WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal health challenges

  1. Using foresight to prepare animal health today for tomorrow's challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Norman G; Munroe, Fonda A; Empringham, R Edward; Renwick, Shane A; Van der Linden, Ingrid W M; Dunlop, James R

    2011-06-01

    Foresight has been introduced in Canada in the area of animal health as a process to broaden thinking about the future and inform policy development. Its initial use and evolution through projects and studies over the past decade are described, demonstrating real action in animal health. Despite positive, continuing, and exciting results in animal health policy development, foresight's widespread acceptance and use thus far have been limited. Critical components for success, drawn from the Canadian experience, are described, and recommendations are offered for further action in animal health.

  2. Report from the second international symposium on animal genomics for animal health: critical needs, challenges and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Steve C; Lunney, Joan K; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Gay, Cyril G

    2011-06-03

    The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunities, and a forward look at the potential applications of animal genomics in animal health research. The aim of the roundtable discussion was to foster a dialogue between scientists working at the cutting edge of animal genomics research and animal health scientists. Importantly, stakeholders were included to provide input on priorities and the potential value of animal genomics to the animal health community. In an effort to facilitate the roundtable discussion, the organizers identified four priority areas to advance the use of genome-enabled technologies in animal health research. Contributions were obtained through open discussions and a questionnaire distributed at the start of the symposium. This report provides the outcome of the roundtable discussion for each of the four priority areas. For each priority, problems are identified, including potential solutions and recommendations. This report captures key points made by symposium participants during the roundtable discussion and serves as a roadmap to steer future research priorities in animal genomics research.

  3. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  4. The new Israeli feed safety law: challenges in relation to animal and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Shimon; Elad, Dani; Cuneah, Olga; Shimshoni, Jakob A

    2017-03-01

    The Israeli feed safety legislation, which came to prominence in the early 1970s, has undergone a major change from simple feed safety and quality regulations to a more holistic concept of control of feed safety and quality throughout the whole feed production chain, from farm to the end user table. In February 2014, a new law was approved by the Israeli parliament, namely the Control of Animal Feed Law, which is expected to enter into effect in 2017. The law is intended to regulate the production and marketing of animal feed, guaranteeing the safety and quality of animal products throughout the production chain. The responsibility on the implementation of the new feed law was moved from the Plant Protection Inspection Service to the Veterinary Services and Animal Health. In preparation for the law's implementation, we have characterized the various sources and production lines of feed for farm and domestic animals in Israel and assessed the current feed safety challenges in terms of potential hazards or undesirable substances. Moreover, the basic requirements for feed safety laboratories, which are mandatory for analyzing and testing for potential contaminants, are summarized for each of the contaminants discussed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Improving the use of economics in animal health - Challenges in research, policy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    The way that an economist and an animal health professional use economics differs and creates frustrations. The economist is in search of optimizing resource allocation in the management of animal health and disease problems with metrics associated with the productivity of key societal resources of labour and capital. The animal health professional have a strong belief that productivity can be improved with the removal of pathogens. These differences restrict how well economics is used in animal health, and the question posed is whether this matters. The paper explores the question by looking at the changing role of animals in society and the associated change of the animal health professional's activities. It then questions if the current allocation of scarce resources for animal health are adequately allocated for societies and whether currently available data are sufficient for good allocation. A rapid review of the data on disease impacts - production losses and costs of human reaction - indicate that the data are sparse collected in different times and geographical regions. This limits what can be understood on the productivity of the economic resources used for animal health and this needs to be addressed with more systematic collection of data on disease losses and costs of animal health systems. Ideally such a process should learn lessons from the way that human health has made estimates of the burden of diseases and their capture of data on the costs of human health systems. Once available data on the global burden of animal diseases and the costs of animal health systems would allow assessments of individual disease management processes and the productivity of wider productivity change. This utopia should be aimed at if animal health is to continue to attract and maintain adequate resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using foresight to prepare animal health today for tomorrow’s challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Norman G.; Munroe, Fonda A.; Empringham, R. Edward; Renwick, Shane A.; Van der Linden, Ingrid W.M.; Dunlop, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Foresight has been introduced in Canada in the area of animal health as a process to broaden thinking about the future and inform policy development. Its initial use and evolution through projects and studies over the past decade are described, demonstrating real action in animal health. Despite positive, continuing, and exciting results in animal health policy development, foresight’s widespread acceptance and use thus far have been limited. Critical components for success, drawn from the Canadian experience, are described, and recommendations are offered for further action in animal health. PMID:22131576

  7. Methodological challenges to multivariate syndromic surveillance: a case study using Swiss animal health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Flavie; Wei, Wei; Held, Leonhard

    2016-12-20

    In an era of ubiquitous electronic collection of animal health data, multivariate surveillance systems (which concurrently monitor several data streams) should have a greater probability of detecting disease events than univariate systems. However, despite their limitations, univariate aberration detection algorithms are used in most active syndromic surveillance (SyS) systems because of their ease of application and interpretation. On the other hand, a stochastic modelling-based approach to multivariate surveillance offers more flexibility, allowing for the retention of historical outbreaks, for overdispersion and for non-stationarity. While such methods are not new, they are yet to be applied to animal health surveillance data. We applied an example of such stochastic model, Held and colleagues' two-component model, to two multivariate animal health datasets from Switzerland. In our first application, multivariate time series of the number of laboratories test requests were derived from Swiss animal diagnostic laboratories. We compare the performance of the two-component model to parallel monitoring using an improved Farrington algorithm and found both methods yield a satisfactorily low false alarm rate. However, the calibration test of the two-component model on the one-step ahead predictions proved satisfactory, making such an approach suitable for outbreak prediction. In our second application, the two-component model was applied to the multivariate time series of the number of cattle abortions and the number of test requests for bovine viral diarrhea (a disease that often results in abortions). We found that there is a two days lagged effect from the number of abortions to the number of test requests. We further compared the joint modelling and univariate modelling of the number of laboratory test requests time series. The joint modelling approach showed evidence of superiority in terms of forecasting abilities. Stochastic modelling approaches offer the

  8. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA) 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease emergence 11 3.3 Climate

  9. Challenges in Preparing Veterinarians for Global Animal Health: Understanding the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Paul J; Quinn, Kaylee A; Brown, Corrie C

    Understanding of global systems is essential for veterinarians seeking to work in realms outside of their national domain. In the global system, emphasis remains on the public sector, and the current curricular emphasis in developed countries is on private clinical practice for the domestic employment market. There is a resulting lack of competency at graduation for effective engagement internationally. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has created standards for public sector operations in animal health, which must be functional to allow for sustainable development. This public sector, known as the Veterinary Services, or VS, serves to control public good diseases, and once effectively built and fully operational, allows for the evolution of a functional private sector, focused on private good diseases. Until the VS is fully functional, support of private good services is non-sustainable and any efforts delivered are not long lasting. As new graduates opt for careers working in the international development sector, it is essential that they understand the OIE guidelines to help support continuing improvement. Developing global veterinarians by inserting content into the veterinary curriculum on how public systems can operate effectively could markedly increase the potential of our professional contributions globally, and particularly in the areas most in need.

  10. Addressing governance challenges in the provision of animal health services: A review of the literature and empirical application transaction cost theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina; Nielsen, Thea

    2015-11-01

    Providing adequate animal health services to smallholder farmers in developing countries has remained a challenge, in spite of various reform efforts during the past decades. The focuses of the past reforms were on market failures to decide what the public sector, the private sector, and the "third sector" (the community-based sector) should do with regard to providing animal health services. However, such frameworks have paid limited attention to the governance challenges inherent in the provision of animal health services. This paper presents a framework for analyzing institutional arrangements for providing animal health services that focus not only on market failures, but also on governance challenges, such as elite capture, and absenteeism of staff. As an analytical basis, Williamson's discriminating alignment hypothesis is applied to assess the cost-effectiveness of different institutional arrangements for animal health services in view of both market failures and governance challenges. This framework is used to generate testable hypotheses on the appropriateness of different institutional arrangements for providing animal health services, depending on context-specific circumstances. Data from Uganda and Kenya on clinical veterinary services is used to provide an empirical test of these hypotheses and to demonstrate application of Williamson's transaction cost theory to veterinary service delivery. The paper concludes that strong public sector involvement, especially in building and strengthening a synergistic relation-based referral arrangement between paraprofessionals and veterinarians is imperative in improving animal health service delivery in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Animal Health Challenges and Veterinary Aspects of Organic Livestock Farming Identified Through a 3 Year EU Network Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Padel, Susanne; Younie, David

    2008-01-01

    From 2003-2006, an EU network project ‘Sustaining Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming‘ (SAFO), was carried out with 26 partners from 20 EU-countries and 4 related partners from 4 candidate or new member states. The focus was the integration of animal health and welfare issues...... in organic farming with food safety aspects. Four very consistent conclusions became apparent: 1) The climatic, physical and socio-economic conditions vary considerably throughout Europe, leading to different livestock farming systems. This limits the possibility for technology transfer between regions...

  12. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research are reviewed. These include various techniques associated with both the qualitative localization and quantitative measurements of isotopes in animals; comparator studies in which measurement of the radioactivity in one part of a system will allow computation of the mass or volume in another part; in vivo and in vitro applications of isotope dilution studies; and the use of isotopes in dynamic systems analyses. The use of stable isotopes in mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance in animal research is also briefly reviewed. Finally some of the successful uses of radiation produced by radioactive sources or various types of generators of electromagnetic radiations in animal production and health studies are described. (U.K.)

  13. Nanotechnology and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, although still in the early stages of its development, is beginning to equip scientists, engineers and biologists to work at the cellular and molecular levels for significant benefits in healthcare and animal medicine. It is reasonable to presume over the next couple of decades that nanobiotechnology industries and unique developments will be revolutionising animal health and medicine. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 567-569

  14. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    An outline review is presented of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research. Techniques covered are the qualitative localization of a radioisotope (static and dynamic measurements, detection procedures involving locating concentration sites of labelled toxins, parasites, abnormal blood cells, etc.), quantitative measurement of isotopes (absorption and excretion, transfer across membranes) comparator studies (determination of mass, volume or flow), isotope dilution and related studies (in vivo and in vitro applications, determination of total body red cell or plasma volume), dynamic systems (single compartmental systems such as rumen studies and the suckling lamb or calf, multiple exits from a compartment and multiple doses), stable isotopes and mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the use of internal irradiation (sterile male technique, control of insects and parasites, production of attenuated vaccines etc.). (U.K.)

  15. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwossen A Gebreyes

    Full Text Available Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011 and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013 were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1 development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2 skilled-personnel capacity building, (3 accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4 improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to

  16. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  17. Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

  18. Human and animal health in Europe: the view from the European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC on challenges in infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fears Robin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last seven years, the European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC has conducted a series of projects defining and clarifying priorities for European policy in infectious disease. Both human and animal populations are increasingly threatened by emerging and re-emerging infections, including zoonoses, partly attributable to the impact of environmental change on the distributions of pathogens, hosts and vectors. Among the key challenges to be faced are the impact of climate change, the increase of antibiotic resistance and the need to develop novel global surveillance and early warning systems worldwide. Multidisciplinary approaches are required to build the new interfaces between human and animal medicine (One Health, with new connections between epidemiological and environmental data for surveillance, communication and risk assessment. This multidisciplinarity involves integration between microbiology, immunology, genetics and genomics, entomology, ecology and the social sciences, among other disciplines. Improved understanding of patterns of both human and animal disease also requires commitment to standardisation of surveillance methodologies and better analysis, co-ordination and use of the data collected. There must be sustained support for fundamental research, for example to explore how pathogens cross the species barrier, encouragement for industry innovation in developing diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines, and the increased use of scientific evidence to inform coherent strategic development across different policy-making functions and to support international leadership. Our paper is intended as an introduction to some of the issues for building collaboration between human and animal medicine, to be discussed in greater detail in the other contributions to this Issue....

  19. Technology challenges in small animal PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive nuclear imaging modality allowing biochemical processes to be investigated in vivo with sensitivity in the picomolar range. For this reason, PET has the potential to play a major role in the emerging field of molecular imaging by enabling the study of molecular pathways and genetic processes in living animals non-invasively. The challenge is to obtain a spatial resolution that is appropriate for rat and mouse imaging, the preferred animal models for research in biology, while achieving a sensitivity adequate for real-time measurement of rapid dynamic processes in vivo without violating tracer kinetic principles. An overview of the current state of development of dedicated small animal PET scanners is given, and selected applications are reported and discussed with respect to performance and significance to research in biology

  20. The well-being of farm animals: challenges and solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benson, G. John; Rollin, Bernard E

    2004-01-01

    .... The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions offers veterinarians, veterinary and agriculture students, animal scientists, and food animal producers both practical methods to enhance farm animal well-being, and greater...

  1. Challenges to Public Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Challenges to Public Health. Tracing of the infection. Isolation of patients to stop spread. Laboratory diagnosis. Hospitalization &Treatment. Stock pile & supply of drugs. Planning & mitigation. Information to public. Support to SEARO countries.

  2. World Organisation for Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Simulation Exercises Info list & RSS National Disease Contingency Plans WAHIS-Wild Interface World Animal Health Official ... FOOD SAFETY ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE STANDARDS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE View more themes The OIE in brief PRESS ROOM ...

  3. Genomic Tools and Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Ricardo

    2016-09-07

    Animals have been selected to improve their productivity in order to increase the profitability to the producer. In this scenario, not much attention was given to health traits. As a consequence of that, selection was made for animals with higher production and a shortened productive life. In addition to that, the intense production system used in livestock has forced animals to be exposed to higher pathogen loads, therefore predisposing them to infections. Infectious diseases are known to be caused by micro-organisms that are able to infect and colonize the host, affecting their physiological functions and causing problems in their production and on animal welfare. Even with the best management practices, diseases are still the most important cause of economic losses in the animal industry. In this review article we have addressed the new tools that could be used to select animals to better cope with diseases and pathogens.

  4. [Animal Health Law-- the National Animal Health Act and the European Animal Health Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Mettenleiter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Animal Health Act that replaces the Animal Disease Act, which is currently in force, creates a regulatory framework in order to not only, as has been the case so far, control animal diseases that had already broken out, but in order to already prevent in advance possible outbreaks of animal diseases by means of preventive measures. The instruments to this effect are described here. At European level, too, the idea of prevention is set to play a greater role in the future, with the draft EU legal instrument on animal health, that has to date only been discussed at Commission level, also contributing to a simplification and easier implementation by the persons subject to law by harmonising the currently fragmented Community law. It remains to be seen when the deliberations in the Council and European Parliament will begin.

  5. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included.

  8. Animal Health in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Jainudeen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developing countries in Africa and Asia are located in the tropics (23° north and south of the equator. The poor productivity of ruminants in these countries is mostly due to inadequate nutrition, infectious diseases, low rates of reproduction, poor genotype, high ambient temperatures and socioeconomic constraints. In addition to infectious diseases which have long since been eradicated or brought under control in developed countries, there are diseases unique to the tropical environment. In the past, the diagnosis of most diseases was based on serological tests. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, a rapid method of identifying viral and bacterial infections, is contributing to the eradication or control of most epidemic diseases which inflict high mortality. Less attention has; however, been given to subclinical diseases which adversely affect reproduction, growrh rates and reduced performance (draught power, milk and meat. The interaction of veterinary epidemiology and agricultural economics has helped epidemiologists and veterinarians to focus on the economic importance of animal diseases. The emerging trends in animal health include new diagnostic methods using DNA probes, new vaccines, sustainable parasite control schemes and herd health monitoring. The study of infectious diseases of veterinary importance will continue to he supported by modern techniques of molecular biology. Veterinary curricula should emphasis both animal health and production in the context of current national development occurring in the livestock sector.

  9. The ethical challenges of animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Gluck, John P

    2015-10-01

    In 1966, Henry K. Beecher published an article entitled "Ethics and Clinical Research" in the New England Journal of Medicine, which cited examples of ethically problematic human research. His influential paper drew attention to common moral problems such as inadequate attention to informed consent, risks, and efforts to provide ethical justification. Beecher's paper provoked significant advancements in human research policies and practices. In this paper, we use an approach modeled after Beecher's 1966 paper to show that moral problems with animal research are similar to the problems Beecher described for human research. We describe cases that illustrate ethical deficiencies in the conduct of animal research, including inattention to the issue of consent or assent, incomplete surveys of the harms caused by specific protocols, inequitable burdens on research subjects in the absence of benefits to them, and insufficient efforts to provide ethical justification. We provide a set of recommendations to begin to address these deficits.

  10. Speciation of animal fat: Needs and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy; Ofori, Jack Appiah

    2017-05-24

    The use of pork fat is a concern for Muslims and Jews, who for religious reasons avoid consuming anything that is pig-derived. The use of bovine materials, including beef fat, is prohibited in Hinduism and may also pose a risk of carrying the infectious agent for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vegetable oils are sometimes adulterated with animal fat or pork fat with beef fat for economic gain. The development of methods to determine the species origin of fat has therefore become a priority due to the complex and global nature of the food trade, which creates opportunities for the fraudulent use of these animal fats as food ingredients. However, determining the species origin of fats in processed foods or composite blends is an arduous task as the adulterant has a composition that is very similar to that of the original fat or oil. This review examines some of the methods that have been developed for fat speciation, including both fat-based and DNA-based methods, their shortcomings, and the need for additional alternatives. Protein-based methods, specifically immunoassays targeting residual proteins in adipose tissue, that are being explored by researchers as a new tool for fat speciation will also be discussed.

  11. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odongo, N.E.; Garcia, M.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  12. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odongo, N E; Garcia, M; Viljoen, G J [Animal Production and Health Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  13. The challenge of electronic health records (EHRs) design and implementation: responses of health workers to drawing a 'big and rich picture' of a future EHR programme using animated tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkings, K Neil; Wilson, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the use of animation tools to aid visualisation of problems for discussion within focus groups, in the context of healthcare workers discussing electronic health records (EHRs). Ten healthcare staff focus groups, held in a range of organisational contexts. Each focus group was in four stages: baseline discussion, animator presentation, post-animator discussion and questionnaire. Audio recordings of the focus groups were transcribed and coded and the emergent analytic themes analysed for issues relating to EHR design and implementation. The data allowed a comparison of baseline and post-animator discussion. The animator facilitated discussion about EHR issues and these were thematically coded as: Workload; Sharing Information; Access to Information; Record Content; Confidentiality; Patient Consent; and Implementation. We illustrate that use of the animator in focus groups is one means to raise understanding about a proposed EHR development. The animator provided a visual 'probe' to support a more proactive and discursive localised approach to end-user concerns, which could be part of an effective stakeholder engagement and communication strategy crucial in any EHR or health informatics implementation programme. The results of the focus groups were to raise salient issues and concerns, many of which anticipated those that have emerged in the current NHS Connecting for Health Care Records programme in England. Potentially, animator-type technologies may facilitate the user ownership which other forms of dissemination appear to be failing to achieve.

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The news letter reports workshops and training events in the areas of animal diseases and application of ELISA and radioimmunoassay techniques. It also describes existing and future coordinated research programs in animal production and health

  15. Priority issues in tropical animal health management | Etuk | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of livestock to sustain family and local economies have been acknowledged worldwide. However, the major constraints to the attainment of this potential especially in the tropics have been the incidence of disease and sundry ill health. Thus the development of an effective animal health management strategy ...

  16. Issues and special features of animal health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrot Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance, the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  17. Issues and special features of animal health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Béringue, Vincent; Coulon, Jean-Baptiste; Fourichon, Christine; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Krebs, Stéphane; Rainard, Pascal; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Torny, Didier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Zientara, Stephan; Zundel, Etienne; Pineau, Thierry

    2011-08-24

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare.Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context.Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents.The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  18. Economic Decisions in Farm Animal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised...... informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the Animal Health Economics workshops which was held on the 9th and 10th of November, 2006 at the Research Centre...... Foulum in Denmark. Different disciplines and approaches within Animal Health Economics are dealt with by the different scientists and the report contains a variety of novel results and projects. The resulting discussion is summarized in the report....

  19. eHealth Recruitment Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was…

  20. Requirements for laboratory animals in health programmes*

    OpenAIRE

    Held, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory animals are essential for the successful execution of many health programmes. A wide variety of animal models is used in the worldwide efforts to improve the control of various diseases, and in the basic research needed to improve health care. Biomedical programmes require specially-bred animals reared under controlled conditions, with close attention given to such factors as physical environment, nutrition, microbiological status, and genetic background. The need for a regular sup...

  1. The challenge of electronic health records (EHRs design and implementation: responses of health workers to drawing a 'big and rich picture' of a future EHR programme using animated tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Jenkings

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion We illustrate that use of the animator in focus groups is one means to raise understanding about a proposed EHR development. The animator provided a visual 'probe' to support a more proactive and discursive localised approach to end-user concerns, which could be part of an effective stakeholder engagement and communication strategy crucial in any EHR or health informatics implementation programme. The results of the focus groups were to raise salient issues and concerns, many of which anticipated those that have emerged in the current NHS Connecting for Health Care Records programme in England. Potentially, animator- type technologies may facilitate the user ownership which other forms of dissemination appear to be failing to achieve.

  2. Challenges of influenza A viruses in humans and animals and current animal vaccines as an effective control measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are genetically diverse and variable pathogens that share various hosts including human, swine, and domestic poultry. Interspecies and intercontinental viral spreads make the ecology of IAV more complex. Beside endemic IAV infections, human has been exposed to pandemic and zoonotic threats from avian and swine influenza viruses. Animal health also has been threatened by high pathogenic avian influenza viruses (in domestic poultry) and reverse zoonosis (in swine). Considering its dynamic interplay between species, prevention and control against IAV should be conducted effectively in both humans and animal sectors. Vaccination is one of the most efficient tools against IAV. Numerous vaccines against animal IAVs have been developed by a variety of vaccine technologies and some of them are currently commercially available. We summarize several challenges in control of IAVs faced by human and animals and discuss IAV vaccines for animal use with those application in susceptible populations. PMID:29399575

  3. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This second volume deals with integrated modeling...... and analyses of multi-omics datasets from theoretical and computational approaches and presents their applications in animal production and health as well as veterinary medicine to improve diagnosis, prevention and treatment of animal diseases. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal...

  4. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This newsletter contains brief reviews of the meetings held between September and November, 1991, and a list of the nine co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division is given. A tenth CRP, focussing on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments, is currently being planned. Developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory, Seibersdorf are detailed

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This issue of the newsletter outlines activities and coordinated research programmes in the areas of animal production and animal health for the year 1999 by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in food and agriculture and FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf

  6. Working together to safeguard animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbens, Nigel

    2016-02-13

    Nigel Gibbens, the UK's Chief Veterinary Officer, gives an update on some of the areas of animal health and welfare of particular interest to government and considers how farmers, vets and government can work together to control and respond to animal disease. British Veterinary Association.

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to highlights of research coordination meetings, training events and announcements of upcoming events, this issue of the Newsletter carries editorial note regarding the potential of biotechnology in animal health and production for developing countries

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Newsletter presents the staffing, past and forthcoming workshops, status of the existing coordinated research programmes in the area of application of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in animal production and health.

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    In addition to highlights of research coordination meetings, training events and announcements of upcoming events, this issue of the Newsletter carries editorial note regarding the potential of biotechnology in animal health and production for developing countries.

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Newsletter presents the staffing, past and forthcoming workshops, status of the existing coordinated research programmes in the area of application of nuclear and biotechnology techniques in animal production and health

  11. Animal health and welfare: equivalent or complementary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, B; Vandenheede, M

    2014-04-01

    The concepts of 'health' and 'welfare', whether applied to humans or animals, are increasingly becoming linked. But are they really indissociable, or even synonymous? Although human health is generally defined as a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, animal health is still considered as simply the absence of disease. However, recent advances in scientific knowledge are forcing us to revise our ideas about the mental complexity of animals and to recognise their ability to feel emotions and to have needs and a degree of consciousness. The precise objective of animal welfare science is to study their mental states and their ability to adapt to domestication. Pending a global application of this concept of health, including mental health, to animals as well as to humans, the idea of welfare remains an important element in addition to traditional health concerns. More generally, this linkage fuels the ethical debate about the ways in which people use animals, prompting society to change its stance on some aspects of the issue.

  12. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences.

  13. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  14. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This past year went particularly fast with many unexpected and emergency food security challenges and it was indeed an asking period for the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. We have some remarkable achievements but also some gaps, such as improved communication and collaboration, where we need to improve our support to Member States. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter. The Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field to optimally serve our Member States

  15. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelley, Martin; Parsons, David; Morgan, Kaye; Siu, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mmx1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 μm and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice.There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging.Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the

  17. 76 FR 63210 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...This is a notice to inform the public of an upcoming meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. The meeting is organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal health.

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 9 workshops, research coordination meetings, consultant meetings and training courses held between January-June 1995, the status of 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit of the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf, a presentation of 4 forthcoming events (meetings, workshops, training courses) and 3 software programs in the field

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No.21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports on 7 meetings, workshops and training courses held between september and december 1994, the status of the 6 co-ordinated research programmes organized by the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, recent developments at the Animal Production Unit at the IAEA Laboratory Seibersdorf and a presentation of 5 forthcoming meetings, workshops and training courses

  20. [Role of vaccination in animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    According to the IFAH, veterinary vaccines currently account for 26% of the global market in veterinary medicines, reflecting the importance of vaccines in animal health, as well as the number of wild and domesticated target species, and the monospecific nature of most vaccines. Multispecies vaccines include tetanus and rabies. In 2010, the number of food-producing animals was estimated to be roughly 20 billion and is rising gradually. Fowl currently represent the main food species. Veterinary vaccination has allowed the eradication of rinderpest, as officially declared last year (2011), jointly by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Rinderpest was a real scourge, and was only the second viral disease to be totally eradicated (after human smallpox). One characteristic of veterinary vaccination is the DIVA approach, "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals". The DIVA strategy is especially interesting for regulated control of diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and classical swine fever. DIVA vaccination requires prior serological testing. Vaccination is also used for wild animals such as foxes (rabies) and wild boars (classical swine fever). "In ovo" vaccination of fowl on day 18 of the incubation period is used to prevent Marek's disease for instance, and double vaccination (vector and insert) to prevent both Marek's disease and Gumboro's disease in fowl. Animal vaccination can also help to protect human health, as illustrated by fowl vaccination against salmonellosis.

  1. Health Journalism: Health Reporting Status and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshvari, Mahrokh; Yamani, Niko; Adibi, Peyman; Shahnazi, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Media play crucial role in disseminating health information. Due to the importance of accurate health news reports, and the national need to professionalism in health journalism, this study aimed to investigate the characteristics of health journalists, and health reporting status and the challenges involved. Using consensus sampling, this descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all health news reporters in Isfahan (34 journalists) in 2015-2016. Data collection was done via a researcher-made questionnaire. Content validity of the questionnaire was determined by qualitative method and based on the opinions of six experts. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 98.0. Data analysis was done by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 and descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for analyzing the responses to two open questions. Among 34 journalists, 56% were women and 44% men; the majority of journalists (65%) had no specialized training on health reporting, 35% of journalists were not able to understand the health issues, and the knowledge of medical terminology in 59% of them was moderate to low. The most important required skill for reporters was the ability to interpret medical research reports (88%), 97% were eager to participate in specialized health education. Our study showed that health journalists lacked knowledge and specialized training for dissemination of health news. This has brought about serious challenges. Thus, development and implementation of training courses in close collaboration with educational department of the Ministry of Health and news programs professionals at Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting is highly recommended.

  2. Indicatoren voor dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid = Indicators for animal welfare and animal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Neijenhuis, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality requires a monitor for animal welfare and animal health to evaluate progress in this field. This report describes which indicators for animal welfare and health can be used for the monitor

  3. Wildlife health investigations: needs, challenges and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In a fast changing world with growing concerns about biodiversity loss and an increasing number of animal and human diseases emerging from wildlife, the need for effective wildlife health investigations including both surveillance and research is now widely recognized. However, procedures applicable to and knowledge acquired from studies related to domestic animal and human health can be on partly extrapolated to wildlife. This article identifies requirements and challenges inherent in wildlife health investigations, reviews important definitions and novel health investigation methods, and proposes tools and strategies for effective wildlife health surveillance programs. Impediments to wildlife health investigations are largely related to zoological, behavioral and ecological characteristics of wildlife populations and to limited access to investigation materials. These concerns should not be viewed as insurmountable but it is imperative that they are considered in study design, data analysis and result interpretation. It is particularly crucial to remember that health surveillance does not begin in the laboratory but in the fields. In this context, participatory approaches and mutual respect are essential. Furthermore, interdisciplinarity and open minds are necessary because a wide range of tools and knowledge from different fields need to be integrated in wildlife health surveillance and research. The identification of factors contributing to disease emergence requires the comparison of health and ecological data over time and among geographical regions. Finally, there is a need for the development and validation of diagnostic tests for wildlife species and for data on free-ranging population densities. Training of health professionals in wildlife diseases should also be improved. Overall, the article particularly emphasizes five needs of wildlife health investigations: communication and collaboration; use of synergies and triangulation approaches; investments

  4. eHealth recruitment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-11-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was literature-informed, it failed to enroll the desired number of girls within a reasonable time period. Therefore, the recruitment strategy was reformulated to incorporate principles of social marketing and traditional marketing techniques. The resulting plan included both targeted, highly specific strategies (e.g., selected churches), and more broad-based approaches (e.g., media exposure, mass mailings, radio advertisements). The revised plan enabled recruitment goals to be attained. Media appeared to be particularly effective at reaching the intended audience. Future research should identify the most effective recruitment strategies for reaching potential eHealth audiences.

  5. Alternatives to antibiotics: a symposium on the challenges and solutions for animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Bruce S; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Donovan, David M; Gay, Cyril G

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotics are one of the most important medical discoveries of the 20th century and will remain an essential tool for treating animal and human diseases in the 21st century. However, antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens and concerns over their extensive use in food animals has garnered global interest in limiting antibiotic use in animal agriculture. Yet, limiting the availability of medical interventions to prevent and control animal diseases on the farm will directly impact global food security and safety as well as animal and human health. Insufficient attention has been given to the scientific breakthroughs and novel technologies that provide alternatives to antibiotics. The objectives of the symposium 'Alternatives to Antibiotics' were to highlight promising research results and novel technologies that could potentially lead to alternatives to conventional antibiotics, and assess challenges associated with their commercialization, and provide actionable strategies to support development of alternative antimicrobials. The symposium focused on the latest scientific breakthroughs and technologies that could provide new options and alternative strategies for preventing and treating diseases of animals. Some of these new technologies have direct applications as medical interventions for human health, but the focus of the symposium was animal production, animal health and food safety during food-animal production. Five subject areas were explored in detail through scientific presentations and expert panel discussions, including: (1) alternatives to antibiotics, lessons from nature; (2) immune modulation approaches to enhance disease resistance and to treat animal diseases; (3) gut microbiome and immune development, health and diseases; (4) alternatives to antibiotics for animal production; and (5) regulatory pathways to enable the licensure of alternatives to antibiotics.

  6. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This newsletter contains brief reports of the five FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meetings held in the first half of 1991, focussing on improving animal reproduction research and animal disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques, improving the productivity of indiginous African livestock using radioimmunoassay and related techniques, improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods, and an inter-regional network for improving the productivity of camelids. The FAO/IAEA International Symposium on ''Nuclear and Related Techniques in Animal Production and Health'' is summarily described (the Symposium Proceedings should be published in October, 1991), and applications are invited for a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments

  7. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  8. The allocation of resources for animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S

    2017-04-01

    Economics is too important to be left to the experts. This paper is therefore mainly for animal health policy-makers who are not economists but want a better appreciation of how economics can contribute to resource allocation decisions. First, the methodology of economic analysis is outlined with the objective of dispelling criticisms of its simplifying assumption of rationality. Then, unusual in economics but more familiar to biological and veterinary scientists, the technical aspects of transforming resources into products are discussed. Economics' unique contribution is to establish criteria enabling society to obtain maximum value from the production and distribution of goods and services (products) from scarce resources. Animal disease reduces the efficiency of this process. Value is intangible, but people reveal how much they value (i.e. feel a want or need for) products by what they actually consume, in quality and quantity. Animal products, and so implicitly animals themselves, are an example. The strength of people's preferences is reflected both in the prices they pay for market goods and services, and by their political votes where markets do not exist. Importantly, there is a difference between financial value (what the consumer pays for a good or service) and economic value (the maximum amount of money they would be prepared to pay for it). Allocating resources for animal health creates both costs and benefits, financial and economic. Moreover, costs and benefits are both private and social because of externalities, a major consideration in infectious diseases. Where production decisions with animal health implications are made exclusively for private benefit, government has a role in providing incentives for animal sectors to act in ways that result in socially efficient outcomes.

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The activities of the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division are carried out through the operation of Co-ordinated Research Programmes and Technical Co-operation projects, both of which aim to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in tropical and subtropical countries to identify and resolve problems connected with livestock development. This particular programme at the outset, it was envisaged that an inter-disciplinary approach would be adopted by each participating institute whereby studies on nutrition, reproduction and health would be integrated into a number of site specific projects. The one discussed in this newsletter covers animal production and focussing on animal reproduction and reproduction-nutrition interactions. This paper contains an outline for the program which encourages scientists from universities and research institutes to provide assistance and solutions to developing countries on the technical difficulties associated with artificial insemination

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This Issue outlines recent activities of the Animal Production and Health Section outstanding among them being the support it provides to the implementation of over 40 Technical Cooperation Projects and eight Coordinated Research Projects. Future activities will focus on the theme of 'Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies (with emphasis on biotechnology) and Capacity Building.

  11. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This Issue outlines recent activities of the Animal Production and Health Section outstanding among them being the support it provides to the implementation of over 40 Technical Cooperation Projects and eight Coordinated Research Projects. Future activities will focus on the theme of 'Sustainable Intensification of Livestock Production Systems through Technologies (with emphasis on biotechnology) and Capacity Building

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the importance of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) in improving all aspects of human social, economic and cultural life and the role played by the IAEA's Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, in using these technologies to undertake training programmes in Africa. Coordinated research programmes, training and other events are also announced

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the importance of Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) in improving all aspects of human social, economic and cultural life and the role played by the IAEA's Animal Production and Health Sub-programme, in using these technologies to undertake training programmes in Africa. Coordinated research programmes, training and other events are also announced.

