal manure. The significant differences were in NaHCO3-P and HCl-P between ruminant and non-ruminant animal manures. Ruminant manure had greater proportion of liable P (H2O-P and NaHCO3-P)in total P(>60%), but the characteristics of higher mineralization rate might result in fast release

  5. Heavy metals pollution in poultry and livestock feeds and manures under intensive farming in Jiangsu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANG Long; WANG Yu-jun; ZHOU Dong-mei; DONG Yuan-hua

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metals pollution in poultry and livestock feeds and manures under intensive farming in Jiangsu Province was investigated. 97 feed and manure samples were sampled from 31 farming plants in 10 major cities of Jiangsu. 14 metals, including Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Mo, Mn, Ba, Co, Sr, Ti, As and Hg, were analyzed after samples acid digestion. The results showed that the most feed samples contained high concentration of metals exceeding National Hygienical Standard for Feeds. Meanwhile, it was found that Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cr concentrations in animal manures were also high, for example, Cu concentration in a manure sample reached to as much as 1726.3 mg/kg. Heavy metals loading quantities in soil per year were then calculated when metals contaminated organic fertilizers were applied, and its effects on soil environmental quality were further evaluated.

  6. 施用畜禽粪肥对旱地玉米生产力的影响%Effects of Farm Animal Manure on Productivity of Dryland Cron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 籍增顺; 李永平; 史向远; 张晓晨

    2012-01-01

    Based on the current situation of the chemical fertilizer abuse and ignorance of organic fertilizers application rate in northern China dry farming region, effects of farm animal manure on the crop water use efficiency, biological characteristics, photosynthetic physiological characteristics and yield were studied through a two-year field experiment. The result showed that the water use efficiency could be significantly increased 25.80% - 43.36% under farm animal manure compared with CK, meanwhile, the organic fertilizer played a remarkable role on promoting crop growth, developing crop high photosynthesis duration and decreasing crop convex tip. The organic fertilizer had 25.59% ~ 39.15% higer yields than that of the CK.%针对北方旱作农业区化肥滥用、畜禽粪肥施用量不明的现状,通过连续2a的有机肥培肥试验,研究了不同梯度水平下施用畜禽粪肥对旱地玉米水分利用效率、生物学性状、光合生理特性以及产量的影响.结果表明,施用畜禽粪肥与对照相比,能显著提高作物水分利用效率25.80%~43.36%;可使作物增产25.59%~ 39.15%;对促进作物生长,延长作物的高光合持续期,减少作物的秃尖程度有显著作用.

  7. Changes of Nutrients in Anaerobically Digested Slurry of Pig Manure During Storage%猪粪沼液贮存过程中养分变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华山; 郭德杰; 马艳; 常志州

    2012-01-01

    为实现沼液养分有效利用与管理,研究了规模化养猪场沼液在不同季节、不同方式贮存条件下,沼液中COD、pH、TN、TP、TK等变化,结果表明:贮存90d后,沼液中TN、TP、TK含量分别减少了67.22%~84.31%、59.70%~93.45%、35.27%~80.25%,COD下降了24.78%~42.96%;贮存期内铵态氮含量持续下降,至60d后基本保持稳定,90d后4个处理铵态氮减少了75.35%~89.71%,硝态氮含量增加了3~6倍.比较不同季节,在贮存期前60d内,夏秋季的COD浓度以及TN、TP、NH4+-N下降幅度高于冬春季,而在贮存60 d后,冬春季贮存沼液中TN、TP、NH4+-N下降幅度显著高于夏秋季;沼液加盖贮存,在前期可减少沼液中TN、TP、NH4+-N量的下降,但贮存90 d时,其贮存方式对TN、TP、NH4+-N量变化的影响已不明显.试验结果为沼液的存放和农田施用提供了重要参数.%Changes of COD and nutrients content in anaerobically digested slurry (ADS) of pig manure produced from large biogas plant are monitored during 90-day storage under different conditions to achieve its effective utilization and management of nutrients The results showed that the contents of total N(TN), total P(TP), total K(TK) and COD decreased by 67.22%乣84.31%, 59.70%乣93.45%,35.27%乣 80.25% and 24.78%乣42.96%,respectively. The ammonium-N content decreased constantly in the 60-day storage time and remained stable in the next 30 days. The ammonium-N concentration reduced by 75.35%乣89.71% while the nitrate content increased by 4乣6 folds after storage for 90 days. During the first 60 days , the decrement of concentration of COD, TN, TP, TK , ammonium-N and nitrate was more significant in Summer-Autumn than those of in Winter-Spring. However, the reduction of T-N, T-P and ammonium-N contents were more significant in Winter-Spring than those of in Summer-Autumn 60 days later. The ADS stored in sedimentation pond covered by lid lessened the de-creasement of TN, TP

  8. 不同来源畜禽粪的养分和污染物组成%Contents of nutrient elements and pollutants in different sources of animal manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单英杰; 章明奎

    2012-01-01

    Intensive confined livestock and poultry production systems generate large quantities of by-product that can be potentially recycled on lands as manure.Environmental protection is a major consideration for developing management practices that effectively use livestock manure as nutrient resource and soil conditioner in agricultural production.To date,most environmental problems associated with land applications of by-product manure have centered mainly on groundwater and/or surface water contamination by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients.With increasing use of trace elements such as Cu in nutritional supplements and antibiotics in livestock medicines as feed additives in intensive livestock industries,manure application has become the main source of heavy metal (e.g.,Cu,Zn and As) and antibiotic load in soils.By-product manure is applied in farmlands to supply primarily soil N and/or P,without regard to heavy metal pollution.The danger lies in accumulation of manure-borne metals and antibiotics,whichthreaten food safety and security.To reduce the risk of offsite contamination,it is important to characterize the contents of nutrient elements and pollutants in animal manure.In this study,155 samples of animal manure (including 93 samples of pig manure,31 samples of chicken manure,18 samples of duck manure and 13 samples of cow manure) were collected from both intensive animal farms and household animal houses in different regions of Zhejiang Province.Chemical and spectrum analysis were used to characterize the contents of nutrient elements,heavy metals and antibiotic residues.The results showed low contents of Cd,Cr,Hg,Ni andPb and high contents of Cu and Zn in animal manure.The ranges of manure contents of Cu,Zn and As were 18.56~1 788.04 mg-kg-1,12.46~10 056.68 mg·kg-1 and 0.69~76.43 mg·kg-1,with mean values of 525.38 mg·kg-1,897.14 mg·kg-1 and 10.01 mg·kg-1,respectively.Based on the national standards of heavy metal load limit of sludge for land

  9. Investigation of chamber methods and a micrometeorological mass balance method for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Hyun

    Various measurement methods to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure storage or treatment facilities have been used. However, it is difficult to directly compare emission data measured with different methods, which causes uncertainties in national GHG inventories. In the micrometeorological mass balance (MMB) method, a gas flux consists of a horizontal mean flux (MF) and horizontal turbulent flux (TF) terms. In Chapter 2, methane (GH4 ) TF measurements obtained using a sonic anemometer and a tunable diode laser trace gas analyzer are presented. Contrary to previous studies in wind tunnels and flat-level field conditions, an overestimation of only 0.5% was observed by only considering the MF term. This means the MMB method without consideration of TF is suitable in complex field conditions with uneven topography, and farm buildings. In Chapter 3, the MMB method was compared to a floating chamber method. Of these, the floating chamber method has been extensively used for CH4 flux quantification. The MMB method, although providing advantages such as spatial integration of fluxes, requires fast response trace gas analyzers which are not widely available. The mean ratio of CH4 flux measured with the floating chamber method to that measured using the MMB method was 1.25, ranging from 1.07 to 1.83. Flux overestimation by the floating chamber could have been caused by location of the chamber and potential disturbances by the chamber. Frequent changes of the chamber location, use of several chambers, and/or avoiding chamber placement on 'hot spots' are recommended to decrease flux overestimation. In Chapter 4, CH4 fluxes measured with a mega chamber and eight small chambers during the in-vessel composting phase showed similar temporal variation, while nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were, significantly lower for the small chambers. The ratios of CH4 fluxes measured with a mega chamber to eight small chambers during the in-vessel composting phase were 0.72 and 1

  10. Digestive challenges for vertebrate animals: Microbial diversity, cardiorespiratory coupling, and dietary specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barboza, P.S.; Bennett, A.; Lignot, H.-H.;

    2010-01-01

    process very large meals that require compensatory adjustments in blood flow, acid secretion, and regulation of acid‐base homeostasis. Snakes and birds that specialize in simple diets of prey or nectar retain their ability to digest a wider selection of prey. The digestive system continues...

  11. Complete genome sequence of Peptoniphilus sp. strain ING2-D1G isolated from a mesophilic lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor utilizing maize silage in co-digestion with pig and cattle manure for biomethanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazetto, Geizecler; Hahnke, Sarah; Maus, Irena; Wibberg, Daniel; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Klocke, Michael

    2014-12-20

    The bacterium Peptoniphilus sp. strain ING2-D1G (DSM 28672), a mesophilic and obligate anaerobic bacterium belonging to the order Clostridiales was isolated from a biogas-producing lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) optimized for anaerobic digestion of maize silage in co-fermentation with pig and cattle manure. In this study, the whole genome sequence of Peptoniphilus sp. strain ING2-D1G, a new isolate potentially involved in protein breakdown and acidogenesis during biomass degradation, is reported. The chromosome of this strain is 1.6Mb in size and encodes genes predicted to be involved in the production of acetate, lactate and butyrate specifying the acidogenic metabolism of the isolate.

  12. Phytoremediation of Anaerobic Digester Effluent for Water Purification and Production of Animal Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel E. Ghaly; H. A. Farag

    2007-01-01

    The application of phytoremediation for purification of an anaerobically treated dairy manure and production of forage crops was investigated. Four crops (two cereals and two grasses) were examined for their ability to grow hydroponically and to remove pollutants (nutrients) from dairy wastewater. The preliminary experiments showed that timothygrass and orchardgrass did not perform well as aquatic plants. Only 24 and 29% of the seeds germinated after 19-21 days giving a crop yield of 21 and 1...

  13. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  14. Development of an efficient extraction method for oxytetracycline in animal manure for high performance liquid chromatography analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4-dimethylamino-5,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene- 1,3,12-trione) is a majormember of the tetracycline antibiotics family ofwhich are widely administered to animals in concentrated animal feeding operations for purposes o...

  15. Interaction between temperature and ammonia in mesophilic digesters for animal waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcelo L; Angenent, Largus T

    2009-05-01

    Four anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) were operated during a period of 988 days to evaluate the effect of temperature, ammonia, and their interconnectivity on the methane yield of anaerobic processes for animal waste treatment. During period 1 (day 0-378), the methane yield was 0.31 L CH(4)/g volatile solids (VS) for all digesters (with no statistical differences among them) at a temperature and total ammonium-N levels of 25 degrees C and approximately 1200 mg NH(4)(+)-N/L, respectively. During period 2 (day 379-745), the methane yield at 25 degrees C decreased by 45% when total ammonium-N and ammonia-N were increased in two of the four ASBRs to levels >4000 mg NH(4)(+)-N/L and >80 mg NH(3)-N/L, respectively. During period 3 (day 746-988), this relative inhibition was reduced from 45% to 13% compared to the low-ammonia control reactors when the operating temperature was increased from 25 degrees C to 35 degrees C (while the free ammonia levels increased from approximately 100 to approximately 250 mg NH(3)-N/L). The 10 degrees C increase in temperature doubled the rate constant for methanogenesis, which overwhelmed the elevated toxicity effects caused by the increasing concentration of free ammonia. Thus, the farmer/operator may alleviate ammonia toxicity by increasing the operating temperature within the mesophilic range. We extrapolated our data to correlate temperature, ammonia, and methane yield and to hypothesize that the difference between high- and low-ammonia reactors is negligible at the optimum mesophilic temperature of 38 degrees C.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  17. Spare capacity and phenotypic flexibility in the digestive system of a migratory bird: defining the limits of animal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Scott R.; Karasov, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible phenotypes enable animals to live in environments that change over space and time, and knowing the limits to and the required time scale for this flexibility provides insights into constraints on energy and nutrient intake, diet diversity and niche width. We quantified the level of immediate and ultimate spare capacity, and thus the extent of phenotypic flexibility, in the digestive system of a migratory bird in response to increased energy demand, and identified the digestive constraints responsible for the limits on sustained energy intake. Immediate spare capacity decreased from approximately 50% for birds acclimated to relatively benign temperatures to less than 20% as birds approached their maximum sustainable energy intake. Ultimate spare capacity enabled an increase in feeding rate of approximately 126% as measured in birds acclimated for weeks at −29°C compared with +21°C. Increased gut size and not tissue-specific differences in nutrient uptake or changes in digestive efficiency or retention time were primarily responsible for this increase in capacity with energy demand, and this change required more than 1–2 days. Thus, the pace of change in digestive organ size may often constrain energy intake and, for birds, retard the pace of their migration. PMID:24718764

  18. How Efficient are Agitators in Biogas Digesters? Determination of the Efficiency of Submersible Motor Mixers and Incline Agitators by Measuring Nutrient Distribution in Full-Scale Agricultural Biogas Digesters

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Lemmer; Hans-Joachim Naegele; Jana Sondermann

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of two different agitation systems by measuring the nutrient distribution in a digester fed with renewable energy crops and animal manure. The study was carried out at the practical research biogas plant of Hohenheim University. A unique probe sampling system has been developed that allows probe sampling from the top of the concrete roof into different parts and heights of the digester. The samples were then analyzed in the laboratory for n...

  19. Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de caprinos obtidos nas diferentes estações do ano Anaerobic digestion of caprine manure in different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Amorim

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados dejetos produzidos por caprinos, em diferentes estádios fisiológicos e submetidos ao mesmo regime alimentar, nas quatro estações do ano. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito das estações do ano sobre a digestão anaeróbia de resíduos de caprinos em biodigestores modelo batelada com volume útil de 60 L de substrato em fermentação e mantidos sob temperatura ambiente. Foram avaliadas as produções de biogás, as reduções de sólidos voláteis (SV, os potenciais de produção (m³ de biogás/kg de substrato, de estrume, de sólidos totais (ST ou sólidos voláteis, os números mais prováveis de coliformes totais e fecais, e a composição do biogás. As reduções de SV foram de 38; 34; 33 e 39% para o verão, outono, inverno e primavera, respectivamente. Os totais de biogás produzidos foram de 1,06 m³ no verão, 0,88 m³ no outono, 0,88 m³ no inverno e 0,99 m³ na primavera, e os potenciais de produção médios foram de 0,02 m³ de biogás/kg de substrato e 0,2 m³ de biogás/kg de estrume para todas as estações. As reduções médias de coliformes totais e fecais foram de 99,99% em todas as estações, e os teores máximos de CH4 no biogás foram 88,3; 84,6; 80,6 e 79,2%, para o verão, outono, inverno e primavera, respectivamente.The dejections produced by caprines were used, in different physiologic states and submitted to the same alimentary regime, in the four seasons of the year.This study was carried out in 60 L batch digesters at ambient temperature and aimed to evaluate the effect of the season on the anaerobic digestion of caprine manure. The biogas production, volatile solids (VS reduction, the potential production (m³ of biogas/kg of substrate, manure, total solids (TS or VS, the removal of total and fecal coliforms and the biogas composition were evaluated. The VS reductions were of 38; 34; 33 and 39% for Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring, respectively. The biogas production were of 1.06 m³ in Summer

  20. Microwave treatment and struvite recovery potential of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asif; Lo, Kwang Victor; Liao, Ping Huang

    2008-05-01

    Microwave digestion of liquid dairy manure was tested for the release of nutrients, such as orthophosphates, ammonia-nitrogen, magnesium, calcium and potassium, both with and without the aid of an oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide). The orthophosphate to total phosphorus ratio of the manure increased from 21% to greater than 80% with 5 minutes of microwave treatment. More than 36% of total chemical oxygen demand (t-COD) of the manure was reduced when microwave digestion was assisted with peroxide addition. In addition, the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) distribution shifted to simpler chain acids (acetic acid in particular) with an increase in operating temperature. In the second part of the study, digested manure with increased soluble phosphate was tested for the recovery of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) at different pH. It was found that up to 90% of orthophosphate can be removed from the solution. Overall, it was concluded that the oxidizing agent-assisted microwave digestion process can be used upstream of anaerobic digestion, following which the anaerobically digested manure can be used for struvite recovery. Thus, this microwave digestion process presents the potential for enhanced efficiencies in both manure digestion and struvite recovery. PMID:18437623

  1. 畜禽粪便中四环类抗生素的残留和环境行为%Residues and Environmental Behaviors of Tetracyclines in Animal Manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成贤; 周丽

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated operations of livestock and poultry were highly developed in China, its residues of tetracyclines in animal manure may pose great threat potential to environment. Residues of tetracyclines in animal manure, the ways entered into the environment and its mobility and degradation in the soil environment were summarized.%我国畜禽养殖业很发达,畜禽粪便中残留的四环素类抗生素的污染对生态环境构成了巨大的潜在威胁。针对这种状况,本文总结了我国四环素类抗生素在畜禽粪便中的残留状况及其进入环境的途径,并概述了其在环境中的迁移和降解状况。

  2. Fiber digestibility in juvenile Galapagos tortoises (Geochelone nigra) and implications for the development of captive animals

    OpenAIRE

    Hatt, J M; M Clauss; Gisler, R; Liesegang, A.; Wanner, M

    2005-01-01

    Digestive strategies have been recognized to be a key factor for healthy growth in juvenile Galapagos giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra). The aim of present study was to investigate digestive coefficients with special regard to fiber fractions. Four captive bred Galapagos giant tortoises 4-5 years of age were fed a controlled diet for 32 days. The diet consisted of 77% hay, 15% tortoise pellets, and 8% apples on a dry matter basis. On a dry matter basis diet analysis showed: 95.7% organic mat...

