WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal health oie

  1. The OIE World Animal Health Information System: the role of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres in disease reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jebara, K

    2010-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is to ensure transparency in and knowledge of the world animal health situation. To achieve this objective, the OIE relies on its network of Member Countries, which is complemented by the activities of 221 Reference Laboratories (RLs) and Collaborating Centres. The RL mandate states that, in the case of positive results for diseases notifiable to the OIE, the laboratory should inform the OIE Delegate of the Member Country from which the samples originated and send a copy of the information to OIE Headquarters. However, since 2006 the OIE has received a lower than expected number of notifications from RLs, which implies eitherthat the majority of samples are sent to national laboratories or that some RLs are not fully complying with their mandate. The OIE sent a questionnaire to RLs in preparation for the Second Global Conference of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres (Paris, France, 21-23 June 2010). Two main factors emerged: the need for RLs to clarify their role and responsibilities in disease reporting and the need for an awareness campaign to sensitise national Veterinary Services to the importance of conducting more surveillance (and consequently of submitting samples to RLs) for all OIE-listed diseases. Reference laboratories indicated two main reasons for not sharing more data on positive samples with the OIE: i) a perceived contradiction between their mandate as OIE RLs and the standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) dealing with confidentiality; and ii) certain Member Countries or stakeholders asking RLs not to share positive results with the OIE, for political or economic reasons. The OIE has put forward proposals to help RLs resolve these problems in future. The use of ISO standards must be clarified and there must be improved communication between the OIE and its RLs. A lack of transparency about a significant disease event can

  2. Ten years' work on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebara, Karim Ben; Cáceres, Paula; Berlingieri, Francesco; Weber-Vintzel, Laure

    2012-12-01

    This article gives an overview of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System and highlights the major achievements during the past decade. It describes the different types of disease notification reports received and processed by the OIE. It also evaluates the three strategies implemented by the OIE in the recent years aimed at improving disease notification: introduction and use of a secure online notification system World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) and its database interface World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID); implementation of active search and verification procedures for non-official information; and enhanced building of capacity for animal disease notification to the OIE by Members Countries. The improvements are evidenced by the increasing number of reports submitted on an annual basis and the reduction in submission time together with an improvement in the quality and quantity of the immediate notifications and follow-up reports, six-monthly and annual reports submitted by Veterinary Authorities. In the recent years, the OIE's notification system provides an early warning system more sensitive and global. Consequently, there is a greater knowledge of animal diseases' distribution worldwide. As a result, it is possible to ensure better prevention, more accurate risk assessment and evaluation by diminishing the spread of known or newly emerging pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [The current and future organisational structure of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo León, F; Ruiz Mercader, J; Sabater Sánchez, R; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Crespo Azofra, L

    2003-12-01

    The authors analyse the organisational structure of the OIE (World organisation for animal health), highlighting the roles of the Central Bureau, the Specialist Commissions, Regional Commissions, working groups and ad hoc groups, Regional Representations, Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres. The paper also includes some suggestions as to how the OIE could work more closely with its 'customers', that is, the Member Countries. These suggestions are based on current theories of organisational flexibility, and take into account not only the current organisational structure of the OIE, but also the Strategic Plan and the Working Plan, which were adopted at the 69th General Session of the OIE International Committee in 2001.

  4. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  5. Globalization, international trade and animal health: the new roles of OIE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, Alejandro B

    2005-02-01

    In order for countries and their stakeholders to maximize the benefits of globalization they must become familiar with, and must adhere to, the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization (WTO) under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS). For the purpose of trade in animals and animal products, they must also adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Countries are also encouraged to participate in this standard setting process of the OIE. Only after implementing these requirements and after strengthening the veterinary infrastructures and their surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from these new international trade rules.

  6. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. © 2012 Crown Copyright. Reproduced

  7. Louis Blajan, DVM, 1924-2010: The dynamic veterinarian who brought the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Épizooties: OIE into the modern age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chevalier de la Légion d’honneurCroix du Combattant volontaire 1939-1945Officier du Mérite agricoleOfficier de l'Ordre national de la Côte d'Ivoire Louis Blajan was born in Lahage (Haute-Garonne, France on 10 April 1924 and passed away in Mont-de-Marsan on 10 February 2010. After studying at the Pierre de Fermat Lycée in Toulouse, Louis graduated from the Toulouse Veterinary School in 1948. He received the Institut d’élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux (IEMVT diploma in 1949 and was posted in the French Overseas Territory of Mali from 1949 to 1952. Upon his return to France, Louis was appointed to the position of State Veterinarian in the Ministry of Agriculture from 1953 to 1968; there he was responsible for foot and mouth disease, swine fever and Newcastle disease. He also headed the consultative committee on infectious diseases. Subsequently, he was appointed Veterinary Inspector-in-Chief and Head of Border Controls Policy.Louis married Janine in 1952. She was extremely supportive of him throughout his career. She died in an accident a month before Louis retired in 1990.He was the technical director of Cofranimex (Compagnie française pour l’importation et l’exportation des animaux reproducteurs et leur semence from 1968 to 1977 and Director of the Association pour le développement des techniques de l’élevage français (ADETEF from 1977 to 1978.Louis moved to the Office International des Épizooties (now known as the World Organisation for Animal Health or ‘OIE’ where he was Head of the Technical Department from 1978 to 1980. Two years later, he was elected to the most prestigious of positions for a veterinarian, Director General, in 1980. He was re-elected in 1985 and retired in 1990.Louis succeeded in modernising the rather old-fashioned OIE and transformed it into a modern and efficient international organisation. He was instrumental in developing the International zoo-sanitary code (now the

  8. In memoriam: Jean Blancou, DVM, 1936-2010. World authority on rabies, historian and former Director General of the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Épizooties: OIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Jean-Marie Blancou was born in Bangui on 28 August 1936 and passed away in Paris on 10 November 2010 at the age of 74. After studying at the Pierre de Fermat Lycée in Toulouse, Jean Blancou graduated from the Toulouse Veterinary School in 1960. He continued his studies in tropical veterinary medicine in Paris until 1963, extending his knowledge of immunology, microbiology, biochemistry and zoology, at the Institut Pasteur. He obtained his doctorate in biological sciences at the University of Nancy in 1982. Jean Blancou commenced his career as technical adviser to the Veterinary Services of Ethiopia where he directed a campaign against rinderpest in the south of the county. From 1965 to 1967 he was deputy director of the national veterinary laboratory in Niamey where he was responsible for the diagnosis of animal diseases and the production of veterinary vaccines. In 1967, he moved to the central livestock laboratory in Madagascar, where he commenced research on the diagnosis and control of dermatophilosis, bovine tuberculosis and other bacterial and parasitic diseases. In August 1968 he married Geneviève Orue. In 1975 he was appointed as head of the national veterinary laboratory in Senegal, where he remained until 1977. Initially deputy director, and then director of Research on rabies and wildlife diseases, at the World Health Organization collaborating centre in Nancy, he remained in this position until 1990. Jean Blancou was recognised as a world authority on rabies. He conducted research into the diagnosis, aetiology, epidemiology and control of rabies during his time in Nancy. Between 1988 and 1990, Dr Blancou also headed the animal health and protection department of the Centre national d'études vétérinaires et animales (CNEVA) in Maisons-Alfort. On 1 January 1991, he was appointed director general of the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Épizooties: OIE) and was re-elected in 1995 for a further five-year term, until he

  9. In memoriam:Jean Blancou, DVM, 1936-2010. World authority on rabies, historian and former Director General of the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Épizooties: OIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    laboratory in Senegal, where he remained until 1977.Initially deputy director, and then director of Research on rabies and wildlife diseases, at the World Health Organization collaborating centre in Nancy, he remained in this position until 1990. Jean Blancou was recognised as a world authority on rabies. He conducted research into the diagnosis, aetiology, epidemiology and control of rabies during his time in Nancy.Between 1988 and 1990, Dr Blancou also headed the animal health and protection department of the Centre national d’études vétérinaires et animales (CNEVA in Maisons-Alfort. On 1 January 1991, he was appointed director general of the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Épizooties: OIE and was re-elected in 1995 for a further five-year term, until he retired in 2000.He attached great importance to the value of scientific publication and to the ethics involved in producing scientific literature. He had a very strong interest in the historical aspects of animal diseases and, in 2003, published a valuable book entitled History of the surveillance and control of transmissible animal diseases. He would always ensure that the most interesting and appropriate historic illustrations, irrespective of how difficult they were to obtain, were selected for the papers he published.Among some of the activities Jean Blancou undertook during his retirement was the mammoth task of co‑editing Infectious and parasitic diseases of livestock in French and English.Dr Blancou authored over 370 scientific publications devoted to animal diseases, to the production and control of biologicals and, of course, many authoritative articles on rabies and vaccinology.He was always generous with the scientific knowledge he possessed and never missed an opportunity to assist colleagues in the preparation or correction of manuscripts that they wished to submit to peer-reviewed journals.He was gentle in nature and always softly spoken. As one of his colleagues wrote

  10. World Organisation for Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Simulation Exercises Info list & RSS National Disease Contingency Plans WAHIS-Wild Interface World Animal Health Official ... FOOD SAFETY ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE STANDARDS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE View more themes The OIE in brief PRESS ROOM ...

  11. FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tara; Capua, Ilaria; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Donis, Ruben; Fouchier, Ron; Mumford, Elizabeth; Peiris, Malik; Swayne, David; Thiermann, Alex

    2010-05-01

    For the past 10 years, animal health experts and human health experts have been gaining experience in the technical aspects of avian influenza in mostly separate fora. More recently, in 2006, in a meeting of the small WHO Working Group on Influenza Research at the Human Animal Interface (Meeting report available from: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/influenza/WHO_CDS_EPR_GIP_2006_3/en/index.html) in Geneva allowed influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to discuss together the most recent avian influenza research. Ad hoc bilateral discussions on specific technical issues as well as formal meetings such as the Technical Meeting on HPAI and Human H5N1 Infection (Rome, June, 2007; information available from: http://www.fao.org/avianflu/en/conferences/june2007/index.html) have increasingly brought the sectors together and broadened the understanding of the topics of concern to each sector. The sectors have also recently come together at the broad global level, and have developed a joint strategy document for working together on zoonotic diseases (Joint strategy available from: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/ajl37e/ajl37e00.pdf). The 2008 FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human Animal Interface described here was the first opportunity for a large group of influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to gather and discuss purely technical topics of joint interest that exist at the human-animal interface. During the consultation, three influenza-specific sessions aimed to (1) identify virological characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) important for zoonotic and pandemic disease, (2) evaluate the factors affecting evolution and emergence of a pandemic influenza strain and identify existing monitoring systems, and (3) identify modes of transmission and exposure sources for human zoonotic influenza infection (including discussion of specific exposure risks by affected countries). A

  12. Ensuring good governance to address emerging and re-emerging animal disease threats: supporting the veterinary services of developing countries to meet OIE international standards on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, B; Mallet, E

    2006-04-01

    As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good.

  13. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  14. Challenges and opportunities in developing and marketing vaccines for OIE List A and emerging animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, C G; Salt, J; Balaski, C

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary pharmaceutical products generated 14.5 billion U.S. Dollars (USD) in worldwide sales in 2000, with biological products contributing 16.2 percent or 2.3 billion USD. The leading biological products were foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines, with 284 million USD in sales, representing 26.4 percent of the entire livestock biological business. Despite the potential opportunities for the biologicals industry, non-vaccination policies and undefined control and eradication strategies have deterred the private sector from significant investments in the research and development of vaccines against List A diseases. The primary research focus remains vaccines for infectious diseases that have an impact on current domestic herd health management systems. Changing the vaccine paradigm, investing in new technologies, and creating the future by integrating into key alliances with producers and regulatory authorities will be paramount in protecting our poultry and livestock industries against highly infectious diseases and potential acts of bioterrorism.

  15. Veterinary education for global animal and public health, D.A. Walsh : book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This 28th annual volume published by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, addresses the need for a global shift in the way veterinary students are taught veterinary public health (VPH. As well as taking the lead in prevention and control of animal diseases, the OIE develops health and welfare standards to promote food security and equitable international trade in animals and animal products.

  16. OIE philosophy, policy and procedures for the development of food safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droppers, W F G L

    2006-08-01

    Food safety was identified as a high priority area in the 2001-2005 World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Strategic Plan. Member Countries of the OIE considered that the organisation should be more active in issues of public health and consumer protection and that this should include more involvement in the area of diseases or pathogens transmissible through food, whether or not animals are affected by such diseases or pathogens. A permanent Working Group on Animal Production Food Safety was established in 2002 to coordinate the OIE's activities in food safety. The Working Group was requested to focus on food safety measures applicable at farm level and to monitor the ongoing cooperation between the OIE and Codex Alimentarius. More emphasis is now placed on the public health aspects of a disease when OIE standards are developed or revised. For example, the revised chapter on bovine tuberculosis in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code includes food safety recommendations for meat and meat products and for milk and milk products. The revised chapter was approved by the OIE International Committee of Member Countries at their 73rd General Session in May 2005. More chapters will follow, beginning with a chapter addressing bovine brucellosis.

  17. World Organisation for Animal Health: strengthening Veterinary Services for effective One Health collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, S

    2014-08-01

    To effectively reduce health risks at the animal-human-ecosystems interface, a One Health strategy is crucially important to create strong national and regional animal health systems that are well coordinated with strong public health systems. Animal diseases, particularly those caused by new and emerging zoonotic pathogens, must be effectively controlled at their source to reduce their potentially devastating impact upon both animal and human health. As the international organisation responsible for developing standards, guidelines and recommendations for animal health, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) plays an important role in minimising animal and public health risks attributable to zoonoses and other animal diseases, which can have severe consequences for global food safety and security. National Veterinary Services, which implement OIE animal health and welfare standards and other measures, are the first line of defence against these diseases, and must have the capacity to meet the core requirements necessary for their diagnosis and control. The OIE works collaboratively with the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to improve the ability of national animal and public health systems to respond to current and emerging animal health risks with public health consequences. In addition to improving and aligning national laboratory capacities in high-risk areas, the OIE collaborates on One Health-oriented projects for key diseases, establishing model frameworks which can be applied to manage other existing and emerging priority diseases. This article reviews the role and activities of the OIE in strengthening the national Veterinary Services of its Member Countries for a more effective and sustainable One Health collaboration.

  18. Philosophy, policy and procedures of the World Organisation for Animal Health for the development of standards in animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, A; Wilson, D

    2005-08-01

    Animal welfare was identified as a priority for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the 2001-2005 OIE Strategic Plan. Member Countries recognised that, as animal protection is a complex, multi-faceted public policy issue which includes important scientific, ethical, economic and political dimensions, the OIE needed to develop a detailed vision and strategy incorporating and balancing these dimensions. A permanent working group on animal welfare was established in order to provide guidance to the OIE in its work on the development of science-based standards and guidelines. The Working Group decided to give priority to the welfare of animals used in agriculture and aquaculture, and that, within those groups, the topics of transportation, slaughter for human consumption and killing for disease control purposes would be addressed first. Some guiding principles were approved by the International Committee of OIE Member Countries during the 72nd General Session in May 2004, and these have been followed by four specific guidelines on the priority topics listed above.

  19. Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral

  20. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  1. DETECTION AND REPORTING OF RANAVIRUS IN AMPHIBIANS: EVALUATION OF THE ROLES OF THE WORLD ORGANISATION FOR ANIMAL HEALTH AND THE PUBLISHED LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Yvonne; Meredith, Anna; Price, Stephen J

    2017-07-01

    Pathogens of wildlife can have direct impacts on human and livestock health as well as on biodiversity, as causative factors in population declines and extinctions. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) seeks to facilitate rapid sharing of information about animal diseases to enable up-to-date risk assessments of translocations of animals and animal products. The OIE also produces manuals of recommended methods to standardize diagnostic testing. Ranaviruses are important amphibian pathogens that may have spread through international trade, and infections became notifiable to OIE in 2009. We surveyed and reviewed published literature for data on sampling, diagnostic testing, and reporting of ranavirus during 2009-14. We also investigated attitudes and awareness of the OIE and its recommendations for best practice. We found that sampling effort is uneven and concentrated in the northern hemisphere. We also identified citizen science projects that have the potential to improve the quantity and quality of data on the incidence of ranavirus infection and the circumstances surrounding disease outbreaks. We found reporting of infection to be inconsistent: reporting was split between the published literature (where it was subject to a 2-yr lag) and the OIE with little overlap, results of negative diagnostic tests were underreported, and scientific researchers lacked awareness of the role of the OIE. Approaches to diagnostic screening were poorly harmonized and heavily reliant on molecular methods. These flaws in the mechanisms of ranavirus detection and reporting hamper the construction of a comprehensive disease information database.

  2. The scientific rationale for the World Organisation for Animal Health standards and recommendations on avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, J; Kahn, S

    2014-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) prescribes standards for the diagnosis and control of avian influenza, as well as health measures for safe trade in birds and avian products, which are based on up-to-date scientific information and risk management principles, consistent with the role of the OIE as a reference standard-setting body for the World Trade Organization (WTO). These standards and recommendations continue to evolve, reflecting advances in technology and scientific understanding of this important zoonotic disease. The avian influenza viruses form part of the natural ecosystem by virtue of their ubiquitous presence in wild aquatic birds, a fact that human intervention cannot change. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code), avian influenza is defined as an infection of poultry. However, the scope of the OIE standards and recommendations is not restricted to poultry, covering the diagnosis, early detection and management of avian influenza, including sanitary measures for trade in birds and avian products. The best way to manage avian influenza-associated risks to human and animal health is for countries to conduct surveillance using recommended methods, to report results in a consistent and transparent manner, and to applythe sanitary measures described in the Terrestrial Code. Surveillance for and timely reporting of avian influenza in accordance with OIE standards enable the distribution of relevant, up-to-date information to the global community.

  3. [Role of vaccination in animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    According to the IFAH, veterinary vaccines currently account for 26% of the global market in veterinary medicines, reflecting the importance of vaccines in animal health, as well as the number of wild and domesticated target species, and the monospecific nature of most vaccines. Multispecies vaccines include tetanus and rabies. In 2010, the number of food-producing animals was estimated to be roughly 20 billion and is rising gradually. Fowl currently represent the main food species. Veterinary vaccination has allowed the eradication of rinderpest, as officially declared last year (2011), jointly by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Rinderpest was a real scourge, and was only the second viral disease to be totally eradicated (after human smallpox). One characteristic of veterinary vaccination is the DIVA approach, "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals". The DIVA strategy is especially interesting for regulated control of diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and classical swine fever. DIVA vaccination requires prior serological testing. Vaccination is also used for wild animals such as foxes (rabies) and wild boars (classical swine fever). "In ovo" vaccination of fowl on day 18 of the incubation period is used to prevent Marek's disease for instance, and double vaccination (vector and insert) to prevent both Marek's disease and Gumboro's disease in fowl. Animal vaccination can also help to protect human health, as illustrated by fowl vaccination against salmonellosis.

  4. The role of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) in the global development of animal welfare science and its relationship with the OIE; strength through partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this presentation is to introduce the ISAE and to highlight members’ roles in the development and implementation of OIE’s animal welfare standards. Animal welfare science is a young discipline. Originally, welfare science was heavily focused on animal behavior (ethology), but it is ...

  5. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 44, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Three animal disease issues, amongst others, dominated animal health activities in the world; the near eradication of rinderpest (RP), the continued threat of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) to national and international trade and the ever spreading avian influenza (AI). The importance of early, rapid and sensitive diagnoses of merging diseases, with special reference to AI, can not be overstated and it has prompted our subprogramme to refocus our activities and efforts. The rapid diagnosis and characterization of AI, particularly with respect to molecular tools, are important to determine whether it is H5N1 or another subtype. It is here that the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme can play a role in supporting the actions of the FAO, World organisation for animal health (OIE), WHO and Member States. The subprogramme can provide technical assistance on (1) which tests and protocols to use, (2) technical and laboratory training, (3) expert missions (nominating relevant expert(s) or to perform expert missions by members of the subprogramme), (4) the analysis of AI samples (as primary diagnosis or as confirmation) utilizing the OIE reference status of our Seibersdorf laboratory (i.e. the analysis of translation products of the virus genome) and (5) the provision of technical quality assurance guidelines and support to ensure quality data and reporting

  7. Issues and special features of animal health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrot Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance, the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  8. Issues and special features of animal health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Béringue, Vincent; Coulon, Jean-Baptiste; Fourichon, Christine; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Krebs, Stéphane; Rainard, Pascal; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Torny, Didier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Zientara, Stephan; Zundel, Etienne; Pineau, Thierry

    2011-08-24

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare.Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context.Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents.The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  9. Awareness and implementation of the regional animal welfare strategy for the Americas: a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, E; Kahn, S; Arroyo Kuribreha, M

    2015-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is the global standard-setting organisation for animal health and these standards are references for the World Trade Organization legal framework. In 2002, noting the relationship between animal health and welfare, the OIE accepted the mandate to develop animal welfare standards. These standards were subsequently adopted by Member Countries and have been included in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code and the Aquatic Animal Health Code. The implementation of the OIE standards by Member Countries is continually promoted. National OIE Delegates are encouraged to nominate National Focal Points for key topics, including animal welfare. In 2012, the OIE Regional Commission of the Americas adopted a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy (Regional Strategy) to promote a coordinated approach to the implementation of the OIE animal welfare standards by the 29 Member Countries in the region. In February 2015, the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas distributed a questionnaire to determine the level of awareness and implementation of the Regional Strategy. This paper presents the results of the questionnaire. With a few exceptions, veterinary officials and stakeholders are only just becoming aware of the strategy and implementation is at an early stage. To promote the implementation of the Regional Strategy, it will be.necessary to continue building the capacity of the national Veterinary Services, strengthening public-private partnerships, modernising legislation and promoting veterinary involvement in animal welfare. Through the implementation of the Regional Strategy, the OIE will provide support to countries in establishing animal welfare standards, in line with government priorities and consumer concerns.

  10. Responses to a questionnaire on networking between OIE Reference Laboratories and OIE Collaborating Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G K; Linnane, S; Diaz, F; Vallat, B

    2007-01-01

    Two separate questionnaires were distributed to 20 OIE Collaborating Centres and 160 OIE Reference Laboratories to assess the current status of networking and collaboration among OIE Reference Laboratories and between OIE Reference Laboratories and OIE Collaborating Centres. The questionnaire for the OIE Reference Laboratories contained 7 sections with questions on networking between laboratories, reporting of information, biosecurity quality control, and financing. Emphasis was placed in obtaining information on inter-laboratory relationships and exchange of expertise, training needs and sharing of data and information. The questionnaire for the OIE Collaborating Centres contained six sections with the emphasis on aspects related to awareness of services that can be provided, expertise that could be made available, sharing of information and the relationship with the national veterinary services of the countries concerned. The responses to the questionnaires were collated, categorised and statistically evaluated to allow for tentative inferences on the data provided. Valuable information emanated from the data identifying the current status of networking and indicating possible shortcomings that could be addressed to improve networking.

  11. Economic analysis and costing of animal health: a literature review of methods and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehove, A; Commault, J; Petitclerc, M; Teissier, M; Macé, J

    2012-08-01

    Myriads of data, a host of methods, but no single universal indicator. The Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Gap Analysis helps to quantify the needs of national Veterinary Services. In a world of scarce public financial resources and heightened transparency and accountability, official Veterinary Services (national Veterinary Authorities) must be able to justify their needs in economic and budgetary terms to their line minister, national parliament and the public at large, or in negotiations with donors. Animal health and Veterinary Service activities are a global public good. It is the responsibility of governments to maintain animal health systems, including networks for the surveillance and control of animal diseases to ensure the early detection of suspected animal disease outbreaks, a rapid response and, where possible, eradication of animal disease outbreaks 'at source'. The establishment of animal health systems is a core responsibility of the State, and it requires the use of public funds, although it does not preclude public-private partnerships and strategies for ensuring complementarity between the partners concerned. The PVS Gap Analysis mission of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is a method for analysing and quantifying disparities between a baseline situation (determined by PVS Evaluation using the OIE PVS Tool) and the target levels set by the country itself in accordance with its priorities. An added advantage is that the method can be used for training and awareness raising.

  12. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odongo, N.E.; Garcia, M.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    ) interactions among nutrition, reproduction and genotype, (ii) livestock-environment interaction / productivity / climate (water / land / plants / heat / altitude), (iii) detection and control of transboundary animal diseases, including zoonoses, and (iv) animal product safety and food quality. The Symposium was attended by approximately 400 delegates from 100 Member States as well as representatives of international organizations including FAO, WHO, OIE and ILRI who presented and discussed strategies for the sustainable improvement of animal production and health, with particular emphasis on global food security, poverty alleviation and hunger reduction. The seriousness with which these topics were being tackled by Member States was shown in the results of their studies, presented in 53 oral presentations and 163 poster displays by an assorted group of researchers, veterinarians, policy makers, students and other animal scientists who attended the symposium.

  13. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odongo, N E; Garcia, M; Viljoen, G J [Animal Production and Health Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    ) interactions among nutrition, reproduction and genotype, (ii) livestock-environment interaction / productivity / climate (water / land / plants / heat / altitude), (iii) detection and control of transboundary animal diseases, including zoonoses, and (iv) animal product safety and food quality. The Symposium was attended by approximately 400 delegates from 100 Member States as well as representatives of international organizations including FAO, WHO, OIE and ILRI who presented and discussed strategies for the sustainable improvement of animal production and health, with particular emphasis on global food security, poverty alleviation and hunger reduction. The seriousness with which these topics were being tackled by Member States was shown in the results of their studies, presented in 53 oral presentations and 163 poster displays by an assorted group of researchers, veterinarians, policy makers, students and other animal scientists who attended the symposium.

  14. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research are reviewed. These include various techniques associated with both the qualitative localization and quantitative measurements of isotopes in animals; comparator studies in which measurement of the radioactivity in one part of a system will allow computation of the mass or volume in another part; in vivo and in vitro applications of isotope dilution studies; and the use of isotopes in dynamic systems analyses. The use of stable isotopes in mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance in animal research is also briefly reviewed. Finally some of the successful uses of radiation produced by radioactive sources or various types of generators of electromagnetic radiations in animal production and health studies are described. (U.K.)

  15. Nanotechnology and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, although still in the early stages of its development, is beginning to equip scientists, engineers and biologists to work at the cellular and molecular levels for significant benefits in healthcare and animal medicine. It is reasonable to presume over the next couple of decades that nanobiotechnology industries and unique developments will be revolutionising animal health and medicine. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 567-569

  16. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 54, July 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    It is with great enthusiasm that I address you in a new era - the era of a rinderpest free world. The OIE and FAO have declared the world-wide eradication of Rinderpest recently - but more about this later. The first part of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were involved in the technical planning of projects for the new TC projects by Member States for the 2012/2013 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with finalizing the IAEA's 2012/2013 Work and Budget Programme. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the subprogramme

  17. [The design and development of a quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases at the National Centre for Animal and Plant Health in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oca, N Montes; Villoch, A; Pérez Ruano, M

    2004-12-01

    A quality system for the diagnosis of exotic animal diseases was developed at the national centre for animal and plant health (CENSA), responsible for coordinating the clinical, epizootiological and laboratory diagnosis of causal agents of exotic animal diseases in Cuba. A model was designed on the basis of standard ISO 9001:2000 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), standard ISO/IEC 17025:1999 of ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission, recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and other regulatory documents from international and national organisations that deal specifically with the treatment of emerging diseases. Twenty-nine standardised operating procedures were developed, plus 13 registers and a checklist to facilitate the evaluation of the system. The effectiveness of the quality system was confirmed in the differential diagnosis of classical swine fever at an animal virology laboratory in Cuba.

  18. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    An outline review is presented of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research. Techniques covered are the qualitative localization of a radioisotope (static and dynamic measurements, detection procedures involving locating concentration sites of labelled toxins, parasites, abnormal blood cells, etc.), quantitative measurement of isotopes (absorption and excretion, transfer across membranes) comparator studies (determination of mass, volume or flow), isotope dilution and related studies (in vivo and in vitro applications, determination of total body red cell or plasma volume), dynamic systems (single compartmental systems such as rumen studies and the suckling lamb or calf, multiple exits from a compartment and multiple doses), stable isotopes and mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the use of internal irradiation (sterile male technique, control of insects and parasites, production of attenuated vaccines etc.). (U.K.)

  19. Challenges in Preparing Veterinarians for Global Animal Health: Understanding the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Paul J; Quinn, Kaylee A; Brown, Corrie C

    Understanding of global systems is essential for veterinarians seeking to work in realms outside of their national domain. In the global system, emphasis remains on the public sector, and the current curricular emphasis in developed countries is on private clinical practice for the domestic employment market. There is a resulting lack of competency at graduation for effective engagement internationally. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has created standards for public sector operations in animal health, which must be functional to allow for sustainable development. This public sector, known as the Veterinary Services, or VS, serves to control public good diseases, and once effectively built and fully operational, allows for the evolution of a functional private sector, focused on private good diseases. Until the VS is fully functional, support of private good services is non-sustainable and any efforts delivered are not long lasting. As new graduates opt for careers working in the international development sector, it is essential that they understand the OIE guidelines to help support continuing improvement. Developing global veterinarians by inserting content into the veterinary curriculum on how public systems can operate effectively could markedly increase the potential of our professional contributions globally, and particularly in the areas most in need.

  20. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities.

  1. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 55, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The biggest event in 2011 was the declaration of global freedom from rinderpest by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The IAEA celebrated this momentous occasion on the 20th of September 2011, during the IAEA 55th General Conference. The commitment, dedication and hard work of past and present IAEA staff were commended by all participants as the contribution of the IAEA was a critical and essential component of the eradication success. Building on the success of the rinderpest campaign, technology transfer in the field of animal health continued to be a top priority of the Subprogramme during 2011 and this will continue for the future since our next target disease for eradication is peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Member States received support through Technical Cooperation Projects. In most of the tropics, climatic variation, rainfall patterns and droughts reduce plant growth and feed availability and quality leading to extensive livestock losses and reduced productivity. With the assistance of the IAEA, tremendous improvement has been achieved in terms of quantity and quality of the available feed resource base, particularly, in terms of nutritive value, palatability and/or cold and drought tolerance - vital benefits whose effectiveness can be monitored using nuclear technology. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter and are also accessible at our website (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/aph/index.html); I thus need not mention them in this section. Please contact us if you have any further ideas, comments, concerns or questions. As discussed in previous newsletters, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field, to optimally serve our Member States.

  2. Genomic Tools and Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Ricardo

    2016-09-07

    Animals have been selected to improve their productivity in order to increase the profitability to the producer. In this scenario, not much attention was given to health traits. As a consequence of that, selection was made for animals with higher production and a shortened productive life. In addition to that, the intense production system used in livestock has forced animals to be exposed to higher pathogen loads, therefore predisposing them to infections. Infectious diseases are known to be caused by micro-organisms that are able to infect and colonize the host, affecting their physiological functions and causing problems in their production and on animal welfare. Even with the best management practices, diseases are still the most important cause of economic losses in the animal industry. In this review article we have addressed the new tools that could be used to select animals to better cope with diseases and pathogens.

  3. [Animal Health Law-- the National Animal Health Act and the European Animal Health Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Mettenleiter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Animal Health Act that replaces the Animal Disease Act, which is currently in force, creates a regulatory framework in order to not only, as has been the case so far, control animal diseases that had already broken out, but in order to already prevent in advance possible outbreaks of animal diseases by means of preventive measures. The instruments to this effect are described here. At European level, too, the idea of prevention is set to play a greater role in the future, with the draft EU legal instrument on animal health, that has to date only been discussed at Commission level, also contributing to a simplification and easier implementation by the persons subject to law by harmonising the currently fragmented Community law. It remains to be seen when the deliberations in the Council and European Parliament will begin.

  4. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included.

  7. Animal Health in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Jainudeen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developing countries in Africa and Asia are located in the tropics (23° north and south of the equator. The poor productivity of ruminants in these countries is mostly due to inadequate nutrition, infectious diseases, low rates of reproduction, poor genotype, high ambient temperatures and socioeconomic constraints. In addition to infectious diseases which have long since been eradicated or brought under control in developed countries, there are diseases unique to the tropical environment. In the past, the diagnosis of most diseases was based on serological tests. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, a rapid method of identifying viral and bacterial infections, is contributing to the eradication or control of most epidemic diseases which inflict high mortality. Less attention has; however, been given to subclinical diseases which adversely affect reproduction, growrh rates and reduced performance (draught power, milk and meat. The interaction of veterinary epidemiology and agricultural economics has helped epidemiologists and veterinarians to focus on the economic importance of animal diseases. The emerging trends in animal health include new diagnostic methods using DNA probes, new vaccines, sustainable parasite control schemes and herd health monitoring. The study of infectious diseases of veterinary importance will continue to he supported by modern techniques of molecular biology. Veterinary curricula should emphasis both animal health and production in the context of current national development occurring in the livestock sector.

  8. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 53, January 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-01-15

    In this newsletter I want to highlight the biggest event on the animal calendar - Rinderpest is no longer a threat to livestock farmers' world wide. It is expected that FAO and OIE will jointly declare the world to be free from Rinderpest in 2011. In commemoration of this, I want to pay tribute to the members that made this possible such as regional organizations (EC, AU/IBAR CG-Centres etc), international organizations (FAO, OIE, IAEA etc), individual countries (France, Japan, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States of America, Italy etc) and the Member States that suffered from this disease and worked towards its eradication. Together with all the role players, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department's contribution to the development, evaluation and validation of nuclear and nuclear related immunological and molecular diagnostic technologies was a niche and critical area. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has two mechanisms of technical support to Member States - the development, evaluation and validation of nuclear and nuclear related technologies through the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) mechanism, and the transfer and sustainable implementation of the CRP developed technologies through the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) mechanism. The development of nuclear and nuclear related immunological and molecular diagnostic technologies were jointly developed between CRPs of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and TCPs of the Technical Cooperation Department

  9. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 53, January 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this newsletter I want to highlight the biggest event on the animal calendar - Rinderpest is no longer a threat to livestock farmers' world wide. It is expected that FAO and OIE will jointly declare the world to be free from Rinderpest in 2011. In commemoration of this, I want to pay tribute to the members that made this possible such as regional organizations (EC, AU/IBAR CG-Centres etc), international organizations (FAO, OIE, IAEA etc), individual countries (France, Japan, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States of America, Italy etc) and the Member States that suffered from this disease and worked towards its eradication. Together with all the role players, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department's contribution to the development, evaluation and validation of nuclear and nuclear related immunological and molecular diagnostic technologies was a niche and critical area. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has two mechanisms of technical support to Member States - the development, evaluation and validation of nuclear and nuclear related technologies through the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) mechanism, and the transfer and sustainable implementation of the CRP developed technologies through the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) mechanism. The development of nuclear and nuclear related immunological and molecular diagnostic technologies were jointly developed between CRPs of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and TCPs of the Technical Cooperation Department

  10. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Asia, the Far East and Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R

    2014-04-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for Asia, the Far East and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements.

