WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal feed ingredients

  1. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current fe...

  2. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Pedrosa, M.; Varela, A.; Guillamon, E.; Cabellos, B.; Burbano, C.; Gomez-Fernandez, J.; Mercado, E. de; Gomez-Izquierdo, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Muzquiz, M.

    2016-11-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid) was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g). The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g). The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g). Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g). The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean. (Author)

  3. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martín-Pedrosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g. The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g. The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g. Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g. The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean.

  4. Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Hanif Mohamad Jamil; Sepiah Muid

    1998-01-01

    Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

  5. Survival of viral pathogens in animal feed ingredients under transboundary shipping models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott A; Bauermann, Fernando V; Niederwerder, Megan C; Singrey, Aaron; Clement, Travis; de Lima, Marcelo; Long, Craig; Patterson, Gilbert; Sheahan, Maureen A; Stoian, Ana M M; Petrovan, Vlad; Jones, Cassandra K; De Jong, Jon; Ji, Ju; Spronk, Gordon D; Minion, Luke; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Zimmerman, Jeff J; Rowland, Raymond R R; Nelson, Eric; Sundberg, Paul; Diel, Diego G

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV). Surrogate viruses with similar genetic and physical properties were used for 6 viruses. Surrogates belonged to the same virus families as target pathogens, and included Senecavirus A (SVA) for FMDV, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) for CSFV, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1) for PRV, Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) for NiV, Porcine Sapelovirus (PSV) for SVDV and Feline Calicivirus (FCV) for VESV. For the remaining target viruses, actual pathogens were used. Virus survival was evaluated using Trans-Pacific or Trans-Atlantic transboundary models involving representative feed ingredients, transport times and environmental conditions, with samples tested by PCR, VI and/or swine bioassay. SVA (representing FMDV), FCV (representing VESV), BHV-1 (representing PRV), PRRSV, PSV (representing SVDV), ASFV and PCV2 maintained infectivity during transport, while BVDV (representing CSFV), VSV, CDV (representing NiV) and IAV-S did not. Notably, more viruses survived in conventional soybean meal, lysine hydrochloride, choline chloride, vitamin D and pork sausage casings. These results support published data on transboundary risk of PEDV in feed, demonstrate survival of certain viruses in specific feed ingredients ("high-risk combinations") under conditions simulating transport between

  6. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed...... ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink...... (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph...

  7. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  8. Fruit and Vegetable Co-Products as Functional Feed Ingredients in Farm Animal Nutrition for Improved Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kasapidou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are significant environmental, economic and social factors favoring the reutilization of fruit and vegetable processing co-products in farm animal nutrition. Current evidence shows that fruit and vegetable processing co-products can be effectively used in farm animal nutrition as functional feed ingredients for the production of food products of improved quality. These ingredients comply with consumer requests for the production of “clean,” “natural” and “eco/green” label food products. The main parameters affecting extensive application of fruit and vegetable processing by-/co-products as functional feed ingredients in livestock nutrition are related to animal factors, logistics, and commercial value. Further research is needed to enable the commercial application of these products to livestock nutrition.

  9. The probabilistic model of the process mixing of animal feed ingredients into a continuous mixer-reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Lytkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the polydisperse medium mixing process reflects its stochastic features in the form of uneven distribution of phase elements on the time of their presence in apparatus, particle size, ripple retention of the apparatus, random distribution of the material and thermal phase flows of the working volume, heterogeneity of the medium physical- and chemical properties, complicated by chemical reaction. For the mathematical description of the mixing process of animal feed ingredients in the presence of chemical reaction the system of differential equations of Academician V.V. Kafarov was used. Proposed by him hypothesis based on the theory of Markov’s processes stating that "any multicomponent mixture can be considered as the result of an iterative process of mixing the two components to achieve the desired uniformity of all the ingredients in the mixture" allows us to consider a process of mixing binary composition in a paddle mixer in the form of differential equations of two ingredients concentration numerous changes until it becomes a homogenous mixture. It was found out that the mixing process of the two-component mixture is determined in a paddle mixer with a constant mixing speed and a limit (equilibrium dispersion of the ingredients in the mixture i.e. with its uniformity. Adjustment of the model parameters was carried out according to the results of experimental studies on mixing the crushed wheat with metallomagnetic impurity, which was a key (indicator component. According to the best values of the constant of the continuous mixing speed and the equilibrium disperse values of the ingredients contents, the mathematical model parameters identification was carried out. The results obtained are used to develop a new generation mixer design.

  10. Evaluation of some edible leaves as potential feed ingredients in aquatic animal nutrition and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Emmanuel Olusola

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential benefits of ten edible leaves (Manihot esculents, cassava leaf; Colocasia esculenta, cocoyam leaf; Talinum triagulare, water leaf; Telfairia occidentalis, fluted pumpkin leaf; Carica papaya, pawpaw leaf; Amaranthus chlorostachys, green leaf; Moringa oleifare, drumstick leaf; Vernonia amygdalina, bitter leaf; Ipomoea batatas, sweet potato leaf and Basella alba, Malabar spinach ‘Amunututu’ to aquatic animal nutrition and health were studied along with proximate, mineral and phytochemical compositions. Results show that theses edible leaves were a good source of protein and the highest crude protein was obtained in C. papaya (32.6% while the lowest in C. esculenta (14.7%. The highest and lowest total ash was found in T. triagulare (34.6% and C. papaya (11% respectively. The result showed that the edible leaves are rich in wide variety of secondary metabolites of phytochemical constituents such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides oxalates and phytate which can act against different diseases. Results suggest that inclusion of edible leaves may be nutritionally beneficial and this could promote growth, immune system and enhance disease resistance properties and subsequently very potential to reduce the cost of highly priced supplementary feeds.

  11. New feed ingredients: the insect opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Jong, J

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle 'no, unless'. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.

  12. The probabilistic model of the process mixing of animal feed ingredients into a continuous mixer-reactor

    OpenAIRE

    L. I. Lytkina; A. A. Shevtsov; E. S. Shentsova; O. A. Apalikhina

    2016-01-01

    A mathematical model of the polydisperse medium mixing process reflects its stochastic features in the form of uneven distribution of phase elements on the time of their presence in apparatus, particle size, ripple retention of the apparatus, random distribution of the material and thermal phase flows of the working volume, heterogeneity of the medium physical- and chemical properties, complicated by chemical reaction. For the mathematical description of the mixing process of animal feed ingr...

  13. Effectiveness of Accelerator and Inoculum in Fermentation of Goat’s Rumen Contents as Animal Feed Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrie, B.; Sente, U.; Mayasari, K.; Syah, R. F.

    2018-02-01

    The goat’s rumen contents is slaughterhouse waste that has potential to be used as animal feed, but it has to be first processed into silage. This study aims to determine the type of accelerator and to investigate whether the addition of inoculum was required during the fermentation process. The research was conducted using a Completely Randomized Factorial Design, consisting of 2 treatment factors and 6 replications. The treatment factors were: a) Accelerator (rice bran or cassava pomade/onggok); b) Inoculum Lactobacillus plantarum (with or without using inoculant). Results showed that there was an increase in crude protein (CP) content with the use of rice bran at after fermentation compared to before fermentation. The CP contents with the use of onggok almost the same at after and before fermentation. Increase in the content of crude fiber (CF) after fermentation was both for using rice bran or onggok. However, the content of CF using onggok was much higher than with rice bran. There was no significant effect for both types of accelerators used in CP and CF contents at after fermentation with or without the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum as the inoculant. It can be concluded that for the fermentation of goat’s rumen contents it is better to use rice bran rather than onggok as the accelerator and inoculant is not required during the fermentationprocess.

  14. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Mycotoxin contamination of feeds results in economic loss and transmission of toxins in the food chain. Animal feeds, the raw ingredients used in their manufacture, namely, maize, wheat, sunflower seeds, cottonseeds, bagasse, wheaten bran, gluten feed and pet foods from South Africa were surveyed for.

  15. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb . In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperature and humidity could be detected. Mean values of aflatoxin concentration in feed stuffs such as rice, rice polish, wheat bran, wheat bread, maize, fish meal, blood meal, bone meal, guar meal, corn gluten 30%, corn gluten 60%, sun flower meal, soyabean meal and cotton seed meal were found to be higher than safe level of 20 ppb recommended by FDA.

  16. Environmental persistence of porcine coronaviruses in feed and feed ingredients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela P Trudeau

    Full Text Available Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV, Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV, and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV. Samples were incubated at room temperature for up to 56 days. Aliquots were removed at various time points followed by preparing serial 10-fold dilutions and inoculating in cell cultures to determine the amount of surviving virus. Inactivation kinetics were determined using the Weibull model, which estimates a delta value indicating the time necessary to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. Delta values of various ingredients were compared and analyzed as to their nutrient composition. Soybean meal had the greatest delta value (7.50 days for PEDV (P < 0.06 as compared with all other ingredients. High delta values (P < 0.001 were observed in soybean meal for PDCoV (42.04 days and TGEV (42.00 days. There was a moderate correlation between moisture content and the delta value for PDCoV (r = 0.49, P = 0.01 and TGEV (r = 0.41, P = 0.02. There was also a moderate negative correlation between TGEV survival and ether extract content (r = -0.51, P = 0.01. In conclusion, these results indicate that the first log reduction of PDCoV and TGEV takes the greatest amount of time in soybean meal. In addition to this, moisture and ether content appear to be an important determinant of virus survival in feed ingredients.

  17. Environmental persistence of porcine coronaviruses in feed and feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Michaela P; Verma, Harsha; Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Goyal, Sagar M

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV), Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV), and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample) into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV. Samples were incubated at room temperature for up to 56 days. Aliquots were removed at various time points followed by preparing serial 10-fold dilutions and inoculating in cell cultures to determine the amount of surviving virus. Inactivation kinetics were determined using the Weibull model, which estimates a delta value indicating the time necessary to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. Delta values of various ingredients were compared and analyzed as to their nutrient composition. Soybean meal had the greatest delta value (7.50 days) for PEDV (P TGEV (42.00 days). There was a moderate correlation between moisture content and the delta value for PDCoV (r = 0.49, P = 0.01) and TGEV (r = 0.41, P = 0.02). There was also a moderate negative correlation between TGEV survival and ether extract content (r = -0.51, P = 0.01). In conclusion, these results indicate that the first log reduction of PDCoV and TGEV takes the greatest amount of time in soybean meal. In addition to this, moisture and ether content appear to be an important determinant of virus survival in feed ingredients.

  18. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from different Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was carried out to provide a reference for monitory of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, zearalenone (ZEN and deoxynivalenol (DON contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds were collected from different Province in China from 2013 to 2015. Methods A total of 443 feed ingredients, including 220 corn, 24 wheat, 24 domestic distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS, 55 bran, 20 wheat shorts and red dog, 37 imported DDGS, 34 corn germ meal and 29 soybean meal as well as 127 complete feeds including 25 pig complete feed (powder, 90 pig complete feed (pellet, six duck complete feed and six cattle complete feed were randomly collected from different Province in China, respectively, by high-performance chromatography in combined with UV or fluorescence analysis. Results The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 80.8, 92.3 and 93.9 %, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for DON ranged from 66.7 to 100 %. Domestic DDGS and imported DDGS presented the most serious contamination AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 61.5 to 100 %, indicated that serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. Conclusion The current data provide clear evidence that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds in different Province in China is serious and differs over past 3-year. The use of corn, domestic DDGS, imported DDGS and corn germ meal, which may be contaminated with these three mycotoxins, as animal feed may triggered a health risk for animal. Feeds are most contaminated with DON followed by ZEN and AFB1. Mycotoxins contamination in feed ingredients and complete feeds should be monitored routinely in China.

  19. Digestibility of animal and vegetable protein ingredients by pirarucu juveniles, Arapaima gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe dos Santos Cipriano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients of energy, protein, and amino acids in protein ingredients by pirarucu juveniles. A test was conducted with six protein ingredients: meat and bone meal, fish meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, poultry by-product meal, soybean meal, and corn gluten meal. Three repetitions were used for each tested ingredient. A reference feed was used with 430 g kg−1 crude protein and 19.63 kJ g−1 gross energy. The test feeds consisted of the replacement of 30% of the reference feeds with the test ingredients. Chromium oxide was added to the feeds at 1 g kg−1 as an external marker. Eighteen juveniles with an average weight of 235±36 g were used. The best apparent digestibility coefficients of protein were found for fish meal, followed by the poultry by-product meal and meat and bone meal. However, except for gluten, all the tested ingredients presented protein digestibilities above 0.70. The crude energy apparent digestibility coefficient was higher for animal ingredients, above 0.75, than for vegetable ingredients, which presented values below 0.60. Pirarucu efficiently uses the protein from the tested ingredients, regardless of origin. However, it has a preferential ability to use the energy from animal ingredients.

  20. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds | Mngadi | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycotoxin contamination of feeds results in economic loss and transmission of toxins in the food chain. Animal feeds, the raw ingredients used in their manufacture, namely, maize, wheat, sunflower seeds, cottonseeds, bagasse, wheaten bran, gluten feed and pet foods from South Africa were surveyed for contaminating ...

  1. Nutritive Value and Availability of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commonly utilized feed ingredients for culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda were collected over a period of six months (January - June 2010) and evaluated for their nutritive composition through proximate analysis. Most of the fish feed ...

  2. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic-chemical diet......-chemical dietary fibre (DF) analytical method compared with conventional analytical methods of crude fibre (CF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). We expect the DF method to provide detailed and useful information concerning the nutritional properties of feed ingredients for horses....

  3. Comparison of spray-dried egg and albumen powder with conventional animal protein sources as feed ingredients in diets fed to weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Piao, Xiangshu; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Zeng, Zhikai; Tian, Qiyu; Li, Yao

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in spray-dried egg (SPE) and albumen powder (AP) compared with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), dried porcine solubles (DPS) and fish meal (FM). Additionally, the effects of these egg byproducts as a replacement for conventional animal proteins on the performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets were studied. In Exp. 1, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannulas were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin Square design and fed six diets. The AID and SID of AA were generally higher in AP and FM (P protein sources. In Exp. 2, 150 piglets weaned at 21 days, were fed diets containing the five protein sources for 3 weeks. Weight gain of piglets fed SDPP was the highest among the treatments. Dry matter and protein digestibility for pigs offered SDPP were higher (P protein sources and can be successfully fed to piglets without compromising performance. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in poultry feed ingredients: Isolation, identification and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasundaram Udhayavel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has been undertaken to study the occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in the poultry feed ingredients and find out its in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern to various antimicrobial drugs. Two hundred and ninety-eight poultry feed ingredient samples received at Poultry Disease Diagnosis and Surveillance Laboratory, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu in South India were screened for the presence of C. perfringens. The organisms were isolated in Perfringens agar under anaerobic condition and subjected to standard biochemical tests for confirmation. In vitro antibiogram assay has been carried out to determine the sensitivity pattern of the isolates to various antimicrobial drugs. One hundred and one isolates of C. perfringens were obtained from a total of 298 poultry feed ingredient samples. Overall positivity of 33.89% could be made from the poultry feed ingredients. Highest level of C. perfringens contamination was detected in fish meal followed by bone meal, meat and bone meal and dry fish. Antibiogram assay indicated that the organisms are highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%, chlortetracycline (96.67%, gatifloxacin (93.33%, ciprofloxacin (86.67%, ofloxacin (86.67% and lincomycin (86.67%. All the isolates were resistant to penicillin-G. Feed ingredients rich in animal proteins are the major source of C. perfringens contamination.

  5. Effectiveness of probiotic feed ingredient on the growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of antibiotics in human or veterinary therapy is followed by the appearance of bacteria resistance to these antibiotics. This is a serious problem because of the direct impact on therapeutic possibilities. This study aimed at evaluating the efficiency of a probiotic feed ingredient (Starter) on the growth performance of ...

  6. A Limited Survey of Aflatoxins in Poultry Feed and Feed Ingredients in Guyana

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    Donna M. Morrison

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the presence of aflatoxins in finished poultry feed from manufacturing companies, feed ingredients, and poultry feed at the point of sale. Two collections were made. In the first collection, samples of the finished feed and feed ingredients were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. For the second collection, all samples were analyzed by ELISA while a subset was analyzed by HPLC. Of the 27 samples of finished feed, five samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA and European Union Commission (EUC maximum tolerable limit of 20 µg/kg, while for the feed ingredients, three of the 30 samples of feed ingredients exceeded the limit. Of the 93 samples of finished feed purchased from retailers, five samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than the maximum tolerable limit. This survey indicates that most of the samples were below the maximum regulatory limit and maintained quality up to the point of sale for 2015 and 2016. However, given that some samples were above the limit, there is a need to monitor the production and marketing chain to ensure that the quality of the finished feed is not compromised.

  7. FeedOmics, an approach to evaluate the functional properties of protein containing feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kar, Soumya K.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents FeedOmics approach as a toolkit, to evaluate (novel) protein containing feed ingredients of different origin considering both their nutritional and functional value in terms of their capacity to support or modify nutrient supply, the animal’s physiology, tissue development

  8. Beneficial microbial signals from alternative feed ingredients: a way to improve sustainability of broiler production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Immerseel, Filip; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Moore, Robert J; Choct, Mingan; Ducatelle, Richard

    2017-09-01

    More sustainable broiler meat production can be facilitated by the increased use of cheap by-products and local crops as feed ingredients, while not affecting animal performance and intestinal health, or even improving intestinal health, so that antibiotic usage is further reduced. To achieve this, knowledge of the relationship between the taxonomic and functional microbiota composition and intestinal health is required. In addition, the relationship between the novel feed sources, the substrates present in these feed sources, and the breakdown by enzymes and microbial networks can be crucial, because this can form the basis for development of tailored feed-type specific solutions for optimal digestion and animal performance. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. International trade of animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene

    2018-01-01

    International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased

  10. Characterization of Dietary Energy in Swine Feed and Feed Ingredients: A Review of Recent Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  11. Genetically Modified Feed Crops and Feed Ingredients in Indonesia: Opportunities and Constraints of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang R Prawiradiputra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity of the presence of genetically modified organism (GMO forage crops in Indonesia is quite large. Although until now there is no single forage crop awarded safely crop in Indonesia, but several crop byproducts have been used as feed ingredient. The controversy over the presence of GMO plant cannot be avoided. There are a part of communities who could not accept the presence of GMO crops for some reasons. On the other hand, the producers claimed the advantages of the GMO crops such as reducing pesticide application, reducing cost of weeding, more tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses, and increasing production, farmer’s income and welfare. For the opponent, the main concerns are environmental issues and the possibility of emerging diseases in animal as well as human being. The Biosafety Comission through Biosafety Technical Team has the authority to recommend whether GMO food or feed (and plants is safe or not safe to be consumed and grown in Indonesia after the assessment.