  3. Effects of digestate from anaerobically digested cattle slurry and plant materials on soil microbial community and emission of CO2 and N2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Jensen, Erik S.;

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure and crop residues may be employed to produce biogas as a climate-neutral source of energy and to recycle plant nutrients as fertilizers. However, especially organic farmers are concerned that fertilizing with the digestates may impact the soil microbiota...... and fertility because they contain more mineral nitrogen (N) and less organic carbon (C) than the non-digested input materials (e.g. raw animal slurry or fresh plant residues). Hence, an incubation study was performed where (1) water, (2) raw cattle slurry, (3) anaerobically digested cattle slurry/maize, (4......, microbial phospholipid fatty acids (biomass and community composition) and catabolic response profiling (functional diversity). Fertilizing with the anaerobically digested materials increased the soil concentration of NO3− ca. 30–40% compared to when raw cattle slurry was applied. Grass-clover contributed...

  4. Cow power: the energy and emissions benefits of converting manure to biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of a top-level aggregate analysis of the total potential for converting livestock manure into a domestic renewable fuel source (biogas) that could be used to help states meet renewable portfolio standard requirements and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the US, livestock agriculture produces over one billion tons of manure annually on a renewable basis. Most of this manure is disposed of in lagoons or stored outdoors to decompose. Such disposal methods emit methane and nitrous oxide, two important GHGs with 21 and 310 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide, respectively. In total, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector in the US amounted to 536 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide equivalent, or 7% of the total US emissions in 2005. Of this agricultural contribution, 51 to 118 MMT of carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from livestock manure emissions alone, with trends showing this contribution increasing from 1990 to 2005. Thus, limiting GHG emissions from manure represents a valuable starting point for mitigating agricultural contributions to global climate change. Anaerobic digestion, a process that converts manure to methane-rich biogas, can lower GHG emissions from manure significantly. Using biogas as a substitute for other fossil fuels, such as coal for electricity generation, replaces two GHG sources-manure and coal combustion-with a less carbon-intensive source, namely biogas combustion. The biogas energy potential was calculated using values for the amount of biogas energy that can be produced per animal unit (defined as 1000 pounds of animal) per day and the number of animal units in the US. The 95 million animal units in the country could produce nearly 1 quad of renewable energy per year, amounting to approximately 1% of the US total energy consumption. Converting the biogas into electricity using standard microturbines could produce 88 ± 20 billion kWh, or 2.4 ± 0.6% of annual electricity

  5. Evaluation of procedures for estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility in ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures used in estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility were evaluated in a series of independent experiments. Experiment 1 and 2 evaluated the influence of sampling site, mathematical model and intraruminal mixing on estimates of ruminal particle turnover in beef steers grazing crested wheatgrass or offered ad libitum levels of prairie hay once daily, respectively. Particle turnover rate constants were estimated by intraruminal administration (via rumen cannula) of ytterbium (Yb)-labeled forage, followed by serial collection of rumen digesta or fecal samples. Rumen Yb concentrations were transformed to natural logarithms and regressed on time. Influence of sampling site (rectum versus rumen) on turnover estimates was modified by the model used to fit fecal marker excretion curves in the grazing study. In contrast, estimated turnover rate constants from rumen sampling were smaller (P < 0.05) than rectally derived rate constants, regardless of fecal model used, when steers were fed once daily. In Experiment 3, in vitro residues subjected to acid or neutral detergent fiber extraction (IVADF and IVNDF), acid detergent fiber incubated in cellulase (ADFIC) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were evaluated as internal markers for predicting diet digestibility. Both IVADF and IVNDF displayed variable accuracy for prediction of in vivo digestibility whereas ADL and ADFIC inaccurately predicted digestibility of all diets

  6. EnviroAtlas - Manure application to agricultural lands from confined animal feeding operations by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean livestock manure application to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006....

  7. DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE, AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND HPLC-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes from poultry houses is currently unregulated and poses a potential environmental concern. Determination of roxarsone and its transformation products in chicken manure is necessary to understand their possible impacts on human health and ...

  8. WORKSHOP ON EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS AND ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANIMAL MANURES, BIOSOLIDS, AND OTHER SIMILAR BY-PRODUCTS: THE REST OF THE STORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will:Discuss the purpose of the workshopDiscussion publication of "Contemporary Perspectives on Infectious Disease Agents in Sewage Sludge and Manure.Present Table of ContentsDiscuss summaryDiscuss synthesis document

  9. Animal-Assisted Therapy in Counseling and School Settings. ERIC/CASS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia

    The integration of animal-assisted therapy into clinical psychology is a growing phenomenon. These "co-therapists" may be of assistance to counselors when working with withdrawn and non-communicative counselees. The presence of an animal has been found to lower anxiety and motivate the counselee's participation in therapy. Animal-assisted therapy…

  10. CSTR反应器鸡粪厌氧消化中试启动研究%Start-up performance evaluation of pilot-scale anaerobic digestion of chicken manure in CSTR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何秋阳; 李润东; 冯磊; Bernhard Raninger

    2012-01-01

    Under mesophilic conditions(37 °C), a pilot-scale experiment based on anaerobic digestion of chicken manure was conducted in CSTR. The experiments were divided into 4 stages. The results showed that CSTR could be successfully started up for anaerobic digestion of chicken manure. When the feeding ratio of stages (Ⅰ:Ⅱ:Ⅲ:Ⅳ) was 1:2:2.67:3.33, the corresponding ratio of the maximum gas production rate was about 1:1.76:2.04 :2.46. Under the conditions of 25 496 mg/L COD and 31 d HRT, about (57.5 ±1.93)% COD was removed, and the methane production/gram volatile solidsadded (CH4/Gvs) reached (301 ±6) Ml/Gvs. The concentration of CH4 in biogas was stable at 61.8%~70.1% after 4 days later in the experiments.%在中温(37℃)条件下,利用全混式厌氧(CSTR)反应器进行鸡粪废水厌氧消化启动的实验室模拟,将试验分为4个阶段(Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ),逐级增加进料负荷量,研究分析各阶段影响因素.结果表明:CSTR反应器能够正常启动鸡粪废水厌氧消化,当试验各阶段(Ⅰ∶Ⅱ∶Ⅲ∶Ⅳ)进料比为1∶2∶2.67∶3.33时,相应的最高产气速率之比约为1∶1.76∶2.04∶2.46;在进料COD为25 496 mg/L,HRT为31d时,氨氮最高浓度为2 122 mg/L左右,COD去除率为(57.5±1.93)%,每日甲烷产量(单位质量VS)为(301±6) mL/g.试验4d后,CSTR反应器产生的沼气中CH4含量稳定在61.8%~70.1%.

  11. 中国区域畜禽粪便能源潜力及总量控制研究%Biogas energy potential for livestock manure and gross control of animal feeding in region level of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿维; 胡林; 崔建宇; 卜美东; 张蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

      为了评估中国畜禽粪便资源总量及其对环境的影响,以环保部、统计局和农业部发布的区域畜禽产排污系数为基础,利用2010年的统计数据,研究了中国及各省的畜禽粪便资源总量、能源潜力及农地的氮磷负荷,并以欧盟的农地氮磷施用标准对中国畜禽养殖的环境容量和污染风险进行了初步评估.结果表明,2010年,中国畜禽粪便总量达22.35亿 t,可产沼气1072.75亿 m3,山东等6省市粪便资源超过1.00亿 t;全国单位面积农地氮磷平均负荷为43.73 kg/hm2(TN)和9.16 kg/hm2(TP),北京等6省市农地氮磷负荷超标;全国畜禽养殖环境容量为129.56亿头猪当量(以 N 为基准),159.74亿头猪当量(以 P 为基准),实际养殖总量约占环境容量的1/4,考虑化肥施用的影响,约有20个省超过本省50%环境容量.研究结果为区域畜禽养殖总量控制、合理布局和粪污的综合利用提供决策依据.%With the increasing demand for meat products, animal husbandry industry has developed rapidly in China in the past decade. Large amount of animal manure were produced, which would be an important sources of biogas energy production or serious pollutant sources to soil and water body, if discharged into the environment without appropriate processing. It is very meaningful to assess the impacts of animal manure on environment in China. Based on the pollutant excretion coefficient of livestock and poultry that was officially released by the Ministry of National Environmental Protection of China, and the latest statistical data from statistical year book of China in 2011 that was released by the National Bureau of Statistics and Ministry of Agriculture, the gross amount of animal manure and the biogas energy potential by animal manure in different regions of China were evaluated in this study. The whole country was divided into six regions and the major 10 species of livestock and poultry were selected. Meanwhile

  12. Anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive cellulosic and animal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary process design and a cost estimate have been made for a volume reduction plant for low-level, solid radioactive wastes generated at ORNL. The process is based on extension of existing anaerobic digestion technology and on laboratory studies indicating the feasibiity of this technology for digestion of the organic portion of low-level, solid radioactive wastes. A gaseous effluent (CO2 and CH4) is vented in the process, and a liquid ffluent containing undigested solids is filtered to remove solids, which are buried. The liquid is discharged to the low-level liquid waste system at ORNL. Overall volume reduction of solid waste by this process is estimated to be approximately 20:1. Costs appear to be comparable to costs for compaction. The process design is conservative, and several potential improvements which could increase efficiency are discussed in this report

  13. Influence of total solid content on anaerobic digestion of swine manure and kinetic analysis%猪粪固体含量对厌氧消化产气性能影响及动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜连柱; 梁军锋; 杨鹏; 高文萱; 张克强

    2014-01-01

    为优化猪粪厌氧消化总固体质量分数(total solid,TS),以猪粪为原料,采用批式试验方法,研究不同TS对厌氧消化产气性能的影响。结果表明:底物固体质量分数分别为3.0%、7.5%、12.0%和15.0%时,猪粪的挥发性物质(volatile solid,VS)沼气产率随底物固体质量分数的增加而降低,分别为579、527、356和237 mL/g,底物固体质量分数为3.0%和7.5%时的CH4产率优于其他固体质量分数,分别为317和326 mL/g,占理论CH4产率的66.9%和68.8%;不同固体质量分数厌氧消化过程中,最高产CH4速率分别为37.0、24.4、10.4和4.7 mL/(g·d);固体质量分数为7.5%时消化体系的TS、VS降解率最高,分别达到49.2%和65.5%;固体质量分数为3.0%和7.5%的厌氧消化过程符合一级动力学方程,但猪粪的产甲烷速率常数从0.126 d-1下降到0.063 d-1;与3.0%的固体质量分数相比,消化时间为30 d时,底物的生物转化产CH4效率随固体质量分数的增加分别降低6.3%、55.8%和74.7%,固体质量分数为3.0%和7.5%时生物转化产CH4效率达到58.0%所需的时间分别为18和30 d。%Anaerobic digestion was a suitable technology for agricultural waste management as it combined waste treatment, energy output and recycling of by-product which can be used in agriculture as nutrient. The total solid (TS) or organic loading rate, hydraulic retention times and others parameters will influence the performance of anaerobic digestion. Among of these factors, TS was an important factor which influenced the biogas production efficiency, characteristics of the digested and the economic benefits of biogas plants because the appropriate TS can improve the utilization efficiency of working volume and increase the volume biogas production of the reactors. In order to optimize the total solid of anaerobic digestion with swine manure, batch experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different TS

  14. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP)

  15. Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.13304

    OpenAIRE

    Thêmis Sakaguti Graciano; Mariana Michelato; Tadeu Orlandi Xavier; Elias Nunes Martins; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependen...

  16. Methane production potential (B0) of swine and cattle manures--a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, S; Verma, M; Larouche, J P; Potvin, L; Chapman, A M; Lemay, S P; Pelletier, F; Brar, S K

    2010-11-01

    Canada's agricultural emissions accounted for 60 Mt or 8% of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2007. The estimation of CH4 emission factor (B0) from manure management systems in Canada is prone to uncertainty owing to lack of B0 values for Canadian conditions. Therefore, in this study, manure samples from six Canadian animal farms, two each of swine, beef and dairy cattle, were investigated in order to estimate their methane production potential (B0). The ultimate anaerobic biodegradability was measured with ISO standard batch fermentation. The extent of biodegradation of the manure samples with or without sodium benzoate was always greater than 60% and hence showed no inhibitory effect on methane production by the manure. The impact of use of antibiotics in the animal feed on methane production was also considered; however, no inhibitory effect on methane production could be observed. The plateau of methane production in all cases was achieved by 63 d of anaerobic digestion process and the final pH was within 6-8. The calculated B0 were in the range of 0.47-0.42, 0.21-0.19 and 0.35-0.30 for swine, beef cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The uncertainties associated with B0 values were +/- 9% for swine, +/- 3% for beef cattle and, +/- 6 and +/- 2% for dairy cows.

  17. Anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of ensiled sorghum, cheese whey and liquid cow manure in a two-stage CSTR system: Effect of hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dareioti, Margarita Andreas; Kornaros, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen and methane production using a two-stage anaerobic process. Two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) were used under mesophilic conditions (37°C) in order to enhance acidogenesis and methanogenesis. A mixture of pretreated ensiled sorghum, cheese whey and liquid cow manure (55:40:5, v/v/v) was used. The acidogenic reactor was operated at six different HRTs of 5, 3, 2, 1, 0.75 and 0.5d, under controlled pH5.5, whereas the methanogenic reactor was operated at three HRTs of 24, 16 and 12d. The maximum H2 productivity (2.14L/LRd) and maximum H2 yield (0.70mol H2/mol carbohydrates consumed) were observed at 0.5d HRT. On the other hand, the maximum CH4 production rate of 0.90L/LRd was achieved at HRT of 16d, whereas at lower HRT the process appeared to be inhibited and/or overloaded.

  18. Anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of ensiled sorghum, cheese whey and liquid cow manure in a two-stage CSTR system: Effect of hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dareioti, Margarita Andreas; Kornaros, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen and methane production using a two-stage anaerobic process. Two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) were used under mesophilic conditions (37°C) in order to enhance acidogenesis and methanogenesis. A mixture of pretreated ensiled sorghum, cheese whey and liquid cow manure (55:40:5, v/v/v) was used. The acidogenic reactor was operated at six different HRTs of 5, 3, 2, 1, 0.75 and 0.5d, under controlled pH5.5, whereas the methanogenic reactor was operated at three HRTs of 24, 16 and 12d. The maximum H2 productivity (2.14L/LRd) and maximum H2 yield (0.70mol H2/mol carbohydrates consumed) were observed at 0.5d HRT. On the other hand, the maximum CH4 production rate of 0.90L/LRd was achieved at HRT of 16d, whereas at lower HRT the process appeared to be inhibited and/or overloaded. PMID:25459867

  19. Struvite precipitation as a technology to be integrated in a manure anaerobic digestion treatment plant - removal efficiency, crystal characterization and agricultural assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Cerrillo Moreno, Miriam; Palatsi Civit, Jordi; Comas Angelet, Jordi; Bonmatí Blasi, August

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDThe formation of struvite (MgNH4PO4 6H(2)O) from digested slurry is an opportunity to recover nutrients as a slow-release fertilizer. A series of batch and continuous experiments were conducted to assay the influence of operational parameters, total solids and organic matter content on the quality and size of struvite crystals formed. Finally, the agronomic bioavailability of struvite was assessed in a greenhouse experiment.; RESULTSIn terms of process conditions an optimum pH of 9 ...

  20. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Saady, Noori M Cata; Gilbert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Degrading antibiotics discharged in the livestock manure in a well-controlled bioprocess contributes to a more sustainable and environment-friendly livestock breeding. Although most antibiotics remain stable during manure storage, anaerobic digestion can degrade and remove them to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Generally, antibiotics are degraded during composting > anaerobic digestion > manure storage > soil. Manure matrix variation influences extraction, quantification, and degradation of antibiotics, but it has not been well investigated. Fractioning of manure-laden antibiotics into liquid and solid phases and its effects on their anaerobic degradation and the contribution of abiotic (physical and chemical) versus biotic degradation mechanisms need to be quantified for various manures, antibiotics types, reactor designs and temperature of operations. More research is required to determine the kinetics of antibiotics' metabolites degradation during anaerobic digestion. Further investigations are required to assess the degradation of antibiotics during psychrophilic anaerobic digestion.

  1. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  2. Anaerobic treatment of lactic waste and goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luís Magaña-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion was carried out to obtain biogas from lactic waste in combination with goat manure. Waste from lactic products such as cream, cheese and whey was mixed with goat manure using three formulations; the quantity of waste from cream and cheese was maintained, and only the quantity of manure and whey was varied. Methanogenic bacteria obtained from predigestion of goat manure were used as inoculants. Temperature was 35ºC and pH 7.0.Biogas methane percentage was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that the highest methane concentration obtained was 82% with formulation III.