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The news letter reports workshops and training events in the areas of animal diseases and application of ELISA and radioimmunoassay techniques. It also describes existing and future coordinated research programs in animal production and health

  12. Priority issues in tropical animal health management | Etuk | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of livestock to sustain family and local economies have been acknowledged worldwide. However, the major constraints to the attainment of this potential especially in the tropics have been the incidence of disease and sundry ill health. Thus the development of an effective animal health management strategy ...

  13. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 59, January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    training courses were organized on shortnotice under existing technical cooperation projects RER/5/016 (regional European) and RAS/5/060 (regional Asian). The two hands-on group events were conducted to enhance the capacities of specialists from at-risk regions to perform an early and rapid diagnosis and control of this novel H7N9 avian influenza strain. Twenty-four participants from seventeen Member States in Asia and the Pacific Region and twenty two participants from fourteen Member States in the Europe Region attended the two training courses. The events consisted of lectures on epidemiology, risk assessment, differential diagnosis of the H7N9 virus subtypes, sampling and submission procedures (including shipment of pathological samples to the FAO/OIE reference laboratories) and practical training on current, rapid techniques for disease diagnosis, especially with regards to the application of nuclear-based techniques for the identification and characterization of the pathogen. In both cases, the Animal Production and Health Laboratory's facilities at the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratories were used, which included advanced molecular technological platforms and on-site computer teaching facilities to enable the bioinformatic analysis of avian influenza genomes. Thereby, specialists from the regions had the opportunity to gain an insight into risk assessment and epidemiological knowledge on the virus, while the preparedness and proficiency of Member States' veterinary diagnostic laboratories for similar future events was greatly enhanced

  14. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 59, January 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-01-15

    training courses were organized on shortnotice under existing technical cooperation projects RER/5/016 (regional European) and RAS/5/060 (regional Asian). The two hands-on group events were conducted to enhance the capacities of specialists from at-risk regions to perform an early and rapid diagnosis and control of this novel H7N9 avian influenza strain. Twenty-four participants from seventeen Member States in Asia and the Pacific Region and twenty two participants from fourteen Member States in the Europe Region attended the two training courses. The events consisted of lectures on epidemiology, risk assessment, differential diagnosis of the H7N9 virus subtypes, sampling and submission procedures (including shipment of pathological samples to the FAO/OIE reference laboratories) and practical training on current, rapid techniques for disease diagnosis, especially with regards to the application of nuclear-based techniques for the identification and characterization of the pathogen. In both cases, the Animal Production and Health Laboratory's facilities at the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratories were used, which included advanced molecular technological platforms and on-site computer teaching facilities to enable the bioinformatic analysis of avian influenza genomes. Thereby, specialists from the regions had the opportunity to gain an insight into risk assessment and epidemiological knowledge on the virus, while the preparedness and proficiency of Member States' veterinary diagnostic laboratories for similar future events was greatly enhanced.

  15. Economic Decisions in Farm Animal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised...... informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the Animal Health Economics workshops which was held on the 9th and 10th of November, 2006 at the Research Centre...... Foulum in Denmark. Different disciplines and approaches within Animal Health Economics are dealt with by the different scientists and the report contains a variety of novel results and projects. The resulting discussion is summarized in the report....

  16. Requirements for laboratory animals in health programmes*

    OpenAIRE

    Held, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory animals are essential for the successful execution of many health programmes. A wide variety of animal models is used in the worldwide efforts to improve the control of various diseases, and in the basic research needed to improve health care. Biomedical programmes require specially-bred animals reared under controlled conditions, with close attention given to such factors as physical environment, nutrition, microbiological status, and genetic background. The need for a regular sup...

  17. Public perception and risk communication in regard to bioterrorism against animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G S

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the total international prohibition on the use of disease to attack humans, animals and plants, noting that in the past several countries had developed programmes for attacks on animals and plants as well as humans. Current activities undertaken by intergovernmental organisations - the World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)--to counter the threat of attacks on humans, animals and plants are examined. Effective countermeasures to deliberate attacks need to be developed in harmony with existing measures to control natural or accidental outbreaks of disease. Finally the paper assesses the risk and the public perception of it, and considers what risk communication is needed and to whom. Clear mandates are needed for the FAO and OIE to be prepared to deal with outbreaks of disease, and with contamination of the food supply chain, whether accidental or intentional.

  18. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This second volume deals with integrated modeling...... and analyses of multi-omics datasets from theoretical and computational approaches and presents their applications in animal production and health as well as veterinary medicine to improve diagnosis, prevention and treatment of animal diseases. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal...

  19. Search for OIE-listed ruminant mycoplasma diseases in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahir, W; Omar, O; Rosales, R S; Hlusek, M; Ziay, G; Schauwers, W; Whatmore, A M; Nicholas, R A J

    2017-05-30

    Little is known about the occurrence of important diseases of ruminants in Afghanistan because of the conflict affecting the country over the last 40 years. To address this discrepancy, ruminant herds in Afghanistan were screened for OIE-listed mycoplasma diseases, contagious bovine (CBPP) and caprine pleuropneumonias (CCPP). Of the 825 samples from 24 provinces tested for serological evidence of CBPP caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp.mycoides, 20 (3.4%) had ELISA values greater than the positive threshold of 50% though all were less than 55%. Repeat testing of these suspect sera gave values below 50. A smaller number of sera (330) from cattle in nine provinces were also tested by the rapid latex agglutination test (LAT) for CBPP, 10 of which were considered suspect. However, no positive bands were seen when immunoblotting was carried out on all sera that gave suspect results. Serological evidence of Mycoplasma bovis was detected in half of 28 herds in eight provinces. The cause of CCPP, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae was not detected in any of the 107 nasal swabs and lung tissue collected from goats in seven provinces though sample handling and storage were not optimal. However, strong serological evidence was detected in goat herds in several villages near Kabul some of which were over 50% seropositive by LAT and ELISAs for CCPP; immunoblotting confirmed positive results on a selection of these sera. The data presented here provide a first assessment of the occurrence of the two OIE listed mycoplasma diseases in Afghanistan. From the results of the testing bovine sera from the majority of provinces there is no evidence of the presence of CBPP in Afghanistan. However the samples tested represented only 0.03% of the cattle population so a larger survey is required to confirm these findings. Serological, but not bacterial, evidence was produced during this investigation to show that CCPP is highly likely to be present in parts of Afghanistan.

  20. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This newsletter contains brief reviews of the meetings held between September and November, 1991, and a list of the nine co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division is given. A tenth CRP, focussing on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments, is currently being planned. Developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory, Seibersdorf are detailed

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This issue of the newsletter outlines activities and coordinated research programmes in the areas of animal production and animal health for the year 1999 by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in food and agriculture and FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf

  2. Working together to safeguard animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbens, Nigel

    2016-02-13

    Nigel Gibbens, the UK's Chief Veterinary Officer, gives an update on some of the areas of animal health and welfare of particular interest to government and considers how farmers, vets and government can work together to control and respond to animal disease. British Veterinary Association.

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to highlights of research coordination meetings, training events and announcements of upcoming events, this issue of the Newsletter carries editorial note regarding the potential of biotechnology in animal health and production for developing countries

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Newsletter presents the staffing, past and forthcoming workshops, status of the existing coordinated research programmes in the area of application of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in animal production and health.

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    In addition to highlights of research coordination meetings, training events and announcements of upcoming events, this issue of the Newsletter carries editorial note regarding the potential of biotechnology in animal health and production for developing countries.

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Newsletter presents the staffing, past and forthcoming workshops, status of the existing coordinated research programmes in the area of application of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in animal production and health

  7. Animal health and welfare: equivalent or complementary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, B; Vandenheede, M

    2014-04-01

    The concepts of 'health' and 'welfare', whether applied to humans or animals, are increasingly becoming linked. But are they really indissociable, or even synonymous? Although human health is generally defined as a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, animal health is still considered as simply the absence of disease. However, recent advances in scientific knowledge are forcing us to revise our ideas about the mental complexity of animals and to recognise their ability to feel emotions and to have needs and a degree of consciousness. The precise objective of animal welfare science is to study their mental states and their ability to adapt to domestication. Pending a global application of this concept of health, including mental health, to animals as well as to humans, the idea of welfare remains an important element in addition to traditional health concerns. More generally, this linkage fuels the ethical debate about the ways in which people use animals, prompting society to change its stance on some aspects of the issue.

  8. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences.

  9. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 63210 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...This is a notice to inform the public of an upcoming meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. The meeting is organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal health.

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 9 workshops, research coordination meetings, consultant meetings and training courses held between January-June 1995, the status of 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf, a presentation of 4 forthcoming events (meetings, workshops, training courses) and 3 software programs in the field

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No.21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 7 meetings, workshops and training courses held between september and december 1994, the status of the 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit at the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf and a presentation of 5 forthcoming meetings, workshops and training courses

  13. Indicatoren voor dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid = Indicators for animal welfare and animal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Neijenhuis, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality requires a monitor for animal welfare and animal health to evaluate progress in this field. This report describes which indicators for animal welfare and health can be used for the monitor

  14. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade.

  15. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports of the five FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meetings held in the first half of 1991, focussing on improving animal reproduction research and animal disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques, improving the productivity of indiginous African livestock using radioimmunoassay and related techniques, improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods, and an inter-regional network for improving the productivity of camelids. The FAO/IAEA International Symposium on ''Nuclear and Related Techniques in Animal Production and Health'' is summarily described (the Symposium Proceedings should be published in October, 1991), and applications are invited for a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments

  16. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  17. The allocation of resources for animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S

    2017-04-01

    Economics is too important to be left to the experts. This paper is therefore mainly for animal health policy-makers who are not economists but want a better appreciation of how economics can contribute to resource allocation decisions. First, the methodology of economic analysis is outlined with the objective of dispelling criticisms of its simplifying assumption of rationality. Then, unusual in economics but more familiar to biological and veterinary scientists, the technical aspects of transforming resources into products are discussed. Economics' unique contribution is to establish criteria enabling society to obtain maximum value from the production and distribution of goods and services (products) from scarce resources. Animal disease reduces the efficiency of this process. Value is intangible, but people reveal how much they value (i.e. feel a want or need for) products by what they actually consume, in quality and quantity. Animal products, and so implicitly animals themselves, are an example. The strength of people's preferences is reflected both in the prices they pay for market goods and services, and by their political votes where markets do not exist. Importantly, there is a difference between financial value (what the consumer pays for a good or service) and economic value (the maximum amount of money they would be prepared to pay for it). Allocating resources for animal health creates both costs and benefits, financial and economic. Moreover, costs and benefits are both private and social because of externalities, a major consideration in infectious diseases. Where production decisions with animal health implications are made exclusively for private benefit, government has a role in providing incentives for animal sectors to act in ways that result in socially efficient outcomes.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The activities of the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division are carried out through the operation of Co-ordinated Research Programmes and Technical Co-operation projects, both of which aim to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in tropical and subtropical countries to identify and resolve problems connected with livestock development. This particular programme at the outset, it was envisaged that an inter-disciplinary approach would be adopted by each participating institute whereby studies on nutrition, reproduction and health would be integrated into a number of site specific projects. The one discussed in this newsletter covers animal production and focussing on animal reproduction and reproduction-nutrition interactions. This paper contains an outline for the program which encourages scientists from universities and research institutes to provide assistance and solutions to developing countries on the technical difficulties associated with artificial insemination

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This Issue outlines recent activities of the Animal Production and Health Section outstanding among them being the support it provides to the implementation of over 40 Technical Cooperation Projects and eight Coordinated Research Projects. Future activities will focus on the theme of 'Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies (with emphasis on biotechnology) and Capacity Building.

  20. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This Issue outlines recent activities of the Animal Production and Health Section outstanding among them being the support it provides to the implementation of over 40 Technical Cooperation Projects and eight Coordinated Research Projects. Future activities will focus on the theme of 'Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies (with emphasis on biotechnology) and Capacity Building

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the importance of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) in improving all aspects of human social, economic and cultural life and the role played by the IAEA's Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, in using these technologies to undertake training programmes in Africa. Coordinated research programmes, training and other events are also announced

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the importance of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) in improving all aspects of human social, economic and cultural life and the role played by the IAEA's Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, in using these technologies to undertake training programmes in Africa. Coordinated research programmes, training and other events are also announced.

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 47, December 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    As part of the Agency's 2006/7 Programme of Work and Budget, we evaluated our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Co-operation projects (TCPs) and focussed our activities for the Agency's 2008/9 cycle. During this exercise we could identify areas where good performance was achieved as well as those where further improvements were needed ? and which we then addressed. We also had time to reflect on our past performance in order to serve the best interests of our Member States. It became apparent that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has to be more proactive towards the detection, control and management of emerging diseases, with particular emphasis on transboundary animal diseases and the offering of relevant and effective support to MS. Attention was given to increasing our collaboration with other International Organisations (such as OIE, WHO and CGIAR Centres) as well as our Joint FAO/IAEA divisional activities. The clear advantage that we as a Joint FAO/IAEA programme have is a very proficient laboratory (and expertise) that focuses on our direct support to MS. To this effect this Issue want to highlight our activities related to small ruminant reproduction and breeding in this section of the newsletter

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 47, December 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    As part of the Agency's 2006/7 Programme of Work and Budget, we evaluated our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Co-operation projects (TCPs) and focussed our activities for the Agency's 2008/9 cycle. During this exercise we could identify areas where good performance was achieved as well as those where further improvements were needed ? and which we then addressed. We also had time to reflect on our past performance in order to serve the best interests of our Member States. It became apparent that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has to be more proactive towards the detection, control and management of emerging diseases, with particular emphasis on transboundary animal diseases and the offering of relevant and effective support to MS. Attention was given to increasing our collaboration with other International Organisations (such as OIE, WHO and CGIAR Centres) as well as our Joint FAO/IAEA divisional activities. The clear advantage that we as a Joint FAO/IAEA programme have is a very proficient laboratory (and expertise) that focuses on our direct support to MS. To this effect this Issue want to highlight our activities related to small ruminant reproduction and breeding in this section of the newsletter.

  6. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Outbreak Investigation: Application of the FAO-OIE-WHO Four-way Linking Framework in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawaty, V; Dharmayanti, N L P I; Misriyah; Pawestri, H A; Azhar, M; Tallis, G; Schoonman, L; Samaan, G

    2015-08-01

    WHO, FAO and OIE developed a 'four-way linking' framework to enhance the cross-sectoral sharing of epidemiological and virological information in responding to zoonotic disease outbreaks. In Indonesia, outbreak response challenges include completeness of data shared between human and animal health authorities. The four-way linking framework (human health laboratory/epidemiology and animal health laboratory/epidemiology) was applied in the investigation of the 193 rd human case of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection. As recommended by the framework, outbreak investigation and risk assessment findings were shared. On 18 June 2013, a hospital in West Java Province reported a suspect H5N1 case in a 2-year-old male. The case was laboratory-confirmed that evening, and the information was immediately shared with the Ministry of Agriculture. The human health epidemiology/laboratory team investigated the outbreak and conducted an initial risk assessment on 19 June. The likelihood of secondary cases was deemed low as none of the case contacts were sick. By 3 July, no secondary cases associated with the outbreak were identified. The animal health epidemiology/laboratory investigation was conducted on 19-25 June and found that a live bird market visited by the case was positive for H5N1 virus. Once both human and market virus isolates were sequenced, a second risk assessment was conducted jointly by the human health and animal health epidemiology/laboratory teams. This assessment concluded that the likelihood of additional human cases associated with this outbreak was low but that future sporadic human infections could not be ruled out because of challenges in controlling H5N1 virus contamination in markets. Findings from the outbreak investigation and risk assessments were shared with stakeholders at both Ministries. The four-way linking framework clarified the type of data to be shared. Both human health and animal health teams made ample data available, and there was

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency's programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency`s programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  9. Reducing animal experimentation in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Richard; Cox, Sarah; Smitsaart, Eliana; Beascoechea, Claudia Perez; Haas, Bernd; Maradei, Eduardo; Haydon, Daniel T; Barnett, Paul

    2011-07-26

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Manual and the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) still prescribe live challenge experiments for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) immunogenicity and vaccine potency tests. However, the EP allows for other validated tests for the latter, and specifically in vitro tests if a "satisfactory pass level" has been determined; serological replacements are also currently in use in South America. Much research has therefore focused on validating both ex vivo and in vitro tests to replace live challenge. However, insufficient attention has been given to the sensitivity and specificity of the "gold standard"in vivo test being replaced, despite this information being critical to determining what should be required of its replacement. This paper aims to redress this imbalance by examining the current live challenge tests and their associated statistics and determining the confidence that we can have in them, thereby setting a standard for candidate replacements. It determines that the statistics associated with the current EP PD(50) test are inappropriate given our domain knowledge, but that the OIE test statistics are satisfactory. However, it has also identified a new set of live animal challenge test regimes that provide similar sensitivity and specificity to all of the currently used OIE tests using fewer animals (16 including controls), and can also provide further savings in live animal experiments in exchange for small reductions in sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scripts, animal health and biosecurity : The moral accountability of farmers' talk about animal health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enticott, Gareth; Vanclay, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of script theory to understandings of animal health risks. Script theory has long played an important role in studies of health and risk, yet the application of script theories is often vague and confused. Theories from different ontological perspectives are

  11. The Effect of Probiotics on Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Corcionivoschi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria and their effect in combating digestive disorders in humans and animals has been demonstrated and supported in numerous scientific studies. Probiotic bacteria are used in a wide range of nutritional techniques in order to support the host organism during physiological strain, to reduce stress due to technology and to combat diarrheal syndromes (occurring naturally or pharmacologically induced. Based on a rich bibliographic material, this paper presents the role of probiotic bacteria to equilibrate the beneficial microbial population and in bacterial turnover by stimulating the host immune response via specific secretions (eg. bacteriocins and competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic germs in the digestive tract (Salmonella, E. coli. In the same context, this review presents the basic studies on the effect of probiotic bacteria in health maintenance for the main species of farm animals: pigs, poultry, cattle and sheep.

  12. Role of the Office International des Epizooties in protecting the health of free-ranging mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancou, J

    1992-12-01

    The various activities undertaken by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1924 to protect the helth of free-ranging mammals are outlined and discussed. Two types of activity have been conducted over the years: --The first type promotes measures to protect the health of free-ranging mammals in order to safeguard the health of domestic animals and human beings. These measures have prevented the propagation of the highly contagious diseases of animals and the more serious zoonoses. --The second type aims at protecting the health of free-ranging mammals in order to maintain the fauna and the natural equilibrium. Ecological and epidemiological studies are promoted with a view to effective management of wildlife populations and overcoming the associated health risks. By virtue of its close contacts with officials in charge of animal health in 126 Member Countries, the OIE has made a noteworthy contribution to the protection of populations of free-ranging mammals.

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the activities of the Animal Production and Health Section and the Sub-programme. Apart from the regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and the customary technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, the personnel were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2005/2006 biennial project cycle. The Section also was also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2006/2007 Work and Budget Programme

  14. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  16. Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 2 - Safety & Security Chapter 2 - Environmental Hazards Animal-Associated Hazards Heather Bair-Brake, Ryan M. Wallace, G. Gale Galland, Nina Marano HUMAN INTERACTION WITH ANIMALS: A RISK FACTOR FOR INJURY AND ILLNESS Animals, ...

  17. 76 FR 57682 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... 90 [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY... notice to inform the public of an upcoming meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health... animal health. DATES: The meeting will be held September 23, 2011, from noon to 5 p.m. (eastern daylight...

  18. 76 FR 9537 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...This is a notice to inform the public of three upcoming meetings of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal health, including the pending proposed rule implementing USDA's traceability framework and establishing an aquaculture subcommittee.

  19. Health of plants, animals and ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwitz, P.A.; Weers, A.W. van

    1988-12-01

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the Dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). It presents the elaboration of subproject 2 'Health of plants, animals and ecosystems'. The study had been based upon the following questions: Does the application of the radiation-protection principes, intended to the protection of man, offer sufficient protection for populations of plants and animals?; If that sufficient protection does exsist, are there situations imagible which are exceptions therefore?; Which studies should be made if the forementioned questions cannot be answered sufficiently? The gravity of radiation effects turns out to depend on the radiation dose an on the part of the population which is exposed. On the base of literature it is concluded that effects upon aquatic and terristric populations are excluded below radiation levels of 1 mGy/day. From the application of the generic models it appears that the radiation burden of organisms will remain below 1 mGy/day. Since the radiation burden of man in actual practice will be nearly always lower certainly no effects upon plants, animals and ecosystems are to be expected. An exception is possible for situations in which the distribution does not take place in the living environment of man; in that case protection of man is no need for limiting the radiation levels. Such locations do not exsist in the Netherlands. For the Dutch situation, in view of the actual and expected radiation levels, the in the report derived upper limits for the radiation levels will certainly be reached. It is recommended to make for the Netherlands, starting from concrete source terms, estimations which are based upon concrete situations, with the help of the generic models. In view of the foregoing the necessity therefore is small. Next it is recommeded to keep following the international developments in this area. (H.W.). 60 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Science to support aquatic animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 37

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    This issue focuses on the specific biotechnological methods that have the greatest potential for livestock production and health in developing countries, and which of these require nuclear and related techniques? The consultants' meeting that we held during 2001 (http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d3/public/ gene-technologies.pdf) provided us with the answers. We have subsequently discussed these concepts further with FAO, ILRI and other partners, and have planned a series of activities over the next two years to facilitate the transition of our Sub-programme. The first is an FAO/IAEA International Symposium on 'Applications of Gene Based Technologies for Improving Animal Production and Health in Developing Countries' which will be held here in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2003. The official announcement is included in this Newsletter. This will be followed by three inter-regional training courses, to be held during 2004 and 2005, to train scientists in developing countries on the molecular techniques currently being used in the fields of animal nutrition, genetics and disease diagnosis. Subsequently, four new CRPs will be initiated during 2005-2006, dealing with (a) rumen molecular techniques for predicting and enhancing productivity; (b) manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression; (c) characterization of small ruminant genetic resources aimed at selection for parasite resistance; and (d) improvement of diagnostic tests for African Swine Fever to assist in molecular epidemiology. The announcements for the first two have already appeared in previous Newsletters and that for the third will be in the next issue. The projects that have been approved for implementation during the next biennium (2003-2004) are listed in this Newsletter.

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This issue focuses on the specific biotechnological methods that have the greatest potential for livestock production and health in developing countries, and which of these require nuclear and related techniques? The consultants' meeting that we held during 2001 (http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d3/public/ gene-technologies.pdf) provided us with the answers. We have subsequently discussed these concepts further with FAO, ILRI and other partners, and have planned a series of activities over the next two years to facilitate the transition of our Sub-programme. The first is an FAO/IAEA International Symposium on 'Applications of Gene Based Technologies for Improving Animal Production and Health in Developing Countries' which will be held here in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2003. The official announcement is included in this Newsletter. This will be followed by three inter-regional training courses, to be held during 2004 and 2005, to train scientists in developing countries on the molecular techniques currently being used in the fields of animal nutrition, genetics and disease diagnosis. Subsequently, four new CRPs will be initiated during 2005-2006, dealing with (a) rumen molecular techniques for predicting and enhancing productivity; (b) manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression; (c) characterization of small ruminant genetic resources aimed at selection for parasite resistance; and (d) improvement of diagnostic tests for African Swine Fever to assist in molecular epidemiology. The announcements for the first two have already appeared in previous Newsletters and that for the third will be in the next issue. The projects that have been approved for implementation during the next biennium (2003-2004) are listed in this Newsletter

  3. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  4. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R.; Cottrill, Bruce; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-01-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Project reviews and research coordination meetings on milk production, rinderpest diagnosis, animal vaccinations, quality assurance in veterinary diagnostic laboratories and evaluation of animal feeds are the major highlights of this issue of the Newsletter

  6. Gut microbiomes and their metabolites shape human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woojun

    2018-03-01

    The host genetic background, complex surrounding environments, and gut microbiome are very closely linked to human and animal health and disease. Although significant correlations between gut microbiota and human and animal health have been revealed, the specific roles of each gut bacterium in shaping human and animal health and disease remain unclear. However, recent omics-based studies using experimental animals and surveys of gut microbiota from unhealthy humans have provided insights into the relationships among microbial community, their metabolites, and human and animal health. This editorial introduces six review papers that provide new discoveries of disease-associated microbiomes and suggest possible microbiome-based therapeutic approaches to human disease.

  7. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  8. A Review of OIE Country Status Recovery Using Vaccinate-to-Live Versus Vaccinate-to-Die Foot-and-Mouth Disease Response Policies I: Benefits of Higher Potency Vaccines and Associated NSP DIVA Test Systems in Post-Outbreak Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, P V; Geale, D W; Clarke, G; Davis, J; Kasari, T R

    2015-08-01

    To rapidly return to trade, countries with OIE status, FMD-free country where vaccination is not practised, have destroyed emergency vaccinated animals, raising ethical concerns with respect to social values, the environment, animal welfare and global food security. This two-part review explores whether science could support eligibility to return to previous OIE status in 3 months irrespective of vaccinate-to-live or vaccinate-to-die policies. Here, we examine the benefits of higher potency (≥ 6 PD50 ), high-purity vaccines formulated from antigen banks for emergency use, their efficacy and performance in differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) assays for post-outbreak surveillance. From an intensive programme of research, we conclude that high-quality, higher potency vaccines are proven to reduce FMD virus (FMDV) subclinical circulation and the risk of carriers. Broader coverage than predicted by serology suggests the potential to hold a few 'key' vaccine strains improving logistics and reducing the financial burden of antigen banks. The OIE should adopt formal definitions for emergency vaccination and emergency vaccines. In terms of supportive tools, we consider that the lack of OIE recognition of DIVA tests other than those of PANAFTOSA in cattle is a shortcoming. There is need for research on maternal antibody interference with DIVA tests and on the use of such tests to establish whether greater purification of vaccines improves performance. We consider that alignment of waiting periods for vaccinate-to-live and vaccinate-to-die in OIE Code Article 8.5.9 1 b. and c. is feasible until an acceptable level of statistical certainty for surveillance or target probability of freedom is established to substantiate the absence of FMDV infection or circulation. It is surveillance intensity rather than waiting periods that establishes the risk of residual FMDV. EU Directive 2003/85/EC implicitly recognizes this, permitting derogation of the OIE waiting

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This newsletter contains brief summaries of the final Research Co-ordination Meetings of Co-ordinated Research Programmes on ''Strengthening Animal Reproduction Research in Asia Through the Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and ''Strengthening Animal Disease Diagnosis in Asia Through Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and of the first Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Milk-Producing Animals in Tropical and Subtropical Environments Through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques''. Developments at the IAEA's Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf, are described

  10. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  11. 76 FR 28910 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...This document informs the public of the next meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. In this document, we provide a new date for the July 2011 meeting, which had been scheduled for the previous week. The meeting is being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal health, including the pending proposed rule implementing USDA's traceability framework and establishing an aquaculture subcommittee.

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This issue of the newsletter briefs on forthcoming events and on-going activities of the Joint Division. Active Co-ordinated Research Programmes, training workshops, expert meetings in the fields of animal feed supplementation, animal productivity and reproductive efficiency, and diagnostic methodologies in disease control are highlighted

  13. Using foresight to prepare animal health today for tomorrow's challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Norman G; Munroe, Fonda A; Empringham, R Edward; Renwick, Shane A; Van der Linden, Ingrid W M; Dunlop, James R

    2011-06-01

    Foresight has been introduced in Canada in the area of animal health as a process to broaden thinking about the future and inform policy development. Its initial use and evolution through projects and studies over the past decade are described, demonstrating real action in animal health. Despite positive, continuing, and exciting results in animal health policy development, foresight's widespread acceptance and use thus far have been limited. Critical components for success, drawn from the Canadian experience, are described, and recommendations are offered for further action in animal health.

  14. In memoriam. Stuart Kenneth Hargreaves, DVM, 1946-2012. The humanist veterinarian from Zimbabwe who was committed to the improvement of animal health in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe Society for Animal Production Gold Medal Award for outstanding contribution to the livestock industryJ F Kapnek Charitable Trust Award for exceptional managerial commitment to the Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal and contributions to the veterinary professionCommercial Farmers’ Union Farming Oscar for outstanding contribution to the livestock industry and in particular ensuring continued beef exportsResearch Council of Zimbabwe award for distinguished contribution to the agricultural sector in the service of ZimbabweOIE Meritorious Medal, 20112011 World Veterinary Day Commemorative Award from Fellow Veterinary Professionals of Zimbabwe for many years of committed service to the Zimbabwe Veterinary ProfessionNational Liberation War Hero of ZimbabweStuart Kenneth Hargreaves was born in Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia, on 6 August 1946. He attended Routledge and Prince Edward schools in Salisbury. After studying at the University of Natal, South Africa, he graduated in veterinary medicine at Onderstepoort (University of Pretoria in 1970. He passed away on 28 August 2012 in Harare, Zimbabwe.He devoted his entire career to Zimbabwe’s Ministry of Agriculture, initially as a field and provincial veterinary officer (1971-1983: Zvishavane, Bindura and Harare, then Deputy Director (1983-1988 and Director (1988-2002 before being promoted to Principal Director, Livestock and Veterinary Services (2002-2012. He held this position from its inception until his death. He acted as Permanent Secretary within the Ministry of Agriculture on numerous occasions.Dr Hargreaves untiringly defended and argued for the countries of Africa on the international animal health stage and contributed to securing the voice Africa now enjoys in international animal health debates. He was ahead of the times in a number of areas, for example in vigorously defending, with others, the commodity-based trade principle. The success of this approach demonstrated that products could be

  15. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter includes reports of FAO/IAEA-organized meetings held between 17 September 1990 and 23 November 1990, with emphasis on the development and application of radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques to study Foot and Mouth Disease, bluetongue vins and other diseases, and animal reproduction. The status of existing coordinated research programmes is summarized, and a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments is announced. Applications for contracts to participate in this programme are invited. The role of the Section's Animal Production Unit at Seibersdorf is reviewed, and a list of forthcoming events is given

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This issue of the newsletter highlights coordinated research programs in animal diseases including ELISA and RIA techniques in reproductive studies. Announcement of staff changes and forthcoming events are also covered

  17. 12904 ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ZERO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor hygiene of the enclosures and washing the udders instead of teats only may predispose animals to ... management including provision of good quality nutritious feed, clean water, ... antibiotics for prevention and treatment of diseases [7].

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In addition to announcements of forthcoming training and meeting programs, as well as status of coordinated research programs, this issue highlights application of molecular biology in diagnosis of animal diseases in developing countries.

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This issue of the newsletter highlights coordinated research programs in animal diseases including ELISA and RIA techniques in reproductive studies. Announcement of staff changes and forthcoming events are also covered.

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In addition to announcements of forthcoming training and meeting programs, as well as status of coordinated research programs, this issue highlights application of molecular biology in diagnosis of animal diseases in developing countries

  1. Wildlife health initiatives in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Plumb, G.

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone Science 15(2) • 2007 and conservation organizations ( see inset page 7, The Yellowstone Wildlife Health Program ). Wildlife and Human Health are Linked Much of the interest in disease ecology and wildlife health has been prompted by the emergence, or resurgence, of many parasites that move between livestock, wildlife, and/or humans. Wildlife diseases are important because of their impact on both the natural ecosystem and human health. Many human dis - eases arise from animal reservoirs (WHO 2002). Hantaviruses, West Nile virus, avian influenza, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are examples of disease issues that have arisen over the last decade. Indeed, nearly 75% of all emerg - ing human infectious diseases are zoonotic (a disease that has spread to humans from another animal species). Many of these diseases have spilled over from natural wildlife reservoirs either directly into humans or via domestic animals (WHO/FAO/ OIE 2004). Unprecedented human population abundance and distribution, combined with anthropogenic environmental change, has resulted in dramatic increases in human–animal contact, thus increasing the intimate linkages between animal and human health (Figure 1). Linkage of human and animal health is not a new phenomenon, but the scope, scale, and worldwide impacts of contemporary zoonoses have no historical precedent (OIE 2004a). Zoonotic infectious diseases can have major impacts on wild and domestic animals and human health, resulting in

  2. Providing animal health services to the poor in Northern Ghana: rethinking the role of community animal health workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockshell, Jonathan; Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina

    2014-02-01

    The Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) system has been promoted as an alternative solution to providing animal health services in marginal areas. Yet, access to quality animal health services still remains a fundamental problem for livestock dependent communities. This paper uses the concepts of accessibility, affordability, and transaction costs to examine the perceptions of livestock keepers about the various animal health service providers. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 120 livestock-keeping households in the Tolon-Kumbungu and Savelugu-Nanton districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. A multinomial logit model was used to determine the factors that influence households' choice of alternative animal health service providers. The results show that the government para-vets are the most preferred type of animal health service providers while CAHWs are the least preferred. Reasons for this observation include high transaction costs and low performance resulting from limited training. In areas with few or no government para-vets, farmers have resorted to self-treatment or to selling sick animals for consumption, which has undesirable health implications. These practices also result in significant financial losses for farmers. This paper finds that the CAHWs' system is insufficient for providing quality animal health services to the rural poor in marginal areas. Therefore, market-smart alternative solutions requiring strong public sector engagement to support livestock farmers in marginal areas and setting minimum training standards for animal health service providers merit policy consideration.