  12. Comparison of amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients in broilers, laying hens and caecectomised roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Utterback, P; Parsons, C M; Adeola, O; Lilburn, M S; Applegate, T J

    2009-05-01

    1. This study determined the effect of bird type (broilers, laying hens, or caecectomised roosters) on amino acid digestibility of feedstuffs from 5 plant sources and one animal source. 2. The standardised amino acid digestibility (SAAD) were obtained by correcting apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD) values for basal ileal endogenous amino acid (EAA) flow obtained by feeding a N-free diet (NFD) to broilers and laying hens or from fasted EAA flow from caecectomised roosters. 3. The apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibilities did not differ between broilers and roosters for three of the 6 feed ingredients. 4. Broilers had higher apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibility than laying hens and roosters when fed on the maize diet (canola meal, maize, and soybean meal). 5. The apparent TAA digestibilities were similar across bird types for the dark distillers' dried grain with solubles, but the apparent lysine digestibility was much lower in the caecectomised roosters (15%) than the broilers (49%) and laying hens (43%). 6. The standardised TAA digestibility values in roosters were higher than in broilers for three of the 6 feed ingredients (canola meal, soybean meal, or meat and bone meal). 7. There were no differences between broilers and roosters, however, in the standardised TAA digestibility values for maize, dark and light DDGS. 8. The standardised TAA digestibility values for laying hens were lower for maize, higher for meat and bone meal, but no different for the remaining ingredients when compared with broilers. 9. The results from this study showed that both the apparent and standardised amino acid digestibility values in caecectomised roosters, laying hens, and broilers ingredients are similar for some, but not all, feed ingredients. 10. Nutritionists should, therefore, be cautious about using digestibility coefficients obtained by different methodologies as values may differ.

  13. Detection of pork and poultry meat and bone meals in animal feed using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal feed with meat and bone meal (MBM) has been the source of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and other livestock animals. Many countries have banned the use MBM as an animal feed ingredient. Spectral imaging techniques have shown potential for rapid assessment and authentication...

  14. The risk of contamination of food with toxic substances present in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Meijer, G.A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic substances such as dioxins, mycotoxins, heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drugs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are almost ubiquitous in the environment. Thus, they are also present in ingredients for animal feed. Adequate risk management depends on knowledge of absorption, metabolism,

  15. Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrán, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Silva, Joana; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2015-06-01

    Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19) for a wide range of mycotoxins (18) according to the EU regulations. PAP showed only minor levels of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 and the mycotoxin carry-over from feeds to fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon and gilthead sea bream (two main species of European aquaculture) was performed with plant ingredient based diets. Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in wheat, wheat gluten and corn gluten cereals with levels ranging from 17 to 814 and μg kg(-1), followed by fumonisins in corn products (range 11.1-4901 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1+B2+B3). Overall mycotoxin levels in fish feeds reflected the feed ingredient composition and the level of contaminant in each feed ingredient. In all cases the studied ingredients and feeds showed levels of mycotoxins below maximum residue limits established by the Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC. Following these guidelines no mycotoxin carry-over was found from feeds to edible fillets of salmonids and a typically marine fish, such as gilthead sea bream. As far we know, this is the first report of mycotoxin surveillance in farmed fish species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Utilization of Jatropha curcas Seed Meal and its Limitation as Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the alternatives to solve the problem of less fossil energy is to utilize plant as a new source of energy, i.e Jatropha curcas, known as physic nut. This plant has been promoted as a source of energy as its seed contains high level of oil which can be used as biodiesel. The meal produced after pressing the seed will become a by product which contains high level of protein but also contains several anti nutritive factors or toxic compounds. This causes a problem to utilize this seed meal for animal feed. This paper descibes the nutritional quality and anti nutritive factors of jatropha seed meal, detoxification of jatropha seed meal and its utilization as feed ingredient and the problem of its utilization. Jatropha seed meal as a feed ingredient has to go through a combination process of detoxification. There is a need to find a cheap and easy detoxification technology to produce a safe and high nutritional quality of jatropha seed meal for animal.

  17. Genetically Modified Feed Crops and Feed Ingredients in Indonesia: Opportunities and Constraints of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang R Prawiradiputra; Muharsini S

    2013-01-01

    The opportunity of the presence of genetically modified organism (GMO) forage crops in Indonesia is quite large. Although until now there is no single forage crop awarded safely crop in Indonesia, but several crop byproducts have been used as feed ingredient. The controversy over the presence of GMO plant cannot be avoided. There are a part of communities who could not accept the presence of GMO crops for some reasons. On the other hand, the producers claimed the advantages of the GMO cro...

  18. Use of Awamori-pressed Lees and Tofu Lees as Feed Ingredients for Growing Female Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuki Nagamine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Okinawan Awamori is produced by fermenting steamed indica rice with black mold, yeast, and water. Awamori-pressed lees is a by-product of the Awamori production process. Tofu lees is a by-product of the Tofu production process. This research consisted of two experiments conducted to elucidate whether or not dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a mixed feed ingredient for raising female goats. In experiment 1, digestion trials were conducted to ascertain the nutritive values of dried Awamori-pressed lees and dried Tofu lees for goats. The digestible crude protein (DCP and total digestible nutrients (TDN contents of dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees were 22.5%, 22.5% (DCP, and 87.2%, 94.4% (TDN respectively. In experiment 2, 18 female goats (Japanese Saanen×Nubian, three months old, body weight 15.4±0.53 kg were divided into three groups of six animals (control feed group (CFG, Awamori-pressed lees mixed feed group (AMFG, Tofu lees mixed feed group (TMFG. The CFG control used feed containing 20% soybean meal as the main protein source, while the AMFG and TMFG treatments used feed mixed with 20% dried Awamori-pressed lees or dried Tofu lees. The groups were fed mixed feed (volume to provide 100 g/d increase in body weight twice a day (10:00, 16:00. The klein grass hay and water was given ad libitum. The hay intake was measured at 08:00 and 16:00. Body weight and size measurements were taken once a month. At the end of the experiment, a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein of each animal. The DCP and TDN intakes in AMFG and TMFG showed no significant difference to the CFG. Cumulative measurements of growth in body weight, withers height, chest depth, chest girth, and hip width over the 10 mo period in the AMFG and TMFG were similar to the CFG. By contrast, cumulative growth in body length and hip height in the AMFG and TMFG tended to be larger than the CFG. Cumulative growth in chest width in the AMFG was

  19. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    .... FDA-2012-F-0178] Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed and Poultry Feed Ingredients; Correction... Administration (FDA) is correcting a document amending the regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet...

  20. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...-0178] Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed and Poultry Feed Ingredients AGENCY: Food and... amending the regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food to provide for the safe use of...

  1. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermentation process are subsequently described, namely: (i problems of cassava peel; (ii biodegradation and detoxification process; (iii solid state fermentation methods on cassava peel; (iv nutritional quality of fermented cassava peel; and (v application of fermented cassava peel in poultry feed. The fermented cassava peel application is compared with those of cassava root and waste (onggok. Addition of nitrogen inorganic in the fermentation process increases the mold growth and protein content of the product, while fiber and cyanogenic contents are decreased due to mold degradation activity. The fermentation process may be carried out using only the cassava peel as the substrate or mixed with wheat flour, using indigenous microbes, Aspergillus niger or a white rot fungus, Panus tigrinus as inoculum. As well as fermented cassava root and waste, fermented cassava peel can be used to substitute maize as poultry feed, although it is reported that the optimum substitution in broiler ration is only 10%.

  2. ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL- AND PLANT-DERIVED FEED ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), dibenzofurans (CDF), and dioxin-like coplanar PCBs (PCB) in poultry, elevated concentrations above 20 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ) were found in the fat of 2 broilers. These TEQ values were driven by very high concentrations of CDD. A team comprised of individuals from the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the US Department of Agriculture (DA) traced the source of elevated CDD to a minor component in the poultry feed. This component was ball clay and it was used as an anti-caking agent in the soybean meal. The ball clay often comprised less than 0.2% of the dry weight of the complete ration in contaminated poultry. The investigation traced the ball clay to a mine in Mississippi. After learning that other ball clay mines in Kentucky and Tennessee also contained elevated CDD levels, the FDA issued a letter to producers or users of clay products in animal feeds asking that they cease using ball clay in any animal feed or feed ingredient. Subsequent contaminations of animal feed in Belgium with PCB and of citrus pulp from Brazil with CDD and CDF alerted countries worldwide that animal feeds can become contaminated with CDD/CDF/PCB (DFP) via contamination of minor feed components. This type of contamination can overshadow the normal air-to-leaf process that is thought to dominate the food chain for terr

  3. Performance, health and physiological responses of newly weaned feedlot cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, K A; Cooke, R F; Schubach, K M; Brandão, A P; Schumaher, T F; Prado, I N; Marques, R S; Bohnert, D W

    2018-03-26

    With increased regulations regarding the use of feed-grade antimicrobials in livestock systems, alternative strategies to enhance growth and immunity of feedlot cattle are warranted. Hence, this experiment compared performance, health and physiological responses of cattle supplemented with feed-grade antibiotics or alternative feed ingredients during the initial 60 days in the feedlot. Angus×Hereford calves (63 steers+42 heifers) originating from two cow-calf ranches were weaned on day -3, obtained from an auction yard on day -2 and road-transported (800 km; 12 h) to the feedlot. Upon arrival on day -1, shrunk BW was recorded. On day 0, calves were ranked by sex, source and shrunk BW, and allocated to one of 21 pens. Pens were assigned to receive (7 pens/treatment) a free-choice total mixed ration containing: (1) lasalocid (360 mg/calf daily of Bovatec; Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ, USA)+chlortetracycline (350 mg/calf of Aureomycin at cycles of 5-day inclusion and 2-day removal from diet; Zoetis) from days 0 to 32, and monensin only (360 mg/calf daily of Rumensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN, USA) from days 33 to 60 (PC), (2) sodium saccharin-based sweetener (Sucram at 0.04 g/kg of diet dry matter; Pancosma SA; Geneva, Switzerland)+plant extracts containing eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum (800 mg/calf daily of XTRACT Ruminants 7065; Pancosma SA) from days 0 to 32 and XTRACT only (800 mg/calf daily) from days 33 to 60 (EG) or (3) no supplemental ingredients (CON; days 0 to 60). Calves were assessed for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) signs and dry matter intake was recorded from each pen daily. Calves were vaccinated against BRD pathogens on days 0 and 22. Shrunk BW was recorded on day 61, and blood samples collected on days 0, 6, 11, 22, 33, 43 and 60. Calf ADG was greater (P=0.04) in PC v. EG and tended (P=0.09) to be greater in PC v. CON. Feed efficiency also tended (P=0.09) to be greater in PC v. CON, although main treatment effect for this response

  4. Nutritional Value of Irradiated Animal Feed By-Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din Farag, M.D.H.

    1998-01-01

    Animal feed by-products, widely used in animal diets, are sources of disease organisms for animals and for human beings. Salmonella is the principal genus of concern.Radiation treatment (radicidation, radurization) is a promising method of decontamination of feed ingredients. Commercial samples of fish, meat, and blood meals were sealed by heat in polyethylene bags and irradiated at dose levels of 5.0, 10, 20 and 50 kGy. Their chemical analysis were carried out according to A. O. A.C [1] and the total protein efficiency (TPE) of the three animal feed by-products was determined according to Wood ham (2) by using one day old Dokki-4 chicks. Radiation induced an insignificant effect on the chemical constituent of meals. Also, the same trend was observed with TPE of both fish and meat meals. However, irradiation treatments improved TPE values of irradiated blood meal samples. From the results, it could be concluded that irradiation of animal feed by-products up to a dose level of 50 Gy has no adverse effects on the nutritional value of animal feed by-products

  5. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, S J A; Sonnenberg, A S M; Baars, J J P; Hendriks, W H; Cone, J W

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms

  6. Development of Ingredients of the Feed-stuff for Improving Immune system using Centipede grass Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Hyoungwoo; Chung, Byungyeoup; Lee, Seungsik; Lee, Sungbeom

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the this project provides new application areas using naturally occurring flavonoids, cenetpedegrass extracts, for improving immune system and used as ingredients for feed-stuff. In order to provide the immune improving effects of centipedegrass, cell and animal experiments were carried out. Research scope includes determine the effect of centipedegrass extracts on immune functions using LPS-induced RAW cells and found that cytokines, IL-6 and IL-10, which were induced by LPS, were reduced by inhibiting phosphorylation of STAT-3, determine the effects of immune stimulating activity of centipedegrass in animals, cenetipedegrass extracts were administrated once a day for 2 weeks. After treated with LPS, immune suppressor, cytokines were down regulated, however, the cytokines in the group pretreated with centipedegrass extracts, were not down regulated as much as non treated group. The overall mechanism of immune stimulating effect of centipedegrass extracts, was that STAT-3 phosphorylation was inhibited by contipedegrass extracts.

  7. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahlow, Markus; van Oel, P.R.; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive

  8. Quality assurance for animal feed analysis laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balthrop, J.; Brand, B.; Cowie, R.A.; Danier, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Jonge, de L.H.; Jackson, F.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Piotrowski, C.

    2011-01-01

    Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. The availability of accurate, reliable and reproducible analytical data is imperative for proper feed formulation. Only reliable analysis can lead to the

  9. Influence of feed ingredients on water quality parameters in RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Suhr, Karin Isabel

    2011-01-01

    of plant-based protein in the diets was relatively high (68% of protein). Growth performance (SGR, FCR) was not different between the feed types. Fish in each system - and thereby the system itself - were fed 500 g feed/day. After 8 weeks on the same commercial feed type, test feed was administered...

  10. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  11. Research and Development on Animal Feed in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wan Zahari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the non-ruminant sector to self–sufficiency in meat and eggs has been matched by massive importation of feed. Thus, a major thrust to reduce the burden of feed imports is to increase the use of indigenous feed resources and intensify research to look for alternatives and substitutes. Over the past 3 decades, local researchers have reported on the availability nutritive content, optimal inclusion levels and treatment methods to enhance nutrient value of many locally available feed ingredients in practical poultry rations. The list includes evaluation and utilization of feed rice, palm kernel cake (PKC, broken rice, bran, sorghum, cassava, sago, fishmeal and commercial grain corn production; but the goal of import substitution and self- sufficiency is still unfulfilled. Although PKC, feed rice, local maize and specialty fats has potential to be viable energy feed sources and local fish meal is a promising protein feed source, more large scale Research and Development (R & D is needed. In the ruminant sub-sector, emphasis is towards maximizing use of locally available agro-industrial byproducts and crop residues for the production of cost-effective feeds. The utilization of local feed resources is highly dependent on the supply of agro- industrial byproducts or crop residues from the oil palm and rice industries. In order to encourage a sustainable ruminant industry in Malaysia, local feed production has to be maximized and strengthened. Current emphasis is towards the development of practical and low-cost feeds for various classes of livestock species, particularly by utilizing local forages, tree fodders, crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts. This paper highlights the research and development on animal feed in Malaysia over the last three decades and discusses various aspects of livestock feeding.

  12. Irradiation effect on animal feeds and feedstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    1983-10-01

    Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of γ-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)

  13. 9 CFR 113.53 - Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall be tested at a laboratory approved by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service using the Coggins... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics. 113.53 Section 113.53 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  14. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. Ionizing... follows: (a) Energy sources. Ionizing radiation is limited to gamma rays from sealed units of cobalt-60...

  15. ESTIMA TION OF CRUDE FIBRE AND CRUDE PROTEIN IN COMMERCIAL POUL TRY RA T.JONS AND SOME IMPORT ANT FEED INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1218 samples relating to compound poultry rations and feed ingredients were analysed for crude fibre content. The crude fibre contents ranged between 4.79 ± 0.75 and 5.69 ± 2.03 with CV ranged between 14.89 and 35.68 for six categories of commercial poultry rations including chick starter, grower mash, layer mash, broiler starter, broiler finisher and breeder mash. The crude protein contents estimated on 2679 feed samples of compound poultry feed and feed ingredients ranged between 15.86 ± 1.41 and 18.63 ± 1.67, while the CV ranged from 8.89 to 10.99. The crude fibre and crude protein contents in feed ingredients, agricultural and animal byproducts are specific to each item and the values are based on chemical analyses which are broadly within values prescribed by nutritional standards.

  16. Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass,

  17. Transition to a Tube Feeding Formula With Real Food Ingredients in Pediatric Patients With Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samela, Kate; Mokha, Jasmeet; Emerick, Karan; Davidovics, Zev H

    2017-04-01

    Due to concerns related primarily to allergic response and malabsorption, enteral nutrition therapy has traditionally relied on the use of elemental formulas in children with intestinal failure (IF). Blended food diets via a gastrostomy tube have been reported to improve feeding tolerance in pediatric populations receiving long-term enteral nutrition therapy. Complex macronutrients have been shown to stimulate intestinal adaptation in animal models. We report on our experience in children with IF who had an overall improvement in stool output when transitioned from an elemental formula to a tube feeding formula with real food ingredients (TFRF). Data were collected in a retrospective chart review of children with IF, >1 year of age, who were receiving enteral nutrition via continuous infusion, bolus feeding, or both. Indications for the TFRF trial were diarrhea or inconsistent stooling patterns. Ten children with a mean small bowel length of 48.3 cm were trialed on TFRF. Nine of 10 (90%) children tolerated the transition to 100% TFRF, of which 7 of 9 (78%) had their entire colon in continuity. The average age at successful transition was 29.2 months, and the average length of time to transition to 100% TFRF was 67.3 days. TFRF is well tolerated in children >1 year of age with IF; it also improves their stooling patterns. A commercially available TFRF is a cost-effective and nutritionally adequate means of providing nutrition to this patient population.

  18. Isolation of Mycoflora in Poultry Feed Ingredients Found in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest mycoflora count (19.3 x 103) was obtained from Add-more feeds depot, followed by Al-Mahmud Feeds depot (10.0 x 103), while the least counts of (5.7 x 103) were from Feed xtra depot. Rhizopus sp was more predominant of all the species. The difference in the mould counts from the different depots was found ...