  3. Experimental Study on Post-treatment of Anaerobically Digested Effluent from Flushed Dairy Manure%奶牛养殖污水厌氧消化液好氧后处理的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青鹏; 祝其丽; 胡启春; 孙辉

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic-aerobic co-treatment of flushed dairy manure was carried out in batch anaerobic reactor and aerobic shaking bottles based on SBR concept to study the treatment efficiency of anaerobic-aerobic method. The remove mechanism of COD,NH4+-N,TN and TP were discussed. The HRT of experimental anaerobic digestion were 3,6,9,12,15,18 day,and the cycle time of aerobic process was 12 hours. The experiment data showed that after 9 day anaerobic digestion, 82.1% of COD and 96.9% of BOD5 removal rate could be achieved respectively, approaching the maximum COD removal potential. But the rest COD was hard being digested. Under SBR situation, NH4+ -N in the anaerobic digested effluent with 0 -9 day HRT could be well removed by aerobic process, with the maximum removal of 97%. Phosphors and nitrogen removal rate were desired by anaerobic-aerobic co-treatment with total removal rate of 90%. After 3 ~9 day of anaerobic digestion and then 12 hours of SBR process, TN content of flushed dairy manure could be degraded from 731 mg · L-1 to 99 mg · L-1, and TP from 66 mg · L-1 to 7 mg · L-1. If HRT of anaerobic digestion was too long, over 9 day, the ratio of C/N became very low, which would influence the post-treatment of anaerobic digested effluent in aerobic process. The results can be utilized as references for further optimization of dairy methane project.%文章采用批式厌氧消化试验加试验模拟序批式活性污泥法(SBR)工艺处理奶牛场养殖污水.研究了该组合模式对奶牛场养殖污水的处理效果,同时讨论了对化学需氧量(COD),NH4+-N,总氮(TN)和总磷(TP)去除原因.厌氧消化停留时间分别为3,6,9,12,15,18 d;试验模拟SBR工艺周期为12 h.试验表明在厌氧消化9d时,COD和BODs的去除率分别为82.1%和96.9%,接近最大去除潜力,剩余的主要为难降解COD.在试验模拟SBR活性污泥条件下,好氧段对于厌氧消化时间在0~9d内的厌氧消化液的NH4+-N去除效

  4. Anaerobic digestion of goat manure: bio-conversion of energy and bio fertilizer; Digestao anaerobica de dejetos de caprinos: conversor biologico de energia e biofertilizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de; Teixeira, Adunias dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br, adunias@ufc.com

    2009-07-01

    This research aims at analyzing biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of goat excrements related to energy generation, in addition to analyzing the bio-fertilizer as a byproduct of the process. Therefore, new products are generated from semi-intensive and extensive of goats, increasing its economical and environmental viability of the activity. The biogas was applied as the fuel for an Otto cycle internal combustion engine of 5.5 HP used to drive a hydraulic pump that supplied water to an area of one hectare of pasture. In addition, the spreadsheet GDER was applied to compute the kWh cost of the following electricity sources: biogas from goat excrement, diesel, electrical grid, wind and solar. It was found tat the biogas can substitute 30% of the daily energy requirements, and one can state that 1 m{sup 3} of biogas is equivalent to 740 mL of gasoline. (author)

  5. The effects of post-treatments and temperature on recovering the methane potential of > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Rintala, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    batch assays at 5-20 degrees C and at 35-55 degrees C to evaluate the treatment effects both under long-term (340 d) storage of solids and during active digestion (30 d), respectively. The effects of different treatments on the methane production of the solids varied with incubation temperatures...... and time. However, in all cases, methane productions at 15 degrees C and lower were slow and low for both untreated and treated solids even after long-term incubation. At 35 and 55 degrees C more methane was recovered from untreated solids producing up to 61-82 ml g(-1) volatile solids (VS)(added) in 30 d...... and 179-215 ml g(-1) VSadded in 340 d. Only chemical treatment with or without thermal treatment enhanced the methane yields while some treatments even decreased the yields. An increase in temperature to 35 degrees C of the assays incubated for 6 months at...

  6. Survival and persistence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soils amended with animal manure in a greenhouse environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological soil amendments (BSA's), including dairy cattle, poultry litter, and horse manure, play an important role in agriculture but may contain pathogens that can contaminate raw or ready-to-eat fruit and vegetable crops that are consumed raw. Proposed FDA standards include a 90- or 120-day inte...

  7. Determinants of Biogas Adoption in Manure Management of Vietnamese Household Pig Production : A Case Study in Tien Lu District, Hung Yen Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Nguyen Thi; Nanseki, Teruaki; Chomei, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Although biogas technology is one of the useful ways managing the animal manure to reduce environmental problems in rural area, many Vietnamese households that produce pigs still do not apply biogas digesters. This study aim to investigate the main factors contributing to biogas adoption in household pig production based on primary data collected in Tien Lu district, Hung Yen province in Vietnam and the use of Logit regression. The empirical results highlighted that socioeconomic characterist...

  8. The Effect of Feed to Inoculums Ratio on Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid and tap water resulting five different feed to inoculum (F/I ratios (i.e. 17.64, 23.51, 35.27, and 70.54. The operating temperatures were varied at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. At four F/Is tested, after 80 days digestion, the biogas yield were 191, 162, 144 and 112 mL/g VS, respectively. About 80% of the biogas production was obtained during the first 40 days of digestion. The best performance of biogas production will be obtained if F/I ratio is in the range of 17.64 to 35.27 (correspond to 25 – 50 % of rumen fluid. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system

  9. Porcine models of digestive disease: the future of large animal translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in non-rodent translational models for the study of human disease. The pig, in particular, serves as a useful animal model for the study of pathophysiological conditions relevant to the human intestine. This review assesses currently used porcine models of gastrointestinal physiology and disease and provides a rationale for the use of these models for future translational studies. The pig has proven its utility for the study of fundamental disease conditions such ...

  10. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION IN SANITIZATION OF PIG SLURRY AND BIOMASS IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Grudziński; Arkadiusz Pietruszka; Wojciech Sawicki

    2015-01-01

    Pig slurry is one of the production manure, which should be managed properly because of environmental threats it can cause. Pig slurry contains a wide range of microorganisms, most of which are opportunistic or obligatory pathogens for people and animals. Spreading it on fields without control can cause microbial contaminations of water and soil. Use of pig slurry as substrate in anaerobic digestion can be an effective way of sanitization. In this work role of methanogenic fermentation in pig...

  11. Interactive effects of age, sex, and strain on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of soybean meal and an animal by-product blend in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if age, sex, and strain of broilers affects the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of soybean meal (SBM) and an animal by-product blend (ABB). Chicks from two broiler strains, a commercially available and another in the test phase, were obta...

  12. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  13. Evaluation of the energetic equivalence of goat manure biogas; Avaliacao da equivalencia energetica do biogas de esterco de caprinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    The present paper shows the results of a research about a new production system model based on goats; part of the animals manure is used for biogas production. The biogas is used as fuel for water pumping for the irrigation of the animals pasture. For the viability of the project, a photovoltaic powered electrified fence was used. Additional to the positive results of sustainability, innovative solutions were developed for sizing, optimization and costs reduction by the use of digesters in small rural communities of the semi-arid of the Brazilian Northeast Region. (author)

  14. 畜禽粪便堆肥作为功能微生物载体的研究%Using Animal Manure as Carrier of Functional Microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏清; 袁英英; 区伟佳; 李华兴; 欧阳净化; 凌龙

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and best condition of using compost( utilizing chicken manure, pig manure, rice husk and sawdust as composting materials) as the carrier of functional microorganism instead of turf. The experiment used the compost as the carrier of three strains bacillus inoculums( Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus mucilaginosus ), meanwhile optimized the key factors, such as the water content of carrier, temperature and inoculation concentration. Taking changes of living cell quantity on the carrier at different stages as a standard. The result showed that the number of living cell quantity in chicken manure(C ), pig manure(P), mix chicken and pig manure( M ), and mix turf with pig manure(TP) in 72 h were much less than that of in turf(T); and the number of living cell quantity in the 50% turf+50% chicken manure(TC2) and 25% turf+75% mix chicken and pig manure(TM1 ) increased as time goes by; the number of living cell quantity in TC2 and TM1 respectively increased to 11.40×109 cfu·g-1 and 2.64×109 cfu·g-1 at the 72th hour, which have no significant difference comparing to that of T. Therefore, TC2 and TM1 could be used as the carrier of functional microorganism to replace T.Base on the single-factor experiment, the key factors that made TC2 and TM 1 the best carrier were:30% water content ,30 ℃ temperature and 108 cfu·mL-1 inoculation concentration.%以堆肥作为3株功能芽胞细菌液体菌剂的载体,通过优化载体含水量、温度和接种浓度等关键影响因子,以不同时间载体中有效活菌数的变化为指标,探讨堆肥代替草炭作为功能微生物载体的可行性和最适条件.研究结果表明,载体c(鸡粪)、P(猪粪)、M(1:1鸡粪猪粪)和TP(猪粪+草炭)在72 h内的有效活菌数均显著低于草炭;混合载体TC2(50%草炭+50%鸡粪)和TM1(25%草炭+75%1:1鸡粪猪粪)的有效活菌数随着时间的延长而增加,其中72h时TC2的有效活菌数达到11

  15. Organic manures as sources of fertiliser sulphur

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, J

    2001-01-01

    On a global scale, S excretion from domestic animals may be estimated to around 8 million t per year, corresponding to 80% of the World S consumption for mineral fertiliser manufacture. The utilisation of this potential source of fertiliser-S is discussed focusing on the use of manure from housing and manure storages applied to agricultural land. Especially in the developed countries the S content of manure collected from cattle and pigs (1 million t S per year) has a potential as S-fertilise...

  16. Persistence of pathogens in liquid pig manure processed in manure tanks and biodigesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Betancur H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the study and another one at the end of the process in manure tanks and biodigesters. For the manure tank, a 250 liters tank was filled with fresh pig manure and was analyzed after three days of storage. The biodigesters were of continuous flow and its effluents were analyzed, according to the specific hydraulic retention times. The diagnostic techniques were those recommended specifically for each microorganism and were carried out in certified labs by the Colombian Animal Health authority. Results. Of the 26 pathogens that were investigated, 15 appeared in the fresh pig manure used in pig manure tanks and 12 in the one used in biodigestors. In manure tanks, Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, mold, yeast, Salmonella spp., Balantidium coli and Strongylids did not persist. In biodigesters, PCV2, yeast, Strongylids, B. coli and Strongyloides spp., did not persist. Conclusions. In both manure tanks and biodigesters, a variation could be seen in pathogen persistency, indicating that they act as transformation systems of pig manure for the removal of the latter, as long as the storage times are increased if the efficiency wants to be improved.

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Condensed Tannins on Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Populations and Hydrogen Sulfide Production from Swine Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorous compounds and emissions associated with consolidated storage of swine manure are produced as a result of anaerobic microbial digestion of materials present in the manure. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such offensive and toxic odorant that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and...

  18. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    OpenAIRE

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The common house fly, Musca domestica (Md) is an important carrier of zoonotic agents, and Campylobacter jejuni is one that may be transmitted between animals and humans by flies. Colonized animals shed the bacteria in feces where larval stages of Md flies develops. Aim of the present study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larva...

  19. 不同种牛粪干发酵产气特性比较试验研究%Experimental study on the characteristics of gas production from dry anaerobic digestion of different kinds of cattle manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝其丽; 汤晓玉; 王文国; 潘科; 胡启春

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,comparative dry fermentation experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of cattle manure species on daily gas production,cumulative gas production and methane content. The results showed that the speed of start-up performance from fastest to slowest were cow manure, buffalo manure, cattle manure in sequence, while as to the cumulative gas production and average volume gas productivity from highest to lowest, they were buffalo manure,cattle manure,cow manure in sequence. The compositions of gas produced from dry fermentation of these three cattle manures were approximately similar. The methane content produced from fermentation of buffalo manure was higher than that from other two manures. Generally speaking, the effect of gas production from buffalo manure was better than that from cattle manure and cow manure. This paper provides reference for feedstocks selection in future related research or biogas engineering design.%采用干发酵技术处理3种不同种类的牛粪,比较了各种牛粪发酵的日产气量、累计产气量和产甲烷比例的差异.结果表明,相对于水牛粪和黄牛粪,奶牛粪干发酵产气的启动更快;累计产气量和平均容积产气率均以水牛粪为最高,黄牛粪次之,奶牛粪最低;3种牛粪干发酵过程中的产甲烷比例变化趋势大体上相似,在发酵初期由低到高逐渐增加,之后趋于平稳,其中水牛粪的产甲烷比例相对于奶牛粪和黄牛粪略高;总体来看,水牛粪干发酵的产气效果优于奶牛粪和黄牛粪,这为以后的相关研究或沼气工程设计中的原料选取提供了参考.

  20. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental co

  1. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be...

  2. Economic analyses of pig manure treatment options in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Tereza; Troy, Shane M; Gilkinson, Stephen; Frost, Peter; Xie, Sihuang; Zhan, Xinmin; Harrington, Caolan; Healy, Mark G; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-02-01

    An economic analysis was performed on treatment options for pig manure in Ireland. Costs were based on a 500 sow integrated pig farm producing 10,500 m(3) of manure per year at 4.8% dry matter. The anaerobic digestion of pig manure and grass silage (1:1; volatile solids basis) was unviable under the proposed tariffs, with costs at € 5.2 m(-3) manure. Subsequent solid-liquid separation of the digestate would cost an additional € 12.8 m(-3) manure. The treatment of the separated solid fraction by composting and of the liquid fraction by integrated constructed wetlands, would add € 2.8 and € 4.6 m(-3) manure, respectively to the treatment costs. The cost analysis presented showed that the technologies investigated are currently not cost effective in Ireland. Transport and spreading of raw manure, at € 4.9 m(-3) manure (15 km maximum distance from farm) is the most cost effective option.

  3. Analysis of manure-derived oxytetracycline in amended soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a member of tetracycline antibiotic family, oxytetracycline is widely administered to animals. With the application of manure from medicated animals as fertilizer into agricultural land, oxytetracycline may enter the environment. For studying oxytetracycline contamination and its fate in agricult...

  4. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  5. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  6. From Waste to Watts: The fermentation of animal waste occuring in a digester producing methane gasses as a side product and converted to energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S.

    2015-12-01

    The waste product from animals is readily available all over the world, including third world countries. Using animal waste to produce green energy would allow low cost energy sources and give independence from fossil fuels. But which animal produces the most methane and how hard is it to harvest? Before starting this experiment I knew that some cow farms in the northern part of the Central California basin were using some of the methane from the waste to power their machinery as a safer, cheaper and greener source through the harnessed methane gas in a digester. The fermentation process would occur in the digester producing methane gasses as a side product. Methane that is collected can later be burned for energy. I have done a lot of research on this experiment and found that many different farm and ranch animals produce methane, but it was unclear which produced the most. I decided to focus my study on the waste from cows, horses, pig and dogs to try to find the most efficient and strongest source of methane from animal waste. I produced an affordable methane digester from plastic containers with a valve to attach a hose. By putting in the waste product and letting it ferment with water, I was able to produce and capture methane, then measure the amount with a Gaslab meter. By showing that it is possible to create energy with this simple digester, it could reduce pollution and make green energy easily available to communities all over the world. Eventually this could result into our sewer systems converting waste to energy, producing an energy source right in your home.

  7. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.;

    2013-01-01

    accessible during subsequent anaerobic digestion. This finding has confirmed earlier experimental results, showing that delignification was not necessarily the limiting factor during conversion of manure fibers into methane while cellulose accessibility during digestion seemed more crucial.......AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning...

  8. Paddy Soil Stability and Mechanical Properties as Affected by Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Animal Manure in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wet stability, penetration resistance (PR), and tensile strength (TS) of paddy soils under a fertilization experiment for 22 years were determined to elucidate the function of soil organic matter in paddy soil stabilization. The treatments included no fertilization (CK), normal chemical fertilization (NPK), double the NPK application rates (2NPK), and NPK mixed with organic manure (NPK+OM). Compared with CK, fertilization increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil porosity. The results of soil aggregate fragmentation degree (SAFD) showed that fast wetting by water was the key fragmentation mechanism. Among the treatments, the NPK+OM treatment had the largest size of water-stable aggregates and greatest normal mean weight diameter (NMWD) (P ≤ 0.05), but the lowest PR and TS in both cultivated horizon (Ap) and plow pan. The CK and 2NPK treatments were measured with PR > 2.0 MPa and friability index < 0.20,respectively, in the Ap horizon, suggesting that the soils was mechanically unfavourable to root growth and tillage. In the plow pan, the fertilization treatments had greater TS and PR than in CK. TS and PR of the tested soil aggregates were negatively correlated to SOC content and soil porosity. This study suggested that chemical fertilization could cause deterioration of mechanical properties while application of organic manure could improve soil stability and mechanical properties.

  9. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; ZIMMERMAN, PATRICK R.; Harper, Michael T.; Hristova, Rada A.; Zimmerman, R. Scott; Branco, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but ...

  10. Evaluation of digestion procedures in Kjeldahl method to quantify total nitrogen in analyses applied to animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Eder da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the salt-to-metal catalyst ratio and amount of digestion mixture on total nitrogen content in different materials using the Kjeldahl method were evaluated. Four samples with low nitrogen contents and four samples with high nitrogen contents were analyzed. The study evaluated two ratios of salt (sodium sulfate to metal catalyst (copper sulfate in the digestion mixture (10:1 and 20:1 and three amounts of digestion mixture per sample (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g 200 mg-1. There was an interaction between low-nitrogen material and amount of digestion mixture on nitrogen contents. Samples of cattle feces and corn presented higher nitrogen content when 1.5 and 2.0 g of digestion mixture were used. The high-nitrogen materials presented higher nitrogen contents when 2.0 g of the digestion mixture was used. However, there was an interaction between high-nitrogen material and the ratio of the digestion mixture components. The cattle carcass sample showed higher nitrogen content when the 20:1 ratio was used. The digestion mixture amount in the Kjeldahl method must be 2.0 g with a salt-to-metal catalyst ratio of 20:1 when samples of approximately 200 mg are analyzed.

  11. Application of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking for enhancement of methane potential of swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants is challenging because the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to biodegrade and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. Therefore, pretreatment...... of the solid fraction is a prerequisite for increasing its digestibility. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal as a pretreatment method for increasing methane potential and biogas productivity of raw and digested manure fibers. Methods...