  15. Participatory evaluation of delivery of animal health care services by community animal health workers in Karamoja region of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bugeza

    Full Text Available An evaluation exercise was carried out to assess the performance of Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs in the delivery of animal health care services in Karamoja region, identify capacity gaps and recommend remedial measures.Participatory methods were used to design data collection tools. Questionnaires were administered to 204 CAHWs, 215 farmers and 7 District Veterinary Officers (DVOs to collect quantitative data. Seven DVOs and 1 Non Government Organization (NGO representative were interviewed as key informants and one focus group discussion was conducted with a farmer group in Nakapiripirit to collect qualitative data. Questionnaire data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Key messages from interviews and the focus group discussion were recorded in a notebook and reported verbatim.70% of the farmers revealed that CAHWs are the most readily available animal health care service providers in their respective villages. CAHWs were instrumental in treatment of sick animals, disease surveillance, control of external parasites, animal production, vaccination, reporting, animal identification, and performing minor surgeries. Regarding their overall performance 88.8%(191/215 of the farmers said they were impressed. The main challenges faced by the CAHWs were inadequate facilitation, lack of tools and equipments, unwillingness of government to integrate them into the formal extension system, poor information flow, limited technical capacity to diagnose diseases, unwillingness of farmers to pay for services and sustainability issues.CAHWs remain the main source of animal health care services in Karamoja region and their services are largely satisfactory. The technical deficits identified require continuous capacity building programs, close supervision and technical backstopping. For sustainability of animal health care services in the region continuous training and strategic deployment of paraprofessionals that are formally recognised by the

  16. Participatory evaluation of delivery of animal health care services by community animal health workers in Karamoja region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeza, James; Kankya, Clovice; Muleme, James; Akandinda, Ann; Sserugga, Joseph; Nantima, Noelina; Okori, Edward; Odoch, Terence

    2017-01-01

    An evaluation exercise was carried out to assess the performance of Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) in the delivery of animal health care services in Karamoja region, identify capacity gaps and recommend remedial measures. Participatory methods were used to design data collection tools. Questionnaires were administered to 204 CAHWs, 215 farmers and 7 District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to collect quantitative data. Seven DVOs and 1 Non Government Organization (NGO) representative were interviewed as key informants and one focus group discussion was conducted with a farmer group in Nakapiripirit to collect qualitative data. Questionnaire data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Key messages from interviews and the focus group discussion were recorded in a notebook and reported verbatim. 70% of the farmers revealed that CAHWs are the most readily available animal health care service providers in their respective villages. CAHWs were instrumental in treatment of sick animals, disease surveillance, control of external parasites, animal production, vaccination, reporting, animal identification, and performing minor surgeries. Regarding their overall performance 88.8%(191/215) of the farmers said they were impressed. The main challenges faced by the CAHWs were inadequate facilitation, lack of tools and equipments, unwillingness of government to integrate them into the formal extension system, poor information flow, limited technical capacity to diagnose diseases, unwillingness of farmers to pay for services and sustainability issues. CAHWs remain the main source of animal health care services in Karamoja region and their services are largely satisfactory. The technical deficits identified require continuous capacity building programs, close supervision and technical backstopping. For sustainability of animal health care services in the region continuous training and strategic deployment of paraprofessionals that are formally recognised by the traditional civil

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency's programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    As we move into the second half of 1998, it is appropriate to look forward to 1999 which will see the commencement of four new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and the initiation of new round of biennium support for the Agency`s programme of Technical C-operation (TC). The technical direction of support through these two activities reflects the process that was begun with the external review of the animal production and heath Sub-programme in 1996. Thus in the animal health field this year we have started three new CRPs on rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Newcastle Disease, and in 1999 we will start a new CRP on developing techniques for separating foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccinated animals from those naturally infected. In the animal production field we will start new CRPs in 1999 on purine derivative analysis in urine, and on tannins whilst in veterinary drug residue analysis the first CRP will commence, again in 1999. Further information on these activities is contained in this Newsletter

  19. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 50, July 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    The biggest event this year was undoubtedly, the successful International Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health that was held from 8 to 11 June 2009, here in Vienna. It was attended by more than 400 participants from about 100 Member States of the IAEA and FAO, including several international organizations, with oral and poster contributions. The most important aspects of the symposium were to renew old and form new acquaintances, to discuss common topics and strategies and to form networks and partnerships to address animal production and health problems. The symposium was indeed topical and designed to address issues of importance to our Member States. The new and emerging areas of interest such as One Heath, Food Security and Safety and our ability to produce more and healthier animals and animal products in an 'environmentally safe, clean and ethical' way were hotly discussed. Some of the conclusions and challenges that animal scientists face, whose primary concern have been improving livestock productivity, are more extensively reported on in this newsletter. In addition, we will publish full length papers of all the oral presentations, and some of the most imminent poster presentations, as symposium proceedings shortly. Both past and future activities are described in further detail in this newsletter

  20. Scripts, animal health and biosecurity : The moral accountability of farmers' talk about animal health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enticott, Gareth; Vanclay, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of script theory to understandings of animal health risks. Script theory has long played an important role in studies of health and risk, yet the application of script theories is often vague and confused. Theories from different ontological perspectives are

  1. The Effect of Probiotics on Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Corcionivoschi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria and their effect in combating digestive disorders in humans and animals has been demonstrated and supported in numerous scientific studies. Probiotic bacteria are used in a wide range of nutritional techniques in order to support the host organism during physiological strain, to reduce stress due to technology and to combat diarrheal syndromes (occurring naturally or pharmacologically induced. Based on a rich bibliographic material, this paper presents the role of probiotic bacteria to equilibrate the beneficial microbial population and in bacterial turnover by stimulating the host immune response via specific secretions (eg. bacteriocins and competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic germs in the digestive tract (Salmonella, E. coli. In the same context, this review presents the basic studies on the effect of probiotic bacteria in health maintenance for the main species of farm animals: pigs, poultry, cattle and sheep.

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the activities of the Animal Production and Health Section and the Sub-programme. Apart from the regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and the customary technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, the personnel were involved in the technical evaluation of applications for new TC projects by Member States for the 2005/2006 biennial project cycle. The Section also was also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2006/2007 Work and Budget Programme

  3. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  5. Genomics to benefit livestock production: improving animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Stuart Plastow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The primary principle underlying the application of genomics is that it has the most value for difficult and expensive to measure traits. These traits will differ between species and probably also between markets. Maintenance of health will be one of the biggest challenges for efficient livestock production in the next few decades. This challenge will only increase in the face of demand for animal protein, resistance to existing drugs, and the pressure to reduce the use of antibiotics in agriculture. There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility for all diseases but little has been done to make use of this variation to date. In part this is because it is very difficult as well as expensive to measure this variation. This suggests that genomics should provide one of the ways of tackling the challenge of improving animal health. This paper will discuss the concepts of resistance, variation in susceptibility, and resilience; provide examples and present some recent results in cattle and pigs; and briefly discuss the application of gene editing in relation to disease resistance.

  6. Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 2 - Safety & Security Chapter 2 - Environmental Hazards Animal-Associated Hazards Heather Bair-Brake, Ryan M. Wallace, G. Gale Galland, Nina Marano HUMAN INTERACTION WITH ANIMALS: A RISK FACTOR FOR INJURY AND ILLNESS Animals, ...

  7. 76 FR 57682 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... 90 [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0125] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY... notice to inform the public of an upcoming meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health... animal health. DATES: The meeting will be held September 23, 2011, from noon to 5 p.m. (eastern daylight...

  8. 76 FR 9537 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...This is a notice to inform the public of three upcoming meetings of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal health, including the pending proposed rule implementing USDA's traceability framework and establishing an aquaculture subcommittee.

  9. Health of plants, animals and ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwitz, P.A.; Weers, A.W. van

    1988-12-01

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the Dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). It presents the elaboration of subproject 2 'Health of plants, animals and ecosystems'. The study had been based upon the following questions: Does the application of the radiation-protection principes, intended to the protection of man, offer sufficient protection for populations of plants and animals?; If that sufficient protection does exsist, are there situations imagible which are exceptions therefore?; Which studies should be made if the forementioned questions cannot be answered sufficiently? The gravity of radiation effects turns out to depend on the radiation dose an on the part of the population which is exposed. On the base of literature it is concluded that effects upon aquatic and terristric populations are excluded below radiation levels of 1 mGy/day. From the application of the generic models it appears that the radiation burden of organisms will remain below 1 mGy/day. Since the radiation burden of man in actual practice will be nearly always lower certainly no effects upon plants, animals and ecosystems are to be expected. An exception is possible for situations in which the distribution does not take place in the living environment of man; in that case protection of man is no need for limiting the radiation levels. Such locations do not exsist in the Netherlands. For the Dutch situation, in view of the actual and expected radiation levels, the in the report derived upper limits for the radiation levels will certainly be reached. It is recommended to make for the Netherlands, starting from concrete source terms, estimations which are based upon concrete situations, with the help of the generic models. In view of the foregoing the necessity therefore is small. Next it is recommeded to keep following the international developments in this area. (H.W.). 60 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Science to support aquatic animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 37

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    This issue focuses on the specific biotechnological methods that have the greatest potential for livestock production and health in developing countries, and which of these require nuclear and related techniques? The consultants' meeting that we held during 2001 (http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d3/public/ gene-technologies.pdf) provided us with the answers. We have subsequently discussed these concepts further with FAO, ILRI and other partners, and have planned a series of activities over the next two years to facilitate the transition of our Sub-programme. The first is an FAO/IAEA International Symposium on 'Applications of Gene Based Technologies for Improving Animal Production and Health in Developing Countries' which will be held here in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2003. The official announcement is included in this Newsletter. This will be followed by three inter-regional training courses, to be held during 2004 and 2005, to train scientists in developing countries on the molecular techniques currently being used in the fields of animal nutrition, genetics and disease diagnosis. Subsequently, four new CRPs will be initiated during 2005-2006, dealing with (a) rumen molecular techniques for predicting and enhancing productivity; (b) manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression; (c) characterization of small ruminant genetic resources aimed at selection for parasite resistance; and (d) improvement of diagnostic tests for African Swine Fever to assist in molecular epidemiology. The announcements for the first two have already appeared in previous Newsletters and that for the third will be in the next issue. The projects that have been approved for implementation during the next biennium (2003-2004) are listed in this Newsletter.

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This issue focuses on the specific biotechnological methods that have the greatest potential for livestock production and health in developing countries, and which of these require nuclear and related techniques? The consultants' meeting that we held during 2001 (http://www.iaea.org/programmes/nafa/d3/public/ gene-technologies.pdf) provided us with the answers. We have subsequently discussed these concepts further with FAO, ILRI and other partners, and have planned a series of activities over the next two years to facilitate the transition of our Sub-programme. The first is an FAO/IAEA International Symposium on 'Applications of Gene Based Technologies for Improving Animal Production and Health in Developing Countries' which will be held here in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2003. The official announcement is included in this Newsletter. This will be followed by three inter-regional training courses, to be held during 2004 and 2005, to train scientists in developing countries on the molecular techniques currently being used in the fields of animal nutrition, genetics and disease diagnosis. Subsequently, four new CRPs will be initiated during 2005-2006, dealing with (a) rumen molecular techniques for predicting and enhancing productivity; (b) manipulation of nutrition in utero to alter gene expression; (c) characterization of small ruminant genetic resources aimed at selection for parasite resistance; and (d) improvement of diagnostic tests for African Swine Fever to assist in molecular epidemiology. The announcements for the first two have already appeared in previous Newsletters and that for the third will be in the next issue. The projects that have been approved for implementation during the next biennium (2003-2004) are listed in this Newsletter

  13. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  14. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R.; Cottrill, Bruce; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-01-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  15. Animal health surveillance applications: The interaction of science and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeberg, Preben

    2012-08-01

    Animal health surveillance is an ever-evolving activity, since health- and risk-related policy and management decisions need to be backed by the best available scientific evidence and methodology. International organizations, trade partners, politicians, media and the public expect fast, understandable, up-to-date presentation and valid interpretation of animal disease data to support and document proper animal health management - in crises as well as in routine control applications. The delivery and application of surveillance information need to be further developed and optimized, and epidemiologists, risk managers, administrators and policy makers need to work together in order to secure progress. Promising new developments in areas such as risk-based surveillance, spatial presentation and analysis, and genomic epidemiology will be mentioned. Limitations and areas in need of further progress will be underlined, such as the general lack of a wide and open exchange of international animal disease surveillance data. During my more than 30 year career as a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology I had the good fortune of working in challenging environments with different eminent colleagues in different countries on a variety of animal health surveillance issues. My career change from professor to Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) - "from science to application" - was caused by my desire to see for myself if and how well epidemiology would actually work to solve real-life problems as I had been telling my students for years that it would. Fortunately it worked for me! The job of a CVO is not that different from that of a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology; the underlying professional principles are the same. Every day I had to work from science, and base decisions and discussions on documented evidence - although sometimes the evidence was incomplete or data were simply lacking. A basic understanding of surveillance methodology is very useful for a CVO, since it provides

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Project reviews and research coordination meetings on milk production, rinderpest diagnosis, animal vaccinations, quality assurance in veterinary diagnostic laboratories and evaluation of animal feeds are the major highlights of this issue of the Newsletter

  17. Gut microbiomes and their metabolites shape human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woojun

    2018-03-01

    The host genetic background, complex surrounding environments, and gut microbiome are very closely linked to human and animal health and disease. Although significant correlations between gut microbiota and human and animal health have been revealed, the specific roles of each gut bacterium in shaping human and animal health and disease remain unclear. However, recent omics-based studies using experimental animals and surveys of gut microbiota from unhealthy humans have provided insights into the relationships among microbial community, their metabolites, and human and animal health. This editorial introduces six review papers that provide new discoveries of disease-associated microbiomes and suggest possible microbiome-based therapeutic approaches to human disease.

  18. Health infrastructural challenges to health management information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study aims to assess health management information systems at the ... workers' ability to practice and use the health data generated at their Primary Health ... Only 2 (5.7%) of the health centres surveyed were capable of operating the ... The government at all levels should ensure collective effort and political will to ...

  19. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  20. [Ethical challenges of genetic manipulation and research with animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling.

  1. Animal models of binge drinking, current challenges to improve face validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Rolland, Benjamin; Gierski, Fabien; Martinetti, Margaret P; Naassila, Mickael

    2018-05-05

    Binge drinking (BD), i.e., consuming a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time, is an increasing public health issue. Though no clear definition has been adopted worldwide the speed of drinking seems to be a keystone of this behavior. Developing relevant animal models of BD is a priority for gaining a better characterization of the neurobiological and psychobiological mechanisms underlying this dangerous and harmful behavior. Until recently, preclinical research on BD has been conducted mostly using forced administration of alcohol, but more recent studies used scheduled access to alcohol, to model more voluntary excessive intakes, and to achieve signs of intoxications that mimic the human behavior. The main challenges for future research are discussed regarding the need of good face validity, construct validity and predictive validity of animal models of BD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This newsletter contains brief summaries of the final Research Co-ordination Meetings of Co-ordinated Research Programmes on ''Strengthening Animal Reproduction Research in Asia Through the Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and ''Strengthening Animal Disease Diagnosis in Asia Through Application of Immunoassay Techniques'' and of the first Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Milk-Producing Animals in Tropical and Subtropical Environments Through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques''. Developments at the IAEA's Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf, are described

  4. 76 FR 28910 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...This document informs the public of the next meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. In this document, we provide a new date for the July 2011 meeting, which had been scheduled for the previous week. The meeting is being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal health, including the pending proposed rule implementing USDA's traceability framework and establishing an aquaculture subcommittee.

  5. Health seeking behaviour and challenges in utilising health facilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and long distance to health facilities. Conclusions: There is potential to increase access to health care in rural areas by increasing the frequency of mobile clinic services and strengthening the community health worker strategy. Key words: Health seeking behaviour, Rural community, Health facilities, Challenges, Uganda ...

  6. Nanometrology - challenges for health regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailton Carreteiro Damasceno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between metrology, nanotechnology and nanoscience and sanitary regulation is discussed from the point of view of its importance and the interrelationship between the themes for the development of products and services involving nanotech-nology. The discussion involves the main techniques for measuring dimensional, chemical and biological properties of materials, and presents some of the challenges for the future. Issues such as processes of standardization and regulation in Europe, U.S. and Brazil are also addressed, providing an overview of how these processes are related to sanitary regulation.

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This issue of the newsletter briefs on forthcoming events and on-going activities of the Joint Division. Active Co-ordinated Research Programmes, training workshops, expert meetings in the fields of animal feed supplementation, animal productivity and reproductive efficiency, and diagnostic methodologies in disease control are highlighted

  8. Plantibodies in human and animal health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, Daniel O; Adebiyi, Adebowale I

    2016-06-01

    Antibodies are essential part of vertebrates' adaptive immune system; they can now be produced by transforming plants with antibody-coding genes from mammals/humans. Although plants do not naturally make antibodies, the plant-derived antibodies (plantibodies) have been shown to function in the same way as mammalian antibodies. PubMed and Google search engines were used to download relevant publications on plantibodies in medical and veterinary fields; the papers were reviewed and findings qualitatively described. The process of bioproduction of plantibodies offers several advantages over the conventional method of antibody production in mammalian cells with the cost of antibody production in plants being substantially lesser. Contrary to what is possible with animal-derived antibodies, the process of making plantibodies almost exclusively precludes transfer of pathogens to the end product. Additionally, plants not only produce a relatively high yield of antibodies in a comparatively faster time, they also serve as cost-effective bioreactors to produce antibodies of diverse specificities. Plantibodies are safe, cost-effective and offer more advantages over animal-derived antibodies. Methods of producing them are described with a view to inspiring African scientists on the need to embrace and harness this rapidly evolving biotechnology in solving human and animal health challenges on the continent where the climate supports growth of diverse plants.

  9. Challenges of Managing Animals in Disasters in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Sebastian; Linnabary, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This article describes common challenges to managing animals in disasters in the US, summarizes how some of these challenges are being met and makes recommendations on how to overcome others. Many predictable adverse situations affecting animals and their owners can be prevented when communities develop a comprehensive emergency management strategy that integrates animal care into planning, preparedness, mitigation, and recovery activities, as well as response. Abstract Common ...

  10. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Global Research Global ... adverse reactions to the drugs. Women also suffer gender-specific consequences of HIV, including recurrent vaginal yeast ...

  11. Animal Production and Health Newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter includes reports of FAO/IAEA-organized meetings held between 17 September 1990 and 23 November 1990, with emphasis on the development and application of radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques to study Foot and Mouth Disease, bluetongue vins and other diseases, and animal reproduction. The status of existing coordinated research programmes is summarized, and a new coordinated research programme on the development of supplementation strategies for milk-producing animals in tropical and subtropical environments is announced. Applications for contracts to participate in this programme are invited. The role of the Section's Animal Production Unit at Seibersdorf is reviewed, and a list of forthcoming events is given

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This issue of the newsletter highlights coordinated research programs in animal diseases including ELISA and RIA techniques in reproductive studies. Announcement of staff changes and forthcoming events are also covered

  13. 12904 ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ZERO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor hygiene of the enclosures and washing the udders instead of teats only may predispose animals to ... management including provision of good quality nutritious feed, clean water, ... antibiotics for prevention and treatment of diseases [7].

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In addition to announcements of forthcoming training and meeting programs, as well as status of coordinated research programs, this issue highlights application of molecular biology in diagnosis of animal diseases in developing countries.

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This issue of the newsletter highlights coordinated research programs in animal diseases including ELISA and RIA techniques in reproductive studies. Announcement of staff changes and forthcoming events are also covered.

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In addition to announcements of forthcoming training and meeting programs, as well as status of coordinated research programs, this issue highlights application of molecular biology in diagnosis of animal diseases in developing countries

  17. Providing animal health services to the poor in Northern Ghana: rethinking the role of community animal health workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockshell, Jonathan; Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina

    2014-02-01

    The Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) system has been promoted as an alternative solution to providing animal health services in marginal areas. Yet, access to quality animal health services still remains a fundamental problem for livestock dependent communities. This paper uses the concepts of accessibility, affordability, and transaction costs to examine the perceptions of livestock keepers about the various animal health service providers. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 120 livestock-keeping households in the Tolon-Kumbungu and Savelugu-Nanton districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. A multinomial logit model was used to determine the factors that influence households' choice of alternative animal health service providers. The results show that the government para-vets are the most preferred type of animal health service providers while CAHWs are the least preferred. Reasons for this observation include high transaction costs and low performance resulting from limited training. In areas with few or no government para-vets, farmers have resorted to self-treatment or to selling sick animals for consumption, which has undesirable health implications. These practices also result in significant financial losses for farmers. This paper finds that the CAHWs' system is insufficient for providing quality animal health services to the rural poor in marginal areas. Therefore, market-smart alternative solutions requiring strong public sector engagement to support livestock farmers in marginal areas and setting minimum training standards for animal health service providers merit policy consideration.

  18. Urban mental health: Challenges and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review: To provide an update on urban mental health and highlight the challenges that require urgent attention. Recent findings: The majority of the world's population live in towns and urbanization is expected to increase in all areas of the world. Challenges to mental health in urban...... services. Fast and unstructured urbanization, such as that seen in many developing countries, further exacerbates these challenges. There are promising initiatives emerging including initiatives to end homelessness, to improve access to green areas in urban environments, to provide emergency psychiatric...

  19. Public health challenges in sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Melody J; Weinstock, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    Sunscreens are a popular choice for protection from ultraviolet radiation, and hence, important components in the public health campaign to reduce the burden of skin cancer. Public health messages in skin cancer prevention have been used effectively in educational campaigns. The benefits of sunscreen extend beyond skin cancer prevention into other aspects of health and disease prevention: sunscreen decreases the risk for sunburn during physical activity outdoors and seems not to increase the risk for osteoporosis. Public health efforts have laid a solid foundation on which to face the continuing challenge of promoting and developing effective public health campaigns and health policies that encourage sunscreen use, sun protection, and the primary prevention of skin cancer. In this article, the controversies, concerns, and challenges of sunscreen use as it relates to public health are discussed.

  20. Using smartphones to improve animal health and food security ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 mai 2016 ... Primary animal health workers in Laos learn to use smartphones in their practice. A smartphone application developed with IDRC support is helping primary animal health workers (PAHWs) in Laos PDR to quickly and accurately answer questions and treat poultry. The app is also helping farmers raise ...

  1. Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such ‘shared risks’ from environmental hazards has not been realised. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The ‘One Health initiative’ and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development in the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sentinel event coordination in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species.

  2. Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 60 ... Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Journal Home > Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  3. Improving animal health for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Andy

    2014-11-29

    Animals are vital to ensuring food security for individuals, families and communities in countries around the world. In this, the latest article in Veterinary Record's series promoting One Health, Andy Stringer, director of veterinary programmes at the Society for the Protection of Animals Abroad, discusses how improving animal health, particularly of poultry and working equids, has the potential to reduce poverty and promote food security and sustainable livelihoods in low-income countries. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  5. Challenges to Native American health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, J; Kindig, D; Sprenger, A

    1998-01-01

    Native American health care programs face complex and unprecedented challenges resulting from the increased assumption of clinical operations by tribal authorities, shortfalls in Federal funding, modifications in state and Federal health and welfare programs, and intensifying involvement with managed care organizations. These challenges are further complicated by service populations that are increasing at a faster rate than the growth in funding. The authors conducted onsite surveys of 39 Native American health programs in 10 states in order to assess the organizational and management problems they faced. The trend toward transfer of health programs from the Indian Health Service to tribal operation seems likely to continue and accelerate. The survey results indicate that in order for programs to be effective in the long run, they will need to be guided by skilled managers able to adapt to these powerful changes in the health care environment.

  6. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 56, July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The first six months of this year have been a busy time for all personnel in the sub-programme. Apart from our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to on-going national and regional Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC country officers) of the 2014/15 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2010/11 end of cycle programmatic performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States for the present programme cycle 2012-2013. In response to many requests from our readers, I have decided to give a brief overview of our Subprogramme as background to the upcoming 'Scientific Forum' (Food for the Future: Meeting the Challenges with Nuclear Applications) that will take place during he IAEA General Conference in September 2012. The focus of the Animal production and Health Subprogramme activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the sub-programme are animal nutrition, animal reproduction and breeding and animal health. Problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies to: - Characterize and optimally utilize locally available feed and feed resources to enhance maximum energy conversion, whilst minimizing methane and CO2 emissions; - Increase animal production through the characterization of livestock genetic make-up to drive the integration of locally adapted animal breeds with trait selected exotic breeds to satisfy the increasing demand for 'more and of better

  7. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 56, July 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    The first six months of this year have been a busy time for all personnel in the sub-programme. Apart from our regular Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to on-going national and regional Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC country officers) of the 2014/15 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2010/11 end of cycle programmatic performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States for the present programme cycle 2012-2013. In response to many requests from our readers, I have decided to give a brief overview of our Subprogramme as background to the upcoming 'Scientific Forum' (Food for the Future: Meeting the Challenges with Nuclear Applications) that will take place during he IAEA General Conference in September 2012. The focus of the Animal production and Health Subprogramme activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the sub-programme are animal nutrition, animal reproduction and breeding and animal health. Problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies to: - Characterize and optimally utilize locally available feed and feed resources to enhance maximum energy conversion, whilst minimizing methane and CO2 emissions; - Increase animal production through the characterization of livestock genetic make-up to drive the integration of locally adapted animal breeds with trait selected exotic breeds to satisfy the increasing demand for 'more and of better

  8. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  9. Respiratory nanoparticle-based vaccines and challenges associated with animal models and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Narasimhan, Balaji; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2015-12-10

    Vaccine development has had a huge impact on human health. However, there is a significant need to develop efficacious vaccines for several existing as well as emerging respiratory infectious diseases. Several challenges need to be overcome to develop efficacious vaccines with translational potential. This review focuses on two aspects to overcome some barriers - 1) the development of nanoparticle-based vaccines, and 2) the choice of suitable animal models for respiratory infectious diseases that will allow for translation. Nanoparticle-based vaccines, including subunit vaccines involving synthetic and/or natural polymeric adjuvants and carriers, as well as those based on virus-like particles offer several key advantages to help overcome the barriers to effective vaccine development. These include the ability to deliver combinations of antigens, target the vaccine formulation to specific immune cells, enable cross-protection against divergent strains, act as adjuvants or immunomodulators, allow for sustained release of antigen, enable single dose delivery, and potentially obviate the cold chain. While mouse models have provided several important insights into the mechanisms of infectious diseases, they are often a limiting step in translation of new vaccines to the clinic. An overview of different animal models involved in vaccine research for respiratory infections, with advantages and disadvantages of each model, is discussed. Taken together, advances in nanotechnology, combined with the right animal models for evaluating vaccine efficacy, has the potential to revolutionize vaccine development for respiratory infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  18. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustgaard, J [Institute of Physiology, Endocrinology and Bloodgrouping, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1976-07-01

    In the fight against animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have also proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminthic diseases. In this context it should be stressed that reduced productivity due to protein loss caused by intestinal parasites is a problem of paramount economic importance in developing as well as developed countries. Recently radioisotopes in the so-called radioimmunoassays have also been applied in determination of the hormonal status of farm animals and to elucidate its relation to the environment and to the physiological and nutritional condition of the animal. This rapidly developing technique may make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle and sheep more efficiently than has hitherto been the case. Production of animal protein of a high biological value for human nutrition is still a problem of great concern for the less developed countries. Without doubt the use of nuclear techniques, hand in hand with other research methods, will be of great help in overcoming this condition, always provided that the countries in question possess the necessary equipment and trained personnel.

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  20. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  1. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  2. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  3. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  4. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  5. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  9. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted.

  11. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustgaard, J.

    1976-01-01

    In the fight against animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have also proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminthic diseases. In this context it should be stressed that reduced productivity due to protein loss caused by intestinal parasites is a problem of paramount economic importance in developing as well as developed countries. Recently radioisotopes in the so-called radioimmunoassays have also been applied in determination of the hormonal status of farm animals and to elucidate its relation to the environment and to the physiological and nutritional condition of the animal. This rapidly developing technique may make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle and sheep more efficiently than has hitherto been the case. Production of animal protein of a high biological value for human nutrition is still a problem of great concern for the less developed countries. Without doubt the use of nuclear techniques, hand in hand with other research methods, will be of great help in overcoming this condition, always provided that the countries in question possess the necessary equipment and trained personnel

  12. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights forthcoming events including regional workshops, research coordination meetings and training courses on use isotope application in the diagnosis of animal diseases. Status of existing co-ordinated and technical co-operation research projects is also summarized

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  14. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of isotope application in animal reproduction, nutrition and disease diagnostics. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    A full report on the final research coordination meeting on the long running Coordinated Research Project supporting rinderpest eradication is contained in this Newsletter. It is reported that all the national rinderpest vaccination campaigns have been terminated and except for a very few isolated areas where vaccination continues, the effort is now on disease surveillance to demonstrate freedom from rinderpest. Other research coordination meetings on animal diseases and productivity as well as new projects are highlighted in this issue

  18. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    A full report on the final research coordination meeting on the long running Coordinated Research Project supporting rinderpest eradication is contained in this Newsletter. It is reported that all the national rinderpest vaccination campaigns have been terminated and except for a very few isolated areas where vaccination continues, the effort is now on disease surveillance to demonstrate freedom from rinderpest. Other research coordination meetings on animal diseases and productivity as well as new projects are highlighted in this issue.

  19. Animal production and health newsletter. No 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This Newsletter contains reports on the meetings and training courses held between January and April 1992, including a detailed summary of the final FAO/IAEA Research Coordination Meeting on ''Development of Feeding Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity in Areas of Fluctuating Nutrient Supply through the Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques'', held in Vienna from 30 March to 3 April. Status reports are presented for the existing nine coordinated research programs, and developments at the Animal Production Unit, Seibersdorf are described

  20. Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; DeLiberto, Thomas; Nguyen, Natalie

    2017-08-31

    Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection. However, bush-meat hunting is a complex issue promoting the need for holistic strategies to reduce transmission of zoonotic disease while addressing food security and wildlife conservation issues. Temporal and spatial separation of humans and wildlife, risk communication, and other preventative strategies should allow wildlife and humans to co-exist. Upstream surveillance, vaccination, and other tools to prevent pathogen spillover are also needed. Clear multi-sector outcomes should be defined, and a systems-based approach is needed to develop interventions that reduce risks and balance the needs of humans, wildlife, and the environment. The ultimate goal is long-term action to reduce forces driving emerging diseases and provide interdisciplinary scientific approaches to management of risks, thereby achieving optimal outcomes for human, animal, and environmental health.

  1. Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; DeLiberto, Thomas; Nguyen, Natalie T.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection. However, bush-meat hunting is a complex issue promoting the need for holistic strategies to reduce transmission of zoonotic disease while addressing food security and wildlife conservation issues. Temporal and spatial separation of humans and wildlife, risk communication, and other preventative strategies should allow wildlife and humans to co-exist. Upstream surveillance, vaccination, and other tools to prevent pathogen spillover are also needed. Clear multi-sector outcomes should be defined, and a systems-based approach is needed to develop interventions that reduce risks and balance the needs of humans, wildlife, and the environment. The ultimate goal is long-term action to reduce forces driving emerging diseases and provide interdisciplinary scientific approaches to management of risks, thereby achieving optimal outcomes for human, animal, and environmental health.

  2. Using the Neptune project to benefit Australian aquatic animal health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, M; Ernst, I; Adlard, R D

    2015-06-29

    Diseases of aquatic animals have had, and continue to have, a significant impact on aquatic animal health. In Australia, where fisheries and aquaculture are important industries, aquatic species have been subject to serious disease outbreaks, including pilchard herpesvirus, the cause of one of the largest wild fish kills ever recorded. At the same time, there is a consensus that Australia's parasite fauna are largely unknown, and that aquatic animal health information is difficult to access. Managing aquatic animal diseases is challenging because they may be entirely new, their hosts may be new to aquaculture, and specialist expertise and basic diagnostic tools may be lacking or absent. The Neptune project was created in response to these challenges, and it aims to increase awareness of aquatic animal diseases, improve disease management, and promote communication between aquatic animal health professionals in Australia. The project consists of an online database, a digital microscopy platform containing a whole-slide image library, a community space, and online communications technology. The database contains aquatic animal health information from published papers, government reports, and other sources, while the library contains slides of key diseases both endemic and exotic to Australia. These assets make Neptune a powerful resource for researchers, students, and biosecurity officials.

  3. A Microbial Perspective on the Grand Challenges in Comparative Animal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interactions with microbial communities can have profound influences on animal physiology, thereby impacting animal performance and fitness. Therefore, it is important to understand the diversity and nature of host-microbe interactions in various animal groups (invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals). In this perspective, I discuss how the field of host-microbe interactions can be used to address topics that have been identified as grand challenges in comparative animal physiology: (i) horizontal integration of physiological processes across organisms, (ii) vertical integration of physiological processes across organizational levels within organisms, and (iii) temporal integration of physiological processes during evolutionary change. Addressing these challenges will require the use of a variety of animal models and the development of systems approaches that can integrate large, multiomic data sets from both microbial communities and animal hosts. Integrating host-microbe interactions into the established field of comparative physiology represents an exciting frontier for both fields. PMID:29556549

  4. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Margaret

    2010-12-31

    Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  5. Animal production and health newsletter, No. 49, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter highlights the upcoming International Symposium on 'Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health' from 8 to 11 June 2009 in Vienna, Austria. The Symposium will address: The early and rapid diagnosis and control methods for transboundary animal diseases including those of a zoonotic nature; Improved reproduction technologies and breeding strategies; The efficient and sustainable use of locally available resources for animal production

  6. Animal Health Ireland: providing national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Doherty, M L; Downey, L; McKenzie, K; Devitt, C; O'Flaherty, J

    2011-12-01

    Livestock production plays an important role in the Irish economy. Regulatory animal health issues are the responsibility of government, but until recently there has been no national coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues. This gap has recently been filled with the establishment of Animal Health Ireland (AHI), a not-for-profit, partnership-based organisation providing national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues in Ireland. Animal Health Ireland provides benefits to livestock producers and processors by providing the knowledge, education and coordination required to establish effective control strategies, both on-farm and nationally. This paper presents a brief overview of the context for AHI, and of its establishment and initial activities. Non-regulatory animal health issues have been prioritised. A series of work programmes (each focusing on a high-priority issue) have been established. Partnership is critical to success, both for AHI as an organisation and for effective farm-level transfer of knowledge. This model for national leadership and coordination of non-regulatory animal health issues may be of relevance elsewhere.