  19. Exploring variability in methods and data sensitivity in carbon footprints of feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, van C.E.; Cederberg, C.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Werf, H.M.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - Production of feed is an important contributor to life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, or carbon footprints (CFPs), of livestock products. Consequences of methodological choices and data sensitivity on CFPs of feed ingredients were explored to improve comparison and interpretation of CFP

  20. Sustainable production of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae as a protein-rich feed ingredient by utilizing cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mahmoud; Pillai, Viju V.; Goddard, Joshua M.; Park, Hui G.; Kothapalli, Kumar S.; Ross, Deborah A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Milstein, Mark B.; Marquis, Helene; Johnson, Patricia A.; Nyrop, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    The common housefly, Musca domestica, is a considerable component of nutrient recycling in the environment. Use of housefly larvae to biodegrade manure presents an opportunity to reduce waste disposal while the rapidly assimilated insect biomass can also be used as a protein rich animal feed. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of dairy cattle manure using housefly larvae, and the nutritional value of the resulting larva meal as a feed ingredient. Our results demonstrated that dairy cattle manure presents a balanced substrate for larval growth, and the spent manure showed reductions in concentration of total nitrogen (24.9%) and phosphorus (6.2%) with an overall reduction in mass. Larva yield at an optimum density was approximately 2% of manure weight. Nutritional analysis of M. domestica larva meal showed values comparable to most high protein feed ingredients. Larva meal was 60% protein with a well-balanced amino acid profile, and 20% fat with 57% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 39% saturated fatty acids. Larva meal lacked any significant amount of omega-3 fatty acids. Evaluation of micronutrients in larva meal suggested that it is a good source of calcium and phosphorus (0.5% and 1.1% respectively). The nutritional value of larva meal closely matches that of fishmeal, making it a potentially attractive alternative for use as a protein-rich feed ingredient for livestock and aquaculture operations. PMID:28170420

  1. Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    van Krimpen, M.M.; van Diepen, J.T.M; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; van Harn, J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table. Laying hens, organic feed raw materials, digestibility, nutritive value

  2. Mycotoxin occurrence in commodities, feeds and feed ingredients sourced in the Middle East and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, I.; Handl, J.; Binder, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Between February and October 2009, 324 grain, feed and feed commodity samples were sourced directly at animal farms or feed production sites in Middle East and Africa and tested for the presence of A- and B-trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, or for selected groups of mycotoxins only. Samples were analyzed after clean-up by immunoaffinity or solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC with derivatization where appropriate and fluorescence, UV or mass spectrometric detection. The percentage of positive samples of B-trichothecenes ranged from 0 to 87% of tested samples. The prevalence of fumonisins in the different countries was >50% in most cases. Zearalenone was present in tested commodities from all countries except three. The presence of aflatoxin in analyzed samples varied from 0 to 94%. Ochratoxin A was present in 67% of samples in Sudan and in 100% of Nigerian samples. No A-trichothecenes were found in this survey. PMID:24786003

  3. Actellic 2% dust as pesticide in feed ingredients: Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A uniform diet was compounded from ingredients certified to be apparently pesticide residue-free. This diet was partitioned into 5 sub-diets. The first partition A had no residue, serving as control, while B, C, D, and E had 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04% inclusion of the Actellic 2% dust, respectively. A total of 20 rabbits of mixed ...

  4. the amino acid composition of selected south african feed ingredients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples (25 mg) of each milled ingredient were measured in duplicate into rimless pyrex test tubes (l2 X 150 mm). One of each pair of tubes was for the analysis for all the amino acids except cystine and tryptophan. To this tube, 6 mol dm -t - hydrochloric acid (3 cm.r) was added. The mixture was frozen in an acetone/dry ice.

  5. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kenis; N. Koné; C.A.A.M. Chrysostome; E. Devic; G.K.D. Koko; V.A. Clottey; S. Nacambo; G.A. Mensah

    2014-01-01

    In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practi...

  6. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  7. Environmental impact of using specialty feed ingredients in swine and poultry production: A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebreab, E; Liedke, A; Caro, D; Deimling, S; Binder, M; Finkbeiner, M

    2016-06-01

    Livestock production has a variety of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution, acidification, and primary energy consumption. The demand for livestock products is expected to grow substantially, creating even more environmental pressure. The use of specialty feed ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase can reduce nutrient input into the system without compromising productivity and consequently can reduce emissions. The global change impact of using SFI in pig and broiler production systems in Europe and North and South America was studied. A life cycle assessment according to international standards (ISO 14040/44) analyzed contributions from producing SFI and animals to global change. Three different alternatives were analyzed. In addition, partial sensitivity analysis was conducted using 5 scenarios for each region for both production systems. Specialty feed ingredient supplementation in pig and broiler diets reduced greenhouse gas emissions (cradle to farm gate) by 56% and 54% in Europe, 17% and 15% in North America, and 33% and 19% in South America, respectively, compared to an unsupplemented diet. A total of 136 Mt CO equivalent (CO eq) was saved in 2012, rising to 146 Mt CO eq in 2050 on the basis of United Nations population projections. Considerable benefits of supplementation with SFI were apparent in European and South American diets when direct land use change was considered because of the reduced demand for soybean meal. The eutrophication potential of unsupplemented diets was reduced by up to 35% in pig and 49% in broiler production systems compared to supplemented alternatives. The acidification potential of supplemented strategies was reduced by up to 30% in pig and 79% in broiler production systems. The primary energy demand was similar in all alternatives, and this could be an area where the SFI industry can improve. Overall, SFI supplementation substantially reduced the global warming, eutrophication

  8. Comparison of Oven-drying Methods for Determination of Moisture Content in Feed Ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, J. Y.; Kil, D. Y.; Kong, C.; Kim, B. G.

    2014-01-01

    An accurate assessment of moisture content in feed ingredients is important because moisture influences the nutritional evaluation of feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to evaluate various methods for moisture content determination. In Exp. 1, the weight loss on drying (LOD) of corn, soybean meal (SBM), distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), whey permeate, whey powder, spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), fish meal, and a mixed diet of these 7 ingredients were measured by oven d...

  9. Use of coffee pulp as feed ingredient for tilapia culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    This research focused on the feasibility of using coffee pulp (CoP) in diets for tilapia ( Oreochromis aureus ). First, a literature survey analyzed the limitations of CoP as an animal foodstuff (several antinutritional factors: ANF's, and high fibre contents),

  10. Suitability of a lime source high in manganese as a feed ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DARIO, C., 1987. A study of Romanov sheep. I. Reproduction performance. Arclw vet. ital.38, 108. TURNER, H.N. & YOUNG, S.S.Y., 1969. Quantitative genetics in sheep breeding. Macmillan of Australia, Melboume. Suitability of a lime source high in manganese as a feed ingredient for sheep. J.B.J. van Ryssen. Department ...

  11. Insects: a protein-rich feed ingredient in pig and poultry diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Bosch, G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of insects as a sustainable protein-rich feed ingredient in
    pig and poultry diets is technically feasible. Insects can turn lowgrade
    biowaste into proteins.
    • The amino acid profile of yellow mealworm, common housefly,
    and black soldier fly is close to the profile of soybean

  12. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... anticipates handling and the destination point of each lot of fruit and receives from the committee a special...

  13. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds. Phakamile T. Mngadi1, Roshini Govinden2, and Bharti Odhav1*. 1Department of Biotechnology, M.L. Sultan Campus, Durban University of Technology, P.O. Box 1334, Durban 4000,. South Africa. 2Medical Research Council, PO Box 70380, Over port 4091, ...

  14. Safety of hemp used as animal feed

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition

    2010-01-01

    The Statement reacts to the EFSA "Information request on the use of hemp-derived products as animal feed, the transfer of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, and related compounds) from hemp in food products and on the maximum tolerable levels of those compounds in humans’ food“.

  15. Chemical and physicochemical characterisation of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Karaman, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    enzymatic-chemical methods and lignin by gravimetry. The results for total dietary fibre (DF) were compared with conventional crude fibre (CF) and neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) methods. The physicochemical properties were quantified based on swelling and water binding capacity (WBC). Between 755 g......NDFom and CF methods. The greatest difference between the DF and aNDFom methods was found in root crops and apple pulp in which the soluble non-cellulosic polysaccharides (S-NCP) fraction made up 350–581 g/kg of total NSP. The physicochemical properties were compared to fibre content and were associated to WBC...... may be underestimated depending on the analytical method. Quantifying the soluble NCP fraction is beneficial as it has been shown to have health beneficial properties and contributes to the total energy supply. These results suggest that the DF method should be used when evaluating feeds for horses....

  16. Modeling the transboundary risk of feed ingredients contaminated with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Scott; Neill, Casey; Singrey, Aaron; Clement, Travis; Cochrane, Roger; Jones, Cassandra; Patterson, Gilbert; Spronk, Gordon; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Nelson, Eric

    2016-03-12

    This study describes a model developed to evaluate the transboundary risk of PEDV-contaminated swine feed ingredients and the effect of two mitigation strategies during a simulated transport event from China to the US. Ingredients imported to the USA from China, including organic & conventional soybeans and meal, lysine hydrochloride, D-L methionine, tryptophan, Vitamins A, D & E, choline, carriers (rice hulls, corn cobs) and feed grade tetracycline, were inoculated with PEDV. Control ingredients, and treatments (ingredients plus a liquid antimicrobial (SalCURB, Kemin Industries (LA) or a 2% custom medium chain fatty acid blend (MCFA)) were tested. The model ran for 37 days, simulating transport of cargo from Beijing, China to Des Moines, IA, US from December 23, 2012 to January 28, 2013. To mimic conditions on land and sea, historical temperature and percent relative humidity (% RH) data were programmed into an environmental chamber which stored all containers. To evaluate PEDV viability over time, ingredients were organized into 1 of 4 batches of samples, each batch representing a specific segment of transport. Batch 1 (segment 1) simulated transport of contaminated ingredients from manufacturing plants in Beijing (day 1 post-contamination (PC)). Batch 2 (segments 1 and 2) simulated manufacturing and delivery to Shanghai, including time in Anquing terminal awaiting shipment (days 1-8 PC). Batch 3 (segments 1, 2 and 3) represented time in China, the crossing of the Pacific and entry to the US at the San Francisco, CA terminal (day 1-27 PC). Batch 4 (segments 1-4) represented the previous events, including transport to Des Moines, IA (days 1-37 PC). Across control (non-treated) ingredients, viable PEDV was detected in soybean meal (organic and conventional), Vitamin D, lysine hydrochloride and choline chloride. In contrast, viable PEDV was not detected in any samples treated with LA or MCFA. These results demonstrate the ability of PEDV to survive in a subset of

  17. Canine Food Preference Assessment of Animal and Vegetable Ingredient-Based Diets Using Single-Pan Tests and Behavioral Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callon, Meghan C; Cargo-Froom, Cara; DeVries, Trevor J; Shoveller, Anna K

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of canine food selection is critical for both the pet food industry and dog owners, since owners want quality foods that are palatable, while fulfilling their pet's nutritional requirements. There are two common methods for assessing canine food preference: the two-pan test and the one-pan test. Neither test fully accounts for the complexity of the canine feeding experience nor do they provide applicable representations of canine feeding behavior in the home. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine whether dogs display a preference for animal ingredient-based diets when compared with vegetable ingredient-based diets and (2) examine whether dogs experience neophobia when presented with a novel diet. Eight adult Beagles (average age = 24 months, weighing 8-12 kg) were individually fed each of four novel diets in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, with 10-d treatment periods and four dietary treatments. Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures and significance was declared when p  animal and vegetable ingredient-based diets, and animal- and vegetable-based ingredients diluted with anhydrous α-d-glucose. The diluted diets were used for a larger study to determine true mineral digestibility. Dogs were fed twice per day (0800 and 1300 h). Behavioral observations were made by video on the first, and last 2 days of each 10-day treatment period of both a.m. and p.m. feedings. Time to consume feed, distraction, hesitation, level of anticipation pre-consumption, and interest post-consumption were recorded. Dogs experienced initial disruptive (neophobic) effects of a novel diet. Neophobia was demonstrated by a decreased (slower) rate of consumption, increased distraction during consumption of the diet, and increased hesitation on the first day of each new diet ( p  animal-based ingredients diet ( p  < 0.05). This study presents insights into canine food preference assessment methods that may more

  18. Canine Food Preference Assessment of Animal and Vegetable Ingredient-Based Diets Using Single-Pan Tests and Behavioral Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan C. Callon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of canine food selection is critical for both the pet food industry and dog owners, since owners want quality foods that are palatable, while fulfilling their pet’s nutritional requirements. There are two common methods for assessing canine food preference: the two-pan test and the one-pan test. Neither test fully accounts for the complexity of the canine feeding experience nor do they provide applicable representations of canine feeding behavior in the home. The objectives of this study were to (1 determine whether dogs display a preference for animal ingredient-based diets when compared with vegetable ingredient-based diets and (2 examine whether dogs experience neophobia when presented with a novel diet. Eight adult Beagles (average age = 24 months, weighing 8–12 kg were individually fed each of four novel diets in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, with 10-d treatment periods and four dietary treatments. Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures and significance was declared when p < 0.05. The diets were: animal and vegetable ingredient-based diets, and animal- and vegetable-based ingredients diluted with anhydrous α-d-glucose. The diluted diets were used for a larger study to determine true mineral digestibility. Dogs were fed twice per day (0800 and 1300 h. Behavioral observations were made by video on the first, and last 2 days of each 10-day treatment period of both a.m. and p.m. feedings. Time to consume feed, distraction, hesitation, level of anticipation pre-consumption, and interest post-consumption were recorded. Dogs experienced initial disruptive (neophobic effects of a novel diet. Neophobia was demonstrated by a decreased (slower rate of consumption, increased distraction during consumption of the diet, and increased hesitation on the first day of each new diet (p < 0.05. The level of interest post-consumption was highest when dogs consumed the animal

  19. Dietary preference in dairy calves for feed ingredients high in energy and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2014-03-01

    In 3 experiments, we assessed preference of recently weaned dairy calves for (1) 8 high-energy feed types [barley meal, corn meal, corn gluten feed (CGF), oat meal, rice meal, sorghum meal, wheat meal, and wheat middlings meal]; (2) 6 high-protein feed types [corn gluten meal (CGM), wheat distillers dried grains, rapeseed meal, soybean meal (SBM), sunflower meal, and pea meal]; and (3) 4 mixtures (50:50) of the highest- and lowest-ranked high-energy and high-protein feeds, to assess whether calves maintain preference for feed ingredients that are included in a mixture. In all experiments, pairwise preference tests were conducted between all feed types (28 different pairwise preference tests in experiment 1, 15 tests in experiment 2, and 6 tests in experiment 3). Each pairwise preference test was conducted by offering ad libitum access to both feed types for 6h. All tests were repeated with 20 Holstein calves. Before this study, calves were offered milk replacer at a rate of 4 L/d and a pelleted starter feed ad libitum. After weaning at 62 d of age, each calf was involved in a pairwise preference test at 3 and 5d postweaning. A preference ratio was calculated for each calf in each test as (intake of feed type A)/(intake of feed type A + intake of feed type B). Preference for feed types was ranked across tests in each experiment using pairwise comparison charts. In experiment 1, the highest-ranked high-energy feed type was wheat meal and the lowest ranked were rice meal and CGF. In experiment 2, the highest-ranked high-protein feed type was SBM and the lowest ranked was CGM. According to the preference rankings from experiments 1 and 2, experiment 3 evaluated (50:50) mixtures of SBM + wheat meal, SBM + CGF, CGM + wheat meal, and CGM + CGF. The mixture of SBM + wheat meal was highest ranked, CGM + CGF was lowest ranked, and the mixtures containing one high-ranked and one low-ranked feed ingredient (SBM + CGF and CGM + wheat meal) were ranked equally. The results of

  20. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kenis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica (Diptera Muscidae and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (Diptera Stratiomyiidae, which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small production units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability

  1. Utilizing waste activated sludge for animal feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beszedits, S.

    1981-01-01

    Activated sludge has a high protein content and is a good source of B-group vitamins and generally also of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe and K). Propionibacterium freudenreichii can be readily incorporated into the activated sludge to synthesize vitamin B12, particularly high vitamin yields being obtained with sewage mixed with dairy waste. Numerous examples of successful use of activated sludge in animal feeding are given.

  2. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Development of cereals for animal feed technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological process of cereals production used in the production of feed stuff, which includes the following basic steps: grain moistening; binning of moistened grain for redistribution of moisture in the bulk of kernel; steaming of moistened grain; rolling of steamed grain; drying and cooling of flakes – is developed. In the production of flakes from scoured barley and oat grain before feeding to the rolling line film removal from the grain of these crops and the separation of the husks is carried out by one the existing methods: the method of grinding, followed by sifting and eventilation of films from tail fractions or a method of peeling on special machines with a separation of films. Wet-heat treatment of grain, followed by rolling helps to improve taste and palatability of feed, improves the nutritional value of carbohydrate and protein complexes, reduces the exertion of the body to digest food nutrients, allows to inactivate antinutritional substances and free the grain from the pathogenic and other microorganisms. In the duration of rolling process splitting of complex carbohydrates occurs, starch loses its original structure and is easier exposed to enzymes. The dried and cooled flakes have satisfactory flowability, do not set up. Humidity of flakes is not more than 14%, the temperature is not more than 10 °C above the ambient temperature, bulk density is 350–400 kg/m3. Developed set of equipment allows producing cereal flakes, the use of which in feed stuff and rations of young cattle and pigs increases the productivity of animals by 15–20% while reducing feed costs by 12–15%. Cereal flakes are used in the manufacture of complete feed for piglets (pigs at the age of 10 to 60 days, feed concentrates for pigs under the age of 4 months, the calves under the age of 115 days, high-producing cows, sporting and trained horses and lactating mares.

  4. Applicability of in silico genotoxicity models on food and feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anna; Bellion, Phillip; Beilstein, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of food and feed ingredients is required in the development of new substances and for their registration. In addition to in vitro and in vivo assays, in silico tools such as expert alert-based and statistical models can be used for data generation. These in silico models are commonly used among the pharmaceutical industry, whereas the food industry has not widely adopted them. In this study, the applicability of in silico tools for predicting genotoxicity was evaluated, with a focus on bacterial mutagenicity, in vitro and in vivo chromosome damage assays. For this purpose, a test set of 27 food and feed ingredients including vitamins, carotenoids, and nutraceuticals with experimental genotoxicity data was constructed from proprietary data. This dataset was run through multiple models and the model applicability was analyzed. The compounds were generally within the applicability domain of the models and the models predicted the compounds correctly in most of the cases. Although the regulatory acceptance of in silico tools as single data source is still limited, the models are applicable and can be used in the safety evaluation of food and feed ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    OpenAIRE

    A R Alimon

    2009-01-01

    The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large ...

  6. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  7. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Ullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB, rice polishings (RP, wheat bran (WB, sunflower meal (SFM, cottonseed meal (CSM, guar meal (GM, soybean meal (SBM from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM. The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA (90.1% was similar (p>0.05 to RB (89.0%. Isoleucine (97.8% and lysine (96.9% were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9% was same (p>0.05 as RP (71.9%. Arginine from WB (82.5% and RP (83.2% was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7% and leucine in RP (69.6% were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1% and Indian-SBM (83.4% had higher (p0.05. The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05 SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05 SIAAD among protein meals.