  12. 干物质浓度对牛粪秸秆厌氧发酵产沼气的影响%Effect of Different Dry Matter Concentration on Dry Anaerobic Fermentation of Animal Manure and Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石利军; 黄淼; 刘慧芬; 张伟玉

    2013-01-01

    In this paper anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and straw was conducted to produce biogas .Under the con-ditions of C/N=25-30 and T=36℃, five kinds of dry matter concentration of 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%and 2 .5%were tested to investigate the effect of dry matter concentration on anaerobic digestion .The result showed that first 30 days was the biogas production peak phase and VFA concentrations in the leachate were also high during the same period .When dry matter concentration increased , biogas production amount appeared larger fluctuation , and the concentrations of alka-linity and NH4+-N in the leachate also increased with higher organic loading rate .Among five kinds of dry matter con-centration 10% was more suitable for anaerobic digestion to produce biogas with total biogas production amount of 4710 mL after 30 days and volume biogas production rates of 0 .313 m3/m3 · d.These results could provide instructive meaning to the engineering application of dry anaerobic digestion .%  在发酵原料C/N=25~30,T=36℃的条件下,研究20%,15%,10%,5%和2.5%等5种干物质浓度对牛粪秸秆混合干式厌氧发酵产沼气性能的影响。实验结果表明:发酵前30 d 为产气高峰期,同时发酵渗滤液中的VFA浓度也较高;干物质浓度增加时,产气量波动增大,渗滤液中碱度和 NH4+-N 浓度升高,发酵装置的有机负荷率也较高;10%的干物质浓度产气效果最好,发酵前30d的累积产气量为4710mL,相应的容积产气率可以达到0.313m3/m3· d。实验得到的结果对牛粪秸秆混合发酵的实际应用具有一定的指导意义。

  13. Assessment of heavy metal flows in animal husbandry and development of a stategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into agro-ecosystems by animal manures; Erfassung von Schwermetallstroemen in landwirtschaftlichen Tierproduktionsbetrieben und Erarbeitung einer Konzeption zur Verringerung der Schwermetalleintraege durch Wirtschaftsduenger tierischer Herkunft in Agraroekosysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, U.; Doehler, H.; Roth, U.; Eckel, H.; Goldbach, H.; Kuehnen, V.; Wilcke, W.; Uihlein, A.; Fruechtenicht, K.; Steffens, G.

    2004-07-01

    The overall objectives of the project were to assess heavy metal flows on livestock farms and to develop a strategy to reduce heavy metal inputs into animal manures. For the experiments 20 farms with animal husbandry in various regions of Germany were selected. On the farms the inputs and outputs of the elements copper and zinc, as well as lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel were balanced at the stable level. The effect of abatement measures was evaluated using a calculation tool for stable balances. It is shown, the main input pathways for heavy metals into animal manures are, apart from copper disinfectants, feeding stuffs and feed supplements. Home grown feeds are the major source of heavy metal input into the stable because they are fed in large quantities. However, the heavy metal content of the home grown feeds in particular of roughages for ruminants is low. Purchased feed stuffs (supplementary feeding stuffs and complete feeding stuffs) were found to have a higher content of heavy metals (due to supplementation with trace elements) compared to home grown feeds. Thus, pig and poultry husbandry rather than ruminant husbandry is susceptible to heavy metal accumulation of manures. Heavy metals are cycling within the farm which is of importance when discussing the environmental impact. The turnover within the farm can hardly be controlled by the farmer. Thus, effective strategies have to be targeted at the inputs, e. g. the purchased feed stuffs. A main option to reduce the heavy metal input is to lower the trace element concentrations in supplementary feed stuffs either by legislation of maximum threshold values (e. g. EG 1334/2003) or by volunteer agreements of the feed industry and agriculture. In addition, the absorption of copper and zinc by the animals should be improved using better absorbable trace element compounds and phytase. (orig.)

  14. 鸡粪与NaOH预处理麦秸联合厌氧发酵产气性能与协同效果研究%Performance and synergistic effect of anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and pretreated wheat straw with NaOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健; 袁海荣; 邹德勋; 朱保宁; 张良; 李兵; 冯亚君; 李秀金

    2012-01-01

    Biogas production and gynergistic effect on anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and pretreated wheat straw with 2% NaOH was studied.Three loadings were tested, which were made by mixing chicken manure with pretreated wheat straw at different ratios.Biogas yield of the chicken manure and wheat straw ratios of 1:2 was the optimal in the three loading rates, and their cumulative gas yield achieved 32 000 mL,43 030 mL,and 50 370 mL when corresponding loading was 50,65,80 g/L,and the gas yield achieved 328.2,356.9,352.8 mL/g and increased by 27%, 29%, 23% compared to pure chiken manure.The loading of the best biogas performance was 65 g/L in the chicken manure and wheat straw ratios of 1:2,and cumulative biogas yield increased by 7%~17.7% due to the synergistic effect of chicken manure and pretreated wheat straw.%试验研究了不同负荷下不同混合比例的鸡粪与NaOH预处理麦秸的厌氧发酵产气性能和协同作用效果.以鸡粪和2%NaOH预处理后的麦秸作为发酵原料,研究了混合物料在3种负荷和9种混合比例条件下的厌氧发酵产气情况.结果表明:在3种负荷(50,65,80 g/L)中,均是鸡粪和麦秸比例为1∶2时产气效果最佳,其累计产气量分别达到32000,43 030 mL和50 370mL;其TS产气率分别达到328.2,356.9,352.8 mL/g,比纯鸡粪相应负荷分别提高了 27%,29%,23%.不同比例下,3种负荷中,均是65 g/L时产气效果最好,鸡粪与麦秸的协同作用使累计产气量提高了7%~17.7%.

  15. Turnover of manure 15N-labelled ammonium during composting and soil application as affected by lime and superphosphate addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Tien Minh; Luxhøi, Jesper; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-01-01

    To determine N turnover and losses during aerobic composting of animal manure, a 41-d laboratory study was performed on pig manure composting with three additive treatments (Straw: pig manure + straw only; Lime: pig manure + straw + quick lime; and SSP: pig manure + straw + single superphosphate...... superphosphate increased the NH4-N content in both. Therefore, superphosphate addition increased the potential fertilizer value of composted pig manure. © Soil Science Society of America....

  16. Use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and the fate of antibiotic residues and resistance genes in the environment after land application of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two swine confinement facilities, designated sites A and C were the focus of study. The antibiotic regimens at both sites included chlortetracycline and tylosin. Hog manure at these sites was treated in open, unlined lagoons before being applied as fertilizer to onsite (site A) and offsite (Site C) farm fields. Sites differed in their sub-surface geology, and each site was outfitted with a network of groundwater sampling wells for the monitoring of chemical contaminants, antibiotic residues, bacterial indicators of faecal contamination, and antibiotic resistance genes. Sterile containers were used to collect water from waste lagoons and wells once in 2000, and twice in 2001 and 2002. Additionally, the presence of antibiotic resistance genes was investigated from soil samples collected from 2005 to 2007 from seven different fields that were amended with manure. DNA was extracted from water and soil samples. Detection of antibiotic resistance genes was accomplished by PCR using primers that have been described elsewhere. These primer sets targeted three major groups of antibiotic resistance genes: 1) four classes of genes (tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W)) conferring resistance to tetracycline by means of ribosomal protection proteins; 2) three classes of genes (tet(C), tet(H), tet(Z)) conferring resistance to tetracycline by means of efflux pump proteins; 3) eight RNA methylase genes (tlr(B), tlr(D), erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), erm(G), erm(Q)) conferring resistance to macrolide antibiotics, including tylosin and erythromycin, as well as to the lincosamide antibiotics and Streptogramin-B. The RNA methylases tlr(B) and tlr(D) have been found in tylosin-producing strains of soil bacteria, while the other six erm genes come from a diversity of pathogenic, human commensal, and environmental bacteria. These genes were selected as targets based on preliminary surveys of lagoon and groundwater and upon the antibiotic usage of the study sites. Presence

  17. Environmental consequences of different carbon alternatives for increased manure-based biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Land use change emissions from energy crops were included. • Soil carbon changes were modeled and included. • Source-segregated manure was the co-substrate yielding the greatest benefits. • Energy crop was the co-substrate displaying the worst environmental performance. • Straw and biowastes should be prioritized for co-digestion with manure. - Abstract: Manure-biogas is a renewable energy resource rather untapped in Europe in comparison to its full potential. Given the current and emerging renewable energy targets, considerable increases in its production can be expected. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) study investigated the environmental consequences of different co-substrate strategies for reaching drastic increases in manure-biogas production in Denmark. Six co-substrates not already fully used for biogas were considered: energy crops, straw, household food waste, commercial food waste, garden waste and the solid fraction deriving from source-segregation of animal urine and feces. Soil carbon changes as well as direct and indirect land use changes were included in the LCA. Source-segregated manure stood out as the environmentally best co-substrate, followed by garden waste. Co-substrates already in use for energy recovery (straw, household and commercial food wastes) displayed a more modest environmental performance while energy crops, here represented by maize silage, was the only option giving rise to net greenhouse gas emissions. This was essentially due to the indirect land use change emissions related to this scenario, which were quantified to 357 t CO2 eq. ha−1 displaced

  18. Centralized co-digestion and efficient nutrient recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafdrup, S. [Danish Energy Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The centralized biogas plants co-digest animal manure and organic waste, producing biogas and liquid fertilizer as a result. 19 centralized biogas plants are in operation in Denmark. In 1996 they digested 200,000 tonnes organic industrial wastes with 800,000 tonnes manure. The average gate fee for waste reception is around DKK 50 per tonne. Thus, the centralized biogas plants provide the organic waste producers with an economically attractive as well as environmentally sound recycling option. The farmers play a key role. It is a precondition that the farmers benefit sufficiently from the operation of the centralized biogas plant. An average economic advantage for the farmers of approximately DKK 5 in all per m{sup 3} slurry has been calculated. Even though this is a relatively modest amount, it is enough to generate interest on the part of the farmers. A further tightening of the legislation is expected in a few years concerning utilization of nutrients in manure and land applied organic wastes. This, together with increasing focus on odour reduction, is expected to add to the farmers interests in centralized biogas plants. At present biogas contributes with 2 PJ per year to the energy supply in Denmark. According to the official energy action plan, the total biogas production from all kinds of biogas plants is to be doubled by the year 2000 and increased 10-fold by the year 2020. A major part of this increase is expected to come from new centralized biogas plants. The annual potential for biogas production from biomass resources available in Denmark is estimated to be approximately 30 PJ. Animal manure comprises about 80% of this potential. (au)

  19. Non-digestible oligosaccharides used as prebiotic agents: mode of production and beneficial effects on animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizard, D; Barthomeuf, C

    1999-01-01

    Prebiotic agents are food ingredients that are potentially beneficial to the health of consumers. The main commercial prebiotic agents consist of oligosaccharides and dietary fibres (mainly inulin). They are essentially obtained by one of three processes: 1) the direct extraction of natural polysaccharides from plants; 2) the controlled hydrolysis of such natural polysaccharides; 3) enzymatic synthesis, using hydrolases and/or glycosyl transferases. Both of these enzyme types catalyse transglycosylation reactions, allowing synthesis of small molecular weight synthetic oligosaccharides from mono- and disaccharides. Presently, in Europe, inulin-type fructans, characterised by the presence of fructosyl units bound to the beta-2,1 position of sucrose, are considered as one of the carbohydrate prebiotic references. Prebiotics escape enzymatic digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and enter the caecum without change to their structure. None are excreted in the stools, indicating that they are fermented by colonic flora so as to give a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), L-lactate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. By stimulating bifidobacteria, they may have the following implications for health: 1) potential protective effects against colorectal cancer and infectious bowel diseases by inhibiting putrefactive bacteria (Clostridium perfringens ) and pathogen bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria and Shigella ), respectively; 2) improvement of glucid and lipid metabolisms; 3) fibre-like properties by decreasing the renal nitrogen excretion; 4) improvement in the bioavailability of essential minerals; and 5) low cariogenic factor. These potential beneficial effects have been largely studied in animals but have not really been proven in humans. The development of a second generation of oligosaccharides and the putative implication of a complex bacterial trophic chain in the intestinal prebiotic fermentation process are also

  20. Comparison of Kjeldahl and Dumas combustion methods for determination of nitrogen content in animal manures%杜马斯燃烧法与凯氏法测定畜禽粪便中氮含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈秀丽; 杨增玲; 薛俊杰; 杨旸

    2012-01-01

    为了比较杜马斯燃烧法与凯氏法测定畜禽粪便氮含量结果的异同,以取自中国不同地区的5种畜禽粪便和磺胺嘧啶标准物为试验材料,分别采用凯氏法和杜马斯燃烧法测定各种畜禽粪便的氮含量,并对上述2种氮含量测定结果进行比较分析.结果表明:5类畜禽粪便凯氏氮的质量分数范围为0.51%~3.19%,杜马斯燃烧氮的质量分数范围为0.51%~3.35%,2种方法测定值之间不存在显著性差异,变异系数CV均小于5%.畜禽粪便样品凯氏法与杜马斯燃烧法的测定结果呈显著性相关(R2=0.987,p<0.05),拟合直线的斜率与1以及截距与0之间均不存在显著性差异.因此,杜马斯燃烧法可以代替凯氏法测定蛋鸡、肉鸡、猪、奶牛和肉牛粪便中的氮含量.%In order to compare the determination features nitrogen content in animal manures by Dumas combustion method and Kjeldahl methods, five kinds of manures and one reference compound were analyzed for nitrogen concentrations using Kjeldahl and Dumas combustion procedures respectively. Statistical analysis was performed on Kjeldahl nitrogen and Dumas nitrogen values. The results showed that the Kjeldahl nitrogen content of animal manures ranged from 0.51% to 3.19% and the Dumas combustion nitrogen content ranged from 0.51% to 3.35%, there was no significant difference in the nitrogen mean values measured by the two methods, and the coefficient of variation of two methods were all below 5%. The nitrogen determined results from the all-samples population rendered a simple linear correlation (R2=0.987, p<0.05) between the two methods. All the Kjeldahl values as a function of Dumas values was close to 1:1 line. It was concluded that the Dumas combustion procedure is capable of replacing the Kjeldahl procedure for nitrogen analysis of animal manures in laboratory.

  1. Microbial Community and Chemical Characteristics of Swine Manure during Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabue, Steven L; Kerr, Brian J; Bearson, Bradley L; Hur, Manhoi; Parkin, Timothy; Wurtele, Eve S; Ziemer, Cherrie J

    2016-07-01

    Swine diet formulations have the potential to lower animal emissions, including odor and ammonia (NH). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of manure storage duration on manure chemical and microbial properties in swine feeding trials. Three groups of 12 pigs were fed a standard corn-soybean meal diet over a 13-wk period. Urine and feces were collected at each feeding and transferred to 12 manure storage tanks. Manure chemical characteristics and headspace gas concentrations were monitored for NH, hydrogen sulfide (HS), volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles. Microbial analysis of the stored manure included plate counts, community structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), and metabolic function (Biolog). All odorants in manure and headspace gas concentrations were significantly ( 13 wk). PMID:27380061

  2. Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia=Modelagem matemática para energia digestivel de ingredientes de origem animal para tilápias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Michelato

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals (MBM were used, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model is described below and cannot estimate digestible energy (DE of animal origin: . The path coefficients were medium or low, the highest direct effect was from gross energy (0.529, while the highest indirect effect was from crude protein, through gross energy (0.439. O objetivo deste estudo foi a formulação de equações para estimar a energia digestível em alimentos para a tilápia. Foram utilizados valores obtidos na literatura da composição centesimal em proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, matéria mineral e energia bruta (variáveis independentes, bem como a energia digestível (variável dependente obtidos em ensaios biológicos. Os dados foram submetidos à regressão linear múltipla “stepwise backward”. Foi realizada análise de trilha para medir os efeitos diretos e indiretos de cada variável independente sobre a dependente. Para validar o modelo foram utilizados dados de estudos independentes, e os valores obtidos em um ensaio de digestibilidade com juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, testando-se cinco farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO, utilizando o sistema de coleta de fezes de Guelph e óxido de cromo (III como indicador. A equação obtida não pode estimar os valores de

  3. Biochar-mediated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from soil amended with anaerobic digestates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation examines nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soil with simultaneous amendments of anaerobic digestates and biochar. The main source of anthropogenic emissions of N2O is agriculture and in particular, manure and slurry application to fields. Anaerobic digestates are increasingly used as a fertiliser and interest is growing in their potential as sources of N2O via nitrification and denitrification. Biochar is a stable product of pyrolysis and may affect soil properties such as cation exchange capacity and water holding capacity. Whilst work has been conducted on the effects of biochar amendment on N2O emissions in soils fertilised with mineral fertilisers and raw animal manures, little work to date has focused on the effects of biochar on nitrogen transformations within soil amended with anaerobic digestates. The aim of the current investigation was to quantify the effects of biochar application on ammonification, nitrification and N2O fluxes within soil amended with three anaerobic digestates derived from different feedstocks. A factorial experiment was undertaken in which a sandy loam soil (Dunnington Heath series) was either left untreated, or amended with three different anaerobic digestates and one of three biochar treatments; 0%, 1% or 3%. Nitrous oxide emissions were greatest from soil amended with anaerobic digestate originating from a maize feedstock. Biochar amendment reduced N2O emissions from all treatments, with the greatest effect observed in treatments with maximum emissions. The degree of N2O production and efficacy of biochar amelioration of gas emissions is discussed in context of soil microbial biomass and soil available carbon. - Highlights: • Nitrous oxide was emitted from anaerobic digestates applied to soil. • Simultaneous amendment of soil with biochar and anaerobic digestate reduced N2O emissions. • Soil nitrate accumulation occurred but was digestate dependent

  4. Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent (OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) or sewage sludge was investigated. In batch experiments it was shown that OME could be degraded into biogas when codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHW or sewage sludge, OME dilution...