  3. Using smartphones to improve animal health and food security ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 mai 2016 ... Primary animal health workers in Laos learn to use smartphones in their practice. A smartphone application developed with IDRC support is helping primary animal health workers (PAHWs) in Laos PDR to quickly and accurately answer questions and treat poultry. The app is also helping farmers raise ...

  4. Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such ‘shared risks’ from environmental hazards has not been realised. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The ‘One Health initiative’ and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development in the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sentinel event coordination in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species.

  5. Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 60 ... Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Journal Home > Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  6. Improving animal health for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Andy

    2014-11-29

    Animals are vital to ensuring food security for individuals, families and communities in countries around the world. In this, the latest article in Veterinary Record's series promoting One Health, Andy Stringer, director of veterinary programmes at the Society for the Protection of Animals Abroad, discusses how improving animal health, particularly of poultry and working equids, has the potential to reduce poverty and promote food security and sustainable livelihoods in low-income countries. British Veterinary Association.

  7. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  8. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  17. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustgaard, J [Institute of Physiology, Endocrinology and Bloodgrouping, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1976-07-01

    In the fight against animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have also proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminthic diseases. In this context it should be stressed that reduced productivity due to protein loss caused by intestinal parasites is a problem of paramount economic importance in developing as well as developed countries. Recently radioisotopes in the so-called radioimmunoassays have also been applied in determination of the hormonal status of farm animals and to elucidate its relation to the environment and to the physiological and nutritional condition of the animal. This rapidly developing technique may make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle and sheep more efficiently than has hitherto been the case. Production of animal protein of a high biological value for human nutrition is still a problem of great concern for the less developed countries. Without doubt the use of nuclear techniques, hand in hand with other research methods, will be of great help in overcoming this condition, always provided that the countries in question possess the necessary equipment and trained personnel.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  10. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustgaard, J.

    1976-01-01

    In the fight against animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have also proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminthic diseases. In this context it should be stressed that reduced productivity due to protein loss caused by intestinal parasites is a problem of paramount economic importance in developing as well as developed countries. Recently radioisotopes in the so-called radioimmunoassays have also been applied in determination of the hormonal status of farm animals and to elucidate its relation to the environment and to the physiological and nutritional condition of the animal. This rapidly developing technique may make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle and sheep more efficiently than has hitherto been the case. Production of animal protein of a high biological value for human nutrition is still a problem of great concern for the less developed countries. Without doubt the use of nuclear techniques, hand in hand with other research methods, will be of great help in overcoming this condition, always provided that the countries in question possess the necessary equipment and trained personnel

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights forthcoming events including regional workshops, research coordination meetings and training courses on use isotope application in the diagnosis of animal diseases. Status of existing co-ordinated and technical co-operation research projects is also summarized

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    A full report on the final research coordination meeting on the long running Coordinated Research Project supporting rinderpest eradication is contained in this Newsletter. It is reported that all the national rinderpest vaccination campaigns have been terminated and except for a very few isolated areas where vaccination continues, the effort is now on disease surveillance to demonstrate freedom from rinderpest. Other research coordination meetings on animal diseases and productivity as well as new projects are highlighted in this issue

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    A full report on the final research coordination meeting on the long running Coordinated Research Project supporting rinderpest eradication is contained in this Newsletter. It is reported that all the national rinderpest vaccination campaigns have been terminated and except for a very few isolated areas where vaccination continues, the effort is now on disease surveillance to demonstrate freedom from rinderpest. Other research coordination meetings on animal diseases and productivity as well as new projects are highlighted in this issue.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This Newsletter contains reports on the meetings and training courses held between January and April 1992, including a detailed summary of the final FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meeting on ''Development of Feeding Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity in Areas of Fluctuating Nutrient Supply through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques'', held in Vienna from 30 March to 3 April. Status reports are presented for the existing nine coordinated research programs, and developments at the Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf are described

  19. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  20. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 49, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the upcoming International Symposium on 'Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health' from 8 to 11 June 2009 in Vienna, Austria. The Symposium will address: The early and rapid diagnosis and control methods for transboundary animal diseases including those of a zoonotic nature; Improved reproduction technologies and breeding strategies; The efficient and sustainable use of locally available resources for animal production

  1. Animal Health Ireland: providing national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Doherty, M L; Downey, L; McKenzie, K; Devitt, C; O'Flaherty, J

    2011-12-01

    Livestock production plays an important role in the Irish economy. Regulatory animal health issues are the responsibility of government, but until recently there has been no national coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues. This gap has recently been filled with the establishment of Animal Health Ireland (AHI), a not-for-profit, partnership-based organisation providing national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues in Ireland. Animal Health Ireland provides benefits to livestock producers and processors by providing the knowledge, education and coordination required to establish effective control strategies, both on-farm and nationally. This paper presents a brief overview of the context for AHI, and of its establishment and initial activities. Non-regulatory animal health issues have been prioritised. A series of work programmes (each focusing on a high-priority issue) have been established. Partnership is critical to success, both for AHI as an organisation and for effective farm-level transfer of knowledge. This model for national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues may be of relevance elsewhere.

  2. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A...

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    As part of our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TCPs), the Section evaluated our activities as part of the Agency's 2004/2005 midterm performance evaluation. During this exercise we could identify areas where good performances were achieved as well as those where further improvements were needed and which we then addressed. It became apparent that more proactive measures are needed towards the detection, control and management of emerging diseases, with particular emphasis on transboundary animal diseases and the offering of relevant support to Member States. A particular case in point is the current avian influenza situation. This issue discussed the problem posed by rinderpest and the Agency's effort in eradicating this viral disease

  4. Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in Arusha City, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... findings, majority (84.6%) of the cow's enclosures were of poor hygiene.

  5. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Robinson, T P; Grace, D C

    2018-04-10

    This paper discusses the sustainability of livestock systems, emphasising bidirectional relations with animal health. We review conventional and contrarian thinking on sustainability and argue that in the most common approaches to understanding sustainability, health aspects have been under-examined. Literature review reveals deep concerns over the sustainability of livestock systems; we recognise that interventions are required to shift to more sustainable trajectories, and explore approaches to prioritising in different systems, focusing on interventions that lead to better health. A previously proposed three-tiered categorisation of 'hot spots', 'cold spots' and 'worried well' animal health trajectories provides a mental model that, by taking into consideration the different animal health status, animal health risks, service response needs and key drivers in each system, can help identify and implement interventions. Combining sustainability concepts with animal health trajectories allows for a richer analysis, and we apply this to three case studies drawn from North Africa and the Middle East; Bangladesh; and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We conclude that the quest for sustainability of livestock production systems from the perspective of human and animal health is elusive and difficult to reconcile with the massive anticipated growth in demand for livestock products, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as the aspirations of poor livestock keepers for better lives. Nevertheless, improving the health of livestock can contribute to health sustainability both through reducing negative health impacts of livestock and increasing efficiency of production. However, the choice of the most appropriate options must be under-pinned by an understanding of agro-ecology, economy and values. We argue that a new pillar of One Health should be added to the three traditional sustainability pillars of economics, society and environment when addressing

  6. Animal diseases of public health importance.

    OpenAIRE

    Orriss, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) interest in emerging diseases caused by foodborne pathogens derives from its role as the leading United Nations agency with a mandate for food quality and safety matters. The Food Quality and Standards Service of FAO's Food and Nutrition Division is active in all areas related to food safety and implements the FAO/World Health Organization Food Standards Program. Its activities include providing assistance to FAO's member nations in addressing pro...

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    In the June 2004 Newsletter, we focused on the topic of molecular diagnostic technologies and the way forward. It is clear from the feedback, that there is a strong desire for having reliable, definitive, sensitive, specific, cost effective and on-site diagnostic tests, in parallel with so-called herd or population surveillance tests. This will allow for the implementation of more effective disease control strategies. It is indeed exciting to consider the current technological explosion and its consequences and what potential advantages might be in store for many of our Member States. This will also help to ensure that we keep abreast of new developments and employ the most appropriate tools.The conclusions and recommendations will be placed on the web as soon as they are available and published in the next Newsletter. The second topic under discussion in this Newsletter will focus on the management of animal genetic resources. Both past and future activities are described in further detail in this issue

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 42

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    Apart from regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC Country Officers) of the 2005/6 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2004/5 midterm performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. 1. The characterization of locally available feed and animal genetic resources and the identification and alleviation of constraints in the management of feeding, breeding and reproduction so as to improve the efficiency of livestock production while conserving the environment. This is done through the transfer of the following technologies: Radioimmunoassays (RIA) for measuring hormones: for identifying and mitigating constraints to efficient livestock production and improving the delivery of national artificial insemination services and providing diagnostic services to farmers

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Apart from regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC Country Officers) of the 2005/6 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2004/5 midterm performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. 1. The characterization of locally available feed and animal genetic resources and the identification and alleviation of constraints in the management of feeding, breeding and reproduction so as to improve the efficiency of livestock production while conserving the environment. This is done through the transfer of the following technologies: Radioimmunoassays (RIA) for measuring hormones: for identifying and mitigating constraints to efficient livestock production and improving the delivery of national artificial insemination services and providing diagnostic services to farmers.

  10. Food for thought: food systems, livestock futures and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Angela

    2013-12-01

    Global food security, livestock production and animal health are inextricably bound. However, our focus on the future tends to disaggregate food and health into largely separate domains. Indeed, much foresight work is either food systems or health-based with little overlap in terms of predictions or narratives. Work on animal health is no exception. Part of the problem is the fundamental misunderstanding of the role, nature and impact of the modern futures tool kit. Here, I outline three key issues in futures research ranging from methodological confusion over the application of scenarios to the failure to effectively integrate multiple methodologies to the gap between the need for more evidence and power and control over futures processes. At its core, however, a better understanding of the narrative and worldview framing much of the futures work in animal health is required to enhance the value and impact of such exercises.

  11. Reviewing model application to support animal health decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alexander; Salman, Mo; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Animal health is of societal importance as it affects human welfare, and anthropogenic interests shape decision making to assure animal health. Scientific advice to support decision making is manifold. Modelling, as one piece of the scientific toolbox, is appreciated for its ability to describe and structure data, to give insight in complex processes and to predict future outcome. In this paper we study the application of scientific modelling to support practical animal health decisions. We reviewed the 35 animal health related scientific opinions adopted by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thirteen of these documents were based on the application of models. The review took two viewpoints, the decision maker's need and the modeller's approach. In the reviewed material three types of modelling questions were addressed by four specific model types. The correspondence between tasks and models underpinned the importance of the modelling question in triggering the modelling approach. End point quantifications were the dominating request from decision makers, implying that prediction of risk is a major need. However, due to knowledge gaps corresponding modelling studies often shed away from providing exact numbers. Instead, comparative scenario analyses were performed, furthering the understanding of the decision problem and effects of alternative management options. In conclusion, the most adequate scientific support for decision making - including available modelling capacity - might be expected if the required advice is clearly stated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing the impact of aflatoxin consumption on animal health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are toxic to humans, fish and many other animals, even in low concentrations. Susceptibility to aflatoxins varies by age, health status, species and other factors. Most research has focused on aflatoxins in maize or groundnuts and their impacts on human health. However, aflatoxins are found in other foods and can also ...

  13. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    This year, the Animal Production and Health Section is 50 years old. The Animal Production and Health Section identifies new areas of interest based on the Member States' needs to improve efficiencies and to control threats to animal production and health. To this effect, several platforms, assays, diagnostic kits and technical procedures have been developed, adapted and transferred to Member States, supported by R&D, expert technical backstopping and guidance from our Animal Production and Health Laboratory. In addition, several nuclear based technologies (such as reproduction and disease related technologies (such as reproduction and disease related radioimmunoassay have been adapted to other types of chemistries (e.g. chemiluminescence instead of isotopes) to be used at the farm level. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, however, still play an important and niche role to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity needed by the livestock community in ensuring secure and safe food, to follow and measure feed and nutritional conversion into usable energy in the animal, to improve animal breeding traits towards more and of better quality animals, to monitor migratory animals and their associated pathogens, to generate safe and protective animal vaccines through the irradiation of pathogens and to develop and transfer early and rapid diagnostic platforms. Looking back at the activities of the past six months, we had several workshops, training courses, research co-ordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings. Activities scheduled for the next half-year include project review meetings, RCMs, inter-regional training courses and regional workshops. Both past and future activities are discussed in further detail in this newsletter and are also further accessible at our website.

  14. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This year, the Animal Production and Health Section is 50 years old. The Animal Production and Health Section identifies new areas of interest based on the Member States' needs to improve efficiencies and to control threats to animal production and health. To this effect, several platforms, assays, diagnostic kits and technical procedures have been developed, adapted and transferred to Member States, supported by R&D, expert technical backstopping and guidance from our Animal Production and Health Laboratory. In addition, several nuclear based technologies (such as reproduction and disease related technologies (such as reproduction and disease related radioimmunoassay have been adapted to other types of chemistries (e.g. chemiluminescence instead of isotopes) to be used at the farm level. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, however, still play an important and niche role to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity needed by the livestock community in ensuring secure and safe food, to follow and measure feed and nutritional conversion into usable energy in the animal, to improve animal breeding traits towards more and of better quality animals, to monitor migratory animals and their associated pathogens, to generate safe and protective animal vaccines through the irradiation of pathogens and to develop and transfer early and rapid diagnostic platforms. Looking back at the activities of the past six months, we had several workshops, training courses, research co-ordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings. Activities scheduled for the next half-year include project review meetings, RCMs, inter-regional training courses and regional workshops. Both past and future activities are discussed in further detail in this newsletter and are also further accessible at our website

  15. Animal-assisted interventions as innovative tools for mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cirulli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest for the potential health benefits of human-animal interactions. Although scientific evidence on the effects is far from being consistent, companion animals are used with a large number of human subjects, ranging from children to elderly people, who benefit most from emotional support. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the potential for domesticated animals, such as dogs, for providing emotional and physical opportunities to enrich the lives of many frail subjects. In particular, we focus on innovative interventions, including the potential use of dogs to improve the life of emotionally-impaired children, such as those affected by autism spectrum disorders. Overall an ever increasing research effort is needed to search for the mechanism that lie behind the human-animal bond as well as to provide standardized methodologies for a cautious and effective use of animal-assisted interventions.

  16. Public health risk of antimicrobial resistance transfer from companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomba, Constança; Rantala, Merja; Greko, Christina; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Mateus, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A; Pyörälä, Satu; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Kunsagi, Zoltan; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Jukes, Helen; Törneke, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  17. Social and economic aspects of aquatic animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, K E; Gunn, G J

    2017-04-01

    Aquaculture is an increasingly important source of animal protein for a growing global population. Disease is a major constraint to production, with resultant socio-economic impacts for individuals, communities and economies which rely on aquaculture. Aquatic animal health is also strongly influenced by human factors, ranging from international trade regulations to the behaviours of individuals working in aquaculture. This article summarises the human factors associated with aquaculture production using international examples for illustration.

  18. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  19. Participatory evaluation of delivery of animal health care services by community animal health workers in Karamoja region of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bugeza

    Full Text Available An evaluation exercise was carried out to assess the performance of Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs in the delivery of animal health care services in Karamoja region, identify capacity gaps and recommend remedial measures.Participatory methods were used to design data collection tools. Questionnaires were administered to 204 CAHWs, 215 farmers and 7 District Veterinary Officers (DVOs to collect quantitative data. Seven DVOs and 1 Non Government Organization (NGO representative were interviewed as key informants and one focus group discussion was conducted with a farmer group in Nakapiripirit to collect qualitative data. Questionnaire data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Key messages from interviews and the focus group discussion were recorded in a notebook and reported verbatim.70% of the farmers revealed that CAHWs are the most readily available animal health care service providers in their respective villages. CAHWs were instrumental in treatment of sick animals, disease surveillance, control of external parasites, animal production, vaccination, reporting, animal identification, and performing minor surgeries. Regarding their overall performance 88.8%(191/215 of the farmers said they were impressed. The main challenges faced by the CAHWs were inadequate facilitation, lack of tools and equipments, unwillingness of government to integrate them into the formal extension system, poor information flow, limited technical capacity to diagnose diseases, unwillingness of farmers to pay for services and sustainability issues.CAHWs remain the main source of animal health care services in Karamoja region and their services are largely satisfactory. The technical deficits identified require continuous capacity building programs, close supervision and technical backstopping. For sustainability of animal health care services in the region continuous training and strategic deployment of paraprofessionals that are formally recognised by the

  20. Participatory evaluation of delivery of animal health care services by community animal health workers in Karamoja region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeza, James; Kankya, Clovice; Muleme, James; Akandinda, Ann; Sserugga, Joseph; Nantima, Noelina; Okori, Edward; Odoch, Terence

    2017-01-01

    An evaluation exercise was carried out to assess the performance of Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) in the delivery of animal health care services in Karamoja region, identify capacity gaps and recommend remedial measures. Participatory methods were used to design data collection tools. Questionnaires were administered to 204 CAHWs, 215 farmers and 7 District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to collect quantitative data. Seven DVOs and 1 Non Government Organization (NGO) representative were interviewed as key informants and one focus group discussion was conducted with a farmer group in Nakapiripirit to collect qualitative data. Questionnaire data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Key messages from interviews and the focus group discussion were recorded in a notebook and reported verbatim. 70% of the farmers revealed that CAHWs are the most readily available animal health care service providers in their respective villages. CAHWs were instrumental in treatment of sick animals, disease surveillance, control of external parasites, animal production, vaccination, reporting, animal identification, and performing minor surgeries. Regarding their overall performance 88.8%(191/215) of the farmers said they were impressed. The main challenges faced by the CAHWs were inadequate facilitation, lack of tools and equipments, unwillingness of government to integrate them into the formal extension system, poor information flow, limited technical capacity to diagnose diseases, unwillingness of farmers to pay for services and sustainability issues. CAHWs remain the main source of animal health care services in Karamoja region and their services are largely satisfactory. The technical deficits identified require continuous capacity building programs, close supervision and technical backstopping. For sustainability of animal health care services in the region continuous training and strategic deployment of paraprofessionals that are formally recognised by the traditional civil

  1. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health.

  2. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and\\/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  3. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This past year went particularly fast with many unexpected and emergency food security challenges and it was indeed an asking period for the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. We have some remarkable achievements but also some gaps, such as improved communication and collaboration, where we need to improve our support to Member States. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter. The Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field to optimally serve our Member States

  4. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, David C; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A J M; Schepers, René W M; Heederik, Dick J J; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the past few years. Farm-specific solutions are required to further lower antimicrobial use on these farms. Reducing the burden of animal diseases at the farm level by means of a structured approach to animal health planning could be promising. This intervention study aimed to evaluate the main effects of an animal health planning program developed by an advisory team consisting of a dairy farmer, his veterinarian, and his feed adviser under the guidance of a professional facilitator. During an initial farm visit, the advisory team developed a farm-specific animal health planning program with support from the facilitator. After 1 yr, the effects of this program on animal health, production parameters, and antimicrobial use were evaluated and compared with control farms that did not have a facilitated animal health planning program. Antimicrobial use on intervention farms was significantly reduced between the start and the end of the study period; however, no significant differences in the rate of reduction between the intervention and control groups could be observed (-19% and -14%, respectively). Reduced antimicrobial use did not result in negative effects on animal health and production parameters during the study period in both groups. On intervention farms, a significant positive relationship was found between the percentage of completed action points at farm level and the percentage reduction in antimicrobial use. The level of compliance with action points and the quality of collaboration between farmer and advisers were positively associated with the accomplishment of corresponding objectives. However, the total number of objectives was negatively associated with the level

  5. Zoonoses of occupational health importance in contemporary laboratory animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankenson, F Claire; Johnston, Nancy A; Weigler, Benjamin J; Di Giacomo, Ronald F

    2003-12-01

    In contemporary laboratory animal facilities, workplace exposure to zoonotic pathogens, agents transmitted to humans from vertebrate animals or their tissues, is an occupational hazard. The primary (e.g., macaques, pigs, dogs, rabbits, mice, and rats) and secondary species (e.g., sheep, goats, cats, ferrets, and pigeons) of animals commonly used in biomedical research, as classified by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, are established or potential hosts for a large number of zoonotic agents. Diseases included in this review are principally those wherein a risk to biomedical facility personnel has been documented by published reports of human cases in laboratory animal research settings, or under reasonably similar circumstances. Diseases are listed alphabetically, and each section includes information about clinical disease, transmission, occurrence, and prevention in animal reservoir species and humans. Our goal is to provide a resource for veterinarians, health-care professionals, technical staff, and administrators that will assist in the design and on-going evaluation of institutional occupational health and safety programs.

  6. An insight of environmental contamination of arsenic on animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. Exposure to arsenic is mainly via intake of food and drinking water, food being the most important source in most populations. Although adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues and is even increasing in some areas. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to increased risks of skin cancer, but also some other cancers, as well as other skin lesions such as hyperkeratosis and pigmentation changes. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce arsenic exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. Animal are being exposed to arsenic through contaminated drinking water, feedstuff, grasses, vegetables and different leaves. Arsenic has been the most common causes of inorganic chemical poisoning in farm animals. Although, sub-chronic and chronic exposure of arsenic do not generally reveal external signs or symptoms in farm animals but arsenic (or metabolites concentrations in blood, hair, hoofs and urine are remained high in animals of arsenic contaminated zones. So it is assumed that concentration of arsenic in blood, urine, hair or milk have been used as biomarkers of arsenic exposure in field animals.

  7. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety.

  8. Ecohealth Chair on Human and Animal Health in Protected ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help establish an Ecohealth Chair in Human and Animal Health in Protected Ecosystems to improve the sustainability of conservation areas and the health of local ... Le nouveau site Web facilitera l'enregistrement des événements démographiques afin d'améliorer l'accès aux services pour tous. Le nouveau ...

  9. Are Village Animal Health Workers Able to Assist in Strengthening Transboundary Animal Disease Control in Cambodia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, J; Toribio, J-A L M L; Suon, S; Young, J R; Cowled, B; Windsor, P A

    2017-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 445 Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) from 19 provinces in Cambodia was undertaken. The aim was to establish their levels of training, farm visit frequency, reasons for visits and disease reporting practices, enabling the strengths and weaknesses of the VAHW system in Cambodia to be determined, in providing both a fee-based smallholder livestock clinical service and a government partnership in transboundary animal disease (TAD) surveillance and control. The study used 'guided group interviews' and identified that VAHWs had good contact with farmers with 61.5% making more than one farm visit daily. However, incomes from services remained low, with 45% VAHWs obtaining between 20 and 40% of their household income from VAHW activities. VAHWs recorded relatively high rates of disease reporting, with 72% claiming they report diseases immediately and 74% undertaking monthly reporting to veterinary authorities. Logistic regression analysis revealed VAHW contact frequency with district and/or provincial officers was associated with more VAHW farm visits, and frequency of VAHW visits to smallholder farms was positively associated with average monthly expenditure on animal medication and equipment. This suggests that increased veterinary extension to VAHWs and access to veterinary equipment, vaccines and drugs may further increase VAHW-farmer engagement. VAHWs provide an accessible, market-based, animal health 'treatment and reporting' service linked to livestock smallholders across Cambodia. However, for improved TAD prevention and more efficient control of outbreaks, research that assesses provision of an animal health 'preventive-based' business model is urgently needed to reduce both the costs to farmers and the risks to the economy due to foot-and-mouth disease and other TADs in Cambodia. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Animal health constraints perceived to be important in Kilosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out in Kilosa and Gairo districts to identify and characterize animal health constraints as perceived by stakeholders in the beef and milk value chains. A combination of methods was used to collect data, namely, mapping of value chain actors and baseline survey. The baseline survey involved 220 ...

  11. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  12. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 50, July 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    The biggest event this year was undoubtedly, the successful International Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health that was held from 8 to 11 June 2009, here in Vienna. It was attended by more than 400 participants from about 100 Member States of the IAEA and FAO, including several international organizations, with oral and poster contributions. The most important aspects of the symposium were to renew old and form new acquaintances, to discuss common topics and strategies and to form networks and partnerships to address animal production and health problems. The symposium was indeed topical and designed to address issues of importance to our Member States. The new and emerging areas of interest such as One Heath, Food Security and Safety and our ability to produce more and healthier animals and animal products in an 'environmentally safe, clean and ethical' way were hotly discussed. Some of the conclusions and challenges that animal scientists face, whose primary concern have been improving livestock productivity, are more extensively reported on in this newsletter. In addition, we will publish full length papers of all the oral presentations, and some of the most imminent poster presentations, as symposium proceedings shortly. Both past and future activities are described in further detail in this newsletter

  13. The effectiveness of health animations in audiences with different health literacy levels: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelink, Corine S; van Weert, Julia C M; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-13

    Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health literate audiences, it is concluded that

  14. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health

  15. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''5 1 Cr, 32 P and 35 S) and stable ( 15 N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  16. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Donagh P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy.

  17. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described.

  18. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described. (M.G.B.)

  19. 75 FR 52504 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring... Warnken, Management and Program Analyst, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, VS, APHIS, 2150...

  20. 75 FR 34422 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0024] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... establish the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health for a 2-year period. The Secretary of...

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 46, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    In response to many requests from our readers, I will continue to highlight a practical topic related to animal production and health in this section of the newsletter. Increasing the efficiency of animal reproduction is a critical component of a holistic approach to sustainably increase animal productivity in developing Member States. For example, the resources spent to formulate and obtain the ingredients for dairy rations are wasted when a significant proportion of the cows in the herd are dry due to delays in achieving pregnancy. Effective genetic selection to improve productivity is only possible if a regular supply of potential replacements is generated by the females already in the herd or flock. For this reason, improving reproductive efficiency is a key aspect of many of the APH projects

  2. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Improving Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT or Pet Therapy is an adjunctive therapy by taking advantage of human and animal interaction, activate the physiological and psychological mechanisms, initiate positive changes improving health in metabolism. In recent years, this interaction are in use to treat psychological and psychiatric disorders such as stress, depression, loneliness, pervasive developmental disorders affect negatively to human health. Furthermore, AAT has been increasingly used to improve quality of life, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. The aim of this paper is to identify AAT by reviewing human and animal interaction, evaluate how AAT has a scientific background from past to now. Also, we aim to give some information about the risks, institutional applications, some factors referring AAT’s mechanism of action and chronic diseases, psychological and physical improvements provided with animal assisted therapies. The therapy results will be evaluated more advisable providing AAT is being applied with public health specialist, veterinarian, physician, psychologist, psychiatrist and veterinary public health experts who are monitor applications. Especially, the psychosomatic effects result from physical, emotional and play mechanism of action of HDT can be used for improving quality of life in individuals with chronic diseases. In Turkey, there is no any investigation which have been performed in this scientific field. It is quitely important to evaluate the benefits of this therapy accurately and to select various methods proper to diseases. Consequently, it is obvious that AAT will be considered by the healthcare services as a supportive therapy process for improving human health in Turkey and needs further studies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 263-272

  3. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Corine S.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Haven, Carola J.; Smit, Edith G.

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  4. The effectiveness of health animations in audiences with different health literacy levels: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, C.S.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Haven, C.J.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  5. Animal-assisted interventions: A national survey of health and safety policies in hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Deborah E; Siebens, Hannah C; Mueller, Megan K; Gibbs, Debra M; Freeman, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    Animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs are increasing in popularity, but it is unknown to what extent therapy animal organizations that provide AAI and the hospitals and eldercare facilities they work with implement effective animal health and safety policies to ensure safety of both animals and humans. Our study objective was to survey hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations on their AAI policies and procedures. A survey of United States hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations was administered to assess existing health and safety policies related to AAI programs. Forty-five eldercare facilities, 45 hospitals, and 27 therapy animal organizations were surveyed. Health and safety policies varied widely and potentially compromised human and animal safety. For example, 70% of therapy animal organizations potentially put patients at risk by allowing therapy animals eating raw meat diets to visit facilities. In general, hospitals had stricter requirements than eldercare facilities. This information suggests that there are gaps between the policies of facilities and therapy animal organizations compared with recent guidelines for animal visitation in hospitals. Facilities with AAI programs need to review their policies to address recent AAI guidelines to ensure the safety of animals and humans involved. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Potency Of Bacteriocin For Animal Health And Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria related to animal and public health stresses the importance of decreasing the use of antibiotics in animal production. The reduction of antibiotic application in livestock can only be achieved if alternative antimicrobial strategies are available. A number of strategies have been explored to control microbial pathogens and to improve growth and feed efficiency in livestock without the use of antibiotics. Bacteriocins have been more extensively studied and proposed as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics in animal husbandry. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides ribosomally synthesized by many species of Bacteria and some strains of Archaea. In general, bacteriocins just exhibited bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against other bacteria that are closely related to the producing strain. The main mechanisms of bacteriocin activity vary from pore formation in cytoplasmic membranes to the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis and enzyme activities (RNAse or DNAse in target cells. The use of bacteriocins in probiotic applications, as preservatives, and most excitingly as alternatives to conventional antibiotics is being broadly explored and studied. This review will describe the bacteriocins potency for animal health and food safety, as well as the results of bacteriocin study that had been conducted in Indonesia.

  7. Animal health surveillance applications: The interaction of science and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeberg, Preben

    2012-08-01

    Animal health surveillance is an ever-evolving activity, since health- and risk-related policy and management decisions need to be backed by the best available scientific evidence and methodology. International organizations, trade partners, politicians, media and the public expect fast, understandable, up-to-date presentation and valid interpretation of animal disease data to support and document proper animal health management - in crises as well as in routine control applications. The delivery and application of surveillance information need to be further developed and optimized, and epidemiologists, risk managers, administrators and policy makers need to work together in order to secure progress. Promising new developments in areas such as risk-based surveillance, spatial presentation and analysis, and genomic epidemiology will be mentioned. Limitations and areas in need of further progress will be underlined, such as the general lack of a wide and open exchange of international animal disease surveillance data. During my more than 30 year career as a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology I had the good fortune of working in challenging environments with different eminent colleagues in different countries on a variety of animal health surveillance issues. My career change from professor to Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) - "from science to application" - was caused by my desire to see for myself if and how well epidemiology would actually work to solve real-life problems as I had been telling my students for years that it would. Fortunately it worked for me! The job of a CVO is not that different from that of a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology; the underlying professional principles are the same. Every day I had to work from science, and base decisions and discussions on documented evidence - although sometimes the evidence was incomplete or data were simply lacking. A basic understanding of surveillance methodology is very useful for a CVO, since it provides

  8. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

  9. Prenatal stress, immunity and neonatal health in farm animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, E; Quesnel, H; Prunier, A

    2013-12-01

    The high pre-weaning mortality in farm animal species and poor welfare conditions of reproductive females question modern industrial farming acceptability. A growing body of literature has been produced recently, investigating the impact of maternal stress during gestation on maternal and offspring physiology and behavior in farm animals. Until now, the possible impact of prenatal stress on neonatal health, growth and survival could not be consistently demonstrated, probably because experimental studies use small numbers of animals and thus do not allow accurate estimations. However, the data from literature synthesized in the present review show that in ungulates, maternal stress can sometimes alter important maternal parameters of neonatal survival such as colostrum production (ruminants) and maternal care to the newborn (pigs). Furthermore, maternal stress during gestation can affect maternal immune system and impair her health, which can have an impact on the transfer of pathogens from the mother to her fetus or neonate. Finally, prenatal stress can decrease the ability of the neonate to absorb colostral immunoglobulins, and alter its inflammatory response and lymphocyte functions during the first few weeks of life. Cortisol and reproductive hormones in the case of colostrogenesis are pointed out as possible hormonal mediators. Field data and epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the role of maternal welfare problems in neonatal health and survival.

  10. Toward One Health: are public health stakeholders aware of the field of animal health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Dórea

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the perception that human and veterinary medicines can cooperate in more ways than just fighting zoonoses, the authors organized a roundtable during the 2013 annual meeting of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS. Collaborations between human and animal health sectors were reported to often rise in response to zoonotic outbreaks (during crisis time and be mainly based on personal networks. Ways to maintain and strengthen these links were discussed.

  11. Toward One Health: are public health stakeholders aware of the field of animal health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Dupuy, Céline; Vial, Flavie; Reynolds, Tera L; Akkina, Judy E

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the perception that human and veterinary medicines can cooperate in more ways than just fighting zoonoses, the authors organized a roundtable during the 2013 annual meeting of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS). Collaborations between human and animal health sectors were reported to often rise in response to zoonotic outbreaks (during crisis time) and be mainly based on personal networks. Ways to maintain and strengthen these links were discussed.

  12. Report from the second international symposium on animal genomics for animal health: critical needs, challenges and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Steve C; Lunney, Joan K; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Gay, Cyril G

    2011-06-03

    The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunities, and a forward look at the potential applications of animal genomics in animal health research. The aim of the roundtable discussion was to foster a dialogue between scientists working at the cutting edge of animal genomics research and animal health scientists. Importantly, stakeholders were included to provide input on priorities and the potential value of animal genomics to the animal health community. In an effort to facilitate the roundtable discussion, the organizers identified four priority areas to advance the use of genome-enabled technologies in animal health research. Contributions were obtained through open discussions and a questionnaire distributed at the start of the symposium. This report provides the outcome of the roundtable discussion for each of the four priority areas. For each priority, problems are identified, including potential solutions and recommendations. This report captures key points made by symposium participants during the roundtable discussion and serves as a roadmap to steer future research priorities in animal genomics research.

  13. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  14. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  15. Recycling Biowaste – Human and Animal Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albihn Ann

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Biowaste from the food chain is of potential benefit to use in agriculture. Agriculture in general and organic farming in particular needs alternative plant nutrients. However, the quality concerning hygiene and soil contaminants must be assured. This recycling has to be regulated in a way that harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man are prevented. The problems with heavy metals and organic contaminants have been focused on. Still, maximum threshold values are continuously discussed to avoid an increase of soil concentrations. The effect on the ecosystems of residues from use of medicines needs further attention. There is also a risk for a spread of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms in the environment and then to animals and man. Infectious diseases may be spread from biowaste and new routes of disease transmission between animals and humans can be created. Zoonotic diseases in this context play a central role. Pathogens recently introduced to a country may be further spread when biowaste is recycled. The very good health status of domestic animals in the Nordic countries may then quickly change. The quality of biowaste is of enormous importance if biowaste is to gain general acceptance for agricultural use, especially for organic production. A balance needs to be maintained between risk and advantage for its use.