  8. Microalgae for Biofuels and Animal Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Benemann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of microalgae biomass production for low-cost commodities—biofuels and animal feeds—using sunlight and CO2 is reviewed. Microalgae are currently cultivated in relatively small-scale systems, mainly for high value human nutritional products. For commodities, production costs must be decreased by an order of magnitude, and high productivity algal strains must be developed that can be stably cultivated in large open ponds and harvested by low-cost processes. For animal feeds, the algal biomass must be high in digestible protein and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that can substitute for fish meal and fish oils. Biofuels will require a high content of vegetable oils (preferably triglycerides, hydrocarbons or fermentable carbohydrates. Many different cultivation systems, algal species, harvesting methods, and biomass processing technologies are being developed worldwide. However, only raceway-type open pond systems are suitable for the production of low-cost commodities.

  9. Utilization of biofloc meal as a feed ingredient for Nile tilapia and common carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Ekasari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was aimed to evaluate the utilisation of biofloc meal collected from biofloc-based catfish intensive culture as a mix ingredient for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and common carp Cyprinus carpio diet. A control diet containing 29.03% crude protein was used in this experiment. Experimental diet was made by mixing 30% biofloc waste meal with the control diet and repelleted after the addition of 2% of binder. To determine the experimental feed digestibility, 0.5% of Cr2O3 was added as a marker for digestibility. The feed was offered to satiation at a frequency of 3 times a day for 28 days of experimentation. Nile tilapia and common carp juveniles with an initial average body weight of 11.72±0.04 g and 8.81±0.04 g, respectively, were used as the experimental animals. Each fish species were randomly stocked with a density of 10 fish/aquarium (30´45´30 cm3. The results showed that dry matter digestibility of diets with 30 % biofloc waste meal in both fish species were significantly lower than those of the controls (P<0.05. However, protein, lipid and phosphorus digestibilities of diets containing biofloc waste meal were significantly higher than those of the controls (P<0.05. Feeding with biofloc waste meal mixed feed to tilapia resulted in lower growth rate compared to that to fed control feed. On the other hand, similar treatment to common carp resulted in comparable growth rate to the control treatment.Keywords: biofloc meal, digestibility, growth performance, tilapia, common carp ABSTRAK                                                                                      Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pemanfaatan tepung bioflok yang dikumpulkan dari limbah pemeliharaan ikan lele intensif berbasis teknologi bioflok sebagai campuran pakan untuk ikan nila Oreochromis niloticus dan ikan mas Cyprinus carpio. Pakan kontrol yang

  10. Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, and zearalenone (ZEN contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

  11. 78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    .... FDA-2013-N-0253] Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms AGENCY: Food and Drug... revoking an advisory opinion on animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. This action is... articulated in a final compliance policy guide (CPG) on Salmonella in food for animals. DATES: This rule is...

  12. Evaluating by-products of the Atlantic shellfish industry as alternative feed ingredients for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, M A; Anderson, D M; MacIsaac, J L

    2012-09-01

    A full-cycle laying hen study was conducted to evaluate crab meal (CM) and lobster meal (LM) as feed ingredients for laying hens by assigning four hundred thirty-two 35-wk-old White Leghorns to 1 of 6 diets [control, 2.5% CM, 2.5% LM, 5% CM, 5% LM, and 2.5% CM + 2.5% LM (blend)]. Productive performance and egg parameters were evaluated every 28-d period. Eggs were collected at 67 wk of age from the 5% CM, 5% LM, and blend treatments for analysis of yolk fatty acid composition. At 55 and 67 wk of age, ulnas were collected to determine breaking strength, percent ash, and calcium. Body weights, feed consumption, hen-day production, feed efficiency, and egg quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment. The L* scores of eggs from 5% CM, 5% LM, and blend were lower (P 0.05) any of the bone parameters measured at 55 and 67 wk of age. CM and LM supported similar egg production, feed efficiency, egg yolk color, adequate bone strength, and the incorporation of DHA into egg yolks.

  13. Non-animal photosafety screening for complex cosmetic ingredients with photochemical and photobiochemical assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hayato; Hirota, Morihiko; Seto, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Gen; Kato, Masashi; Kitagaki, Masato; Sugiyama, Mariko; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Onoue, Satomi

    2015-08-01

    Previously, a non-animal screening approach was proposed for evaluating photosafety of cosmetic ingredients by means of in vitro photochemical and photobiochemical assays; however, complex cosmetic ingredients, such as plant extracts and polymers, could not be evaluated because their molecular weight is often poorly defined and so their molar concentration cannot be calculated. The aim of the present investigation was to establish a photosafety screen for complex cosmetic ingredients by using appropriately modified in vitro photosafety assays. Twenty plant extracts were selected as model materials on the basis of photosafety information, and their phototoxic potentials were assessed by means of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light (VIS) spectral analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS)/micellar ROS (mROS) assays, and 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity testing (3T3 NRU PT). The maximum UV/VIS absorption value was employed as a judgment factor for evaluating photoexcitability of samples, and the value of 1.0 was adopted as a tentative criterion for photosafety identification. The ROS/mROS assays were conducted at 50 μg/mL, and no false negative prediction was obtained. Furthermore, the ROS/mROS assays at 50 μg/mL had a similar predictive capacity to the ROS/mROS assays in the previous study. A systematic tiered approach for simple and rapid non-animal photosafety evaluation of complex cosmetic ingredients can be constructed using these modified in vitro photochemical assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Susmira; Chicco, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    In order to evaluate the growth, the absorption and the dynamics of phosphorus and calcium phosphates of high fluorine content , triple superphosphates (TSP) and two sedimentary phosphates Riecito (RIO) and Monte Fresco (MONTE) vs dicalcium phosphate (DICAL), they were carried out two experiments with sheep. In the first one, with a duration of 360 days, the group (six animals) consumed DICAL, and at the 330 day of feeding it was divided in two groups, one under the same treatment and to the other one it was added 500 ppm of fluorine like NaF (DICAL+F). In this experiment the growth was evaluated, and at the end of the period, it was determined the phosphorus and calcium absorption and kinetics, the retention of fluorine in different sources, as well as the bony mineralization. In the second experiment, with a duration of 30 days, the phosphorus absorption and kinetics, as and the retention of fluorine in the sources under study, were determined. In both experiments, for the dynamic studies it was used the isotopic dilution technique, by means of the dosage, through jugular injection, of 200 uCi 3 2P and, for via oral, 200 uCi 4 5Ca. The weight gained (g / animal /day ) was 75, 87, 56 and 53 for DICAL, RIO, MONTE and TSP, respectively, with significant differences (P'0.05) in favor of DICAL and RIO. The true absorption of phosphorus (%), for the fed animals during 30 and 360 days, respectively, was 73 and 76 for DICAL, 40 and 57 for RIO, 36 and 57 for MONTE and, 79 and 71 for TSP, being significantly higher (P'0.05), for both periods, the values of DICAL and TSP. The evaluation of 12 months of absorption of RIVER and MONTE was higher than during the period of 30 days. The absorption of calcium at the 362 days was higher for DICAL and RIO in relation to MONTE and TSP. The addition of fluorine during 30 days didn't affect the calcium and phosphorus absorption. The run time to reach the maximum level of specific activity of calcium in blood was higher for RIO, MONTE

  15. BYPRODUCTS OF THE SUGAR INDUSTRY AS ANIMAL FEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    try. This product also has applications in the animal feed industry. The feeding value of molasses and the other by-products of the sugar industry have been subjects of earlier re- views by Cleasby (1963) and van der Merwe (1970), while van Niekerk (1979) has described the application of these by-products in the feeding of ...

  16. Comparison of Oven-drying Methods for Determination of Moisture Content in Feed Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J Y; Kil, D Y; Kong, C; Kim, B G

    2014-11-01

    An accurate assessment of moisture content in feed ingredients is important because moisture influences the nutritional evaluation of feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to evaluate various methods for moisture content determination. In Exp. 1, the weight loss on drying (LOD) of corn, soybean meal (SBM), distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), whey permeate, whey powder, spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), fish meal, and a mixed diet of these 7 ingredients were measured by oven drying at 135°C for 2 h. Additionally, the samples were dried at 105°C for 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 h. The LOD contents of the DDGS, whey permeate, and whey powder measured by drying at 135°C for 2 h were greater than the values measured by drying at 105°C for 3 h (pmoisture contents of corn, SBM, wheat, whey permeate, whey powder, lactose, and 2 sources of DDGS (DDGS1 and DDGS2) were measured by the Karl Fischer method, oven drying at 135°C for 2 h, and oven drying at 125°C, 115°C, 105°C, or 95°C for increasing drying time from 1 to 24 h. Drying samples at 135°C for 2 h resulted in higher moisture content in whey permeate (7.5% vs 3.0%), whey powder (7.7% vs 3.8%), DDGS1 (11.4% vs 7.5%), and DDGS2 (13.1% vs 8.8%) compared with the Karl Fischer method (pdetermining the moisture content in whey permeate, whey powder, or DDGS as well as the mixed diet containing these ingredients. The oven-drying method at 105°C for 5 to 6 h appears to be appropriate for whey permeate and whey powder, and at 105°C for 2 to 3 h for DDGS.

  17. 75 FR 54019 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feed; Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... follows: Sec. 558.500 Ractopamine. * * * * * (e) * * * (2) * * * Combination in Ractopamine in grams/ton.... FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feed; Ractopamine AGENCY: Food and Drug... Type C medicated feed containing ractopamine hydrochloride as a top dress on Type C medicated feeds...

  18. Comparison of Oven-drying Methods for Determination of Moisture Content in Feed Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Ahn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An accurate assessment of moisture content in feed ingredients is important because moisture influences the nutritional evaluation of feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to evaluate various methods for moisture content determination. In Exp. 1, the weight loss on drying (LOD of corn, soybean meal (SBM, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS, whey permeate, whey powder, spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP, fish meal, and a mixed diet of these 7 ingredients were measured by oven drying at 135°C for 2 h. Additionally, the samples were dried at 105°C for 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 h. The LOD contents of the DDGS, whey permeate, and whey powder measured by drying at 135°C for 2 h were greater than the values measured by drying at 105°C for 3 h (p<0.05. All samples except SDPP (p = 0.70 dried at 105°C for 6, 9, 12, or 15 h caused more LOD compared with the samples dried for at 105°C for 3 h (p<0.05. The LOD contents of the individual ingredients were additive when dried at 105°C regardless of drying time. In Exp. 2, moisture contents of corn, SBM, wheat, whey permeate, whey powder, lactose, and 2 sources of DDGS (DDGS1 and DDGS2 were measured by the Karl Fischer method, oven drying at 135°C for 2 h, and oven drying at 125°C, 115°C, 105°C, or 95°C for increasing drying time from 1 to 24 h. Drying samples at 135°C for 2 h resulted in higher moisture content in whey permeate (7.5% vs 3.0%, whey powder (7.7% vs 3.8%, DDGS1 (11.4% vs 7.5%, and DDGS2 (13.1% vs 8.8% compared with the Karl Fischer method (p<0.05. Whey permeate and whey powder were considerably darkened as the drying time increased. In conclusion, drying samples at 135°C for 2 h is not appropriate for determining the moisture content in whey permeate, whey powder, or DDGS as well as the mixed diet containing these ingredients. The oven-drying method at 105°C for 5 to 6 h appears to be appropriate for whey permeate and whey powder, and at 105°C for 2 to 3 h for DDGS.

  19. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Zafar; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Nisa, Mehr un; Sarwar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB), rice polishings (RP), wheat bran (WB), sunflower meal (SFM), cottonseed meal (CSM), guar meal (GM), soybean meal (SBM) from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM). The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard) were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA) (90.1%) was similar (p>0.05) to RB (89.0%). Isoleucine (97.8%) and lysine (96.9%) were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9%) was same (p>0.05) as RP (71.9%). Arginine from WB (82.5%) and RP (83.2%) was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7%) and leucine in RP (69.6%) were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1%) and Indian-SBM (83.4%) had higher (pprotein meals. However, SIAAD of SFM (77.1%) and CSM (71.7%) was intermediate while GM (60.3%) exhibited the lowest (pdigestible from indispensable AAs. In SFM, methionine (91.4%) SIAAD was the greatest. The average SIAAD of FM was 77.6%. Alanine from FM had the highest (84.0%) but cysteine (62.8%) had the lowest SIAAD. In conclusion, cereals i.e. corn and RB had higher (p0.05). The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (pprotein meals. PMID:26954227

  20. Evaluation of a Biological Pathogen Decontamination Protocol for Animal Feed Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anne R; Cochrane, Roger A; Deliephan, Aiswariya; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K

    2015-09-01

    Animal feed and ingredients are potential vectors of pathogenic bacteria. Contaminated ingredients can contaminate facility equipment, leading to cross-contamination of other products. This experiment was conducted to evaluate a standardized protocol for decontamination of an animal feed manufacturing facility using Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 31282) as an indicator. A pelleted swine diet inoculated with E. faecium was manufactured, and environmental samples (swabs, replicate organism detection and counting plates, and air samples) were collected (i) before inoculation (baseline data), (ii) after production of inoculated feed, (iii) after physical removal of organic material using pressurized air, (iv) after application of a chemical sanitizer containing a quaternary ammonium-glutaraldehyde blend, (v) after application of a chemical sanitizer containing sodium hypochlorite, (vi) after facility heat-up to 60 8 C for 24 h, (vii) for 48 h, and (viii) for 72 h. Air samples collected outside the facility confirmed pathogen containment; E. faecium levels were equal to or lower than baseline levels at each sample location. The decontamination step and its associated interactions were the only variables that affected E. faecium incidence (P 0.22). After production of the inoculated diet, 85.7% of environmental samples were positive for E. faecium. Physical cleaning of equipment had no effect on contamination (P = 0.32). Chemical cleaning with a quaternary ammonium-glutaraldehyde blend and sodium hypochlorite each significantly reduced E. faecium contamination (P decontamination. These results confirmed both successful containment and decontamination of biological pathogens in the tested pilot-scale feed mill.

  1. Sterilization of experimental animal feeds with high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekawa, Tetsuya; Shakudo, Taketomi; Furuta, Masakazu; Tada, Mikiro

    2005-01-01

    Penetration range and depth-dose distribution of 10 MeV electrons within commercial packages of experimental animal feeds were examined with a high power electron accelerator for verification of the application of high energy electron beam irradiation to sterilize experimental animal feeds. Optimum packaging sizes were proposed based on the experimental results. The change of the vitamins and the efficacy of the sterilization by the irradiation were also studied. It is confirmed that the sterilization of experimental animal feeds by 10 MeV electron beam has been completely practical. (author)

  2. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  3. Review: Quantifying animal feeding behaviour with a focus on pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselyne, Jarissa; Saeys, Wouter; Van Nuffel, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The study of animal feeding behaviour is of interest to understand feeding, to investigate the effect of treatments and conditions or to predict illness. This paper reviews the different steps to undertake when studying animal feeding behaviour, with illustrations for group-housed pigs. First, one must be aware of the mechanisms that control feeding and the various influences that can change feeding behaviour. Satiety is shown to largely influence free feeding (ad libitum and without an operant condition) in animals, but 'free' feeding seems a very fragile process, given the many factors that can influence feeding behaviour. Second, a measurement method must be chosen that is compatible with the goal of the research. Several measurement methods exist, which lead to different experimental set-ups and measurement data. Sensors are available for lab conditions, for research on group-housed pigs and also for on-farm use. Most of these methods result in a record of feeding visits. However, these feeding visits are often found to be clustered into meals. Thus, the third step is to choose which unit of feeding behaviour to use for analysis. Depending on the situation, either meals, feeding visits, other raw data, or a combination thereof can be suitable. Meals are more appropriate for analysing short-term feeding behaviour, but this may not be true for disease detection. Further research is therefore needed. To cluster visits into meals, an appropriate analysis method has to be selected. The last part of this paper provides a review and discussion of the existing methods for meal determination. A variety of methods exist, with the most recent methods based on the influence of satiety on feeding. More thorough validation of the recent methods, including validation from a behavioural point of view and uniformity in the applied methods is therefore necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Elimination of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in an Animal Feed Manufacturing Facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne R Huss

    Full Text Available Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV was the first virus of wide scale concern to be linked to possible transmission by livestock feed or ingredients. Measures to exclude pathogens, prevent cross-contamination, and actively reduce the pathogenic load of feed and ingredients are being developed. However, research thus far has focused on the role of chemicals or thermal treatment to reduce the RNA in the actual feedstuffs, and has not addressed potential residual contamination within the manufacturing facility that may lead to continuous contamination of finished feeds. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the use of a standardized protocol to sanitize an animal feed manufacturing facility contaminated with PEDV. Environmental swabs were collected throughout the facility during the manufacturing of a swine diet inoculated with PEDV. To monitor facility contamination of the virus, swabs were collected at: 1 baseline prior to inoculation, 2 after production of the inoculated feed, 3 after application of a quaternary ammonium-glutaraldehyde blend cleaner, 4 after application of a sodium hypochlorite sanitizing solution, and 5 after facility heat-up to 60°C for 48 hours. Decontamination step, surface, type, zone and their interactions were all found to impact the quantity of detectable PEDV RNA (P < 0.05. As expected, all samples collected from equipment surfaces contained PEDV RNA after production of the contaminated feed. Additionally, the majority of samples collected from non-direct feed contact surfaces were also positive for PEDV RNA after the production of the contaminated feed, emphasizing the potential role dust plays in cross-contamination of pathogen throughout a manufacturing facility. Application of the cleaner, sanitizer, and heat were effective at reducing PEDV genomic material (P < 0.05, but did not completely eliminate it.

  5. 75 FR 20917 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine... supplemental NADA provides for an increased level of monensin in three-way combination Type C medicated feeds containing ractopamine, melengestrol, and monensin for heifers fed in confinement for slaughter. DATES: This...

  6. Uso de ingredientes provenientes de OGM em rações e seu impacto na produção de alimentos de origem animal para humanos Use of ingredients from OGM in feed and its impact on the production of food of animal origin for human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal E. Vercesi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios o homem buscou selecionar as plantas alimentícias para maior produtividade. O conhecimento da estrutura do DNA permitiu que a engenharia genética se desenvolvesse consideravelmente fornecendo ferramentas para a realização de alterações específicas no genoma. Os produtos destas alterações são denominados transgênicos ou organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM e apresentam alto potencial de aplicação em diversas áreas da atividade humana como: agricultura, medicina, saúde, produção e processamento de alimentos, produção bioquímica, controle de doenças e biorremediação. Atualmente, as plantas transgênicas, oriundas da tecnologia do DNA recombinante, trouxeram novas variedades já cultivadas em mais de 100 milhões de hectares em 23 países, incluindo o Brasil, onde 8 variedades já foram aprovadas pela Comissão Técnica Nacional de Biossegurança (CTNBio. Esse método de melhoramento genético facilitou a introdução de características desejáveis em plantas, como resistência a estresses bióticos e abióticos e otimização da composição de alguns nutrientes essenciais à saúde animal e humana. Enquanto estes avanços da biotecnologia abrem novas perspectivas para a solução de problemas em áreas como a agricultura, a liberação de transgênicos para uso na natureza traz preocupações quanto a possíveis problemas de natureza ecológica e para a saúde humana e animal. Estas preocupações deram origem à criação de agências governamentais para controlar o uso desta tecnologia e regulamentar a segurança dos alimentos transgênicos e seus derivados. Até o momento, os estudos científicos mostram que os transgênicos liberados comercialmente são tão seguros ou mais ao meio ambiente e a saúde animal e humana que os convencionais.From the origins the man has looked and selected vegetables with nutritive value for larger productivity. The knowledge of DNA structure allowed genetic

  7. 76 FR 60721 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds..., Division of Ivy Animal Health, Inc., 8857 Bond St., Overland Park, KS 66214, filed a supplement to ANADA... Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental...