  5. Improving biogas yields using an innovative pretreatment concept for conversion of the fiber fraction of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    A new concept to enable economically feasible operation of manure based biogas plants was tested in lab-scale. Wet explosion (WEx) was implemented as treatment of the residual manure fibers separated after the anaerobic digestion process for enhancing the biogas production before reintroducing in...

  6. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, N.; Groenestein, C.M.; de Boer

    2012-01-01

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid miner...

  7. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard. PMID:25753763

  8. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard.

  9. Effect of biochar pyrolyzed from wheat straws at different temperatures on biogas production characteristics of pig manure during mesophilic digestion%麦秸生物炭添加对猪粪中温厌氧发酵产气特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彩云; 靳红梅; 常志州; 杜静; 黄红英; 艾玉春; 周立祥

    2016-01-01

    During anaerobic digestion(AD), microbial intermediate metabolites often inhabit biogas production. Biochars may adsorb these metabolites and improve biogas production when co-existing with manure during anaerobic digestion because of their large surface. In this study, the effects of different biochars on biogas production characteristics of pig manure during mesophilic digestion were examined. Biochars were obtained from wheat straws by pyrolysis at 400, 500℃and 600℃(i.e., BC400, BC500 and BC600)and added to the AD re-actor at mesophilic condition(37±1)℃. Biogas and methane productivity were measured in the bench-scale batch AD experiment. Results showed that the biogas and methane production was significantly(PBC500>BC400. During 49 d AD, the biogas and methane production was 260.7~288.7 mL·g-1 VS and 163.7~185.5 mL·g-1 VS, for biochar addi-tions, increments by 77.1%~96.1%and 78.1%~101.8%, respectively, compared with pig manure alone. Biochar additions also significantly enhanced the digestion efficiency(T90)of pig manure and reduced the ignition time of AD system. The biogas production was obviously dif-ferent among different biochar treatments, which was ascribed to the different characteristics of biochars, such as surface area and porosity. These findings indicate that optimal biochar material and digestion condition should be considered during the operation of biogas plants.%为探明不同热解温度生物炭添加对猪粪中温厌氧消化产气的影响,以400、500、600℃热解制成的麦秸生物炭(BC400、BC500、BC600)为研究对象,采用批次发酵试验,探讨了生物炭添加对猪粪中温(37±1)℃厌氧发酵产气特性的影响。研究结果表明:麦秸热解生物炭可显著(PBC500>BC400。厌氧发酵49 d期间,添加生物炭处理的产气量和产甲烷量分别为260.7~288.7 mL·g-1 VS和163.7~185.5 mL·g-1 VS,较纯猪粪处理提高了77.1%~96.1%和78.1%~101.8%。同时,添加生物炭可

  10. Physical and thermal characteristics of dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutitarnnontr, Pakorn; Hu, Enzhu; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B

    2014-11-01

    Greenhouse and regulated gas emissions from animal waste are naturally mediated by moisture content and temperature. As with soils, emissions from manure could be readily estimated given the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties are described by models and microbes and nutrients are not limiting factors. The objectives of this study were to measure and model physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of dairy manure to support advanced modeling of gas and water fluxes in addition to solute, colloid, and heat transport. A series of soil science measurement techniques were applied to determine a set of fundamental properties of as-excreted dairy cattle manure. Relationships between manure dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content (θ) were obtained using time-domain reflectometry and capacitance-based dielectric measurements. The measured water retention characteristic for cattle manure was similar to organic peat soil. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function of dairy manure was inferred from inverse numerical fitting of laboratory manure evaporation results. The thermal properties of dairy manure, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and bulk volumetric heat capacity, were also determined using three penta-needle heat pulse probes. The accuracy of the heat capacity measurements was determined from a comparison of theoretical θ, estimated from the measured thermal properties with that determined by the capacitance-based dielectric measurement. These data represent a novel and unique contribution for advancing prediction and modeling capabilities of gas emissions from cattle manure, although the uncertainties associated with the complexities of shrinkage, surface crust formation, and cracking must also be considered.

  11. County-based estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal manure in the United States for 1982, 1987, and 1992.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains county estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal wastes produced annually for the years 1982, 1987, and 1992. The estimates are...

  12. Biogas plasticization coupled anaerobic digestion: batch test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, Keith A

    2007-06-01

    Biogas has unique properties for improving the biodegradability of biomass solids during anaerobic digestion (AD). This report presents batch test results of the first investigation into utilizing biogas plasticization to "condition" organic polymers during active digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Preliminary design calculations based on polymer diffusion rate limitation are presented. Analysis of the 20 degrees C batch test data determined the first order (k(1)) COD conversion coefficient to be 0.167 day(-1) with a maximum COD utilization rate of 11.25 g L(-1) day(-1). Comparison of these batch test results to typical conventional AD performance parameters showed orders of magnitude improvement. These results show that biogas plasticization during active AD could greatly improve renewable energy yields from biomass waste materials such as MSW RDF, STP sludges, food wastes, animal manure, green wastes, and agricultural crop residuals. PMID:17054122

  13. Synergy of sewage water treatment plants and processing of manure; Synergie RWZI en mestverwerking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisschops, I.; Weijma, J.; Van Eekert, M.; Spanjers, H. [Lettinga Associates Foundation LeAF, Wageningen (Netherlands); Timmerman, M.; Fe Buisonje, F. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research WLR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    The goal of this study is to explore profitable ways of processing manure in sewage water treatment plants. Technological options are explored for processing manure, the availability of manure in the surroundings, the space taken up by manure digestion and annual costs and benefits [Dutch] Het doel van deze studie is te verkennen hoe mest op rendabele wijze in rwzi's (rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallaties) verwerkt kunnen worden. Er is gekeken naar de technologische mogelijkheden om mest te kunnen verwerken, de beschikbaarheid van mest in de omgeving, ruimtebeslag van mestvergisting, en jaarlijkse kosten en opbrengsten.

  14. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  15. Cost-effective production of biogas from manure – retrogas project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Rohold, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    Transport of large quantities of low concentrated swine manure (total solids around 5-7%) to biogas plants represents a significant proportion of the operating costs for co-digestion plants. Together with the increment of the prices of the industrial effluents that are used for codigestion......, this is the main reason for the poor economic performance of biogas plants in Denmark. The idea of increasing the methane productivity of the manure has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before the anaerobic digestion of the swine manure. Thus, the solid and liquid...... fractions of the manure could be used to centralized biogas plants for methane production and as fertilizer on the farm, respectively. Unfortunately, the manure transportation systems today are designed for handling of liquid material and are useless for solid material transportation. A solution...

  16. Tenebrio molitor meal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss diets: effects on animal performance, nutrient digestibility and chemical composition of fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Belforti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of diets containing Tenebrio molitor (TM larvae meal on growth performances, somatic indexes, nutrient digestibility, dorsal muscle proximate and fatty acid (FA compositions of rainbow trout. Three hundred sixty fish were randomly divided into three groups with four replicates each. The groups were fed diets differing in TM inclusion: 0% (TM0, 25% (TM25 and 50% (TM50 as fed weight basis. Weight gain was not affected by treatment. Feeding rate was significantly higher in TM0 than TM50. Feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in TM0 than TM25 and TM50, while an opposite trend was observed for protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate. The survival rate was significantly lower in TM0 than TM25 and TM50. The apparent digestibility of protein was significantly lower in the TM50 group than the other groups, while the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and lipids was unaffected by treatment. If compared to control, the protein and lipid contents of fillets were respectively increased and decreased following TM inclusion in the diet. The Σn3/Σn6 FA ratio of fish dorsal muscle was linearly (TM0>TM25>TM50 reduced by TM inclusion in the diet. Results suggested that TM could be used during the growing phase in trout farming; however, additional studies on specific feeding strategies and diet formulations are needed to limit its negative effects on the lipid fraction of fillets.

  17. Energy production, nutrient recovery and greenhouse gas emission Potentials from Integrated Pig Manure Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage;

    2010-01-01

    Improper management of pig manure has resulted in environmental problems such as surface water eutrophication, ground water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. This study develops and compares 14 alternative manure management scenarios aiming at energy and nutrient extraction. The scenarios...... based on combinations of thermal pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, anaerobic co-digestion, liquid/solid separation, drying, incineration, and thermal gasification were compared with respect to their energy, nutrient and greenhouse gas balances. Both sole pig manure and pig manure mixed with other types...... option yielding a high potential energy utilization rate and greenhouse gas savings. If maximum electricity production is desired, anaerobic digestion is advantageous as the biogas can be converted to electricity at high efficiency in a gas engine while allowing production of heat for operation...

  18. 蘑菇废弃菌棒及其与猪粪混合发酵对沼气产量及质量的影响%Influence of Anaerobic Co-digestion of Mushroom Cultivation Wastes and Pig Manure on the Biogas Production and Its Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓媛方; 邱凌; 孙全平; 井良霄; Hassanein A.AM

    2012-01-01

    为了研究厌氧消化过程中日产气量、累计产气量和甲烷含量随厌氧消化时间的变化规律,在中温35℃±1℃条件下,采用批式单相厌氧消化工艺,分别用香菇、杏鲍菇和平菇废弃菌棒与猪粪混合发酵.结果表明,蘑菇菌棒具有很好的产气潜力,其中香菇菌棒TS产气量最高,为142.9 mL·g-1,平均产气量664.1 mL·d-1,杏鲍菇菌棒所产气体甲烷含量最高,平均63.8%;添加猪粪调节蘑菇菌棒C/N至25/1,对香菇菌棒前期严重酸化现象起到了很好的缓冲作用,使香菇菌棒、杏鲍菇菌棒和平菇菌棒累计产气量较单一物料分别提高了131.5%、97.9%和79.9%.研究结论为:香菇、杏鲍菇和平菇废弃菌棒均具有良好的产气潜力;添加猪粪能显著提高蘑菇菌棒累计产气量,同时提高香菇菌棒甲烷含量,降低杏鲍菇菌棒甲烷含量,对平菇菌棒甲烷含量影响不大.%In this research, the variations with time of daily biogas production, cumulative gas production and the fraction volume of methane during the anaerobic digestion have been investigated. The anaerobic batch digestion experiments were carried out at mesophilic condition 35 °C±l°C with three different kinds of mushrooms cultivation wastes alone, and mixed feedstock of mushroom cultivation waste and pig manure, separately. The results showed that the TS gas production rate of Shiitake cultivation waste had the highest production of 142. 9 mL·g-1, with daily biogas production of 664.1 mL. Plelmtus eqngiu cultivation waste had the highest CH4 content, the averages methane content was 63.8%; Mixing the mushrooms cultivation wastes with pig manure and adjusting the C/N to 25/1, the acidification phenomenon in the early stage of Shiitake cultivation waste had been well improved. Compared with the single mushroom cultivation wastes, the cumulative gas production of Shiitake cultivation waste, Plelmtus eqngiu cultivation waste and oyster mushroom

  19. Hygienisation and Nutrient Conservation of Sewage Sludge or Cattle Manure by Lactic Acid Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Scheinemann, Hendrik A.; Dittmar, Katja; Stöckel, Frank S.; Müller, Hermann; Krüger, Monika E.

    2015-01-01

    Manure from animal farms and sewage sludge contain pathogens and opportunistic organisms in various concentrations depending on the health of the herds and human sources. Other than for the presence of pathogens, these waste substances are excellent nutrient sources and constitute a preferred organic fertilizer. However, because of the pathogens, the risks of infection of animals or humans increase with the indiscriminate use of manure, especially liquid manure or sludge, for agriculture. Thi...

  20. 蜉金龟堆肥和自然堆肥类胡敏酸的表征及特性研究%Characteristics of humic-like acid of Aphodius-processed cow manure and natural cow manure compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康露; 吴景贵; 赵欣宇; 孟安华

    2013-01-01

    分别用焦磷酸钠和氢氧化钠浸提新鲜牛粪、蜉金龟堆肥(APCM)和自然堆肥(腐熟牛粪)产物中的类胡敏酸,采用元素组成、红外光谱及差热分析研究了其结构特征.元素分析结果表明,蜉金龟堆肥焦磷酸钠浸提物——类胡敏酸(NaHLA)的芳香性低于新鲜牛粪和自然堆肥,而碳水化合物及氮元素含量增加.蜉金龟堆肥氢氧化钠浸提物——类胡敏酸(PAHLA)的碳水化合物和氮元素含量也高于新鲜牛粪和自然堆肥,而自然堆肥PAHLA的芳香性略低于新鲜牛粪和蜉金龟堆肥.红外光谱分析结果表明,与自然堆肥NaHLA相比,蜉金龟堆肥NaHLA中羧酸脂类化合物、酮类化合物、脂肪族化合物及碳水化合物有所增加.与新鲜牛粪PAHLA相比,蜉金龟堆肥和自然堆肥PAHLA的碳水化合物、脂肪族化合物、酚类化合物及纤维素酯类减少,同时蜉金龟堆肥PAHLA的酰胺化合物在蜉金龟消化过程中被其吸收.差热分析结果表明,自然堆肥NaHLA的热稳定性高于新鲜牛粪和蜉金龟堆肥,而蜉金龟堆肥NaHLA的脂族化合物、外围官能团和分子内部芳香结构含量较高,分子结构较复杂.蜉金龟堆肥PAHLA存在两个放热峰,而新鲜牛粪和自然堆肥的中温放热峰消失.综上,蜉金龟堆肥和自然堆肥采用两种提取液浸提出类胡敏酸的结构特征存在差异性.%With further increase in aquaculture industry,it is predicted that annually total emissions of livestock feces will reach 42.44 billion tons by 2020.The pollution problems of livestock and poultry feces have become an increasing concern in the international community.It has therefore become imperative to recycle use of livestock and poultry feces.Currently,research has focused mainly on earthworm-processed animal manure and sporadic reports on Aphodius sp.There have also been studies on community species,mouthparts,and morphological and gut characteristics of Aphodius sp

  1. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  2. Increasing Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (R and tap water (W in several ratio resulting six different M:W:R ratio contents i.e. 1:1:0; 1:0.75:0.25; 1:0.5:0.5; 1:0.25:0.75; and 1:0:1 (correspond to 0; 12.5; 25, 37.5; 50, and 100 % rumen, respectively and six different total solid (TS contents i.e. 2.6, 4.6, 6.2, 7.4, 9.2, 12.3, and 18.4 %. The operating temperatures were at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. The best performance for biogas production was the digester with rumen fluid and TS content in the range of 25-50 % and 7.4 and 9.2 %, respectively. These results suggest that, based on TS content effects to biogas yield, rumen fluid inoculums exhibit the similar effect with other inoculums. Increasing rumen content will also increase biogas production. Due to the optimum total solid (TS content for biogas production between 7-9 % (or correspond to more and less manure and total liquid 1:1, the rumen fluid content of 50 % will give the best performance for biogas production. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.31-38 [How to cite this article: Budiyono, Widiasa, I.N., Johari, S. and Sunarso. (2014. Increasing Biogas

  3. 黑水虻对畜禽废弃物治理的研究进展%Development of Animal Manure Treatment by Black Soldier Fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘韶娜; 赵智勇

    2016-01-01

    Black soldier fly (Hermtia illm L.) is a kind of wide spread insect. The larve is live on animal waste, animal carcass,decomposed organic matter and so on.It can be used for organic waste management which can reduce environmental pollution . The dry larve is 42%~43% of its whole weight , which contained 42%~44%protein,31%~35% fat,and essitial amino-acid.It can be used as an animal feed which larve can produced antibacterial peptide and biodiesel.%黑水虻(Hermitia illm L.)是一种广泛分布的昆虫,幼虫取食动物尸体粪便、腐烂有机物等,能被用作有机废弃物的无害化处理,减少了环境污染。幼虫虫体干物质达42%~43%,粗蛋白质占干重的42%~44%,粗脂肪占31%~35%,含有丰富的必需氨基酸,是畜禽饲料的优质资源。

  4. Effect of swine manure dilution on ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal manure is a significant source of environmental pollution and manure dilution in barn cleaning and slurry storage is a common practice in animal agriculture. The effect of swine manure dilution on releases of four pollutant gases was studied in a 30-day experiment using eight manure reactors divided into two groups. One group was treated with swine manure of 6.71% dry matter and another with manure diluted with water to 3.73% dry matter. Ammonia release from the diluted manure was 3.32 mg min-1 m-2 and was 71.0% of the 4.67 mg min-1 m-2 from the undiluted manure (P -1 m-2 from the diluted manure was 56.4% of the 154.8 mg min-1 m-2 from the undiluted manure (P 0.05) for both hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide releases. Therefore, dilution could also significantly increase the total releases of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide to the environment because dilution adds to the total manure volume and usually also increases the total gas release surface area.

  5. Farmyard manure management and its effect on maize fodder and soil nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stored manure in open heaps exposed to the sun, wind and rain accounts for substantial nutrient losses. A study was conducted to asses the effect of storing manures by traditional uncovered means or covered (under shade) and subsequently used as a fertilizer to determine effects on soil fertility and maize fodder performance. Manure from 5 animal groups was stored either traditionally or covered and the compost applied to a heavy loam soil. The DM and ash contents of the manure were higher in the uncovered compared to the covered manure. The N content of covered manure was 9.6 % higher along with P availability and exchangeable K than uncovered manures. Application of manure, whether covered or not, improved the fertilizer profile of soil than the non-manured control. There was 16.6% and 25.4 % increase in N in plots receiving manure from uncovered and covered manure piles respectively compared to the control plots that were not fertilized. The P level was increased by 6.8 and 19.3% in uncovered and covered manure plots compared to the control plots. Exchangeable K was increased by 1.3 and 1.6 times in uncovered and covered manured plots, respectively. Fresh fodder yield was 28, 32 and 35.2 metric tons per hectare for the control, uncovered and covered manure plots, respectively. Crude protein content was 8.58, 8.26 and 7.43% respectively in fodders from covered, uncovered and non-manure plots. Overall, there was a conservation of nutrients in covered than in uncovered manure with a concomitant increase in fodder biomass yield. (author)

  6. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  7. Long-term manure carbon sequestration in soil simulated with the Daisy model on the basis of short-term incubation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Yubaraj Kumar; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag;

    2013-01-01

    application of the two manures (70 kg organic manure N ha-1 plus 90 kg mineral N ha-1) and compared with a mineral N reference (120 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Carbon retention in soil was related to the initial C in non-digested manure, and after 52 years of repeated manure application extra C retention was equivalent......This study focused on simulating the long-term soil carbon sequestration after application of anaerobically digested and non-digested cattle manure using the Daisy model. The model was parameterized and calibrated for soil carbon (C) release during a 247 days incubation study including a coarse...... sand and a loamy sand amended with the two manures. The calibrated set-ups used to simulate long-term cereal cultivation with annual C application of 1023 kg C ha-1 in non-digested manure or 543 kg C ha-1 in digested manure (similar manure N application). Long-term simulations were made with annual...