  7. Challenges in mental health nursing: current opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabella D

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Donna Sabella, Theresa Fay-Hillier College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: The current mental health care system in the US continues to struggle with providing adequate care and services to all that require it due to limited resources, biases from both other professions and the public, and the complexities of treatment of many of those individuals or populations that suffer from mental illness. Mental health nurses, also referred to as psychiatric nurses, are impacted by those same biases, limited resources, and complexities in their role. This paper provides a brief history of mental health nursing and a discussion of the current challenges faced within the profession. It will also include how the public's perception of both those who have mental illness and those who treat it is based on the sensationalism of those who are violent, and misunderstanding of current treatments. It is imperative that mental health nurses continue to define and educate other health care professionals as well as the general public of the role of the mental health nurse and those who suffer from mental illness. Unfortunately, some of the same bias that was present in the 1930s remains today, but perhaps with perseverance and education it will not continue into the future. Keywords: mental health, psychiatric nursing, pre- licensure, post-licensure challenges, professional obstacles, public perception

  8. Where to next with animal health in Latin America? The transition from endemic to disease-free status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, H; Romero, J R

    2017-04-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) is a leading global producer and exporter of animal products. Its livestock production systems are diverse, ranging from large-scale commercial enterprises to family farms. Countries in this region have sought to improve their animal health status through both public and private efforts. Despite significant advances in eradicating such diseases as foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever, other animal health challenges remain; constraining exports, causing negative economic impacts and threatening food security. Obtaining certification of disease-free status is only the first step towards gaining benefits from improvements in animal health. Increasing international trade means that countries must manage the sustainability of their disease-free status in conjunction with trade partners and must comply with additional food safety and animal welfare standards. This paper comments on the challenges created by this new scenario in relation to the epidemiology and economics of animal health, when seeking to improve decisionmaking for animal health management. The authors characterise the current LAC livestock landscape and animal health situation, describing transitions in disease control and the use of economics in improving animal health. They conclude with remarks on the challenges presented by decision-making, economic rationality, sources of benefits, distribution and incentives.

  9. 9 CFR 113.6 - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. 113.6 Section 113.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability § 113.6 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service testing. A...

  10. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    As part of our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TCPs), the Section evaluated our activities as part of the Agency's 2004/2005 midterm performance evaluation. During this exercise we could identify areas where good performances were achieved as well as those where further improvements were needed and which we then addressed. It became apparent that more proactive measures are needed towards the detection, control and management of emerging diseases, with particular emphasis on transboundary animal diseases and the offering of relevant support to Member States. A particular case in point is the current avian influenza situation. This issue discussed the problem posed by rinderpest and the Agency's effort in eradicating this viral disease

  11. Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in Arusha City, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... findings, majority (84.6%) of the cow's enclosures were of poor hygiene.

  12. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 57, January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Scientific Forum examined the challenges related to the improvement of food production, food protection and food safety through the use of nuclear applications. In the first session on 'Increasing Food Production' it was noted that the world will need to produce 70% more food between now and 2050 to satisfy the demand of a population in excess of 9 billion people. In this regard, the intensification and diversification of more and higher quality food in a climate-smart and sustainable manner whilst protecting the environment is therefore critical to smallholder farmers and is the key to poverty reduction and increased food security. The Forum noted that the increasing global population faces the challenge of substantially increasing food production under conditions of severe land degradation that has led to a significant reduction in the productive capacity of agricultural lands. Sustainable soil management, plant mutation breeding and animal nutrition and production are therefore critical to the improvement of agricultural productivity. The second session on 'Ensuring Food Protection' noted that global food insecurity is inherently linked to pests and diseases that harm or kill livestock and crops, as well as people working in rural agricultural areas. The losses caused by diseases and pests at both the pre- and post-harvest levels average 30-40% of agricultural outputs, making returns on agricultural investments in land, seeds, water, fertilizer, animal feed, labour and other inputs correspondingly inefficient. In addition, the world is currently facing an unprecedented increase of invasive animal and plant diseases and pests that threaten food security by causing serious losses in production and by necessitating costly control measures, including the escalating use of increasingly expensive pesticides. Outbreaks of secondary pests, the development of resistance of pests to pesticides and the increasing threat of zoonotic diseases to public health cause

  13. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Robinson, T P; Grace, D C

    2018-04-10

    This paper discusses the sustainability of livestock systems, emphasising bidirectional relations with animal health. We review conventional and contrarian thinking on sustainability and argue that in the most common approaches to understanding sustainability, health aspects have been under-examined. Literature review reveals deep concerns over the sustainability of livestock systems; we recognise that interventions are required to shift to more sustainable trajectories, and explore approaches to prioritising in different systems, focusing on interventions that lead to better health. A previously proposed three-tiered categorisation of 'hot spots', 'cold spots' and 'worried well' animal health trajectories provides a mental model that, by taking into consideration the different animal health status, animal health risks, service response needs and key drivers in each system, can help identify and implement interventions. Combining sustainability concepts with animal health trajectories allows for a richer analysis, and we apply this to three case studies drawn from North Africa and the Middle East; Bangladesh; and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We conclude that the quest for sustainability of livestock production systems from the perspective of human and animal health is elusive and difficult to reconcile with the massive anticipated growth in demand for livestock products, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as the aspirations of poor livestock keepers for better lives. Nevertheless, improving the health of livestock can contribute to health sustainability both through reducing negative health impacts of livestock and increasing efficiency of production. However, the choice of the most appropriate options must be under-pinned by an understanding of agro-ecology, economy and values. We argue that a new pillar of One Health should be added to the three traditional sustainability pillars of economics, society and environment when addressing

  14. Animal diseases of public health importance.

    OpenAIRE

    Orriss, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) interest in emerging diseases caused by foodborne pathogens derives from its role as the leading United Nations agency with a mandate for food quality and safety matters. The Food Quality and Standards Service of FAO's Food and Nutrition Division is active in all areas related to food safety and implements the FAO/World Health Organization Food Standards Program. Its activities include providing assistance to FAO's member nations in addressing pro...

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    In the June 2004 Newsletter, we focused on the topic of molecular diagnostic technologies and the way forward. It is clear from the feedback, that there is a strong desire for having reliable, definitive, sensitive, specific, cost effective and on-site diagnostic tests, in parallel with so-called herd or population surveillance tests. This will allow for the implementation of more effective disease control strategies. It is indeed exciting to consider the current technological explosion and its consequences and what potential advantages might be in store for many of our Member States. This will also help to ensure that we keep abreast of new developments and employ the most appropriate tools.The conclusions and recommendations will be placed on the web as soon as they are available and published in the next Newsletter. The second topic under discussion in this Newsletter will focus on the management of animal genetic resources. Both past and future activities are described in further detail in this issue

  16. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 42

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    Apart from regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC Country Officers) of the 2005/6 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2004/5 midterm performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. 1. The characterization of locally available feed and animal genetic resources and the identification and alleviation of constraints in the management of feeding, breeding and reproduction so as to improve the efficiency of livestock production while conserving the environment. This is done through the transfer of the following technologies: Radioimmunoassays (RIA) for measuring hormones: for identifying and mitigating constraints to efficient livestock production and improving the delivery of national artificial insemination services and providing diagnostic services to farmers

  17. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Apart from regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were also involved in the initiation (together with TC Country Officers) of the 2005/6 biennial TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2004/5 midterm performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. 1. The characterization of locally available feed and animal genetic resources and the identification and alleviation of constraints in the management of feeding, breeding and reproduction so as to improve the efficiency of livestock production while conserving the environment. This is done through the transfer of the following technologies: Radioimmunoassays (RIA) for measuring hormones: for identifying and mitigating constraints to efficient livestock production and improving the delivery of national artificial insemination services and providing diagnostic services to farmers.

  18. THE QATAR HEALTH SYSTEM: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaher ALSHAMARI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Qatar’s healthcare system is comparatively new and has experienced noteworthy developments over its brief history. In this paper, our aim is to look at the unique challenges this small nation has faced in building that system. This paper will describe the accomplishments of Qatar’s medical authorities and the challenges they faced. It will also compare public and private healthcare providers. Today, the government of Qatar has financed all the health care for this rapidly-developing, multicultural nation, but it is now planning to introduce medical insurance. This report of its experience will benefit other nations wanting to develop their own healthcare systems.

  19. Ten years' work on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebara, Karim Ben; Cáceres, Paula; Berlingieri, Francesco; Weber-Vintzel, Laure

    2012-12-01

    This article gives an overview of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Worldwide Animal Disease Notification System and highlights the major achievements during the past decade. It describes the different types of disease notification reports received and processed by the OIE. It also evaluates the three strategies implemented by the OIE in the recent years aimed at improving disease notification: introduction and use of a secure online notification system World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) and its database interface World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID); implementation of active search and verification procedures for non-official information; and enhanced building of capacity for animal disease notification to the OIE by Members Countries. The improvements are evidenced by the increasing number of reports submitted on an annual basis and the reduction in submission time together with an improvement in the quality and quantity of the immediate notifications and follow-up reports, six-monthly and annual reports submitted by Veterinary Authorities. In the recent years, the OIE's notification system provides an early warning system more sensitive and global. Consequently, there is a greater knowledge of animal diseases' distribution worldwide. As a result, it is possible to ensure better prevention, more accurate risk assessment and evaluation by diminishing the spread of known or newly emerging pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Food for thought: food systems, livestock futures and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Angela

    2013-12-01

    Global food security, livestock production and animal health are inextricably bound. However, our focus on the future tends to disaggregate food and health into largely separate domains. Indeed, much foresight work is either food systems or health-based with little overlap in terms of predictions or narratives. Work on animal health is no exception. Part of the problem is the fundamental misunderstanding of the role, nature and impact of the modern futures tool kit. Here, I outline three key issues in futures research ranging from methodological confusion over the application of scenarios to the failure to effectively integrate multiple methodologies to the gap between the need for more evidence and power and control over futures processes. At its core, however, a better understanding of the narrative and worldview framing much of the futures work in animal health is required to enhance the value and impact of such exercises.

  1. e-Health Cloud: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameela Al-Jaroodi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As the costs of healthcare services rise and healthcare professionals are becoming scarce and hard to find, it is imminent that healthcare organizations consider adopting health information technology (HIT systems. HIT allows health organizations to streamline many of their processes and provide services in a more efficient and cost-effective manner. The latest technological trends such as Cloud Computing (CC provide a strong infrastructure and offer a true enabler for HIT services over the Internet. This can be achieved on a pay-as-you-use model of the “e-Health Cloud” to help the healthcare industry cope with current and future demands yet keeping their costs to a minimum. Despite its great potential, HIT as a CC model has not been addressed extensively in the literature. There are no apparent frameworks which clearly encompass all viable schemes and interrelationships between HIT and CC. Therefore, analyzing and comparing the effectiveness of such schemes is important. In this paper we introduce the concept of “e-Health Cloud” highlighting many of its constituents and proposing building an e-health environment and elucidating many of the challenges confronting the success of the e-Health Cloud. We will also discuss different possible solutions to address challenges such as security and privacy.

  2. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health ("m-Health") is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally ("g-Health"). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools-targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment-are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the "App Store" yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  3. Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesinger, Claudius; Desprez, Bertrand; Coecke, Sandra; Casey, Warren; Zuang, Valérie

    This chapter explores the concepts, processes, tools and challenges relating to the validation of alternative methods for toxicity and safety testing. In general terms, validation is the process of assessing the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose. Validation is routinely used in various contexts in science, technology, the manufacturing and services sectors. It serves to assess the fitness-for-purpose of devices, systems, software up to entire methodologies. In the area of toxicity testing, validation plays an indispensable role: "alternative approaches" are increasingly replacing animal models as predictive tools and it needs to be demonstrated that these novel methods are fit for purpose. Alternative approaches include in vitro test methods, non-testing approaches such as predictive computer models up to entire testing and assessment strategies composed of method suites, data sources and decision-aiding tools. Data generated with alternative approaches are ultimately used for decision-making on public health and the protection of the environment. It is therefore essential that the underlying methods and methodologies are thoroughly characterised, assessed and transparently documented through validation studies involving impartial actors. Importantly, validation serves as a filter to ensure that only test methods able to produce data that help to address legislative requirements (e.g. EU's REACH legislation) are accepted as official testing tools and, owing to the globalisation of markets, recognised on international level (e.g. through inclusion in OECD test guidelines). Since validation creates a credible and transparent evidence base on test methods, it provides a quality stamp, supporting companies developing and marketing alternative methods and creating considerable business opportunities. Validation of alternative methods is conducted through scientific studies assessing two key hypotheses, reliability and relevance of the

  4. Reviewing model application to support animal health decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alexander; Salman, Mo; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Animal health is of societal importance as it affects human welfare, and anthropogenic interests shape decision making to assure animal health. Scientific advice to support decision making is manifold. Modelling, as one piece of the scientific toolbox, is appreciated for its ability to describe and structure data, to give insight in complex processes and to predict future outcome. In this paper we study the application of scientific modelling to support practical animal health decisions. We reviewed the 35 animal health related scientific opinions adopted by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thirteen of these documents were based on the application of models. The review took two viewpoints, the decision maker's need and the modeller's approach. In the reviewed material three types of modelling questions were addressed by four specific model types. The correspondence between tasks and models underpinned the importance of the modelling question in triggering the modelling approach. End point quantifications were the dominating request from decision makers, implying that prediction of risk is a major need. However, due to knowledge gaps corresponding modelling studies often shed away from providing exact numbers. Instead, comparative scenario analyses were performed, furthering the understanding of the decision problem and effects of alternative management options. In conclusion, the most adequate scientific support for decision making - including available modelling capacity - might be expected if the required advice is clearly stated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Framing global health: the governance challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Colin; Kamradt-Scott, Adam; Lee, Kelley; Reubi, David; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Rushton, Simon; Williams, Owain David; Woodling, Marie

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of global health comes governance challenges which are equally global in nature. This article identifies some of the initial limitations in analyses of global health governance (GHG) before discussing the focus of this special supplement: the framing of global health issues and the manner in which this impacts upon GHG. Whilst not denying the importance of material factors (such as resources and institutional competencies), the article identifies how issues can be framed in different ways, thereby creating particular pathways of response which in turn affect the potential for and nature of GHG. It also identifies and discusses the key frames operating in global health: evidence-based medicine, human rights, security, economics and development.

  6. Assessing the impact of aflatoxin consumption on animal health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are toxic to humans, fish and many other animals, even in low concentrations. Susceptibility to aflatoxins varies by age, health status, species and other factors. Most research has focused on aflatoxins in maize or groundnuts and their impacts on human health. However, aflatoxins are found in other foods and can also ...

  7. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    This year, the Animal Production and Health Section is 50 years old. The Animal Production and Health Section identifies new areas of interest based on the Member States' needs to improve efficiencies and to control threats to animal production and health. To this effect, several platforms, assays, diagnostic kits and technical procedures have been developed, adapted and transferred to Member States, supported by R&D, expert technical backstopping and guidance from our Animal Production and Health Laboratory. In addition, several nuclear based technologies (such as reproduction and disease related technologies (such as reproduction and disease related radioimmunoassay have been adapted to other types of chemistries (e.g. chemiluminescence instead of isotopes) to be used at the farm level. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, however, still play an important and niche role to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity needed by the livestock community in ensuring secure and safe food, to follow and measure feed and nutritional conversion into usable energy in the animal, to improve animal breeding traits towards more and of better quality animals, to monitor migratory animals and their associated pathogens, to generate safe and protective animal vaccines through the irradiation of pathogens and to develop and transfer early and rapid diagnostic platforms. Looking back at the activities of the past six months, we had several workshops, training courses, research co-ordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings. Activities scheduled for the next half-year include project review meetings, RCMs, inter-regional training courses and regional workshops. Both past and future activities are discussed in further detail in this newsletter and are also further accessible at our website.

  8. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This year, the Animal Production and Health Section is 50 years old. The Animal Production and Health Section identifies new areas of interest based on the Member States' needs to improve efficiencies and to control threats to animal production and health. To this effect, several platforms, assays, diagnostic kits and technical procedures have been developed, adapted and transferred to Member States, supported by R&D, expert technical backstopping and guidance from our Animal Production and Health Laboratory. In addition, several nuclear based technologies (such as reproduction and disease related technologies (such as reproduction and disease related radioimmunoassay have been adapted to other types of chemistries (e.g. chemiluminescence instead of isotopes) to be used at the farm level. Stable isotopes and radioisotopes, however, still play an important and niche role to achieve the levels of sensitivity and specificity needed by the livestock community in ensuring secure and safe food, to follow and measure feed and nutritional conversion into usable energy in the animal, to improve animal breeding traits towards more and of better quality animals, to monitor migratory animals and their associated pathogens, to generate safe and protective animal vaccines through the irradiation of pathogens and to develop and transfer early and rapid diagnostic platforms. Looking back at the activities of the past six months, we had several workshops, training courses, research co-ordination meetings (RCMs) and consultants meetings. Activities scheduled for the next half-year include project review meetings, RCMs, inter-regional training courses and regional workshops. Both past and future activities are discussed in further detail in this newsletter and are also further accessible at our website

  9. Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Shiffman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Global health networks, webs of individuals and organizations with a shared concern for a particular condition, have proliferated over the past quarter century. They differ in their effectiveness, a factor that may help explain why resource allocations vary across health conditions and do not correspond closely with disease burden. Drawing on findings from recently concluded studies of eight global health networks—addressing alcohol harm, early childhood development (ECD, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, pneumonia, surgically-treatable conditions, tobacco use, and tuberculosis—I identify four challenges that networks face in generating attention and resources for the conditions that concern them. The first is problem definition: generating consensus on what the problem is and how it should be addressed. The second is positioning: portraying the issue in ways that inspire external audiences to act. The third is coalition-building: forging alliances with these external actors, particularly ones outside the health sector. The fourth is governance: establishing institutions to facilitate collective action. Research indicates that global health networks that effectively tackle these challenges are more likely to garner support to address the conditions that concern them. In addition to the effectiveness of networks, I also consider their legitimacy, identifying reasons both to affirm and to question their right to exert power.

  10. Using animal models to overcome temporal, spatial and combinatorial challenges in HIV persistence research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denton, Paul W.; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Research challenges associated with understanding HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy can be categorized as temporal, spatial and combinatorial. Temporal research challenges relate to the timing of events during establishment and maintenance of HIV persistence. Spatial research challeng...... for directly addressing these research challenges. The aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of these recent translational advances made in animal models of HIV persistence....... will improve our understanding of HIV persistence and move the field closer to achieving eradication of persistent HIV. Given that humanized mice and non-human primate HIV models permit rigorous control of experimental conditions, these models have been used extensively as in vivo research platforms...

  11. Refugee health and rehabilitation: Challenges and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Amatya, Bhasker

    2017-05-16

    The current global refugee crisis poses major challenges in providing effective healthcare to refugees, particularly for non-communicable diseases management and disability. This article provides an overview of refugee health and potential challenges from the rehabilitation perspective. A literature search (both academic and grey literature) was conducted using medical and health science electronic databases and internet search engines (2001-2016). Both authors independently selected studies. Due to heterogeneity amongst identified articles, a narrative analysis was performed for best-evidence synthesis to outline the current health and rehabilitation status of refugees and existing gaps in care. Data suggest that infectious diseases requiring treatment in refugees are a minority; whilst non-communicable diseases, musculoskeletal conditions are prevalent. Many refugees arrive with complex health needs. One in 6 refugees have a physical health problem severely affecting their lives and two-thirds experience mental health problems, signifying the important role of rehabilitation. Refugees face continued disadvantage, poverty and dependence due to lack of cohesive support in their new country, which are determinants of both poor physical and mental health. This is compounded by language barriers, impoverishment, and lack of familiarity with the local environment and healthcare system. In Australia, there are concerns about sexual and gender-based violence in off-shore detention camps. Targeted physical and cognitive rehabilitative strategies have much to offer these vulnerable people to allow for improved activity and participation. Strong leadership and effective action from national and international bodies is urgently needed to develop comprehensive rehabilitation-inclusive medical care for refugees.

  12. Animal-assisted interventions as innovative tools for mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cirulli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest for the potential health benefits of human-animal interactions. Although scientific evidence on the effects is far from being consistent, companion animals are used with a large number of human subjects, ranging from children to elderly people, who benefit most from emotional support. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, this paper examines the potential for domesticated animals, such as dogs, for providing emotional and physical opportunities to enrich the lives of many frail subjects. In particular, we focus on innovative interventions, including the potential use of dogs to improve the life of emotionally-impaired children, such as those affected by autism spectrum disorders. Overall an ever increasing research effort is needed to search for the mechanism that lie behind the human-animal bond as well as to provide standardized methodologies for a cautious and effective use of animal-assisted interventions.

  13. Public health risk of antimicrobial resistance transfer from companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomba, Constança; Rantala, Merja; Greko, Christina; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Mateus, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A; Pyörälä, Satu; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Kunsagi, Zoltan; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Jukes, Helen; Törneke, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  14. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Rose

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800’s that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950’s, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  15. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Olff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of mobile health (“m-Health” is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”. However, few of the mobile applications (apps have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools—targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment—are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the “App Store” yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  16. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Social and economic aspects of aquatic animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, K E; Gunn, G J

    2017-04-01

    Aquaculture is an increasingly important source of animal protein for a growing global population. Disease is a major constraint to production, with resultant socio-economic impacts for individuals, communities and economies which rely on aquaculture. Aquatic animal health is also strongly influenced by human factors, ranging from international trade regulations to the behaviours of individuals working in aquaculture. This article summarises the human factors associated with aquaculture production using international examples for illustration.

  18. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  19. [Health literacy as one of the contemporary public health challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Eliza

    2009-01-01

    One of the fundamental public health challenges in the 21st century should be the improvement of people's health literacy, namely the understanding of health messages. The acquired high level of health literacy means that one knows how and where information concerning health determinants can be found, is able to assess it critically and in favorable conditions even modify them, which seems to be of particular importance from the perspective of heath promotion, prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, for professionals in these fields, knowledge of ways how to improve health literacy, as well as awareness of related benefits and the consequences of its poor level, seems to be indispensable. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explain the term of "health literacy", its determinants and implications.

  20. Challenges and solutions for studying collective animal behaviour in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Lacey F; Hein, Andrew M; Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Jensen, Frants H

    2018-05-19

    Mobile animal groups provide some of the most compelling examples of self-organization in the natural world. While field observations of songbird flocks wheeling in the sky or anchovy schools fleeing from predators have inspired considerable interest in the mechanics of collective motion, the challenge of simultaneously monitoring multiple animals in the field has historically limited our capacity to study collective behaviour of wild animal groups with precision. However, recent technological advancements now present exciting opportunities to overcome many of these limitations. Here we review existing methods used to collect data on the movements and interactions of multiple animals in a natural setting. We then survey emerging technologies that are poised to revolutionize the study of collective animal behaviour by extending the spatial and temporal scales of inquiry, increasing data volume and quality, and expediting the post-processing of raw data.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. A glimpse of the future in animal nutrition science. 1. Past and future challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Tedeschi, Luis Orlindo; Almeida, Amélia Katiane de; Atzori, Alberto Stanislao; Muir, James Pierre; Fonseca, Mozart Alves; Cannas, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT If the world population continues to increase exponentially, wealth and education inequalities might become more pronounced in the developing world. Thus, offering affordable, high-quality protein food to people will become more important and daunting than ever. Past and future challenges will increasingly demand quicker and more innovative and efficient solutions. Animal scientists around the globe currently face many challenging issues: from ensuring food security to prevent excess...

  2. Operationalizing the One Health approach: the global governance challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2013-10-01

    While there has been wide-ranging commitment to the One Health approach, its operationalisation has so far proven challenging. One Health calls upon the human, animal and environmental health sectors to cross professional, disciplinary and institutional boundaries, and to work in a more integrated fashion. At the global level, this paper argues that this vision is hindered by dysfunctions characterising current forms of global health governance (GHG), namely institutional proliferation, fragmentation, competition for scarce resources, lack of an overarching authority, and donor-driven vertical programmes. This has contributed, in part, to shortcomings in how One Health has been articulated to date. An agreed operational definition of One Health among key global institutions, efforts to build One Health institutions from the ground up, comparative case studies of what works or does not work institutionally, and high-level global support for research, training and career opportunities would all help to enable One Health to help remedy, and not be subsumed by, existing dysfunctions in GHG.

  3. World Organisation for Animal Health: strengthening Veterinary Services for effective One Health collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, S

    2014-08-01

    To effectively reduce health risks at the animal-human-ecosystems interface, a One Health strategy is crucially important to create strong national and regional animal health systems that are well coordinated with strong public health systems. Animal diseases, particularly those caused by new and emerging zoonotic pathogens, must be effectively controlled at their source to reduce their potentially devastating impact upon both animal and human health. As the international organisation responsible for developing standards, guidelines and recommendations for animal health, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) plays an important role in minimising animal and public health risks attributable to zoonoses and other animal diseases, which can have severe consequences for global food safety and security. National Veterinary Services, which implement OIE animal health and welfare standards and other measures, are the first line of defence against these diseases, and must have the capacity to meet the core requirements necessary for their diagnosis and control. The OIE works collaboratively with the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to improve the ability of national animal and public health systems to respond to current and emerging animal health risks with public health consequences. In addition to improving and aligning national laboratory capacities in high-risk areas, the OIE collaborates on One Health-oriented projects for key diseases, establishing model frameworks which can be applied to manage other existing and emerging priority diseases. This article reviews the role and activities of the OIE in strengthening the national Veterinary Services of its Member Countries for a more effective and sustainable One Health collaboration.

  4. Integrating animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J A; Silva, P

    2013-08-01

    Surveillance at the slaughterhouse level for animal health and food safety purposes encompasses examination for the presence of pathology, pathogens, drug residues, chemical contaminants and antimicrobial resistance. Government, industry and academia are the primary proponents of such surveillance. A variety of policies and policy instruments from voluntary to legislative may be applied to promote or obligate participation. Efforts to integrate data across such diverse organisations encounter significant legal, logistical and financial challenges. Enhancement of policies to encourage effective integration of animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control should promote: a long-term approach; collaboration among government, industry and academia; application of a risk-based scheme; and transparent public access to data, with generation of consumer-oriented communications derived from the data. A strong case can be made that the complementary pursuit of both sustainable animal health and food safety can continue to be aided by surveillance at the slaughterhouse level.

  5. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health.

  6. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and\\/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  7. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, David C; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A J M; Schepers, René W M; Heederik, Dick J J; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the past few years. Farm-specific solutions are required to further lower antimicrobial use on these farms. Reducing the burden of animal diseases at the farm level by means of a structured approach to animal health planning could be promising. This intervention study aimed to evaluate the main effects of an animal health planning program developed by an advisory team consisting of a dairy farmer, his veterinarian, and his feed adviser under the guidance of a professional facilitator. During an initial farm visit, the advisory team developed a farm-specific animal health planning program with support from the facilitator. After 1 yr, the effects of this program on animal health, production parameters, and antimicrobial use were evaluated and compared with control farms that did not have a facilitated animal health planning program. Antimicrobial use on intervention farms was significantly reduced between the start and the end of the study period; however, no significant differences in the rate of reduction between the intervention and control groups could be observed (-19% and -14%, respectively). Reduced antimicrobial use did not result in negative effects on animal health and production parameters during the study period in both groups. On intervention farms, a significant positive relationship was found between the percentage of completed action points at farm level and the percentage reduction in antimicrobial use. The level of compliance with action points and the quality of collaboration between farmer and advisers were positively associated with the accomplishment of corresponding objectives. However, the total number of objectives was negatively associated with the level

  8. Zoonoses of occupational health importance in contemporary laboratory animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankenson, F Claire; Johnston, Nancy A; Weigler, Benjamin J; Di Giacomo, Ronald F

    2003-12-01

    In contemporary laboratory animal facilities, workplace exposure to zoonotic pathogens, agents transmitted to humans from vertebrate animals or their tissues, is an occupational hazard. The primary (e.g., macaques, pigs, dogs, rabbits, mice, and rats) and secondary species (e.g., sheep, goats, cats, ferrets, and pigeons) of animals commonly used in biomedical research, as classified by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, are established or potential hosts for a large number of zoonotic agents. Diseases included in this review are principally those wherein a risk to biomedical facility personnel has been documented by published reports of human cases in laboratory animal research settings, or under reasonably similar circumstances. Diseases are listed alphabetically, and each section includes information about clinical disease, transmission, occurrence, and prevention in animal reservoir species and humans. Our goal is to provide a resource for veterinarians, health-care professionals, technical staff, and administrators that will assist in the design and on-going evaluation of institutional occupational health and safety programs.

  9. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample

  10. An insight of environmental contamination of arsenic on animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. Exposure to arsenic is mainly via intake of food and drinking water, food being the most important source in most populations. Although adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues and is even increasing in some areas. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to increased risks of skin cancer, but also some other cancers, as well as other skin lesions such as hyperkeratosis and pigmentation changes. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce arsenic exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. Animal are being exposed to arsenic through contaminated drinking water, feedstuff, grasses, vegetables and different leaves. Arsenic has been the most common causes of inorganic chemical poisoning in farm animals. Although, sub-chronic and chronic exposure of arsenic do not generally reveal external signs or symptoms in farm animals but arsenic (or metabolites concentrations in blood, hair, hoofs and urine are remained high in animals of arsenic contaminated zones. So it is assumed that concentration of arsenic in blood, urine, hair or milk have been used as biomarkers of arsenic exposure in field animals.

  11. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety.

  12. Ecohealth Chair on Human and Animal Health in Protected ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help establish an Ecohealth Chair in Human and Animal Health in Protected Ecosystems to improve the sustainability of conservation areas and the health of local ... Le nouveau site Web facilitera l'enregistrement des événements démographiques afin d'améliorer l'accès aux services pour tous. Le nouveau ...

  13. Are Village Animal Health Workers Able to Assist in Strengthening Transboundary Animal Disease Control in Cambodia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, J; Toribio, J-A L M L; Suon, S; Young, J R; Cowled, B; Windsor, P A

    2017-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 445 Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) from 19 provinces in Cambodia was undertaken. The aim was to establish their levels of training, farm visit frequency, reasons for visits and disease reporting practices, enabling the strengths and weaknesses of the VAHW system in Cambodia to be determined, in providing both a fee-based smallholder livestock clinical service and a government partnership in transboundary animal disease (TAD) surveillance and control. The study used 'guided group interviews' and identified that VAHWs had good contact with farmers with 61.5% making more than one farm visit daily. However, incomes from services remained low, with 45% VAHWs obtaining between 20 and 40% of their household income from VAHW activities. VAHWs recorded relatively high rates of disease reporting, with 72% claiming they report diseases immediately and 74% undertaking monthly reporting to veterinary authorities. Logistic regression analysis revealed VAHW contact frequency with district and/or provincial officers was associated with more VAHW farm visits, and frequency of VAHW visits to smallholder farms was positively associated with average monthly expenditure on animal medication and equipment. This suggests that increased veterinary extension to VAHWs and access to veterinary equipment, vaccines and drugs may further increase VAHW-farmer engagement. VAHWs provide an accessible, market-based, animal health 'treatment and reporting' service linked to livestock smallholders across Cambodia. However, for improved TAD prevention and more efficient control of outbreaks, research that assesses provision of an animal health 'preventive-based' business model is urgently needed to reduce both the costs to farmers and the risks to the economy due to foot-and-mouth disease and other TADs in Cambodia. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Digital health and the challenge of health systems transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Hassane; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Fortin, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have transformed all sectors of society. The health sector is no exception to this trend. In light of "digital health", we see multiplying numbers of web platforms and mobile health applications, often brought by new unconventional players who produce and offer services in non-linear and non-hierarchal ways, this by multiplying access points to services for people. Some speak of a "uberization" of healthcare. New realities and challenges have emerged from this paradigm, which question the abilities of health systems to cope with new business and economic models, governance of data and regulation. Countries must provide adequate responses so that digital health, based increasingly on disruptive technologies, can benefit for all.

  15. Animal health constraints perceived to be important in Kilosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out in Kilosa and Gairo districts to identify and characterize animal health constraints as perceived by stakeholders in the beef and milk value chains. A combination of methods was used to collect data, namely, mapping of value chain actors and baseline survey. The baseline survey involved 220 ...

  16. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  17. The animal sensorimotor organization: a challenge for the environmental complexity thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijzer, Fred; Arnellos, Argyris

    2017-01-01

    Godfrey-Smith's environmental complexity thesis (ECT) is most often applied to multicellular animals and the complexity of their macroscopic environments to explain how cognition evolved. We think that the ECT may be less suited to explain the origins of the animal bodily organization, including this organization's potentiality for dealing with complex macroscopic environments. We argue that acquiring the fundamental sensorimotor features of the animal body may be better explained as a consequence of dealing with internal bodily-rather than environmental complexity. To press and elucidate this option, we develop the notion of an animal sensorimotor organization (ASMO) that derives from an internal coordination account for the evolution of early nervous systems. The ASMO notion is a reply to the question how a collection of single cells can become integrated such that the resulting multicellular organization becomes sensitive to and can manipulate macroscopic features of both the animal body and its environment. In this account, epithelial contractile tissues play the central role in the organization behind complex animal bodies. In this paper, we relate the ASMO concept to recent work on epithelia, which provides empirical evidence that supports central assumptions behind the ASMO notion. Second, we discuss to what extent the notion applies to basic animal architectures, exemplified by sponges and jellyfish. We conclude that the features exhibited by the ASMO are plausibly explained by internal constraints acting on and within this multicellular organization, providing a challenge for the role the ECT plays in this context.