  8. [Current animal feeds with antimicrobial activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumev, D

    1981-01-01

    Among the growth-promoting substances and factors contributing to fodder utilization in growing farm animals, also called nutritive, ergotropic means, the antibiotics and some synthetic chemotherapeutics have acquired special importance. To avoid the hazardous effect in humans consuming products of animal origin there should be no residual amounts of these stimulating agents in such products. That is why it has been assumed in a number of countries to use for the same purpose only nutritive means that are not applied as therapeutic agents. Such means should neither induce resistence to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics in microorganism nor should they be resorbed by the alimentary tract (or resorption should be negligible) or they are rapidly eliminated from the animal body, leaving no residual amounts. They should likewise act chiefly against gram-positive organisms, inducing no allergic reactions in the animals. Described are the following nutritive antibiotics: flavophospholipol (bambermycin, menomycin--flavomycin, producing a nutritive effect also in ruminants with a developed forestomach, and rebuilds sensitivity in antibiotic-resistant organisms belonging to Enterobacteriaceae), avoparcin (avotan--also active in ruminants with a developed forestomach), virginiamycin (staphylomycin--escalin, stafac), zincbacitracin (bacipharmin, baciferm), grisin (kormogrisin, of a road spectrum, with an antimycotic effect, raising the fertilization rate and activating phagocitosis), vitamycin-A (vitamycin--active also at retinol deficiency, lambdamycin, nosiheptide (primofax), efrotomycin. Due consideration is given to such chemotherapeutics as nitrovin (payson, paison), carbadox (mecadox, fortigro, of a broad spectrum retained for a longer period in the body of pigs), olaquindox (bio-N-celbar--of a broad spectrum, particularly with regard to gram-negative organisms, applied at present as a therapeutic and prophylactic preparation), cyadox (with a broad sprectrum). The

  9. Antibiotics in animal feed and their role in resistance development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Animals and humans constitute overlapping reservoirs of resistance, and consequently use of antimicrobials in animals can impact on public health. For example, the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in food-animals is associated with the use of avoparcin, a glycopeptide antibiotic used...... as a feed additive for the growth promotion of animals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci and vancomycin resistance determinants can therefore spread from animals to humans. The bans on avoparcin and other antibiotics as growth promoters in the EU have provided scientists with a unique opportunity...

  10. Potential of Alocasia spp. for use in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilys Milián Jiménez,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuba faces the need to diversify alternatives for animal feed, so the clone evaluation from Alocasia gender means a starting point in this direction. This work was performed at the Research Institute of Tropical Root and Tuber Crops (INIVIT. Three accessions collected in the country to analyze their potential use were tested. Bromatological characteristics were evaluated such as, as percentage of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, crude protein and crude fiber as indicators of their nutritional value and their potential use in animal feed. At 11 months, the yield (kg.plant-1 of plant organs was evaluated. A list of descriptors which represents a contribution to the description of Alocasia species was defined. Assessment of bromatological characters to identify clones ‘Picante verde’ and ‘Picante variegada’ with higher potential use in animal feed because of its high protein content in the leaf blade and in full leaf, and its high green mass yield.

  11. A biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry feathers as a feed ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, A; Coello, N

    2005-10-01

    A strain of Kocuria rosea with keratinolytic capacity was cultured aerobically on submerged feathers to obtain a fermented feather meal (FFM). This FFM enriched with cells of K. rosea mainly contains crude protein (71%). The pepsin digestibility of the fermented product (88%) was similar to the value of the commercial feather meal and more than 70% greater that untreated feathers. The bacterial biomass improved the content of amino acids lysine (3.46%), histidine (0.94%) and methionine (0.69%). Additionally, the amino acid availability tested by in vivo assay was greater than commercial feather meal. The microbial cells also supplied carotenoid pigments to FFM (68 ppm). These results suggest that feather meal enriched with K. rosea may be useful in animal feeding as protein and pigment source.

  12. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Klátyik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU, and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively, and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively. Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects

  13. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  14. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  15. A comparison of the test tube and the dialysis tubing in vitro methods for estimating the bioavailability of phosphorus in feed ingredients for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, David W; Tsunoda, Atsushi; Ledoux, David R; Ellersieck, Mark R; Veum, Trygve L

    2005-05-04

    The validity of a simplified in vitro test tube (TT) method was compared with a more complicated dialysis tubing (DT) method to estimate the percentage of available phosphorus (P) in 41 plant origin and five animal origin feed ingredients for swine. The TT method using 1.0 or 0.25 g samples was compared with the DT method using 1.0 g samples at two pancreatic incubation times (2 vs 4 h) in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each DT and TT method treatment was replicated three and six times, respectively. Both methods utilize three enzymatic digestions: (i) predigestion with endoxylanase and beta-glucanase for 1 h, (ii) pepsin digestion for 2 h, and (iii) pancreatin digestion for 2 or 4 h. For the TT method, the entire procedure was conducted in a 50 mL conical centrifuge tube and replicated six times. For the DT method, the first two digestions were conducted in a 10 mL plastic syringe before the contents were quantitatively transferred into a segment of DT for the pancreatic digestion. The percentages of hydrolyzed P for plant origin ingredients measured by the DT method using 1.0 g samples and the TT method using 0.25 g samples were highly correlated (r = 0.94-0.97, P or = 0.4) with published in vivo available P values. In conclusion, the accuracy and validity of the TT method using 0.25 g samples with a 2 h pancreatic digestion time was equal to or superior to the DT method using 1.0 g samples with a 4 h pancreatic digestion time for estimating P availability in plant origin feed ingredients.

  16. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S

    2006-01-01

    of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors...

  17. Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operating Wastewater on Agricultural Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal ...

  18. 21 CFR 573.380 - Ethoxyquin in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preventing the development of organic peroxides in canned pet food. (b) The maximum quantity of the additive... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. 573.380 Section 573.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  19. Nutritional technologies in animal feed science and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der A.F.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Robinson, P.

    2007-01-01

    This preface outlines some of the challenges facing animal nutritionists in the area of feed processing, why those challenges are important and why the articles in this issue help to provide information that might assist in meeting those challenges. (C) 2007 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Spirulina as a livestock supplement and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, B W B; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2013-08-01

    Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and welfare. Its influence over animal development stems from its nutritive and protein-rich composition, thus leading to an increased commercial production to meet consumer demand. Consequently, Spirulina is emerging as a cost-effective means of improving animal productivity for a sustainable and viable food security future. However, our present knowledge of animal response to dietary Spirulina supplementation is relatively scanty and largely unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper was to review past and current findings on the utilisation of Spirulina as a feed supplement and its impact on animal productivity and health. Only animals deemed to be of agricultural significance were investigated; hence, only ruminants, poultry, swine and rabbits and their responses to dietary Spirulina supplementation are covered. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Aflatoxins and heavy metals in animal feed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M H; Pakfetrat, S

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2)) and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) contamination was determined in 40 industrially produced animal feed samples which were collected from the southwest of Iran. The results indicated that 75% of samples were contaminated by four aflatoxins and the level of AFB1 and sum of aflatoxins were higher than the permissible maximum levels in Iran (5 and 20 µg kg(-1), respectively) in all feed samples. A positive correlation was found between four types of aflatoxins in all the tested samples (p < 0.01) and the positive correlation between AFG1 and AFG2 was significant (r(2) = 0.708). All feed samples had lead concentrations lower than the maximum EU limit, while 5%, 17% and 42.5% of feed samples had As, Cd and Hg concentrations higher than the maximum limits, respectively.

  2. Machine vision detection of bonemeal in animal feed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Herrman, Timothy; Swanson, Rand

    2010-06-01

    There is growing public concern about contaminants in food and feed products, and reflection-based machine vision systems can be used to develop automated quality control systems. An important risk factor in animal feed products is the presence of prohibited ruminant-derived bonemeal that may contain the BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) prion. Animal feed products are highly complex in composition and texture (i.e., vegetable products, mineral supplements, fish and chicken meal), and current contaminant detection systems rely heavily on labor-intensive microscopy. In this study, we developed a training data set comprising 3.65 million hyperspectral profiles of which 1.15 million were from bonemeal samples, 2.31 million from twelve other feed materials, and 0.19 million denoting light green background (bottom of Petri dishes holding feed materials). Hyperspectral profiles in 150 spectral bands between 419 and 892 nm were analyzed. The classification approach was based on a sequence of linear discriminant analyses (LDA) to gradually improve the classification accuracy of hyperspectral profiles (reduce level of false positives), which had been classified as bonemeal in previous LDAs. That is, all hyperspectral profiles classified as bonemeal in an initial LDA (31% of these were false positives) were used as input data in a second LDA with new discriminant functions. Hyperspectral profiles classified as bonemeal in LDA2 (false positives were equivalent to 16%) were used as input data in a third LDA. This approach was repeated twelve times, in which at each step hyperspectral profiles were eliminated if they were classified as feed material (not bonemeal). Four independent feed materials were experimentally contaminated with 0-25% (by weight) bonemeal and used for validation. The analysis presented here provides support for development of an automated machine vision to detect bonemeal contamination around the 1% (by weight) level and therefore constitutes an

  3. 75 FR 34361 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol AGENCY: Food and Drug... Intervet, Inc. The supplemental NADA provides for the manufacture of florfenicol Type B medicated swine... Livingston Ave., Roseland, NJ 07068, filed a supplement to NADA 141-264 for use of NUFLOR (florfenicol...

  4. 76 FR 16534 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol; Correction AGENCY: Food and... an incorrect table entry describing the maximum florfenicol concentration in Type B medicated swine... document contained an incorrect table entry describing the maximum florfenicol concentration in Type B...

  5. 76 FR 65109 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin AGENCY... tylosin. DATES: This rule is effective October 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John K. Harshman... 200-375 for use of HEIFERMAX 500 (melengestrol acetate), RUMENSIN (monensin, USP), and TYLAN (tylosin...

  6. Livestock feed for domestic animals in and around Rokkasho, Aomori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    We collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides that will be released from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, which is now under construction in Rokkasho Village. The consumption rate of livestock feed eaten by domestic animals is an important factor for the estimation of radioactive material transfer to the animals. We surveyed the amount of livestock feed in and around Rokkasho Village by means of questionnaires to stockbreeding farmers. The questionnaires were distributed to 90 farmers who kept one of five kinds of domestic animals or poultry; milking cattle, beef cattle, hogs, broilers and laying hens. Several farming companies were also included as subjects. Recovery of the questionnaires was 59%. The hogs, broilers and laying hens were fed compound feeds consisting of imported materials. The feed for milking cattle and beef cattle consisted of grass, field corn and other concentrates. The consumption rates of grass and field corn for dairy cattle were 22.5 kg-fresh d -1 and 8.3 kg-fresh d -1 , respectively. The grass and field corn consumption rate for beef cattle were 2.8 kg-fresh d -1 and 0.3 kg-fresh d -1 , respectively. All of these rates were lower than those used for dose assessment of the reprocessing plant. (author)

  7. [Survey on fungi contamination and natural occurrence of mycotoxins in 94 corn feed ingredients collected from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X M; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Xu, W J; Liu, D; Jiang, T; Xu, J; Li, F Q

    2016-10-06

    Objective: To investigate fungi contamination and the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in corn feed ingredients collected from China. Methods: A total of 94 corn feed ingredient samples were collected from 8 Chinese provinces(i.e., Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, and Shandong)in February 2014. A tandem ultra-performance liquid chromatographymass spectrometry method was used for simultaneous detection of twelve kinds of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin(AF), type A and type B tricothecenes, and zearalenone(ZEN). Contaminated fungi were also identified and counted. Results: AF was detected in 36.2%(34/94)of samples; the concentration of AFB 1 was the highest in the four AFs with the range: 0.3~181.3 μg/kg; and then followed by AFB 2 (range: 1.0-74.3 μg/kg). There were 7 samples(7.5%)with AFB 1 concentrations higher than the tolerance limit of 50 μg/kg. The concentration of type A tricothecenes in all samples was lower(0.1-10.5 μg/kg). DON had the most serious contamination than other kind of type B tricothecenes(range: 0.7-606.6 μg/kg; median: 66.3 μg/kg). The DON concentration in all samples was below the tolerance limit of 1 000 μg/kg. ZEN was detected in 76.6%(72/ 94)of samples(median: 36.9 μg/kg), with 3 samples having ZEN concentrations higher than the tolerance limit of 500 μg/kg. The survey on fungi contamination showed that all samples were contaminated by fungi(range: 5.0-1.4×10 5 CFU/g). There were 18 and 3 samples with quantities of fungi higher than the tolerance and forbidden limits, respectively. The Aspergillus , Penicillium , Fusarium , Trichoderma and Mucor genuses were the predominant fungi in corn feed ingredients, with detection rates of 71.3%(67), 60.6%(57), 71.3%(67), 27.7%(26), and 24.5%(23), respectively. The detection rate of Fusarium moniliforme , 73.4%(69/94)was higher than that of Aspergillus flavus , 41.5%(39/94). Conclusion: In this survey, the corn feed ingredients were not seriously

  8. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (5): discrepancies between ingredients and labeling in commercial pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S

    2018-01-22

    Elimination dietary trials for the diagnosis of adverse food reactions (food allergies) in dogs and cats are often conducted with commercial pet foods while relying on their label to select those not containing previously-eaten ingredients. There are concerns that industrial pet foods might contain unlisted food sources that could negate the usefulness of performing food trials. Furthermore, unidentified ingredients might cause clinical reactions in patients hypersensitive to such items. We searched two article databases on July 7, 2017 and January 12, 2018 for relevant articles, and we screened abstracts from the leading international veterinary dermatology congresses for suitable material. Additional citations were found in the selected papers. In all, we extracted data from 17 articles and one abstract. The studies varied both in the number of pet foods tested (median: 15; range: 1 to 210) and that of ingredients specifically evaluated (median: 4; range: 1 to 11). Studies most often employed either PCR to detect DNA or ELISA to identify proteins from one or more vegetal or animal species; two studies used mass spectrometry to increase the number of detectable proteins. The various methods found ingredients that were not on the label in 0 to 83% (median: 45%) of tested diets; this percentage varied between 33 and 83% in pet foods with "novel/limited" ingredients proposed for elimination diets. Similarly, ingredients were found to be missing from the label in 0 to 38% (median: 1%) of tested foods. Finally, six studies evaluated, among others, several hydrolysate-containing pet foods: mislabeling with unlabeled or missing ingredients was found only in one diet. The mislabeling of pet foods appears rather common, even in those with "novel" or "limited" ingredients proposed for elimination diets. Unexpected added ingredients are more frequently detected than those missing from the label. There is insufficient information to determine if the presence of a

  9. The animal feed mineral phosphorus tax in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    it as part of a broader package deal on measures to reduce nutrient leaching and pollution of surface waters. Environmental NGOs voiced concerns about impacts on organic farms, and were not strong advocates of the tax. The tax arose from efforts to identify the most cost-effective means for reducing nutrient......Denmark’s tax on animal feed phosphorus came into effect in 2005 with a tax rate of DKK 4 (EUR 0.53) per kg of phosphorus. It targets commercial animal feed phosphate and aims to reduce the saturation of soils with phosphorus, and leaching to surface waters. Consumption of mineral phosphate...... losses. These efforts were undertaken in a Government committee with civil servants from several ministries and representatives from interested groups including farmers and NGOs. The analysis published shows that a tax on phosphorus would have been environmentally and economically more effective...

  10. The use of food wastes as feed ingredients for culturing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    Different types of food wastes, e.g., meats, bones, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, were collected from hotels in Hong Kong, mixed in different ratio, and processed into feed pellets (food wastes (FWs) A, B, and C) for feeding trials in aquaculture species. Grass carp fed with cereal-dominant feed (FW A) showed the best growth (in terms of specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and protein efficiency ratio), among all food waste feeds. However, the growth rates of food waste groups especially the meat product-contained feeds (FW B and FW C) were lower than the commercial feed, Jinfeng(®) 613 formulation (control). The results indicated that grass carp utilized plant proteins better than animal proteins and preferred carbohydrate as a major energy source than lipid. The high-lipid content in feed containing meat products was also a possible reason for hindering growth and resulted high body lipid. It is suggested that lipid should be removed in the preparation of food waste feed or further investigations by implementing supplements, e.g., enzymes in feed to enhance lipid or protein utilization by fish. This utilization of food waste could be an effective and practical way to deal with these wastes in this densely populated city.

  11. 21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella... Decisions § 500.35 Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. (a) Investigations by the Food..., and other animal byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with Salmonella...

  12. Bio-processing of agro-byproducts to animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajila, C M; Brar, S K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Godbout, S; Valéro, J R

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural and food-industry residues constitute a major proportion (almost 30%) of worldwide agricultural production. These wastes mainly comprise lignocellulosic materials, fruit and vegetable wastes, sugar-industry wastes as well as animal and fisheries refuse and byproducts. Agro-residues are rich in many bioactive and nutraceutical compounds, such as polyphenolics, carotenoids and dietary fiber among others. Agro residues are a major valuable biomass and present potential solutions to problems of animal nutrition and the worldwide supply of protein and calories, if appropriate technologies can be used for their valorization by nutrient enrichment. Technologies available for protein enrichment of these wastes include solid substrate fermentation, ensiling, and high solid or slurry processes. Technologies to be developed for the reprocessing of these wastes need to take account of the peculiarities of individual wastes and the environment in which they are generated, reprocessed, and used. In particular, such technologies need to deliver products that are safe, not just for animal feed use, but also from the perspective of human feeding. This review focuses on the major current applications of solid-state fermentation in relation to the feed sector.

  13. A simple in vitro test tube method for estimating the bioavailability of phosphorus in feed ingredients for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, David W; Tsunoda, Atsushi; Ledoux, David R; Ellersieck, Mark R; Veum, Trygve L

    2004-04-07

    A simplified in vitro test tube (TT) method was developed to estimate the percentage of available P in feed ingredients for swine. The entire digestion procedure with the TT method consists of three consecutive enzymatic digestions carried out in a 50-mL conical test tube: (1) Pre-digestion with endo-xylanase and beta-glucanase for 1 h, (2) peptic digestion for 2 h, and (3) pancreatic digestion for 2 or 4 h. The TT method is simpler and much easier to perform compared to the dialysis tubing (DT) method, because dialysis tubing is not used. Reducing sample size from 1.0 to 0.25 g for the TT method improved results. In conclusion, the accuracy and validity of the TT method is equal to that of our more complicated DT method (r = 0.97, P < 0.001), designed to mimic the digestive system of swine, for estimating the availability of P in plant-origin feed ingredients.