  8. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  9. Transforming anaerobic digestion with the Model T of digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.F.; Ciotola, R.; Castano, J.; Eger, C.; Schlea, D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ecological Engineering Program

    2010-07-01

    Most livestock farmers in the United States do not take advantage of anaerobic digester technology because of the high cost and large scale. These limitations therefore reduce the production of renewable energy from farmlands. In order to expand anaerobic digestion methods and improve environmental quality, affordable and smaller-scale digesters should be developed to enable most livestock farmers to convert manure to methane. Doing so would improve their economic efficiency and environmental sustainability. This paper provided an analogy to the development of the Model T to better explain the need and potential for this technology. A modified fixed-dome digester was installed on the Ohio State University dairy in Columbus, Ohio. The digester was unheated, buried, had a volume of 1 m{sup 3} and received diluted dairy manure as feedstock. Biogas was produced at digester temperatures as low 10 degrees C during colder ambient temperatures. Water quality also improved. Results from the first year of operation will be analyzed to improve performance and enable future development of this technology.

  10. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Massé, Daniel I.; Guillaume Jarret; Chaouki Benchaar; Noori M. Cata Saady

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure dur...

  11. A new chymotrypsin-like serine protease involved in dietary protein digestion in a primitive animal, Scorpio maurus: purification and biochemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most recent works on chymotrypsins have been focused on marine animals and insects. However, no study was reported in chelicerate. Results Scorpion chymotrypsin-like protease (SCP was purified to homogeneity from delipidated hepatopancreases. The protease NH2-terminal sequence exhibited more than 60% monoacids identity with those of insect putative peptidases. The protease displayed no sequence homology with classical proteases. From this point of view, the protease recalls the case of the scorpion lipase which displayed no sequence homology with known lipases. The scorpion amylase purified and characterized by our time, has an amino-acids sequence similar to those of mammalian amylases. The enzyme was characterized with respect its biochemical properties: it was active on a chymotrypsin substrate and had an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa, like the classically known chymotrypsins. The dependence of the SCP activity and stability on pH and temperature was similar to that of mammalian chymotrypsin proteases. However, the SCP displayed a lower specific activity and a boarder pH activity range (from 6 to 9. Conclusion lower animal have a less evaluated digestive organ: a hepatopancreas, whereas, higher ones possess individualized pancreas and liver. A new chymotrypsin-like protease was purified for the first time from the scorpion hepatopancreas. Its biochemical characterization showed new features as compared to classical chymotrypsin-higher-animals proteases.

  12. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  13. Potential of Biological Processes to Eliminate Antibiotics in Livestock Manure: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Degrading antibiotics discharged in the livestock manure in a well-controlled bioprocess contributes to a more sustainable and environment-friendly livestock breeding. Although most antibiotics remain stable during manure storage, anaerobic digestion can degrade and remove them to various extents depending on the concentration and class of antibiotic, bioreactor operating conditions, type of feedstock and inoculum sources. Generally, antibiotics are degraded during composting > anaerobic digestion > manure storage > soil. Manure matrix variation influences extraction, quantification, and degradation of antibiotics, but it has not been well investigated. Fractioning of manure-laden antibiotics into liquid and solid phases and its effects on their anaerobic degradation and the contribution of abiotic (physical and chemical versus biotic degradation mechanisms need to be quantified for various manures, antibiotics types, reactor designs and temperature of operations. More research is required to determine the kinetics of antibiotics’ metabolites degradation during anaerobic digestion. Further investigations are required to assess the degradation of antibiotics during psychrophilic anaerobic digestion.

  14. Viability and fate of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in tubular anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Maureen N; Trimmer, John; Izurieta, Ricardo; Cunningham, Jeffrey; Ergas, Sarina J

    2016-06-01

    In many developing countries where pathogenic diseases of animal waste origin, such as giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, are often prevalent, facilities are limited to treat livestock waste. However, household-scale anaerobic digesters are currently being promoted for bioenergy production from livestock manure. Since the effluent is often used as a fertilizer for food crops, it is critical to understand the effect of environmental conditions within household-scale digesters on the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts. In this study, key environmental parameters affecting (oo)cyst inactivation were measured in four tubular anaerobic digesters, which are a type of household-scale digester promoted for treatment of swine waste in rural Costa Rica. Interviews and participant observations were used to understand digester operation and maintenance procedures. Ambient temperatures (21-24°C), near-neutral pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrationsparvum were 0.155 ± 0.041 and 0.054 ± 0.006 day(-1), respectively. Temperature and volatile fatty acids were the main factors contributing to Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia inactivation. A mathematical model was developed that predicts the concentration of (oo)cysts in the liquid effluent of tubular digesters like those observed in Costa Rica. A mathematical model was developed that predicts the concentration of (oo)cysts in the liquid effluent of tubular digesters like those observed in Costa Rica. Two dimensionless groups can be used to predict the performance of the digesters for inactivating pathogens; both dimensionless groups depend upon the average HRT in the digester. This is the first study to combine mathematical modeling with qualitative analysis, field and laboratory studies to predict the concentrations of (oo)cysts in tubular digester effluents. PMID:26950630

  15. Modelos não lineares para a liberação de potássio de estercos animais em latossolos Non linear models to potassium release from animals manure in Latosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmes Marques Zeviani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modelos não lineares são adequados para a descrição da liberação de nutrientes, uma vez que estimam quantidades de interesse prático e apresentam boa qualidade de ajuste. Embora seu processo inferencial seja baseado em argumentos assintóticos, existem meios de se conhecer a intensidade da não linearidade. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a não linearidade de dois modelos de regressão não linear por meio das curvaturas de Bates e Watts, vício de Box e do estudo das propriedades amostrais dos estimadores de mínimos quadrados, obtido por simulação. Os dados são provenientes do estudo, ao longo do tempo, da liberação de K de quatro estercos animais em combinação com dois solos. O modelo Exponencial foi mais adequado, em termos inferenciais e para aplicação prática, uma vez que por todas as medidas apresentou menor não linearidade.Nonlinear models are appropriate to describe nutrient release, since they estimate quantities of practical interest and they have goodness of fit. Although its inferential process is based on asymptotic arguments, there are ways to know the nonlinearity intensity. In this work, we evaluate the nonlinearity of two nonlinear regression models through the curvatures of Bates e Watts, bias of Box and the least squares estimator sampling properties by simulation study. The data are from the study, over time, of the K release from 4 animal manure in combination with 2 soils. The exponential model was more appropriate in terms of inferential and practical aspects, since by all measures showed lower nonlinearity.

  16. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  17. Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion systems for agri-food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, A.; Baldwin, S.; Wang, M. [British Colombia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Activities in British Columbia's Fraser Valley generate an estimated 3 million tones of agriculture and food wastes annually, of which 85 per cent are readily available for anaerobic digestion. The potential for energy generation from biogas through anaerobic digestion is approximately 30 MW. On-farm manure-based systems represent the most likely scenario for the development of anaerobic digestion in British Columbia in the near future. Off-farm food processing wastes may be an alternative option to large centralized industrial complexes. Odour control, pathogen reduction, improved water quality, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and reduced landfill usage are among the environmental benefits of anaerobic digestion. The economical benefits include power and heat generation, biogas upgrading, and further processing of the residues to produce compost or animal bedding. This paper described a newly developed anaerobic digestion (AD) calculator that helps users regarding their investment decision in AD facilities. The calculator classifies various technology options into several major types of AD systems. It also constructs kinetic and economic models for these systems and provides a fair estimation on biogas yield, digester volume, capital cost and annual income. The calculator takes into consideration factors such as the degradability of wastes with different compositions and different operating parameters.

  18. Biochar from Swine solids and digestate influence nutrient dynamics and carbon dioxide release in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Rosa; Castelli, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of livestock manure solids are expected to become available in the near future due to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents. The charring of manure solids for biochar (BC) production represents an opportunity for recycling organic matter (OM) of high nutrient value. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the suitability of BC from swine solids (SS) to improve soil fertility through nutrient supply and decomposition of the OM incorporated into soil and to verify a possible interaction effect on soil nutrient dynamics between digestate application and soil amendment with BC. We monitored at laboratory scale the soil mineral nitrogen (N) and Olsen phosphorus (P) content, and the cumulative carbon dioxide (CO-C) release in treatments with or without a supply of digestate obtained from a biogas plant. The experiment was performed in laboratory microcosms during a 3-mo incubation period. Compared treatments were soil amendments with SS, BC from SS, wood chip, BC from wood chip, and soil with no amendment, each of them with and without incorporation of digestate (10 treatments in total). Soil N levels were unaffected by BC amendments and only increased temporarily when digestate was applied to soil amended with SS or BC from SS. For the same N content, the BC from SS supplied much more P than the nontreated OM. The amount of cumulative CO-C released from soil with BC with or without digestate did not differ from that in the unamended control soil and was lower than that in the soils with noncharred amendments. Soil amendment with BC from SS does not modify soil N availability, whereas it increases the content of P available for crops and reduces the release of CO-C from digestate applied to soil for agricultural purposes.

  19. Prediction of manure nitrogen and carbon output from grower-finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu Thi Khanh, Van; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard;

    2009-01-01

    Intensive pig production may be a hazard to the environment due to plant nutrient leakage and losses. To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce oversupplying of crops with nutrients, there is a need for precise assessment of nutrient content in manure and manure excretion....... This study has developed algorithms for predicting the amount of excreta and manure content of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C). Data compiled from 285 digestibility and N balance experiments with growing-finishing pigs diets fed diets varying widely in chemical composition were used to establish algorithms....... The main input variables were analysed nutrients contents together with intake of dry matter and digestibility of organic matter (diOM)....

  20. Determination of chromium, iron and selenium in foodstuffs of animal origin by collision cell technology, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after closed vessel microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of chromium (52Cr), iron (56Fe) and selenium (80Se) isotopes in foodstuffs of animal origin has been performed by collision cell technology (CCT) mode using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector after closed vessel microwave digestion. To significantly decrease the argon-based interferences at mass to charge ratios (m/z): 52 (40Ar12C), 56 (40Ar16O) and 80 (40Ar40Ar), the gas-flow rates of a helium and hydrogen mixture used in the hexapole collision cell were optimised to 1.5 ml min-1 H2 and 0.5 ml min-1 He and the quadrupole bias was adjusted daily between -2 and -15 mV. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.025, 0.086 and 0.041 mg kg-1 for Cr, Fe and Se, respectively, in 6% HNO3 were estimated under optimized CCT conditions. These LOQ were improved by a factor of approximately 10 for each element compared to standard mode. Precision under repeatability, intermediate precision reproducibility and trueness have been tested on nine different certified reference materials in foodstuffs of animal origin and on an external proficiency testing scheme. The results obtained for chromium, iron and selenium were in all cases in good agreement with the certified values and trueness was improved, compared to those obtained in standard mode

  1. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health. PMID:27376311

  2. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  3. Consumption and digestion of animal food by rocky intertidal herbivores: an evaluation of digestive flexibility and omnivory in three grazing species Consumo y digestión de alimento animal por herbívoros del intermareal rocoso: evaluación de flexibilidad digestiva y omnivoría en tres especies de pastoreadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio A Camus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of invertebrates by herbivores on rocky intertidal shores is traditionally considered a casual phenomenon. However, a recent study of 29 species in northern Chile shows that animal consumption is widespread, consistent, and important, suggesting that some of these herbivores may actually be omnivores. Therefore, we examined the capability of three common Chilean herbivores (the key-hole limpets Fissurella limbata and Fissurella pida and the polyplacophoran Chiton granosus to digest animal food. For each species, we conducted no-choice feeding experiments using artificial foods based on either algal or animal tissue from one of their frequent prey (Ulva rigida, Perumytilus purpuratus. After the feeding trials, we evaluated the total proteolytic activity (availability of free amino acids in the digestive contents of the species studied and, as a reference, we evaluated this activity in animals obtained directly from the field. We found that all three species were able to eat animal food, and this consumption was not significantly different from that of algal food, suggesting that both foods were not only edible but at least similarly palatable. In addition, we detected comparable levels of proteolytic activity under the three feeding conditions for the three species. No statistical differences were found for C. granosus, but activity was significantly higher with animal food in F. limbata and with algal food in F. pida. Our data show the high digestive flexibility of these species, suggesting their ability for adaptive modulation and the possibility that they are true omnivorous consumers. We discuss the implications of these results for our current view of the structure of rocky intertidal food webs.La ingestión de invertebrados por herbívoros de costas intermareales rocosas se considera tradi-cionalmente un fenómeno casual. Sin embargo, un estudio reciente en 29 especies del norte de Chile muestra que el consumo animal es

  4. Life Cycle Inventory & Assessment Report: Separation of Digested Fattening Pig Slurry for Optimal P Concentration, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    The purpose of this Life Cycle Assessment report is to investigate the potential for separating the digested pig manure after the biogas plant in order to optimise the utilisation of the phosphorous content of the manure. By separating, the phosphorous rich solid fraction can be brought to fields...... far away from the farm with a need for phosphorus, as the fields close to the pig farm areas usually contain abundant amounts of P. The environmental consequences of the separation has been assessed. Furthermore, the Life Cycle Assessment highlights the environmental impacts along the “manure...... of Manure Technology Chains in the project Baltic Manure....

  5. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70 ± 0.84 Escherichia coli (log10) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    Farm digesters can operate satisfactorily and have a useful role on the farm. Gas production from the farm digester treating animal slurries could be boosted by adding silage liquid, old potatoes, waste cabbages and other crop wastes to the slurry, although the energy economics of maceration have not been calculated. Pollution control and types of digester are discussed. Uses of digested slurry other than for fertilizers are being tested - as protein supplement to farm animal feeds, silage making, hydroponics, fish farming and growing of worms on algae. Overall, digestion could be a contributor to power requirements especially in countries with high all year round crop production.

  7. Enhanced methane productivity from swine manure fibers by aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before anaerobic digestion of the manure. Thus, manure solid and liquid fractions could be used to centralized biogas plants for methane...... and hemicelluloses almost intact. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with 15 FPU per g of TS for four days released almost 94% of glucose and 91% of xylose found in manure fibers. AAS pretreatment exhibited a significant effect on methane production rate and potential. It was found that AAS for 3 days at room...... temperature were the optimal conditions among the ones tested, resulting at a 78% increase in methane yield from manure fibers. AAS at 55°C did not exhibit any extra benefit for methane production compared to room temperature....

  8. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2−–N and NH4+–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge deodorization reactor and anaerobic digestion-partial oxidation treatment process treating swine manure and its corresponding control artificial wastewaters. Ammonium removal dropped from 98.0 ± 0.6% to 66.9 ± 2.7% and nearly absent when the organic load in the feeding increased from 232 mg COD/L to 1160 mg COD/L and 2320 mg COD/L. The presence of organic carbon had limited effect on nitrite and total nitrogen removal. At a COD to N ratio of 0.9, COD inhibitory organic load threshold concentration was 727 mg COD/L. Mass balance indicated that denitrifiers played an important role in nitrite, nitrate and organic carbon removal. These results demonstrated that anammox system had the potential to effectively treat swine manure that can achieve high nitrogen standards at reduced costs.

  9. Fuel gas production from animal residue. Dynatech report No. 1551

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wise, D.L.; Wentworth, R.L.

    1977-01-14

    A comprehensive mathematical model description of anaerobic digestion of animal residues was developed, taking into account material and energy balances, kinetics, and economics of the process. The model has the flexibility to be applicable to residues from any size or type of animal husbandry operation. A computer program was written for this model and includes a routine for optimization to minimum unit gas cost, with the optimization variables being digester temperature, retention time, and influent volatile solids concentration. The computer program was used to determine the optimum base-line process conditions and economics for fuel gas production via anaerobic digestion of residues from a 10,000 head environmental beef feedlot. This feedlot at the conditions for minimum unit gas cost will produce 300 MCF/day of methane at a cost of $5.17/MCF (CH/sub 4/), with a total capital requirement of $1,165,000, a total capital investment of $694,000, and an annual average net operating cost of $370,000. The major contributions to this unit gas cost are due to labor (37 percent), raw manure (11 percent), power for gas compression (10 percent), and digester cost (13 percent). A conceptual design of an anaerobic digestion process for the baseline conditions is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the unit gas cost to changes in the major contributions to unit gas cost was performed, and the results of this analysis indicate areas in the anaerobic digestion system design where reasonable improvements could be expected so as to produce gas at an economically feasible cost. This sensitivity analysis includes the effects on unit gas cost of feedlot size and type, digester type, digester operating conditions, and economic input data.