  18. Emerging health issues: the widening challenge for population health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J; Butler, Colin D

    2006-12-01

    The spectrum of tasks for health promotion has widened since the Ottawa Charter was signed. In 1986, infectious diseases still seemed in retreat, the potential extent of HIV/AIDS was unrecognized, the Green Revolution was at its height and global poverty appeared less intractable. Global climate change had not yet emerged as a major threat to development and health. Most economists forecast continuous improvement, and chronic diseases were broadly anticipated as the next major health issue. Today, although many broadly averaged measures of population health have improved, many of the determinants of global health have faltered. Many infectious diseases have emerged; others have unexpectedly reappeared. Reasons include urban crowding, environmental changes, altered sexual relations, intensified food production and increased mobility and trade. Foremost, however, is the persistence of poverty and the exacerbation of regional and global inequality. Life expectancy has unexpectedly declined in several countries. Rather than being a faint echo from an earlier time of hardship, these declines could signify the future. Relatedly, the demographic and epidemiological transitions have faltered. In some regions, declining fertility has overshot that needed for optimal age structure, whereas elsewhere mortality increases have reduced population growth rates, despite continuing high fertility. Few, if any, Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including those for health and sustainability, seem achievable. Policy-makers generally misunderstand the link between environmental sustainability (MDG #7) and health. Many health workers also fail to realize that social cohesion and sustainability--maintenance of the Earth's ecological and geophysical systems--is a necessary basis for health. In sum, these issues present an enormous challenge to health. Health promotion must address population health influences that transcend national boundaries and generations and engage with the

  19. The effectiveness of health animations in audiences with different health literacy levels: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelink, Corine S; van Weert, Julia C M; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-13

    Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health literate audiences, it is concluded that

  20. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health

  1. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''5 1 Cr, 32 P and 35 S) and stable ( 15 N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  2. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Donagh P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy.

  3. Public engagement on global health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emma R M; Masum, Hassan; Berndtson, Kathryn; Saunders, Vicki; Hadfield, Tom; Panjwani, Dilzayn; Persad, Deepa L; Minhas, Gunjeet S; Daar, Abdallah S; Singh, Jerome A; Singer, Peter A

    2008-05-20

    Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T) is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  4. Digital health and the challenge of health systems transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Fortin, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have transformed all sectors of society. The health sector is no exception to this trend. In light of “digital health”, we see multiplying numbers of web platforms and mobile health applications, often brought by new unconventional players who produce and offer services in non-linear and non-hierarchal ways, this by multiplying access points to services for people. Some speak of a “uberization” of healthcare. New realities and challenges have emerged from this paradigm, which question the abilities of health systems to cope with new business and economic models, governance of data and regulation. Countries must provide adequate responses so that digital health, based increasingly on disruptive technologies, can benefit for all. PMID:28894741

  5. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described.

  6. Application of nuclear techniques in animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Under United Nations Development Programme in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, a beginning was made in the use of nuclear techniques in animal health and production at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Radioisotopes are being used as tracers for investigations in rumen digestion, metabolism, physiology and endocrinology of animals. Irradiated vaccines against parasitic infestation are being developed. Various facilities available, salient research findings of the studies carried so far and research work under progress and future development plans are described. (M.G.B.)

  7. 75 FR 52504 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring... Warnken, Management and Program Analyst, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, VS, APHIS, 2150...

  8. 75 FR 34422 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0024] Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... establish the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health for a 2-year period. The Secretary of...

  9. Integrating global animal health, public health and tropical animal health issues into the veterinary curriculum: a South African/African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, G E; Coetzer, J A W; Terblanche, H M

    2009-08-01

    The globalisation of trade and food, the increased volume and speed of international travel, climate change, and the related escalation of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases mean that countries are now more interconnected and interdependent than ever before. Africa is beleaguered by a range of endemic infectious and parasitic tropical diseases which, due to its diverse wildlife populations and indigenous livestock, can serve as a reservoir of high-impact or transboundary diseases and play a role in the emergence of disease, particularly at the wildlife, domestic animal and human interfaces. It is therefore essential to integrate animal and public health issues into the veterinary curriculum. Veterinary training in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has focused on producing veterinarians to serve the livestock sector although socio-economic changes and privatisation of Veterinary Services have caused curriculum adjustments, as have globalisation and the increased risk of the spread of transboundary diseases. In South Africa, undergraduate veterinary training is more clinically oriented than in other regions. Animal and public health issues are covered in the curriculum, although their global relevance is not emphasised. The authors describe the undergraduate veterinary curriculum and summarise post-graduate programmes in South Africa. They also discuss a more comprehensive core-elective approach to the current curriculum and the need to adapt to new challenges facing the profession. Finally, they examine the potential use of innovative technology in undergraduate and post-graduate training and professional development, the importance of regional and international collaboration and the accreditation and recognition of veterinary training.

  10. Innovating in Health Care – Modern Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebija Izetbegović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of this article is to present that innovating in health care begins to become an imperative in present time. Innovating will enable the achievement of the highest quality health care results and the patients' satisfaction with the least amount of financial resources.Methods: The thorough literature review of multifaceted sources was conducted including: studies, books, monographies and peer – reviewed journals with the goal of achieving the clearer picture of today's modern challenges in the complex fi eld of health care innovation.Discussion: Theoretical and empirical studies clearly indicate that the innovation is one of the key factors in the competitiveness of the organization and its survival in the market. Developed countries of the world today are making significant efforts in order for innovation to become a national priority, with special emphasis placed on measuring innovation performance. Results of theoretical and practical studies show that in the future, treatment of the most diffi cult and complex diseases of our time, through the entirely new discoveries and results, derived from the process of innovation, will project entirely new positive forms and outcomes in the health care.Conclusion: There is no doubt that the humanity and medical science will through innovation succeed to win the battles against the majority of the most complex contemporary diseases. Malignant neoplasm of tomorrow, through the application of a new, innovative approaches to research, processes and treatments will become a chronic diseases. Among many, the particular problem in the process of innovation will represent the cost of research and development (R&D, production and the safety of prescription drugs.

  11. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 46, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    In response to many requests from our readers, I will continue to highlight a practical topic related to animal production and health in this section of the newsletter. Increasing the efficiency of animal reproduction is a critical component of a holistic approach to sustainably increase animal productivity in developing Member States. For example, the resources spent to formulate and obtain the ingredients for dairy rations are wasted when a significant proportion of the cows in the herd are dry due to delays in achieving pregnancy. Effective genetic selection to improve productivity is only possible if a regular supply of potential replacements is generated by the females already in the herd or flock. For this reason, improving reproductive efficiency is a key aspect of many of the APH projects

  12. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Improving Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT or Pet Therapy is an adjunctive therapy by taking advantage of human and animal interaction, activate the physiological and psychological mechanisms, initiate positive changes improving health in metabolism. In recent years, this interaction are in use to treat psychological and psychiatric disorders such as stress, depression, loneliness, pervasive developmental disorders affect negatively to human health. Furthermore, AAT has been increasingly used to improve quality of life, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. The aim of this paper is to identify AAT by reviewing human and animal interaction, evaluate how AAT has a scientific background from past to now. Also, we aim to give some information about the risks, institutional applications, some factors referring AAT’s mechanism of action and chronic diseases, psychological and physical improvements provided with animal assisted therapies. The therapy results will be evaluated more advisable providing AAT is being applied with public health specialist, veterinarian, physician, psychologist, psychiatrist and veterinary public health experts who are monitor applications. Especially, the psychosomatic effects result from physical, emotional and play mechanism of action of HDT can be used for improving quality of life in individuals with chronic diseases. In Turkey, there is no any investigation which have been performed in this scientific field. It is quitely important to evaluate the benefits of this therapy accurately and to select various methods proper to diseases. Consequently, it is obvious that AAT will be considered by the healthcare services as a supportive therapy process for improving human health in Turkey and needs further studies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 263-272

  13. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Corine S.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Haven, Carola J.; Smit, Edith G.

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  14. The effectiveness of health animations in audiences with different health literacy levels: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, C.S.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Haven, C.J.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  15. Challenges of Managing Animals in Disasters in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian E. Heath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common to many of the repeated issues surrounding animals in disasters in the U.S. is a pre-existing weak animal health infrastructure that is under constant pressure resulting from pet overpopulation. Unless this root cause is addressed, communities remain vulnerable to similar issues with animals they and others have faced in past disasters. In the US the plight of animals in disasters is frequently viewed primarily as a response issue and frequently handled by groups that are not integrated with the affected community’s emergency management. In contrast, animals, their owners, and communities would greatly benefit from integrating animal issues into an overall emergency management strategy for the community. There is no other factor contributing as much to human evacuation failure in disasters that is under the control of emergency management when a threat is imminent as pet ownership. Emergency managers can take advantage of the bond people have with their animals to instill appropriate behavior amongst pet owners in disasters.

  16. Salmonella contamination: a significant challenge to the global marketing of animal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Plym, Forshell; Wierup, M

    2006-08-01

    Salmonellosis is the most common food-borne bacterial disease in the world. Salmonella is a significant pathogen for food-producing animals and these animals are the primary source of salmonellosis. It is estimated that herd prevalence varies between 0% and 90%, depending on the animal species and region. The pathogen is spread by trade in animals and non-heated animal food products. The emergence of strains that are resistant to antimicrobials, often as a result of antimicrobial usage in animals, is a public health hazard of great concern. It is increasingly accepted that the prevalence of Salmonella in animal production must be decreased and, in the European Union, plans to achieve this are currently being implemented. In this paper, the authors propose various risk mitigation strategies. Successful control must focus on a range of preventive actions because there is no simple 'silver bullet' solution to reduce Salmonella contamination. The authors conclude that the key to controlling Salmonella is to follow the general rules that have been successfully applied to other infectious diseases.

  17. Animal-assisted interventions: A national survey of health and safety policies in hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Deborah E; Siebens, Hannah C; Mueller, Megan K; Gibbs, Debra M; Freeman, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    Animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs are increasing in popularity, but it is unknown to what extent therapy animal organizations that provide AAI and the hospitals and eldercare facilities they work with implement effective animal health and safety policies to ensure safety of both animals and humans. Our study objective was to survey hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations on their AAI policies and procedures. A survey of United States hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations was administered to assess existing health and safety policies related to AAI programs. Forty-five eldercare facilities, 45 hospitals, and 27 therapy animal organizations were surveyed. Health and safety policies varied widely and potentially compromised human and animal safety. For example, 70% of therapy animal organizations potentially put patients at risk by allowing therapy animals eating raw meat diets to visit facilities. In general, hospitals had stricter requirements than eldercare facilities. This information suggests that there are gaps between the policies of facilities and therapy animal organizations compared with recent guidelines for animal visitation in hospitals. Facilities with AAI programs need to review their policies to address recent AAI guidelines to ensure the safety of animals and humans involved. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Potency Of Bacteriocin For Animal Health And Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria related to animal and public health stresses the importance of decreasing the use of antibiotics in animal production. The reduction of antibiotic application in livestock can only be achieved if alternative antimicrobial strategies are available. A number of strategies have been explored to control microbial pathogens and to improve growth and feed efficiency in livestock without the use of antibiotics. Bacteriocins have been more extensively studied and proposed as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics in animal husbandry. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides ribosomally synthesized by many species of Bacteria and some strains of Archaea. In general, bacteriocins just exhibited bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against other bacteria that are closely related to the producing strain. The main mechanisms of bacteriocin activity vary from pore formation in cytoplasmic membranes to the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis and enzyme activities (RNAse or DNAse in target cells. The use of bacteriocins in probiotic applications, as preservatives, and most excitingly as alternatives to conventional antibiotics is being broadly explored and studied. This review will describe the bacteriocins potency for animal health and food safety, as well as the results of bacteriocin study that had been conducted in Indonesia.

  19. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

  20. The science behind One Health: at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, Michael P; Steer, Clifford J; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Patterson, Ned; Kennedy, Shaun; Sriramarao, P

    2017-05-01

    Humans face a grand quality-of-life challenge as growing demands for resources for an ever-expanding population threaten the existence of wildlife populations, degrade land, and pollute air and water. Public investment and policy decisions that will shape future interactions of humans, animals, and the environment need scientific input to help find common ground for durable and sustainable success. The Second International Conference on One Medicine One Science brought together a broad range of scientists, trainees, regulatory authorities, and health experts from 34 countries to inform and discuss the human impacts of air quality; the complexities of water quality, access, and conflicts; the opportunities and uncertainties in precision medicine; and the role of science communication in health policy formulation. Workshops focused on the roles and development of physician-scientists and multidisciplinary teams in complex problem solving, Big Data tools for analysis and visualization, international policy development processes, and health models that benefit animals and humans. Key realizations were that local and regional health challenges at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment are variations of the same overarching conflicts and that international gatherings provide new opportunities for investigation and policy development that are broadly applicable. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Public engagement on global health challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhas Gunjeet S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience with public engagement activities regarding the risks and benefits of science and technology (S&T is growing, especially in the industrialized world. However, public engagement in the developing world regarding S&T risks and benefits to explore health issues has not been widely explored. Methods This paper gives an overview about public engagement and related concepts, with a particular focus on challenges and benefits in the developing world. We then describe an Internet-based platform, which seeks to both inform and engage youth and the broader public on global water issues and their health impacts. Finally, we outline a possible course for future action to scale up this and similar online public engagement platforms. Results The benefits of public engagement include creating an informed citizenry, generating new ideas from the public, increasing the chances of research being adopted, increasing public trust, and answering ethical research questions. Public engagement also fosters global communication, enables shared experiences and methodology, standardizes strategy, and generates global viewpoints. This is especially pertinent to the developing world, as it encourages previously marginalized populations to participate on a global stage. One of the core issues at stake in public engagement is global governance of science and technology. Also, beyond benefiting society at large, public engagement in science offers benefits to the scientific enterprise itself. Conclusion Successful public engagement with developing world stakeholders will be a critical part of implementing new services and technologies. Interactive engagement platforms, such as the Internet, have the potential to unite people globally around relevant health issues.

  2. Prenatal stress, immunity and neonatal health in farm animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, E; Quesnel, H; Prunier, A

    2013-12-01

    The high pre-weaning mortality in farm animal species and poor welfare conditions of reproductive females question modern industrial farming acceptability. A growing body of literature has been produced recently, investigating the impact of maternal stress during gestation on maternal and offspring physiology and behavior in farm animals. Until now, the possible impact of prenatal stress on neonatal health, growth and survival could not be consistently demonstrated, probably because experimental studies use small numbers of animals and thus do not allow accurate estimations. However, the data from literature synthesized in the present review show that in ungulates, maternal stress can sometimes alter important maternal parameters of neonatal survival such as colostrum production (ruminants) and maternal care to the newborn (pigs). Furthermore, maternal stress during gestation can affect maternal immune system and impair her health, which can have an impact on the transfer of pathogens from the mother to her fetus or neonate. Finally, prenatal stress can decrease the ability of the neonate to absorb colostral immunoglobulins, and alter its inflammatory response and lymphocyte functions during the first few weeks of life. Cortisol and reproductive hormones in the case of colostrogenesis are pointed out as possible hormonal mediators. Field data and epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the role of maternal welfare problems in neonatal health and survival.

  3. Consultancy to dairy farmers relating to animal health and herd health management on small- and medium-sized farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, H; Nechanitzky, K; Sturmlechner, F; Drillich, M

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain information about animal health challenges for dairy farmers of small- and medium-sized herds and about the fields in which consultancy services should be improved. The hyperlink to an internet-based survey was sent to 9,021 farmers in Austria. The survey included questions about the participants and their farms, about who is consulting with the farmers with regard to animal health, feeding, sire selection, construction of barns and animal husbandry, about animal health issues farmers find most challenging, and about their demands for improved consultancy services. The questionnaire was completed anonymously. Analyses were stratified by milk yield (categorized) and whether farmers worked full-time or part-time. The overall response rate was 11.3% (n=1,018). The majority of farms kept less than 20 cows (54.0%) or 20 to 50 cows (40.1%). With regard to animal health, the veterinarian was the most important consultant for the majority of farmers (84.6%). On issues related to feeding, sire selection, and stable construction, the veterinarian was seen as a less important consultant than specialists in these fields (20.4, 11.6, and 7.9% suggested the veterinarian as an important consultant in these areas). The survey indicated that reproductive disorders, udder disease, poor conception rate, lameness, and calf diarrhea represent the most important challenges to farmers. Of these, concerns about calf diarrhea were affected by milk yield of the herds and management. More high- than low-yielding farms (11.7 vs. 6.4%) and more full-time than part-time managed herds (9.6 vs.4.3%) regarded calf diarrhea as an important problem. Farmers would welcome improved consultancy with regard to fertility, feeding, and sire selection. The results indicated which animal health issues farmers find particularly challenging and displayed which areas farmers require improved consultancy services. Veterinarians and organizations offering consultancy

  4. Toward One Health: are public health stakeholders aware of the field of animal health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Dórea

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the perception that human and veterinary medicines can cooperate in more ways than just fighting zoonoses, the authors organized a roundtable during the 2013 annual meeting of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS. Collaborations between human and animal health sectors were reported to often rise in response to zoonotic outbreaks (during crisis time and be mainly based on personal networks. Ways to maintain and strengthen these links were discussed.

  5. Toward One Health: are public health stakeholders aware of the field of animal health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Dupuy, Céline; Vial, Flavie; Reynolds, Tera L; Akkina, Judy E

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the perception that human and veterinary medicines can cooperate in more ways than just fighting zoonoses, the authors organized a roundtable during the 2013 annual meeting of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS). Collaborations between human and animal health sectors were reported to often rise in response to zoonotic outbreaks (during crisis time) and be mainly based on personal networks. Ways to maintain and strengthen these links were discussed.

  6. One Medicine One Science: a framework for exploring challenges at the intersection of animals, humans, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dominic A; Sriramarao, P; Cardona, Carol; Steer, Clifford J; Kennedy, Shaun; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing the health consequences of interactions among animals, humans, and the environment in the face of climatic change, environmental disturbance, and expanding human populations is a critical global challenge in today's world. Exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge in basic and applied sciences and medicine that includes scientists, health professionals, key sponsors, and policy experts revealed that relevant case studies of monkeypox, influenza A, tuberculosis, and HIV can be used to guide strategies for anticipating and responding to new disease threats such as the Ebola and Chickungunya viruses, as well as to improve programs to control existing zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis. The problem of safely feeding the world while preserving the environment and avoiding issues such as antibiotic resistance in animals and humans requires cooperative scientific problem solving. Food poisoning outbreaks resulting from Salmonella growing in vegetables have demonstrated the need for knowledge of pathogen evolution and adaptation in developing appropriate countermeasures for prevention and policy development. Similarly, pesticide use for efficient crop production must take into consideration bee population declines that threaten the availability of the two-thirds of human foods that are dependent on pollination. This report presents and weighs the objective merits of competing health priorities and identifies gaps in knowledge that threaten health security, to promote discussion of major public policy implications such that they may be decided with at least an underlying platform of facts. © 2014 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. One Medicine One Science: a framework for exploring challenges at the intersection of animals, humans, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dominic A; Sriramarao, P; Cardona, Carol; Steer, Clifford J; Kennedy, Shaun; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the health consequences of interactions among animals, humans, and the environment in the face of climatic change, environmental disturbance, and expanding human populations is a critical global challenge in today's world. Exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge in basic and applied sciences and medicine that includes scientists, health professionals, key sponsors, and policy experts revealed that relevant case studies of monkeypox, influenza A, tuberculosis, and HIV can be used to guide strategies for anticipating and responding to new disease threats such as the Ebola and Chickungunya viruses, as well as to improve programs to control existing zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis. The problem of safely feeding the world while preserving the environment and avoiding issues such as antibiotic resistance in animals and humans requires cooperative scientific problem solving. Food poisoning outbreaks resulting from Salmonella growing in vegetables have demonstrated the need for knowledge of pathogen evolution and adaptation in developing appropriate countermeasures for prevention and policy development. Similarly, pesticide use for efficient crop production must take into consideration bee population declines that threaten the availability of the two-thirds of human foods that are dependent on pollination. This report presents and weighs the objective merits of competing health priorities and identifies gaps in knowledge that threaten health security, to promote discussion of major public policy implications such that they may be decided with at least an underlying platform of facts. PMID:25476836

  8. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  9. Recycling Biowaste – Human and Animal Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albihn Ann

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Biowaste from the food chain is of potential benefit to use in agriculture. Agriculture in general and organic farming in particular needs alternative plant nutrients. However, the quality concerning hygiene and soil contaminants must be assured. This recycling has to be regulated in a way that harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man are prevented. The problems with heavy metals and organic contaminants have been focused on. Still, maximum threshold values are continuously discussed to avoid an increase of soil concentrations. The effect on the ecosystems of residues from use of medicines needs further attention. There is also a risk for a spread of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms in the environment and then to animals and man. Infectious diseases may be spread from biowaste and new routes of disease transmission between animals and humans can be created. Zoonotic diseases in this context play a central role. Pathogens recently introduced to a country may be further spread when biowaste is recycled. The very good health status of domestic animals in the Nordic countries may then quickly change. The quality of biowaste is of enormous importance if biowaste is to gain general acceptance for agricultural use, especially for organic production. A balance needs to be maintained between risk and advantage for its use.

  10. Managing a scarce resource: addressing critical health workforce challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans. P.; Dussault, G.; Batenburg, R.; Frich, J.; Olivers, R.; Sermeus, W.

    2013-01-01

    With health care services significantly changing, the challenge is to initiate innovative, situational and integrated workforce forecasting and planning. Many health systems require a shift in mindset to move to the planning of skill mixes for health care professionals. This implies great challenges

  11. The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning “the liquid silver” and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well.

  12. Using institutional and behavioural economics to examine animal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A

    2017-04-01

    Economics provides a framework for understanding management decisions and their policy implications for the animal health system. While the neoclassical economic model is useful for framing animal health decisions on the farm, some of its assumptions and prescriptive results may be unrealistic. Institutional and behavioural economics address some of these potential shortcomings by considering the role of information, psychology and social factors in decisions. Framing such decisions under contract theory allows us to consider asymmetric information between policy-makers and farmers. Perverse incentives may exist in the area of preventing and reporting disease. Behavioural economics examines the role of internal and external psychological and social factors. Biases, heuristics, habit, social norms and other such aspects can result in farm decision-makers arriving at what might be considered irrational or otherwise sub-optimal decisions. Framing choices and providing relevant information and examples can alleviate these behavioural issues. The implications of this approach for disease policy and an applied research and outreach programme to respond to animal diseases are discussed.

  13. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 44, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Three animal disease issues, amongst others, dominated animal health activities in the world; the near eradication of rinderpest (RP), the continued threat of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) to national and international trade and the ever spreading avian influenza (AI). The importance of early, rapid and sensitive diagnoses of merging diseases, with special reference to AI, can not be overstated and it has prompted our subprogramme to refocus our activities and efforts. The rapid diagnosis and characterization of AI, particularly with respect to molecular tools, are important to determine whether it is H5N1 or another subtype. It is here that the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme can play a role in supporting the actions of the FAO, World organisation for animal health (OIE), WHO and Member States. The subprogramme can provide technical assistance on (1) which tests and protocols to use, (2) technical and laboratory training, (3) expert missions (nominating relevant expert(s) or to perform expert missions by members of the subprogramme), (4) the analysis of AI samples (as primary diagnosis or as confirmation) utilizing the OIE reference status of our Seibersdorf laboratory (i.e. the analysis of translation products of the virus genome) and (5) the provision of technical quality assurance guidelines and support to ensure quality data and reporting

  14. Phage Therapy Approaches to Reducing Pathogen Persistence and Transmission in Animal Production Environments: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavecchio, Anna; Goodridge, Lawrence D

    2017-06-01

    The era of genomics has allowed for characterization of phages for use as antimicrobials to treat animal infections with a level of precision never before realized. As more research in phage therapy has been conducted, several advantages of phage therapy have been realized, including the ubiquitous nature, specificity, prevalence in the biosphere, and low inherent toxicity of phages, which makes them a safe and sustainable technology for control of animal diseases. These unique qualities of phages have led to several opportunities with respect to emerging trends in infectious disease treatment. However, the opportunities are tempered by several challenges to the successful implementation of phage therapy, such as the fact that an individual phage can only infect one or a few bacterial strains, meaning that large numbers of different phages will likely be needed to treat infections caused by multiple species of bacteria. In addition, phages are only effective if enough of them can reach the site of bacterial colonization, but clearance by the immune system upon introduction to the animal is a reality that must be overcome. Finally, bacterial resistance to the phages may develop, resulting in treatment failure. Even a successful phage infection and lysis of its host has consequences, because large amounts of endotoxin are released upon lysis of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to local and systemic complications. Overcoming these challenges will require careful design and development of phage cocktails, including comprehensive characterization of phage host range and assessment of immunological risks associated with phage treatment.

  15. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. © 2012 Crown Copyright. Reproduced

  16. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  18. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  19. Challenges of Sanitary Compliance Related to Trade in Products of Animal Origin in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Songabe, Tembile; Dziva, Francis

    2015-06-30

    Irrespective of the existence of potentially pathogenic organisms carried by animals, foods of animal origin remain the prime nutrition of humans world-wide. As such, food safety continues to be a global concern primarily to safeguard public health and to promote international trade. Application of integrated risk-based quality assurance procedures on-farm and at slaughterhouses plays a crucial role in controlling hazards associated with foods of animal origin. In the present paper we examine safety assurance systems and associated value chains for foods of animal origin based on historical audit results of some Southern African countries with thriving export trade in animal products, mainly to identify areas for improvement. Among the key deficiencies identified were: i) failure to keep pace with scientific advances related to the ever-changing food supply chain; ii) lack of effective national and regional intervention strategies to curtail pathogen transmission and evolution, notably the zoonotic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli ; and iii) a lack of effective methods to reduce contamination of foods of wildlife origin. The introduction of foods of wildlife origin for domestic consumption and export markets seriously compounds already existing conflicts in legislation governing food supply and safety. This analysis identifies gaps required to improve the safety of foods of wildlife origin.

  20. Challenges of sanitary compliance related to trade in products of animal origin in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudakwashe Magwedere

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the existence of potentially pathogenic organisms carried by animals, foods of animal origin remain the prime nutrition of humans world-wide. As such, food safety continues to be a global concern primarily to safeguard public health and to promote international trade. Application of integrated risk-based quality assurance procedures on-farm and at slaughterhouses plays a crucial role in controlling hazards associated with foods of animal origin. In the present paper we examine safety assurance systems and associated value chains for foods of animal origin based on historical audit results of some Southern African countries with thriving export trade in animal products, mainly to identify areas for improvement. Among the key deficiencies identified were: i failure to keep pace with scientific advances related to the ever-changing food supply chain; ii lack of effective national and regional intervention strategies to curtail pathogen transmission and evolution, notably the zoonotic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; and iii a lack of effective methods to reduce contamination of foods of wildlife origin. The introduction of foods of wildlife origin for domestic consumption and export markets seriously compounds already existing conflicts in legislation governing food supply and safety. This analysis identifies gaps required to improve the safety of foods of wildlife origin.

  1. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 55, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The biggest event in 2011 was the declaration of global freedom from rinderpest by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The IAEA celebrated this momentous occasion on the 20th of September 2011, during the IAEA 55th General Conference. The commitment, dedication and hard work of past and present IAEA staff were commended by all participants as the contribution of the IAEA was a critical and essential component of the eradication success. Building on the success of the rinderpest campaign, technology transfer in the field of animal health continued to be a top priority of the Subprogramme during 2011 and this will continue for the future since our next target disease for eradication is peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Member States received support through Technical Cooperation Projects. In most of the tropics, climatic variation, rainfall patterns and droughts reduce plant growth and feed availability and quality leading to extensive livestock losses and reduced productivity. With the assistance of the IAEA, tremendous improvement has been achieved in terms of quantity and quality of the available feed resource base, particularly, in terms of nutritive value, palatability and/or cold and drought tolerance - vital benefits whose effectiveness can be monitored using nuclear technology. Both past and future activities are described in detail in this newsletter and are also accessible at our website (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/aph/index.html); I thus need not mention them in this section. Please contact us if you have any further ideas, comments, concerns or questions. As discussed in previous newsletters, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme will continue to move progressively forward and in pace with developments within the livestock field, to optimally serve our Member States.

  2. Promoting people's health: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkamp, P

    1998-01-01

    Promoting health underlines the right of each individual to the highest attainable standard of health. It stresses the importance of the participation of people and recognizes different sociocultural values and beliefs that are prevalent throughout the world. Working on health development has a sustainable effect only when done comprehensively: personal development, community development, organizational development, and political development. The international conferences that have marked the way of health promotion have been goal posts of an energetic movement to strengthen health worldwide. The Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion has been a worldwide source of guidance for health promotion through its five strategies: building health policy, creating supportive elements, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services. Moreover, the Jakarta Declaration on "Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century" identifies five priorities in the next millennium: 1) promote social responsibility for health; 2) increase investments for health development; 3) consolidate and expand partnerships for health; 4) increase community capacity and empower the individual in matters of health; and 5) secure an infrastructure for health promotion. Increasing the investment in health development calls for the need to find new mechanisms for funding as well as reorienting existing resources towards health promotion and health education.

  3. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 62, July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    The first six months of this year have been occupied with our projects and regular activities, including our coordinated research projects and technical support to national and regional Technical Cooperation projects, as well as with the activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory. Particular focus was on the current Avian Influenza H7N9, H7N2 and H5N1 outbreaks, the ever expanding threats of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), of foot and mouth disease, of trypanosomosis and of African swine fever, all areas in which we endeavour to give our highest level of support to our counterparts

  4. Dealing with Health and Health Care System Challenges in China: assessing health determinants and health care reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Zhang (Hao)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis dissertation investigates the challenges faced by China around 2010 in two domains – population health and the health care system. Specifically, chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to health challenges, explaining the female health disadvantage in later life and assessing the effect

  5. Rationalising health care in india : Challenges & strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K I Mathai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of health care delivery in India is essential, if we are to plan and to improve health care delivery and the indices of health in the coming decades. The health sector in India is a mix of private and government services. While some health care indices appear dismal, several others, including life expectancy are heartening. A balance between regulation and free enterprise is possibly the best option. In this paper we provide a glimpse of health and health related statistics & a n overview of the public health care delivery systems. In the end, we offer suggestion on rationalisation of health care delivery to provide maximum services for the majority of our population within the budget of an optimal health care system outlay

  6. Effects of MVA85A vaccine on tuberculosis challenge in animals: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashangura, Rufaro; Sena, Emily S; Young, Taryn; Garner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The existing Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination provides partial protection against tuberculosis (TB). The modified vaccinia ankara virus-expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) aims to boost BCG immunity. We evaluated the animal evidence supporting the testing of MVA85A in humans. Methods: Our protocol included in vivo preclinical studies of the MVA85A booster with BCG compared with BCG alone, followed by a TB challenge. We used standard methods for systematic review of animal studies, and summarized mortality, measures of pathology and lung bacterial load. The comprehensive literature search was to September 2014. Two independent investigators assessed eligibility and performed data extraction. We assessed study quality and pooled bacteria load using random effect meta-analysis. Findings: We included eight studies in 192 animals. Three experiments were in mice, two in guinea pigs, two in macaques and one in calves. Overall, study quality was low with no randomization, baseline comparability not described and blinding not reported. For animal death (including euthanasia due to severe morbidity), studies were underpowered, and overall no benefit demonstrated. No difference was shown for lung pathology measured on an ordinal scale or bacterial load. The largest mortality trial carried out in macaques had more deaths in the MVA85A vaccine group, and was published after a trial in South Africa had started recruiting children. Conclusions: This independent assessment of the animal data does not provide evidence to support efficacy of MVA85A as a BCG booster. More rigorous conduct and reporting of preclinical research are warranted, and we believe the results of studies should be publicly available before embarking on trials in humans, irrespective of the findings. PMID:26351306

  7. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  8. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In this newsletter, I want to discuss shortly the effects of climate variations, food security and the expansion of animal and zoonotic diseases within the sphere of what the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme can contribute. My take home message would be: • Globalization and climate change are causing an unprecedented worldwide impact on emerging and reemerging animal and zoonotic diseases. • Vector borne diseases are now spreading to previously non-endemic and cooler areas. A dramatically increased incidence in deadly infectious and zoonotic diseases in wildlife, livestock, and people may be the most immediate serious consequence of global warming, food security or food shortage. Globalization and climate change have had a worldwide impact on emerging and re-emerging animal and zoonotic diseases. Climate change is disrupting natural ecosystems by providing more suitable environments for infectious diseases allowing disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and fungi to move into new areas where they may harm wildlife and domestic species, as well as humans. Diseases that were previously limited only to tropical areas are now spreading to other previously cooler areas e.g. Rift Valley fever. Pathogens that were restricted by seasonal weather patterns can invade new areas and find new susceptible species as the climate warms and/or the winters get milder. There is evidence that the increasing occurrence of tropical infectious diseases in the mid latitudes is linked to either global warming or food security. Vector borne diseases are particularly affected by weather patterns and long-term climatic factors strongly influence the incidence of outbreaks. Most of these diseases are caused by insects and their population dynamics are dependent on the prevailing weather conditions, specifically temperature and humidity. Climate change influences local weather conditions and therefore has a significant impact on the presence of vectors and their geographical

  9. 75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System Sheep 2011 Study.

  10. 76 FR 52633 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request a reinstatement of an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2012 Study.

  11. 76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support the research and development phase of surveys entitled National Animal Health Monitoring System needs assessments.

  12. 76 FR 9319 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request a reinstatement of an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring Feedlot 2011 Study.

  13. 76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to initiate Emergency Epidemiologic Investigations, an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System.

  14. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  15. Animal health risk of legally imported exotic animals into the Netherlands in the period 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos-de Jong, de Clazien; Swanenburg, Manon; Tafro, Nedzib; Roon, van Annika; Stenvers, Olaf F.J.; Elbers, Armin R.W.