  14. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  15. Fermentation of seaweed flour with various fermenters to improve the quality of fish feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aslamyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  The purpose of this study was to evaluate various types of fermentor for dry matter digestibility (DMD, organic matter digestibility (OMD, and the chemical composition of fermented seaweed. Five types of seaweed were used as substrates included green strain of Kappaphycus alvarezii, brown strain of K. alvarezii, Gracilaria gigas, Sargassum sp., and Caulerpa sp. The treatments were four fermentors, namely Bacillus sp. 2 mL/100 g of seaweed flour; 1.5% of tape yeast as a source of Rhizopus sp.; 1.5% of baker’s yeast as a source of Saccharomyces sp.; a mix of Bacillus sp., tape yeast of Rhizopus sp. and baker’s yeast of Saccharomyces sp. with compositions of 1 mL+1 g+1 g/100 g of seaweed flour; and control treatment. The results showed an increase in the percentage of DMD (21.94–27.76% and OMD (8.35–11.66% of all seaweed fermented using fermentor compared to control (DMD of 17.65–20.36% and OMD of 4.36–5.98%. Moreover, the highest result was obtained by the fermentor mix (DMD of 24.86–27.76% and OMD of 10.02–11.66%. Similar result was also found in the chemical composition of fermented seaweed, there was increase in protein content of 9.23–15.93% and nitrogen free extract (NFE of 56.05–70.26% in each seaweed treated with fermentation using fermentors, compared to controls (protein of 8.82–11.54% and NFE of 52.26–65.72%. Furthermore, the highest value was shown by seaweed fermented with mixed fermentors (protein of 9.92–15.93% and NFE of 58.47–70.26%. Yet, the opposite result was present in the ash, crude fiber, and fat content of seaweed fermented using fermentors of which the lowest value was found in treatment of mixed fermentor. Keywords: fermentation, fermentor, seaweed, quality, feed ingredients  ABSTRAK  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi berbagai jenis fermentor terhadap kecernaan bahan kering (KBK, kecernaan bahan organik (KBO, dan komposisi kimia rumput laut terfermentasi. Lima jenis rumput

  16. Control tools to detect processed animal proteins in feed and in animal by-products: specificity and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodgate SL.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper reviews the current situation with regard to a total feed ban on the use of processed animal proteins in feed for meat producing animals within the EU. The scientific aspects surrounding the development of control tools are discussed. In particular, focus is given to methods for marking those materials prohibited in animal feeds and for the determination of species specificity in those proteins that are potentially allowed in animal feeds. The overall objective is that the advancements in science are utilized to achieve a partial relaxation of the total feed ban in the near future.

  17. Verteerbaarheid van biologisch geteelde veevoedergrondstoffen bij leghennen = Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Harn, van J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table.

  18. Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Selected Feed Ingredients Fed to Young Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, G A; Jaworski, N W; Htoo, J K; Stein, H H

    2018-03-20

    An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in brewers rice, full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), peanut meal, sesame meal, rapeseed meal, rapeseed expellers, soybean expellers, cassava meal, and bakery meal fed to young growing pigs. Twenty-two barrows (initial BW: 14.09 ± 1.48 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 11 × 4 incomplete Latin square design with 11 diets and four 7-d periods in each square. Eleven experimental diets were prepared and test ingredients were the sole source of CP and AA in 10 diets and the eleventh diet was a N-free diet used to measure basal ileal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.4%) was included in all diets as an indigestible marker and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results indicated that the SID of CP and AA was greatest (P < 0.05) in brewers rice and sesame meal and least (P < 0.05) in cassava meal. The SID of indispensable AA was greater (P < 0.05) in sesame meal compared with all other ingredients except brewers rice. Full-fat rice bran had greater (P < 0.05) SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, and Met compared with DFRB. The SID of CP and most AA was not different among rapeseed meal, rapeseed expellers, and soybean expellers. Bakery meal had the least (P < 0.05) SID of most AA compared with all other ingredients, with the exception of cassava meal. The concentration of standardized ileal digestible CP was greater (P < 0.05) in sesame meal and peanut meal (482.32 and 452.44 g/kg DM, respectively) than in all other ingredients. Soybean expellers had the greatest (P < 0.05) concentration of standardized ileal digestible Lys (22.98 g/kg DM) followed by rapeseed meal (16.11 g/kg DM) and rapeseed expellers (16.17 g/kg DM). Cassava meal and bakery meal had the least (P < 0.05) concentration of standardized ileal digestible CP and most AA compared with the other

  19. Automated determination of urea and ammoniacal nitrogen (NPN) in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, L L; Gehrke, C W

    1981-09-01

    A minor modification in the automated analytical system of the official AOAC semiautomated method for determining crude proteins results in an automated method for determining urea and ammoniacal nitrogen in animal feeds and their ingredients. Urease enzyme which has high activity, yields a clear solution in water, has low ammonia impurity, and is inexpensive is used in the automated method. Weights from 1 to 2.5 g feed sample are dissolved in water, and sample solutions are analyzed at the rate of 40 samples/h. Five AAFCO feed check samples were analyzed repeatedly by the automated method, and results were compared with the grand averages from the check sample reports. The official AOAC manual urease method was used by AAFCO participants. Average recovery of urea and ammoniacal nitrogen was 100.6% by the automated method relative to the AAFCO reported averages. The range of recoveries as 98.5-102.7%. The non-protein nitrogen (NPN) concentrations, expressed as protein equivalent, ranged from 3.40 to 63.04% protein on these samples. The average relative standard deviation for the automated analyses was 0.77%, compared with 1.54% for the manual method. This method is an important adjunct to laboratories using or considering use of the semiautomated method for crude protein and needing further information on NPN.

  20. Environmental impact of using specialty feed ingredients in swine and poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kebreab, E; Liedke, Alexander; Caro, D.

    2016-01-01

    ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase can reduce nutrient input into the system without compromising productivity and consequently can reduce emissions. The global change impact of using SFI in pig and broiler production systems in Europe and North and South America was studied. A life cycle...... in 2012, rising to 146 Mt CO2 eq in 2050 on the basis of United Nations population projections. Considerable benefits of supplementation with SFI were apparent in European and South American diets when direct land use change was considered because of the reduced demand for soybean meal. The eutrophication...

  1. Gamma radiation in the control of insects in animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia; Harder, Marcia N.C.

    2015-01-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal feeds, spices and dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of this study was to use gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of commercial feeds used for animals of small size. In the experiment, packages measuring 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate with 4 types of trademarks were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, infested with 10 insects for each package with the following species: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae. After the irradiation, all the packages were maintained at acclimatized room with 27 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The number of insects and holes in all packages were assessed after 60 days. The results showed that the dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to control all the species of insects in the tested feeds. (author)

  2. Gamma radiation in the control of insects in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal feeds, spices and dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of this study was to use gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of commercial feeds used for animals of small size. In the experiment, packages measuring 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate with 4 types of trademarks were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, infested with 10 insects for each package with the following species: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae. After the irradiation, all the packages were maintained at acclimatized room with 27 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The number of insects and holes in all packages were assessed after 60 days. The results showed that the dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to control all the species of insects in the tested feeds. (author)

  3. Animal DNA identification in food products and animal feed by real time polymerase chain reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Мар’янівна Іщенко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Approbation of diagnostic tests for species identification of beef, pork and chicken by real time polymerase chain reaction method was done. Meat food, including heat treated and animal feed, was used for research. The fact of inconsistencies was revealed for product composition of some meat products that is marked by manufacturer 

  4. Feed legumes for truly sustainable crop-animal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation has sharply decreased in Italy during the last 50 years. Lucerne remains widely grown (with about 12% of its area devoted to dehydration, whereas soybean is definitely the most-grown grain legume. Poor legume cropping is mainly due to the gap in yielding ability with major cereals, which has widened up in time according to statistical data. Lucerne displays definitely higher crude protein yield and somewhat lower economic gap with benchmark cereals than feed grain legumes. Pea because of high feed energy production per unit area and rate of genetic progress, and white lupin because of high protein yield per unit area, are particularly interesting for Italian rain-fed environments. Greater legume cultivation in Europe is urged by the need for reducing energy and green-house gas emissions and excessive and unbalanced global N flows through greater symbiotic N fixation and more integrated crop-animal production, as well as to cope with ongoing and perspective raising prices of feed proteins and N fertilisers and insecurity of feed protein supplies. The transition towards greater legume cultivation requires focused research effort, comprehensive stakeholder cooperation and fair economic compensation for legume environmental services, with a key role for genetic improvement dragged by public breeding or pre-breeding. New opportunities for yield improvement arise from the ongoing development of cost-efficient genome-enabled selection procedures, enhanced adaptation to specific cropping conditions via ecophysiological and evolutionary-based approaches, and more thorough exploitation of global genetic resources.

  5. Information on the presence of 2- Alkylcyclobutanones in animal feed after ionizing radiation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.M.; Barbezan, A.B.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H., E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In agribusiness, it is related to the development of the activities of creation, production and commercialization of pets in the Pet segment. This market grew 7.6% between 2014/2015, generated R$ 18 million in Brazil and 67.3% of this value refers to products for animal feed, commonly called pet food. In animal feed, the raw materials are chosen according to the method (s) of processing (s) in which the product is submitted, its stability in the process and its nutritional source during the validity of the product. In food preservation, the irradiation process is a treatment that seeks to reduce the microbial load of foods, however, it can also alter the composition of the present ingredients and form radiolytic products in the formulation that are still under study. In products containing the presence of fat, the main concern is 2-Alkylciclobutanones (2-ACBs), which are radiolytic products formed exclusively post-processing with ionizing radiation. The formation of 2-ACBs is directly related to the lipid concentration and the dose of irradiation. The objective of this work is to describe the possible radiolytic by-products formed in canine rations containing extruded fat after irradiation and to determine if the formation of 2-ACBs depends on the increase of the radiation dose and, as a consequence, verify their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. (author)

  6. Information on the presence of 2- Alkylcyclobutanones in animal feed after ionizing radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, A.M.; Barbezan, A.B.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2017-01-01

    In agribusiness, it is related to the development of the activities of creation, production and commercialization of pets in the Pet segment. This market grew 7.6% between 2014/2015, generated R$ 18 million in Brazil and 67.3% of this value refers to products for animal feed, commonly called pet food. In animal feed, the raw materials are chosen according to the method (s) of processing (s) in which the product is submitted, its stability in the process and its nutritional source during the validity of the product. In food preservation, the irradiation process is a treatment that seeks to reduce the microbial load of foods, however, it can also alter the composition of the present ingredients and form radiolytic products in the formulation that are still under study. In products containing the presence of fat, the main concern is 2-Alkylciclobutanones (2-ACBs), which are radiolytic products formed exclusively post-processing with ionizing radiation. The formation of 2-ACBs is directly related to the lipid concentration and the dose of irradiation. The objective of this work is to describe the possible radiolytic by-products formed in canine rations containing extruded fat after irradiation and to determine if the formation of 2-ACBs depends on the increase of the radiation dose and, as a consequence, verify their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. (author)

  7. Patented non-antibiotic agents as animal feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormar, Halldor

    2012-08-01

    For a long time it was a common practice to add subtherapeutic amounts of antibiotics, such as tetracycline, to the feeds of livestock to promote growth and improve productivity. When antibiotic resistance in foodborne human pathogens was reported, this practice was either banned or voluntarily abandoned in many countries. The task of controlling the intestinal microflora in food animals, in the absence of antibiotics, is two-fold. First, to modulate the composition and number of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract so that it is as favorable as possible to the health and productivity of the animal. Second, to reduce asymptomatic intestinal colonization by pathogenic bacteria in the animals to lower the possibility of foodborne transmission to humans. Unfortunately, the knowledge of what constitutes a healthy, balanced intestinal microflora is still incomplete. This makes the task of favorably changing its composition difficult. However, modulation by means of natural feed supplements has been successfully practised for a number of years, the most important being probiotics, prebiotics, bacteriocins, organic acids, enzymes, bioactive phytochemicals, antimicrobial peptides, lipids and bacteriophages. A number of patents and patent applications have been published recently describing new supplements of various types. Many new compounds can therefore be expected to enter the market in the near future.

  8. 21 CFR 582.80 - Trace minerals added to animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trace minerals added to animal feeds. 582.80 Section 582.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Provisions § 582.80 Trace minerals added to animal feeds. These substances added to animal feeds as...

  9. Practical experiences with irradiation of laboratory animals' feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiker, D.

    1979-01-01

    The increasing need for well-defined, standardized experimental animals for research has led to the development of many new methods of keeping the animals free from pathogenic microorganisms. In this connection the problem of contaminated food has taken on ever greater significance. The methods most commonly used today, namely chemical treatment and heat treatment of the fodder, have many disadvantages and interest in the use of radiation sterilization has accordingly increased. The author discusses the various aspects of this method in relation to SPF animals and reports on the three years' experience of the Research Institute for Experimental Animal Breeding (University of Vienna) in Himberg with the use of exclusively radiation-treated diets in the rearing of rats and mice. The ease of handling irradiated fodder, the reliability of the method from the microbiological point of view and the excellent breeding results already obtained make this process - despite its somewhat higher cost - the best possible method of pasteurizing the feed of experimental animals. (author)

  10. 21 CFR 510.7 - Consignees of new animal drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignees of new animal drugs for use in the... Provisions § 510.7 Consignees of new animal drugs for use in the manufacture of animal feed. (a) A new animal drug intended for use in the manufacture of animal feed shall be deemed to be unsafe unless at the time...

  11. Suitability of a lime source high in manganese as a feed ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inclusion occurred in: growth rate, feed intake and utilization, plasma enzyme levels, mineral concentrations in plasma, faeces and kidneys, mineral content of livers, haematology, hislopathol- ogy of livers and kidneys and bone measurements.It is concluded that the Ouplaas lime, when included at realistic concentrations in.

  12. Characterizacion of Alocasia spp. for use in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilys Milián Jiménez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding new alternative sources for animal food is a need in Cuba. the evaluation of Alocasia genus clones seems to be a starting point. This research was done at the Research Institute of Tropical Root and Tuber Crops (INIVIT. Three accessions were collected throughout the country and were tested in order to analyze their potential for use . While the collected accessions were characterized and evaluated, the descriptors list for this genus was elaborated, including qualitative and quantitative traits for each plant organ. A list of descriptors, which is a contribution to the description of Alocasia species, was elaborated. Alocasisa spp. is an unknown crop in Cuba. However, the germplasm characterization, carried out in this study, provides information to identify clones that can be cropped for animal feed based on sustainable agriculture principles

  13. Fermented empty fruit bunch (FEFB) as feed for ruminant animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mohd Shukri Mahmud; Wan Badrin Wan Hussin; Tajuddin Osman; Norihan Zainal; Abu Hassan Osman; Tamikazu Kume; Shinpei Matsuhashi

    1998-01-01

    Fermented oil palm empty fruit bunch, now known as 'Sterifeed' has been characterized by physico-chemical properties. It has also been proven to have an improved digestibility (by in vitro and in-vivo test) over the original material. The remaining important aspect of feed to be examined is the long term effect of feeding this material to animals. The size of fermentation media bags used was 0.5 - 1 kg/bag. In the large scale production of these materials, the numbers of bags were increased. The production at pilot scale level reinvestigated the basic processing parameters for the 1 kg/bag media and also performed a trial run for different sizes of bags. These include: 1) investigation on the growth of fungi on fermentation media subjected to different treatment times and the non treated media, 2) evaluation of the processing rate, 3) trial run processing of 25-50 MT oil palm EFB into feed, and 4) processing of different sizes of bags

  14. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: The role of animal feeding trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haver, van E.; Alink, G.M.; Cockburn, A.; Kuiper, H.A.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The

  15. Analyses of odours from concentrated animal feeding operations: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, P.; Pifferi, V.; Falciola, L.; Ferrante, V.

    2018-02-01

    Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) are widely present all over the world due to the high population demand for food and products of animal origin. However, they have generated several environmental concerns, including odour nuisance, which affects people health and quality of life. Odours from livestock are a very complex mixtures of molecules and their analytical investigation is highly demanding. Many works have been published regarding the study of odours from CAFOs, using different techniques and technologies to face the issue. Thus, the aim of this review paper is to summarize all the ways to study odours from CAFOs, starting from the sampling methods and then treating in general the principles of Dynamic Olfactometry, Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry and Electronic Noses. Finally, a deep literature summary of Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry and Electronic Noses applied to odours coming from poultry, dairy and swine feeding operations is reported. This work aims to make some order in this field and it wants to help future researchers to deal with this environmental problem, constituting a state-of-the-art in this field.

  16. Application of Gas Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry for Pesticide Residue Analysis in Cereals and Feed Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienstra, Marc; Mol, Hans G J

    2018-03-01

    A method for residue analysis of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in cereals and feed ingredients based on QuEChERS extraction, programmed temperature vaporizer large-volume injection, and GC with electron ionization (EI) quadrupole Orbitrap full-scan high-resolution MS (60 000 full width at half-maximum at m/z 200) has been developed. In addition to full-scan acquisition, simultaneous full-scan and selected-ion monitoring acquisition was used to improve detectability in incidental cases in which analytes coeluted with intense signals from coextractants. The method was successfully validated down to 10 µg/kg for a single commodity (wheat) using matrix-matched calibration, and for multiple-feed matrixes using standard addition. Identification according to European Union requirements was achieved in >90% of the analyte/matrix combinations, and suggestions for further increasing identification rates have been made. Performance characteristics were compared to an existing method for residue analysis based on GC with EI tandem MS (triple quadrupole).

  17. Radicidation and radappertization of animal feeds in Israel, 1968-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, M.

    1979-01-01

    Contamination of animal feed and animal products with salmonellae and other enteric microorganisms has considerably increased in recent years. This has resulted in commensurate increases in the incidence of salmonellosis and other enteric diseases in both animals and humans. The development of radappertization for laboratory animal feeds and of radicidation for farm animal feeds over the last ten years in Israel is reviewed. The products considered were radappertized feeds for SPF rodent colonies and for commercial SPF poultry flocks, and radicidized feed for breeder and broiler flocks. In the latter case microbiological, biological, technological and economic aspects are considered. The petition and clearance for radicidized poultry feed are briefly discussed. The potential use of radicidation in the preparation of animal feeds from organic wastes, i.e. putrescibles in household garbage and sewage sludge, is outlined, and the factors involved are evaluated. (author)

  18. Development of harvesting and up concentration technologies for microalgae as an ingredient in fish feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Møller, Per

    2014-01-01

    The European Union has recently adopted an ambitious strategy for developing the Bio economy in Europebased on the innovative use of sustainable biological resources to cover the growing demand of the food,energy and industrial sectors. Despite their excellent nutritional quality of digestible...... andfish oil. In applications of algae in fish feed, it is essential to produce a product comparable to fish proteinand fish oil both in terms of quality and costs.Downstream processing of microalgae includes harvest, dewatering, cell rupture, fractionation and drying.The dewatering and drying which...... involve separation of water from the algal suspension, account for themajority of total production costs.This project investigate the effects of harvesting, dewatering, thermal treatments and drying on microalgaebiomass composition and quality and suggests a set up suited for the production of algae...