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 +/- 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean +/- Standard Deviation) and 1.73 +/- 0.29 Tg P yr.(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs inmanure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  11. Testing of Co-Fermentation of Poultry Manure and Corn Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrczak, Andrzej; Królik, Dariusz; Sądecka, Zofia; Myszograj, Sylwia; Suchowska-Kisielewicz, Monika; Bojarski, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    The development of the production of poultry meat is connected with an increase in the quantity of the manure. The chemical characteristics predisposes this waste to processing by methane fermentation method. This study investigated the influence of ammonia and volatile fat acids on mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry manure. The aim of the studies was: to determine the degree of biodegradation of the poultry manure as well as manure and corn silage mixed in various proportions in the process of mesophilic fermentation, to evaluate the impact of mineral nitrogen and volatile fat acids on the course of fermentation, and to establish optimum proportions of these types of waste. The tests confirmed the positive effect of co-fermentation of poultry manure with corn silage. The most favourable ratio for mixing the substrates is the equal percentage of their dry matter in the mixture. With such waste mixing proportions, the degree of degradation of organic substances contained in the manure amounted to 61.8% and was higher than in the mono-digestion of manure and corn silage.

  12. Persistence of Escherichia coli in manure-amended soil in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potential for pathogen transfer from soils amended with untreated animal manure to crops and the frequent occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks involving Escherichia coli O157:H7 prompted the FDA proposal requiring a 9-month waiting period before harvesting produce from manure-amended fields. A...

  13. Leachate water quality from soils amended with swine manure based biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to direct manure applicatio...

  14. Methane emissions during storage of different treatments from cattle manure in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Wang; Chiqing Duan; Yaqin Ji; Yichao Sun

    2010-01-01

    Many studies on methane emissions from animal manure have revealed that animal manure is a major source of methane emissions to the atmosphere that can have negative consequences for people,animals and environment.In general,the release of methane can be influenced by the type of feed taken by animals,temperature,manure characteristics and so on.This study aimed at quantifying and comparing methane release from dairy manure with different piling treatments.Four treatments were designed including manure piling height 30,45,60 cm and adding 6 cm manure every day until the piling height was 60 cm.Static chamber method and gas chromatography were adopted to measure the methane emissions from April to June in 2009.Methane emission rates of all four manure treatments were low in the first week and then increased sharply until reaching the peak values.Subsequently,all the methane emission rates decreased and fluctuated within the steady range till the end of the experiment.Wilcoxon nonparametric tests analysis indicated that methane emission rate was greatly influenced by manure piling height and manner.There were no significant relationships between methane emission rates and the temperatures of ambience and heap.However,regression analysis showed that the quadratic equations were found between emission rates of all treatments and the gas temperature in the barrels.

  15. Life cycle assessment of segregating fattening pig urine and feces compared to conventional liquid manure management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from in-house storage of liquid animal manure remain a major contributor to the environmental impact of manure management. Our aim was to assess the life cycle environmental consequences and reduction potential of segregating fattening pig urine and feces with an innovative V-belt

  16. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: I. Structured design of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Management of animal manure in livestock and crop production is a major cause of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon (C) loss. The losses of N, P, and C contribute to adverse environmental impacts, such as climate change, terrestrial acidification, and marine eutrophication. Manure management t

  17. Plant-available and water-soluble phosphorus in soils amended with separated manure solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, M-O; Chantigny, M H; Angers, D A; Bittman, S; Buckley, K E; Rochette, P; Massé, D

    2012-01-01

    Physical, chemical, or biological treatment of animal liquid manure generally produces a dry-matter rich fraction (DMF) that contains most of the initial phosphorus (P). Our objective was to assess the solubility and plant availability of P from various DMFs as a function of soil P status. Eight different DMFs were obtained from liquid swine (LSM) and dairy cattle (LDC) manures treated by natural decantation, anaerobic digestion, chemical flocculation, composting, or mechanical separation. The DMFs were compared with mineral P fertilizer in a pot experiment with oat ( L.) grown in four soils with varied P-fixing capacities and P saturation levels. The DMFs were added at a rate of 50 mg P kg soil and incubated 14 d before seeding. Soil water-extractable P (P) at all water:soil extraction ratios (2:1, 20:1, and 200:1) was slightly higher when DMFs were derived from LDC rather than LSM. Soil P at the 2:1 ratio was lower with anaerobically digested LSM. At the 2:1 extraction ratio, DMF P was less soluble than mineral P as P saturation in soils increased. In soils with a lower P-fixing capacity, DMF P appeared less water soluble than mineral P under 20:1 and 200:1 extraction ratios. After 72 d of plant growth, DMFs produced yields comparable to mineral P fertilizer. Although the plant availability of P from DMFs was comparable to mineral P fertilizer, P from DMFs could be less vulnerable to leaching or runoff losses in soils with a high P saturation level or low P-fixing capacity.

  18. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette;

    The spreading of manure on agricultural land is an economic and practical solution for improving soil quality; however, animal manure frequently contains zoonotic pathogenic bacteria, such as certain Eschericia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The present experiment was conducted...... as a large multidisciplinary project. Pig manure with a natural content of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicator organisms was followed in soil columns and a field scale experiment. In the field experiment pig manure was injected into agricultural soil. The distribution and survival of natural...... occurring indicator bacteria around a manure slurry slit in the soil was followed. During a period of two months, sections of soils with different distance to the manure string were assayed to obtain information on survival and spread of bacteriophage, faecal indicators (Enterococci, Bacterioides, E. coli...

  19. Study on Anaerobic Co-digestion of Kitchen Waste and Pig Manure by Semi-continuous Feeding Mode%半连续泔脚垃圾与猪粪混合厌氧消化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦成健; 张文阳; 谭鹏; 周红艳

    2012-01-01

    Under mesophilic condition(35℃),the anaerobic co-digestion rules of the kitchen waste was studied in semi-continuous feeding mode by increasing organic loading rate(OLR) gradually.The digestion test showed a dynamic equilibrium between the acidification phase and the methanogenic phase at OLR of 1gVS/(L.d),1.25gVS/(L.d)and 1.5gVS/(L.d),respectively.The value of biogas and CH4 yield showed a similar variation.PH,VFA and ammonia were maintained at around 7.2,360 mg/L,1 500 mg/L,respectively.When the OLR is 1.5gVS/(L.d),the biogas yield and average CH4 content obtained the maximum figure of 1.40L/g and 71.3%,respectively.By then,the anaerobic digestion system achieves best performance.%在中温(35℃)条件下,采用逐渐提高有机负荷的半连续进料方式,研究泔脚垃圾厌氧消化规律。在1gVS/(L.d)、1.25 gVS/(L.d)和1.5 gVS/(L.d)的有机负荷下,厌氧消化系统能够稳定运行,实现水解酸化阶段和产甲烷阶段的动态平衡,甲烷产率与日产气量的变化规律一致,pH、VFA、氨氮浓度分别保持在7.2和360mg/L1、500 mg/L左右。当有机负荷为1.5 gVS/(L.d),每克VS的甲烷产率和甲烷百分数出现最大值,分别为1.40 L/g7、1.37%,此时厌氧消化系统处于最佳运行状态。

  20. Effect of manure vs. fertilizer inputs on productivity of forage crop models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caternolo, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Martiniello, Pasquale

    2011-06-01

    Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha(-1), respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha(-1) of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha(-1) under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  1. Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV. The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  2. Varying the dietary supply of C and N to manipulate the manure composition of water buffalo heifers in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing the composition of manure has the potential to reduce nutrient losses to the environment and to increase crop yields. In this study the effect of dietary ratios of carbon (C to nitrogen (N and neutral detergent fibre (NDF to soluble carbohydrates (SC on faeces composition of water buffalo heifers was assessed. Two digestibility trials were conducted with 12 animals each, fed one control and four test diets composed to achieve (1 high C/N and high NDF/SC ratios (HH, (2 low C/N and low NDF/SC ratios (LL, (3 high C/N and low NDF/SC ratios (HL and (4 low C/N and high NDF/SC (LH ratios. Faecal C/N ratios were generally lower than dietary C/N ratios, but the reduction was especially large for high C/N ratio diets (HH=55 %, HL=51 %. Faecal N concentration was positively correlated (r^2 = 0.6; P < 0.001 with N intake, but the increase in faecal N was more pronounced for diets that supplied low amounts of N. Faecal NDF concentration was positively related to NDF intake (r^2 = 0.42; P < 0.001, as well as the faecal C/N ratio (r^2 = 0.3; P < 0.001. Results demonstrate that C/N ratio and NDF concentration of buffalo manure were affected by diet composition. Diets with high C/N ratio and low NDF/SC ratio are preferable with regard to manure quality, but may not satisfy the nutritional requirements of producing animals, since N concentration in these diets was low and fibre concentration simultaneously high.

  3. Improving the mixing performances of rice straw anaerobic digestion for higher biogas production by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei; Tian, Libin; Yuan, Hairong; Pang, Yunzhi; Chen, Shulin; Zou, Dexun; Zhu, Baoning; Liu, Yanping; Li, Xiujin

    2013-10-01

    As a lignocellulose-based substrate for anaerobic digestion, rice straw is characterized by low density, high water absorbability, and poor fluidity. Its mixing performances in digestion are completely different from traditional substrates such as animal manures. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to investigate mixing performances and determine suitable stirring parameters for efficient biogas production from rice straw. The results from CFD simulation were applied in the anaerobic digestion tests to further investigate their reliability. The results indicated that the mixing performances could be improved by triple impellers with pitched blade, and complete mixing was easily achieved at the stirring rate of 80 rpm, as compared to 20-60 rpm. However, mixing could not be significantly improved when the stirring rate was further increased from 80 to 160 rpm. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results. The determined mixing parameters could achieve the highest biogas yield of 370 mL (g TS)(-1) (729 mL (g TS(digested))(-1)) and 431 mL (g TS)(-1) (632 mL (g TS(digested))(-1)) with the shortest technical digestion time (T 80) of 46 days. The results obtained in this work could provide useful guides for the design and operation of biogas plants using rice straw as substrates.

  4. Improving the mixing performances of rice straw anaerobic digestion for higher biogas production by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei; Tian, Libin; Yuan, Hairong; Pang, Yunzhi; Chen, Shulin; Zou, Dexun; Zhu, Baoning; Liu, Yanping; Li, Xiujin

    2013-10-01

    As a lignocellulose-based substrate for anaerobic digestion, rice straw is characterized by low density, high water absorbability, and poor fluidity. Its mixing performances in digestion are completely different from traditional substrates such as animal manures. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed to investigate mixing performances and determine suitable stirring parameters for efficient biogas production from rice straw. The results from CFD simulation were applied in the anaerobic digestion tests to further investigate their reliability. The results indicated that the mixing performances could be improved by triple impellers with pitched blade, and complete mixing was easily achieved at the stirring rate of 80 rpm, as compared to 20-60 rpm. However, mixing could not be significantly improved when the stirring rate was further increased from 80 to 160 rpm. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results. The determined mixing parameters could achieve the highest biogas yield of 370 mL (g TS)(-1) (729 mL (g TS(digested))(-1)) and 431 mL (g TS)(-1) (632 mL (g TS(digested))(-1)) with the shortest technical digestion time (T 80) of 46 days. The results obtained in this work could provide useful guides for the design and operation of biogas plants using rice straw as substrates. PMID:23873639

  5. Büyükbaş Hayvan Atıkları için Kurulacak Havasız Çürütme Tesisinin Ekonomik Analizi / The Economical Analysis of Cattle Manure Treatment by Anaerobic Digestion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Coşkun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Büyükbaş hayvan atıkları, içeriğindeki yüksek katı madde, organik kirlilik ve patojen mikroorganizmalar sebebiyle halk sağlığı açısından olumsuz etkiler yapabilecek bir atıktır. Bu çalışmada havasız çürütme ile atıkların stabilize edilerek biyogaz elde edilmesi ve çürümüş atıkların toprakta doğal gübre olarak kullanılmasını içeren bir yönetim modeli uygulanmıştır. Bunun için pilot ölçekli bir havasız çürütme reaktörü işletilmiş ve çürümüş atıklar çeşitli dozlarda yonca, Macar fiğ ve arpa karışımı ile mısır silajı bitkilerinin ekildiği alanlarda doğal gübre olarak toprağa eklenmiştir. Havasız çürütme işleminde yarımcı materyal olarak mısır silajı da reaktöre beslenmiştir. Çalışma sonunda elde edilen sonuçlar ve literatür yardımıyla 1000 baş hayvan için kurulum ve işletme maliyetleri hesaplanmıştır. Kurulum maliyeti; elektrik üretim sisteminin kurulup kurulmaması açısından iki farklı değer olarak hesaplanmıştır. İşletme maliyetleri farklı tarla ürünleri ve yine elektrik sisteminin kurulup kurulmaması açılarından çeşitli durumlar için hesaplanmıştır. Sonuç olarak elde edilen en iyi sonuçlara göre; çürümüş atıklar Macar fiğ ve arpa karışımı bitkisinin ekiminde kullanıldığında kurulacak tesisin elektrik üretim sistemi de kurulduğunda 2,5 yılda, elektrik üretim sistemi kurulmadığında ise 2,1 yılda kendisini amorti ettiği bulunmuştur. The Economical Analysis of Cattle Manure Treatment by Anaerobic Digestion Process Cattle manure is a potential for causing detrimental effects on human health due to its high solid matter and pathogen microorganism content. In this study, it was aimed to achieve biogas production by stabilizing the waste using anaerobic digestion. Digested waste was utilized as natural fertilizer. For that reason, a pilot-scale anaerobic digestion tank was operated and digested wastes

  6. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China. PMID:26963628

  7. Port of Tillamook Bay (POTB); Methane Energy Agriculture Development (MEAD); Dairy Digester Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Crider

    2004-12-31

    The Tillamook Digester is a fully operational demonstration project that will identify the components necessary to bring the concept to a financially viable alternative for handling waste manure from dairy operations in Tillamook County.

  8. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Perazzolo; Gabriele Mattachini; Fulvia Tambone; Aldo Calcante; Giorgio Provolo

    2016-01-01

    Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestat...

  9. Innovative process scheme for removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen from pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Disposal of pig manure often requires treatment with respect to environmental legislations. In this study different processes for reduction of the organic matter (anaerobic digestion, effluent separation by decanter centrifugation, membrane microfiltration, post-digestion in upflow anaerobic sludge....... PRS treated effluent was negatively affecting the further processing of the pig manure in UASB, and was therefore not included in the final process flow scheme. In a final scheme (PIGMAN concept) combination of the following successive process steps was used: thermophilic anaerobic digestion...... with sequential separation by decanter centrifuge, post-digestion in UASB reactor, partial oxidation and finally OLAND process. This combination resulted in reduction of the total organic, nitrogen and phosphorus contents by 96%, 88%, and 81%, respectively....

  10. AN EFFECTIVE PASSIVE SOLAR DRYER FOR THIN LAYER DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal and poultry manures have been recognized for centuries as organic fertilizers providing essential nutrients to crops and improving soil structure due to their large input of organic matter. Increasing demand for poultry and egg products has led to intensification of the poultry rearing process, resulting in large amounts of poultry manure. Drying can be used to reduce the environmental impact of poultry manure and create a value added product for the farmers (animal feed or organic fertilizer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solar heated air drying on the chemical and biological characteristics of poultry manure and develop a suitable manure solar dryer. The effects of temperature (40-60°C and manure layer depth (1-3 cm were evaluated. At the three temperature levels studied, the time required to dry poultry manure in the 1 cm-deep layer was the shortest, followed by the 2 and 3 cm-deep layers, respectively. The optimum depth to dry manure (at which the highest drying effectiveness occurred was 3 cm. The manure drying rate increased with increasing temperature and was the fastest at 60°C for all manure depths studied. A drying temperature-depth combination of 60°C and 3 cm was the most efficient for the thin layer drying of poultry manure. Drying poultry manure at these conditions provided an effective means of removing moisture and odor and destroying microorganisms, thereby allowing the production of a value added product. This temperature range is feasible with a solar dryer operating in the tropics. A solar dryer operating at a 3 cm manure depth would be capable of drying 336 kg/h. Drying poultry manure with solar heated air resulted in a slight decrease in protein content (from 42 to 41%, a decrease in pH (from 8.4 to 6.6, removal of Salmonellae and a 99% reduction in numbers of total bacteria, yeast, mold and E. coli. Thin layer solar drying of poultry manure proved to be an effective means of

  11. Phosphorus release from dairy manure, the manure-derived biochar, and their amended soil: effects of phosphorus nature and soil property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Xu, Xiaoyun; Harris, Willie

    2014-07-01

    Land application of animal manure often risks excessive phosphorus (P) release into the surrounding water. The aim of this study was to convert the dairy manure into biochar, followed by their application into soil, and then to investigate P release from the manure and its derived biochar as well as from the manure- and biochar-amended soil. The results showed that P release was reduced when the manure was converted into biochar due to formation of less-soluble whitlockite [(Ca, Mg)(PO)]. The cumulative P released from biochar over 240 h was 0.26 g kg, a 76% reduction of that from the manure (1.07 g kg). The kinetic release of P from the manure was determined by the fast desorption process and was better fitted to Elovich equation, whereas P release from biochar was initially controlled by the diffusion process and then by slow but steady dissolution of (Ca,Mg)(PO), following the parabolic diffusion and linear models, respectively. When the manure or biochar was incorporated into the soil, P release in the CaCl and simulated acid rain water extraction from biochar-amended soil was consistently lower than that from the manure-amended soil during 210-d incubation. The lower P release in the biochar-amended soil was determined by stable P form (Ca, Mg)(PO) in the biochar itself, but less from the soil property effect. Results indicated that initial high P release from manure can be mitigated by converting the manure into biochar. PMID:25603098

  12. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the face of the rising level of manure production from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), management options are being sought that can provide nutrient recycling for plant growth and improved soil conditions with minimal environmental impacts. Alternatives to dire...