  16. The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning “the liquid silver” and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well.

  17. Using institutional and behavioural economics to examine animal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A

    2017-04-01

    Economics provides a framework for understanding management decisions and their policy implications for the animal health system. While the neoclassical economic model is useful for framing animal health decisions on the farm, some of its assumptions and prescriptive results may be unrealistic. Institutional and behavioural economics address some of these potential shortcomings by considering the role of information, psychology and social factors in decisions. Framing such decisions under contract theory allows us to consider asymmetric information between policy-makers and farmers. Perverse incentives may exist in the area of preventing and reporting disease. Behavioural economics examines the role of internal and external psychological and social factors. Biases, heuristics, habit, social norms and other such aspects can result in farm decision-makers arriving at what might be considered irrational or otherwise sub-optimal decisions. Framing choices and providing relevant information and examples can alleviate these behavioural issues. The implications of this approach for disease policy and an applied research and outreach programme to respond to animal diseases are discussed.

  18. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  20. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  1. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 62, July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    The first six months of this year have been occupied with our projects and regular activities, including our coordinated research projects and technical support to national and regional Technical Cooperation projects, as well as with the activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory. Particular focus was on the current Avian Influenza H7N9, H7N2 and H5N1 outbreaks, the ever expanding threats of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), of foot and mouth disease, of trypanosomosis and of African swine fever, all areas in which we endeavour to give our highest level of support to our counterparts

  2. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 56, July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The first six months of this year have been a busy time for all personnel in the sub-programme. Apart from our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to on-going national and regional Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC country officers) of the 2014/15 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2010/11 end of cycle programmatic performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States for the present programme cycle 2012-2013. In response to many requests from our readers, I have decided to give a brief overview of our Subprogramme as background to the upcoming 'Scientific Forum' (Food for the Future: Meeting the Challenges with Nuclear Applications) that will take place during he IAEA General Conference in September 2012. The focus of the Animal production and Health Subprogramme activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the sub-programme are animal nutrition, animal reproduction and breeding and animal health. Problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies to: - Characterize and optimally utilize locally available feed and feed resources to enhance maximum energy conversion, whilst minimizing methane and CO2 emissions; - Increase animal production through the characterization of livestock genetic make-up to drive the integration of locally adapted animal breeds with trait selected exotic breeds to satisfy the increasing demand for 'more and of better

  3. Plantibodies in human and animal health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, Daniel O; Adebiyi, Adebowale I

    2016-06-01

    Antibodies are essential part of vertebrates' adaptive immune system; they can now be produced by transforming plants with antibody-coding genes from mammals/humans. Although plants do not naturally make antibodies, the plant-derived antibodies (plantibodies) have been shown to function in the same way as mammalian antibodies. PubMed and Google search engines were used to download relevant publications on plantibodies in medical and veterinary fields; the papers were reviewed and findings qualitatively described. The process of bioproduction of plantibodies offers several advantages over the conventional method of antibody production in mammalian cells with the cost of antibody production in plants being substantially lesser. Contrary to what is possible with animal-derived antibodies, the process of making plantibodies almost exclusively precludes transfer of pathogens to the end product. Additionally, plants not only produce a relatively high yield of antibodies in a comparatively faster time, they also serve as cost-effective bioreactors to produce antibodies of diverse specificities. Plantibodies are safe, cost-effective and offer more advantages over animal-derived antibodies. Methods of producing them are described with a view to inspiring African scientists on the need to embrace and harness this rapidly evolving biotechnology in solving human and animal health challenges on the continent where the climate supports growth of diverse plants.

  4. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 56, July 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    The first six months of this year have been a busy time for all personnel in the sub-programme. Apart from our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to on-going national and regional Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC country officers) of the 2014/15 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2010/11 end of cycle programmatic performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States for the present programme cycle 2012-2013. In response to many requests from our readers, I have decided to give a brief overview of our Subprogramme as background to the upcoming 'Scientific Forum' (Food for the Future: Meeting the Challenges with Nuclear Applications) that will take place during he IAEA General Conference in September 2012. The focus of the Animal production and Health Subprogramme activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the sub-programme are animal nutrition, animal reproduction and breeding and animal health. Problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies to: - Characterize and optimally utilize locally available feed and feed resources to enhance maximum energy conversion, whilst minimizing methane and CO2 emissions; - Increase animal production through the characterization of livestock genetic make-up to drive the integration of locally adapted animal breeds with trait selected exotic breeds to satisfy the increasing demand for 'more and of better

  5. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håstein, T.; Binde, M.; Hine, M.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code...... and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few countries and selected diseases, this paper provides a general overview of the development of approaches to implementing biosecurity strategies, including those emerging in the national legislation...... and eradication are also discussed. Important to the effectiveness of such strategies are provision of financial, personnel and other resources to implement them, including incentives such as indemnification or compensation in eradication programmes, and practical linkage to regulatory or government policy...

  6. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In this newsletter, I want to discuss shortly the effects of climate variations, food security and the expansion of animal and zoonotic diseases within the sphere of what the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme can contribute. My take home message would be: • Globalization and climate change are causing an unprecedented worldwide impact on emerging and reemerging animal and zoonotic diseases. • Vector borne diseases are now spreading to previously non-endemic and cooler areas. A dramatically increased incidence in deadly infectious and zoonotic diseases in wildlife, livestock, and people may be the most immediate serious consequence of global warming, food security or food shortage. Globalization and climate change have had a worldwide impact on emerging and re-emerging animal and zoonotic diseases. Climate change is disrupting natural ecosystems by providing more suitable environments for infectious diseases allowing disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and fungi to move into new areas where they may harm wildlife and domestic species, as well as humans. Diseases that were previously limited only to tropical areas are now spreading to other previously cooler areas e.g. Rift Valley fever. Pathogens that were restricted by seasonal weather patterns can invade new areas and find new susceptible species as the climate warms and/or the winters get milder. There is evidence that the increasing occurrence of tropical infectious diseases in the mid latitudes is linked to either global warming or food security. Vector borne diseases are particularly affected by weather patterns and long-term climatic factors strongly influence the incidence of outbreaks. Most of these diseases are caused by insects and their population dynamics are dependent on the prevailing weather conditions, specifically temperature and humidity. Climate change influences local weather conditions and therefore has a significant impact on the presence of vectors and their geographical

  7. 75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System Sheep 2011 Study.

  8. 76 FR 52633 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request a reinstatement of an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2012 Study.

  9. 76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support the research and development phase of surveys entitled National Animal Health Monitoring System needs assessments.

  10. 76 FR 9319 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request a reinstatement of an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring Feedlot 2011 Study.

  11. 76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate Emergency Epidemiologic Investigations, an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System.

  12. Genomics to benefit livestock production: improving animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stuart Plastow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The primary principle underlying the application of genomics is that it has the most value for difficult and expensive to measure traits. These traits will differ between species and probably also between markets. Maintenance of health will be one of the biggest challenges for efficient livestock production in the next few decades. This challenge will only increase in the face of demand for animal protein, resistance to existing drugs, and the pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in agriculture. There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility for all diseases but little has been done to make use of this variation to date. In part this is because it is very difficult as well as expensive to measure this variation. This suggests that genomics should provide one of the ways of tackling the challenge of improving animal health. This paper will discuss the concepts of resistance, variation in susceptibility, and resilience; provide examples and present some recent results in cattle and pigs; and briefly discuss the application of gene editing in relation to disease resistance.

  13. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  14. Animal health risk of legally imported exotic animals into the Netherlands in the period 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos-de Jong, de Clazien; Swanenburg, Manon; Tafro, Nedzib; Roon, van Annika; Stenvers, Olaf F.J.; Elbers, Armin R.W.

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide trade in exotic animals is a potential moderator for the global dispersion of infectious disease agents. Better insight into the pathogens that could be introduced by these trade flows can help to target surveillance efforts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the animal health risk

  15. 76 FR 42675 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...This is a notice to inform the public of the topics on the agenda for an upcoming meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. The meeting is organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal health.

  16. Amiata donkey milk chain: animal health evaluation and milk quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ragona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1. In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis- causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/ allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  17. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    E. Paul Cherniack; Ariella R. Cherniack

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health...

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 48, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the formulation (together with our Member State counterparts and TC Country Officers) of projects for the 2009/11 TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2007 programme of work and budget performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. The focus of our activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the subprogramme are animal nutrition, reproduction and breeding and animal health. Within these three components, problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 48, July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the formulation (together with our Member State counterparts and TC Country Officers) of projects for the 2009/11 TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2007 programme of work and budget performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. The focus of our activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the subprogramme are animal nutrition, reproduction and breeding and animal health. Within these three components, problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies.

  20. Animal health and price transmission along livestock supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragrande, M; Canali, M

    2017-04-01

    Animal health diseases can severely affect the food supply chain by causing variations in prices and market demand. Price transmission analysis reveals in what ways price variations are transmitted along the supply chain, and how supply chains of substitute products and different regional markets are also affected. In perfect markets, a price variation would be completely and instantaneously transmitted across the different levels of the supply chain: producers, the processing industry, retailers and consumers. However, empirical studies show that food markets are often imperfect, with anomalies or asymmetries in price transmission and distortions in the distribution of market benefits. This means, for instance, that a price increase at the consumer level may not be transmitted from retailers to processors and producers; yet, on the other hand, price falls may rapidly affect the upstream supply chain. Market concentration and the consequent exertion of market power in key segments of the supply chain can explain price transmission asymmetries and their distributional effects, but other factors may also be involved, such as transaction costs, scale economies, and imperfect information. During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, asymmetric price transmission in the beef supply chain and related meat markets determined distributional effects among sectors. After the spread of the BSE food scare, the fall in demand marginally affected the price paid to retailers, but producers and wholesalers suffered much more, in both price reductions and the time needed to recover to precrisis demand. Price transmission analysis investigates how animal health crises create different economic burdens for various types of stakeholder, and provides useful socioeconomic insights when used with other tools.

  1. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 57, January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Scientific Forum examined the challenges related to the improvement of food production, food protection and food safety through the use of nuclear applications. In the first session on 'Increasing Food Production' it was noted that the world will need to produce 70% more food between now and 2050 to satisfy the demand of a population in excess of 9 billion people. In this regard, the intensification and diversification of more and higher quality food in a climate-smart and sustainable manner whilst protecting the environment is therefore critical to smallholder farmers and is the key to poverty reduction and increased food security. The Forum noted that the increasing global population faces the challenge of substantially increasing food production under conditions of severe land degradation that has led to a significant reduction in the productive capacity of agricultural lands. Sustainable soil management, plant mutation breeding and animal nutrition and production are therefore critical to the improvement of agricultural productivity. The second session on 'Ensuring Food Protection' noted that global food insecurity is inherently linked to pests and diseases that harm or kill livestock and crops, as well as people working in rural agricultural areas. The losses caused by diseases and pests at both the pre- and post-harvest levels average 30-40% of agricultural outputs, making returns on agricultural investments in land, seeds, water, fertilizer, animal feed, labour and other inputs correspondingly inefficient. In addition, the world is currently facing an unprecedented increase of invasive animal and plant diseases and pests that threaten food security by causing serious losses in production and by necessitating costly control measures, including the escalating use of increasingly expensive pesticides. Outbreaks of secondary pests, the development of resistance of pests to pesticides and the increasing threat of zoonotic diseases to public health cause

  2. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 58, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-08-01

    The first phase of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the Subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical planning of project concepts for new TC projects by Member States for the 2014/2015 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2014/2015 Work and Budget Programme, and the FAO's 2014/2015 Programme of Work and Budget. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States (MS). Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the Subprogramme. A bone of contention is the current avian influenza H7N9 situation. On 1 April 2013, a human case of infection with the avian influenza H7N9 virus was reported in China. Since then this strain has been detected in four provinces of eastern China and has infected 132 people of which 37 have died (situation as of 3 June 2013). The number of cases dropped in May as compared to April, probably because of the control measures taken by Chinese health authorities, which includes closing live bird in markets, but this can also be due to the change climatic conditions or the international contribution

  3. The importance of fixed costs in animal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C A; Adamson, D

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the authors detail the structure and optimal management of health systems as influenced by the presence and level of fixed costs. Unlike variable costs, fixed costs cannot be altered, and are thus independent of the level of veterinary activity in the short run. Their importance is illustrated by using both single-period and multi-period models. It is shown that multi-stage veterinary decision-making can often be envisaged as a sequence of fixed-cost problems. In general, it becomes clear that, the higher the fixed costs, the greater the net benefit of veterinary activity must be, if such activity is to be economic. The authors also assess the extent to which it pays to reduce fixed costs and to try to compensate for this by increasing variable costs. Fixed costs have major implications for the industrial structure of the animal health products industry and for the structure of the private veterinary services industry. In the former, they favour market concentration and specialisation in the supply of products. In the latter, they foster increased specialisation. While cooperation by individual farmers may help to reduce their individual fixed costs, the organisational difficulties and costs involved in achieving this cooperation can be formidable. In such cases, the only solution is government provision of veterinary services. Moreover, international cooperation may be called for. Fixed costs also influence the nature of the provision of veterinary education.

  4. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 58, July 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The first phase of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the Subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical planning of project concepts for new TC projects by Member States for the 2014/2015 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2014/2015 Work and Budget Programme, and the FAO's 2014/2015 Programme of Work and Budget. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States (MS). Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the Subprogramme. A bone of contention is the current avian influenza H7N9 situation. On 1 April 2013, a human case of infection with the avian influenza H7N9 virus was reported in China. Since then this strain has been detected in four provinces of eastern China and has infected 132 people of which 37 have died (situation as of 3 June 2013). The number of cases dropped in May as compared to April, probably because of the control measures taken by Chinese health authorities, which includes closing live bird in markets, but this can also be due to the change climatic conditions or the international contribution.

  5. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...] Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY... available a concept paper that describes a revised structure for the National Animal Health Laboratory... biological threats to the nation's food animals. The concept paper we are making available for comment...

  6. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  7. One Health: Understanding and Improving Human, Animal, and Environmental Health as a Connected System Across NOAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltz, S.; Trtanj, J.; Jones, H.

    2017-12-01

    The One Health concept recognizes that the health of humans is inextricably linked with the health of animals and the environment. With a growing world population, changing climate, and increased global travel One Health approaches are increasingly useful. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides key stakeholders in the public health sector with the environmental intelligence they need to mitigate emerging health threats. The NOAA One Health Working Group's mission is to integrate and coordinate the network of observing systems and in situ sensors, detection and diagnostic capacity, research and modeling efforts, and sustained engagement with health partners to deliver useful information to public health and resource management communities. The NOAA One Health group divides its broad focus into themes: thermal extremes, water-borne disease, seafood security, Arctic, wildlife and zoonotic disease, vector-borne disease, and air quality (including wildfire). The group connects the work being done throughout NOAA to coordinate One Health related efforts, increase information sharing, promote interdisciplinary approaches, and work towards better disease prevention. We are working to enhance NOAA Science and services to deliver useful information on current and emerging health risks and benefits to health decision makers.

  8. [Economic management of health crises affecting production animals in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, S; Humblet, M F; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Gosset, C; Albert, A; Vernaillen, F; Saegerman, C

    2011-12-01

    The importance of animal health crises has considerably increased over the last few years. When a crisis occurs, farmers can receive financial support through various public, private and mixed compensation schemes. Economic losses resulting from diseases may be direct and indirect. If a disease is covered by European Union regulations then countries have a legal obligation to partly compensate farmers for direct losses, either directly through the national budget, or through a specific fund. The European Veterinary Fund also co-finances these losses. Only a few countries provide compensation for indirect losses. The private insurance sector also provides protection against some direct and indirect losses but the risks covered are variable. To encourage farmers to subscribe to this kind of insurance, some public authorities provide subsidies to help pay the premium. Insurance companies do not generally cover the risks linked to contagious diseases, but some companies do extend cover to include this type of risk. Several alternatives, such as mutual funds, are available to improve risk coverage. There is a lack of harmonisation among the various compensation schemes of different countries. Public authorities cannot provide full compensation, but mutual funds and private insurance companies are alternatives that should be further investigated and their use should be extended to other countries. A classification of diseases would harmonise the situation at the European level.

  9. Using AquaticHealth.net to Detect Emerging Trends in Aquatic Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Grossel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AquaticHealth.net is an open-source aquatic biosecurity intelligence application. By combining automated data collection and human analysis, AquaticHealth.net provides fast and accurate disease outbreak detection and forecasts, accompanied with nuanced explanations. The system has been online and open to the public since 1 January 2010, it has over 200 registered expert users around the world, and it typically publishes about seven daily reports and two weekly disease alerts. We document the major trends in aquatic animal health that the system has detected over these two years, and conclude with some forecasts for the future.

  10. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; DeLiberto, Thomas; Nguyen, Natalie

    2017-08-31

    Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection. However, bush-meat hunting is a complex issue promoting the need for holistic strategies to reduce transmission of zoonotic disease while addressing food security and wildlife conservation issues. Temporal and spatial separation of humans and wildlife, risk communication, and other preventative strategies should allow wildlife and humans to co-exist. Upstream surveillance, vaccination, and other tools to prevent pathogen spillover are also needed. Clear multi-sector outcomes should be defined, and a systems-based approach is needed to develop interventions that reduce risks and balance the needs of humans, wildlife, and the environment. The ultimate goal is long-term action to reduce forces driving emerging diseases and provide interdisciplinary scientific approaches to management of risks, thereby achieving optimal outcomes for human, animal, and environmental health.

  12. Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; DeLiberto, Thomas; Nguyen, Natalie T.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection. However, bush-meat hunting is a complex issue promoting the need for holistic strategies to reduce transmission of zoonotic disease while addressing food security and wildlife conservation issues. Temporal and spatial separation of humans and wildlife, risk communication, and other preventative strategies should allow wildlife and humans to co-exist. Upstream surveillance, vaccination, and other tools to prevent pathogen spillover are also needed. Clear multi-sector outcomes should be defined, and a systems-based approach is needed to develop interventions that reduce risks and balance the needs of humans, wildlife, and the environment. The ultimate goal is long-term action to reduce forces driving emerging diseases and provide interdisciplinary scientific approaches to management of risks, thereby achieving optimal outcomes for human, animal, and environmental health.

  13. Improving the use of economics in animal health - Challenges in research, policy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    The way that an economist and an animal health professional use economics differs and creates frustrations. The economist is in search of optimizing resource allocation in the management of animal health and disease problems with metrics associated with the productivity of key societal resources of labour and capital. The animal health professional have a strong belief that productivity can be improved with the removal of pathogens. These differences restrict how well economics is used in animal health, and the question posed is whether this matters. The paper explores the question by looking at the changing role of animals in society and the associated change of the animal health professional's activities. It then questions if the current allocation of scarce resources for animal health are adequately allocated for societies and whether currently available data are sufficient for good allocation. A rapid review of the data on disease impacts - production losses and costs of human reaction - indicate that the data are sparse collected in different times and geographical regions. This limits what can be understood on the productivity of the economic resources used for animal health and this needs to be addressed with more systematic collection of data on disease losses and costs of animal health systems. Ideally such a process should learn lessons from the way that human health has made estimates of the burden of diseases and their capture of data on the costs of human health systems. Once available data on the global burden of animal diseases and the costs of animal health systems would allow assessments of individual disease management processes and the productivity of wider productivity change. This utopia should be aimed at if animal health is to continue to attract and maintain adequate resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of peer-reviewed scientific contributions from authoritative researchers attending an international symposium convened by the Animal Production and Health Sub-programme of the Animal Production and Health (APH), Joint FAO/IAEA Programme in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of the FAO. These Proceedings contain invaluable information on the role and future potential of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health, possible applications and constraints in the use of this technology in developing countries and their specific research needs

  15. Using foresight to prepare animal health today for tomorrow’s challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Norman G.; Munroe, Fonda A.; Empringham, R. Edward; Renwick, Shane A.; Van der Linden, Ingrid W.M.; Dunlop, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Foresight has been introduced in Canada in the area of animal health as a process to broaden thinking about the future and inform policy development. Its initial use and evolution through projects and studies over the past decade are described, demonstrating real action in animal health. Despite positive, continuing, and exciting results in animal health policy development, foresight’s widespread acceptance and use thus far have been limited. Critical components for success, drawn from the Canadian experience, are described, and recommendations are offered for further action in animal health. PMID:22131576

  16. 75 FR 57736 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... sound data on the prevalence and economic importance of livestock diseases and associated risk factors... through questionnaires to: Provide a baseline description of animal health, marketing, and management...

  17. Multidrug resistant bacteria in companion animals: impact on animal health and zoonotic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro

    -resistant bacteria include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. These bacteria will be described with focus on their prevalence across Europe, their impact on animal...

  18. Bacteriophages : an underestimated role in human and animal health ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eDe Paepe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e. the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity.

  19. Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Allen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.

  20. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Téllez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals’ health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs. This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health.

  1. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio economics and economics of animal resources development ... Book Reviews: are accepted and should provide an overview of the work's contents ... Cite only textbooks and published article references to support your choices of tests.

  2. Biotechnology for development: Human and animal health perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilma, Tilahun

    2001-01-01

    ; training of scientists in the new technologies through graduate programs, postdoctoral fellowships, and workshops given in developing nations, and, specifically, the transfer of technologies in the development of recombinant vaccines and rapid diagnostic kits for improving both human and animal health. To illustrate these points, a few examples of the contributions of the ILMB are provided

  3. Sustainable improvement of animal health care by systematic quality risk management according to the HACCP concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhuizen, J P; Welpelo, H J

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the principles of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept as applied to animal health management strategy. Characteristics of the concept were analysed and compared with those of current animal health care strategies for disease risk identification and herd health management, insurance, and certification. HACCP is a hybrid strategy of quality control at both production process and product level. Animal health is considered a particular quality feature. We show that process control (expressed in terms of controlling both general and specific disease risk factors) and product control (expressed in terms of testing animals or animal products for specific disease agents) could form the basis for improving animal health. We conclude that HACCP provides ample opportunity for preventive health action and risk management at a relatively low cost in terms of labour, finance and documentation expenditure, at both the farm and sector level. Epidemiological field studies are currently needed to identify critical control points and to design HACCP procedures for livestock producers. In the long run, HACCP based animal health care can be further developed into a quality control systems approach to cover all aspects that are related, either directly or indirectly, to animal health.

  4. 78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request approval of a new information collection for the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Bison 2014 Study to support the bison industry of the United States.

  5. 78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request approval of a new information collection for the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Cervid 2014 Study to support the farmed cervid industry in the United States.

  6. 78 FR 24153 - Notice of Emergency Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has requested and received emergency approval of an information collection for a National Animal Health Monitoring System Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study to support the equine industry in the United States.

  7. 75 FR 34423 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0025... Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of solicitation for membership. SUMMARY: We are... disabilities. Done in Washington, DC, this 11\\th\\ day of June 2010. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal...

  8. 78 FR 27183 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0010....), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is... birth to weaning; Describe antibiotic use and residue prevention methods used to ensure milk and meat...

  9. Knowledge of Rabies Prevention in Vietnamese Public Health and Animal Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, K A T; Nguyen, H T T; Pham, T N; Van, K D; Hoang, T V; Olowokure, B

    2016-11-01

    Rabies is an invariably fatal, but preventable zoonotic disease. Despite a national programme for its prevention and control, the number of rabies associated deaths in Vietnam has increased in recent years. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2012 to assess and compare the knowledge, awareness and practices of 189 public health workers (PHW) and animal health workers (AHW) attending a joint training course for professionals from provinces in northern Vietnam with the highest number of deaths from rabies. Questionnaires facilitating self-evaluation were provided, and total knowledge scores were calculated (maximum 38 points) and categorized into: 'high' (>30 points), 'moderate' (21-30) and 'low' (animal health and public health professionals attending joint training activities aimed at strengthening rabies prevention and control. To ensure effective prevention and control of rabies requires that AHW and PHW not only coordinate and collaborate, but have a common knowledge and understanding of rabies prevention and control measures. This study provides important baseline data in a relatively unexplored area of research that can focus future interventions and research. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  11. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Testing irradiation technology for potential use in trypanosome vaccine development; Strengthening animal disease diagnostic capacities in veterinary laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa; Proficiency testing for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) diagnosis by Nucleic Acid Amplification (RT-PCR). Information on Fellows is also provided.

  12. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Testing irradiation technology for potential use in trypanosome vaccine development; Strengthening animal disease diagnostic capacities in veterinary laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa; Proficiency testing for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) diagnosis by Nucleic Acid Amplification (RT-PCR). Information on Fellows is also provided

  13. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions

  14. Using smartphones to improve animal health and food security ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... The app is also helping farmers raise healthier animals and improve their own ... and found to be a convenient and user-friendly tool for learning and ... of smartphone-based knowledge mobilization technology for building the ...

  15. The human consequences of animal health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-09

    Dec 9, 2010 ... ... fish are primary animal protein sources, and that has huge implications.” ... and others are working on making fish diets from table scraps”— all of ... Highlight: Canadian High Commissioners call IDRC a catalyst for change.

  16. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  17. Farm animal health managements and treatment practices at Diga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal sex, age, species and body condition were considered. Cases were characterized and determined using tentative diagnosis and patho-gnomonic signs. The owners were also interviewed for local name of the disease. The respective therapeutic drugs used were also assessed. Male cattle (57.7%), poultry (76.3%) ...

  18. One health and cyanobacteria in freshwater systems: animal illnesses and deaths are sentinel events for human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Beasley, Val R

    2015-04-20

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associated with harmful cyanobacteria blooms tend to be investigated and reported separately. Consequently, professionals working in human or in animal health do not always communicate findings related to these events with one another. Using the One Health concept of integration and collaboration among health disciplines, we systematically review the existing literature to discover where harmful cyanobacteria-associated animal illnesses and deaths have served as sentinel events to warn of potential human health risks. We find that illnesses or deaths among livestock, dogs and fish are all potentially useful as sentinel events for the presence of harmful cyanobacteria that may impact human health. We also describe ways to enhance the value of reports of cyanobacteria-associated illnesses and deaths in animals to protect human health. Efficient monitoring of environmental and animal health in a One Health collaborative framework can provide vital warnings of cyanobacteria-associated human health risks.

  19. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cito, F; Rijks, J; Rantsios, A T; Cunningham, A A; Baneth, G; Guardabassi, L; Kuiken, T; Giovannini, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals. In this study, available epidemiological data for diseases transmissible from companion animals to man were analysed with the aim of developing a procedure suitable for their prioritization within a European framework. A new method and its associated questionnaire and scoring system were designed based on methods described by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Modifications were applied to allow for the paucity of specific information on companion animal transmissible diseases. The OIE method was also adapted to the subject and to the regional scope of the interprofessional network addressing zoonotic diseases transmitted via companion animals in Europe: the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO). Adaptations were made based on information collected from expert groups on viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases using a structured questionnaire, in which all questions were closed-ended. The expert groups were asked to select the most appropriate answer for each question taking into account the relevance and reliability of the data available in the scientific literature. Subsequently, the scoring of the answers obtained for each disease covered by the questionnaire was analysed to obtain two final overall scores, one for human health impact and one for agricultural economic impact. The adapted method was then applied to select the 15 most important pathogens (five for each pathogen group: viral, bacterial and parasitic) on the basis of their overall impact on public health and agriculture. The result of the prioritization exercise was a joint priority list (available at www.callistoproject.eu) of

  1. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks.

  2. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E; Alpi, Kristine M; Pike, Caitlin A; Whitman, Elisabeth E; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    "One Health" is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%-34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated.

  3. Animal health economics: an aid to decisionmaking on animal health interventions - case studies in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T L; Pendell, D; Knippenberg, R

    2017-04-01

    For animal disease events the outcomes and consequences often remain unclear or uncertain, including the expected changes in benefits (e.g. profit to firms, prices to consumers) and in costs (e.g. response, clean-up). Moreover, the measurement of changes in benefits and costs across alternative interventions used to control animal disease events may be inexact. For instance, the economic consequences of alternative vaccination strategies to mitigate a disease can vary in magnitude due to trade embargoes and other factors. The authors discuss the economic measurement of animal disease outbreaks and interventions and how measurement is used in private and public decision-making. Two illustrative case studies in the United States of America are provided: a hypothetical outbreak of foot and mouth disease in cattle, and the 2014-2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry.

  4. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796

  5. The use of animals as a surveillance tool for monitoring environmental health hazards, human health hazards and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jacqueline Pei Shan; Tan, Boon Huan

    2017-05-01

    This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens. Animals are an excellent channel for monitoring novel and known pathogens with outbreak potential given that more than 60 % of emerging infectious diseases in humans originate as zoonoses. This review attempts to highlight animal illnesses, deaths, biomarkers or sentinel events, to remind human and veterinary public health programs that animal health can be used to discover, monitor or predict environmental health hazards, human health hazards, or bioterrorism. Lastly, we hope that this review will encourage the implementation of animals as a surveillance tool by clinicians, veterinarians, ecosystem health professionals, researchers and governments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigating animal health effects of sour gas acid forming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of sour gas well blowout emissions on livestock are reviewed. Guidelines for safe drilling operations in hydrogen sulfide environments, general hazards and characteristics of hydrogen sulfide, and guidelines for field investigation into the effects of sour gas and acid emissions on livestock are discussed. A case history involving the Ross No. 2 gas well blowout of July 1985 in Rankin County, Mississippi is presented. The blowout lasted for 72 days, and at peak discharge the 500 ppM radius was ca 3.5 miles. A cattle embryo transplant operation located one half mile from the well was affected by the blowout. Examination by a local veterinarian of the cattle demonstrated eye irritation, epiphora, nasal discharge and coughing. After one and a half months of exposure, most animals showed clinical signs of a severe dry hacking cough, epiphora, dry rales over the thoracic inlet, and a bronchial popping sound over the lateral thorax. All animals had eye irritation. Of 55 animals showing signs of respiratory distress and eye irritations, 15 were still clinically ill in May of 1986. 7 refs., 1 tab

  7. Bacteriophage therapy for safeguarding animal and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns including of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review.

  8. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.

  9. Serological and molecular evidence of bluetongue in sheep and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Molalegne Bitew

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, 2013) and notifiable to veterinary .... The data was collected and stored in Microsoft excel spreadsheet format and analyzed ..... Office International des Epizooties (OIE) (2008). Bluetongue.

  10. Integrating global animal health, public health and tropical animal health issues into the veterinary curriculum: a South African/African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, G E; Coetzer, J A W; Terblanche, H M

    2009-08-01

    The globalisation of trade and food, the increased volume and speed of international travel, climate change, and the related escalation of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases mean that countries are now more interconnected and interdependent than ever before. Africa is beleaguered by a range of endemic infectious and parasitic tropical diseases which, due to its diverse wildlife populations and indigenous livestock, can serve as a reservoir of high-impact or transboundary diseases and play a role in the emergence of disease, particularly at the wildlife, domestic animal and human interfaces. It is therefore essential to integrate animal and public health issues into the veterinary curriculum. Veterinary training in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has focused on producing veterinarians to serve the livestock sector although socio-economic changes and privatisation of Veterinary Services have caused curriculum adjustments, as have globalisation and the increased risk of the spread of transboundary diseases. In South Africa, undergraduate veterinary training is more clinically oriented than in other regions. Animal and public health issues are covered in the curriculum, although their global relevance is not emphasised. The authors describe the undergraduate veterinary curriculum and summarise post-graduate programmes in South Africa. They also discuss a more comprehensive core-elective approach to the current curriculum and the need to adapt to new challenges facing the profession. Finally, they examine the potential use of innovative technology in undergraduate and post-graduate training and professional development, the importance of regional and international collaboration and the accreditation and recognition of veterinary training.

  11. Status report on education in the economics of animal health: results from a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians.

  12. Plantibodies in human and animal health: a review.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antibody technology, hope of an affordable treatment for diseases such as cancer ... biological drugs are too costly to produce for resource-poor health care systems, .... Other disadvantages of adoption of antibody expression in plants include ...

  13. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S

    2006-01-01

    effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross......-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts...... but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb...

  14. 77 FR 44107 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ...We are amending the regulations that govern the importation of animals and animal products by consolidating the list of factors APHIS considers when evaluating the animal health status of a foreign region and by setting out new factors APHIS will consider when evaluating a region as historically free of a specific disease. These changes will make clearer the types of information APHIS needs from a requesting region in order to conduct an evaluation.

  15. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Genetic relationship of domestic sheep breeds with primitive Asian wild Urial sheep; Using irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; Peste des petits ruminants (PPR); Technical visit to the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Fellows/interns/consultants

  16. MORC Proteins: Novel Players in Plant and Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Aline; Kang, Hong-Gu; Steinbrenner, Jens; Dempsey, D'Maris A; Klessig, Daniel F; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Microrchidia (MORC) proteins comprise a family of proteins that have been identified in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are defined by two hallmark domains: a GHKL-type ATPase and an S5 fold. MORC proteins in plants were first discovered via a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants compromised for resistance to a viral pathogen. Subsequent studies expanded their role in plant immunity and revealed their involvement in gene silencing and transposable element repression. Emerging data suggest that MORC proteins also participate in pathogen-induced chromatin remodeling and epigenetic gene regulation. In addition, biochemical analyses recently demonstrated that plant MORCs have topoisomerase II (topo II)-like DNA modifying activities that may be important for their function. Interestingly, animal MORC proteins exhibit many parallels with their plant counterparts, as they have been implicated in disease development and gene silencing. In addition, human MORCs, like plant MORCs, bind salicylic acid and this inhibits some of their topo II-like activities. In this review, we will focus primarily on plant MORCs, although relevant comparisons with animal MORCs will be provided.

  17. MORC Proteins: Novel Players in Plant and Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Koch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microrchidia (MORC proteins comprise a family of proteins that have been identified in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are defined by two hallmark domains: a GHKL-type ATPase and an S5 fold. MORC proteins in plants were first discovered via a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants compromised for resistance to a viral pathogen. Subsequent studies expanded their role in plant immunity and revealed their involvement in gene silencing and transposable element repression. Emerging data suggest that MORC proteins also participate in pathogen-induced chromatin remodeling and epigenetic gene regulation. In addition, biochemical analyses recently demonstrated that plant MORCs have topoisomerase II (topo II-like DNA modifying activities that may be important for their function. Interestingly, animal MORC proteins exhibit many parallels with their plant counterparts, as they have been implicated in disease development and gene silencing. In addition, human MORCs, like plant MORCs, bind salicylic acid and this inhibits some of their topo II-like activities. In this review, we will focus primarily on plant MORCs, although relevant comparisons with animal MORCs will be provided.