  19. 40 CFR 406.70 - Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....70 Applicability; description of the animal feed subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacturing of animal feeds (formula feed concentrate) using... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  20. 75 FR 24394 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 556 and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug Application; Buquinolate; Coumaphos AGENCY: Food and... amending the animal drug regulations by removing those portions that reflect approval of two new animal...

  1. The transfer of radionuclides from soil to animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frissel, M.J.; Ginkel, J.H. van; Stoutjesdijk, J.F.; Koester, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    Non volatile radioactive compounds which become released into the atmosphere will finally accumulate in the top layer of soils. The soil-to-plant transfer is therefore a key process for the contamination of food and animal feed. The spread of the uptake factors is large; even so large that a worst case approach for estimating the contamination may lead to very unrealistic conclusions. The Int. Union of Radioecologists (IUR) has established a working group to approach this problem. By means of a joint programme of many institutions sufficient transfer data are being collected to allow a sophisticated statistical evaluation resulting in predictions of transfer factor values and confidence levels. Possible counter measures against the uptake of radionuclides are discussed. (author)

  2. Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1994-01-01

    A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author).

  3. Astaxanthin from Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii as a Pigmentary Ingredient in the Feed of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido-Fernández, J.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg yolks generally owe their color to yellow carotenoids. The addition of synthetic red pigments allows changes in color, from the original yellow to red hues which may be more appealing to consumers in certain markets.Our aim has been to test whether ground crayfish shells, which are a rich and natural source of astaxanthin, produce detectable changes in the coloration of egg yolks through the accumulation of this carotenoid. Laying hens were fed with a commercial feed mixed with crayfish powder and the carotenoid profiles of the yolks in the eggs laid during the trial were monitored by HPLC. The analyses showed a progressive increase in the astaxanthin concentration in the egg yolks, reaching similar levels to those obtained for the rest of present carotenoid pigments.La yema de huevo de gallina debe su coloración a la presencia de carotenoides de tonalidad amarilla. La adición de colorantes sintéticos de tonalidades rojas permite modificar e incrementar la coloración de la yema desde el amarillo original a tonos rojos que pueden ser demandados en ciertos mercados según las preferencias del consumidor. El objetivo del trabajo fue probar si un triturado obtenido a partir de caparazones de cangrejo, que es una fuente natural y rica en astaxanteno, produce cambios detectables en la coloración de la yema de huevo por la acumulación de dicho carotenoide. Las gallinas ponedoras se alimentaron con un pienso comercial al que se adicionó triturado de caparazón de cangrejo. Se realizó un seguimiento de los cambios en la composición carotenoide (mediante HPLC de la yema de los huevos puestos durante el periodo de alimentación suplementada. Los análisis mostraron una progresiva incorporación de astaxanteno que alcanzó niveles similares al resto de carotenoides presentes inicialmente en la yema.

  4. 19 CFR 123.27 - Feeding and watering animals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feeding and watering animals in Canada. 123.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.27 Feeding and watering animals in Canada. If animals in sealed conveyances or compartments...

  5. 77 FR 9528 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 500 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; N... CFR Part 500 Animal drugs, Animal feeds, Cancer, Labeling, Packaging and containers, Polychlorinated...

  6. 21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. 589... Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. (a) Definitions—(1) Protein derived from mammalian tissues means any protein-containing portion of mammalian animals, excluding: Blood and blood products; gelatin...

  7. Potential use of green algae Caulerpa lentillifera as feed ingredient in the diet of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadisa Theresia Putri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The high composition of import raw material of fish diet in Indonesia causes feed price expensively and should be replaced using local materials such as green macro algae. It is, therefore, this study aimed to evaluate effect of diet containing the Caulerpa lentillifera, as feed ingredient in the diet of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. This study consisted of two experiments which were C. lentillifera digestibility test for raw material feed for tilapia and growth performance test of tilapia. C. lentillifera digestibility test was done by using Cr2O3 as indicators and analysis of faecal tilapia. The second experiment is growth performance test using a completely randomised design with four diets were formulated at variuos rates of C. lentillifera meal of 0 (control, 10, 20, and 30%. A number of 240 tilapia fingerlings of 3.41±0.10 g in mean weight were randomly stocked in 12 aquaria and fed on diet test for growth performanced of rearing period. C. lentillifera digestiility test result showed a good value as a raw material feed tilapia, the digestibility of C. lentiliifera and protein digestibility amounted to 68.81% and 86.31%. Growth performance parameters showed the use of 10% and 20% is not significantly different from the control (P>0.05, to the final body weight, protein efficiency ratio, protein retention, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency. But, the diet test at 30% performed the lowest growth performance and feed utilization as well of tilapia fingerlings. This study, therefore, concludes that C. lentillifera meal could be used up to 20% in the tilapia diet. Keywords: Caulerpa lentillifera, Nile tilapia, feed utilization, growth performance  ABSTRAK Tingginya jumlah bahan baku impor dalam pakan ikan di Indonesia menyebabkan harga pakan yang tinggi dan harus diganti menggunakan bahan alternatif lokal seperti makro alga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengunaan dari pakan yang mengandung Caulerpa

  8. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  9. 75 FR 55676 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 520, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Chloramphenicol; Lincomycin.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  10. 76 FR 16533 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole Hydrochloride; Nitromide and..., 2010 (75 FR 65565) amending the animal drug regulations. The October 26, 2010, final rule amended the...

  11. 75 FR 65565 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520, 556, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations by removing those...

  12. Characterization of Animal By-Product Hydrolysates to Be Used as Healthy and Bioactive Ingredients in Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Trine Desiree

    The world meat production and consumption has increased rapidly over the last couple of decades, due to population and income growth. In contrast to the meat, the consumption of animal by-products has been declining, leaving large amounts of by-products underutilized. As many by-products are high...... with a higher dose. These results are interesting in regard to optimizing the value of animal by-products by converting such tissues into bioactive hydrolysates for potential use as natural ingredients in functional foods.......The world meat production and consumption has increased rapidly over the last couple of decades, due to population and income growth. In contrast to the meat, the consumption of animal by-products has been declining, leaving large amounts of by-products underutilized. As many by-products are highly...... and their “meat factor” effect, i.e. their ability to enhance in vitro iron availability. Hydrolysates of different animal by-products displayed antioxidant capacities as observed by several assays intended to test different antioxidant mechanisms. The radical scavenging capacity of the hydrolysates was found...

  13. Surveying selected European feed and livestock production chains for features enabling the case-specific post-market monitoring of livestock for intake and potential health impacts of animal feeds derived from genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleter, Gijs; McFarland, Sarah; Bach, Alex; Bernabucci, Umberto; Bikker, Paul; Busani, Luca; Kok, Esther; Kostov, Kaloyan; Nadal, Anna; Pla, Maria; Ronchi, Bruno; Terre, Marta; Einspanier, Ralf

    2017-10-06

    This review, which has been prepared within the frame of the European Union (EU)-funded project MARLON, surveys the organisation and characteristics of specific livestock and feed production chains (conventional, organic, GM-free) within the EU, with an emphasis on controls, regulations, traceability, and common production practices. Furthermore, an overview of the origin of animal feed used in the EU as well as an examination of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in feed is provided. From the data, it shows that livestock is traceable at the herd or individual level, depending on the species. Husbandry practices can vary widely according to geography and animal species, whilst controls and checks are in place for notifiable diseases and general health symptoms (such as mortality, disease, productive performance). For feeds, it would be possible only to make coarse estimates, at best, for the amount of GM feed ingredients that an animal is exposed to. Labeling requirements are apparently correctly followed. Provided that confounding factors are taken into account, practices such as organic agriculture that explicitly involve the use of non-GM feeds could be used for comparison to those involving the use of GM feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadudvari, I.

    1979-01-01

    The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

  15. Data Analyses and Modelling for Risk Based Monitoring of Mycotoxins in Animal Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H.J. (Ine); Adamse, Paulien; Punt, Ans; van Asselt, Esther D.

    2018-01-01

    Following legislation, European Member States should have multi-annual control programs for contaminants, such as for mycotoxins, in feed and food. These programs need to be risk based implying the checks are regular and proportional to the estimated risk for animal and human health. This study aimed to prioritize feed products in the Netherlands for deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 monitoring. Historical mycotoxin monitoring results from the period 2007–2016 were combined with data from other sources. Based on occurrence, groundnuts had high priority for aflatoxin B1 monitoring; some feed materials (maize and maize products and several oil seed products) and complete/complementary feed excluding dairy cattle and young animals had medium priority; and all other animal feeds and feed materials had low priority. For deoxynivalenol, maize by-products had a high priority, complete and complementary feed for pigs had a medium priority and all other feed and feed materials a low priority. Also including health consequence estimations showed that feed materials that ranked highest for aflatoxin B1 included sunflower seed and palmkernel expeller/extracts and maize. For deoxynivalenol, maize products were ranked highest, followed by various small grain cereals (products); all other feed materials were of lower concern. Results of this study have proven to be useful in setting up the annual risk based control program for mycotoxins in animal feed and feed materials. PMID:29373559

  16. Data Analyses and Modelling for Risk Based Monitoring of Mycotoxins in Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. (Ine van der Fels-Klerx

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following legislation, European Member States should have multi-annual control programs for contaminants, such as for mycotoxins, in feed and food. These programs need to be risk based implying the checks are regular and proportional to the estimated risk for animal and human health. This study aimed to prioritize feed products in the Netherlands for deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 monitoring. Historical mycotoxin monitoring results from the period 2007–2016 were combined with data from other sources. Based on occurrence, groundnuts had high priority for aflatoxin B1 monitoring; some feed materials (maize and maize products and several oil seed products and complete/complementary feed excluding dairy cattle and young animals had medium priority; and all other animal feeds and feed materials had low priority. For deoxynivalenol, maize by-products had a high priority, complete and complementary feed for pigs had a medium priority and all other feed and feed materials a low priority. Also including health consequence estimations showed that feed materials that ranked highest for aflatoxin B1 included sunflower seed and palmkernel expeller/extracts and maize. For deoxynivalenol, maize products were ranked highest, followed by various small grain cereals (products; all other feed materials were of lower concern. Results of this study have proven to be useful in setting up the annual risk based control program for mycotoxins in animal feed and feed materials.

  17. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de Clazien J.; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-01-01

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation

  18. Aflatoxin B1 and M1 contamination of animal feeds and milk from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was initiated to assess the knowledge and practices of urban dairy farmers and feed millers about aflatoxin in feeds and milk, determine the prevalence and quantify the levels of AFB1 and AFM1 in animal feeds and milk respectively from urban environs in Kenya. Methods: This work was carried out in ...

  19. Large-scale production of bioactive ingredients as supplements for healthy human and animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüstenberg, Bettina; Stemmler, René T; Létinois, Ulla; Bonrath, Werner; Hugentobler, Max; Netscher, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this review, synthetic strategies and the development of environmentally benign methods for the production of economically important vitamins, carotenoids, and nutraceuticals used as food and feed supplements are illustrated by selected examples. The application of efficient catalytic transformations in multi-step chemical syntheses of such natural products enables technically feasible and cost-effective processes. For the preparation of fat-soluble (isoprenoid) vitamins A and E and the water-soluble vitamin (+)-biotin, homogeneous metal catalysis, including enantioselective transformations, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis serve as key methodologies. In the area of carotenoids, general building concepts and coupling methods for the total synthesis of beta-carotene and astaxanthin are discussed. Biotechnological methods and isolation from natural sources are also employed successfully, as exemplified for the xanthophyll lutein and the antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin gallate. Lastly, key steps of the chemical synthesis of the polyphenol resveratrol are highlighted.

  20. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, W.R.; Berg, K.J. van den; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data

  1. A simple approach to recycle broiler litter as animal feed | Makinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broiler litter (BL) is a major waste from poultry production that constitutes serious disposal and environmental pollution problems globally despite its potential as animal feed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure for converting broiler litter into animal feed using wheat offal (WO) and cattle ...

  2. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    .... FDA-2009-F-0525] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid AGENCY...) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to... to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj of Finland. DATES: This rule is effective February 9...

  3. Forage crops as substrate for animal feed and ethanol production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate the effect of harvesting time on their composition, including the contents of cellulose, lignin, and crude protein, thus affecting the ethanol yield and quality of animal feed. Ruzi grass, harvested 45 days after being planted, was shown to be the most suitable substrate for animal feed due to its highest crude ...

  4. Authentication of meat and meat products vs. detection of animal species in feed - what is the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nešić, K.; Stojanović, D.; Baltić, Ž. M.

    2017-09-01

    Authenticity of food is an issue that is growing in awareness and concern. Although food adulteration has been present since antiquity, it has broadened to include entire global populations as modern food supply chains have expanded, enriched and become more complex. Different forms of adulteration influence not only the quality of food products, but also may cause harmful health effects. Meat and meat products are often subjected to counterfeiting, mislabelling and similar fraudulent activities, while substitutions of meat ingredients with other animal species is one among many forms of food fraud. Feed is also subject to testing for the presence of different animal species, but as part of the eradication process of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). In both food and feed cases, the final goal is consumer protection, which should be provided by quick, precise and specific tools. Several analytical tests have been employed for such needs. This paper provides an overview of authentication of meat and meat products compared with species identification in feed control, highlighting the most prevalent laboratory methods.

  5. Near infrared spectroscopy for enforcement of European legislation concerning the use of animal by-products in animal feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martnez A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the work done in the framework of two R&D projects aimed to demonstrate the contribution of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to help the enforcement of the European legislation governing the use of animal by-products in animal feeds. Three different types of animal feed products were studied: compound feeds (CFs, animal protein byproducts meals (APBPs and animal fats by-products (AFBPs. The quantitative and qualitative chemometric models produced with a large collection of compound feed samples (n = 1005 ground and 523 unground have demonstrated, that NIRS can be used for the detection and quantification of the meat and bone meal (MBM added to compound feeds. Discriminant models produced with unground samples produced 100% of correctly classified samples in two cloned instruments placed in two different locations. The results also show that two dimensions NIR spectra of Animal By-Products (ABP, animal meals and fats may contain information about the animal species or group of species from which the ABPs were produced. However, further work is needed to enlarge the sample bank and the spectral libraries with well authenticated samples in order to increase the robustness of the quantitative and qualitative NIRS models. The paper opens expectations for using NIRS for the enforcement of legislation concerning the use of ABPs in animal feeds. More research and demonstration efforts have to be done in order to obtain more definitive and robust predictive models and for optimising its implementation either at-line, on-line and in-line in feed factories and inspection laboratories.

  6. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tysen E

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91, followed by S. Dublin (n = 82. There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97.

  7. The new Israeli feed safety law: challenges in relation to animal and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Shimon; Elad, Dani; Cuneah, Olga; Shimshoni, Jakob A

    2017-03-01

    The Israeli feed safety legislation, which came to prominence in the early 1970s, has undergone a major change from simple feed safety and quality regulations to a more holistic concept of control of feed safety and quality throughout the whole feed production chain, from farm to the end user table. In February 2014, a new law was approved by the Israeli parliament, namely the Control of Animal Feed Law, which is expected to enter into effect in 2017. The law is intended to regulate the production and marketing of animal feed, guaranteeing the safety and quality of animal products throughout the production chain. The responsibility on the implementation of the new feed law was moved from the Plant Protection Inspection Service to the Veterinary Services and Animal Health. In preparation for the law's implementation, we have characterized the various sources and production lines of feed for farm and domestic animals in Israel and assessed the current feed safety challenges in terms of potential hazards or undesirable substances. Moreover, the basic requirements for feed safety laboratories, which are mandatory for analyzing and testing for potential contaminants, are summarized for each of the contaminants discussed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. self-limiting complete feed changes forage intake and animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rangeland or hay-based finishing systems often do not allow kids to reach slaughter weights of 30 - 50 kg by 12 months. This study determined the effects of a complete feed (CF) and a self-limiting complete feed (LCF) alone or in combination with ad libitum access to sorghum-sudan hay (SS) on average daily gain (ADG) ...

  9. The development of mixer machine for organic animal feed production: Proposed study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Wahab, R. Abdul; Zakaria, Supaat; Feriyanto, Dafit; Nor, M. I. F. Che Mohd; Muzarpar, Syafiq

    2017-09-01

    Mixer machine plays a major role in producing homogenous composition of animal feed. Long time production, inhomogeneous and minor agglomeration has been observed by existing mixer. Therefore, this paper proposed continuous mixer to enhance mixing efficiency with shorter time of mixing process in order to abbreviate the whole process in animal feed production. Through calculation of torque, torsion, bending, power and energy consumption will perform in mixer machine process. Proposed mixer machine is designed by two layer buckets with purpose for continuity of mixing process. Mixing process was performed by 4 blades which consists of various arm length such as 50, 100,150 and 225 mm in 60 rpm velocity clockwise rotation. Therefore by using this machine will produce the homogenous composition of animal feed through nutrition analysis and short operation time of mixing process approximately of 5 minutes. Therefore, the production of animal feed will suitable for various animals including poultry and aquatic fish. This mixer will available for various organic material in animal feed production. Therefore, this paper will highlights some areas such as continues animal feed supply chain and bio-based animal feed.

  10. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; de Jong, Jacob

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring programme and from representatives of the feed industry during the period 2007-13 were used. Data covered a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in the Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML) set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90th percentile concentrations of each of these elements were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae, as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (1) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (2) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed (lower ML). Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programmes, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

  11. 75 FR 60308 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ..., monensin, and tylosin phosphate for heifers fed in confinement for slaughter. These amendments are being... NADA 138-870 for use of liquid MGA 500, RUMENSIN, and TYLAN (tylosin phosphate) single- ingredient Type...

  12. 75 FR 11451 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Zilpaterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Type A medicated articles containing zilpaterol, melengestrol, monensin, and tylosin to make two-way..., RUMENSIN, and TYLAN (tylosin phosphate) single-ingredient Type A medicated articles to make dry and liquid...