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide trade in exotic animals is a potential moderator for the global dispersion of infectious disease agents. Better insight into the pathogens that could be introduced by these trade flows can help to target surveillance efforts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the animal health risk

  16. Challenges towards Realization of Health Care Sector Goals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human resource for health (HRH) is an essential building block for effective and efficient health care system. In Tanzania this component is faced by many challenges which in synergy with others make the health care system inefficient. In vision 2025 the country recognizes the importance of the health care ...

  17. Policy challenges in modern health care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mechanic, David

    2005-01-01

    ... for the Obesity Epidemic KENNETH E. WARNER 99 8 Patterns and Causes of Disparities in Health DAVID R. WILLIAMS 115 9 Addressing Racial Inequality in Health Care SARA ROSENBAUM AND JOEL TEITELBAU...

  18. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruford, Michael W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J.; Amaral, Andreia J.; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F.; Hall, Stephen J. G.; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that “…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.” However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  19. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that "…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity." However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  20. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health ("m-Health'') is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and

  1. 76 FR 42675 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...This is a notice to inform the public of the topics on the agenda for an upcoming meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health. The meeting is organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to discuss matters of animal health.

  2. Amiata donkey milk chain: animal health evaluation and milk quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ragona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1. In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis- causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/ allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  3. National health inequality monitoring: current challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne; Boerma, Ties

    National health inequality monitoring needs considerably more investment to realize equity-oriented health improvements in countries, including advancement towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Following an overview of national health inequality monitoring and the associated resource requirements, we highlight challenges that countries may encounter when setting up, expanding or strengthening national health inequality monitoring systems, and discuss opportunities and key initiatives that aim to address these challenges. We provide specific proposals on what is needed to ensure that national health inequality monitoring systems are harnessed to guide the reduction of health inequalities.

  4. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    E. Paul Cherniack; Ariella R. Cherniack

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health...

  5. Host-targeted approaches to managing animal health: old problems and new tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M E; Bütz, D E; Yang, M; Sand, J M

    2016-07-01

    Our fellow medical and regulatory scientists question the animal producer's dependence on antibiotics and antimicrobial chemicals in the production of animal products. Retail distributors and consumers are putting even more pressure on the animal industry to find new ways to produce meat without antibiotics and chemicals. In addition, federal funding agencies are increasingly pressuring researchers to conduct science that has application. In the review that follows, we outline our approach to finding novel ways to improve animal performance and health. We use a strict set of guidelines in our applied research as follows: (1) Does the work have value to society? (2) Does our team have the skills to innovate in the field? (3) Is the product we produce commercially cost-effective? (4) Are there any reasons why the general consumer will reject the technology? (5) Is it safe for the animal, consumer, and the environment? Within this framework, we describe 4 areas of research that have produced useful products, areas that we hope other scientists will likewise explore and innovate such as (1) methods to detect infection in herds and flocks, (2) methods to control systemic and mucosal inflammation, (3) improvements to intestinal barrier function, and (4) methods to strategically potentiate immune defense. We recognize that others are working in these areas, using different strategies, but believe our examples will illustrate the vast opportunity for research and innovation in a world without antibiotics. Animal scientists have been given a new challenge that may help shape the future of both animal and human medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 48, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the formulation (together with our Member State counterparts and TC Country Officers) of projects for the 2009/11 TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2007 programme of work and budget performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. The focus of our activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the subprogramme are animal nutrition, reproduction and breeding and animal health. Within these three components, problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 48, July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to ongoing national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were also involved in the formulation (together with our Member State counterparts and TC Country Officers) of projects for the 2009/11 TC project cycle. In addition to this, when carrying out our 2007 programme of work and budget performance evaluations, we could identify the areas where good performance was achieved as well as areas where further improvements are needed. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. The focus of our activities is on enhancing food security by supporting sustainable livestock production systems in developing countries. This is to be achieved by strategic and applied research, technology transfer and capacity building. The three principal components of the subprogramme are animal nutrition, reproduction and breeding and animal health. Within these three components, problems are identified and solutions developed through the use of strategically applied nuclear-based tools, in conjunction with conventional technologies.

  8. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 54, July 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    It is with great enthusiasm that I address you in a new era - the era of a rinderpest free world. The OIE and FAO have declared the world-wide eradication of Rinderpest recently - but more about this later. The first part of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation projects (TC), we were involved in the technical planning of projects for the new TC projects by Member States for the 2012/2013 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with finalizing the IAEA's 2012/2013 Work and Budget Programme. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States. Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the subprogramme

  9. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 59, January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As 2013 draws to a close, we are completing our activities and contributions to the 2012-2013 IAEA and FAO programmes of work and budget, and finalizing our tasks and products and services for the next biennium. We hope that our programme will satisfy Member State needs maximally. I want to mention two events regarding the activities of the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. First, I have the pleasure to inform you that the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme was part of a 'One-House' IAEA team that was awarded an IAEA Superior Achievement Award for its response to Member States requests regarding the H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in several provinces of China. The aggravating factor with this new avian influenza disease was that it was asymptomatic in poultry (i.e. poultry showed no clinical disease), but symptomatic in humans (i.e. humans showed flu like symptoms) causing about 30% mortality in infected humans. This epidemiological character of the disease made it very difficult to trace and search for its origin in poultry, towards protecting human lives. The Chinese authorities, in particular the Beijing Genetics Institute, reacted appropriately to the outbreaks and characterized the virus, isolated from human patients, as an avian influenza H7N9 subtype. Knowing the panzootic potential of avian influenza viruses, the international community has immediately developed response plans on the eventual spread of the Chinese H7N9 strain and called for emergency preparedness. Upon requests of Member States from Europe and the Asia and Pacific Region, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department immediately reacted by taking advantage of the responsiveness of the TC Programme to unforeseen needs of Member States. In addition to the evaluation and validation of diagnostic and surveillance procedures and the transfer of technologies and the diagnostic support, two unplanned

  10. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 59, January 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-01-15

    As 2013 draws to a close, we are completing our activities and contributions to the 2012-2013 IAEA and FAO programmes of work and budget, and finalizing our tasks and products and services for the next biennium. We hope that our programme will satisfy Member State needs maximally. I want to mention two events regarding the activities of the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme. First, I have the pleasure to inform you that the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme was part of a 'One-House' IAEA team that was awarded an IAEA Superior Achievement Award for its response to Member States requests regarding the H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in several provinces of China. The aggravating factor with this new avian influenza disease was that it was asymptomatic in poultry (i.e. poultry showed no clinical disease), but symptomatic in humans (i.e. humans showed flu like symptoms) causing about 30% mortality in infected humans. This epidemiological character of the disease made it very difficult to trace and search for its origin in poultry, towards protecting human lives. The Chinese authorities, in particular the Beijing Genetics Institute, reacted appropriately to the outbreaks and characterized the virus, isolated from human patients, as an avian influenza H7N9 subtype. Knowing the panzootic potential of avian influenza viruses, the international community has immediately developed response plans on the eventual spread of the Chinese H7N9 strain and called for emergency preparedness. Upon requests of Member States from Europe and the Asia and Pacific Region, the Animal Production and Health Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department immediately reacted by taking advantage of the responsiveness of the TC Programme to unforeseen needs of Member States. In addition to the evaluation and validation of diagnostic and surveillance procedures and the transfer of technologies and the diagnostic support, two unplanned

  11. Collective work: a challenge for health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Magda Duarte Dos Anjos; Pires, Denise; Schwartz, Yves

    2009-08-01

    Based on ergology and work process theorization, the study aims to contribute to reflections on health collective work, emphasizing its specificity and difficulties in building and managing groups of workers. It deals with work as a human activity that dialectically comprises the application of a prescribed protocol and a unique and historical perspective. Health work involves a relationship among individuals who act in the drama of using themselves and manage their own work; it is influenced by the history of health professions and macro-political determinations. In conclusion, this health work complexity needs to be considered in the process of management of professional teams/groups of workers, in a way that actions can interact and enable the implementation of a new health care project in the perspective of comprehensiveness.

  12. Challenging the Conceptual Limits in Health Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This contribution explores the connection between health and subjectivity. Up until recently a marginally discussed topic in health theories, recent critical research in health psychology introduces notions of subjectivity to theories of health. These notions can be linked to phenomenology......, embodied subjectivity, and psychosocial theories that have moved away from a partial, internal understanding of subjectivity. These recent theories tend to define subjectivity as a coherence of concrete, embodied and situated subjectivity that extends capabilities and activities towards a world of social....... Hence, I will argue for the concept of conduct of life as an important concept for health psychology. The concept of conduct of life enables an analysis of how people conduct their activities and of their access to life possibilities, within social settings and societal power systems. The concept can...

  13. Plain language: a strategic response to the health literacy challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stableford, Sue; Mettger, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Low health literacy is a major challenge confronting American and international health organizations. Research in the past decade has documented the prevalence of limited literacy and limited health literacy skills among adults worldwide. This creates a major policy challenge: how to create text-based health information - a common method of health communication - that is accessible to the public. Plain language is a logical, flexible response. While touted by American, Canadian, and European health policy makers, adoption and promotion of plain language standards and skills in health-focused organizations have lagged. Most text-based health information continues to be too hard for most adults to read. Barriers to more rapid diffusion of plain language are reflected in a set of myths perpetuated by critics. These myths are identified and refuted. While plain language is only one of many broad-based solutions needed to address low health literacy, the benefits to everyone demand increased use by health organizations.

  14. Animal health and price transmission along livestock supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragrande, M; Canali, M

    2017-04-01

    Animal health diseases can severely affect the food supply chain by causing variations in prices and market demand. Price transmission analysis reveals in what ways price variations are transmitted along the supply chain, and how supply chains of substitute products and different regional markets are also affected. In perfect markets, a price variation would be completely and instantaneously transmitted across the different levels of the supply chain: producers, the processing industry, retailers and consumers. However, empirical studies show that food markets are often imperfect, with anomalies or asymmetries in price transmission and distortions in the distribution of market benefits. This means, for instance, that a price increase at the consumer level may not be transmitted from retailers to processors and producers; yet, on the other hand, price falls may rapidly affect the upstream supply chain. Market concentration and the consequent exertion of market power in key segments of the supply chain can explain price transmission asymmetries and their distributional effects, but other factors may also be involved, such as transaction costs, scale economies, and imperfect information. During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, asymmetric price transmission in the beef supply chain and related meat markets determined distributional effects among sectors. After the spread of the BSE food scare, the fall in demand marginally affected the price paid to retailers, but producers and wholesalers suffered much more, in both price reductions and the time needed to recover to precrisis demand. Price transmission analysis investigates how animal health crises create different economic burdens for various types of stakeholder, and provides useful socioeconomic insights when used with other tools.

  15. Veterinary education for global animal and public health, D.A. Walsh : book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This 28th annual volume published by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, addresses the need for a global shift in the way veterinary students are taught veterinary public health (VPH. As well as taking the lead in prevention and control of animal diseases, the OIE develops health and welfare standards to promote food security and equitable international trade in animals and animal products.

  16. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert; López-Expósito, Iván; Bouchaud, Grégory; Blanchard, Carine; Bodinier, Marie; Smit, Joost; Pieters, Raymond; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; de Wit, Nicole; Untersmayr, Eva; Adel-Patient, Karine; Knippels, Leon; Epstein, Michelle M; Noti, Mario; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Kimber, Ian; Verhoeckx, Kitty; O'Mahony, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem of increasing concern. The insufficiency of protein sources for human nutrition in a world with a growing population is also a significant problem. The introduction of new protein sources into the diet, such as newly developed innovative foods or foods produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in turn has driven the need to develop test methods capable of characterizing the allergenic potential of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant controls and endpoints measured.

  17. idrc on tackling global challenges health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Efforts to control the spread of viru- lent strains of ... network of government ministries and research ... how future disease outbreaks are likely to ... HIV epidemic: 5.7 million of its .... collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Social Work,.

  18. Health Concern and Challenges Among School Adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that the majority of the male adolescent students (53.6 %) age lies in the age ... of adolescents behavioral, social and physical health problems should be given high priority ..... in which depression and anxiety can occur.

  19. Mental health challenges of LGBT forced migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Shidlo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many LGBT forced migrants have significant and sometimesincapacitating psychological scars. Mental health providers can assistin documenting the psychological impact of anti-LGBT persecutionand its impact on the ability to secure refugee status.

  20. [Health disparities: local realities and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, P; Green, A R

    2012-11-28

    Since 1887, the Policlinique Médicale Universitaire (PMU) has brought care to vulnerable populations who are at risk of poor physical, mental and social health. These include marginalised Swiss natives and immigrant communities (asylum seekers, undocumented immigrants). These patients are at risk of health disparities given their poor access to the health care system and lack of adapted quality care. Clinical approach must address these potential disparities, reinforced by a research describing them in order to explain their cause, and propose possible solutions, and a medical training addressing these topics from the undergraduate to the attending level. Through those holistic clinical approach, robust research and improved medical training, health providers will contribute to give quality care to all citizens, without exception!

  1. Health insurance--a challenge in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presswala, R G

    2004-01-01

    In India, indemnity health insurance started about 3 decades ago. Mediclaim was the most popular product. Indian insurers and multinational companies have not been enthusiastic about starting health insurance in spite of the availability of a good market because health insurers have historically incurred losses. Losses have been caused by poor administration. Because it is a small portion of their total businesses, insurers have never tried sincerely to improve deficiencies or taken special interest. Hospital management and medical specialists have the spirit of entrepreneurship and are prepared to learn quickly and follow managed care principles, though they are not currently practiced in India. Actuarial data from the health insurance industry is sparse, but data from alternative sources will be helpful for starting managed healthcare. In my opinion, if properly administered, a "limited" managed care product with appropriate precautions and premium levels will be successful and profitable and will compete with present indemnity products in India.

  2. The challenge of benchmarking health systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lapão, Luís Velez

    2015-01-01

    WOS:000359623300001 PMID: 26301085 The article by Catan et al. presents a benchmarking exercise comparing Israel and Portugal on the implementation of Information and Communication Technologies in the healthcare sector. Special attention was given to e-Health and m-Health. The authors collected information via a set of interviews with key stakeholders. They compared two different cultures and societies, which have reached slightly different implementation outcomes. Although the comparison ...

  3. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health (“m-Health”) is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”). However, f...

  4. Oral health in Libya: addressing the future challenges | Peeran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Libya is a vast country situated in North Africa, having a relatively better functioning economy with a scanty population. This article is the first known attempt to review the current state of oral health care in Libya and to explore the present trends and future challenges. Libyan health system, oral health care, and human ...

  5. Bed Bug Epidemic: A Challenge to Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Ritzel, Dale O.; Haramis, Linn D.; Bliss, Kadi R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reported cases of bed bug infestations in the U.S. and throughout the world have escalated dramatically, posing a global public health problem. Although bed bugs are not known to transmit disease to humans, they pose both direct and indirect public health challenges in terms of health effects, treatment, cost, and resource…

  6. Clinical challenges of chronic wounds: searching for an optimal animal model to recapitulate their complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nunan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficient healing of a skin wound is something that most of us take for granted but is essential for surviving day-to-day knocks and cuts, and is absolutely relied on clinically whenever a patient receives surgical intervention. However, the management of a chronic wound – defined as a barrier defect that has not healed in 3 months – has become a major therapeutic challenge throughout the Western world, and it is a problem that will only escalate with the increasing incidence of conditions that impede wound healing, such as diabetes, obesity and vascular disorders. Despite being clinically and molecularly heterogeneous, all chronic wounds are generally assigned to one of three major clinical categories: leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers or pressure ulcers. Although we have gleaned much knowledge about the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin healthy, acute wound healing from various animal models, we have learned much less about chronic wound repair pathology from these models. This might largely be because the animal models being used in this field of research have failed to recapitulate the clinical features of chronic wounds. In this Clinical Puzzle article, we discuss the clinical complexity of chronic wounds and describe the best currently available models for investigating chronic wound pathology. We also assess how such models could be optimised to become more useful tools for uncovering pathological mechanisms and potential therapeutic treatments.

  7. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 58, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-08-01

    The first phase of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the Subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical planning of project concepts for new TC projects by Member States for the 2014/2015 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2014/2015 Work and Budget Programme, and the FAO's 2014/2015 Programme of Work and Budget. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States (MS). Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the Subprogramme. A bone of contention is the current avian influenza H7N9 situation. On 1 April 2013, a human case of infection with the avian influenza H7N9 virus was reported in China. Since then this strain has been detected in four provinces of eastern China and has infected 132 people of which 37 have died (situation as of 3 June 2013). The number of cases dropped in May as compared to April, probably because of the control measures taken by Chinese health authorities, which includes closing live bird in markets, but this can also be due to the change climatic conditions or the international contribution

  8. The importance of fixed costs in animal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C A; Adamson, D

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the authors detail the structure and optimal management of health systems as influenced by the presence and level of fixed costs. Unlike variable costs, fixed costs cannot be altered, and are thus independent of the level of veterinary activity in the short run. Their importance is illustrated by using both single-period and multi-period models. It is shown that multi-stage veterinary decision-making can often be envisaged as a sequence of fixed-cost problems. In general, it becomes clear that, the higher the fixed costs, the greater the net benefit of veterinary activity must be, if such activity is to be economic. The authors also assess the extent to which it pays to reduce fixed costs and to try to compensate for this by increasing variable costs. Fixed costs have major implications for the industrial structure of the animal health products industry and for the structure of the private veterinary services industry. In the former, they favour market concentration and specialisation in the supply of products. In the latter, they foster increased specialisation. While cooperation by individual farmers may help to reduce their individual fixed costs, the organisational difficulties and costs involved in achieving this cooperation can be formidable. In such cases, the only solution is government provision of veterinary services. Moreover, international cooperation may be called for. Fixed costs also influence the nature of the provision of veterinary education.

  9. Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 58, July 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The first phase of this year has been a busy time for all personnel in the Subprogramme. Apart from our regular Coordinated Research Project (CRP) activities and our technical support given to national and regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, we were involved in the technical planning of project concepts for new TC projects by Member States for the 2014/2015 biennial project cycle. We were also occupied with preparing the IAEA's 2014/2015 Work and Budget Programme, and the FAO's 2014/2015 Programme of Work and Budget. It is hoped that our inputs will serve the best interests of our Member States (MS). Please look at our web site and our Animal Production and Health Newsletter to familiarize yourselves with all the activities of the Subprogramme. A bone of contention is the current avian influenza H7N9 situation. On 1 April 2013, a human case of infection with the avian influenza H7N9 virus was reported in China. Since then this strain has been detected in four provinces of eastern China and has infected 132 people of which 37 have died (situation as of 3 June 2013). The number of cases dropped in May as compared to April, probably because of the control measures taken by Chinese health authorities, which includes closing live bird in markets, but this can also be due to the change climatic conditions or the international contribution.

  10. Introduction: The provision of animal health services in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, C

    2004-04-01

    In the future, animal health services in developing countries will need to operate in a continuously changing policy, institutional and commercial environment. Firstly, the changing policies and priorities of national policy-makers regarding public and private sector roles, reinforced in Africa by the donors, have reduced funding and support for the large number of tasks that animal health services have traditionally performed, and there is continuing pressure from policy-makers to focus on what the public sector can do best. Secondly, poverty reduction has become one of the main criteria guiding the allocation of official development assistance, which has major implications for the main target clientele of veterinary services. Thirdly, population growth, increasing income and urbanisation are causing a marked increase in demand for livestock products in the developing world. As a result, the entire livestock commodity chain is undergoing major structural changes, which has significant implications for the definition and control of food safety standards. Fourthly, globalisation, and increasing trade and travel have greatly increased the risk of disease transmission between different countries and continents. Veterinary institutions in the developing world need to adapt to these challenges. They will have to be able to focus on the essential public sector roles. At the same time they must deliver those essential services to the poor, and provide the policy framework to ensure that the inevitable structural changes in the commodity chain take place in an equitable and sustainable fashion, with an acceptable level of health risk for the consumer. According to the weight given to these different objectives, changes in the institutional set-up need to be considered. This issue of the Scientific and Technical Review addresses these challenges. It begins by reviewing the basic economic characteristics underlying the provision of animal health services, and then examines

  11. Prospects and Challenges for the Conservation of Farm Animal Genomic Resources, 2015-2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael William Bruford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy, climate change and market demands. The last decade saw a step change in technological and analytical approaches to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR. These changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and the methodologies needed to exploit new, multidimensional data. The ESF Genomic Resources program final conference addressed these problems attempting to contribute to the development of the research and policy agenda for the next decade. We broadly identified four areas related to methodological and analytical challenges, data management and conservation. The overall conclusion is that there is a need for the use of current state-of-the-art tools to characterise the state of genomic resources in non-commercial and local breeds. The livestock genomic sector, which has been relatively well-organised in applying such methodologies so far, needs to make a concerted effort in the coming decade to enable to the democratisation of the powerful tools that are now at its disposal, and to ensure that they are applied in the context of breed conservation as well as development.

  12. Health regionalization in Amazonas: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnelo, Luiza; Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Silva, Clayton de Oliveira da

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses the health services regionalization process in the State of Amazonas through a case study covering the health sub-region Manaus Surroundings. This is a qualitative, descriptive and analytical research, which data were collected using interviews, documents and Internet reviews, oriented by the guiding concept of health regionalization. Study findings revealed a social setting dominated by asymmetry, verticality, competitiveness and fragile multilateral relations among municipalities, associated to a bureaucratic profile of local institutions operating in the region under study. The political agents have limited acknowledgement of the sociopolitical and institutional conditions in which they operate. They usually impute healthcare networks' management and operational issues to the natural and geographical characteristics of the Amazon region, but their financing, governance and technical capacity are insufficient to overcome them.

  13. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...] Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY... available a concept paper that describes a revised structure for the National Animal Health Laboratory... biological threats to the nation's food animals. The concept paper we are making available for comment...

  14. Finding a balance: health promotion challenges of military women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazio, Janice Griffin; Buckley, Kathleen M

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we explored what may determine, or predict, United States military women's health promotion behaviors. Using a descriptive correlational design grounded in Pender's Health Promotion model, 491 military women completed instruments measuring their demographic variables, perception of health, definition of health, self-efficacy, and interpersonal influences to determine the significant factors affecting participation in health promotion activities. The outcome indicated that self-efficacy and interpersonal influences were the most influential in determining health promotion. This research illuminates some of the challenges working women face in meeting health promotion activities and how best to support their ability to participate in healthy behaviors.

  15. Five Critical Challenges for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents comments and observations given by Dr. Shiriki K. Kumanyika as the Lautenberg Award Lecture at the commencement of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers School of Public Health, May 20, 2013. The award is named after Senator Frank Lautenberg, who served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey during 1982 to…

  16. Health system challenges of NCDs in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Tlili, Faten; Skhiri, Afef; Zaman, Shahaduz; Phillimore, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present a qualitative 'situation analysis' of the healthcare system in Tunisia, as it applies to management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. A primary concern was the institutional capacity to manage non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Research took place during 2010 (analysis of official documents, semi-structured interviews with key informants, and case studies in four clinics). Walt and Gilson's framework (1994) for policy analysis was used: content, actors, context, and process. Problems of integration and coordination have compounded funding pressures. Despite its importance in Tunisian healthcare, primary health is ill-equipped to manage NCDs. With limited funds, and no referral or health information system, staff morale in the public sector was low. Private healthcare has been the main development filling the void. This study highlights major gaps in the implementation of a comprehensive approach to NCDs, which is an urgent task across the region. In strategic planning, research on the health system is vital; but the capacity within Ministries of Health to use research has first to be built, with a commitment to grounding policy change in evidence.

  17. Supplier challenges in health tech innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Suppliers, in particular small innovative firms, is an important contributor not only for innovation in health-tech, but also a component to consider in the light of the emerging policy interest for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Research on barriers preventing...

  18. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  19. Challenges in managing and sustaining urban slum health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in managing and sustaining urban slum health programmes in Kenya. ... These were hardly implemented in the projects, according to the data gathered. ... Conclusion: Land and income were big issues according to the responses.

  20. Towards a sustainable livestock production in developing countries and the importance of animal health strategy therein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasschieter, G A; de Jong, R; Schiere, J B; Zwart, D

    1992-04-01

    Livestock and animal health development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers' welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, biotechnology knowhow, inputs and technologies are used to optimise resource use. The challenge for developed and developing countries is to reverse the current degradation of the environment, and arrive at sustainable increases in crop and livestock production to secure present and future food supplies. For rural development, governments should show long term commitment and political will to support the rural population in development programmes, because smallholders (including women and landless livestock keepers) represent a large labour force in developing countries. Different systems need different approaches. Pastoral systems must focus on effective management of grazing pressure of the rangelands. Communal rangelands management involves not only the development and application of technologies (e.g. feedlots, vaccination campaigns), but also land tenure policies, institutional development, economic return and a reduction in the number of people depending upon livestock. Smallholder mixed farms must aim at intensification of the total production system, in which external inputs are indispensable, but with the emphasis on optimum input-output relationships by reducing resource losses due to poor management. Resource-poor farming systems must aim at the improved management of the various livestock species in backyards and very small farms, and proper packages for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, rabbits and poultry should be developed. Specialised commercial livestock farming systems (poultry, pigs, dairy

  1. [Health education at the health workshops of Cahors: challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théry, Céline

    2013-01-01

    There have been significant developments in health education over recent years. Focusing on France, the purpose of this paper is to examine the role of health education in reducing social inequalities based on the example of the Atelier santé ville de Cahors (Cahors Health Workshop). The paper addresses the following questions: What are the results and outcomes of the workshop? What kind of health education issues are at stake in the territorial approach to policy-making in an urban context? We examined the methods underlying the health education measures taken in the Cahors Health Workshop, which involve project-based approaches and the promotion of community health. Health education aimed at improving health is central to issues such as listening and speaking, the development of autonomy and the responsibilization of urban actors. Based on a rigorous methodology and the underlying values, health education in the Cahors Health Workshop places local residents, elected representatives and health professionals at the heart of the health care process (from the diagnostic process to the assessment process) and contributes to the reduction of social inequalities in health while facilitating access to information and health care. The goal of health education is to encourage individuals to be responsible for their own health in order to empower them to make informed choices adapted to the demands of their environment.

  2. Occupational Health: Meeting the Challenges of the Next 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harrison

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The future strategic direction for occupational health will be informed by a needs analysis and a consideration of where it should be positioned within future healthcare provision. What are the occupational health workforce implications of the vision for occupational health provision? New challenges and new ways of working will necessitate a review of the competence and capacity of the occupational health workforce, with implications for future workforce planning.

  3. Key challenges of human resources for health in India

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Since independence the efforts have been to strengthen the health infrastructure, its accessibility and coverage. The human resources for health have been an important determinant for system but it has received significance recently. Even government expenditure on health has remained at not more than 1% of Gross Domestic Product which is very less as compared to world standard. Now the biggest challenge is the shortage of skilled human resource for health at all le...

  4. Adolescent mental health: Challenges with maternal noncompliance

    OpenAIRE

    Nejtek, Vicki A; Hardy, Sarah; Winter, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Vicki A Nejtek, Sarah Hardy, Scott WinterUniversity of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USAAbstract: The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal–child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offsp...

  5. Restaurant challenge offers healthful meal options and builds diabetes awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Angela M; Drass, Janice A; Stone, Marylou; Rhoades, Deborah; Baldwin, Susan A; Russ, Kelsey M

    2011-01-01

    The Frederick Restaurant Challenge is an innovative project based on a collaborative effort among community organizations and partners designed to offer delicious healthful meal options at local restaurants during the month of November for American Diabetes Month. Local restaurants were challenged to participate and submitted recipes for healthful meals to the Frederick County Diabetes Coalition for review by registered dietitians. Diners voted on meals to determine the challenge winner(s), and were eligible to win prizes as well. Publicity prior to and during the month was effective in creating positive news about healthful meals when eating out, raised awareness about diabetes, and provided restaurants with desirable advertising opportunities. Feedback from restaurants and diners was overwhelmingly positive. The purpose of this article is to describe this successful low-budget project to encourage its replication in local communities. The Frederick Restaurant Challenge proved to be a very successful, innovative, low-budget project that met its intended goals: to develop healthful meal options for people with diabetes (or for anyone wishing to eat healthier); to demonstrate that healthful food can taste delicious; and to encourage restaurants to continue offering healthful options on their menus beyond the challenge month. Community interventions such as the Frederick Restaurant Challenge offer unique and important strategies for affecting change and raising awareness not only for people with diabetes but also for the entire community.

  6. Application of Molecular Tools for Gut Health of Pet Animals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipismita Samal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut health is an important facet of well being of pet animals; it is in this context, various nutritional and biotechnological approaches have been proposed to manipulate the gut health by specifically targeting the colonic microbiota. Nutritional approaches include supplementation of antioxidants and phytochemicals like flavonoids, isoflavonoids and carotenoids. Biotechnological approaches include supplementation of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics in the diet and potential application of molecular tools like fluorescent in situ hybridization, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative dot blot hybridization, and restriction fragment length polymorphism etc. in studying the fecal microbiota composition. Post-genomic and related technologies, i.e. genomics, nutrigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and epigenomics in the study of gastrointestinal tract also put forward challenges for nutritionists and microbiologists to elucidate the complex interactions between gut microbiota and host.

  7. Health care delivery in Malaysia: changes, challenges and champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan; Beh, LooSee; Nordin, Rusli Bin

    2011-01-01

    Since 1957, there has been major reorganization of health care services in Malaysia. This article assesses the changes and challenges in health care delivery in Malaysia and how the management in health care processes has evolved over the years including equitable health care and health care financing. The health care service in Malaysia is changing towards wellness service as opposed to illness service. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH), being the main provider of health services, may need to manage and mobilize better health care services by providing better health care financing mechanisms. It is recommended that partnership between public and private sectors with the extension of traditional medicine complementing western medicine in medical therapy continues in the delivery of health care. PMID:28299064

  8. Mental health in India: Challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of latest technologies and rapid industrialization human beings have made advancement to a great extent, in the materialistic world. He has mechanized his instruments in such a sophisticated way so as to carry out complicated and heavy tasks in comparatively lesser time and utilizing lesser manpower. In this pursuit of progress, he became more and more ambitious which further led him to stressful life and to make compromises with his other aspects of life intentionally and sometimes unintentionally. One has to consider all the aspects of individual’s physical, mental, social and psychological angles which play an important role in maintaining the individual’s overall personality development as well as wellbeing so that he may lead a productive life. These factors along with the environmental and surroundings influences the behavior of individual. In the present day life though human beings may have progressed socially, economically and also intellectually but somewhere he tended to neglect his emotions, feelings, tolerance and above all there is a growing concern of loneliness amongst all age groups. There is an imbalance between the amount of stress a person takes up with the amount he can cope up with, which has led to increase in behavioral and mental health problems. Burden of mental disorders had risen over last few decades in general mental health is often equated with the cognitive and emotional wellbeing - it is all about the way one thinks, feels and behaves. Mental health, can also mean an absence of a mental disorder. Various factors which has led to the rise in mental health problems are - growing population, continuous stress, over exertion, high ambition, socioeconomic conditions, loneliness, drug abuse, expectations, competitions and failures etc. The list is unending. It has been observed that there is a growing concern worldwide among developed as well as developing nations regarding the rise in behavioral

  9. Predicting the role of veterinary medicine in future health and food safety challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzić, N.; Šerić-Haračić, S.

    2017-09-01

    are called on and expected to offer strategic and operational solutions for better integration of public health systems (i.e. One Health), animal health, food safety and environmental protection. At the same time, the profession faces challenges in the organisation and implementation of surveillance and disease mitigation measures.

  10. One Health: Understanding and Improving Human, Animal, and Environmental Health as a Connected System Across NOAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltz, S.; Trtanj, J.; Jones, H.

    2017-12-01

    The One Health concept recognizes that the health of humans is inextricably linked with the health of animals and the environment. With a growing world population, changing climate, and increased global travel One Health approaches are increasingly useful. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides key stakeholders in the public health sector with the environmental intelligence they need to mitigate emerging health threats. The NOAA One Health Working Group's mission is to integrate and coordinate the network of observing systems and in situ sensors, detection and diagnostic capacity, research and modeling efforts, and sustained engagement with health partners to deliver useful information to public health and resource management communities. The NOAA One Health group divides its broad focus into themes: thermal extremes, water-borne disease, seafood security, Arctic, wildlife and zoonotic disease, vector-borne disease, and air quality (including wildfire). The group connects the work being done throughout NOAA to coordinate One Health related efforts, increase information sharing, promote interdisciplinary approaches, and work towards better disease prevention. We are working to enhance NOAA Science and services to deliver useful information on current and emerging health risks and benefits to health decision makers.

  11. South African Academic Health--the future challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, G J

    2004-02-01

    In South Africa, significant changes in Academic Health have taken place since the first democratic elections in 1994. Academic Health came from a separated academic hospital, departmental-based curriculum and research focussed on achievement, and an abundance of money, to a position of integrated service delivery with specific reference to primary health care, separation of service levels, a new integrated curriculum, research focussed according to the need and contract research, and financial constraints with limited budgets. The management of this change is a task challenging the manager in all fields of Academic Health. Leaders need to know their environment and organisation to be able to manage change. Academic Health centres are experiencing major changes as a result of the effects of managed care, reduced rate and growing expenditure on health services. In addition to restructuring of the clinical services, Academic Health centres are being challenged to sustain their academic mission and priorities in the face of resource constraints. In order to tackle these challenges, institutions need physicians in administrative positions at all levels who can provide leadership and thoughtful managerial initiatives. The future challenge for managers focuses on service delivery, research, health education and training, Academic Health management, professionalism and financial management.