  18. The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  19. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E. Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  20. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Paul Cherniack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  1. Vision of Dutch organic dairy farmers on animal health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, E.A.A.; Bestman, M.W.P.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic dairy farmers expressed their opinions on animal health and welfare in order to be able to communicate it internally (within the dairy sector) and externally (to consumers). A healthy animal in their opinion is free of physical and psychological discomfort, survives in a herd, takes

  2. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  3. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  4. Research and Reflection: Animal-Assisted Therapy in Mental Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshall, Debra Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…

  5. Justifiability and Animal Research in Health: Can Democratisation Help Resolve Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Scientists justify animal use in medical research because the benefits to human health outweigh the costs or harms to animals. However, whether it is justifiable is controversial for many people. Even public interests are divided because an increasing proportion of people do not support animal research, while demand for healthcare that is based on animal research is also rising. The wider public should be given more influence in these difficult decisions. This could be through requiring explicit disclosure about the role of animals in drug labelling to inform the public out of respect for people with strong objections. It could also be done through periodic public consultations that use public opinion and expert advice to decide which diseases justify the use of animals in medical research. More public input will help ensure that animal research projects meet public expectations and may help to promote changes to facilitate medical advances that need fewer animals. Abstract Current animal research ethics frameworks emphasise consequentialist ethics through cost-benefit or harm-benefit analysis. However, these ethical frameworks along with institutional animal ethics approval processes cannot satisfactorily decide when a given potential benefit is outweighed by costs to animals. The consequentialist calculus should, theoretically, provide for situations where research into a disease or disorder is no longer ethical, but this is difficult to determine objectively. Public support for animal research is also falling as demand for healthcare is rising. Democratisation of animal research could help resolve these tensions through facilitating ethical health consumerism or giving the public greater input into deciding the diseases and disorders where animal research is justified. Labelling drugs to disclose animal use and providing a plain-language summary of the role of animals may help promote public understanding and would respect the ethical beliefs of

  6. One Health - Transdisciplinary Opportunities for SETAC Leadership in Integrating and Improving the Health of People, Animals, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Health is a collaborative, transdisciplinary effort working locally, nationally, and globally to improve health for people,animals, plants, and the environment. The term is relatively new (from ?2003), and it is increasingly common to see One Health included by name in interi...

  7. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-31

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 59, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. ... Haematological, Carcass Characteristics And Meat Quality Of Intensively Managed West ... activities of the African Baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit-pulp extract in commercial broilers ...

  9. Future of keeping pet reptiles and amphibians: animal welfare and public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, C; Jessop, M; Arena, P; Pliny, A; Nicholas, E; Lambiris, A

    2017-10-28

    In a review summary on page 450, Pasmans and others discuss the future of keeping reptiles and amphibians as pets. Here, Clifford Warwick and others discuss the animal welfare and public health implications of exotic pet business. British Veterinary Association.

  10. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING... identified, to enable traceback to their establishment of origin; and (ii) Have been kept since birth in...

  11. Fibre’s role in animal nutrition and intestinal health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fibre has an important role in the complex interaction between the diet, the endogenous enzymes, the mucosa and the commensal microflora – all of which are considered important in the assimilation of nutrients and a key component for optimal intestinal health.......Dietary fibre has an important role in the complex interaction between the diet, the endogenous enzymes, the mucosa and the commensal microflora – all of which are considered important in the assimilation of nutrients and a key component for optimal intestinal health....

  12. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Simon J

    2008-02-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands).

  13. A case for increased private sector involvement in ireland's national animal health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Simon J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia. The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands.

  14. 77 FR 59590 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request an extension of approval of an information collection associated with the National Animal Health Reporting System.

  15. Power of Pets: Health Benefits of Human-Animal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partnered with the Mars Corporation’s WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition to answer questions like these by funding research studies. Scientists are looking at what the potential physical and mental health benefits are for different animals—from fish to ...

  16. Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Animal Nutrition and Health: The Role of Protein Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Celi, Pietro; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress (OS), and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism, and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functi...

  17. Oxidant/antioxidant balance in animal nutrition and health: the role of protein oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro eCeli; Pietro eCeli; Gianfranco eGabai

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress, and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional m...

  18. Why “Animal (De)liberation” survives early criticism and is pivotal to public health

    OpenAIRE

    Deckers, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Summary In 2016, the book Animal (De)liberation: Should the Consumption of Animal Products Be Banned? was published. This article aims to engage with the critique that this book has received and to clarify and reinforce its importance for human health. It is argued that the ideas developed in the book withstand critical scrutiny. As qualified moral veganism avoids the pitfalls of other moral positions on human diets, public health policies must be altered accordingly, subject to adequate poli...

  19. Practices and perceptions of animal contact and associated health outcomes in pregnant women and new mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi eWeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI 33%–45% and 26% (95% CI 21%–31%, respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4% in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%, and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%. Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopting certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers

  20. Pesti Des Petits ruminants virus infection in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan H.C.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries morbillivirus infections have had a huge impact on both human beings and animals. Morbilliviruses are highly contagious pathogens that cause some of the most devastating viral diseases of humans and animals world wide. They include measles virus (MV, canine distemper virus (CDV, rinderpest virus (RPV and peste des petits ruminants (PPRV virus. Furthermore, new emerging infectious diseases of morbilliviruses with significant ecological consequences of marine mammals have been discovered in the past decades. Phocid distemper virus (PDV in seals and the cetacean morbillivirus (CMV have been found in dolphins, whales and porpoises. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a highly contagious ,infectious , an acute or sub acute viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants characterized by fever, oculonasal discharges, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis and pneumonia. Goats are more severely affected than sheep. It is also known as pseudorinderpest of small ruminants, pest of small ruminants, pest of sheep and goats, kata, stomatitis- pneumoentritis syndrome, contagious pustular stomatitis and pneumoentritis complex. It is one of the major notifiable diseases of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. [Vet. World 2009; 2(4.000: 150-155

  1. Management of occupational health risks in small-animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Eva; Barraclough, Richard; Fishwick, David; Curran, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Small-animal work is a major element of veterinary practice in the UK and may be hazardous, with high levels of work-related injuries and ill-health reported in Australia and USA. There are no studies addressing the management of occupational health risks arising from small-animal work in the UK. To investigate the sources of health and safety information used and how health and safety and 12 specific occupational health risks are managed by practices. A cross-sectional postal survey of all small-animal veterinary practices in Hampshire. A response was mandatory as this was a Health & Safety Executive (HSE) inspection activity. A total of 118 (100%) practices responded of which 93 were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 99 and 86%, respectively, were aware of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) practice standards and had British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) staff members, while only 51% had previous contact with HSE (publications, advice and visit). Ninety per cent had health and safety policies, but only 31% had trained responsible staff in health and safety. Specific health hazards such as occupational allergens and computer use were relatively overlooked both by practices and the RCVS/BSAVA guidance available in 2002. Failings in active health risk management systems could be due to a lack of training to ensure competence in those with responsibilities. Practices rely on guidance produced by their professional bodies. Current RCVS guidance, available since 2005, has remedied some previous omissions, but further improvements are recommended.

  2. Integrating the issues of world animal health and world public health into the veterinary curriculum: a Southeast Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri-Saad, M; Romziah, S; Kunavongkrit, A; Valdez, C A; Thien, M

    2009-08-01

    The authors analysed the curricula of five veterinary schools in Southeast Asia to determine how successfully they integrate the issues of global animal health and global public health into their programmes. Two schools offer a five-year programme while the remaining three offer a six-year programme. The core courses within the curricula range from 145 to 224 credit hours, in total. In general, world animal health and world public health are well integrated into the veterinary curriculum. Most curricula allocate approximately 3% of their total credit hours to subjects associated with animal and public health, but other subjects that may contain discussions on these issues range between 6% and 10%. Most veterinary schools in Southeast Asia offer a Master's programme in Veterinary Public Health, with detailed emphasis on animal and public health but focusing principally on topics of local importance. At the same time, undergraduate and post-graduate veterinary students are exposed to current issues in animal and public health through regional and international scientific meetings.

  3. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 52, July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Globalization and climate change have had an unprecedented worldwide impact on emerging and re-emerging animal diseases and zoonoses. Climate change is disrupting natural ecosystems by providing more suitable environments for infectious diseases allowing diseasecausing bacteria, viruses, and fungi to move into new areas where they may harm wild life and domestic species, as well as humans. Diseases that were previously limited only to tropical areas are now spreading to other previously cooler areas, e.g. malaria. Pathogens that were restricted by seasonal weather patterns can invade new areas and find new susceptible species as the climate warms and/or the winters get milder. Insect-borne diseases are now present in temperate areas where the vector insects were non-existent in the past, e.g. trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, bluetongue. Humans are also at an increased risk from insect-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and yellow fever. Warmer temperatures are already enabling insects and microorganisms to invade and reproduce in areas where they once could not due to severely low temperatures and seasonal chills. A small rise in temperatures can produce a 10-fold increase in a mosquito population causing an increase of malaria cases, and hence, malaria is now occurring in several Eastern European countries as well as in the highland areas of countries like Kenya where historically cooler climatic conditions had prevented the breeding of populations of diseasecarrying mosquitoes. Freshwater snails, intermediate hosts for fascioliasis, a disease that affects millions of herbivorous animals and humans can now be observed in areas above 4200 meters above sea level in the highlands of Peru and Bolivia as milder temperatures and altered environment conditions are more favourable to their survival. Important zoonotic diseases such as avian influenza, Lyme disease and Rift Valley fever are also likely to spread. Avian influenza viruses occur naturally in wild birds

  4. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 51, January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As 2010 is dawning on us, I want to look forward and highlight some of the exciting new nuclear and nuclear related areas that we think will play an important role in the near future. The main constraint to livestock production in many tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America is the scarcity and fluctuations in quality and quantity of the year-around supply of feeds. Animal productivity is restricted by the low nitrogen and high fibre content of the native grasses and crop residues, which form the basis of the diets in these regions. An additional consequence of this poor diet in ruminants is the increased production of methane compared with ruminants fed on better quality forages. Studies on rumen metabolism using isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and nitrogen have revealed how the ruminal microbial flora can change depending on the type of forage ingested. In addition, certain plant metabolites reduce the microbial population thereby improving efficiency of feed utilization by up to 10 per cent. The future application of this strategy is that the modulation of fermentation can reduce methane production, hence mitigating greenhouse gas emissions

  5. Using the Neptune project to benefit Australian aquatic animal health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, M; Ernst, I; Adlard, R D

    2015-06-29

    Diseases of aquatic animals have had, and continue to have, a significant impact on aquatic animal health. In Australia, where fisheries and aquaculture are important industries, aquatic species have been subject to serious disease outbreaks, including pilchard herpesvirus, the cause of one of the largest wild fish kills ever recorded. At the same time, there is a consensus that Australia's parasite fauna are largely unknown, and that aquatic animal health information is difficult to access. Managing aquatic animal diseases is challenging because they may be entirely new, their hosts may be new to aquaculture, and specialist expertise and basic diagnostic tools may be lacking or absent. The Neptune project was created in response to these challenges, and it aims to increase awareness of aquatic animal diseases, improve disease management, and promote communication between aquatic animal health professionals in Australia. The project consists of an online database, a digital microscopy platform containing a whole-slide image library, a community space, and online communications technology. The database contains aquatic animal health information from published papers, government reports, and other sources, while the library contains slides of key diseases both endemic and exotic to Australia. These assets make Neptune a powerful resource for researchers, students, and biosecurity officials.

  6. Positioning Animal Welfare in the One Health Concept through Evaluation of an Animal Welfare Center in Skopje, Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radeski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Animal Welfare Center (AWC in Macedonia was established in 2009. The objectives of the center are animal welfare (AW education, research, raising public awareness of AW, and increasing cooperation between the stakeholders. One Health (OH was not the major focus of the AWC work initially, but, rather, a focus that evolved recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate the AWC from the OH perspective as an example case for positioning the AW within the overall OH concept. Three types of evaluation were performed: (1 assessment of OH-ness, by quantitative measurement of the operational and infrastructural aspects of the AWC; (2 impact evaluation, by conducting quantitative surveys on stakeholders and students; and (3 transdisciplinary evaluation, using semi-quantitative evaluation of the links of cooperation between the AWC and the stakeholders in society by the custom designed CACA (Cooperation, Activities, Communication, and Agreement scoring system. Results for the OH-ness of the AWC showed relatively high scores for OH thinking, planning and working and middle scores for OH learning and sharing dimensions, i.e., dominance of the operational over infrastructural aspects of the AWC. The impact evaluation of the AWC shows that familiarity with the OH concept among stakeholders was low (44% of the respondents. However, there was a commonality among stakeholder’s interest about AW and OH. According to the stakeholders’ and students’ opinions, the influence of AW on Animal, Environmental, and Human Health is relatively high (in the upper third of the 1–10 scale. The transdisciplinary evaluation of the AWC indicated the presence of transdisciplinarity work by the AWC, with a higher focus on the Universities and Research Institutions and some governmental institutions, and less linked with the Non-Governmental Organizations and Professional Associations (Chambers, e.g., the Veterinary Chamber in Macedonia. The evaluations conducted

  7. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals

  8. One health-one medicine: unifying human and animal medicine within an evolutionary paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Russell W; Steele, James H

    2011-08-01

    One health is a concept since early civilization, which promoted the view that there was no major distinction between animal and human medicine. Although persisting through the 19th century, this common vision was then all but forgotten in the early 20th century. It is now experiencing a renaissance, coincident with an awakening of the role that evolutionary biology plays in human and animal health, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A number of STIs in humans have comparable infections in animals; likewise, both humans and animals have STIs unique to each mammalian camp. These similarities and differences offer opportunities for basic medical and public health studies, including evolutionary insights that can be gleaned from ongoing interdisciplinary investigation--especially with the molecular analytical tools available--in what can become a golden age of mutually helpful discovery. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Use of expert opinion for animal disease decisions: an example of foot-and-mouth disease status designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabed, R B; Perez, A M; Johnson, W O; Thurmond, M C

    2009-11-01

    When data representing a preferred measurement of risk cannot be obtained, as is often the case for global animal diseases, decisions that affect millions of people and their animals are typically made based on expert opinion. Expert opinion can be and has been used to address the critical lack of data existing for prevalence and incidence of many global diseases, including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). However, when a conclusion based on expert opinion applies to a topic as sensitive as FMD, which has tremendous economic, political, and social implications, care should be taken to understand the accuracy of and differences in the opinion data. The differences in experts' opinions and the relative accuracy of an expert opinion elicitation for "diagnosing" country-level FMD presence were examined for the years 1997-2003 using Bayesian methods. A formal survey of eight international FMD experts revealed that individual experts had different opinions as to the probability of finding FMD in a country. However, a weighted average of the experts' responses was relatively accurate (91% sensitivity and 85% specificity) at identifying the FMD status of a country, compared to using a method that employed information available from World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). The most apparent disagreements between individual experts and available information were found for Indonesia, South Korea, and South America, and, in general, the experts seemed to believe that countries in South Asia were more likely to be positive than other countries that reported FMD cases to OIE. This study highlights new methodology that offers a standardized, quantitative, and systematic means by which expert opinion can be used and assessed.

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 45, December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Once again the year is at end and a new exciting year lies ahead of us. The past year has been a busy time for all staff in the subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2007/2008 biennial project cycle. We have also prepared the IAEA's 2008/2009 Work and Budget Programme. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. As with previous newsletters, I want to introduce a topic to hopefully stimulate discussion and debate and encourage interactions between all. It has been well discussed in previous newsletters that the trend towards intensification of livestock production in developing countries presents both opportunities and risks. The potential opportunities are the flow-on benefits to the local economy and producers and the potential risks are the flow-on costs to the environment, livestock health and welfare and human health, through increased chemical and nutrient pollution, disease transmission and centralization of feed resources. Understanding nutrition is one of the keys to taking advantage of the opportunities and minimizing the risks

  11. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegaye Tewelde G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community's health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community's health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows.Eight hundred three (99.4% respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members' exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals.Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed.

  12. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  13. European organic dairy farmers' preference for animal health management within the farm management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, F J S; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-11-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management and resources may be allocated to other more preferred areas. Veterinary advisors may experience this as non-compliant with their advice. To explore the preferences of European Union (EU) organic dairy farmers for improved animal health management relative to other farm management areas an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) was performed. A total of 215 farmers participated originating from organic dairy farms in France (n = 70), Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 28) and Sweden (n = 57). The management areas udder health and claw health represented animal health management whereas barn, calf and pasture management represented potential conflicting management areas. Results indicate that EU organic dairy farmers differ in their preferences for improved animal health management within the farming system. In general, improved calf management was the most preferred area and improved claw health management was found to be least preferred, the remaining areas were of intermediate interest. Cluster analyses on claw health measures and udder health measures resulted in respectively seven and nine distinct preference profiles. The results indicate a high degree of variation in farmers' preference, which cannot be explained by the typical herd characteristics. With the individual preferences revealed by ACA, a veterinary advisor can now find out whether his intended advice is directed at a favourable or unfavourable management area of the farmer. If the latter is the case the veterinarian should first create awareness of the problem to the farmer. Insights in individual farmers preferences will allow veterinary advisors to better understand why farmers were incompliant with their advice

  14. Achieving an optimal allocation of resources for animal health surveillance, intervention and disease mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, B; Delabouglise, A; Babo Martins, S

    2017-04-01

    The primary role of animal health economics is to inform decision-making by determining optimal investments for animal health. Animal health surveillance produces information to guide interventions. Consequently, investments in surveillance and intervention must be evaluated together. This article explores the different theoretical frameworks and methods developed to assess and optimise the spending of resources in surveillance and intervention and their technical interdependence. The authors present frameworks that define the relationship between health investment and losses due to disease, and the relationship between surveillance and intervention resources. Surveillance and intervention are usually considered as technical substitutes, since increased investments in surveillance reduce the level of intervention resources required to reach the same benefit. The authors also discuss approaches used to quantify externalities and non-monetary impacts. Finally, they describe common economic evaluation types, including optimisation, acceptability and least-cost studies.

  15. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos Seimenis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re‑emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  16. Foreword—welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Murray

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long distance transport of animals within countries, between countries, across regions and across continents is increasing significantly and is also changing in nature. Statistics from the International Trade Centre of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the World Trade Organization show that the value of world trade in live animals soared from US$8.7 billion in 2000 to US$12.1 billion in 2005. This enormous figure would be even greater if zoo animals, wildlife and illicit traffic were included.The history of animal transportation goes back thousands of years. It remains a legitimate practice to this day provided proper measures are taken to protect animal well-being and health. What has made circumstances different in the 21st century is the nature of transport (land, sea and air, the volume of traffic and a public awareness of welfare issues with demands that animals be treated humanely and in accordance with best contemporary practices. This increased volume of transport creates an unprecedented risk for disseminating infectious diseases, including those that may affect people.Key public concerns about animal welfare relate to factors such as a lack of infrastructure and investment in training, research and standards development, as well as indifference and neglect. The live animal transportation industries are threatened when these deficiencies are not corrected.Fortunately, a number of countries foresaw these problems and introduced a series of activities to support good animal welfare practices. Many recognised the clear connection between animal welfare, health and husbandry practice, and established policy settings to include these activities under a veterinary public and animal health umbrella. Recognising its critical importance, the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties: OIE in its IVth Strategic plan (points a to b, identified animal welfare as a key issue and launched a

  17. Human health hazard from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.

    2006-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans....... The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that antimicrobial-resistant...... to change the current view that antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from animals pose a threat to human health. On the contrary, antimicrobial resistance genes appear to spread freely between enterococci from different reservoirs, irrespective of their apparent host association....

  18. Data warehouse for assessing animal health, welfare, risk management and -communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annette Cleveland

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of existing databases in Denmark and describe some of the most important of these in relation to establishment of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administrations' veterinary data warehouse. The purpose of the data warehouse and possible use of the data are described. Finally, sharing of data and validity of data is discussed. There are databases in other countries describing animal husbandry and veterinary antimicrobial consumption, but Denmark will be the first country relating all data concerning animal husbandry, -health and -welfare in Danish production animals to each other in a data warehouse. Moreover, creating access to these data for researchers and authorities will hopefully result in easier and more substantial risk based control, risk management and risk communication by the authorities and access to data for researchers for epidemiological studies in animal health and welfare.

  19. Occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum among healthy dairy animals: an emerging public health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A

    2016-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum in the feces of dairy animals. Fecal samples were collected from 203 apparently healthy dairy animals (50 cattle, 50 buffaloes, 52 sheep, 51 goats). Samples were cultured to recover C. botulinum while human pathogenic C. botulinum strains were identified after screening of all C. botulinum isolates for the presence of genes that encode toxins type A, B, E, F. The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.7% whereas human pathogenic C. botulinum strains (only type A) were isolated from six animals at the rates of 2, 2, 5.8, and 2% for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats, respectively. High fecal carriage rates of C. botulinum among apparently healthy dairy animals especially type A alarm both veterinary and public health communities for a potential role which may be played by dairy animals in the epidemiology of such pathogen.

  20. Academic health sciences librarians' contributions to institutional animal care and use committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Susan C; Thomas, Sheila L

    2014-07-01

    The study gathered data about librarians' membership in institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) and their professional activities supporting animal researchers. Libraries affiliated with medical schools that were members of the Association of American Medical Colleges were surveyed. A survey was distributed via library directors' email discussion lists and direct email messages. Sixty surveys were completed: 35 (58%) reported that librarians performed database searches for researchers, and 22 (37%) reported that a librarian currently serves on the IACUC. The survey suggests that academic health sciences librarians provide valuable, yet underutilized, services to support animal research investigators.

  1. Biomarkers of animal health: integrating nutritional ecology, endocrine ecophysiology, ecoimmunology, and geospatial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Robin W; Proudfoot, Glenn A; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-02-01

    Diverse biomarkers including stable isotope, hormonal, and ecoimmunological assays are powerful tools to assess animal condition. However, an integrative approach is necessary to provide the context essential to understanding how biomarkers reveal animal health in varied ecological conditions. A barrier to such integration is a general lack of awareness of how shared extraction methods from across fields can provide material from the same animal tissues for diverse biomarker assays. In addition, the use of shared methods for extracting differing tissue fractions can also provide biomarkers for how animal health varies across time. Specifically, no study has explicitly illustrated the depth and breadth of spacial and temporal information that can be derived from coupled biomarker assessments on two easily collected tissues: blood and feathers or hair. This study used integrated measures of glucocorticoids, stable isotopes, and parasite loads in the feathers and blood of fall-migrating Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus) to illustrate the wealth of knowledge about animal health and ecology across both time and space. In feathers, we assayed deuterium (δD) isotope and corticosterone (CORT) profiles, while in blood we measured CORT and blood parasite levels. We found that while earlier migrating owls had elevated CORT levels relative to later migrating birds, there was also a disassociation between plasma and feather CORT, and blood parasite loads. These results demonstrate how these tissues integrate time periods from weeks to seasons and reflect energetic demands during differing life stages. Taken together, these findings illustrate the potential for integrating diverse biomarkers to assess interactions between environmental factors and animal health across varied time periods without the necessity of continually recapturing and tracking individuals. Combining biomarkers from diverse research fields into an integrated framework hold great promise for

  2. Integrating animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J A; Silva, P

    2013-08-01

    Surveillance at the slaughterhouse level for animal health and food safety purposes encompasses examination for the presence of pathology, pathogens, drug residues, chemical contaminants and antimicrobial resistance. Government, industry and academia are the primary proponents of such surveillance. A variety of policies and policy instruments from voluntary to legislative may be applied to promote or obligate participation. Efforts to integrate data across such diverse organisations encounter significant legal, logistical and financial challenges. Enhancement of policies to encourage effective integration of animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control should promote: a long-term approach; collaboration among government, industry and academia; application of a risk-based scheme; and transparent public access to data, with generation of consumer-oriented communications derived from the data. A strong case can be made that the complementary pursuit of both sustainable animal health and food safety can continue to be aided by surveillance at the slaughterhouse level.

  3. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with animals and its relevance to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa ePantosti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbioma and resistoma, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA emerged fifty years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The pig MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health.

  4. Why “Animal (De)liberation” survives early criticism and is pivotal to public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary In 2016, the book Animal (De)liberation: Should the Consumption of Animal Products Be Banned? was published. This article aims to engage with the critique that this book has received and to clarify and reinforce its importance for human health. It is argued that the ideas developed in the book withstand critical scrutiny. As qualified moral veganism avoids the pitfalls of other moral positions on human diets, public health policies must be altered accordingly, subject to adequate political support for its associated vegan project. PMID:28776902

  5. Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa : policy and trade issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Thomson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated ; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs, extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1 implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2 amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE] so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for

  6. Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R

    2009-03-01

    The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone) is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1) implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2) amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for southern African

  7. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J

    2012-01-01

    medicine use through animal health and welfare planning (AHWP). Medicine use (excluding complementary treatments such as homeopathic remedies) was assessed as the total number of treatments and as the number of treatments of various disease categories (udder, fertility, metabolism, locomotion and others...... acidosis and imbalanced energy supply, respectively. Calving interval was used as an indicator for fertility. Milk recording data and treatment data were retrospectively collected for a one year period before and after the first farm visit. Focus areas of animal health and welfare plans were either...

  8. Rare earth elements in human and animal health: State of art and research priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, Giovanni, E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it [University of Naples “Federico II”, Environmental Hygiene, via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Aliberti, Francesco; Guida, Marco [University of Naples “Federico II”, Environmental Hygiene, via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Oral, Rahime [Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, TR-35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Siciliano, Antonietta [University of Naples “Federico II”, Environmental Hygiene, via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Trifuoggi, Marco [University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Tommasi, Franca [“Aldo Moro” Bari University, Department of Biology, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Background: A number of applications have been developed using rare earth elements (REE), implying several human exposures and raising unsolved questions as to REE-associated health effects. Methods: A MedLine survey was retrieved from early reports (1980s) up to June 2015, focused on human and animal exposures to REE. Literature from animal models was selected focusing on REE-associated health effects. Results: Some REE occupational exposures, in jobs such as glass polishers, photoengravers and movie projectionists showed a few case reports on health effects affecting the respiratory system. No case-control or cohort studies of occupational REE exposures were retrieved. Environmental exposures have been biomonitored in populations residing in REE mining areas, showing REE accumulation. The case for a iatrogenic REE exposure was raised by the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance. Animal toxicity studies have shown REE toxicity, affecting a number of endpoints in liver, lungs and blood. On the other hand, the use of REE as feed additives in livestock is referred as a safe and promising device in zootechnical activities, possibly suggesting a hormetic effect both known for REE and for other xenobiotics. Thus, investigations on long-term exposures and observations are warranted. Conclusion: The state of art provides a limited definition of the health effects in occupationally or environmentally REE-exposed human populations. Research priorities should be addressed to case-control or cohort studies of REE-exposed humans and to life-long animal experiments. - Highlights: • An extensive number of activities have been developed utilizing rare earth elements (REE). • The literature of REE-associated health effects in humans, and on animal studies is reviewed. • The main literature gaps are discussed, in epidemiological and in animal studies. • Prospects studies are suggested, aimed at evaluating long-term effects of REE exposures

  9. Rare earth elements in human and animal health: State of art and research priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagano, Giovanni; Aliberti, Francesco; Guida, Marco; Oral, Rahime; Siciliano, Antonietta; Trifuoggi, Marco; Tommasi, Franca

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of applications have been developed using rare earth elements (REE), implying several human exposures and raising unsolved questions as to REE-associated health effects. Methods: A MedLine survey was retrieved from early reports (1980s) up to June 2015, focused on human and animal exposures to REE. Literature from animal models was selected focusing on REE-associated health effects. Results: Some REE occupational exposures, in jobs such as glass polishers, photoengravers and movie projectionists showed a few case reports on health effects affecting the respiratory system. No case-control or cohort studies of occupational REE exposures were retrieved. Environmental exposures have been biomonitored in populations residing in REE mining areas, showing REE accumulation. The case for a iatrogenic REE exposure was raised by the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance. Animal toxicity studies have shown REE toxicity, affecting a number of endpoints in liver, lungs and blood. On the other hand, the use of REE as feed additives in livestock is referred as a safe and promising device in zootechnical activities, possibly suggesting a hormetic effect both known for REE and for other xenobiotics. Thus, investigations on long-term exposures and observations are warranted. Conclusion: The state of art provides a limited definition of the health effects in occupationally or environmentally REE-exposed human populations. Research priorities should be addressed to case-control or cohort studies of REE-exposed humans and to life-long animal experiments. - Highlights: • An extensive number of activities have been developed utilizing rare earth elements (REE). • The literature of REE-associated health effects in humans, and on animal studies is reviewed. • The main literature gaps are discussed, in epidemiological and in animal studies. • Prospects studies are suggested, aimed at evaluating long-term effects of REE exposures

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  12. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    A specific concept of strain was developed in order to classify the BTV serotypes ever reported in Europe based on their properties of animal health impact: the genotype, morbidity, mortality, speed of spread, period and geographical area of occurrence were considered as classification parameters...... of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7, Article 5 on the eligibility of bluetongue to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to bluetongue. The assessment has...

  13. Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Animal Nutrition and Health: The Role of Protein Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Pietro; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress (OS), and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism, and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional modifications. Protein oxidation seems to be involved in pathological conditions, such as respiratory diseases and parasitic infection; however, some studies also suggest that protein oxidation plays a crucial role in the regulation of important physiological functions, such as reproduction, nutrition, metabolism, lactation, gut health, and neonatal physiology. As the characterization of the mechanisms by which OS may influence metabolism and health is attracting considerable scientific interest, the aim of this review is to present veterinary scientists and clinicians with various aspects of oxidative damage to proteins.

  14. Setting the One Health Agenda and the Human–Companion Animal Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg K. Takashima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available “One Health”, also called “One Medicine”, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB as it relates to healthcare in these areas.

  15. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fernández-Cruz, M.L.; Bertelsen, U.; Renshaw, D.W.; Peltonen, K.; Anadon, A.; Feil, A.; Sanders, P.; Wester, P.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-01-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  16. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Fernández-Cruz, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain); Bertelsen, U. [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Renshaw, D.W. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Peltonen, K. [Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland); Anadon, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid (Spain); Feil, A. [ForschungsinstitutFuttermitteltechnik, Braunschweig (Germany); Sanders, P. [AFSSA, LERMVD, Fougères (France); Wester, P. [RIVM, Food and Consumer Safety, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  17. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them...

  18. The Role of the Pharmacist in Animal Health Care: Case Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this cross-sectional study, the role of pharmacists in animal health care, particularly in the distribution of veterinary medicines in community pharmacies in Dar es Salaam was investigated. Using a semi-structured questionnaire a total of 260 pharmacists were interviewed. The study revealed that majority of the ...

  19. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 66, No 1 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 66, No 1 (2018) ... Performance and haematological parameters of growing rabbits fed different levels of ... Association of smallholder dairy farmers management and milking practices with ...

  20. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on bluetongue monitoring and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegeman, Arjan; Bøtner, Anette; Savini, Giovanni

    Following a request from the Commission, the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on: 1) the expected prevalence (design prevalence) under different circumstances, and, 2) an updated scientific assessment of the size of the relevant geographical area...

  1. Afghanistan and the development of alternative systems of animal health in the absence of effective government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Ward, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    This case study describes the efforts by both non-governmental organisations and United Nations agencies to develop an alternative system for delivering animal health services in Afghanistan, during a period in which there was effectively no government. The authors examine the period from the

  2. SERVAL: a new framework for the evaluation of animal health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewe, J A; Hoinville, L J; Cook, A J C; Floyd, T; Gunn, G; Stärk, K D C

    2015-02-01

    Animal health surveillance programmes may change in response to altering requirements or perceived weaknesses but are seldom subjected to any formal evaluation to ensure that they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. The literature on the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems is sparse, and those that are published may be unstructured and therefore incomplete. To address this gap, we have developed SERVAL, a SuRveillance EVALuation framework, which is novel and aims to be generic and therefore suitable for the evaluation of any animal health surveillance system. The inclusion of socio-economic criteria ensures that economic evaluation is an integral part of this framework. SERVAL was developed with input from a technical workshop of international experts followed by a consultation process involving providers and users of surveillance and evaluation data. It has been applied to a range of case studies encompassing different surveillance and evaluation objectives. Here, we describe the development, structure and application of the SERVAL framework. We discuss users' experiences in applying SERVAL to evaluate animal health surveillance systems in Great Britain. © 2013 Crown Copyright. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  3. Electronic Communication in Africa--the Promotion of Animal Health Information Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Erica E.; Miller, E. Stan

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how the Veterinary Science Library at the University of Pretoria (South Africa) promotes electronic communication through various Internet and other network links. Provides a sample of online information sources available to veterinary teams and animal health workers, and a list of electronic addresses for South African libraries and…

  4. Factors influencing the demand of the service of community based animal health care in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambara, J; Dube, I; Matangi, E; Majeke, F

    2013-11-01

    This study was done to find out about animal health service providers and factors that determined demand for community based veterinary service delivery in smallholder sector of Zimbabwe. Focus group discussions and a questionnaire was used to collect data on veterinary services providers and socio-economic factors related to animal health from a sample (N=333) smallholder livestock farmers from Gutu district of Masvingo province in Zimbabwe. Analytical techniques used were descriptive statistics, K-mean cluster analysis and Tobit regression model. Results showed that the majority of farmers (45%) obtained services from both Community Based Animal Health Workers (CBAHWs) and Department of Veterinary Service (DVS), 25% DVS only, 20% used CBAHWs while 10% did not seek any services. Further analysis showed that distance to CBAHW, distance to AHMC and employment status were significantly related to demand for CBAHWs with coefficients of -1.5, 0.7 and -10.3, respectively. The study thus concluded that CBAHW is an alternative animal health service delivery approach already practiced in smallholder farming sectors of Zimbabwe. Socio-economic factors significantly influenced the demand for CBAHW services. Given limited resources by state sponsored veterinary services, it is recommended that the CBAHWs approach should be encouraged as supplementary service provider especially in areas further DVS. These community organizations can be empowered by the state to deliver more improved services based on hygiene and modern science at a relatively low cost to farmers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Analysis of the Future Need for Certified Animal Health Technicians and Instructional Program Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevada State Council on Occupational Education, Carson City.