  13. Coupling Manure Injection with Cover Crops to Enhance Nutrient Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale hog (Sus scrofa) production is a major agricultural enterprise in the Midwest. Large numbers of confined hogs produce about 50 million tons per year of swine manure in Iowa alone. Rapid expansion of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has resulted in increased concentrations o...

  14. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities. PMID:18348791

  15. Digestibilidade aparente e verdadeira do fósforo de alimentos de origem animal para suínos Apparent and true digestibility of phosphorus from animal origin feedstuffs for swines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bünzen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDAP e verdadeira (CDVP do fósforo de alimentos de origem animal. Foram utilizados 24 suínos, machos castrados, com média de peso de 25,0±3,0kg no período de crescimento e 24 suínos com média de peso de 60,0±5,0kg para o período de terminação. Os tratamentos foram resultantes de um fatorial de duas metodologias (coleta total de fezes e indicador fecal, duas fases (crescimento e terminação e oito dietas (seis alimentos de origem animal, uma ração referência e uma ração com baixo conteúdo de fósforo total para estimar as perdas de fósforo endógeno, com três repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre as metodologias ou entre as fases avaliadas (P>0,05. Os valores médios de CDAP e CDVP encontrados com suínos em crescimento e terminação foram, respectivamente, 61,7 e 62,0% para a farinha de carne e ossos com 35% de proteína bruta (PB; 62,3 e 62,9% para a farinha de carne e ossos com 41% de PB; 49,0 e 52,5% para a farinha de vísceras e penas; 72,3 e 90,8% para a farinha de penas; 85,5 e 88,5% para a farinha de peixe com 55% de PB; e 80,0 e 92,0% para o soro de leite em pó.The coefficients of apparent (CADP and true (CTDP digestibility of the phosphorus from animal origin feedstuffs were determined. Twenty-four barrows in growing phase with initial weight 25.0±3.0kg and the same barrows in finishing phase with initial weight 60.0±5.0kg were used. The treatments were made by a factorial of two methodologies (total collection of feces and fecal marker, two phases (growing and finishing, and eight diets (six animal origin feedstuffs, one reference diet, and one diet with low content of total phosphorus in order to estimate the losses of endogenous phosphorus, with three replicates by treatment. There was no difference between the methodologies or phases evaluated (P>0.05. The average of CADP and CTDP found in

  16. CONVERSION OF ORGANIC MANURE INTO BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Brdarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biogas with anaerobic degradation from organic waste is one of the pledge alternative energetic solutions, especially from organic manure made from animal farming and other residuals of agricultural production. According to 2005 livestock manufacture data daily quantity of animal excrements in Croatia, based on LSU number, is 784 015.26 m3. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of production of biogas from the most common types of domestic animals in Croatia. Anaerobic fermentation period of 40 days in mesophilic conditions produced from 1 kg of beef, 31 litres of biogas slurry and from pig slurry 14.83 litres of biogas. From our study it follows that the Republic of Croatia (based on the number of UG could produce 426,995,250.00 Nm3 biogas annually. Exploitation of biogas can decrease import of the referred energents, especially electric energy.

  17. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d)−1 and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g−1VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L−1. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L−1. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d)−1 and biogas yield of 0.649 L g−1VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s−1 when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield

  18. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Gang–Jin [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bioprocess Control AB, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Deng, Liang–Wei, E-mail: dengliangwei@caas.cn [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Southwest Collaborative Innovation Center of Swine for Quality & Safety, Chengdu 611130 (China); Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  19. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term. PMID:27228611

  20. [Temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-jie; Guo, Cai-xia; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    China's livestock and poultry productions have changed significantly in the last three decades, from mainly traditional and small-scale systems in early 1980s towards more intensive and industrialized ones in recent years, due to the booming economy and the changes in people' diet. There is an urgent need to increase the understanding of the changes in the livestock and poultry productions and the impact of manure recycle on the environment. Here, we reported on a systematic and quantitative analysis on the temporal and spatial variability of livestock and poultry productions and manure nutrients in Shanxi Province, China, using a large database and a coupled food chain nutrient flow model (NUFER) with GIS. In the period of 1978 to 2012, total animal manure production increased from 1.61 x 10⁷ t to 2.75 x 10⁷ t by 171%. The manure N increased from 7.74 x 10⁴ t to 17.32 x 10⁴ t, and the manure P from 1.09x104 t to 3.39x104 t. Besides the huge increase in total animal manure production, the distribution of animal manure was much uneven among regions, with high amounts of manure N and P per unit land in the north, middle and southeastern regions and low values in the north-central and southwestern regions, based on the results of 2012. The uneven distribution of manure was the combined effect of regional specializations in livestock and poultry productions and related policies. Our findings suggested that optimizing the structure of livestock and poultry productions and enhancing interregional collaborations on nutrient management could be two effective measures for reducing pollution and environmental risks, while achieving efficient and sustainable use of manure nutrient in the long term.

  1. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  2. Effects of borax treatment on hydrogen sulfide emissions and sulfate reducing bacteria in stored swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malodorous compounds and emissions produced from stored swine manure can pose both environmental and health issues. These nuisance odors largely result from compounds such as sulfides, volatile fatty acids, and phenols, which are produced as a result of anaerobic digestion of materials present in t...

  3. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  4. SIMULATION MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF CATALYTIC SYSTEMS FOR THE PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION OF ENERGY IN ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MANURE Имитационная математическая модель функционирования каталитических систем для производства и преобразования энергии при анаэробной переработке органических отходов животноводства

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiganov U. N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the details of modeling of catalytic systems for the production and conversion of energy in anaerobic digestion of organic manure. We have also presented a simulation mathematical model that establishes the relationship between structural and technological parameters of catalytic systems and the parameters characterizing the efficiency of the catalytic system in the production and conversion of thermal energy in the anaerobic treatment of organic manure

  5. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan;

    2014-01-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to as......Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers...... in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess...

  6. Swine manure vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica): the dynamics of biochemical and microbial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Wang, Hang; Zhu, Jun; Suneethi, Sundar; Zheng, JianGuo

    2012-08-01

    Improper handling of animal manure generated from concentrated swine operations greatly deteriorates water ecosystems. In this study, a full-scale vermireactor using housefly larvae (Musca domestica) was designed to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of swine manure reduction, and to explore the associated biochemical-biological mechanisms. The one-week larvae vermireactor resulted in a total weight reduction rate of 106±17 kg/(m(3) d) and moisture reduction of 80.2%. Microbial activities in manure decreased by 45% after vermicomposting, while the activities of cellulose, proteases, and phosphatases in the vermicompost were significantly 69 times, 48%, and 82% lower than those in raw manure, respectively. The vermicompost was exclusively dominated by Entomoplasma somnilux, Proteobacterium, and Clostridiaceae bacterium where the microbial diversity was decreased from 2.57 in raw manure to 1.77. Correlation coefficients statistic showed that organic C might be a key indicator of the biochemical features and microbial functions of the larvae vermireactor.

  7. 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manure Management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhele Edmond Moeletsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc. were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal, sows (25.23 kg/year/animal and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal. Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO2 Equivalent. Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO2 Equivalent and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options from manure management must be taken with care due to divergent conducive requirements of methane and nitrous oxide emissions requirements.

  8. 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manure Management in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeletsi, Mokhele Edmond; Tongwane, Mphethe Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc.) were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal), sows (25.23 kg/year/animal) and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal). Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO₂ Equivalent). Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO₂ Equivalent) and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options from manure management must be taken with care due to divergent conducive requirements of methane and nitrous oxide emissions requirements. PMID:26479229

  9. Effects of carbon dioxide emission, kinetically-limited reactions, and diffusive transport on ammonia emission from manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from animal manure causes significant loss of fixed N from livestock operations. Ammonia emission from manure is the culmination of biological, chemical, and physical processes, all of which are well-understood. In this work, we present a speciation and transport mode...

  10. Quality of shallow groundwater and manure effluents in a livestock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoroń Sylwester

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the quality of shallow groundwater on the site pens and runoff from livestock manure heaps, in three selected farms involved in animal production and vegetable crops in the area of Plateau Proszowice. The analysis mainly included water from farm wells and effluents from manure. Additionally, water from drainage ditch running nearby farms was collected, before inflow of effluent (i.e. ditch water without manure effluent and below inflow of effluent from heap of manure (i.e. ditch water containing manure effluent. Samples of the research material were collected from April 2012 to March 2014 at monthly intervals and analysed for the content of NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, K, Na and Cl. Based on the obtained results it was found that water from the farm wells near the livestock buildings and from manure storage sites, was heavily polluted by the majority of these contaminants. The highest concentration of these pollutants, except for the NO3-N, was found in manure effluent – it exceeded a few dozen to a few hundred to any standards for water quality. There was also a significant deterioration in the quality of drainage ditch water because of the penetration of contaminants into ditch water from heaps of improperly stored manure. The water of the farm wells was characterized by excessive concentrations of NO3-N which disqualified it for drinking purposes.

  11. Utilisation of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser for food production in central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Muhereza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertiliser use in small-holder peri-urban crop-livestock farms in Uganda was investigated by conducting a socio-economic survey of 40 farms in the central districts of Wakiso and Kampala where cattle manure is commonly applied to address the issue of declining crop yields. The major benefits obtained from cattle manure application were increased yields and low cost, while negative effects were poor hygienic conditions and bad odour. The challenges associated with the use of cattle manure included its weight and bulkiness, lack of labour, insufficient quantities, high transportation and application costs, lack of storage facilities to maintain quality attributes of manure and the incidence of chaffer grubs and worms; a nuisance during application which affected crop growth. The survey indicated that of the farmers using cattle manure, only 5% also supplemented with inorganic fertilisers. Other animal manures applied included poultry, pig, goat and rabbit where available. The nutrient content of cattle manure was generally low, as a result of livestock diet and storage. There was little education available to farmers as to optimum strategies and rates of fertiliser (including both inorganic and organic fertilisers to improve crop yield and this needed addressing to improve food security and economic development in Uganda. Keywords: cattle manure; fertiliser; urea

  12. 动物尸体无害化处理物对油菜生长及重金属富集特征的影响%Effects of organic manure from animal carcasses on Brassiacampestris L. growth and soil heavy metal accumu-lation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟振; 熊波; 张莉; 蒋彬; 李传友; 逄焕成; 李玉义

    2016-01-01

    采用室内盆栽试验,以畜禽养殖场动物尸体无害化处理物为有机肥,研究了单施化肥(NPK)、化肥+单倍有机肥(NPK+M)、化肥+倍量有机肥(NPK+2M)三种施肥方式对油菜生长、叶片生理特性及植株和土壤中重金属积累的影响,探讨施用动物尸体无害化处理物在蔬菜种植方面的安全性。结果表明:与NPK处理相比,NPK+M和NPK+2M处理可显著提高油菜地上部干重50.53%~221.05%(P0.05),其地上部Cr、Cd和Pb含量远低于《食品安全国家标准》(GB 2762—2012)对新鲜蔬菜中重金属污染物含量的限制。%A pot experiment was conducted to explore the feasibility of applying harmlessly-treated animal carcass manure from livestock and poultry farms to vegetable cultivation. The growth of Brassiacampestris L. and soil heavy metal content were measured under three dif-ferent treatments, including chemical fertilizer(NPK)only, combined chemical fertilizer plus manure(NPK+M), and combined chemical fertilizer plus double manure(NPK+2M). Results showed that both NPK+M and NPK+2M significantly increased shoot dry weight by 50.53%~221.05%, compared with NPK(P0.05), and the Cr, Cd and Pb content in the aboveground part was much lower than the National Food Standards for vegetables. These results would shed light on the safe use of harmlessly-treated animal carcasses.

  13. Biogas and methane yield in response to co- and separate digestion of biomass wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelard, Laetitia; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Rakotoniaina, Volana

    2015-01-01

    The impact of co-digestion as opposed to separate digestion, on biogas and methane yield (apparent synergetic effects) was investigated for three biomass materials (pig manure, cow manure and food waste) under mesophilic conditions over a 36 day period. In addition to the three biomass materials (digested separately), 13 biomass mixtures (co-digested) were used. Two approaches for modelling biogas and methane yield during co-digestion, based on volatile solids concentration and ultimate gas and methane potentials, were evaluated. The dependency of apparent synergetic effects on digestion time and biomass mixture composition was further assessed using measured cumulative biogas and methane yields and specific biogas and methane generation rates. Results indicated that it is possible, based on known volatile solids concentration and ultimate biogas or methane yields for a set of biomass materials digested separately, to accurately estimate gas yields for biomass mixtures made from these materials using calibrated models. For the biomass materials considered here, modelling indicated that the addition of pig manure is the main cause of synergetic effects. Co-digestion generally resulted in improved ultimate biogas and methane yields compared to separate digestion. Biogas and methane production was furthermore significantly higher early (0-7 days) and to some degree also late (above 20 days) in the digestion process during co-digestion.

  14. ANIMAL PERFORMANCE, CARCASS QUALITY, AND TISSUE RESIDUES WITH BEEF STEERS FED FORAGE SORGHUM SILAGES GROWN ON SOIL TREATED WITH LIQUID DIGESTED SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processed sewage sludges are a renewable resource which have potential as a fertilizer material on agricultural land. Forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) silages, grown on soil treated with Pensacola liquid digested sludge (LDS) turned under prior to planting, were fed as the main i...

  15. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  16. The future of anaerobic digestion and biogas utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Al Seadi, Teodorita; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    , representing a considerable pollution threat for the environment in these areas. Avoiding over-fertilization is not only important for environmental protection reasons but also for economical reasons. Intensive animal production areas need therefore suitable manure management, aiming to export...

  17. The future of anaerobic digestion and biogas utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Al Seadi, T.; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    , representing a considerable pollution threat for the environment in these areas. Avoiding over-fertilization is not only important for environmental protection reasons but also for economical reasons. Intensive animal production areas need therefore suitable manure management, aiming to export...

  18. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and other zoonotic pathogens during simulated composting, manure packing, and liquid storage of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Sukhbir K; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Michel, Frederick C

    2006-01-01

    Livestock manures contain numerous microorganisms which can infect humans and/or animals, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis). The effects of commonly used manure treatments on the persistence of these pathogens have rarely been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the persistence of artificially inoculated M. paratuberculosis, as well as other naturally occurring pathogens, during the treatment of dairy manure under conditions that simulate three commonly used manure management methods: thermophilic composting at 55 degrees C, manure packing at 25 degrees C (or low-temperature composting), and liquid lagoon storage. Straw and sawdust amendments used for composting and packing were also compared. Manure was obtained from a large Ohio free-stall dairy herd and was inoculated with M. paratuberculosis at 10(6) CFU/g in the final mixes. For compost and pack treatments, this manure was amended with sawdust or straw to provide an optimal moisture content (60%) for composting for 56 days. To simulate liquid storage, water was added to the manure (to simulate liquid flushing and storage) and the slurry was placed in triplicate covered 4-liter Erlenmeyer flasks, incubated under ambient conditions for 175 days. The treatments were sampled on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 for the detection of pathogens. The persistence of M. paratuberculosis was also assessed by a PCR hybridization assay. After 56 days of composting, from 45 to 60% of the carbon in the compost treatments was converted to CO2, while no significant change in carbon content was observed in the liquid slurry. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Listeria were all detected in the manure and all of the treatments on day 0. After 3 days of composting at 55 degrees C, none of these organisms were detectable. In liquid manure and pack treatments, some of these microorganisms were

  19. Survey of dairy housing and manure management practices in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D; Price, P L; Rossow, H A; Silva-del-Rio, N; Karle, B M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Fadel, J G

    2011-09-01

    In 2007, a descriptive survey was mailed to all dairies in Glenn (G) and Tulare (T) Counties to identify current and future opportunities of manure management practices on California dairies. The purpose was to provide baseline information for development of outreach curriculum and a decision support tool to quantify potential benefits of various N management options on dairy farms. Such baseline information is valuable to staff regulating dairy facilities (e.g., San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board), dairy trade association representatives, and technology vendors. Response rates for each county were similar at 29.7% (n=19; G) and 26.7% (n=88; T). Mean milking herd size averaged 570 (range 50 to 3,000) cows in G and 1,800 (range 196 to 9,286) cows in T. Survey data are reported by location due to differences between counties in herd size, housing facilities, and climate. Freestalls are common housing facilities (63.2%, G; 38.6%, T) and separated solids and corral scrapings are commonly used as bedding in freestalls (81.8% G and 79.4% T). The most common methods of manure collection were flushing and scraping (18.8%, G; 44.7%, T), only flushing (43.8%, G; 34.1%, T), or only scraping daily or less frequently than daily (37.5%, G; 20.0%, T). Most dairy farms in G (63.2%) and T (70.5%) used some method of separating solids from liquids. However, mechanical separation systems alone were used by 5.3% G and 11.4% T of dairy farms. Storage or treatment ponds were found on 95.9% of dairies. Respondents identified existing manure management practices and did not indicate any new technologies were in use or being considered for manure management. Survey results were used to describe the 2 predominant manure management pathways of manure collection, storage, treatment, and utilization. Survey results will be used to develop and disseminate targeted information on manure treatment technologies, and on

  20. Comment appliquer la directive nitrates et à quel coût ? Une modélisation spatiale du marché de l’épandage. (The cost of the Nitrate Directive: a spatial model of manure market.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Djaout; Philippe Le Goffe; Mélanie Tauber

    2008-01-01

    [Paper in French] In Brittany, animal concentration is responsible for water pollution. French water policy does not stick to Water Framework Directive, though in northern countries polluter-pay principle stimulated manure markets. We tried to calculate the cost of the Nitrate Directive and simulate the manure markets in Brittany. A linear model minimizes the cost of manure management constrained by the Nitrate Directive. Farms process or export their manure in the short-run and reduce their ...