  12. [Economic management of health crises affecting production animals in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, S; Humblet, M F; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Gosset, C; Albert, A; Vernaillen, F; Saegerman, C

    2011-12-01

    The importance of animal health crises has considerably increased over the last few years. When a crisis occurs, farmers can receive financial support through various public, private and mixed compensation schemes. Economic losses resulting from diseases may be direct and indirect. If a disease is covered by European Union regulations then countries have a legal obligation to partly compensate farmers for direct losses, either directly through the national budget, or through a specific fund. The European Veterinary Fund also co-finances these losses. Only a few countries provide compensation for indirect losses. The private insurance sector also provides protection against some direct and indirect losses but the risks covered are variable. To encourage farmers to subscribe to this kind of insurance, some public authorities provide subsidies to help pay the premium. Insurance companies do not generally cover the risks linked to contagious diseases, but some companies do extend cover to include this type of risk. Several alternatives, such as mutual funds, are available to improve risk coverage. There is a lack of harmonisation among the various compensation schemes of different countries. Public authorities cannot provide full compensation, but mutual funds and private insurance companies are alternatives that should be further investigated and their use should be extended to other countries. A classification of diseases would harmonise the situation at the European level.

  13. Pharmacogenomics and the challenge of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S S

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines emerging technologies and recent research on population differences in pharmacogenomics and the perspectives of scientists, community advocates, policymakers, and social critics on the use of race as a proxy for genetic variation. The discussion focuses on how recent developments in genomic science impact social understandings of racial difference and the public health goal to eliminate ongoing health disparities among racially identified groups. This paper examines how factors such as governmental policies--requiring the use of racial and ethnic categories in genetic research and increasing interest in identifying untapped racial market niches by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries--and weak governmental oversight of race-based therapeutics converge to create an 'infrastructure of racialization' that may alter the vision of personalized medicine that has been so highly anticipated. This paper argues that significant public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of the emerging discourse that tethers racial justice to notions of racial biology and discusses the social and ethical implications for the pendulum shift towards a geneticization of race in drug development. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Adolescent mental health: Challenges with maternal noncompliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Nejtek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vicki A Nejtek, Sarah Hardy, Scott WinterUniversity of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USAAbstract: The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal–child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient’s mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother’s actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mental health law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness.Keywords: adolescent, suicide, maternal treatment noncompliance, maternal neglect

  15. Health care in China: improvement, challenges, and reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Rao, Keqin; Wu, Sinan; Liu, Qian

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 2 decades, significant progress has been made in improving the health-care system and people's health conditions in China. Following rapid economic growth and social development, China's health-care system is facing new challenges, such as increased health-care demands and expenditure, inefficient use of health-care resources, unsatisfying implementation of disease management guidelines, and inadequate health-care insurance. Facing these challenges, the Chinese government carried out a national health-care reform in 2009. A series of policies were developed and implemented to improve the health-care insurance system, the medical care system, the public health service system, the pharmaceutical supply system, and the health-care institution management system in China. Although these measures have shown promising results, further efforts are needed to achieve the ultimate goal of providing affordable and high-quality care for both urban and rural residents in China. This article not only covers the improvement, challenges, and reform of health care in general in China, but also highlights the status of respiratory medicine-related issues.

  16. One Health approach: A platform for intervention in emerging public health challenges of Kerala state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sukumaran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors, key functionaries in the Kerala state public health system, review the communicable disease scenario of the state for the past 4 years, and in the background of the One Health concept, opines that the re-emerged discipline is perfectly in tune with the current challenges of the state. The unique model of Kerala state is witnessing newer challenges in its public health arena: The rapidly increasing migrant workforce from relatively poorer states of India, rapid urbanization and its consequent stress on public health, unsolved issues of urban waste disposal, reemergence of many communicable diseases like malaria, more so, the falciparum type, emergence of many zoonotic diseases like Lyme disease, scrub typhus, and Kyasanur forest disease etc. Conventional zoonotic infections such as anthrax and brucellosis remain potential threat for human health as well. Rabies continued to cause major concern from mortality point of view, as well as major drainer of state’s budget every year. Leptospirosis has remained major burden among the communicable disease for the past 10 years, and the annual incidence ranged from 2 to 7 per 100,000 population. Having a large section of its people working in various agriculture and animal rearing occupations, the state has all risk factors for propagation of Leptospirosis, but lacks interdisciplinary collaboration in its control and prevention area, the author highlights major avenues for collaboration. Japanese encephalitis appeared as an epidemic in 2011 in two of the southern districts in Kerala, one of the districts being famous tourist spot for both humans, as well as migrant birds. There is ample scope for collaborative research on the source of the virus, and in the subsequent years, the disease had been detected in more districts. Lyme disease was reported for the first time in India, from one of the districts in Kerala, promptly investigated by a joint team from Human Public Health and Veterinary

  17. Shared Electronic Health Record Systems: Key Legal and Security Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Ellen K; Skipenes, Eva; Hausken, Marie F; Skeie, Svein; Østbye, Truls; Iversen, Marjolein M

    2017-11-01

    Use of shared electronic health records opens a whole range of new possibilities for flexible and fruitful cooperation among health personnel in different health institutions, to the benefit of the patients. There are, however, unsolved legal and security challenges. The overall aim of this article is to highlight legal and security challenges that should be considered before using shared electronic cooperation platforms and health record systems to avoid legal and security "surprises" subsequent to the implementation. Practical lessons learned from the use of a web-based ulcer record system involving patients, community nurses, GPs, and hospital nurses and doctors in specialist health care are used to illustrate challenges we faced. Discussion of possible legal and security challenges is critical for successful implementation of shared electronic collaboration systems. Key challenges include (1) allocation of responsibility, (2) documentation routines, (3) and integrated or federated access control. We discuss and suggest how challenges of legal and security aspects can be handled. This discussion may be useful for both current and future users, as well as policy makers.

  18. Using AquaticHealth.net to Detect Emerging Trends in Aquatic Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Grossel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AquaticHealth.net is an open-source aquatic biosecurity intelligence application. By combining automated data collection and human analysis, AquaticHealth.net provides fast and accurate disease outbreak detection and forecasts, accompanied with nuanced explanations. The system has been online and open to the public since 1 January 2010, it has over 200 registered expert users around the world, and it typically publishes about seven daily reports and two weekly disease alerts. We document the major trends in aquatic animal health that the system has detected over these two years, and conclude with some forecasts for the future.

  19. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional and health challenges of pastoralist populations in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines nutritional and health challenges facing pastoralists who inhabit fragile rangelands and are one of the most nutritionally vulnerable population groups in Kenya. The review is based on a synthesis of literature on pastoralist food security, nutrition and health status and livelihoods in Kenya's rangelands.

  1. Psychosocial health challenges of the elderly in Nigeria: a narrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Globally, national health systems are challenged to build successful aging models to prepare for biomedical, psychological and social changes. The integral component of psychosocial health in overall quality of life and well-being, however, is underscored and requires greater focus. Changing demographics ...

  2. Ethical issues in maternal and child health nursing: challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This is a literature review on ethical issues in maternal and child health nursing, challenges faced by maternal and child health nurses and strategies for decision making. Literatures related to the topic was gathered from pertinent literature, completed research works and published articles retrieved from searches ...

  3. Women's Health – A Continuing Challenge in Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    Pharmacotherapy Group,. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin,. Benin City, Nigeria. All rights reserved. Available online at http://www.tjpr.org. Editorial. Women's Health – A Continuing Challenge in. Developing Countries. For justifiable reasons, the health of women in developing countries is presently an important.

  4. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  5. Different perspectives on the key challenges facing rural health: The challenges of power and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatzky, Christina; Bourke, Lisa

    2018-05-25

    To examine the effects of dominant knowledge in rural health, including how they shape issues central to rural health. In particular, this article examines the roles of: (i) deficit knowledge of rural health workforce; (ii) dominant portrayals of generalism; and (iii) perceptions of inferiority about rural communities in maintaining health disparities between rural- and metropolitan-based Australians. A Foucauldian framework is applied to literature, evidence, case studies and key messages in rural health. Three scenarios are used to provide practical examples of specific knowledge that is prioritised or marginalised. The analysis of three areas in rural health identifies how deficit knowledge is privileged despite it undermining the purpose of rural health. First, deficit knowledge highlights the workforce shortage rather than the type of work in rural practice or the oversupply of workforce in metropolitan areas. Second, the construction of generalist practice as less skilled and more monotonous undermines other knowledge that it is diverse and challenging. Third, dominant negative stereotypes of rural communities discourage rural careers and highlight undesirable aspects of rural practice. The privileging of deficit knowledge pertaining to rural health workforce, broader dominant discourses of generalism and the nature of rural Australian communities reproduces many of the key challenges in rural health today, including persisting health disparities between rural- and metropolitan-based Australians. To disrupt the operations of power that highlight deficit knowledge and undermine other knowledge, we need to change the way in which rural health is currently constructed and understood. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  6. Open science initiatives: challenges for public health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmeyer, Cheryl

    2018-03-07

    While academic open access, open data and open science initiatives have proliferated in recent years, facilitating new research resources for health promotion, open initiatives are not one-size-fits-all. Health research particularly illustrates how open initiatives may serve various interests and ends. Open initiatives not only foster new pathways of research access; they also discipline research in new ways, especially when associated with new regimes of research use and peer review, while participating in innovation ecosystems that often perpetuate existing systemic biases toward commercial biomedicine. Currently, many open initiatives are more oriented toward biomedical research paradigms than paradigms associated with public health promotion, such as social determinants of health research. Moreover, open initiatives too often dovetail with, rather than challenge, neoliberal policy paradigms. Such initiatives are unlikely to transform existing health research landscapes and redress health inequities. In this context, attunement to social determinants of health research and community-based local knowledge is vital to orient open initiatives toward public health promotion and health equity. Such an approach calls for discourses, norms and innovation ecosystems that contest neoliberal policy frameworks and foster upstream interventions to promote health, beyond biomedical paradigms. This analysis highlights challenges and possibilities for leveraging open initiatives on behalf of a wider range of health research stakeholders, while emphasizing public health promotion, health equity and social justice as benchmarks of transformation.

  7. Adolescent mental health: Challenges with maternal noncompliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejtek, Vicki A; Hardy, Sarah; Winter, Scott

    2010-04-07

    The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal-child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient's mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother's actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mental health law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness.

  8. Food technology: challenge for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T W; Hong, J H; Moon, G S; Song, Y S; Kim, J I; Kim, J C; Kim, M J

    2004-01-01

    The food technology has brought countless benefits to today's food supply. Despite its many positive contributions, it has also brought unintended negative consequences. It is the time to mobilize the food technology to help the food supply more secure, safer and healthier, and here three possible approaches are foreseeable: First, we should continue to improve the conventional technologies. Many wholesome foods have been prepared and preserved using natural materials simply by fermentation. Second, we have to enhance the minimal processing as much as applicable. Third, new ingredients, intelligent packaging and functional foods should be explored to improve food supply and health. Today, consumer interest in the functional foods has been increased tremendously, and the future of food lies in the functional foods. However, the situations in the developing world are different from this. As food resource is limited in this region, food technology has to be emphasized to increase food supply. To help solve such complex problems, not only new technologies, but also conventional technologies have to be mobilized. Simultaneously, even higher technical capabilities have to be built up by applying new findings from the related disciplines to allow the food technology to play its vital role.

  9. Challenges in mental health care in the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Helena Aires de Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the practice of mental health care performed by healthcare professionals from the Family Health Strategy in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Methods: This is a critical and reflective study conducted in six Basic Health Units in Fortaleza-Ce. The study subjects were 12 health workers of the following professions: doctor, nurse, community health agents and technical and/or nursing assistant. Semi-structured interviews, systematic observationand questionnaire were used for data collection. The empirical analysis was based on an understanding of the discourses through critical hermeneutics. Results: It was evident that the mental health services are developed by some health workers in the ESF, such as, matrix support, relational technologies, home visits and community group therapy. However, there is still deficiency in training/coaching by most professionals in primary care, due to anenduring model of pathological or curative health care. Conclusion: Mental health care is still occasionally held by some workers in primary care. However, some progresses are already present as matrix support, relational technologies in health care, home visits andcommunity therapy.

  10. Applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of peer-reviewed scientific contributions from authoritative researchers attending an international symposium convened by the Animal Production and Health Sub-programme of the Animal Production and Health (APH), Joint FAO/IAEA Programme in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of the FAO. These Proceedings contain invaluable information on the role and future potential of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health, possible applications and constraints in the use of this technology in developing countries and their specific research needs

  11. 75 FR 57736 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... sound data on the prevalence and economic importance of livestock diseases and associated risk factors... through questionnaires to: Provide a baseline description of animal health, marketing, and management...

  12. Contextual factors and challenges to e-health literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolanle A. Olaniran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a digital world or digital era. Hence, People will argue that not only do information communication technologies (ICTs make e-health possible but rather that it is an innovation advance whose time has come. Notwithstanding, e-health while hoping to create well needed improvement in health care, it is rife with certain challenges which are not limited to e-health literacy. However, this paper looks specifically at e-health literacy. The paper, in particular overviews e-health while addressing the impacts of key contextual factors that impacts e-health and e-health literacy regarding the propensity to adopt and use e-health in LEDCs.

  13. Fortification and health: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Wiemer, Kathryn L; Dary, Omar; Keen, Carl L; King, Janet C; Miller, Kevin B; Philbert, Martin A; Tarasuk, Valerie; Taylor, Christine L; Gaine, P Courtney; Jarvis, Ashley B; Bailey, Regan L

    2015-01-01

    Fortification is the process of adding nutrients or non-nutrient bioactive components to edible products (e.g., food, food constituents, or supplements). Fortification can be used to correct or prevent widespread nutrient intake shortfalls and associated deficiencies, to balance the total nutrient profile of a diet, to restore nutrients lost in processing, or to appeal to consumers looking to supplement their diet. Food fortification could be considered as a public health strategy to enhance nutrient intakes of a population. Over the past century, fortification has been effective at reducing the risk of nutrient deficiency diseases such as beriberi, goiter, pellagra, and rickets. However, the world today is very different from when fortification emerged in the 1920s. Although early fortification programs were designed to eliminate deficiency diseases, current fortification programs are based on low dietary intakes rather than a diagnosable condition. Moving forward, we must be diligent in our approach to achieving effective and responsible fortification practices and policies, including responsible marketing of fortified products. Fortification must be applied prudently, its effects monitored diligently, and the public informed effectively about its benefits through consumer education efforts. Clear lines of authority for establishing fortification guidelines should be developed and should take into account changing population demographics, changes in the food supply, and advances in technology. This article is a summary of a symposium presented at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 on current issues involving fortification focusing primarily on the United States and Canada and recommendations for the development of responsible fortification practices to ensure their safety and effectiveness. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Detection of Ebola Virus RNA through Aerosol Sampling of Animal Biosafety Level 4 Rooms Housing Challenged Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    Rooms Housing Challenged Nonhuman Primates 10 11 12 13 14 15 David E. Harbourt1*, Sara C. Johnston1, James Pettitt2, Travis K. Warren1 and...Sampling of ABSL-4 Rooms Housing Challenged Nonhuman 10 Primates for publication in an edition of The Journal of Infectious Disease. This 11 manuscript...embedded in the texts. This is the first report demonstrating detection of Ebola virus 17 RNA from animal rooms housing infected nonhuman primates and

  15. Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Geoff

    2011-09-01

    This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health.

  16. Mental health challenges among adolescents living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Rachel C; McCoy, Brittany M; Lee, Sonia

    2017-05-16

    Mental health is a critical and neglected global health challenge for adolescents infected with HIV. The prevalence of mental and behavioural health issues among HIV-infected adolescents may not be well understood or addressed as the world scales up HIV prevention and treatment for adolescents. The objective of this narrative review is to assess the current literature related to mental health challenges faced by adolescents living with HIV, including access to mental health services, the role of mental health challenges during transition from paediatric to adult care services and responsibilities, and the impact of mental health interventions. For each of the topics included in this review, individual searches were run using Medline and PubMed, accompanied by scans of bibliographies of relevant articles. The topics on which searches were conducted for HIV-infected adolescents include depression and anxiety, transition from paediatric to adult HIV care and its impact on adherence and mental health, HIV-related, mental health services and interventions, and the measurement of mental health problems. Articles were included if the focus was consistent with one of the identified topics, involved HIV-infected adolescents, and was published in English. Mental and behavioural health challenges are prevalent in HIV-infected adolescents, including in resource-limited settings where most of them live, and they impact all aspects of HIV prevention and treatment. Too little has been done to measure the impact of mental health challenges for adolescents living with HIV, to evaluate interventions to best sustain or improve the mental health of this population, or to create healthcare systems with personnel or resources to promote mental health. Mental health issues should be addressed proactively during adolescence for all HIV-infected youth. In addition, care systems need to pay greater attention to how mental health support is integrated into the care management for HIV

  17. Nursing challenges for universal health coverage: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cabral Schveitzer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives to identify nursing challenges for universal health coverage, based on the findings of a systematic review focused on the health workforce' understanding of the role of humanization practices in Primary Health Care. Method systematic review and meta-synthesis, from the following information sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Scielo, Web of Science, PsycInfo, SCOPUS, DEDALUS and Proquest, using the keyword Primary Health Care associated, separately, with the following keywords: humanization of assistance, holistic care/health, patient centred care, user embracement, personal autonomy, holism, attitude of health personnel. Results thirty studies between 1999-2011. Primary Health Care work processes are complex and present difficulties for conducting integrative care, especially for nursing, but humanizing practices have showed an important role towards the development of positive work environments, quality of care and people-centered care by promoting access and universal health coverage. Conclusions nursing challenges for universal health coverage are related to education and training, to better working conditions and clear definition of nursing role in primary health care. It is necessary to overcome difficulties such as fragmented concepts of health and care and invest in multidisciplinary teamwork, community empowerment, professional-patient bond, user embracement, soft technologies, to promote quality of life, holistic care and universal health coverage.

  18. The science of animal behavior and welfare: challenges, opportunities and global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal welfare science is a relatively new scientific discipline. Originally heavily focused on animal behavior, it has emerged into a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary science, encompassing such sciences as behavior, physiology, pathology, immunology, endocrinology and neuroscience, and influence...

  19. Are we facing new health challenges and diseases in reindeer in Fennoscandia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tryland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of semi-domesticated reindeer is lost every year. Predators are the single most important factor for these losses, whereas restrictions on food availability some years also may cause high mortality. In the past, reindeer herding was challenged by severe infectious diseases, killing hundreds and thousands of animals, and having huge economic and social impact on reindeer herding in Fennoscandia. The general zoo-sanitary situation in Fennoscandia is very favourable for the time being, but reindeer herding is sometimes challenged by disease outbreaks, and diseases play an important role for survival and fitness of reindeer. Reindeer herding is also facing changes and challenges, which also may impact reindeer health and the disease status. Introduction of infectious agents not commonly present in the reindeer population may take place through import of animals, as well as by contact between reindeer, livestock and wildlife. Further, changes in the herding, such as increased feeding, transport, size of herds, animal density and stress load on the animals, may affect the animals ability to cope with infectious diseases. Also changes in weather conditions and climate, such as increased precipitation and mean temperature, may over time lead to restricted availability of pastures, changes in vegetation and changed conditions for parasites and insect vectors. These changes might be especially important for the reproductive success, including fitness of the calves during their first winter. To be able to cope with these changes and their potential impact on reindeer health, increased efforts should be made to gather reference data on health and disease parameters from the different reindeer herding districts, along with epidemiological risk factor analysis. This would increase the ability for the reindeer herding to cope with changes and to continue to produce quality meat products for the market.

  20. Challenges and priorities for modelling livestock health and pathogens in the context of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özkan, Şeyda [Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Post Box 5003, Ås 1430 (Norway); Vitali, Andrea; Lacetera, Nicola [University of Tuscia, Department of Agriculture and Forestry Science (DAFNE), Via San Camillo De Lellis, snc, Viterbo 01100 (Italy); Amon, Barbara [Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, Potsdam 14469 (Germany); Bannink, André [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, P.O. Box 338, Wageningen 6700 AH (Netherlands); Bartley, Dave J. [Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik EH26 0PZ (United Kingdom); Blanco-Penedo, Isabel [Animal Welfare Subprogram, IRTA, Veinat de Sies s/n, Monells, Girona 17121 (Spain); Haas, Yvette de [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, P.O. Box 338, Wageningen 6700 AH (Netherlands); Dufrasne, Isabelle [Nutrition Unit, Animal Production Department, Veterinary Faculty, University of Liège, Boulevard de Colonster 20, Bât. B43, Liège 4000 (Belgium); Elliott, John [ADAS UK Ltd, 4205 Park Approach, Thorpe Park, Leeds LS15 8GB (United Kingdom); Eory, Vera [Scotland' s Rural College (SRUC), Peter Wilson Building, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG (United Kingdom); Fox, Naomi J. [Scotland' s Rural College (SRUC), Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Roslin Institute Building, Easter Bush, Midlothian EH25 9RG (United Kingdom); Garnsworthy, Phil C. [University of Nottingham, School of Biosciences, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-15

    Climate change has the potential to impair livestock health, with consequences for animal welfare, productivity, greenhouse gas emissions, and human livelihoods and health. Modelling has an important role in assessing the impacts of climate change on livestock systems and the efficacy of potential adaptation strategies, to support decision making for more efficient, resilient and sustainable production. However, a coherent set of challenges and research priorities for modelling livestock health and pathogens under climate change has not previously been available. To identify such challenges and priorities, researchers from across Europe were engaged in a horizon-scanning study, involving workshop and questionnaire based exercises and focussed literature reviews. Eighteen key challenges were identified and grouped into six categories based on subject-specific and capacity building requirements. Across a number of challenges, the need for inventories relating model types to different applications (e.g. the pathogen species, region, scale of focus and purpose to which they can be applied) was identified, in order to identify gaps in capability in relation to the impacts of climate change on animal health. The need for collaboration and learning across disciplines was highlighted in several challenges, e.g. to better understand and model complex ecological interactions between pathogens, vectors, wildlife hosts and livestock in the context of climate change. Collaboration between socio-economic and biophysical disciplines was seen as important for better engagement with stakeholders and for improved modelling of the costs and benefits of poor livestock health. The need for more comprehensive validation of empirical relationships, for harmonising terminology and measurements, and for building capacity for under-researched nations, systems and health problems indicated the importance of joined up approaches across nations. The challenges and priorities identified can

  1. Challenges and priorities for modelling livestock health and pathogens in the context of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özkan, Şeyda; Vitali, Andrea; Lacetera, Nicola; Amon, Barbara; Bannink, André; Bartley, Dave J.; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel; Haas, Yvette de; Dufrasne, Isabelle; Elliott, John; Eory, Vera; Fox, Naomi J.; Garnsworthy, Phil C.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to impair livestock health, with consequences for animal welfare, productivity, greenhouse gas emissions, and human livelihoods and health. Modelling has an important role in assessing the impacts of climate change on livestock systems and the efficacy of potential adaptation strategies, to support decision making for more efficient, resilient and sustainable production. However, a coherent set of challenges and research priorities for modelling livestock health and pathogens under climate change has not previously been available. To identify such challenges and priorities, researchers from across Europe were engaged in a horizon-scanning study, involving workshop and questionnaire based exercises and focussed literature reviews. Eighteen key challenges were identified and grouped into six categories based on subject-specific and capacity building requirements. Across a number of challenges, the need for inventories relating model types to different applications (e.g. the pathogen species, region, scale of focus and purpose to which they can be applied) was identified, in order to identify gaps in capability in relation to the impacts of climate change on animal health. The need for collaboration and learning across disciplines was highlighted in several challenges, e.g. to better understand and model complex ecological interactions between pathogens, vectors, wildlife hosts and livestock in the context of climate change. Collaboration between socio-economic and biophysical disciplines was seen as important for better engagement with stakeholders and for improved modelling of the costs and benefits of poor livestock health. The need for more comprehensive validation of empirical relationships, for harmonising terminology and measurements, and for building capacity for under-researched nations, systems and health problems indicated the importance of joined up approaches across nations. The challenges and priorities identified can

  2. Multidrug resistant bacteria in companion animals: impact on animal health and zoonotic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro

    -resistant bacteria include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. These bacteria will be described with focus on their prevalence across Europe, their impact on animal...

  3. Health technology assessment in Iran: challenges and views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Doaee, Shila; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza; Nedjati, Mina; Aboee, Parisa; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various decisions have been made on technology application at all levels of the health system in different countries around the world. Health technology assessment is considered as one of the best scientific tools at the service of policy- makers. This study attempts to investigate the current challenges of Iran’s health technology assessment and provide appropriate strategies to establish and institutionalize this program. Methods: This study was carried out in two independent phases. In the first, electronic databases such as Medline (via Pub Med) and Scientific Information Database (SID) were searched to provide a list of challenges of Iran’s health technology assessment. The views and opinions of the experts and practitioners on HTA challenges were studied through a questionnaire in the second phase which was then analyzed by SPSS Software version 16. This has been an observational and analytical study with a thematic analysis. Results: In the first phase, seven papers were retrieved; from which, twenty- two HTA challenges in Iran were extracted by the researchers; and they were used as the base for designing a structured questionnaire of the second phase. The views of the experts on the challenges of health technology assessment were categorized as follows: organizational culture, stewardship, stakeholders, health system management, infrastructures and external pressures which were mentioned in more than 60% of the cases and were also common in the views. Conclusion: The identification and prioritization of HTA challenges which were approved by those experts involved in the strategic planning of the Department of Health Technology Assessment will be a step forward in the promotion of an evidence- based policy- making and in the production of comprehensive scientific evidence. PMID:25695015

  4. Deliberative democracy in health care: current challenges and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    There is a vast body of literature on deliberative, participative, or engaged democracy. In the area of health care there is a rapidly expanding literature on deliberative democracy as embodied in various notions of public engagement, shared decision-making (SDM), patient-centered care, and patient/care provider autonomy over the past few decades. It is useful to review such literature to get a sense of the challenges and prospects of introducing deliberative democracy in health care. This paper reviews the key literature on deliberative democracy and SDM in health care settings with a focus on identifying the main challenges of promoting this approach in health care, and recognizing its progress so far for mapping out its future prospects in the context of advanced countries. Several databases were searched to identify the literature pertinent to the subject of this study. A total of 56 key studies in English were identified and reviewed carefully for indications and evidence of challenges and/or promising avenues of promoting deliberative democracy in health care. Time pressure, lack of financial motivation, entrenched professional interests, informational imbalance, practical feasibility, cost, diversity of decisions, and contextual factors are noted as the main challenges. As for the prospects, greater clarity on conception of public engagement and policy objectives, real commitment of the authorities to public input, documenting evidence of the effectiveness of public involvement, development of patient decision supports, training of health professionals in SDM, and use of multiple and flexible methods of engagement leadership suited to specific contexts are the main findings in the reviewed literature. Seeking deliberative democracy in health care is both challenging and rewarding. The challenges have been more or less identified. However, its prospects are potentially significant. Such prospects are more likely to materialize if deliberative democracy is

  5. The health and health system of South Africa: historical roots of current public health challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovadia, Hoosen; Jewkes, Rachel; Barron, Peter; Sanders, David; McIntyre, Diane

    2009-09-05

    The roots of a dysfunctional health system and the collision of the epidemics of communicable and non-communicable diseases in South Africa can be found in policies from periods of the country's history, from colonial subjugation, apartheid dispossession, to the post-apartheid period. Racial and gender discrimination, the migrant labour system, the destruction of family life, vast income inequalities, and extreme violence have all formed part of South Africa's troubled past, and all have inexorably affected health and health services. In 1994, when apartheid ended, the health system faced massive challenges, many of which still persist. Macroeconomic policies, fostering growth rather than redistribution, contributed to the persistence of economic disparities between races despite a large expansion in social grants. The public health system has been transformed into an integrated, comprehensive national service, but failures in leadership and stewardship and weak management have led to inadequate implementation of what are often good policies. Pivotal facets of primary health care are not in place and there is a substantial human resources crisis facing the health sector. The HIV epidemic has contributed to and accelerated these challenges. All of these factors need to be addressed by the new government if health is to be improved and the Millennium Development Goals achieved in South Africa.

  6. Bacteriophages : an underestimated role in human and animal health ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eDe Paepe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e. the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity.

  7. Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Allen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.

  8. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Téllez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals’ health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs. This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health.

  9. Challenges for Multilevel Health Disparities Research in a Transdisciplinary Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John H.; Lehman, Amy; Hade, Erinn; Ferketich, Amy K.; Sarah, Gehlert; Rauscher, Garth H.; Abrams, Judith; Bird, Chloe E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous factors play a part in health disparities. Although health disparities are manifested at the level of the individual, other contexts should be considered when investigating the associations of disparities with clinical outcomes. These contexts include families, neighborhoods, social organizations, and healthcare facilities. This paper reports on health disparities research as a multilevel research domain from the perspective of a large national initiative. The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) program was established by the NIH to examine the highly dimensional, complex nature of disparities and their effects on health. Because of its inherently transdisciplinary nature, the CPHHD program provides a unique environment in which to perform multilevel health disparities research. During the course of the program, the CPHHD centers have experienced challenges specific to this type of research. The challenges were categorized along three axes: sources of subjects and data, data characteristics, and multilevel analysis and interpretation. The CPHHDs collectively offer a unique example of how these challenges are met; just as importantly, they reveal a broad range of issues that health disparities researchers should consider as they pursue transdisciplinary investigations in this domain, particularly in the context of a large team science initiative. PMID:18619398

  10. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio economics and economics of animal resources development ... Book Reviews: are accepted and should provide an overview of the work's contents ... Cite only textbooks and published article references to support your choices of tests.

  11. Myth of reincarnation: a challenge for mental health profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadit, A A Muhammad

    2009-02-01

    Mental health practitioners often come across a number of challenges in their clinical practice. One such challenge that posed a management dilemma presented with the history of reincarnation. This subject has been discussed in non-scientific literature at length but there is an absolute paucity in scientific literature. This paper describes a case where a boy presented with memories of previous life that started haunting him and caused significant anxiety. The subject of reincarnation needs extensive research in order to understand and manage the resultant clinical challenges.

  12. Dark Matters: Challenges of Nocturnal Communication Between Plants and Animals in Delivery of Pollination Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Renee M

    2018-03-01

    The night is a special niche characterized by dim light, lower temperatures, and higher humidity compared to the day. Several animals have made the transition from the day into the night and have acquired unique adaptations to cope with the challenges of performing nocturnal activities. Several plant species have opted to bloom at night, possibly as a response to aridity to prevent excessive water loss through evapotranspiration since flowering is often a water-demanding process, or to protect pollen from heat stress. Nocturnal pollinators have visual adaptations to function under dim light conditions but may also trade off vision against olfaction when they are dependent on nectar-rewarding and scented flowers. Nocturnal pollinators may use CO 2 and humidity cues emanating from freshly-opened flowers as indicators of nectar-rich resources. Some endothermic nocturnal insect pollinators are attracted to thermogenic flowers within which they remain to obtain heat as a reward to increase their energy budget. This review focuses on mechanisms that pollinators use to find flowers at night, and the signals that nocturnally blooming flowers may employ to attract pollinators under dim light conditions. It also indicates gaps in our knowledge. While millions of years of evolutionary time have given pollinators and plants solutions to the delivery of pollination services and to the offering of appropriate rewards, this history of successful evolution is being threatened by artificial light at night. Excessive and inappropriate illumination associated with anthropogenic activities has resulted in significant light pollution which serves to undermine life processes governed by dim light.

  13. Patient monitoring in mobile health: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In most countries chronic diseases lead to high health care costs and reduced productivity of people in society. The best way to reduce costs of health sector and increase the empowerment of people is prevention of chronic diseases and appropriate health activities management through monitoring of patients. To enjoy the full benefits of E-health, making use of methods and modern technologies is very important. This literature review articles were searched with keywords like Patient monitoring, Mobile Health, and Chronic Disease in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases without regard to the year of publications. Applying remote medical diagnosis and monitoring system based on mobile health systems can help significantly to reduce health care costs, correct performance management particularly in chronic disease management. Also some challenges are in patient monitoring in general and specific aspects like threats to confidentiality and privacy, technology acceptance in general and lack of system interoperability with electronic health records and other IT tools, decrease in face to face communication between doctor and patient, sudden interruptions of telecommunication networks, and device and sensor type in specific aspect. It is obvious identifying the opportunities and challenges of mobile technology and reducing barriers, strengthening the positive points will have a significant role in the appropriate planning and promoting the achievements of the health care systems based on mobile and helps to design a roadmap for improvement of mobile health.

  14. Leadership survey. An evaluation of health care executives' challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, T H; Hoppszallern, S

    2001-01-01

    Locating and keeping employees represents one of the greatest challenges facing health care leaders today. This is a key finding of the third Leadership Survey of executives in physician practices, managed care organizations and hospitals. The survey is sponsored by the Medical Group Management Association and Hospitals & Health Networks magazine. Other significant results: Practices put the most emphasis on teamwork, training and staff development as methods to combat labor shortages; practice executives count adequacy of reimbursements and physician productivity as top leadership challenges, along with the availability of qualified workers; practices choose print advertising and the addition of new products and services as the best ways for them to build market share.

  15. Opportunities and challenges to promoting oral health in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, P; Chestnutt, I G; Channing, D

    2009-09-01

    Inequalities in oral health in areas of socio-economic disadvantage are well recognised. As children spend a considerable proportion of their lives in education, schools can play a significant role in promoting children's health and oral health. However, to what extent schools are able to do this is unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate opportunities and challenges to promoting oral health in primary schools. A purposive sample of 20 primary schools from socially and economically disadvantaged areas of Cardiff, UK were selected to participate in this qualitative study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with head teachers or their nominated deputies. General awareness of health and oral health was good, with all schools promoting the consumption of fruit, water and milk and discouraging products such as carbonated drinks and confectionaries. Health promotion schemes wereimplemented primarily to improve the health of the children, although schools felt they also offered the potential to improve classroom behaviour and attendance. However, oral health was viewed as a separate entity to general health and perceived to be inadequately promoted. Successful health promotion schemes were also influenced by the attitudes of headteachers. Most schools had no or limited links with local dental services and, or oral health educators, although such input, when it occurred, was welcomed and highly valued. Knowledge of how to handle dental emergencies was limited and only two schools operated toothbrushing schemes, although all expressed an interest in such programmes. This study identified a positive predisposition to promoting health in primary schools. The challenge for the dental team, however, is to promote and integrate oral health into mainstream health promotion activities in schools. The paper also makes recommendations for further research.