    A study examined the future need for certified animal health technicians (CAHT) in Nevada and the skills/knowledge that future CAHTs will need. Questionnaires were mailed to all of Nevada's 306 licensed veterinarians; 100 (32.68%) responded. The estimated numbers of CAHTs needed by the state's veterinarians in 1, 3, and 5 years were 62, 142, and…

  6. Animal Health Technicians: A Survey of Program Graduates and of Veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsaleau, Richard B.; Walters, Henry R.

    This document compiles the reports of two surveys conducted by Cosumnes River College to determine the status of graduates of its Animal Health Technician program, and to assess the acceptance and use of such paraprofessionals by area veterinarians. Information concerning type of employment, state certification, salaries, types of duties, length…

  7. Long-term impacts of unconventional drilling operations on human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Public health concerns related to the expansion of unconventional oil and gas drilling have sparked intense debate. In 2012, we published case reports of animals and humans affected by nearby drilling operations. Because of the potential for long-term effects of even low doses of environmental toxicants and the cumulative impact of exposures of multiple chemicals by multiple routes of exposure, a longitudinal study of these cases is necessary. Twenty-one cases from five states were followed longitudinally; the follow-up period averaged 25 months. In addition to humans, cases involved food animals, companion animals and wildlife. More than half of all exposures were related to drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations; these decreased slightly over time. More than a third of all exposures were associated with wastewater, processing and production operations; these exposures increased slightly over time. Health impacts decreased for families and animals moving from intensively drilled areas or remaining in areas where drilling activity decreased. In cases of families remaining in the same area and for which drilling activity either remained the same or increased, no change in health impacts was observed. Over the course of the study, the distribution of symptoms was unchanged for humans and companion animals, but in food animals, reproductive problems decreased and both respiratory and growth problems increased. This longitudinal case study illustrates the importance of obtaining detailed epidemiological data on the long-term health effects of multiple chemical exposures and multiple routes of exposure that are characteristic of the environmental impacts of unconventional drilling operations.

  8. Review of Antibiotic Resistance in the Indian Ocean Commission: A Human and Animal Health Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Noellie; Belmonte, Olivier; Collard, Jean-Marc; Halifa, Mohamed; Issack, Mohammad Iqbal; Mindjae, Saindou; Palmyre, Philippe; Ibrahim, Abdul Aziz; Rasamoelina, Harena; Flachet, Loïc; Filleul, Laurent; Cardinale, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to human, animal health, and environment worldwide. For human, transmission occurred through a variety of routes both in health-care settings and community. In animals, AMR was reported in livestock, pets, and wildlife; transmission of AMR can be zoonotic with the probably most important route being foodborne transmission. The Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), composed of Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion (France), and Seychelles recognized the surveillance of AMR in both animal and human as a main public health priority for the region. Mayotte, French overseas territory, located in Comoros archipelago, was also included in this review. This review summarized our best epidemiological knowledge regarding AMR in Indian Ocean. We documented the prevalence, and phenotypic and genotypic profiles of prone to resistance Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria both in animals and humans. Our review clearly pointed out extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae as main human and animal health issue in IOC. However, publications on AMR are scarce, particularly in Comoros, Mayotte, and Seychelles. Thus, research and surveillance priorities were recommended (i) estimating the volume of antimicrobial drugs used in livestock and human medicine in the different territories [mainly third generation cephalosporin (3GC)]; (ii) developing a "One Health" surveillance approach with epidemiological indicators as zoonotic foodborne pathogen (i.e., couple Escherichia coli resistance to 3GC/carbapenems); (iii) screening travelers with a history of hospitalization and consumption of antibiotic drug returning from at risk areas (e.g., mcr-1 transmission with China or hajj pilgrims) allowing an early warning detection of the emergence for quick control measures implementation in IOC.

  9. Direct and indirect effects of wastewater use and herd environment on the occurrence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Zhang, Liqin; Abid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Xinru, Han

    2017-03-01

    The use of wastewater for rearing domestic animals is a common phenomenon in most of the developing countries like Pakistan that face a serious shortage of freshwater resources. However, most of the literature has only focused on the indirect effects of wastewater use on animal health or productivity, and literature on the direct effects of wastewater use is rare. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of wastewater usage on the prevalence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan. The study is based on a household-level survey of 360 domestic water buffalo herds collected from 12 districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. We tested the prevalence of the animal's diseases, animal's health, and wastewater-use preference with various econometric tools, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and logistic regressions. The findings of the study show that the majority of the farmers use wastewater for buffalo bathing due to the shortage of freshwater resources. Results explore the prevalence of diseases such as clinical mastitis, tick infestation, and foot and mouth disease at the farm level significantly associated with buffalo bathing in the wastewater. Moreover, bathing in wastewater pre- and post-milking also plays a role in the occurrence of diseases. Particularly, if the buffalo's access to wastewater for bathing is within 60 min after milking, the probability of the animals being exposed to mastitis is higher. Furthermore, on investigation, a number of factors are found, such as the distance to the water source, power shortage, groundwater availability, and the education of farmers that influence farmers' behavior of letting their animals take a bath in wastewater. Moreover, the use of different preventive measures improves the animal's health.

  10. Ugly but tasty: A systematic review of possible human and animal health risks related to entomophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Marco; Stillo, Michela; Maffei, Giulia; Andriolo, Violetta; Gardois, Paolo; Zotti, Carla Maria

    2017-11-22

    According to many recent studies, the use of insects as food seems to be convenient, sustainable, economical and healthy. The objective of this study is to analyze the possible effects of insect consumption on human and animal health. A systematic review of the literature was performed using the PubMed, Scopus and CAB databases. Of the 6026 items initially retrieved, 70 were eligible for inclusion; 40 studies analyzed the use of insects in human foods or drugs, while 30 analyzed the use of insects in animal feed. In humans, the most commonly analyzed risks are nutrient malabsorption, growth alteration, chemical and microbiological contamination and allergy risk. Studies of animals focus on growth alteration, nutrient malabsorption and hematic and qualitative meat alteration. In recent years, researchers have shifted their focus from the possible use of edible insects in animal feed to their use as possible nutrient sources for humans. The results suggest that, if properly treated and preserved, products derived from insects are safe and efficient sources of nutrients for animals. Further studies are needed to evaluate the possible effects of prolonged insect consumption on human health.

  11. Recent advancement in biosensors technology for animal and livestock health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethirajan, Suresh; Tuteja, Satish K; Huang, Sheng-Tung; Kelton, David

    2017-12-15

    The term biosensors encompasses devices that have the potential to quantify physiological, immunological and behavioural responses of livestock and multiple animal species. Novel biosensing methodologies offer highly specialised monitoring devices for the specific measurement of individual and multiple parameters covering an animal's physiology as well as monitoring of an animal's environment. These devices are not only highly specific and sensitive for the parameters being analysed, but they are also reliable and easy to use, and can accelerate the monitoring process. Novel biosensors in livestock management provide significant benefits and applications in disease detection and isolation, health monitoring and detection of reproductive cycles, as well as monitoring physiological wellbeing of the animal via analysis of the animal's environment. With the development of integrated systems and the Internet of Things, the continuously monitoring devices are expected to become affordable. The data generated from integrated livestock monitoring is anticipated to assist farmers and the agricultural industry to improve animal productivity in the future. The data is expected to reduce the impact of the livestock industry on the environment, while at the same time driving the new wave towards the improvements of viable farming techniques. This review focusses on the emerging technological advancements in monitoring of livestock health for detailed, precise information on productivity, as well as physiology and well-being. Biosensors will contribute to the 4th revolution in agriculture by incorporating innovative technologies into cost-effective diagnostic methods that can mitigate the potentially catastrophic effects of infectious outbreaks in farmed animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of the health effects of inhaled transuranium elements from experimental animal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.; Thomas, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Although animal experiments are conducted to obtain data that can be used to predict the consequences of exposure to alpha-emitting elements on human health, scientists have been hesitant to project the results of animal experiments to man. However, since a human data base does not exist for inhaled transuranics, the animal data cannot be overlooked. The paper describes the derivation of linear non-threshold response relationships for lung cancer in rats after inhalation of alpha-emitting transuranium elements. These relationships were used to calculate risk estimates, which were then compared with a value calculated from the incidence of lung cancer in humans who had been exposed to sources of radiation other than the transuranics. Both estimates were compared with the estimated cancer risk associated with the annual whole-body dose limit of 5 rems for occupational exposure. The rat data suggest that the risk from a working lifetime exposure of 15 rem/a to the lungs from transuranium elements may be 5 times the risk incurred with a whole-body exposure of 5 rem/a, while the human data suggest the risk may be less. Since the histological type of plutonium-induced lung cancer that occurs in experimental animals is rare in man, the use of animal data to estimate risks may be conservative. Risk estimates calculated directly from the results of experiments in which animals actually inhaled transuranic particles circumvent such controversial issues as 'hot particles'. (author)

  13. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  14. Co-ordinated Interdisciplinary Efforts on Research in Animal Production and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS, the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL, the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL. CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision

  15. Ad hoc method for the assessment on listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    compiled by disease scientists. A mapping was developed to identify which parameters from Article 7 were needed to inform each Article 5, 8 and 9 criterion. Specifically, for Articles 5 and 9 criteria, a categorical assessment was performed, by applying an expert judgement procedure, based on the mapped......The European Commission has requested EFSA to assess animal diseases according to the criteria as laid down in Articles 5, 7, 8 and Annex IV for the purpose of categorisation of diseases in accordance with Article 9 of the Regulation (EU) No 2016/429 (Animal Health Law). This scientific opinion...... addresses the ad hoc method developed for assessing any animal disease for the listing and categorisation of diseases within the Animal Health Law (AHL) framework. The assessment of individual diseases is addressed in distinct scientific opinions that are published separately. The assessment of Articles 5...

  16. An expanded One Health model: integrating social science and One Health to inform study of the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldehanna, Sara; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Zoonotic disease emergence is not a purely biological process mediated only by ecologic factors; opportunities for transmission of zoonoses from animals to humans also depend on how people interact with animals. While exposure is conditioned by the type of animal and the location in which interactions occur, these in turn are influenced by human activity. The activities people engage in are determined by social as well as contextual factors including gender, age, socio-economic status, occupation, social norms, settlement patterns and livelihood systems, family and community dynamics, as well as national and global influences. This paper proposes an expanded "One Health" conceptual model for human-animal exposure that accounts for social as well as epidemiologic factors. The expanded model informed a new study approach to document the extent of human exposure to animals and explore the interplay of social and environmental factors that influence risk of transmission at the individual and community level. The approach includes a formative phase using qualitative and participatory methods, and a representative, random sample survey to quantify exposure to animals in a variety of settings. The paper discusses the different factors that were considered in developing the approach, including the range of animals asked about and the parameters of exposure that are included, as well as factors to be considered in local adaptation of the generic instruments. Illustrative results from research using this approach in Lao PDR are presented to demonstrate the effect of social factors on how people interact with animals. We believe that the expanded model can be similarly operationalized to explore the interactions of other social and policy-level determinants that may influence transmission of zoonoses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Survey among livestock practices on herd health management and an Internet-based animal health portal in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tavel, L; Buri, S; Witschi, U; Kirchhofer, M

    2009-12-01

    The importance of herd health management in Switzerland, its implementation by veterinarians as well as their willingness to collaborate within an Internet portal have been assessed by a questionnaire. The portal is meant to serve the genetic evaluation, the veterinary herd health management and the obligation to record treatments; it should be at disposal for all users in form of a central database. For the survey, questionnaires were sent to 784 veterinarians (mixed and livestock practices) in Switzerland. Amongst them, 217 (27.7 %) questionnaires could be evaluated. 125 veterinarians already offer a herd health management service and 147 veterinarians are inclined to collaborate in a central registration of animal health data. In this context, they are interested in an efficient veterinary herd health management program, which will allow direct exchange of data with farmers via an Internet portal. However, they fear a lack of interest of their customers and express some concern regarding data protection. The portal providers must therefore consider the needs of all potential users in order to succeed in this project. At this condition, the veterinarians are prepared to spread herd health management amongst the breeders by means of the animal health portal.

  18. The science behind One Health: at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, Michael P; Steer, Clifford J; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Patterson, Ned; Kennedy, Shaun; Sriramarao, P

    2017-05-01

    Humans face a grand quality-of-life challenge as growing demands for resources for an ever-expanding population threaten the existence of wildlife populations, degrade land, and pollute air and water. Public investment and policy decisions that will shape future interactions of humans, animals, and the environment need scientific input to help find common ground for durable and sustainable success. The Second International Conference on One Medicine One Science brought together a broad range of scientists, trainees, regulatory authorities, and health experts from 34 countries to inform and discuss the human impacts of air quality; the complexities of water quality, access, and conflicts; the opportunities and uncertainties in precision medicine; and the role of science communication in health policy formulation. Workshops focused on the roles and development of physician-scientists and multidisciplinary teams in complex problem solving, Big Data tools for analysis and visualization, international policy development processes, and health models that benefit animals and humans. Key realizations were that local and regional health challenges at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment are variations of the same overarching conflicts and that international gatherings provide new opportunities for investigation and policy development that are broadly applicable. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Integrative Physiology: At the Crossroads of Nutrition, Microbiota, Animal Physiology, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leulier, François; MacNeil, Lesley T; Lee, Won-Jae; Rawls, John F; Cani, Patrice D; Schwarzer, Martin; Zhao, Liping; Simpson, Stephen J

    2017-03-07

    Nutrition is paramount in shaping all aspects of animal biology. In addition, the influence of the intestinal microbiota on physiology is now widely recognized. Given that diet also shapes the intestinal microbiota, this raises the question of how the nutritional environment and microbial assemblages together influence animal physiology. This research field constitutes a new frontier in the field of organismal biology that needs to be addressed. Here we review recent studies using animal models and humans and propose an integrative framework within which to define the study of the diet-physiology-microbiota systems and ultimately link it to human health. Nutritional Geometry sits centrally in the proposed framework and offers means to define diet compositions that are optimal for individuals and populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of animal health programmes on poverty reduction and sustainable livestock development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradere, J P

    2017-04-01

    Based on data from publications and field observations, this study analyses the interactions between animal health, rural poverty and the performance and environmental impact of livestock farming in low-income countries and middle-income countries. There are strong statistical correlations between the quality of Veterinary Services, livestock productivity and poverty rates. In countries with effective Veterinary Services, livestock growth stems mainly from productivity gains and poverty rates are the lowest. Conversely, these analyses identify no statistical link between the quality of Veterinary Services and increased livestock production volumes. However, where animal diseases are poorly controlled, productivity is low and livestock growth is extensive, based mainly on a steady increase in animal numbers. Extensive growth is less effective than intensive growth in reducing poverty and aggravates the pressure of livestock production on natural resources and the climate.

  1. Where to next with animal health in Latin America? The transition from endemic to disease-free status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, H; Romero, J R

    2017-04-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) is a leading global producer and exporter of animal products. Its livestock production systems are diverse, ranging from large-scale commercial enterprises to family farms. Countries in this region have sought to improve their animal health status through both public and private efforts. Despite significant advances in eradicating such diseases as foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever, other animal health challenges remain; constraining exports, causing negative economic impacts and threatening food security. Obtaining certification of disease-free status is only the first step towards gaining benefits from improvements in animal health. Increasing international trade means that countries must manage the sustainability of their disease-free status in conjunction with trade partners and must comply with additional food safety and animal welfare standards. This paper comments on the challenges created by this new scenario in relation to the epidemiology and economics of animal health, when seeking to improve decisionmaking for animal health management. The authors characterise the current LAC livestock landscape and animal health situation, describing transitions in disease control and the use of economics in improving animal health. They conclude with remarks on the challenges presented by decision-making, economic rationality, sources of benefits, distribution and incentives.

  2. Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, J M; Phipps, K; Okemow, C; Beatch, H; Jenkins, E

    2015-09-01

    Free-roaming dog populations are a global concern for animal and human health including transmission of infectious disease (e.g. rabies, distemper and parasites), dog bite injuries/mortalities, animal welfare and adverse effects on wildlife. In Saskatchewan (SK), Canada, veterinary care is difficult to access in the remote and sparsely inhabited northern half of the province, where the population is predominately Indigenous. Even where veterinary clinics are readily available, there are important barriers such as cost, lack of transportation, unique cultural perspectives on dog husbandry and perceived need for veterinary care. We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 86% of 145 environmentally collected dog faecal samples contained parasites, far above levels reported in other urban or rural settings in SK. Following two subsidized spay/neuter clinics and active rehoming of dogs, parasite levels in dog faeces decreased significantly (P important changes were observed in the dog demographic profile. This project demonstrates the importance of engaging people using familiar, local resources and taking a community specific approach. As well, it highlights the value of integrated, cross-jurisdictional cooperation, utilizing the resources of university researchers, veterinary personnel, public health, environmental health and community-based advocates to work together to solve complex issues in One Health. On-going surveillance on dog

  3. Host-targeted approaches to managing animal health: old problems and new tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M E; Bütz, D E; Yang, M; Sand, J M

    2016-07-01

    Our fellow medical and regulatory scientists question the animal producer's dependence on antibiotics and antimicrobial chemicals in the production of animal products. Retail distributors and consumers are putting even more pressure on the animal industry to find new ways to produce meat without antibiotics and chemicals. In addition, federal funding agencies are increasingly pressuring researchers to conduct science that has application. In the review that follows, we outline our approach to finding novel ways to improve animal performance and health. We use a strict set of guidelines in our applied research as follows: (1) Does the work have value to society? (2) Does our team have the skills to innovate in the field? (3) Is the product we produce commercially cost-effective? (4) Are there any reasons why the general consumer will reject the technology? (5) Is it safe for the animal, consumer, and the environment? Within this framework, we describe 4 areas of research that have produced useful products, areas that we hope other scientists will likewise explore and innovate such as (1) methods to detect infection in herds and flocks, (2) methods to control systemic and mucosal inflammation, (3) improvements to intestinal barrier function, and (4) methods to strategically potentiate immune defense. We recognize that others are working in these areas, using different strategies, but believe our examples will illustrate the vast opportunity for research and innovation in a world without antibiotics. Animal scientists have been given a new challenge that may help shape the future of both animal and human medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxytetracycline induces DNA damage and epigenetic changes: a possible risk for human and animal health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Adriana; Landi, Rosaria; Rubino, Valentina; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Giovazzino, Angela; Palatucci, Anna Teresa; Centenaro, Sara; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Cortese, Laura; Ruggiero, Giuseppina; Alessandrini, Andrea; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC), which is largely employed in zootechnical and veterinary practices to ensure wellness of farmed animals, is partially absorbed within the gastrointestinal tract depositing in several tissues. Therefore, the potential OTC toxicity is relevant when considering the putative risk derived by the entry and accumulation of such drug in human and pet food chain supply. Despite scientific literature highlights several OTC-dependent toxic effects on human and animal health, the molecular mechanisms of such toxicity are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluated DNA damages and epigenetic alterations by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, chromatin immuno-precipitation and Western blot analysis. We observed that human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) expressed DNA damage features (activation of ATM and p53, phosphorylation of H2AX and modifications of histone H3 methylation of lysine K4 in the chromatin) after the in vitro exposure to OTC. These changes are linked to a robust inflammatory response indicated by an increased expression of Interferon (IFN)- γ and type 1 superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Our data reveal an unexpected biological in vitro activity of OTC able to modify DNA and chromatin in cultured human PBMC. In this regard, OTC presence in foods of animal origin could represent a potential risk for both the human and animal health.

  5. The new Israeli feed safety law: challenges in relation to animal and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Shimon; Elad, Dani; Cuneah, Olga; Shimshoni, Jakob A

    2017-03-01

    The Israeli feed safety legislation, which came to prominence in the early 1970s, has undergone a major change from simple feed safety and quality regulations to a more holistic concept of control of feed safety and quality throughout the whole feed production chain, from farm to the end user table. In February 2014, a new law was approved by the Israeli parliament, namely the Control of Animal Feed Law, which is expected to enter into effect in 2017. The law is intended to regulate the production and marketing of animal feed, guaranteeing the safety and quality of animal products throughout the production chain. The responsibility on the implementation of the new feed law was moved from the Plant Protection Inspection Service to the Veterinary Services and Animal Health. In preparation for the law's implementation, we have characterized the various sources and production lines of feed for farm and domestic animals in Israel and assessed the current feed safety challenges in terms of potential hazards or undesirable substances. Moreover, the basic requirements for feed safety laboratories, which are mandatory for analyzing and testing for potential contaminants, are summarized for each of the contaminants discussed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Safety testing of VIROTECTO as a bio insecticide on animal health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of viral uses as a bio insecticide on animal's health. Fifty-four male albino rats (100-110 g) were randomly divided into three equal groups, eighteen in each, the first group served as control, the second group fed on 50% normal concentrate and 50% normal potato and the third group fed on 50% normal concentrate and 50% potato sprayed with 0.15 g/kg potato virotecto. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals of 15, 35 and 45 days. Results of the present study showed that viral uses led to a significant decrease in final body weight and organs weight. Hematological (RBC, WBC, Hb, Ht, MCU, MCH and MCHC), biochemical (testosterone, lipid peroxide, total lipid, total protein and albumin) and histopathological examination of testis revealed that there were different disorders as a result of viral uses as a bio insecticide on animal health

  7. Consultancy to dairy farmers relating to animal health and herd health management on small- and medium-sized farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, H; Nechanitzky, K; Sturmlechner, F; Drillich, M

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain information about animal health challenges for dairy farmers of small- and medium-sized herds and about the fields in which consultancy services should be improved. The hyperlink to an internet-based survey was sent to 9,021 farmers in Austria. The survey included questions about the participants and their farms, about who is consulting with the farmers with regard to animal health, feeding, sire selection, construction of barns and animal husbandry, about animal health issues farmers find most challenging, and about their demands for improved consultancy services. The questionnaire was completed anonymously. Analyses were stratified by milk yield (categorized) and whether farmers worked full-time or part-time. The overall response rate was 11.3% (n=1,018). The majority of farms kept less than 20 cows (54.0%) or 20 to 50 cows (40.1%). With regard to animal health, the veterinarian was the most important consultant for the majority of farmers (84.6%). On issues related to feeding, sire selection, and stable construction, the veterinarian was seen as a less important consultant than specialists in these fields (20.4, 11.6, and 7.9% suggested the veterinarian as an important consultant in these areas). The survey indicated that reproductive disorders, udder disease, poor conception rate, lameness, and calf diarrhea represent the most important challenges to farmers. Of these, concerns about calf diarrhea were affected by milk yield of the herds and management. More high- than low-yielding farms (11.7 vs. 6.4%) and more full-time than part-time managed herds (9.6 vs.4.3%) regarded calf diarrhea as an important problem. Farmers would welcome improved consultancy with regard to fertility, feeding, and sire selection. The results indicated which animal health issues farmers find particularly challenging and displayed which areas farmers require improved consultancy services. Veterinarians and organizations offering consultancy

  8. Development of a participatory tool for the evaluation of Village Animal Health Workers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calba, Clementine; Ponsich, Aurelia; Nam, Sophorn; Collineau, Lucie; Min, Sophoan; Thonnat, Jerome; Goutard, Flavie Luce

    2014-06-01

    In countries with a lack of primary care systems, health workers are of crucial importance to improving the delivery of health and animal health services at community level. But somehow they are rarely evaluated and usually with a top-down approach. This is the case in Cambodia, where thousands of Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) have been trained by the government, and where no standardized evaluation tool is available to accurately assess the situation. Based on methodology developed by the French NGO Agronomes et Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (AVSF) in Madagascar for farmers' association evaluation, we developed our own participatory methods to collect information about the VAHW context and build a criteria grid for their evaluation. In this framework, several participatory approaches were used such as problem trees, semi-structured interviews, pair-wise ranking and focus groups. The grid was built with the help of relevant stakeholders involved in the animal health system in Cambodia in order to (i) identify VAHW functions; (ii) set up criteria and associated questionnaires, and (iii) score the grid with all the stakeholders. The tool was divided into five categories of evaluation criteria: sustainability, treatment, production, vaccination and disease reporting. Our approach looked at local indicators of success developed and used by VAHWs themselves, which should lead to better acceptability of evaluation. This method gave priority to dialog aiming to engage decision makers and other stakeholders in a mutual learning process and could be applied in other countries to develop trust between health workers and official service representatives as well as to foster corrective action after evaluation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk assessment and cost-effectiveness of animal health certification methods for livestock export in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Njeumi, F; Elsawalhy, A; Wabacha, J; Rushton, J

    2014-03-01

    Livestock export is vital to the Somali economy. To protect Somali livestock exports from costly import bans used to control the international spread of disease, better certification of livestock health status is required. We performed quantitative risk assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis on different health certification protocols for Somali livestock exports for six transboundary diseases. Examining stock at regional markets alone without port inspection and quarantine was inexpensive but was ineffective for all but contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and peste des petits ruminants. While extended pre-export quarantine improves detection of infections that cause clinical disease, if biosecurity is suboptimal quarantine provides an opportunity for transmission and increased risk. Clinical examination, laboratory screening and vaccination of animals for key diseases before entry to the quarantine station reduced the risk of an exported animal being infected. If vaccination could be reliably performed weeks before arrival at quarantine its effect would be greatly enhanced. The optimal certification method depends on the disease. Laboratory diagnostic testing was particularly important for detecting infections with limited clinical signs in male animals (only males are exported); for Rift Valley fever (RVF) the probability of detection was 99% or 0% with and without testing. Based on our findings animal inspection and certification at regional markets combined with quarantine inspection and certification would reduce the risk of exporting infected animals and enhance disease control at the regional level. This is especially so for key priority diseases, that is RVF, foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis. Increased data collection and testing should be applied at point of production and export. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of the pharmaceutical animal health industry in post-marketing surveillance of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, S

    1993-06-01

    The pharmaceutical animal health industry must be committed to the total life cycle of products, i.e. during both the pre- and post-marketing period. Support of antibacterial agents during the postmarketing period is not restricted to maintaining a well-established distribution and promotion system. Care has to be taken continuously to maintain and/or improve the quality, safety (for user, target animal and environment) and clinical efficacy. The pharmaceutical industry contributes to this by: 1. Introducing antibacterials in different animal species for the most effective disease condition only and by ensuring the veterinary profession is informed about relevant findings on: a. the mechanism of action; b. pharmacodynamic properties; c. pharmacokinetic properties (plasma, target tissue); d. clinical efficacy data and in vitro sensitivity data; e. valid species-specific MIC breakpoints; f. precise dose and treatment regime. 2. Updating on a regular basis on: a. new findings on the mechanism of action (in vitro and in vivo); b. the optimal use program in the light of changes in animal husbandry, farm management and epidemiology on national and international level; c. adjustment of species-specific MIC breakpoints when necessary. 3. Providing continuous information in collaboration with animal health laboratories about: a. clinical field surveillance for efficacy (national, international); b. in vitro sensitivity/resistance surveillance (national, international); c. use of in vitro data to support prediction of in vivo efficacy. Surveillance of resistance, in vitro, is therefore part of a package of information needed on a routine basis by the pharmaceutical industry to allow the best possible use of antibacterials and to minimize induction of resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Design standards for experimental and field studies to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of tests for infectious diseases in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, E; Thakur, K K; Gardner, I A; Hick, P; Moody, N J G; Crane, M S J; Ernst, I

    2018-05-01

    Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. Of the 56 DAS identified, 41 were based on field testing, eight on experimental challenge studies and seven on both. Also, we adapted human and terrestrial-animal standards and guidelines for DAS structure for use in aquatic animal diagnostic research. Through this process, we identified and addressed important metrics for consideration at the design phase: study purpose, targeted disease state, selection of appropriate samples and specimens, laboratory analytical methods, statistical methods and data interpretation. These recommended design standards for DAS are presented as a checklist including risk-of-failure points and actions to mitigate bias at each critical step. Adherence to standards when designing DAS will also facilitate future systematic review and meta-analyses of DAS research literature. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Providing Japanese health care information for international visitors: digital animation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Mariko; Yamanaka, Masaaki; Kiriya, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2018-05-21

    Over 24 million international visitors came to Japan in 2016 and the number is expected to increase. Visitors could be at a risk of illness or injury that may result in hospitalization in Japan. We assessed the effects of a four-minute digital animation titled Mari Info Japan on the level of anxiety experienced by international visitors to Japan. We conducted a non-randomized, controlled study at Narita International Airport outside Tokyo in December 2014. On the first day, we recruited international visitors for the intervention group at predetermined departure gates and, the following day, we sampled visitors for the control group at the same gates. We repeated this procedure twice over 4 days. The intervention group watched the digital animation and the control group read a standard travel guidebook in English. After receiving either intervention, they completed a questionnaire on their level of anxiety. The outcome was assessed using the Mari Meter-X, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-Y), and a face scale, before and immediately after the intervention. We analyzed data with Wilcoxon rank sum tests. We recruited 265 international visitors (134 in the intervention group, 131 in the control group), 241 (91%) of whom completed the questionnaire. Most of them had no previous Japanese health information before arrival in Japan. The level of anxiety about health services in Japan was significantly reduced in the intervention group (Mari Meter-X median: - 5 and 0, p animation is more effective in reducing anxiety among international visitors to Japan compared with reading a standard brochure or guidebook. Such effective animations of health information should be more widely distributed to international visitors. UMIN-CTR (University Hospital Medical Information Network Center Clinical Trials Registry), UMIN000015023 , September 3, 2014.

  13. Towards a sustainable livestock production in developing countries and the importance of animal health strategy therein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasschieter, G A; de Jong, R; Schiere, J B; Zwart, D

    1992-04-01

    Livestock and animal health development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers' welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, biotechnology knowhow, inputs and technologies are used to optimise resource use. The challenge for developed and developing countries is to reverse the current degradation of the environment, and arrive at sustainable increases in crop and livestock production to secure present and future food supplies. For rural development, governments should show long term commitment and political will to support the rural population in development programmes, because smallholders (including women and landless livestock keepers) represent a large labour force in developing countries. Different systems need different approaches. Pastoral systems must focus on effective management of grazing pressure of the rangelands. Communal rangelands management involves not only the development and application of technologies (e.g. feedlots, vaccination campaigns), but also land tenure policies, institutional development, economic return and a reduction in the number of people depending upon livestock. Smallholder mixed farms must aim at intensification of the total production system, in which external inputs are indispensable, but with the emphasis on optimum input-output relationships by reducing resource losses due to poor management. Resource-poor farming systems must aim at the improved management of the various livestock species in backyards and very small farms, and proper packages for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, rabbits and poultry should be developed. Specialised commercial livestock farming systems (poultry, pigs, dairy

  14. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Kebede

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin, oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00% clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%, poor management and lack of awareness (60.00% and inadequate budget (40.00%. For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00% and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%. Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers’ indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00% was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased

  15. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Hassen; Melaku, Achenef; Kebede, Elias

    2014-11-12

    Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin), oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00%) clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%), poor management and lack of awareness (60.00%) and inadequate budget (40.00%). For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00%) and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%). Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers' indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00%) was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased awareness for all

  16. Environmental and Public Health Issues of Animal Food Products Delivery System in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from 2001 to 2004 were used to investigate the environmental and public health issues of animal food products delivery system in state. Majority of trade animals supplied to the state originated from the northern states of the country and were brought in with trucks by road. Only two veterinary control posts served the whole state thus resulting in non-inspection and taxing of a large proportion of trade animals. Official record of trade animals supplied to the state from 2001 to 2004 ranged from 45000 – 144000 for cattle, 23000 – 96000 for goats and 11000 – 72000 for sheep per annum, with supplies increasing steadily across the years. Official slaughter points in the state were principally low-grade quality slaughter premises consisting of a thin concrete slab. Meat handling was very unhygienic with carcasses dressed beside refuse heaps of over 2 years standing. Carcasses were dragged on the ground and transported in taxi boots and open trucks. Meat inspection at these points was not thorough because of stiff resistance of butchers to carcass condemnation. Official meat inspection records for the state from 2001 to 2004 revealed that overall totals of 159,000 cattle, 101,000 goats and 67,000 sheep were slaughtered. This accounted for about 56, 57 and 57% shortfall of cattle, goat and sheep respectively supplied to the state and represents the volume of un-inspected animals during the study period. Fascioliasis and tuberculosis were the most common

  17. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on monitoring for the emergence of possible new pandemic strains of influenza in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Capua, Ilaria; Gatherer, Derek

    Following the emergence in 2009 of the new pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, which contained gene segments from pig, bird and human influenza viruses, it was apparent that a better scientific understanding is required of influenza viruses to protect public and animal health. The latest scientific da...

  18. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Infestation with Varroa spp. (varroosis) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of varroosis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of varroosis according...

  19. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi infections (including Surra) have been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of T. evansi infections (including Surra) to be listed, Article 9...

  20. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation...

  1. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The infection with Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of the infection with B. abortus, B. melitensis...

  2. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of LPAI to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of LPAI according to disease...

  3. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Paratuberculosis has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of paratuberculosis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of paratuberculosis according to disease...

  4. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Bovine genital campylobacteriosis has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of bovine genital campylobacteriosis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation...

  5. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of VEE to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of VEE according to disease...

  6. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of WNF to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of WNF according to disease prevention and control...

  7. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of bovine tuberculosis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of bovine tuberculosis according...

  8. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of PRRS to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of PRRS according...

  9. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Border disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Border disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Border disease according to disease...

  10. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of IBR to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of IBR according to disease...

  11. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Aujeszky's disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Aujeszky's disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Aujeszky's disease according...

  12. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Japanese encephalitis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Japanese encephalitis...

  13. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Koi herpes virus (KHV) disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of KHV disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of KHV disease according...

  14. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma meleagridis) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of avian mycoplasmosis to be listed, Article 9...

  15. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonosis has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of trichomonosis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of trichomonosis according to disease prevention...

  16. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of BVD to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of BVD according to disease prevention...