  16. Health policy making for street children: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Saeieh, Sara Esmaelzadeh; Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh

    2017-08-17

    Background The phenomenon of street children is a bio-psychological and social issue that not only harms children, but also endangers the health of a society. In line with the national programs for the development and promotion of street children's health in Iran, health policy making and essential strategies for this group of children will be presented in this paper. This paper will discuss the main issues and challenges of street children's health and, also, health policy and guidelines for this population. Methods In this review study, the keywords; street children, health, challenges, policy, and health policy making were searched through PubMed, SID, Iranmedex, World Health Organization (WHO), Emro, the Cochran Library, Medline and Google scholar to collect data. The search resulted in 84 related resources from which 48 cases that were more relevant to this research and covered the issue more comprehensively, were used. All data published during 2002-2015 have been included in this paper. Results Key concepts including street children and their health, health policy, strategies to improve the health of street children, health policy approaches for street children, the WHO's strategies, and social support program for street children must be considered in the health policy making processes for street children, as precise identification of the relevant information makes planning more effective in health policy making for this group of children. Conclusion The phenomenon of street children is a growing problem in the world and it has turned into a serious concern in many countries including Iran. The findings of this study can be used for identifying necessary measures in order to use research outcomes more effectively in policy making processes and reforming street children's health policies in Iran.

  17. Biotechnology for development: Human and animal health perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilma, Tilahun

    2001-01-01

    ; training of scientists in the new technologies through graduate programs, postdoctoral fellowships, and workshops given in developing nations, and, specifically, the transfer of technologies in the development of recombinant vaccines and rapid diagnostic kits for improving both human and animal health. To illustrate these points, a few examples of the contributions of the ILMB are provided

  18. Remote sensing of ecosystem health: opportunities, challenges, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2014-11-07

    Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  19. Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1 scale issue; (2 transportability issue; (3 data availability; and (4 uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  20. Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges. PMID:25386759

  1. Animal health aspects of adaptation to climate change: beating the heat and parasites in a warming Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, P J; Morgan, E R; van Dijk, J; Mitchell, M

    2013-06-01

    Weather patterns in northern European regions have changed noticeably over the past several decades, featuring warmer, wetter weather with more extreme events. The climate is projected to continue on this trajectory for the foreseeable future, even under the most modest warming scenarios. Such changes will have a significant impact on livestock farming, both directly through effects on the animals themselves, and indirectly through changing exposure to pests and pathogens. Adaptation options aimed at taking advantage of new opportunities and/or minimising the risks of negative impacts will, in themselves, have implications for animal health and welfare. In this review, we consider the potential consequences of future intensification of animal production, challenges associated with indoor and outdoor rearing of animals and aspects of animal transportation as key examples. We investigate the direct and indirect effects of climate change on the epidemiology of important livestock pathogens, with a particular focus on parasitic infections, and the likely animal health consequences associated with selected adaptation options. Finally, we attempt to identify key gaps in our knowledge and suggest future research priorities.

  2. Sustainable improvement of animal health care by systematic quality risk management according to the HACCP concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhuizen, J P; Welpelo, H J

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the principles of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept as applied to animal health management strategy. Characteristics of the concept were analysed and compared with those of current animal health care strategies for disease risk identification and herd health management, insurance, and certification. HACCP is a hybrid strategy of quality control at both production process and product level. Animal health is considered a particular quality feature. We show that process control (expressed in terms of controlling both general and specific disease risk factors) and product control (expressed in terms of testing animals or animal products for specific disease agents) could form the basis for improving animal health. We conclude that HACCP provides ample opportunity for preventive health action and risk management at a relatively low cost in terms of labour, finance and documentation expenditure, at both the farm and sector level. Epidemiological field studies are currently needed to identify critical control points and to design HACCP procedures for livestock producers. In the long run, HACCP based animal health care can be further developed into a quality control systems approach to cover all aspects that are related, either directly or indirectly, to animal health.

  3. 78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request approval of a new information collection for the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Bison 2014 Study to support the bison industry of the United States.

  4. 78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's intention to request approval of a new information collection for the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Cervid 2014 Study to support the farmed cervid industry in the United States.

  5. 78 FR 24153 - Notice of Emergency Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has requested and received emergency approval of an information collection for a National Animal Health Monitoring System Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy Study to support the equine industry in the United States.

  6. 75 FR 34423 - Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0025... Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of solicitation for membership. SUMMARY: We are... disabilities. Done in Washington, DC, this 11\\th\\ day of June 2010. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal...

  7. 78 FR 27183 - Notice of Request for Reinstatement of an Information Collection; National Animal Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0010....), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is... birth to weaning; Describe antibiotic use and residue prevention methods used to ensure milk and meat...

  8. Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama eSzmolka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After the era of plentiful antibiotics we are alarmed by the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. The genetic flexibility and adaptability of E. coli to constantly changing environments allows to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Commensal strains of E. coli as versatile residents of the lower intestine are also repeatedly challenged by antimicrobial pressures during the lifetime of their host. As a consequence, commensal strains acquire the respective resistance genes, and/or develop resistant mutants in order to survive and maintain microbial homeostasis in the lower intestinal tract. Thus, commensal E. coli strains are regarded as indicators of antimicrobial load on their hosts. This chapter provides a short historic background of the appearance and presumed origin and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal intestinal E. coli of animals with comparative information on their pathogenic counterparts. The dynamics, development and ways of evolution of resistance in the E. coli populations differ according to hosts, resistance mechanisms and antimicrobial classes used. The most frequent tools of E. coli against a variety of antimicrobials are the efflux pumps and mobile resistance mechanisms carried by plasmids and/or other transferable elements. The emergence of hybrid plasmids (both resistance and virulence among E. coli is of further concern. Co-existence and co-transfer of these bad genes in this huge and most versatile in vivo compartment may represent an increased public health risk in the future. Significance of multidrug resistant (MDR commensal E. coli seem to be highest in the food animal industry, acting as reservoir for intra- and interspecific exchange and a source for spread of MDR determinants through contaminated food to humans. Thus, public health potential of MDR commensal E. coli of food animals can be a concern and needs monitoring and more molecular analysis in the

  9. Global Health Governance Challenges 2016 - Are We Ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona

    2016-02-29

    The year 2016 could turn out to be a turning point for global health, new political realities and global insecurities will test governance and financing mechanisms in relation to both people and planet. But most importantly political factors such as the global power shift and "the rise of the rest" will define the future of global health. A new mix of health inequity and security challenges has emerged and the 2015 humanitarian and health crises have shown the limits of existing systems. The global health as well as the humanitarian system will have to prove their capacity to respond and reform. The challenge ahead is deeply political, especially for the rising political actors. They are confronted with the consequences of a model of development that has neglected sustainability and equity, and was built on their exploitation. Some direction has been given by the path breaking international conferences in 2015. Especially the agreement on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris agreement on climate change will shape action. Conceptually, we will need a different understanding of global health and its ultimate goals - the health of people can no longer be seen separate from the health of the planet and wealth measured by parameters of growth will no longer ensure health. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. Knowledge of Rabies Prevention in Vietnamese Public Health and Animal Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, K A T; Nguyen, H T T; Pham, T N; Van, K D; Hoang, T V; Olowokure, B

    2016-11-01

    Rabies is an invariably fatal, but preventable zoonotic disease. Despite a national programme for its prevention and control, the number of rabies associated deaths in Vietnam has increased in recent years. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2012 to assess and compare the knowledge, awareness and practices of 189 public health workers (PHW) and animal health workers (AHW) attending a joint training course for professionals from provinces in northern Vietnam with the highest number of deaths from rabies. Questionnaires facilitating self-evaluation were provided, and total knowledge scores were calculated (maximum 38 points) and categorized into: 'high' (>30 points), 'moderate' (21-30) and 'low' (animal health and public health professionals attending joint training activities aimed at strengthening rabies prevention and control. To ensure effective prevention and control of rabies requires that AHW and PHW not only coordinate and collaborate, but have a common knowledge and understanding of rabies prevention and control measures. This study provides important baseline data in a relatively unexplored area of research that can focus future interventions and research. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  12. Electronic health records challenges in design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Sittig, Dean F

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the challenges in electronic health records (EHR) design and implementation along with an introduction to the best practices that have been identified over the past several years. The book examines concerns surrounding EHR use and proposes eight examples of proper EHR use. It discusses the complex strategic planning that accompanies the systemic organizational changes associated with EHR programs and highlights key lessons learned regarding health information-including technology errors and risk management concerns.

  13. Potential and challenges of body area networks for personal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Julien; van de Molengraft, Jef; Brown, Lindsay; Grundlehner, Bernard; Gyselinckx, Bert; Van Hoof, Chris

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates how body area network technology may enable new personal health concepts. A BAN technology platform is presented, which integrates technology building blocks from the Human++ research program on autonomous wireless sensors. Technology evaluation for the case of wireless sleep staging and real-time arousal monitoring is reported. Key technology challenges are discussed. The ultimate target is the development of miniaturized body sensor nodes powered by body-energy, anticipating the needs of emerging personal health applications.

  14. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Testing irradiation technology for potential use in trypanosome vaccine development; Strengthening animal disease diagnostic capacities in veterinary laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa; Proficiency testing for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) diagnosis by Nucleic Acid Amplification (RT-PCR). Information on Fellows is also provided.

  15. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 60, July 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to infectious diseases in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Testing irradiation technology for potential use in trypanosome vaccine development; Strengthening animal disease diagnostic capacities in veterinary laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa; Proficiency testing for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) diagnosis by Nucleic Acid Amplification (RT-PCR). Information on Fellows is also provided

  16. Profile of men's health in Malaysia: problems and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2011-01-01

    Men's health concerns have evolved from the traditional andrology and male sexual health to a more holistic approach that encompasses male psychological, social and physical health. The poor state of health in men compared to their female counterparts is well documented. A review of the epidemiological data from Malaysia noted a similar trend in which men die at higher rates in under 1 and above 15 years old groups and most disease categories compared to women. In Malaysia, the main causes of death in men are non-communicable diseases and injuries. Risk factors, such as risk-taking behaviour, smoking and hypertension, are prevalent and amenable to early interventions. Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and prostate disorders are also prevalent. However, many of these morbidities go unreported and are not diagnosed early; therefore, opportunities for early intervention are missed. This reflects poor health knowledge and inadequate health-care utilisation among Malaysian men. Their health-seeking behaviour has been shown to be strongly influenced by family members and friends. However, more research is needed to identify men's unmet health-care needs and to develop optimal strategies for addressing them. Because the Malaysian population is aging and there is an increase in sedentary lifestyles, optimizing men's health will remain a challenge unless effective measures are implemented. The existing male-unfriendly health-care system and the negative influence of masculinity on men's health behaviour must be addressed. A national men's health policy based on a male-friendly approach to health-care delivery is urgently needed to provide a framework for addressing these challenges. PMID:21358664

  17. Profile of men's health in Malaysia: problems and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2011-07-01

    Men's health concerns have evolved from the traditional andrology and male sexual health to a more holistic approach that encompasses male psychological, social and physical health. The poor state of health in men compared to their female counterparts is well documented. A review of the epidemiological data from Malaysia noted a similar trend in which men die at higher rates in under 1 and above 15 years old groups and most disease categories compared to women. In Malaysia, the main causes of death in men are non-communicable diseases and injuries. Risk factors, such as risk-taking behaviour, smoking and hypertension, are prevalent and amenable to early interventions. Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and prostate disorders are also prevalent. However, many of these morbidities go unreported and are not diagnosed early; therefore, opportunities for early intervention are missed. This reflects poor health knowledge and inadequate health-care utilisation among Malaysian men. Their health-seeking behaviour has been shown to be strongly influenced by family members and friends. However, more research is needed to identify men's unmet health-care needs and to develop optimal strategies for addressing them. Because the Malaysian population is aging and there is an increase in sedentary lifestyles, optimizing men's health will remain a challenge unless effective measures are implemented. The existing male-unfriendly health-care system and the negative influence of masculinity on men's health behaviour must be addressed. A national men's health policy based on a male-friendly approach to health-care delivery is urgently needed to provide a framework for addressing these challenges.

  18. Philosophy, policy and procedures of the World Organisation for Animal Health for the development of standards in animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, A; Wilson, D

    2005-08-01

    Animal welfare was identified as a priority for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the 2001-2005 OIE Strategic Plan. Member Countries recognised that, as animal protection is a complex, multi-faceted public policy issue which includes important scientific, ethical, economic and political dimensions, the OIE needed to develop a detailed vision and strategy incorporating and balancing these dimensions. A permanent working group on animal welfare was established in order to provide guidance to the OIE in its work on the development of science-based standards and guidelines. The Working Group decided to give priority to the welfare of animals used in agriculture and aquaculture, and that, within those groups, the topics of transportation, slaughter for human consumption and killing for disease control purposes would be addressed first. Some guiding principles were approved by the International Committee of OIE Member Countries during the 72nd General Session in May 2004, and these have been followed by four specific guidelines on the priority topics listed above.

  19. Health transition and immigration: a new challenge for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, A; Geraci, S

    2015-01-01

    Immigration has been one of the most relevant phenomena characterizing Italy's social history of the past 30 years. Currently, there are almost 5 million non-Italian citizens in Italy, representing about 8.2% of the country's population. At the beginning of the 80s, a small health clinic, set-up by a no-profit Catholic organization called Caritas, was thus opened in Rome - managed by medical doctors and volunteer workers - aimed at providing the new migrants (often without any social rights) the sanitary support that was unavailable or difficult to find. In time, this health clinic progressively became an observatory of migrants' general health conditions, with a particular focus on the part of this population found in marginal social and legal conditions (without a residence permit). Data recorded in Roman Caritas Health Clinic database, belonging to patient admitted to the medical centre for the first time in 1986-1987, 2003-2004 and 2013-2014, were selected and compared. Only patients from Africa, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe and Central and Southern America were included. In addition to vital statistics, both diagnosis and prescriptions are filed according to the ICD-9.CM, 1997 in the database. Only codes 001 to 999 have been taken into consideration. The resulting sample is composed of 10741 patients. Of these, 3602 relate to 1986-1987, 4341 to 2003-2004 and 2798 to 2013-2014. The total diagnostical data processed was of 12662 (2777 in 1986-1987, 5704 in 2003-2004, 4181 in 2013-2014). Over the last 30 years the most significant variable for the public health scenario is the progressively ageing population, a variable that does not occur homogeneously. Starting from 2003-2004 an upward trend for non-communicable diseases was observed, that, as suggested by this study, have patterns and determinants varying according to ethnicity. The progressive modification of the socio-demographic profile of the migrant population determined the health transition already

  20. The Potential of Animal By-Products in Food Systems: Production, Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Alao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of animal by-products has continued to witness tremendous growth over the last decade. This is due to its potential to combat protein malnutrition and food insecurity in many countries. Shortly after slaughter, animal by-products are separated into edible or inedible parts. The edible part accounts for 55% of the production while the remaining part is regarded as inedible by-products (IEBPs. These IEBPs can be re-processed into sustainable products for agricultural and industrial uses. The efficient utilization of animal by-products can alleviate the prevailing cost and scarcity of feed materials, which have high competition between animals and humans. This will also aid in reducing environmental pollution in the society. In this regard, proper utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta can result in cheaper feed, reduction in competition and lower cost of production. Over the years, the utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta as feed in livestock feed has been successfully carried out without any adverse effect on the animals. However, there are emerging gaps that need to be further addressed regarding the food security and sustainability of the products. Therefore, the objective of this review highlights the efficacy and effectiveness of using animal by-products as alternative sources of feed ingredients, and the constraints associated with their production to boost livestock performance in the industry at large.

  1. Lessons Learned and Challenges in Building a Filipino Health Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, David E.; Abesamis-Mendoza, Noilyn; Ursua, Rhodora; Divino, Lily Ann M.; Cadag, Kara; Gavin, Nicholas P.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, community-based coalitions have become an effective channel to addressing various health problems within specific ethnic communities. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to describe the process involved in building the Kalusugan Coalition (KC), a Filipino American health coalition based in New York City, and (b) to highlight the lessons learned and the challenges from this collaborative venture. The challenges described also offer insights on how the coalition development process can be greatly affected by the partnership with an academic institution on a community-based research project. Because each cultural group has unique issues and concerns, the theoretical framework used by KC offers creative alternatives to address some of the challenges regarding coalition infrastructures, leadership development, unexpected change of coalition dynamics, and cultural nuances. PMID:19098260

  2. One Health: The global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 'One Health' proposes the unification of medical and veterinary sciences with the establishment of collaborative ventures in clinical care, surveillance and control of cross-species disease, education, and research into disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and vaccination. The concept encompasses the human population, domestic animals and wildlife, and the impact that environmental changes ('environmental health' such as global warming will have on these populations. Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or decrease the suffering of canine and human patients, and which aligns well with the One Health approach. In this review we discuss how surveillance for leishmaniases is undertaken globally through the control of anthroponootic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The ZVL epidemic has been managed to date by the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and control of the sandfly vector by insecticidal treatment of human homes and the canine reservoir. Recently, preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to reduction in the incidence of the canine and human disease. Vaccination permits greater dog owner compliance with control measures than a culling programme. Another advance in disease control in Africa is provided by a surveillance programme that combines remote satellite sensing, ecological modelling, vector surveillance and geo-spatial mapping of the distribution of vectors and of the animal-to-animal or animal-to-human pathogen transmission. This coordinated programme generates advisory notices and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks that may impede or avoid the spreading of visceral leishmaniasis to new areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming.

  3. Ethical Issues in Maternal and Child Health Nursing: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-28

    Jun 28, 2016 ... and neonatal nurses, face ethical issues possibly because of their ... Aim: To identify the ethical issues related to maternal and child care, the challenges faced by ...... Lucas V.A. The business of women's health care. In: E.T. ...

  4. Challenges in conducting qualitative research in health: A conceptual paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ranjbar, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. Materials and Methods: This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. Results: One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. Conclusions: The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others. PMID:26793245

  5. Challenges confronting health care workers in government's ARV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges confronting health care workers in government's ARV rollout: rights and responsibilities. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... Unless the rights of HCWs are recognised and their needs adequately addressed, the best laid plans of government will be at risk.

  6. special article child health: past, present and future challenges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    among other things at ... in the planning of the new extensions to Korle Bu ... one ward (ward M) housed all the paediatric pa- ... Health Care Delivery to children by the Women Medi- .... Street, London to try to learn some paediatrics. ... career. Times indeed have changed, but there will al- ways be personal challenges for ...

  7. Effect of economic and security challenges on the Nigerian health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of economic and security challenges on the Nigerian health sector. Folashade T Alloh1, Pramod R Regmi1,2. 1. ... oil accounts for 75% of Nigeria's economy, so the fall in oil prices, therefore, has a significant impact on ... corruption surrounding many of the country's lawmakers in different scandals over the years have ...

  8. Oral Health Challenges for Sub-Saharan Africa | Danfillo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Health Challenges for Sub-Saharan Africa. IS Danfillo. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  9. Challenges of monitoring reproductive health services: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of monitoring reproductive health services: a case study of antenatal clinics in Kinondoni municipality, Dar Es Salaam. ... was descriptive cross sectional employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. The sample population included nurse-midwives who manage ANC clinics in Kinondoni Municipality.

  10. Food, Populations and Health — global Patterns and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present volume is based on presentations at a symposium at the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters in September 2014 with the title Food, Population and Health – global Patterns and Challenges. Food has played a fundamental role in the history of all societies over the World. Availab...

  11. CHALLENGES IN REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE OF ADOLESCENTS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Pinter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Slovenia is one of the most successful European countries in the prevention of adolescent pregnancy and the country with a relative early sexual engagement of adolescents. Every year new generations of adolescents are entering puberty, thus reproductive health care of adolescents should be our continuous priority. Methods: The most important challenges in reproductive health care of adolescents in Slovenia are early sexual engagement of adolescents, low double method use at sexual intercourse and inadequate detection of sexually transmitted infections. Possible responses should be found on a micro-level of physician (recognition of a new role of physician, promotion of ABC ap- proach and on a macro-level of society (development of national strategy of reproductive health care, introduction of systematic sexuality education in the schools. Conclusions: Challenges in reproductive health care of adolescents are several and possible responses are integral. A response on challenges demand that every physician recognizes his/her new role and develops his/her competency. Responses on challenges will be feasible with inter- connection of physicians with other physicians and professionals and with collaboration of profession and politics.

  12. Living with HIV: Challenges in Reproductive Health Care in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women in Africa are facing discrimination and challenges in relation to HIV/AIDS, particularly regarding their sexual and reproductive health care. This includes a lack of information regarding HIV and pregnancy, difficulties with contraceptive use, negative attitudes towards childbearing, and problems in accessing safe legal ...

  13. Human capital flight challenges within an Equitable Health System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human capital flight challenges within an Equitable Health System. N E Udonwa. Abstract. No Abstract Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 16 (4) 2007: pp. 307-311. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njm.v16i4.37327 · AJOL African ...

  14. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Edmunds, W J; Lessler, J

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014). Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.E. Metcalf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014. Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges.

  16. Health Promotion Challenges at Sea - a Danish Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarnø, Lulu

    HEALTH PROMOTOIN CHALLENGES AT SEA - A DANISH CASE L Hjarnoe, Centre for Maritime Health and Safety, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark INTRODUCTION: For the past 15 years the need for health promotion initiatives in the maritime sector has become more and more evident. Thus...... previous studies have documented increased mortality and morbidity (incidences) among seafarers, not only due to accidents but also to lifestyle like cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and diseases related to alcohol. These diseases are related to factors like alcohol consumption, obesity, physical...... inactivity and smoking, which for the latter three are factors highly represented in the maritime industry. The aim of this study is to identify the current health status of seafarers and to detect, strengths and weaknesses of health promotion interventions implemented in this target group. METHODS: A 1 year...

  17. NETWORKS OF HEALTH CARE: A CHALLENGE TO SUS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Dubow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a critical reflection, based on national law, scholarly, scientific, on the current development of Networks of Health Care, as a strategy for strengthening the Single Health System (SUS. Are weighted inefficiency of traditional ways of organizing care and management, the challenge of Network Health Care for comprehensive care and management mechanisms used in this process. The work provides subsidies for the care practices and health management are reflected, pointing strategies that result in disruptions of paradigms through a refocusing of attention in existing models. For networks of health care can be consolidated, is fundamental to political sensitivity of health managers with a commitment to build a new model of care, through the struggle to consolidate the SUS and the realization of the principles of universality, comprehensiveness and equity.

  18. [Human resources for health in Chile: the reform's pending challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Claudio A

    2009-09-01

    Omission of human resources from health policy development has been identified as a barrier in the health sector reform's adoption phase. Since 2002, Chile's health care system has been undergoing a transformation based on the principles of health as a human right, equity, solidarity, efficiency, and social participation. While the reform has set forth the redefinition of the medical professions, continuing education, scheduled accreditation, and the introduction of career development incentives, it has not considered management options tailored to the new setting, a human resources strategy that has the consensus of key players and sector policy, or a process for understanding the needs of health care staff and professionals. However, there is still time to undo the shortcomings, in large part because the reform's implementation phase only recently has begun. Overcoming this challenge is in the hands of the experts charged with designing public health strategies and policies.

  19. Smoking Health Professional Student: An Attitudinal Challenge for Health Promotion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cauchi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. Health professionals are uniquely positioned to provide targeted interventions and should be empowered to provide cessation counselling that influence patient smoking. A cross-sectional national survey was administered to all third year students in four disciplines at the University of Malta. The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS questionnaire was distributed to collect standardised demographic, smoking prevalence, behavioural, and attitudinal data. 81.9% completed the questionnaire (n = 173/211. A positive significant association between tobacco smoke exposure at home and current smoking status was identified. Non-smokers regarded anti-tobacco policies more favourably than smokers, being more likely to agree with banning of tobacco sales to adolescents (OR 3.6; 95% CI: 2.5–5.3; p ≤ 0.001; and with a smoking ban in all public places (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 6.1–13.1; p ≤ 0.001. Non-smokers favoured a role for health professionals in promoting smoking cessation (OR 5.1; 95% CI: 3.1–8.5; p ≤ 0.001. Knowledge of antidepressants as tools for smoking cessation was also associated with a perceived role for skilled health professionals in cessation counselling (OR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.8–13.3; p = 0.002. Smoking negatively influences beliefs and attitudes of students toward tobacco control. There is a need to adopt a standard undergraduate curriculum containing comprehensive tobacco prevention and cessation training to improve their effectiveness as role models.

  20. Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions

  1. Using smartphones to improve animal health and food security ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... The app is also helping farmers raise healthier animals and improve their own ... and found to be a convenient and user-friendly tool for learning and ... of smartphone-based knowledge mobilization technology for building the ...

  2. The human consequences of animal health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-09

    Dec 9, 2010 ... ... fish are primary animal protein sources, and that has huge implications.” ... and others are working on making fish diets from table scraps”— all of ... Highlight: Canadian High Commissioners call IDRC a catalyst for change.

  3. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  4. Farm animal health managements and treatment practices at Diga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal sex, age, species and body condition were considered. Cases were characterized and determined using tentative diagnosis and patho-gnomonic signs. The owners were also interviewed for local name of the disease. The respective therapeutic drugs used were also assessed. Male cattle (57.7%), poultry (76.3%) ...

  5. Human, animal and environmental contributors to antibiotic resistance in low-resource settings: integrating behavioural, epidemiological and One Health approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousham, Emily K; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    2018-04-11

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is recognized as a One Health challenge because of the rapid emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria and genes among humans, animals and the environment on a global scale. However, there is a paucity of research assessing ABR contemporaneously in humans, animals and the environment in low-resource settings. This critical review seeks to identify the extent of One Health research on ABR in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Existing research has highlighted hotspots for environmental contamination; food-animal production systems that are likely to harbour reservoirs or promote transmission of ABR as well as high and increasing human rates of colonization with ABR commensal bacteria such as Escherichia coli However, very few studies have integrated all three components of the One Health spectrum to understand the dynamics of transmission and the prevalence of community-acquired resistance in humans and animals. Microbiological, epidemiological and social science research is needed at community and population levels across the One Health spectrum in order to fill the large gaps in knowledge of ABR in low-resource settings. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. One health and cyanobacteria in freshwater systems: animal illnesses and deaths are sentinel events for human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Beasley, Val R

    2015-04-20

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associated with harmful cyanobacteria blooms tend to be investigated and reported separately. Consequently, professionals working in human or in animal health do not always communicate findings related to these events with one another. Using the One Health concept of integration and collaboration among health disciplines, we systematically review the existing literature to discover where harmful cyanobacteria-associated animal illnesses and deaths have served as sentinel events to warn of potential human health risks. We find that illnesses or deaths among livestock, dogs and fish are all potentially useful as sentinel events for the presence of harmful cyanobacteria that may impact human health. We also describe ways to enhance the value of reports of cyanobacteria-associated illnesses and deaths in animals to protect human health. Efficient monitoring of environmental and animal health in a One Health collaborative framework can provide vital warnings of cyanobacteria-associated human health risks.

  7. Expanding the three Rs to meet new challenges in humane animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Fraser, David; McDonald, Michael

    2004-11-01

    The Three Rs are the main principles used by Animal Ethics Committees in the governance of animal experimentation, but they appear not to cover some ethical issues that arise today. These include: a) claims that certain species should be exempted on principle from harmful research; b) increased emphasis on enhancing quality of life of research animals; c) research involving genetically modified (GM) animals; and d) animals bred as models of disease. In some cases, the Three Rs can be extended to cover these developments. The burgeoning use of GM animals in science calls for new forms of reduction through improved genetic modification technology, plus continued attention to alternative approaches and cost-benefit analyses that include the large numbers of animals involved indirectly. The adoption of more expanded definitions of refinement that go beyond minimising distress will capture concerns for enhancing the quality of life of animals through improved husbandry and handling. Targeting refinement to the unpredictable effects of gene modification may be difficult; in these cases, careful attention to monitoring and endpoints are the obvious options. Refinement can also include sharing data about the welfare impacts of gene modifications, and modelling earlier stages of disease, in order to reduce the potential suffering caused to disease models. Other issues may require a move beyond the Three Rs. Certain levels of harm, or numbers and use of certain species, may be unacceptable, regardless of potential benefits. This can be addressed by supplementing the utilitarian basis of the Three Rs with principles based on deontological and relational ethics. The Three Rs remain very useful, but they require thoughtful interpretation and expansion in order for Animal Ethics Committees to address the full range of issues in animal-based research.

  8. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. One Health in South Asia and its challenges in implementation from stakeholder perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Rojan; Upadhyay, Atul; Ewald, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    One Health is a concept which fosters collaborative relationships between human health, animal health and environmental health partners. Diseases are emerging and re-emerging in South Asia due to poor sanitation, close proximity of people to livestock, deforestation, porous borders, climate change, changes in human behaviour and unhygienic food preparation and consumption practices. This review was completed in two stages. First, we conducted a review of peer-reviewed literature and grey literature available in Google search engine related to One Health in four countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal). Second, we used a structured questionnaire completed by the key stakeholders working on One Health for the collection of information related to the challenges in implementing One Health. Most of the One Health activities in South Asia are determined by donor preferences. Bangladesh and India did considerable work in advancing One Health with limited support from the government agencies. Weak surveillance mechanisms, uncertain cost-effectiveness of One Health compared with the existing approach, human resources and laboratory capacity are some of the factors hindering implementation of the One Health concept. Implementation of One Health is growing in the South Asia region with limited or no government acceptance. To institutionalise it, there is a need for leadership, government support and funding. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. "Meatless days" or "less but better"? Exploring strategies to adapt Western meat consumption to health and sustainability challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Schösler, H.; Aiking, H.

    2014-01-01

    Adapting Western meat consumption to health and sustainability challenges requires an overall reduction of industrially produced animal proteins plus a partial replacement by plant proteins. Combining insights on food, environment, and consumers, this paper aims to explore change strategies that may

  11. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks.

  12. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E; Alpi, Kristine M; Pike, Caitlin A; Whitman, Elisabeth E; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    "One Health" is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%-34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated.

  13. From mobile mental health to mobile wellbeing: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The combination of smart phones, wearable sensor devices and social media offer new ways of monitoring and promoting mental and physical wellbeing. In this contribution, we describe recent developments in the field of mobile healthcare (or mHealth), by focusing in particular on mobile mental health applications. First, we examine the potential benefits associated with this approach, providing examples from existing projects. Next, we identify and explain possible differences in focus between mobile mental health and mobile wellbeing applications. Finally, we discuss some open challenges associated with the implementation of this vision, ranging from the lack of evidence-based validation to privacy, security and ethical concerns.

  14. THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGE AND HEALTH SECURITY IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wuyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available China has achieved impressive rapid development over the past 30 years. But China also faces the challenge of environmental change resulting from rapid economic growth and the attendant risks to human health. In this paper we described the environmental change and health risk in China from evident fluctuation of China’s climate, major changes in natural hydrological condition, raw materials and energy demand, changes of disease epidemic pattern related to climate change and ecosystem damage, new health risk raised by rapid urbanization and rural environmental quality degradation. The suggestion and countermeasures were discussed.

  15. Employee health services integration: meeting the challenge. Successful program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Y C

    1998-02-01

    1. The first step of a successful Employee Health Service integration is to have a plan supported by management. The plan must be presented to the employees prior to implementation in a "user friendly" manner. 2. Prior to computerization of employee health records, a record order system must be developed to prevent duplication and to enhance organization. 3. Consistency of services offered must be maintained. Each employee must have the opportunity to receive the same service. Complexity of services will determine the site of delivery. 4. Integration is a new and challenging development for the health care field. Flexibility and brainstorming are necessary in an attempt to meet both employee and employer needs.

  16. [Reflections on Occupational Health Nursing in Taiwan: Challenges and Perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei-Ling; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Chou, Yen-Fang; Chang, Tsai-Hsiu; Shiao, Shu-Chu Judith

    2018-04-01

    The development of the occupational health nursing profession has promoted stable and healthy human resources in Taiwan. In order to improve the occupational safety, health, and healthcare of workers, the professional core competencies and role functions of occupational health nursing is of utmost importance. This article investigated the current status of occupational health nursing education, role functions, practice scope, and the development and responsibilities of professional associations and proposed the challenges to and the future prospects of the development of occupational health nursing in Taiwan. The key findings include: (1) the role functions and practice scope of occupational health nursing; (2) occupational health nursing courses should be included in the required credits of Department of Nursing and master and doctor programs in occupational health nursing should be established; (3) a certification system of occupational health nursing should be established as soon as possible; (4) the professional associations for occupational health nursing should take responsibility for continuing education and training; and (5) interdisciplinary collaborations among relevant occupational health professionals should be strengthened.

  17. Challenges of Health Games in the Social Network Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Hugo; Pinho, Anabela; Zagalo, Nelson

    2012-04-01

    Virtual communities and their benefits have been widely exploited to support patients, caregivers, families, and healthcare providers. The complexity of the social organization evolved the concept of virtual community to social networks, exploring the establishment of ties and relations between people. These technological platforms provide a way to keep up with one's connections network, through a set of communication and interaction tools. Games, as social interactive technologies, have great potential, ensuring a supportive community and thereby reducing social isolation. Serious social health games bring forward several research challenges. This article examines the potential benefits of the triad "health-serious games-social networks" and discusses some research challenges and opportunities of the liaison of serious health games and social networks.

  18. Animal health economics: an aid to decisionmaking on animal health interventions - case studies in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T L; Pendell, D; Knippenberg, R

    2017-04-01

    For animal disease events the outcomes and consequences often remain unclear or uncertain, including the expected changes in benefits (e.g. profit to firms, prices to consumers) and in costs (e.g. response, clean-up). Moreover, the measurement of changes in benefits and costs across alternative interventions used to control animal disease events may be inexact. For instance, the economic consequences of alternative vaccination strategies to mitigate a disease can vary in magnitude due to trade embargoes and other factors. The authors discuss the economic measurement of animal disease outbreaks and interventions and how measurement is used in private and public decision-making. Two illustrative case studies in the United States of America are provided: a hypothetical outbreak of foot and mouth disease in cattle, and the 2014-2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry.

  19. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally...... validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant...