  17. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of ovine epididymitis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of ovine epididymitis...

  18. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of EBL to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of EBL according to disease prevention...

  19. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Borna disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Borna disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Borna disease according to disease prevention...

  20. Oxidant/antioxidant balance in animal nutrition and health: the role of protein oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro eCeli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the role that oxidative stress, and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional modifications. Protein oxidation seems to be involved in pathological conditions such as respiratory diseases and parasitic infection; however some studies also suggest that protein oxidation plays a crucial role in the regulation of important physiological functions such as reproduction, nutrition, metabolism, lactation, gut health and neonatal physiology. As the characterization of the mechanisms by which oxidative stress may influence metabolism and health is attracting considerable scientific interest, the aim of this review is to present veterinary scientists and clinicians with various aspects of oxidative damage to proteins.

  1. Applications and safety considerations of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic in animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, B D; Brashears, M M; Nightingale, K K

    2017-03-03

    The goals of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the application of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic in animals and humans, and to address safety concerns with its use on live hosts. Overall, several strains of L. salivarius are well established probiotics with multiple applications in animal health, particularly to reduce colonization by gastrointestinal pathogens, and to a lesser extent, as a production and quality aid. In humans, L. salivarius has been used to prevent and treat a variety of chronic diseases, including asthma, cancer, atopic dermatitis and halitosis, and to a much limited extent, to prevent or treat infections. Based on the results from primary research evidence, it seems that L. salivarius does not pose a health risk to animals or humans in the doses currently used for a variety of applications; however, there is a systematic lack of studies assuring the safety of many of the strains intended for clinical use. This review provides researchers in the field with up-to-date information regarding applications and safety of L. salivarius. Furthermore, it helps researchers identify knowledge gaps and potential opportunities for microbiological and clinical research. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Ecological aspects of selenium and tellurium in human and animal health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, D V; Ingvoldstad, D

    1975-01-01

    Animal and human studies indicate that selenium inadequacy, in part, underlies various chronic diseases. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cancer and heart disease are most common where ambient Se availability is low. Plant Se uptake and Se blood levels are inverse to human cancer mortality. As the active group in glutathione peroxidase, Se/sup -2/ inhibits aberrant oxidations which lead to chronic diseases. It binds heavy metals, and with tocopherol maintains tissue integrity. Sulfur dioxide fallout from the atmosphere, resulting from fossil fuel burning, may diminish the nutritional availability of selenium by diminishing plant uptake. Intensive ruminant grazing returns unavailable Se/sup 0/ to soils. Trimethyl selenium ion, as excreted by animals, also appears to be unavailable to plants. Modern fertilization practices and the effect of buildup of sulfates in the soil, due to acid rains, both appear to lessen the availability of Se to plants. SeO/sub 2/ added to the atmosphere from combustion and volcanic activity react with SO/sub 2/ to yield Se/sup 0/. This is presumed to fall out as particles from the air. How traces of Se are otherwise carried in air, explaining its enrichment in some areas, is unknown. The New Zealand experience with Se inadequacy in animals and man may be repeated in other parts of the world. Se inadequacy is far more of a human health problem than Se toxicity. There are no known adverse health effects from tellurium, other than tellurium breath. 164 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Active animal health surveillance in European Union Member States: gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdorff, B; Schauer, B; Taylor, N; Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Comin, A; Brouwer, A; Dórea, F; Drewe, J; Hoinville, L; Lindberg, A; Martinez Avilés, M; Martínez-López, B; Peyre, M; Pinto Ferreira, J; Rushton, J; VAN Schaik, G; Stärk, K D C; Staubach, C; Vicente-Rubiano, M; Witteveen, G; Pfeiffer, D; Häsler, B

    2017-03-01

    Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.

  4. Dietary Fibres: Their Analysis in Animal Feeding, and Their Role in Rabbit Nutrition and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Gidenne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries ago Heinrich Einhof developed the so-called Weende method (crude fibre, to first deals with the fibre content of the feeds for ruminants, and proposes to isolate a residue called the "crude fibre". Then, dietary fibre concepts evolve and differ in animal feeding compared to human nutrition and health. Animal nutritionists deal with various fibre sources, often from whole plants (forages, by products of seeds processing, and recover a larger range of polysaccharidic components, including other polymers, such polyphenolic (lignins, tannins or polylipidic compounds (cutins. Dietary fibres are generally defined as polysaccharides and associated substances resistant to mammal enzyme digestion and absorption that can be partially or totally fermented in the gut. However, today this topic is still subjected to very active research, because of the complexity of the physical structure and chemical composition of the plant cell walls, and in the wide and different physiological effects of these different constituents. The importance of dietary fibre in animal feeding is due to its influence on rate of passage, mucosa functionality and its role as substrate for gut microbes performances and digestive health. This review will describe the definition and different structure of fibres and cell wall constituents and their analytical methods.

  5. Introduction: The provision of animal health services in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, C

    2004-04-01

    In the future, animal health services in developing countries will need to operate in a continuously changing policy, institutional and commercial environment. Firstly, the changing policies and priorities of national policy-makers regarding public and private sector roles, reinforced in Africa by the donors, have reduced funding and support for the large number of tasks that animal health services have traditionally performed, and there is continuing pressure from policy-makers to focus on what the public sector can do best. Secondly, poverty reduction has become one of the main criteria guiding the allocation of official development assistance, which has major implications for the main target clientele of veterinary services. Thirdly, population growth, increasing income and urbanisation are causing a marked increase in demand for livestock products in the developing world. As a result, the entire livestock commodity chain is undergoing major structural changes, which has significant implications for the definition and control of food safety standards. Fourthly, globalisation, and increasing trade and travel have greatly increased the risk of disease transmission between different countries and continents. Veterinary institutions in the developing world need to adapt to these challenges. They will have to be able to focus on the essential public sector roles. At the same time they must deliver those essential services to the poor, and provide the policy framework to ensure that the inevitable structural changes in the commodity chain take place in an equitable and sustainable fashion, with an acceptable level of health risk for the consumer. According to the weight given to these different objectives, changes in the institutional set-up need to be considered. This issue of the Scientific and Technical Review addresses these challenges. It begins by reviewing the basic economic characteristics underlying the provision of animal health services, and then examines

  6. Board-invited review: Using behavior to predict and identify ill health in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Huzzey, J M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2009-02-01

    We review recent research in one of the oldest and most important applications of ethology: evaluating animal health. Traditionally, such evaluations have been based on subjective assessments of debilitative signs; animals are judged ill when they appear depressed or off feed. Such assessments are prone to error but can be dramatically improved with training using well-defined clinical criteria. The availability of new technology to automatically record behaviors allows for increased use of objective measures; automated measures of feeding behavior and intake are increasingly available in commercial agriculture, and recent work has shown these to be valuable indicators of illness. Research has also identified behaviors indicative of risk of disease or injury. For example, the time spent standing on wet, concrete surfaces can be used to predict susceptibility to hoof injuries in dairy cattle, and time spent nuzzling the udder of the sow can predict the risk of crushing in piglets. One conceptual advance has been to view decreased exploration, feeding, social, sexual, and other behaviors as a coordinated response that helps afflicted individuals recover from illness. We argue that the sickness behaviors most likely to decline are those that provide longer-term fitness benefits (such as play), as animals divert resources to those functions of critical short-term value such as maintaining body temperature. We urge future research assessing the strength of motivation to express sickness behaviors, allowing for quantitative estimates of how sick an animal feels. Finally, we call for new theoretical and empirical work on behaviors that may act to signal health status, including behaviors that have evolved as honest (i.e., reliable) signals of condition for offspring-parent, inter- and intra-sexual, and predator-prey communication.

  7. World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on use of medically important antimicrobials in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidara-Kane, Awa; Angulo, Frederick J; Conly, John M; Minato, Yuki; Silbergeld, Ellen K; McEwen, Scott A; Collignon, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in food-producing animals selects for antimicrobial resistance that can be transmitted to humans via food or other transmission routes. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2005 ranked the medical importance of antimicrobials used in humans. In late 2017, to preserve the effectiveness of medically important antimicrobials for humans, WHO released guidelines on use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals that incorporated the latest WHO rankings. WHO commissioned systematic reviews and literature reviews, and convened a Guideline Development Group (GDG) of external experts free of unacceptable conflicts-of-interest. The GDG assessed the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, and formulated recommendations using a structured evidence-to-decision approach that considered the balance of benefits and harms, feasibility, resource implications, and impact on equity. The resulting guidelines were peer-reviewed by an independent External Review Group and approved by the WHO Guidelines Review Committee. These guidelines recommend reductions in the overall use of medically important antimicrobials in food-producing animals, including complete restriction of use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and for disease prevention (i.e., in healthy animals considered at risk of infection). These guidelines also recommend that antimicrobials identified as critically important for humans not be used in food-producing animals for treatment or disease control unless susceptibility testing demonstrates the drug to be the only treatment option. To preserve the effectiveness of medically important antimicrobials, veterinarians, farmers, regulatory agencies, and all other stakeholders are urged to adopt these recommendations and work towards implementation of these guidelines.

  8. "The Maasai Need Cows and the Cows Need Maasai," the Use of a Photovoice Approach to Assess Animal Health Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Frank; Clancy, Eoin; Thomas, Adam; Kutz, Susan; Hatfield, Jennifer; Orsel, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The Maasai pastoralists in sub-Saharan Africa depend on their livestock for income and food. Livestock production can be significantly improved by addressing animal health concerns. We explored the use of photovoice, a participatory action research method, to strengthen our understanding of the Maasai's animal health needs. Nine interviewees, representing warriors, elders, and women, identified animal, social, and human health themes. The use of photography provided a new medium for Maasai to express their needs and a focus for researcher-participant communications, thereby facilitating new insights across language and cultural barriers.

  9. Methodological challenges to multivariate syndromic surveillance: a case study using Swiss animal health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Flavie; Wei, Wei; Held, Leonhard

    2016-12-20

    In an era of ubiquitous electronic collection of animal health data, multivariate surveillance systems (which concurrently monitor several data streams) should have a greater probability of detecting disease events than univariate systems. However, despite their limitations, univariate aberration detection algorithms are used in most active syndromic surveillance (SyS) systems because of their ease of application and interpretation. On the other hand, a stochastic modelling-based approach to multivariate surveillance offers more flexibility, allowing for the retention of historical outbreaks, for overdispersion and for non-stationarity. While such methods are not new, they are yet to be applied to animal health surveillance data. We applied an example of such stochastic model, Held and colleagues' two-component model, to two multivariate animal health datasets from Switzerland. In our first application, multivariate time series of the number of laboratories test requests were derived from Swiss animal diagnostic laboratories. We compare the performance of the two-component model to parallel monitoring using an improved Farrington algorithm and found both methods yield a satisfactorily low false alarm rate. However, the calibration test of the two-component model on the one-step ahead predictions proved satisfactory, making such an approach suitable for outbreak prediction. In our second application, the two-component model was applied to the multivariate time series of the number of cattle abortions and the number of test requests for bovine viral diarrhea (a disease that often results in abortions). We found that there is a two days lagged effect from the number of abortions to the number of test requests. We further compared the joint modelling and univariate modelling of the number of laboratory test requests time series. The joint modelling approach showed evidence of superiority in terms of forecasting abilities. Stochastic modelling approaches offer the

  10. Coherence of animal health, welfare and carcass quality in pork production chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Thorsten N; Piñeiro, Matilde; Schulze-Geisthövel, Sophia; Plattes, Susanne; Selhorst, Thomas; Petersen, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the potential impact of animal health and welfare on the carcass quality. 99 pigs under equal housing and feeding conditions were involved in the study. Effects of the immune system on carcass composition, meat quality and performance data of slaughter pigs became measureable by quantification of acute phase proteins (APP), haptoglobin (Hp) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP). The results were not significantly affected by gender or breed. The calculated correlations between chosen animal health indicators and carcass quality parameters prove an influence of health and welfare on performance, carcass composition and meat quality traits. The acute phase proteins could also be valuable as a predictive indicator for risk assessment in meat inspection, as increased Hp concentrations in slaughter blood indicate a 16 times higher risk for organ abnormalities and Pig-MAP concentrations above 0.7mg/ml a 10 times higher risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Assessment and prevention of zoonoses: "one health approach"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzi, Luigi; Guarino, Marcella; Roncada, Paola; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic pathologies represent diseases that can be transmittable from animals to humans and vice versa. In most cases zoonotic agents are bacteria or viruses and represent a huge problem for health. Zoonosis could represent easily solvable diseases such as simple infections or even deathly such as prion infections. They could be directly transmittable as tuberculosis or brucellosis or indirectly transmittable through vectors as biological fluids or foods from animal production. The increasing production and the globalization of animal food production have caused the spread of zoonosis worldwide turning this topic into a global problem. It is necessary to enforce the actual scientific collaboration between all countries in order to counteract the spread of these pathologies. About this topic WHO, FAO and OIE took part to the world project "one health" highlighting as most important topics the research on Rabies virus, influenza virus and on antibiotic resistance. In particular antibiotic resistance represents one of the most important topics of the last decade due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics, from animal production to human health. This last topic represents a serious problem for health system worldwide. This paper is mainly based on zoonoses such as avian flu, BSE and brucellosis and will describe the strategies used to limit their expansion.

  12. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-01-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment

  13. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  14. Animal-Assisted Therapies for Youth with or at Risk for Mental Health Problems: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Acri, Mary; Morrissey, Meghan; Peth-Pierce, Robin

    2017-01-01

    To systematically review experimental evidence regarding animal-assisted therapies (AAT) for children or adolescents with or at risk for mental health conditions, we reviewed all experimental AAT studies published between 2000-2015, and compared studies by animal type, intervention, and outcomes. Studies were included if used therapeutically for…

  15. Dog Walking, the Human-Animal Bond and Older Adults' Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Angela L; Bibbo, Jessica; Johnson, Rebecca A

    2017-10-01

    This study explored the associations between dog ownership and pet bonding with walking behavior and health outcomes in older adults. We used data from the 12th wave (2012) of the Health and Retirement Study which included an experimental human-animal interaction module. Ordinary least squares regression and binary logistic regression models controlling for demographic variables were used to answer the research questions. Dog walking was associated with lower body mass index, fewer activities of daily living limitations, fewer doctor visits, and more frequent moderate and vigorous exercise. People with higher degrees of pet bonding were more likely to walk their dog and to spend more time walking their dog each time, but they reported walking a shorter distance with their dog than those with weaker pet bonds. Dog ownership was not associated with better physical health or health behaviors. This study provides evidence for the association between dog walking and physical health using a large, nationally representative sample. The relationship with one's dog may be a positive influence on physical activity for older adults. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 77 FR 42255 - Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate the Layers 2013 Study, an information collection to support the U.S. poultry industry.

  17. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: comparative aspects and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorne, J L C M; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Molecular Tools for Gut Health of Pet Animals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipismita Samal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut health is an important facet of well being of pet animals; it is in this context, various nutritional and biotechnological approaches have been proposed to manipulate the gut health by specifically targeting the colonic microbiota. Nutritional approaches include supplementation of antioxidants and phytochemicals like flavonoids, isoflavonoids and carotenoids. Biotechnological approaches include supplementation of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics in the diet and potential application of molecular tools like fluorescent in situ hybridization, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative dot blot hybridization, and restriction fragment length polymorphism etc. in studying the fecal microbiota composition. Post-genomic and related technologies, i.e. genomics, nutrigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and epigenomics in the study of gastrointestinal tract also put forward challenges for nutritionists and microbiologists to elucidate the complex interactions between gut microbiota and host.

  19. Animal health and welfare in production systems for organic fattening pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Kristina; Bochicchio, Davide; Hegelund, Lene

    2014-01-01

    and conventional production. Conventional Danish herds consumed three times as much antibiotics (anthelmintics not included) as the organic herds, whilst there was no difference in mortality rate nor more pigs in need of treatment in the organic herds. Slaughter data indicated that organic pigs had fewer...... and aggression. Minimizing negative environmental impact may conflict with animal welfare, i.e. raising the pigs indoors may not only reduce plant nutrient losses but also reduce the pigs’ activity options. With an increasing number of specialized organic units, implementation of age-segregated production......With the aim to identify European health and welfare strategies in organic pig production, we summarized information about health and welfare status and potential hazards for organic fattening pigs. The results were primarily based on studies of organic production or comparisons between organic...

  20. Review of Participatory Epidemiology Practices in Animal Health (1980-2015 and Future Practice Directions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Allepuz

    Full Text Available In this study we combined an inventory of the major applications, geographic regions and diseases covered by participatory epidemiology (PE activities in the field of animal health since 1980, together with an email discussion forum with PE practitioners from different regions of the world. The inventory included the search of peer-reviewed papers, master and technical reports, conference proceedings, manuals, training materials and projects. The search resulted in a low number of PE activity results until the year 2000, followed by a considerable increase (especially from 2012. Most of the identified activities were implemented in Africa and Asia, and focused on surveillance, disease survey and prioritization, and disease control. Seventy-nine PE practitioners working predominantly in Africa, Asia and Europe (29, 22 and 18 respectively contributed to the email discussion forum. They proposed various modifications to the existing PE definition and discussed different issues related to the applicatoin of PE, its institutionalization for use in policy development, as well as the priorities for future development. The need to increase the number of PE trained people together with some methodological developments and the application of this methodology in developed countries, were some of the points highlighted during the forum. These factors stress the importance of further developing PE as a useful approach for engaging communities in addressing animal and related public health risks.

  1. Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama eSzmolka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After the era of plentiful antibiotics we are alarmed by the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. The genetic flexibility and adaptability of E. coli to constantly changing environments allows to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Commensal strains of E. coli as versatile residents of the lower intestine are also repeatedly challenged by antimicrobial pressures during the lifetime of their host. As a consequence, commensal strains acquire the respective resistance genes, and/or develop resistant mutants in order to survive and maintain microbial homeostasis in the lower intestinal tract. Thus, commensal E. coli strains are regarded as indicators of antimicrobial load on their hosts. This chapter provides a short historic background of the appearance and presumed origin and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal intestinal E. coli of animals with comparative information on their pathogenic counterparts. The dynamics, development and ways of evolution of resistance in the E. coli populations differ according to hosts, resistance mechanisms and antimicrobial classes used. The most frequent tools of E. coli against a variety of antimicrobials are the efflux pumps and mobile resistance mechanisms carried by plasmids and/or other transferable elements. The emergence of hybrid plasmids (both resistance and virulence among E. coli is of further concern. Co-existence and co-transfer of these bad genes in this huge and most versatile in vivo compartment may represent an increased public health risk in the future. Significance of multidrug resistant (MDR commensal E. coli seem to be highest in the food animal industry, acting as reservoir for intra- and interspecific exchange and a source for spread of MDR determinants through contaminated food to humans. Thus, public health potential of MDR commensal E. coli of food animals can be a concern and needs monitoring and more molecular analysis in the

  2. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella infection in poultry (Salmonella Pullorum, Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella arizonae) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Salmonella to be lis......Salmonella infection in poultry (Salmonella Pullorum, Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella arizonae) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Salmonella...... judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also at collective level. The output is composed of the categorical answer, and for the questions where no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Details on the methodology used...

  3. Human-animal interaction as a social determinant of health: descriptive findings from the health and retirement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Megan K; Gee, Nancy R; Bures, Regina M

    2018-03-09

    We focused on human-animal interaction (HAI) as an important aspect of social functioning at the individual level, framing this emerging field from a public health perspective. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2012 HAI module, we describe the characteristics of pet ownership in a population of older adults, and examine the relation between pet ownership and multiple mental and physical health indicators such as health status, depression, and physical activity. Of the 1657 participants in our subsample, approximately half (51.5%) reported being pet owners; the majority owned dogs or cats, and most had only one pet. Pet ownership was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of ever having had depression, with pet owners being 1.89 times more likely to have experienced depression. However, pet ownership was not associated with having experienced depression within the last week. The findings from this study could indicate a relationship between pet ownership and depression, but it is impossible to determine the directionality of that relationship. It is possible that owning a pet may put a person at an increased risk of developing depression, or individuals who are at risk, or who have already developed depression, may acquire a pet as a way of managing their depressive symptoms. The findings of this study provide an initial step in contributing to our understanding of the relationship between companion animals and the social, physical, and mental well-being of the HRS study population. Future research should include measures of HAI in longitudinal, population-based surveys.

  4. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): anthrax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Anthrax has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of anthrax to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of anthrax according to disease prevention and control rul...... species to be listed for anthrax according to Article 8(3) are several species of mammals, birds and reptiles, and susceptible herbivores and pigs as reservoir....

  5. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Anthrax has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of anthrax to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of anthrax according to disease prevention and control rul...... species to be listed for anthrax according to Article 8(3) are several species of mammals, birds and reptiles, and susceptible herbivores and pigs as reservoir....

  6. Characterising and comparing animal-health services in the Rift Valley, Kenya: an exploratory analysis (part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, L E; Ongeri, W; Asena, K; Thrusfield, M V

    2016-12-01

    Livestock are of vital importance to the livelihoods of millions of people across the world, playing a pivotal role in income generation, employment, food security, transport and social cohesion. Access to quality animal-health services by livestock owners is critical to sustainable food-animal production; therefore, animal-health practitioners represent key stakeholders within the world food system. A mixed-method study was conducted in the Rift Valley of Kenya to characterise and compare existing private animal-health services and to explore perceptions of veterinary services amongst pastoralists and farmers. Forty structured questionnaires were administered to staff at animal-health outlets, including franchise outlets of 'Sidai Africa Ltd.', and two focus group discussions were facilitated to explore the perceptions of a Maasai pastoralist group and members of a dairy-farmer cooperative of their local animal-health services. Results were analysed using descriptive methods and the confidence interval overlap technique. Differences were detected in the characteristics of Sidai outlets, agrovets (agricultural retailers), pharmacies and dukas (general shops). Sidai outlets offered a more professional and diverse portfolio of livestock services. Across all outlet types, staff knowledge and training gaps and a shortage of cold-chain facilities were identified. Farmers have strong preferences for certain products, which may foster the development of drug resistance. There is a disconnection between the sale of veterinary medicines and the provision of quality advice, with many agrovets, pharmacies and dukas selling veterinary medicines but lacking the capacity to provide clinical services. There is a clear demand from livestock keepers for accessible, affordable and quality animal-health services and products in Kenya; therefore, animal-health practitioners have the potential to provide increased support to livestock-based livelihoods.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiang-Yun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mitochondrial (mt genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus

  8. The role of animal reservoirs in social-environmental landscapes: remarks on the control of avian influenza and preparedness for pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, M P; Ramírez-Nieto, G C; Villamil-Jiménez, L C

    2016-12-01

    Influenza viruses are well known for their ability to infect and cause disease in a broad range of hosts. Modern advances in reverse genetics have enabled scientists to probe the mutations that allow influenza viruses to perform host switching. Despite this detailed understanding of the molecular modifications that allow host switching and adaptation, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the factors external to the virus and their interactions that act as triggers leading to a pandemic. Studies on the ecology of zoonotic pathogens should be the new paradigm for understanding not only influenza viruses but any other infectious disease that can be a threat to animal and human health. The literature regarding influenza pandemics and influenza virus reservoirs was reviewed to analyse how social and economic changes can influence the appearance of new outbreaks of influenza. In addition, the importance of new research in a dynamic environment driven by the expansion of human territories and animal production systems is highlighted. A new paradigm is proposed for novel research approaches to infectious diseases such as influenza. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  9. Comparison of human and animal surveillance data for H5N1 influenza A in Egypt 2006-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Rabinowitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic (transmissible between animals and humans in origin, and therefore integrated surveillance of disease events in humans and animals has been recommended to support effective global response to disease emergence. While in the past decade there has been extensive global surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI infection in both animals and humans, there have been few attempts to compare these data streams and evaluate the utility of such integration. METHODOLOGY: We compared reports of bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 in Egypt for 2006-2011 compiled by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO EMPRESi reporting system with confirmed human H5N1 cases reported to the World Health Organization (WHO for Egypt during the same time period. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both human cases and bird outbreaks showed a cyclic pattern for the country as a whole, and there was a statistically significant temporal correlation between the data streams. At the governorate level, the first outbreak in birds in a season usually but not always preceded the first human case, and the time lag between events varied widely, suggesting regional differences in zoonotic risk and/or surveillance effectiveness. In a multivariate risk model, lower temperature, lower urbanization, higher poultry density, and the recent occurrence of a bird outbreak were associated with increased risk of a human case of HPAI in the same governorate, although the positive predictive value of a bird outbreak was low. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating data streams of surveillance for human and animal cases of zoonotic disease holds promise for better prediction of disease risk and identification of environmental and regional factors that can affect risk. Such efforts can also point out gaps in human and animal surveillance systems and generate hypotheses regarding disease transmission.

  10. Animal Health and Productivity Status of Cattle After The Eruption of Mount Merapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Merapi from October 26th to November 6th, 2010 has affected social life and environment around the Merapi. The eruption has caused destruction of land and water resources, plants, death of animals and human casualities. The lava, dust and stones released from the eruption of Merapi had caused residential destruction, casualities, agricultural land and plants destruction, and contamination of water. The eruption has directly affected 4 districts including Sleman (Yogyakarta, Magelang, Boyolali and Klaten (Central Java categorized as Disaster Risk Area (DRA. The purpose of this assessment is to analyse the impacts of Merapi eruption in animal health and productivity in particular for dairy and beef cattle. A total of 2.828 heads of cattle was reported died during the eruption of Merapi, and 1.962 heads died at the time of eruption and 36 heads at the arrival on evacuation areas. Animal that found died including 423 heads of beef cattle (0.13% and 2.405 heads of dairy cattle (3.2%. Clinical sains noted after the eruption were reduction of milk production, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, respiratory disturbances, mastitis and collapse. The main problems for livestock were reduction of milk production, collapse of dairy milk corporation activities and contamination of water resources. Other than dairy cattle mortality, the reduction of milk production may be caused by subclinical mastitis and environmental distress due to temperature and noise of eruption for few days. The subclinical mastitis should be further investigated to establish rehabilitation programme for dairy milk agribussiness activity in particular around the DRA of Merapi.

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  12. Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Schutze, G.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the impact of elevated concentrations of metals in terrestrial ecosystems, a major distinction should be made in risks/effects of heavy metals related to (i) the soil ecosystem (soil organisms/processes and plants) and (ii) human health or animal health resulting from bioaccumulation. The

  13. Future of keeping pet reptiles and amphibians: towards integrating animal welfare, human health and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmans, Frank; Bogaerts, Serge; Braeckman, Johan; Cunningham, Andrew A; Hellebuyck, Tom; Griffiths, Richard A; Sparreboom, Max; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Martel, An

    2017-10-28

    The keeping of exotic pets is currently under debate and governments of several countries are increasingly exploring the regulation, or even the banning, of exotic pet keeping. Major concerns are issues of public health and safety, animal welfare and biodiversity conservation. The keeping of reptiles and amphibians in captivity encompasses all the potential issues identified with keeping exotic pets, and many of those relating to traditional domestic pets. Within the context of risks posed by pets in general, the authors argue for the responsible and sustainable keeping of reptile and amphibian pets by private persons, based on scientific evidence and on the authors' own expertise (veterinary medicine, captive husbandry, conservation biology). © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Veterinary education in Africa : current and future perspectives : animal health management in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Swan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa.Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and agricultural economies of countries worldwide. Veterinary education, postgraduate training, and research, and adequate numbers of veterinarians, are essential to satisfy the millennium development goals, the objectives of NEPAD and the African Union, and the agreements regulating international trade.

  15. 75 FR 50987 - Privacy Act System of Records; National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) proposes to add a new Privacy Act system of records to its inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, and invites public comment on this new records system. The system of records being proposed is the National Animal Health Laboratory Network. This notice is necessary to meet the requirements of the Privacy Act to publish in the Federal Register notice of the existence and character of record systems maintained by the agency. Although the Privacy Act requires only that the portion of the system that describes ``routine uses'' of the system be published for comment, USDA invites comment on all portions of this notice.

  16. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on bluetongue serotype 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Oura, Chris; Saegerman, Claude

    established by the Animal Health and Welfare Panel. Currently, three special features can be assigned to BTV-8, which are the ability to cause serious disease in cattle and goats, the ability to be transmitted transplacentally, and the ability to contaminate semen. The transplacental transmission......To answer a question from the European Commission on the potential special characteristics of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 (BTV-8) compared to other serotypes and their possible impact on the epidemiology of the disease, a systematic literature review was carried out by a working group...... and the contamination of semen are also observed for several serotypes of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines and for some cell culture/egg passaged strains. These two features may have an impact on the epidemiology of the disease, since they may increase the ability of BTV-8 to survive the winter period, for example...

  17. Expectations for methodology and translation of animal research: a survey of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari R; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan

    2015-05-07

    Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans. After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs were compared using Chi-square, with P methodological quality, most respondents expect that: AR is done to high quality; costs and difficulty are not acceptable justifications for low quality; findings should be reproducible between laboratories and strains of the same species; and guidelines for AR funded with public money should be consistent with these expectations. Asked about benefits of AR, most thought that there are sometimes/often large benefits to humans from AR, and disagreed that "AR rarely produces benefit to humans." Asked about expectations of translation to humans (of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and treatment findings), most: expect translation >40% of the time; thought that misleading AR results should occur methodological quality of, and the translation rate to humans of findings from AR. These expectations are higher than the empirical data show having been achieved. Unless these areas of AR significantly improve, HCW support of AR may be tenuous.

  18. Animal Health Surveillance in Scotland in 2030: Using Scenario Planning to Develop Strategies in the Context of “Brexit”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Boden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland. In this paper, we describe the use of scenario planning as an effective tool for the creation and exploration of five plausible long-term futures; we describe prioritization of critical drivers of change (i.e., international trade policy, data-sharing philosophies, and public versus private resourcing of surveillance capacity that will unpredictably influence the future implementation of animal health surveillance activities. We present 10 participant-developed strategies to support 3 long-term visions to improve future resilience of animal health surveillance and contingency planning for animal and zoonotic disease outbreaks in Scotland. In the absence of any certainty about the nature of post-Brexit trade agreements for agriculture, participants considered the best investments for long-term resilience to include data collection strategies to improve animal health benchmarking, user-benefit strategies to improve digital literacy in farming communities, and investment strategies to increase veterinary and scientific research capacity in rural areas. This is the first scenario planning study to explore stakeholder beliefs and perceptions about important environmental, technological, societal, political, and legal drivers (in addition to epidemiological “risk factors” and effective strategies to manage future uncertainties for both the Scottish livestock industry and

  19. Animal Health Surveillance in Scotland in 2030: Using Scenario Planning to Develop Strategies in the Context of "Brexit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lisa A; Auty, Harriet; Reeves, Aaron; Rydevik, Gustaf; Bessell, Paul; McKendrick, Iain J

    2017-01-01

    Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland. In this paper, we describe the use of scenario planning as an effective tool for the creation and exploration of five plausible long-term futures; we describe prioritization of critical drivers of change (i.e., international trade policy, data-sharing philosophies, and public versus private resourcing of surveillance capacity) that will unpredictably influence the future implementation of animal health surveillance activities. We present 10 participant-developed strategies to support 3 long-term visions to improve future resilience of animal health surveillance and contingency planning for animal and zoonotic disease outbreaks in Scotland. In the absence of any certainty about the nature of post-Brexit trade agreements for agriculture, participants considered the best investments for long-term resilience to include data collection strategies to improve animal health benchmarking, user-benefit strategies to improve digital literacy in farming communities, and investment strategies to increase veterinary and scientific research capacity in rural areas. This is the first scenario planning study to explore stakeholder beliefs and perceptions about important environmental, technological, societal, political, and legal drivers (in addition to epidemiological "risk factors") and effective strategies to manage future uncertainties for both the Scottish livestock industry and animal health

  20. Animal Health Surveillance in Scotland in 2030: Using Scenario Planning to Develop Strategies in the Context of “Brexit”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lisa A.; Auty, Harriet; Reeves, Aaron; Rydevik, Gustaf; Bessell, Paul; McKendrick, Iain J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland. In this paper, we describe the use of scenario planning as an effective tool for the creation and exploration of five plausible long-term futures; we describe prioritization of critical drivers of change (i.e., international trade policy, data-sharing philosophies, and public versus private resourcing of surveillance capacity) that will unpredictably influence the future implementation of animal health surveillance activities. We present 10 participant-developed strategies to support 3 long-term visions to improve future resilience of animal health surveillance and contingency planning for animal and zoonotic disease outbreaks in Scotland. In the absence of any certainty about the nature of post-Brexit trade agreements for agriculture, participants considered the best investments for long-term resilience to include data collection strategies to improve animal health benchmarking, user-benefit strategies to improve digital literacy in farming communities, and investment strategies to increase veterinary and scientific research capacity in rural areas. This is the first scenario planning study to explore stakeholder beliefs and perceptions about important environmental, technological, societal, political, and legal drivers (in addition to epidemiological “risk factors”) and effective strategies to manage future uncertainties for both the Scottish livestock industry and animal health

  1. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi.

  2. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Ebola virus disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Ebola virus disease according...... to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Ebola virus disease. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and...... to the assessment performed, Ebola virus disease can be considered eligible to be listed for Union intervention as laid down in Article 5(3) of the AHL. The disease would comply with the criteria as in Sections 4 and 5 of Annex IV of the AHL, for the application of the disease prevention and control rules referred...

  3. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA) 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease emergence 11 3.3 Climate

  4. Comparison of different methods for ectoparasite infestation detection in Laboratory bred animals and standardization of their health certificate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad Abdigoudarzi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study external parasites of laboratory reared animals at Razi institute, different methods including brushing of animal's surface body, cellophane tape of body surface, peri-anal cellophane tape test (CTT and skin scrapings and digestive method were applied and collected samples were studied. In addition, field collected rats were tested using brushing method. One mouse had been infested by some mites. Rabbits, rats, mice and guinea pigs had not been infested with external parasites. Field collected rats had been highly infested with mites from the family Laelapidae. The, brushing method was confirmed to be a useful method for mite detection. According to the methods used in this study and these recommended by SOP from international animal breeding centers the CTT method was proposed to be useful for preparing health certificate of laboratory animals at the department of laboratory animal breading at Razi institute.

  5. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats wit...

  6. Obesity and Associated Comorbidities in People and Companion Animals: A One Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M; Cunningham, S; Lund, E M; Khanna, C; Naramore, R; Patel, A; Day, M J

    2017-05-01

    This article reviews the biology, prevalence and risks for obesity in people and companion dogs and cats, and explores the links between obesity and diabetes mellitus and cancer across these species. Obesity is a major healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine and there is an increasing prevalence of obesity in people and pets. In people and animals, obesity is a complex disorder involving diet, level of physical activity, behavioural factors, socioeconomic factors, environment exposures, genetics, metabolism and the microbiome. Pets and people share a number of obesity-related comorbidities. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in people and in cats, but this association is not recognized in dogs. Obesity is a recognized risk factor for a number of human cancers, but there are fewer data available describing this association with canine neoplastic disease. One approach to addressing the problem of obesity is by taking a 'One Health' perspective. Comparative clinical research examining shared lifestyle and environmental risk factors and the reasons underlying species differences should provide new perspectives on the fundamental biology of obesity. One Health programmes involving human healthcare professionals and veterinarians could help address obesity with simple interventions at the community level. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Parasites and fungi as risk factors for human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralska, Katarzyna; Błaszkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature data suggests that parasitic and fungal diseases, which pose a threat to both human and animal health, remain a clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Attention is increasingly paid to the role played by natural microbiota in maintaining homeostasis in humans. A particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of manipulating the human microbiota (permanent, transient, pathogenic) and macrobiota (e.g., Trichuris suis) to support the treatment of selected diseases such as Crohn's disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer. Emphasis is placed on important medical species whose infections not only impair health but can also be life threatening, such as Plasmodium falciparum, Echinococcus multilocularis and Baylisascaris procyonis, which expand into areas which have so far been uninhabited. This article also presents the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic parasitoses imported from the tropics, which spread across large groups of people through human-to-human transmission (Enterobius vermicularis, Sarcoptes scabiei). It also discusses the problem of environmentally-conditioned parasitoses, particularly their etiological factors associated with food contaminated with invasive forms (Trichinella sp., Toxoplasma gondii). The analysis also concerns the presence of developmental forms of geohelminths (Toxocara sp.) and ectoparasites (ticks), which are vectors of serious human diseases (Lyme borreliosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis), in the environment. Mycological topics contains rare cases of mycoses environmentally conditioned (CNS aspergillosis) and transmissions of these pathogens in a population of hospitalized individuals, as well as seeking new methods used to treat mycoses.

  8. The association between proximity to animal feeding operations and community health: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M O'Connor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs and the health of individuals living near AFOs.The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor.There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable.

  9. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): Borna disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Borna disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Borna disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Borna disease according to disease prevention...... at collective level. The output is composed of the categorical answer, and for the questions where no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Details on the methodology used for this assessment are explained in a separate opinion. According to the assessment performed, Borna disease...

  10. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Bsal to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Bsal according to disease......, also at collective level. The output is composed of the categorical answer, and for the questions where no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Details on the methodology used for this assessment are explained in a separate opinion. According to the assessment performed...

  11. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation...... judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also at collective level. The output is composed of the categorical answer, and for the questions where no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Details on the methodology used...

  12. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of PRRS to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of PRRS according...... before, also at collective level. The output is composed of the categorical answer, and for the questions where no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Details on the methodology used for this assessment are explained in a separate opinion. According to the assessment...

  13. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): Japanese encephalitis (JE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Japanese encephalitis to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Japanese encephalitis......, if no consensus was reached before, also at collective level. The output is composed of the categorical answer, and for the questions where no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Details on the methodology used for this assessment are explained in a separate opinion. According...

  14. Health and behavior problems in dogs and cats one week and one month after adoption from animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Linda K; Reider, Linda; Herron, Meghan E; Graszak, Kristy

    2008-12-01

    To characterize health and behavior problems in dogs and cats 1 week and 1 month after adoption from animal shelters and identify factors associated with the likelihood that owners of adopted animals would visit a veterinarian. Cross-sectional study. Sample Population-2,766 (1 week) and 2,545 (1 month) individuals who had adopted an animal from a shelter. Internet and telephone survey responses were collected 1 week and 1 month after animal adoption. Overall, 1,361 of 2,624 (51.9%) dogs and cats had health problems 1 week after adoption, and 239 of 2,312 (10.3%) had a health problem 1 month after adoption. The most common health problem for dogs and cats was respiratory tract disease. A total of 1,630 of 2,689 (60.6%) respondents had taken their animal to a veterinarian within the first week after adoption and 1,865 of 2,460 (75.8%) had within the first month after adoption. Respondents were more likely to have visited a veterinarian if they had adopted a dog versus a cat or if the animal was young ( or = 1 health problem, or had adjusted moderately to extremely well to its new home within the first month after adoption. Cats had fewer behavior problems than dogs. One week after adoption, the most commonly reported behavior problem was house training for dogs and chewing, digging, or scratching at objects for cats. Results suggested that improvements can be made in the percentage of new owners who visit a veterinarian after adopting an animal from a shelter.

  15. Potentially toxic contamination of sediments, water and two animal species in Lake Kalimanci, FYR Macedonia: Relevance to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovnik, Petra; Arrebola, Juan P.; Serafimovski, Todor; Dolenec, Tadej; Šmuc, Nastja Rogan; Dolenec, Matej; Mutch, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the research were: (1) to examine the concentrations of metals in Vimba melanops and Rana temporaria and (2) to evaluate the potential risks of the contaminated organisms to human health in Makedonska Kamenica region. Analyses identified high levels of Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in studied animals, which also exceeded their permissible levels in food. In sediment and soil samples, levels of Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and As were perceived, while Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and As were increased in water samples. Results of transfer factor revealed that the examined animals had higher bioaccumulation rate from surrounding waters than from sediments or soils. The accomplished Health Risk Index disclosed that studied animals can have considerably high health risks for inhabitants. Conclusively, they could be considered as highly contaminated with metals and can consequently harm human health, especially children in their early development stages. -- Highlights: •The study merges the accumulation of PTE in animal species, sediments, soils and water. •Correlation between different media and their impact to living organisms'. •Considerably high health risks for inhabitants. -- In the Makedonska Kamenica region had been described several potential sources of exposure therefore exists the potential threat to human health

  16. 75 FR 61504 - Global Implementation of the Veterinary Medicinal Products Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... quantities used and potential existence or development of antimicrobial resistance in disease-causing... Animal Health (OIE). The OIE is the intergovernmental organization responsible for improving animal... treated animals is safe and wholesome; to assist foreign regulators in developing and using rigorous...

  17. Companion animals symposium: role of microbes in canine and feline health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, D Y; Swanson, K S

    2011-05-01

    Whether in an ocean reef, a landfill, or a gastrointestinal tract (GIT), invisible communities of highly active and adaptable microbes prosper. Over time, mammals have developed a symbiosis with microbes that are important inhabitants not only in the GIT, but also in the mouth, skin, and urogenital tract. In the GIT, the number of commensal microbes exceeds the total number of host cells by at least 10 times. The GIT microbes play a critical role in nutritional, developmental, defensive, and physiologic processes in the host. Recent evidence also suggests a role of GIT microbes in metabolic phenotype and disease risk (e.g., obesity, metabolic syndrome) of the host. Proper balance is a key to maintaining GIT health. Balanced microbial colonization is also important for other body regions such as the oral cavity, the region with the greatest prevalence of disease in dogs and cats. A significant obstruction to studying microbial populations has been the lack of tools to identify and quantify microbial communities accurately and efficiently. Most of the current knowledge of microbial populations has been established by traditional cultivation methods that are not only laborious, time-consuming, and often inaccurate, but also greatly limited in scope. However, recent advances in molecular-based techniques have resulted in a dramatic improvement in studying microbial communities. These DNA-based high-throughput technologies have enabled us to more clearly characterize the identity and metabolic activity of microbes living in the host and their association with health and diseases. Despite this recent progress, however, published data pertaining to microbial communities of dogs and cats are still lacking in comparison with data in humans and other animals. More research is required to provide a more detailed description of the canine and feline microbiome and its role in health and disease.

  18. Mode of action of Cr(VI) in immunocytes of earthworms: Implications for animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforzini, Susanna; Moore, Michael N; Mou, Zhuofan; Boeri, Marta; Banni, Mohamed; Viarengo, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    Chromium (Cr) is one of the major and most detrimental pollutant, widely present in the environment as a result of several anthropogenic activities. In mammalian cells, Cr(VI) is known to enhance reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and to cause toxic and genotoxic effects. Less commonly investigated are the effects and mode of action of this contaminant in invertebrates, particularly in soil organisms. In this work, earthworms of the species Eisenia andrei were exposed for 1 and 3 days to various sublethal concentrations of Cr(VI) (2, 15, 30µgmL -1 ) using the paper contact toxicity test. In amoeboid leukocytes we investigated intracellular ROS and lipoperoxide production, oxidative DNA damage, and the effects on different cell functions. The analysis of the results shows that Cr(VI) triggered severe adverse reactions; the first events were an increase of intracellular ROS levels, generating in the cells oxidative stress conditions leading to membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. Lysosomes showed relevant changes such as a strong membrane destabilization, which was accompanied by an increased catabolism of cytoplasmic proteins and accumulation of lipofuscin. With an increase in the dose and/or time of exposure, the physiological status of intracellular organelles (such as lysosomes, nucleus and mitochondria) showed further impairment and amoebocyte immune functions were adversely affected, as shown by the decrease of the phagocytic activity. By mapping the responses of the different parameters evaluated, diagnostic of (oxidative) stress events, against lysosomal membrane stability, a "health status" indicator (able to describe the stress syndrome from its early phase to pathology), we have shown that this biomarker is suitable as a prognostic test for health of earthworms. This is viewed as a crucial step toward the derivation of explanatory frameworks for prediction of pollutant impact on animal health. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  19. Mathematical modeling and simulation in animal health. Part I: Moving beyond pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, J E; Gabrielsson, J; Fink, M; Mochel, J

    2016-06-01

    The application of mathematical modeling to problems in animal health has a rich history in the form of pharmacokinetic modeling applied to problems in veterinary medicine. Advances in modeling and simulation beyond pharmacokinetics have the potential to streamline and speed-up drug research and development programs. To foster these goals, a series of manuscripts will be published with the following goals: (i) expand the application of modeling and simulation to issues in veterinary pharmacology; (ii) bridge the gap between the level of modeling and simulation practiced in human and veterinary pharmacology; (iii) explore how modeling and simulation concepts can be used to improve our understanding of common issues not readily addressed in human pharmacology (e.g. breed differences, tissue residue depletion, vast weight ranges among adults within a single species, interspecies differences, small animal species research where data collection is limited to sparse sampling, availability of different sampling matrices); and (iv) describe how quantitative pharmacology approaches could help understanding key pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of a drug candidate, with the goal of providing explicit, reproducible, and predictive evidence for optimizing drug development plans, enabling critical decision making, and eventually bringing safe and effective medicines to patients. This study introduces these concepts and introduces new approaches to modeling and simulation as well as clearly articulate basic assumptions and good practices. The driving force behind these activities is to create predictive models that are based on solid physiological and pharmacological principles as well as adhering to the limitations that are fundamental to applying mathematical and statistical models to biological systems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16-December 28, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Song-En Huang

    Full Text Available Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI, and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010-July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5% were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501 persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2% persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9% persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22% were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and

  1. Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Marano, N

    2009-08-01

    A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances.

  2. Animal Health Challenges and Veterinary Aspects of Organic Livestock Farming Identified Through a 3 Year EU Network Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Padel, Susanne; Younie, David

    2008-01-01

    From 2003-2006, an EU network project ‘Sustaining Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming‘ (SAFO), was carried out with 26 partners from 20 EU-countries and 4 related partners from 4 candidate or new member states. The focus was the integration of animal health and welfare issues...... in organic farming with food safety aspects. Four very consistent conclusions became apparent: 1) The climatic, physical and socio-economic conditions vary considerably throughout Europe, leading to different livestock farming systems. This limits the possibility for technology transfer between regions...

  3. The pitfalls of qualified moral veganism. A critique of Jan Deckers' holistic health approach to animal ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Eze

    2017-10-01

    I critically examine Jan Deckers' position in Animal (De)liberation, where he defends two main views. The first is "qualified moral veganism": Most humans have a duty to abstain from consuming animal products, even if there are circumstances in which doing so is justified. The author argues, on the one hand, from a pan-sentientist view that attributes sentience to all elementary entities and their compounds. Thus, all living things (such as animals and plants) have a capacity for positive and negative experiences. On the other hand, he develops a consequentialist view that assigns moral agents the unconditional duty to promote their own "holistic health." This is partly constituted by the agent's "moral health," that is, her acting in a morally justified way. On Deckers' view, moral agents must care for the health of all living entities, give greater weight to the interests of organisms to which they are more closely biologically related, and respect the integrity of nature. Diets containing animal products have a very high negative health impact, because of how they affect the environment, human food security, and the well-being of nonhuman animals. In addition, even though plants are sentient, they are likely less so than animals, and their interests must be given less weight. Therefore, most humans should shift to a vegan diet. Deckers' second proposal is that a qualified ban on the consumption of animal products should be enacted. After discarding other alternative strategies, Deckers defends its feasibility relying on data obtained via a series of surveys. Though the argument partly succeeds in developing a coherent account accommodating the author's intuitions, I conclude that his ontological and normative frameworks remain too underdeveloped, his appeal to biological relatedness has implausible implications, and the methodology he uses in defence of his political position is problematic. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greek Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Summary We conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented.

  5. #WaysToRelax: developing an online alcohol-related health promotion animation for people aged 55 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Nyssa; Savic, Michael; Manning, Victoria; Lubman, Daniel

    2017-04-27

    Alcohol use among middle-aged and older adults (55 years and older) is increasingly becoming a public health concern. Despite this, there is relatively little research on the experiences of alcohol use and related concerns among people aged 55 and older to inform tailored and engaging health promotion activities. To address this gap, we aimed to develop an engaging alcohol-related health promotion resource for people aged 55 and older. We drew on a research-into-action approach, which involved: 1) thematic analysis of alcohol-related concerns in online counselling transcripts of 70 people aged 55 and older, 2) a review of health promotion literature, and 3) consultation with consumers of alcohol and other drug services, and carers. The research phase highlighted that people aged 55 and older were concerned that their reliance on alcohol use to manage stress had become a habit they wanted to shift. Alongside this, the literature showed that people aged 55 and older were often dismissive of conventional health promotion activities, and pointed to the benefits of conveying health promotion messages through animation. In response, we developed an animation to stimulate reflection and thought about other ways to relax and manage stress. We drew on health promotion principles to ensure that the animation had a positive message and was engaging without being ageist or paternalistic. It was further refined with input from consumers and carers, who thought the animation was appropriate, appealing and useful. Future activities will include further dissemination and evaluation of the animation and associated activities.

  6. #WaysToRelax: developing an online alcohol-related health promotion animation for people aged 55 and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyssa Ferguson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use among middle-aged and older adults (55 years and older is increasingly becoming a public health concern. Despite this, there is relatively little research on the experiences of alcohol use and related concerns among people aged 55 and older to inform tailored and engaging health promotion activities. To address this gap, we aimed to develop an engaging alcohol-related health promotion resource for people aged 55 and older. We drew on a research-into-action approach, which involved: 1 thematic analysis of alcohol-related concerns in online counselling transcripts of 70 people aged 55 and older, 2 a review of health promotion literature, and 3 consultation with consumers of alcohol and other drug services, and carers. The research phase highlighted that people aged 55 and older were concerned that their reliance on alcohol use to manage stress had become a habit they wanted to shift. Alongside this, the literature showed that people aged 55 and older were often dismissive of conventional health promotion activities, and pointed to the benefits of conveying health promotion messages through animation. In response, we developed an animation to stimulate reflection and thought about other ways to relax and manage stress. We drew on health promotion principles to ensure that the animation had a positive message and was engaging without being ageist or paternalistic. It was further refined with input from consumers and carers, who thought the animation was appropriate, appealing and useful. Future activities will include further dissemination and evaluation of the animation and associated activities.

  7. Animal health aspects of adaptation to climate change: beating the heat and parasites in a warming Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, P J; Morgan, E R; van Dijk, J; Mitchell, M

    2013-06-01

    Weather patterns in northern European regions have changed noticeably over the past several decades, featuring warmer, wetter weather with more extreme events. The climate is projected to continue on this trajectory for the foreseeable future, even under the most modest warming scenarios. Such changes will have a significant impact on livestock farming, both directly through effects on the animals themselves, and indirectly through changing exposure to pests and pathogens. Adaptation options aimed at taking advantage of new opportunities and/or minimising the risks of negative impacts will, in themselves, have implications for animal health and welfare. In this review, we consider the potential consequences of future intensification of animal production, challenges associated with indoor and outdoor rearing of animals and aspects of animal transportation as key examples. We investigate the direct and indirect effects of climate change on the epidemiology of important livestock pathogens, with a particular focus on parasitic infections, and the likely animal health consequences associated with selected adaptation options. Finally, we attempt to identify key gaps in our knowledge and suggest future research priorities.

  8. Public health ethics and a status for pets as person-things : revisiting the place of animals in urbanized societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie; Degeling, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Within the field of medical ethics, discussions related to public health have mainly concentrated on issues that are closely tied to research and practice involving technologies and professional services, including vaccination, screening, and insurance coverage. Broader determinants of population health have received less attention, although this situation is rapidly changing. Against this backdrop, our specific contribution to the literature on ethics and law vis-à-vis promoting population health is to open up the ubiquitous presence of pets within cities and towns for further discussion. An expanding body of research suggests that pet animals are deeply relevant to people's health (negatively and positively). Pet bylaws adopted by town and city councils have largely escaped notice, yet they are meaningful to consider in relation to everyday practices, social norms, and cultural values, and thus in relation to population health. Nevertheless, not least because they pivot on defining pets as private property belonging to individual people, pet bylaws raise emotionally charged ethical issues that have yet to be tackled in any of the health research on pet ownership. The literature in moral philosophy on animals is vast, and we do not claim to advance this field here. Rather, we pragmatically seek to reconcile philosophical objections to pet ownership with both animal welfare and public health. In doing so, we foreground theorizations of personhood and property from sociocultural anthropology.

  9. Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci Isolated from Food Producing Animals: A Public Health Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etinosa O. Igbinosa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food animals is a potential public health concern. Staphylococci are a significant opportunistic pathogen both in humans and dairy cattle. In the present study, the genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains recovered from dairy cattle in a rural community (Okada, Edo State, Nigeria was investigated. A total of 283 samples from cattle (137 milk samples and 146 nasal swabs were assessed between February and April 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of 16S rRNA, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leucocidinis (PVL genes. The staphylococcal strains were identified through partial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNA nucleotide sequencing, and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST analysis of the gene sequence showed that the staphylococcal strains have 96%–100% similarity to Staphylococcus aureus (30, S. epidermidis (17, S. haemolyticus (15, S. saprophyticus (13, S. chromogenes (8, S. simulans (7, S. pseudintermedius (6 and S. xylosus (4. Resistance of 100% was observed in all Staphylococcus spp. against MET, PEN, CLN, CHL and SXT. Multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria from nasal cavities and raw milk reveals 13 isolates were MDR against METR, PENR, AMXR, CLNR, CHLR, SXTR CLXR, KANR, ERYR, and VANR. Of all isolates, 100% harboured the mecA gene, while 30% of the isolates possess the PVL gene. All S. aureus harboured the PVL gene while other Staphylococcus spp. were negative for the PVL gene. The presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolates in dairy cattle is a potential public health risk and thus findings in this study can be used as a baseline for further surveillance.

  10. An Integrated Framework for Process-Driven Model Construction in Disease Ecology and Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancy, Rebecca; Brock, Patrick M; Kao, Rowland R

    2017-01-01

    Process models that focus on explicitly representing biological mechanisms are increasingly important in disease ecology and animal health research. However, the large number of process modelling approaches makes it difficult to decide which is most appropriate for a given disease system and research question. Here, we discuss different motivations for using process models and present an integrated conceptual analysis that can be used to guide the construction of infectious disease process models and comparisons between them. Our presentation complements existing work by clarifying the major differences between modelling approaches and their relationship with the biological characteristics of the epidemiological system. We first discuss distinct motivations for using process models in epidemiological research, identifying the key steps in model design and use associated with each. We then present a conceptual framework for guiding model construction and comparison, organised according to key aspects of epidemiological systems. Specifically, we discuss the number and type of disease states, whether to focus on individual hosts (e.g., cows) or groups of hosts (e.g., herds or farms), how space or host connectivity affect disease transmission, whether demographic and epidemiological processes are periodic or can occur at any time, and the extent to which stochasticity is important. We use foot-and-mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis in cattle to illustrate our discussion and support explanations of cases in which different models are used to address similar problems. The framework should help those constructing models to structure their approach to modelling decisions and facilitate comparisons between models in the literature.

  11. Bacterial Whack-a-Mole: Reconsidering the Public Health Relevance of Using Carbadox in Food Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance B. Price

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbadox is an antibiotic used to control dysentery and promote growth in swine in the United States; however, the drug also causes tumors and birth defects in laboratory animals. Despite this and because the drug has no analogs in human medicine, it is not considered “medically important” and can be used in livestock without veterinarian oversight. In their recent study, T. A. Johnson et al. (mBio 8:e00709-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00709-17 demonstrated that carbadox has profound effects on the swine gut microbiome, including the induction of transducing phage carrying tetracycline, aminoglycoside, and beta-lactam resistance genes. In swine production, carbadox can be used in conjunction with other antibiotics (e.g., oxytetracycline that could fuel the emergence of strains carrying phage-encoded resistance determinants. Johnson et al.’s findings underscore the potential unforeseen consequences of using antibiotics in livestock production and call into question our current methods for classifying whether or not a veterinary drug has relevance to human health.

  12. Proteomics and the search for welfare and stress biomarkers in animal production in the one-health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Ramell, A; de Almeida, A M; Cristobal, S; Rodrigues, P; Roncada, P; Bassols, A

    2016-06-21

    Stress and welfare are important factors in animal production in the context of growing production optimization and scrutiny by the general public. In a context in which animal and human health are intertwined aspects of the one-health concept it is of utmost importance to define the markers of stress and welfare. These are important tools for producers, retailers, regulatory agents and ultimately consumers to effectively monitor and assess the welfare state of production animals. Proteomics is the science that studies the proteins existing in a given tissue or fluid. In this review we address this topic by showing clear examples where proteomics has been used to study stress-induced changes at various levels. We adopt a multi-species (cattle, swine, small ruminants, poultry, fish and shellfish) approach under the effect of various stress inducers (handling, transport, management, nutritional, thermal and exposure to pollutants) clearly demonstrating how proteomics and systems biology are key elements to the study of stress and welfare in farm animals and powerful tools for animal welfare, health and productivity.

  13. Knowledge and attitude towards zoonoses among animal health workers and livestock keepers in Arusha and Tanga, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, Emanuel S; Schoonman, Luuk; Daborn, Chris J

    2010-10-01

    Zoonoses are infections naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans. An exploratory questionnaire-based survey of animal health workers(n=36) and livestock keepers(n=43) was carried out from April 2001 to March 2002 in Tanga and Arusha regions, northern Tanzania, to assess local knowledge, attitudes and public awareness for animal zoonoses. A combination of closed and open-ended questions, focus group discussions and ranking techniques were employed to gather information on perceptions concerning the type of zoonotic diseases prevalent in the study area, level of risk, mode of transmission and methods of preventing disease transmission from animals to humans. The results demonstrated that rabies, tuberculosis and anthrax were considered the three most common zoonotic diseases. Sharing living accommodation with animals, consumption of un-treated livestock products (i.e. milk, meat or eggs) and attending to parturition were perceived as routes of transmission. Knowledge about zoonosis was higher in smallholder dairy (92%; 33/36) than traditional livestock keepers (Pzoonosis was significantly higher in traditional livestock (86%; 6/7) than smallholder dairy keepers (Pzoonosis by farm location revealed that rural farms (85%; 7/8) were considered significantly at a higher risk when compared to peri or urban located farms (P<0.05). Most of the respondents stated cooking of meat or boiling of milk as a way to prevent transmission. However, there was a significant difference in the perception of the risk posed by contact with potentially infected animals /or animal products with animal health workers having a much higher level of perception compared to livestock keepers. These results suggest that in the Tanga and Arusha, Tanzania, patchy awareness and knowledge of zoonoses, combined with food consumption habits and poor animal husbandry are likely to expose respondents to an increased risk of contracting zoonoses. Public health promotion on education and

  14. Antimicrobial drug use in food-producing animals and associated human health risks: what, and how strong, is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Wong, Nora; Thomas, Joe; Talkington, Kathy; Jungman, Elizabeth; Coukell, Allan

    2017-07-04

    Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat. Because antimicrobial consumption in food-producing animals contributes to the problem, policies restricting the inappropriate or unnecessary agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs are important. However, this link between agricultural antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance has remained contested by some, with potentially disruptive effects on efforts to move towards the judicious or prudent use of these drugs. The goal of this review is to systematically evaluate the types of evidence available for each step in the causal pathway from antimicrobial use on farms to human public health risk, and to evaluate the strength of evidence within a 'Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation'(GRADE) framework. The review clearly demonstrates that there is compelling scientific evidence available to support each step in the causal pathway, from antimicrobial use on farms to a public health burden caused by infections with resistant pathogens. Importantly, the pathogen, antimicrobial drug and treatment regimen, and general setting (e.g., feed type) can have significant impacts on how quickly resistance emerges or spreads, for how long resistance may persist after antimicrobial exposures cease, and what public health impacts may be associated with antimicrobial use on farms. Therefore an exact quantification of the public health burden attributable to antimicrobial drug use in animal agriculture compared to other sources remains challenging. Even though more research is needed to close existing data gaps, obtain a better understanding of how antimicrobial drugs are actually used on farms or feedlots, and quantify the risk associated with antimicrobial use in animal agriculture, these findings reinforce the need to act now and restrict antibiotic use in animal agriculture to those instances necessary to ensure the health and well-being of the animals.

  15. Antimicrobial-Resistant Enterococci in Animals and Meat: A Human Health Hazard?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, A.M.; Lester, C.H.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2010-01-01

    clones predominate in certain animal species. This may suggest that antimicrobial-resistant E. faecium from animals could be regarded less hazardous to humans; however, due to their excellent ability to acquire and transfer resistance genes, E. faecium of animal origin may act as donors of antimicrobial...... resistance genes for other more virulent enterococci. For E. faecalis, the situation appears different, as similar clones of, for example, vancomycin-and gentamicin-resistant E. faecalis have been obtained from animals and from human patients. Continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance...... of avoparcin, gentamicin, and virginiamycin for growth promotion and therapy in food animals has lead to the emergence of vancomycin-and gentamicin-resistant enterococci and quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium in animals and meat. This implies a potential risk for transfer of resistance genes...

  16. Veterinary Public Health in Italy: From Healthy Animals to Healthy Food, Contribution to Improve Economy in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacaci, Margherita; Lelli, Rossella Colomba

    2018-01-01

    The role of the veterinarian as a public health officer is intrinsic to the history and the culture of veterinary organization in Italy. The Veterinary service being part of the Health administration since the birth of the Italian State in the XIX Century. In the second half of the last century the birth of the Italian National Health Service confirmed that the function of the Italian veterinary service was to analyze and reduce the risks for the human population connected to the relationship man-animal-environment, animal health, food safety and security. The Italian Veterinary Medicine School curricula, reflected this "model" of veterinarian as well. In the majority of countries in the world, Veterinary Services are organized within the Agriculture Administration with the main function to assure animal health and wellbeing. After the so-called "Mad-cow crisis" the awareness of the direct and essential role of veterinary services in the prevention of human illness has been officially recognized and in the third millennium the old concept of "one health" and "human-animal interface" has gained popularity worldwide.The concept of Veterinary Public Health, has evolved at International level and has incorporated the more than a century old vision of the Italian Veterinary medicine and it is defined as "the sum of the contributions to the physical, mental and social development of people through the knowledge and application of veterinary science" (WHO, Future trends in veterinary public health. Gruppo di lavoro OMS: TE, Italy, 1999, Available from: http://www.who.int/zoonoses/vph/en/ . Last visited 16 Feb 2016, 1999).On the subject of Cooperation, Sustainability and Public Health, the EXPO 2015 event and the activities of international organizations WHO, FAO and World Organization for Animal Health are refocusing at present their worldwide mandate to protect human health and the economy of both the poorest Countries and the developed countries, according to the "new

  17. Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Daniel Sant’Anna Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Leal P.D.S., Moraes M.I.M.R., Barbosa L.L. deO. & Lopes C.W.G. [Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Infecção por hematozoários nos cães domésticos atendidos em serviço de saúde animal, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:55-62, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação de Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-970, Brasil. E-mail: pauloleal@ctiveterinario.com.br The vector-borne diseases in dogs are caused by pathogens with different biological behaviors that result in different clinical and laboratory findings presentations. The diagnosis of these diseases is a challenge for veterinarians and those caused by obligate intracellular blood parasites of blood cells constitute vogeli of Babesia canis, Anaplasma platys, Erhlichia canis and Mycoplasma canis. This paper looks at the frequency of these parasites in 204 laboratory results dogs treated at the Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Veterinary through CBC and research of blood parasites in blood estiraço and concentrate platelets and leukocytes. There was one or more species of haemoparasites in 132 dogs (64.7% through blood samples. They were observed: 7 (5.3% dogs for B. c. vogeli, 64 (48.5% for A. platys, 16 (12.2% for M. canis, A. platys and E. canis in one (0.7%, A. platys and M. canis in 36 dogs (27.3%, M. canis and B. c. vogeli five (3.8%, M. canis and E. canis one (0.7%, A. platys, B. c. vogeli and M. canis in two (1.50%, confirming thus the high frequency of blood parasites in pet dogs in an urban environment, treated in the routine, the importance of viewing parasitic inclusions in leukocytes, platelets and red blood cells, It thus demonstrating the need for greater attention to the diagnosis of multiple infections by different parasitic

  18. Understanding animal health communication networks among smallholder livestock producers in Australia using stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, L; Woodgate, R; Rast, L; Toribio, J-A L M L; Hernández-Jover, M

    2017-09-01

    Smallholder livestock producers are a diverse population with wide ranging motivations for keeping livestock. The biosecurity risk posed by smallholders has been the subject of much conjecture, with comparisons often made between the level of animal health and biosecurity knowledge of smallholders, versus that of commercial livestock producers. This research aimed to gain a better understanding of current knowledge of smallholder production in Australia, particularly in relation to biosecurity and emergency animal disease, and to investigate the relationships that exist between smallholders and the organisations and individuals from which they seek information, assistance and support. Engagement with stakeholders is an important component of an effective biosecurity communication strategy as the dissemination of biosecurity related information from a single source cannot be expected to satisfy the needs of such a broad ranging population. A qualitative study involving a review of literature, semi-structured interviews with government and non-government stakeholders and the development of smallholder and stakeholder influence and interest grids was undertaken. This paper forms part of a broader mixed methods research project among smallholders. Results from the stakeholder analysis showed variation in the parameters used to define smallholders and in the level of stakeholder involvement. Smallholders identified breeding consultants, other producers, private veterinarians and family, friends and colleagues as having a significant to high level of interest and potential to influence their practices. Government agencies were perceived to only have some level of interest but significant influence. Industry stakeholders and rural suppliers were positioned in the quadrant reflecting perceived low levels of interest and influence. The interest and influence grid developed from stakeholder's perspectives demonstrate a clustering around the mid points for both interest and

  19. Lead (Pb) in sheep exposed to mining pollution: implications for animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja-Carrera, Jennifer; Mateo, Rafael; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime

    2014-10-01

    Livestock from the ancient mining area of Sierra Madrona and Alcudia Valley (Spain) is exposed to elevated levels of lead (Pb), as previous studies based on blood monitoring have revealed. Here we have studied blood, liver and muscle Pb levels in sheep in order to know if Pb exposure could represent a risk for human consumers of the meat and offal of these animals. A cross-sectional study was conducted with ≥4 years old (adults) ewes from the mining area (n=46) and a control area (n=21). Blood samples were taken before the sacrifice at the slaughterhouse, and liver and muscle samples were taken thereafter. At the same time, 2-3 year old rams (subadults, n=17) were blood sampled in the mining area. Blood, liver and muscle Pb levels were higher in the mining than in the control area. Blood Pb concentration in the mining area (n= 44, mean: 6.7μg/dl in ewes and 10.9μg/dl in rams) was above background levels (>6μg/dl) in 73.3 percent of animals. Liver Pb concentration in 68 percent of sheep from the mining area (n=32, mean: 6.16μg/g dry weight, d.w.) exceeded the minimum level associated with toxic exposure (5µg/g d.w.) and 87.5 percent of liver samples were above European Union Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) established for offal destined for human consumption (0.5µg/g w.w.~1.4µg/g d.w.). On the contrary, none of the muscle samples in ewes exceeded the EU MRL (0.1µg/g w.w.~0.34µg/g d.w.) established for meat, which may be related to the decline of blood Pb levels with age observed in the present study. These results suggest a potential health effect for sheep exposed to Pb pollution in this area and implications for food safety, but further research with lamb meat may be necessary to refine the risk assessment for human consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Human, animal and environmental contributors to antibiotic resistance in low-resource settings: integrating behavioural, epidemiological and One Health approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousham, Emily K; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    2018-04-11

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is recognized as a One Health challenge because of the rapid emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria and genes among humans, animals and the environment on a global scale. However, there is a paucity of research assessing ABR contemporaneously in humans, animals and the environment in low-resource settings. This critical review seeks to identify the extent of One Health research on ABR in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Existing research has highlighted hotspots for environmental contamination; food-animal production systems that are likely to harbour reservoirs or promote transmission of ABR as well as high and increasing human rates of colonization with ABR commensal bacteria such as Escherichia coli However, very few studies have integrated all three components of the One Health spectrum to understand the dynamics of transmission and the prevalence of community-acquired resistance in humans and animals. Microbiological, epidemiological and social science research is needed at community and population levels across the One Health spectrum in order to fill the large gaps in knowledge of ABR in low-resource settings. © 2018 The Author(s).