  20. Electronic health systems: challenges faced by hospital-based providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agno, Christina Farala; Guo, Kristina L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss specific challenges faced by hospitals adopting the use of electronic medical records and implementing electronic health record (EHR) systems. Challenges include user and information technology support; ease of technical use and software interface capabilities; compliance; and financial, legal, workforce training, and development issues. Electronic health records are essential to preventing medical errors, increasing consumer trust and use of the health system, and improving quality and overall efficiency. Government efforts are focused on ways to accelerate the adoption and use of EHRs as a means of facilitating data sharing, protecting health information privacy and security, quickly identifying emerging public health threats, and reducing medical errors and health care costs and increasing quality of care. This article will discuss physician and nonphysician staff training before, during, and after implementation; the effective use of EHR systems' technical features; the selection of a capable and secure EHR system; and the development of collaborative system implementation. Strategies that are necessary to help health care providers achieve successful implementation of EHR systems will be addressed.

  1. Mental health in Asia: social improvements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, W S; Ebata, K; Kim, K I; Krahl, W; Kua, E H; Lu, Q; Shen, Y; Tan, E S; Yang, M J

    2001-01-01

    Remarkable improvements in economic conditions and a considerable upgrade in the quality of life have been observed in many parts of Asia during the past several decades. At the same time, many mental health challenges face the people of Asia. Various social mental health indexes are reviewed here, with available data from China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, and other Asian societies. The data are compared with data from the United States, Australia in the Pacific Rim, and some other Western countries to examine patterns of similarity or difference between East and West in the process of modernization. Common trends in mental health issues associated with rapid sociocultural change observed in different Asian societies are discussed, as well as the relative shortage of mental health personnel available in many Asian societies. It is emphasized that, in addition to expanding psychiatric services, there is an even more urgent need to promote mental health knowledge and concern through education in the general population. Mental health needs to be cultivated and maintained by social forces and cultural strengths. It is stressed that there is a challenge for Asian people to advance mental health beyond economic development in the 21st century.

  2. Integrating an Academic Electronic Health Record: Challenges and Success Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Valerie M; Connors, Helen

    2016-08-01

    Technology is increasing the complexity in the role of today's nurse. Healthcare organizations are integrating more health information technologies and relying on the electronic health record for data collection, communication, and decision making. Nursing faculty need to prepare graduates for this environment and incorporate an academic electronic health record into a nursing curriculum to meet student-program outcomes. Although the need exists for student preparation, some nursing programs are struggling with implementation, whereas others have been successful. To better understand these complexities, this project was intended to identify current challenges and success strategies of effective academic electronic health record integration into nursing curricula. Using Rogers' 1962 Diffusion of Innovation theory as a framework for technology adoption, a descriptive survey design was used to gain insights from deans and program directors of nursing schools involved with the national Health Informatics & Technology Scholars faculty development program or Cerner's Academic Education Solution Consortium, working to integrate an academic electronic health record in their respective nursing schools. The participants' experiences highlighted approaches used by these schools to integrate these technologies. Data from this project provide nursing education with effective strategies and potential challenges that should be addressed for successful academic electronic health record integration.

  3. Human Resources for Health Challenges in Nigeria and Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Bukola; Dada, Foluke O; Adelakun, Folake E

    2016-05-01

    The emigration of sub-Saharan African health professionals to developed Western nations is an aspect of increasing global mobility. This article focuses on the human resources for health challenges in Nigeria and the emigration of nurses from Nigeria as the country faces mounting human resources for health challenges. Human resources for health issues in Nigeria contribute to poor population health in the country, alongside threats from terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and political corruption. Health inequities within Nigeria mirror the geographical disparities in human resources for health distribution and are worsened by the emigration of Nigerian nurses to developed countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom. Nigerian nurses are motivated to emigrate to work in healthier work environments, improve their economic prospects, and advance their careers. Like other migrant African nurses, they experience barriers to integration, including racism and discrimination, in receiving countries. We explore the factors and processes that shape this migration. Given the forces of globalization, source countries and destination countries must implement policies to more responsibly manage migration of nurses. This can be done by implementing measures to retain nurses, promote the return migration of expatriate nurses, and ensure the integration of migrant nurses upon arrival in destination countries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Antimicrobial drug use in food-producing animals and associated human health risks: what, and how strong, is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Wong, Nora; Thomas, Joe; Talkington, Kathy; Jungman, Elizabeth; Coukell, Allan

    2017-07-04

    Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat. Because antimicrobial consumption in food-producing animals contributes to the problem, policies restricting the inappropriate or unnecessary agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs are important. However, this link between agricultural antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance has remained contested by some, with potentially disruptive effects on efforts to move towards the judicious or prudent use of these drugs. The goal of this review is to systematically evaluate the types of evidence available for each step in the causal pathway from antimicrobial use on farms to human public health risk, and to evaluate the strength of evidence within a 'Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation'(GRADE) framework. The review clearly demonstrates that there is compelling scientific evidence available to support each step in the causal pathway, from antimicrobial use on farms to a public health burden caused by infections with resistant pathogens. Importantly, the pathogen, antimicrobial drug and treatment regimen, and general setting (e.g., feed type) can have significant impacts on how quickly resistance emerges or spreads, for how long resistance may persist after antimicrobial exposures cease, and what public health impacts may be associated with antimicrobial use on farms. Therefore an exact quantification of the public health burden attributable to antimicrobial drug use in animal agriculture compared to other sources remains challenging. Even though more research is needed to close existing data gaps, obtain a better understanding of how antimicrobial drugs are actually used on farms or feedlots, and quantify the risk associated with antimicrobial use in animal agriculture, these findings reinforce the need to act now and restrict antibiotic use in animal agriculture to those instances necessary to ensure the health and well-being of the animals.

  5. Health claims on foods: challenge for clinical research companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi Sarkkinen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The Nutrition and Health Claim Regulation 1924/2006/EC, together with EFSA guidances on the scientific requirements for different type of health claims, is setting the basis for health claim substantiation in the EU. Aim The aim of this presentation is to bring up the key challenges that the food industry and clinical research organizations are facing when meeting these requirements. Results and discussion Key issues in clinical research planning to meet the requirements set for the health claim substantiation are: (1 Selection of right outcome markers since the selection of outcome marker defines actually the formulation of the health claim to be used on food or food ingredient. (2 Selection of right target population since that determines the target consumer group for the food with a health claim. (3 Selection of dose regime and food matrices used since these largely determine the conditions set for the use of the health claim. One of the major challenges in health claim substantiation is the deviant approach to risk factors or biomarkers. From the regulation point of view, a single risk factor approach is emphasized, but from the clinical and scientific point of view the pattern of different risk markers or biomarkers could, in some cases, be a more relevant choice to reflect the final health outcome. This is especially the case in the nutrition and health area because we are often dealing with weak but multiple health effects of certain food items or ingredients. Also the lack of validated well-established biomarkers potent to be affected by diet is a challenge in health claim substantiation.The selection of right target population is often a compromise between choosing a more potential target group to obtain efficacy (i.e. risk factors elevated vs. patient groups and choosing a rationale to generalize the results to wider population (target consumer group.The selection of optimal dosing regime and matrices for a clinical study is

  6. Challenges and priorities for modelling livestock health and pathogens in the context of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Şeyda; Vitali, Andrea; Lacetera, Nicola; Amon, Barbara; Bannink, André; Bartley, Dave J; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel; de Haas, Yvette; Dufrasne, Isabelle; Elliott, John; Eory, Vera; Fox, Naomi J; Garnsworthy, Phil C; Gengler, Nicolas; Hammami, Hedi; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Leclère, David; Lessire, Françoise; Macleod, Michael; Robinson, Timothy P; Ruete, Alejandro; Sandars, Daniel L; Shrestha, Shailesh; Stott, Alistair W; Twardy, Stanislaw; Vanrobays, Marie-Laure; Ahmadi, Bouda Vosough; Weindl, Isabelle; Wheelhouse, Nick; Williams, Adrian G; Williams, Hefin W; Wilson, Anthony J; Østergaard, Søren; Kipling, Richard P

    2016-11-01

    Climate change has the potential to impair livestock health, with consequences for animal welfare, productivity, greenhouse gas emissions, and human livelihoods and health. Modelling has an important role in assessing the impacts of climate change on livestock systems and the efficacy of potential adaptation strategies, to support decision making for more efficient, resilient and sustainable production. However, a coherent set of challenges and research priorities for modelling livestock health and pathogens under climate change has not previously been available. To identify such challenges and priorities, researchers from across Europe were engaged in a horizon-scanning study, involving workshop and questionnaire based exercises and focussed literature reviews. Eighteen key challenges were identified and grouped into six categories based on subject-specific and capacity building requirements. Across a number of challenges, the need for inventories relating model types to different applications (e.g. the pathogen species, region, scale of focus and purpose to which they can be applied) was identified, in order to identify gaps in capability in relation to the impacts of climate change on animal health. The need for collaboration and learning across disciplines was highlighted in several challenges, e.g. to better understand and model complex ecological interactions between pathogens, vectors, wildlife hosts and livestock in the context of climate change. Collaboration between socio-economic and biophysical disciplines was seen as important for better engagement with stakeholders and for improved modelling of the costs and benefits of poor livestock health. The need for more comprehensive validation of empirical relationships, for harmonising terminology and measurements, and for building capacity for under-researched nations, systems and health problems indicated the importance of joined up approaches across nations. The challenges and priorities identified can

  7. Technologies for HIV prevention and care: challenges for health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksud, Ivia; Fernandes, Nilo Martinez; Filgueiras, Sandra Lucia

    2015-09-01

    This article aims to consider some relevant challenges to the provision of "new prevention technologies" in health services in a scenario where the "advances" in the global response to AIDS control are visible. We take as material for analysis the information currently available on the HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), treatment as prevention (TASP) and over the counter. The methodology consisted of the survey and analysis of the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS: MEDLINE, LILACS, WHOLIS, PAHO, SciELO) articles that addressed the issue of HIV prevention and care in the context of so-called new prevention technologies. The results of the studies show that there is assistance on the ground of clinics for the treatment of disease responses, but there are several challenges related to the sphere of prevention. The articles list some challenges regarding to management, organization of services and the attention given by health professionals to users. The current context shows evidence of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in reducing the risk of HIV transmission, but the challenges for the provision of preventive technologies in health services permeate health professionals and users in their individual dimensions and health services in organizational and structural dimension. Interventions should be made available in a context of community mobilization; there should be no pressure on people to make HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment or for prevention. In the management is responsible for the training of health professionals to inform, clarify and make available to users, partners and family information about the new antiretroviral use strategies.

  8. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9% and rural (59% discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015, the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.

  9. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796

  10. Deliberative democracy in health care: current challenges and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaei J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jalil Safaei Department of Economics, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC, CanadaBackground: There is a vast body of literature on deliberative, participative, or engaged democracy. In the area of health care there is a rapidly expanding literature on deliberative democracy as embodied in various notions of public engagement, shared decision-making (SDM, patient-centered care, and patient/care provider autonomy over the past few decades. It is useful to review such literature to get a sense of the challenges and prospects of introducing deliberative democracy in health care.Objective: This paper reviews the key literature on deliberative democracy and SDM in health care settings with a focus on identifying the main challenges of promoting this approach in health care, and recognizing its progress so far for mapping out its future prospects in the context of advanced countries.Method: Several databases were searched to identify the literature pertinent to the subject of this study. A total of 56 key studies in English were identified and reviewed carefully for indications and evidence of challenges and/or promising avenues of promoting deliberative democracy in health care.Results: Time pressure, lack of financial motivation, entrenched professional interests, informational imbalance, practical feasibility, cost, diversity of decisions, and contextual factors are noted as the main challenges. As for the prospects, greater clarity on conception of public engagement and policy objectives, real commitment of the authorities to public input, documenting evidence of the effectiveness of public involvement, development of patient decision supports, training of health professionals in SDM, and use of multiple and flexible methods of engagement leadership suited to specific contexts are the main findings in the reviewed literature.Conclusion: Seeking deliberative democracy in health care is both challenging and rewarding. The

  11. The use of animals as a surveillance tool for monitoring environmental health hazards, human health hazards and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jacqueline Pei Shan; Tan, Boon Huan

    2017-05-01

    This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens. Animals are an excellent channel for monitoring novel and known pathogens with outbreak potential given that more than 60 % of emerging infectious diseases in humans originate as zoonoses. This review attempts to highlight animal illnesses, deaths, biomarkers or sentinel events, to remind human and veterinary public health programs that animal health can be used to discover, monitor or predict environmental health hazards, human health hazards, or bioterrorism. Lastly, we hope that this review will encourage the implementation of animals as a surveillance tool by clinicians, veterinarians, ecosystem health professionals, researchers and governments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating animal health effects of sour gas acid forming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of sour gas well blowout emissions on livestock are reviewed. Guidelines for safe drilling operations in hydrogen sulfide environments, general hazards and characteristics of hydrogen sulfide, and guidelines for field investigation into the effects of sour gas and acid emissions on livestock are discussed. A case history involving the Ross No. 2 gas well blowout of July 1985 in Rankin County, Mississippi is presented. The blowout lasted for 72 days, and at peak discharge the 500 ppM radius was ca 3.5 miles. A cattle embryo transplant operation located one half mile from the well was affected by the blowout. Examination by a local veterinarian of the cattle demonstrated eye irritation, epiphora, nasal discharge and coughing. After one and a half months of exposure, most animals showed clinical signs of a severe dry hacking cough, epiphora, dry rales over the thoracic inlet, and a bronchial popping sound over the lateral thorax. All animals had eye irritation. Of 55 animals showing signs of respiratory distress and eye irritations, 15 were still clinically ill in May of 1986. 7 refs., 1 tab

  13. Bacteriophage therapy for safeguarding animal and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns including of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review.

  14. [Employees health education--challenges according to the educational level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Elzbieta; Puchalski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Article addresses the problem of increasing Polish employees health education effectiveness according to the differences in educational level. Research model assume that effective method of developing recommendations improving the health education will synthesise scientific findings regarding methodology of conducting such education and knowledge about needs of two target groups: low and high educated employees. Educational solutions were searched in publications related to: health education, andragogy, propaganda and direct marketing. The empirical material used to characterize two target groups came from four research (qualitative and quantitative) conducted by the National Centre for Workplace Health Promotion (Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine) in 2007-2010. Low educated employees' health education should be focused on increasing responsibility for health and strengthening their self-confidence according to the introduction of healthy lifestyle changes. To achieve these goals, important issue is to build their motivation to develop knowledge about taking care of health. In providing such information we should avoid the methods associated with school. Another important issue is creating an appropriate infrastructure and conditions facilitating the change of harmful behaviors undertaken at home and in the workplace. According to high-educated employees a challenge is to support taking health behaviors--although they are convinced it is important for their health, such behaviors are perceived as a difficult and freedom restriction. Promoting behavior change techniques, avoiding prohibitions in the educational messages and creating favorable climate for taking care of health in groups they participate are needed.

  15. Managing the pursuit of health and wealth: the key challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, David P; Drager, Nick; Lee, Kelley

    2009-01-24

    This article forms part of a six-part Series on trade and health, and sets the stage for this Series by analysing key aspects of the relationship between trade and health. The Series takes stock of this relation and provides timely analysis of the key challenges facing efforts to achieve an appropriate balance between trade and health across a diverse range of issues. This introductory article reviews how trade and health have risen and expanded on global policy agendas in the past decade in unprecedented ways, describes how trade and health issues are respectively governed in international relations, examines the ongoing search for policy coherence between the two policy spheres, and highlights the topics of the remaining articles in the Series.

  16. Challenging Barriers to the Evolution of the Saudi Animation Industry Life-Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Alharbi, O.; Baines, E.

    2015-01-01

    Conference proceedings were published with the paper available on https://www.waset.org/abstracts/industrial-and-manufacturing-engineering/27685 The animation industry is one of the creative industries that have attracted recent historiographical attention. However, there has been very limited research on Saudi Arabian and wider Arabian animation industries, while there are a large number of studies that have covered this issue for North America, Europe and East Asia. The existing studies ...

  17. Challenges and Possibilities for Accommodating Wild Animals in the Realm of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Björnegran, Amalia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This research seeks to investigate the possibilities and inadequacies of including wild animals within the justice realm. It bases this research on the reasons and rationales of representatives within environmental non- governmental organizations (ENGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and public agency working with animal- rights and welfare or environmental protection. These representatives reason from a personal and organizational perspective concerning justice, ethics and...

  18. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.

  19. Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Marano, N

    2009-08-01

    A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances.

  20. Immigrants and health system challenges to TB control in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fochsen Grethe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past three decades, Oman has made significant progress in controlling TB within it's borders. However, the national TB control program elimination target has yet to be reached. This study aims to explore the perceived roles played by the immigrant population and the private health sector in relation to TB control in Oman. Methods We conducted seventeen interviews with different health care providers. The verbatim transcripts were processed using content analysis. Results Three main themes emerged. Firstly the threat of repatriation faced by underprivileged expatriates, secondly the criticized and forgotten private health sector as a key player and thirdly the user and provider barriers faced by Omani patients in the Omani public health system. Conclusions The study has identified some of the challenges and barriers to TB control in Oman. These challenges are mainly related to unintended negative consequences arising from the current repatriation policy of immigrants and to and the lack of involvement of the private sector in TB control. TB control strategies designed to address these challenges are needed, for Oman to reach its TB elimination targets.

  1. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  2. Veterinarian challenges to providing a multi-agency response to farm animal welfare problems in Ireland: responding to the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C; Kelly, P; Blake, M; Hanlon, A; More, S J

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, the authors undertook a study of the challenges facing government and private veterinarians in responding to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents (i.e. the personal problems and difficulties of farmers that can result in farm animal neglect). This paper reports their findings and examines the role of veterinarians in responding to the difficulties of farmers. It also looks at their experiences of attempting to build a multi-agency approach involving veterinary and human support services. This paper builds on a study whereby the authors considered how social, health and attitudinal factors, as well as mental health problems, contribute to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland. An early warning system involving relevant agencies is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. The literature provides examples of private veterinarians combining with support services where there are indicators of animal and human abuse. Yet there are no research examples of government or private veterinarians linking with support services to resolve farm animal welfare cases where there are social, health, and/or mental health difficulties with the herd owner. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians (n = 18) and three with private veterinarians (n = 12). Government veterinarians made contact with support services to seek advice on how best to respond to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents, and/or to seek support for the herd owner. Contact between government and private veterinarians was driven by the former. Communication between agencies was influenced by individual efforts and personal contacts. Formal structures and guidelines, perceived professional capabilities in determining herd owner needs, and client confidentiality concerns among support services and private veterinarians were less influential. The fear of losing clients and the financial implications of this were

  3. Reentry challenges facing women with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visher, Christy A; Bakken, Nicholas W

    2014-01-01

    Women entering the correctional system represent a population at high risk for mental health and the body of research on the mental health needs of women offenders is growing. These mental health problems pose challenges for women at every stage of the criminal justice process, from arrest to incarceration to community reentry and reintegration. In this article, we examined mental health status among a sample of 142 women leaving confinement and the role that mental health problems played in shaping their reentry outcomes using data collected between 2002 and 2005 in Houston, Texas. In the year after leaving prison, women with mental health problems reported poorer health, more hospitalizations, more suicidal thoughts, greater difficulties securing housing and employment, more involvement in criminal behavior, and less financial support from family than women with no indication of mental health problems. However, mental health status did not increase the likelihood of substance use relapse or reincarceration. The article concludes with a discussion of recommendations for improved policy and practice.

  4. Status report on education in the economics of animal health: results from a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians.

  5. Plantibodies in human and animal health: a review.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antibody technology, hope of an affordable treatment for diseases such as cancer ... biological drugs are too costly to produce for resource-poor health care systems, .... Other disadvantages of adoption of antibody expression in plants include ...

  6. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S

    2006-01-01

    effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross......-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts...... but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb...

  7. 77 FR 44107 - Information From Foreign Regions Applying for Recognition of Animal Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ...We are amending the regulations that govern the importation of animals and animal products by consolidating the list of factors APHIS considers when evaluating the animal health status of a foreign region and by setting out new factors APHIS will consider when evaluating a region as historically free of a specific disease. These changes will make clearer the types of information APHIS needs from a requesting region in order to conduct an evaluation.

  8. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Genetic relationship of domestic sheep breeds with primitive Asian wild Urial sheep; Using irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; Peste des petits ruminants (PPR); Technical visit to the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Fellows/interns/consultants

  9. MORC Proteins: Novel Players in Plant and Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Aline; Kang, Hong-Gu; Steinbrenner, Jens; Dempsey, D'Maris A; Klessig, Daniel F; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Microrchidia (MORC) proteins comprise a family of proteins that have been identified in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are defined by two hallmark domains: a GHKL-type ATPase and an S5 fold. MORC proteins in plants were first discovered via a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants compromised for resistance to a viral pathogen. Subsequent studies expanded their role in plant immunity and revealed their involvement in gene silencing and transposable element repression. Emerging data suggest that MORC proteins also participate in pathogen-induced chromatin remodeling and epigenetic gene regulation. In addition, biochemical analyses recently demonstrated that plant MORCs have topoisomerase II (topo II)-like DNA modifying activities that may be important for their function. Interestingly, animal MORC proteins exhibit many parallels with their plant counterparts, as they have been implicated in disease development and gene silencing. In addition, human MORCs, like plant MORCs, bind salicylic acid and this inhibits some of their topo II-like activities. In this review, we will focus primarily on plant MORCs, although relevant comparisons with animal MORCs will be provided.

  10. MORC Proteins: Novel Players in Plant and Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Koch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microrchidia (MORC proteins comprise a family of proteins that have been identified in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are defined by two hallmark domains: a GHKL-type ATPase and an S5 fold. MORC proteins in plants were first discovered via a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants compromised for resistance to a viral pathogen. Subsequent studies expanded their role in plant immunity and revealed their involvement in gene silencing and transposable element repression. Emerging data suggest that MORC proteins also participate in pathogen-induced chromatin remodeling and epigenetic gene regulation. In addition, biochemical analyses recently demonstrated that plant MORCs have topoisomerase II (topo II-like DNA modifying activities that may be important for their function. Interestingly, animal MORC proteins exhibit many parallels with their plant counterparts, as they have been implicated in disease development and gene silencing. In addition, human MORCs, like plant MORCs, bind salicylic acid and this inhibits some of their topo II-like activities. In this review, we will focus primarily on plant MORCs, although relevant comparisons with animal MORCs will be provided.

  11. Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral

  12. Challenging machismo: promoting sexual and reproductive health with Nicaraguan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, P

    2000-03-01

    This article presents the results of a participatory exploration of male attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues in Nicaragua. Nicaraguan culture views men in a machismo concept. The study examined the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of men in relation to the social construction of masculinity: sexuality, reproduction, and fatherhood. Employing 90 men from both rural and urban communities, attitudes towards sexuality, reproduction, abortion and fatherhood were discussed. Several insights were gathered from the research, which explains men's behavior. Thus, it was deemed imperative that in empowering women by promoting sexual and reproductive health among men would require challenging male hegemony and persuading men to participate in health promotion. However, the setting and application of a men's agenda for sexual health promotion should not result in the curtailment of services for women because funds are being reallocated to men, nor should it give men the opportunity to more subtle forms of domination and exploitation.

  13. The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  14. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E. Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  15. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Paul Cherniack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  16. Monitoring health spending increases: incremental budget analyses reveal challenging tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Micah; Smith, Cynthia; Heffler, Stephen; Freeland, Mark

    2006-01-01

    With each passing decade, health care has consumed a larger share of gross domestic product (GDP) and Federal budgets. By the 2000-2004 period, society was willing to devote over 20 percent of the cumulative increase in GDP and the cumulative increase in Federal outlays towards health care. The financing challenges are expected to become more acute for private payers as well as Federal, State, and local budgets. With the implementation of Part D in 2006, the U.S. Office of Management and Budget projects that Federal budget pressures will heighten, bringing increased attention to Medicare's long-term fiscal outlook.

  17. Application of GIS technology in public health: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie M; Caprarelli, Graziella

    2016-04-01

    The uptake and acceptance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has increased since the early 1990s and public health applications are rapidly expanding. In this paper, we summarize the common uses of GIS technology in the public health sector, emphasizing applications related to mapping and understanding of parasitic diseases. We also present some of the success stories, and discuss the challenges that still prevent a full scope application of GIS technology in the public health context. Geographical analysis has allowed researchers to interlink health, population and environmental data, thus enabling them to evaluate and quantify relationships between health-related variables and environmental risk factors at different geographical scales. The ability to access, share and utilize satellite and remote-sensing data has made possible even wider understanding of disease processes and of their links to the environment, an important consideration in the study of parasitic diseases. For example, disease prevention and control strategies resulting from investigations conducted in a GIS environment have been applied in many areas, particularly in Africa. However, there remain several challenges to a more widespread use of GIS technology, such as: limited access to GIS infrastructure, inadequate technical and analytical skills, and uneven data availability. Opportunities exist for international collaboration to address these limitations through knowledge sharing and governance.

  18. Getting Australia more active: challenges and opportunities for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, A P; Street, S J; Harris, N

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that regular physical activity promotes health and assists in the prevention of non-communicable diseases but this is presently curtailed by low and unhealthy participation rates in Australia and comparable industrialised countries. Compounding the problem is knowledge that physical inactivity is independently associated with poor health outcomes. Despite physical activity being described as public health's 'best bet' or 'best buy', motivating individuals and groups to adopt and maintain physical activity continues to be a major challenge for health professionals. Global advocacy for prevention efforts must be operationalised through national to local strategies to promote and support physical activity in multiple settings including the home, schools and workplace. The Australian health promotion community has and continues to play a leadership role in physical activity promotion. However, there is an urgent need to continue to promote the importance of physical activity, along with its pivotal role in the prevention of non-communicable diseases, alongside related agendas including healthy diets, tobacco control and environmental sustainability. This commentary overviews the contemporary status of physical activity promotion in Australia and identifies key challenges and opportunities moving forward.

  19. Health recommender systems: concepts, requirements, technical basics and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-03-03

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  20. mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Yutao; Wang, Xiaoning; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries.

  1. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients’ health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports. Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS are meant to centralize an individual’s health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS. In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  2. Pilot Implementation of Health Information Systems: Issues and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen Peter; Havn, Erling C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to explore the issues and challenges involved in designing and organizing pilot implementations of health information systems (HIS). Pilot implementations are a widely used approach for identifying design flaws and implementation issues before full-scale deployment...... of conventional implementations; they are fundamentally different and they have their own complications and issues to deal with that make them hard to design and manage....

  3. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima-Camara,Tamara Nunes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country’s public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by th...

  4. Health sector reform in South Asia: new challenges and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Anwar; Tahir, M Zaffar

    2002-05-01

    In early 1990s, Jamison, Mosley and others concluded that a profound demographic and consequent epidemiological transition is taking place in developing countries. According to this classical model, by the year 2015, infectious diseases will account for only about 20% of deaths in developing countries as chronic diseases become more pronounced. These impending demographic and epidemiological transitions were to dominate the health sector reform agenda in developing countries. Following an analysis of fertility, mortality and other demographic and epidemiological data from South Asian and other developing countries, the paper argues that the classical model is in need of re-evaluation. A number of new 'challenges' have complicated the classical interplay of demographic and epidemiological factors. These new challenges include continuing population growth in some countries, rapid unplanned urbanization, the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa (and its impending threat in South Asia), and globalization and increasing marginalisation of developing countries. While the traditional lack of investment in human development makes the developing countries more vulnerable to the vicissitudes of globalization, increasing economic weakness of their governments forces them to retreat further from the social sector. Pockets of poverty and deprivation, therefore, persist giving rise to three simultaneous burdens for South Asia and much of the rest of the developing world: continuing communicable diseases, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and increasing demand for both primary and tertiary levels of health care services. While these complex factors, on the one hand, underscore the need for health sector reform, on the other, they make the task much more difficult and challenging. The paper emphasizes the need to revisit the classical model of demographic and epidemiological transition. It is argued that the health sector in developing countries must be aware of and

  5. Public Health Achievements and Challenges: Symposium of the University of Mostar Faculty of Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravlija, Jelena; Vasilj, Ivan; Babic, Dragan; Marijanovic, Inga

    2017-05-01

    Public health is an important area of health care that reflects the readiness of the state and society to provide the welfare of all citizens through the promotion of health and the preservation of a healthy environment - factors that directly affect the health of the population. The field of public health is very broad and its concept is changing over time, being defined in a narrower and wider sense. In short, public health is a science and practice that aims at ensuring the conditions in which people can preserve and improve their health and prevent health damage. The third millennium brings its specifics, needs and priorities according to challenges public health is faced by in the twenty-first century: the economic crisis, rising inequality, population aging, rising rates of chronic diseases, migration, urbanization, ecosystem change, climate change, etc. The role of public health is to protect, improve health, prevent diseases and injuries. Such a public health approach implies a multisectoral work focusing on "wider health determinants", and within this activity experts from various medical and non-medical profiles, whose field of public health is concerned, can be found. The development of inter-departmental co-operation skills contributes to a better understanding of health professionals and professionals of other profiles, and facilitates common, synergistic actions in addressing public health problems in the community. Symposium on Public Health Achievements and Challenges organized by the University of Mostar Faculty of Health Studies is just another indication of the obligation, the need and the desire for professional and scientific contribution to the fight for better health. Our faculty has so far organized other numerous symposia, and the aim of this symposium is to present public health achievements and challenges in our surrounding in order to protect, improve health, prevent diseases and injuries in a modern way.

  6. Vision of Dutch organic dairy farmers on animal health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, E.A.A.; Bestman, M.W.P.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic dairy farmers expressed their opinions on animal health and welfare in order to be able to communicate it internally (within the dairy sector) and externally (to consumers). A healthy animal in their opinion is free of physical and psychological discomfort, survives in a herd, takes

  7. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  8. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  9. Research and Reflection: Animal-Assisted Therapy in Mental Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshall, Debra Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…

  10. Key challenges of human resources for health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective Since independence the efforts have been to strengthen the health infrastructure, its accessibility and coverage. The human resources for health have been an important determinant for system but it has received significance recently. Even government expenditure on health has remained at not more than 1% of Gross Domestic Product which is very less as compared to world standard. Now the biggest challenge is the shortage of skilled human resource for health at all levels in the healthcare delivery system. The article aimed at understanding the current status of human resources for health and initiatives adopted to deal with existing shortage and to highlight factors leading to further shortage and to bring to notice the use of talent management strategy as a retention tool. Review Methodology The review used descriptive research design using secondary sources from journals-articles using key words. The study also used exclusion and inclusion criteria to select the articles. The study was done using extensive review of literature on health sector, health workforce, its availability and scarcity due to attrition/emigration in India. The critical review helped in setting objective for the study. Findings The review of articles provided insight into the current status of health workforce in India. The earlier studies emphasized that gap between demand and supply of human resource for health is mainly due to increasing population and burden of diseases. Studies have now identified other factors leading to further shortage as attrition/emigration of skilled health workforce. Most of the initiatives are mainly directed towards increasing supply of human resources for health to deal with the scarcity and less emphasis to control attrition. Few studies highlighted the use of talent management strategy to deal with the challenges of attrition and emigration that helps in retention and controlling further shortage. Recommendations

  11. Justifiability and Animal Research in Health: Can Democratisation Help Resolve Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Scientists justify animal use in medical research because the benefits to human health outweigh the costs or harms to animals. However, whether it is justifiable is controversial for many people. Even public interests are divided because an increasing proportion of people do not support animal research, while demand for healthcare that is based on animal research is also rising. The wider public should be given more influence in these difficult decisions. This could be through requiring explicit disclosure about the role of animals in drug labelling to inform the public out of respect for people with strong objections. It could also be done through periodic public consultations that use public opinion and expert advice to decide which diseases justify the use of animals in medical research. More public input will help ensure that animal research projects meet public expectations and may help to promote changes to facilitate medical advances that need fewer animals. Abstract Current animal research ethics frameworks emphasise consequentialist ethics through cost-benefit or harm-benefit analysis. However, these ethical frameworks along with institutional animal ethics approval processes cannot satisfactorily decide when a given potential benefit is outweighed by costs to animals. The consequentialist calculus should, theoretically, provide for situations where research into a disease or disorder is no longer ethical, but this is difficult to determine objectively. Public support for animal research is also falling as demand for healthcare is rising. Democratisation of animal research could help resolve these tensions through facilitating ethical health consumerism or giving the public greater input into deciding the diseases and disorders where animal research is justified. Labelling drugs to disclose animal use and providing a plain-language summary of the role of animals may help promote public understanding and would respect the ethical beliefs of

  12. One Health - Transdisciplinary Opportunities for SETAC Leadership in Integrating and Improving the Health of People, Animals, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Health is a collaborative, transdisciplinary effort working locally, nationally, and globally to improve health for people,animals, plants, and the environment. The term is relatively new (from ?2003), and it is increasingly common to see One Health included by name in interi...

  13. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-31

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa - Vol 59, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. ... Haematological, Carcass Characteristics And Meat Quality Of Intensively Managed West ... activities of the African Baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit-pulp extract in commercial broilers ...

  15. Future of keeping pet reptiles and amphibians: animal welfare and public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, C; Jessop, M; Arena, P; Pliny, A; Nicholas, E; Lambiris, A

    2017-10-28

    In a review summary on page 450, Pasmans and others discuss the future of keeping reptiles and amphibians as pets. Here, Clifford Warwick and others discuss the animal welfare and public health implications of exotic pet business. British Veterinary Association.

  16. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING... identified, to enable traceback to their establishment of origin; and (ii) Have been kept since birth in...

  17. Fibre’s role in animal nutrition and intestinal health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fibre has an important role in the complex interaction between the diet, the endogenous enzymes, the mucosa and the commensal microflora – all of which are considered important in the assimilation of nutrients and a key component for optimal intestinal health.......Dietary fibre has an important role in the complex interaction between the diet, the endogenous enzymes, the mucosa and the commensal microflora – all of which are considered important in the assimilation of nutrients and a key component for optimal intestinal health....

  18. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Simon J

    2008-02-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands).

  19. A case for increased private sector involvement in ireland's national animal health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Simon J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia. The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands.

  20. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However,