  13. Rapid genetically modified organism (GMO screening of various food products and animal feeds using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha, V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available modified crops which brought up a controversy on the safety usage of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. It has been implemented globally that all GMO products and its derived ingredients should have regulations on the usage and labelling. Thus, it is necessary to develop methods that allow rapid screening of GMO products to comply with the regulations. This study employed a reliable and flexible multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method for the rapid detection of transgenic elements in genetically modified soy and maize along with the soybean LECTIN gene and maize ZEIN gene respectively. The selected four common transgenic elements were 35S promoter (35S; Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (NOS; 5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps gene; and Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene. Optimization of the multiplex PCR methods were carried out by using 1% Roundup ReadyTM Soybean (RRS as the certified reference material for soybean that produced fourplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene and soybean LECTIN gene and by using 1% MON810 as the certified reference material for maize that produced triplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, cry1Ab gene and maize ZEIN gene prior to screening of the GMO traits in various food products and animal feeds. 1/9 (11.1% of the animal feed contained maize and 1/15 (6.7% of the soybean food products showed positive results for the detection of GMO transgenic gene. None of the maize food products showed positive results for GMO transgenic gene. In total, approximately 4% of the food products and animal feed were positive as GMO. This indicated GMOs have not widely entered the food chain. However, it is necessary to have an appropriate screening method due to GMOs’ unknown potential risk to humans and to animals. This rapid screening method will provide leverage in terms of being economically wise, time saving and reliable.

  14. Rulemaking Petition to lower the threshold that qualifies animal feeding operations (“AFOs”) as concentrated animal feeding operations (“CAFOs”) and thereby “point sources” under section 402 of the Clean Water Act (“CWA”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulemaking Petition submitted September 20, 2015 to lower the threshold that qualifies animal feeding operations (AFOs) as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and thereby point sources under§ 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  15. Associations between off-label feed additives and farm size, veterinary consultant use, and animal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, C E; Cox, B D; Straw, B E; Bush, E J; Hurd, H S

    1997-07-01

    Data from the United States National Swine Survey collected by the National Animal Health Monitoring System were used to describe the use of feed additives in swine feeds. Data were collected from 710 farms. The concentration of feed additives expressed in grams per ton of complete feed was described by stage of production, and the use of feed additives above the labeled treatment levels (i.e. off-label) was identified. Of the 3328 feeds, about 79% contained feed additives used in the labeled manner. For all classes of pigs, the prevalence of labeled feed additive use was greater than 75%. Penicillin was used according to its label most often, followed by apramycin, bacitracin, tetracyclines, lincomycin, and tylosin. Carbadox had the highest prevalence of off-label use. Of the 699 feeds that included feed additives in an off-label manner, about 57% included additives at greater than the recommended concentrations or were fed to an incorrect class of pig. About 56% of the feeds had off-label combinations of additives. Small farms were more likely to use rations with no feed additives than intermediate or large farms (P consultant were 2.1 times more likely to use feeds with feed additives (P < 0.0001).

  16. Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, H.; Kume, T.; Takehisa, M.; Iizuka, H.

    The demand for animal feeds in Japan has been increasing with the expansion of the farm animal industry. It is estimated that more than 17 million tons of feedstuffs are used in the breeding of farm animals, and the greater part of them have been imported from foreign countries. However, it has been stated that some amount of feeds and feedstuffs are contaminated by microorganisms or insects, and the damage caused by insects or microorganisms is severe in Japan. Recently, breeding of animals has become large scale in many stud farms, and there is also increasing poisoning by pathogen or fungi. In spite of these poisoning or damage, there have scarcely been reported about contamination by microorganisms in animal feeds on the market. In our laboratory, we had studied disinfectation of animal feeds by radiation, and these results contributed to commercial use of sterilization on laboratory animal diets. We also studied radiation-disinfection of putrefactive moulds on corn and milo. On the basis of these studies, we investigated radiation disinfection of farm animal feeds. In this paper we present the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals on the market, and effect of radiation-inactivation of microorganisms.

  17. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in animal tissues and feeds in Poland in 2014–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietruszka Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ochratoxin A (OTA is a toxic metabolite mainly produced by Aspergillus spp. and Penicillum spp. fungi. Research on the contamination of cereals, complete feeds, and tissues with this mycotoxin has indicated that it can be a toxicological problem impacting animal health and food safety in temperate climes. OTA contamination mainly besets the global pig industry, necessitating the monitoring of feeds and animal tissues. The aim of the study was to present the results of the official monitoring of OTA in animal tissues and feeds in Poland in 2014–2016 and determine the possible correlation between the presence of OTA in different types of samples.

  18. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible

  19. Feeding live prey to zoo animals: response of zoo visitors in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Lauren; Tamir, Dan; Hyseni, Mimoza; Bühler, Dominique; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In summer 2007, with the help of a written questionnaire, the attitudes of more than 400 visitors to the zoological garden of Zurich, Switzerland, toward the idea of feeding live insects to lizards, live fish to otters, and live rabbits to tigers were investigated. The majority of Swiss zoo visitors agreed with the idea of feeding live prey (invertebrates and vertebrates) to zoo animals, both off- and on-exhibit, except in the case of feeding live rabbits to tigers on-exhibit. Women and frequent visitors of the zoo disagreed more often with the on-exhibit feeding of live rabbits to tigers. Study participants with a higher level of education were more likely to agree with the idea of feeding live invertebrates and vertebrates to zoo animals off-exhibit. In comparison to an earlier study undertaken in Scotland, zoo visitors in Switzerland were more often in favor of the live feeding of vertebrates. Feeding live prey can counter the loss of hunting skills of carnivores and improve the animals' well-being. However, feeding enrichments have to strike a balance between optimal living conditions of animals and the quality of visitor experience. Our results show that such a balance can be found, especially when live feeding of mammals is carried out off-exhibit. A good interpretation of food enrichment might help zoos to win more support for the issue, and for re-introduction programs and conservation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The use of non-animal alternatives in the safety evaluations of cosmetics ingredients by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinardell, M P

    2015-03-01

    In Europe, the safety evaluation of cosmetics is based on the safety evaluation of each individual ingredient. Article 3 of the Cosmetics Regulation specifies that a cosmetic product made available on the market is to be safe for human health when used normally or under reasonably foreseeable conditions. For substances that cause some concern with respect to human health (e.g., colourants, preservatives, UV-filters), safety is evaluated at the Commission level by a scientific committee, presently called the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). According to the Cosmetics Regulations, in the EU, the marketing of cosmetics products and their ingredients that have been tested on animals for most of their human health effects, including acute toxicity, is prohibited. Nevertheless, any study dating from before this prohibition took effect is accepted for the safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients. The in vitro methods reported in the dossiers submitted to the SCCS are here evaluated from the published reports issued by the scientific committee of the Directorate General of Health and Consumers (DG SANCO); responsible for the safety of cosmetics ingredients. The number of studies submitted to the SCCS that do not involve animals is still low and in general the safety of cosmetics ingredients is based on in vivo studies performed before the prohibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 5887 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Ractopamine; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... medicated feeds for finishing hen and tom turkeys. DATES: This rule is effective February 5, 2010. FOR... C medicated feeds for finishing hen and tom turkeys. The NADA is approved as of December 11, 2009...) 4.6 to 11.8 Monensin 54 to 90 Finishing hen turkeys: As in Feed continuously as sole 000986 (5 to 13...

  2. Animal feed controls implemented in Japan for the eradication of bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available After the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in Japan in September 2001, the Japanese government introduced a series of animal feed control measures to reduce the risk of the spread of the disease from a feed source. To ensure the proper implementation of these measures, the Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Centre conducted audit inspections of feed importers, producers, distributors and end-users. The audit inspections include on-site inspection of the feed plants, warehouses, farms and other related premises and the laboratory analysis of feed samples taken from these premises to check for the presence of animal protein. The results of inspections conducted in recent years indicate good compliance with the feed control measures.

  3. Open Feedlots Listed in the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Animal Feeding Operations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Currently, the Animal Feeding Operations (AFO) database does not allow facilities to be queried by watershed, therefore, this coverage was developed to assist with...

  4. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-31

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) represent...

  7. 78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    .... FDA-2008-F-0151] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate... and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and...: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA has noticed the regulations for food additives...

  8. Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Susan; Shepherd, Megan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The practice of feeding of diets containing raw animal products (RAP) to pets (dogs and cats) is discouraged by veterinary organizations and governmental public health organizations. Nevertheless, the practice of feeding RAP to pets is increasing in popularity. Pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets to pets have not been explored and the benefits of RAP diets remain largely anecdotal. We hypothesized that pet owners feeding RAP diets would not rely on veterinary advice in choosing their pet’s diet. We also hypothesized that these owners would have lower levels of trust in veterinary advice with respect to nutrition relative to pet owners not feeding RAP. Methods An anonymous web-based survey was developed to identify pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets, and to characterize the veterinarian-client relationships of individuals feeding RAP diets. Results There were 2,337 respondents and 2,171 completed surveys. Of survey respondents, 804 reported feeding RAP at the time of the survey. While 20% of pet owners feeding RAP relied on online resources to determine what or how much RAP to feed, only 9% reported consulting with a veterinarian in making decisions about feeding RAP. Pet owners feeding RAP reported lower levels of trust in veterinary advice both ‘in general’ and ‘with respect to nutrition’ than pet owners not feeding RAP. Most pet owners reported that a discussion regarding their pet’s nutrition does not occur at every veterinary appointment. Discussion Pet owners feeding a RAP diet have lower trust in veterinary advice than pet owners not feeding a RAP diet. Owners feeding RAP are more reliant on online resources than their own veterinarian in deciding what and how much RAP to feed. Pet owners perceive that nutrition is not discussed at most veterinary appointments. Therefore, there is room for improvement in the veterinarian-client communication with regards to nutrition. PMID:28265510

  9. Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart K. Morgan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The practice of feeding of diets containing raw animal products (RAP to pets (dogs and cats is discouraged by veterinary organizations and governmental public health organizations. Nevertheless, the practice of feeding RAP to pets is increasing in popularity. Pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets to pets have not been explored and the benefits of RAP diets remain largely anecdotal. We hypothesized that pet owners feeding RAP diets would not rely on veterinary advice in choosing their pet’s diet. We also hypothesized that these owners would have lower levels of trust in veterinary advice with respect to nutrition relative to pet owners not feeding RAP. Methods An anonymous web-based survey was developed to identify pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets, and to characterize the veterinarian-client relationships of individuals feeding RAP diets. Results There were 2,337 respondents and 2,171 completed surveys. Of survey respondents, 804 reported feeding RAP at the time of the survey. While 20% of pet owners feeding RAP relied on online resources to determine what or how much RAP to feed, only 9% reported consulting with a veterinarian in making decisions about feeding RAP. Pet owners feeding RAP reported lower levels of trust in veterinary advice both ‘in general’ and ‘with respect to nutrition’ than pet owners not feeding RAP. Most pet owners reported that a discussion regarding their pet’s nutrition does not occur at every veterinary appointment. Discussion Pet owners feeding a RAP diet have lower trust in veterinary advice than pet owners not feeding a RAP diet. Owners feeding RAP are more reliant on online resources than their own veterinarian in deciding what and how much RAP to feed. Pet owners perceive that nutrition is not discussed at most veterinary appointments. Therefore, there is room for improvement in the veterinarian-client communication with regards to nutrition.

  10. [Detection of genetically modified organisms in food and animal feed by polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-chang; Yang, Ming-jie; Yang, Xing-fen; Huang, Jun-ming

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the foods and animal feed samples in Guangzhou market. The presence of GMO were investigated by PCR detection of camv 35S promoter and nos terminator, and the presence of RoundUp Ready Soybean (RRS), Bt176 Maximaizer or Mon810 YieldGard in GMO-positive samples were further determined by PCR detecting their specific DNA fragments respectively. One corn soup sample, two soybean samples, one potato fries sample as well as two animal feed samples were revealed to be GMO-positive in twenty-two food samples and three animal feed samples, and the presence of RRS in the GMO-positive soybean samples and the two positive animal feed samples were verified by PCR detection of a 129 bp RRS-specific DNA fragment, however, no Bt176 Maximaizer or Mon810 YieldGard specific PCR products were obtained with the GMO-positive corn soup and animal feed DNA samples used as PCR templates. Genetically modified organism presented in foods and animal feeds even though they were not been labelled.

  11. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Yamatani, Shoich; Watahara, Masashi; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  12. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  13. Liquid chromatographic determination of tetracycline residues in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, E E; Shimoda, W

    1988-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the multiresidue determination of tetracyclines (TCs) in feeds is described. The levels of quantitation were 10 ppm each for tetracycline-HCl (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), and chlortetracycline-HCl (CTC); the detection limit was 40 ppb for each. The calibration curves were linear between 2.5 and 100 ppm. The procedure involved double extraction with pH 2.0 and pH 4.5 McIlvain buffers, cleanup on a Sephadex LH-20 column, separation on a Nova-Pak C18 column, and detection at 370 nm. Recoveries of 10 micrograms/g of each TC in multiresidue feed samples ranged from 55.8 to 75.5% for OTC, 71.6 to 100% for TC, and 22.4 to 60.6% for CTC. The identities of the TCs were confirmed by thin layer chromatography.

  14. The value of ruminant digesta as animal feed | Jansen | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (1977) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Byproducts of the sugar industry as animal feeds | van Niekerk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (1981) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  17. Some Recent Data on the Rate of Contamination of Mixed-Feed Ingredients. With Particular Reference to the Significance of the Method of Examination Used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, A. van der; Frik, J.F.

    1968-01-01

    In the tropics, mixed-feed ingredients of vegetable origin are often contaminated with salmonellae. From 10-g samples of meal from imported cotton seed, soya and sunflower-seed flakes, produced by a large mixed-feed plant in the Netherlands, 11 of 125 samples tested in 1964 and 1965 gave a positive result for Salmonella with a conventional method. In 1967, a pre-enrichment of 200-g samples for 7 h at 43°C in flasks with 2 litres of a brilliant-green peptone bile medium resulted in an almost 50% increase of positive samples. A well-monitored pelletizing process of mixed feeds for cattle, pigs and poultry can eliminate the salmonellae in the feeds without causing an increase in feeding costs. The effect of pelletizing can be checked by determining the total number of Enterobacteriaceae per 10-g of pellet sample. A reduction of 4 to 6 decimals in the number of Enterobacteriaceae may be obtained by this process. The most reliable method to show that a lot of mixed feed is free from salmonellae is the ''pig- enrichment-test'' (PET). A negative PET can be obtained by feeding exclusively checked pellets. The testing of imported Argentine pellets of cotton-seed flakes sampled on board in Rotterdam resulted in the isolation of S. cubana. The bacterial count of Enterobacteriaceae was found to be 30 per 10 milligram. In another sample of imported pellets (sunflower-seed flakes) no salmonellae and no Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. These results demonstrate that not every pelletizing process is able to diminish the Salmonella contamination. In fact, a non-monitored process may cause contamination or increase the number of salmonellae in the original product. (author)

  18. 77 FR 4228 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ...-choice feeds for growing cattle on pasture or in dry lot (stocker and feeder cattle and dairy and beef...-choice feeds for growing cattle on pasture or in dry lot (stocker and feeder cattle and dairy and beef... individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. Therefore, neither an...

  19. 75 FR 9334 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Chlortetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... feeds for livestock and poultry. DATES: This rule is effective March 2, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... containing 50 grams of chlortetracycline per pound, for the manufacture of medicated feeds for livestock and... individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. Therefore, neither an...

  20. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Paul; Krimpen, van Marinus M.; Wikselaar, van Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; Hal, van Jaap W.; Huijgen, Wouter J.J.; Cone, John W.; López-Contreras, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically

  1. 76 FR 72617 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Eprinomectin; N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... 21 CFR Part 500 Animal drugs, Animal feeds, Cancer, Labeling, Packaging and containers... lactating dairy cows may cause drug residues in milk. A withdrawal period has not been established for pre...: 100 parts per billion (ppb). (iii) Milk: 12 ppb. (2) (c) Related conditions of use. See Sec. Sec. 522...

  2. Sterilization by irradiation of feed for axenic or heteroxenic laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Sterilization by irradiation of animal feeds is promising. The objective of experiments presented is to determine if integrated dose (44 kGy) has an influence on breeding performances and on animal behavior. Results show that not only nothing abnormal is constated but performances are better than those obtained with an autoclave in an important breeding center in conditions perfectly analyzed [fr

  3. Occupational exposure to fungi and particles in animal feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; Carolino, Elisabete; Sabino, Raquel; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Viegas, Susana

    Very few studies regarding fungal and particulate matter (PM) exposure in feed industry have been reported, although such contaminants are likely to be a significant contributing factor to several symptoms reported among workers. The purpose of this study has been to characterize fungal and dust exposure in one Portuguese feed industry. Air and surface samples were collected and subject to further macro- and microscopic observations. In addition we collected other air samples in order to perform real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of genes from Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus complexes as well as Stachybotrys chartarum. Additionally, two exposure metrics were considered - particle mass concentration (PMC), measured in 5 different sizes (PM0.5, PM1, PM2.5, PM5, PM10), and particle number concentration (PNC) based on results given in 6 different sizes in terms of diameter (0.3 μm, 0.5 μm, 1 μm, 2.5 μm, 5 μm and 10 μm). Species from the Aspergillus fumigatus complex were the most abundant in air (46.6%) and in surfaces, Penicillium genus was the most frequently found (32%). The only DNA was detected from A. fumigatus complex. The most prevalent in dust samples were smaller particles which may reach deep into the respiratory system and trigger not only local effects but also the systemic ones. Future research work must be developed aiming at assessing the real health effects of these co-exposures. Med Pr 2016;67(2):143-154. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Characterizacion of Alocasia spp. for use in animal feed

    OpenAIRE

    Marilys Milián Jiménez; Onel Díaz Rodríguez; Katia Rodríguez Rodríguez; María Oliva Valdés

    2014-01-01

    Finding new alternative sources for animal food is a need in Cuba. the evaluation of Alocasia genus clones seems to be a starting point. This research was done at the Research Institute of Tropical Root and Tuber Crops (INIVIT). Three accessions were collected throughout the country and were tested in order to analyze their potential for use . While the collected accessions were characterized and evaluated, the descriptors list for this genus was elaborated, including qualitative ...

  5. Biofactories for the production of recombinant phytases and its application in animal feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Thais P P; da Mariano, Resyla M; Vieira, Mariana S; Andrade, Suliana F V; Godoi, Renato R; Gonçalves, Ana Flavia A; Naves, Luciana P; Lima, William J N; Gonçalves, Daniel B; da Paz, Mariana Campos; Galdino, Alexsandro S

    2017-09-15

    Phytases are enzymes capable of degrading phytic acid and are used in animal feed supplementation in order to improve digestibility through the release of minerals such as phosphorus. Recent inventions show interest in production and optimization of recombinant phytases with biochemical and physicochemical characteristics promising for animal feed industry. This review article is focused on relevant patents of the promising phytases, as well as the commonly used expression systems for its production, and also the tools currently used to generate new phytases. We revised all patents relating to recombinant phytases and its application in animal feed industry. The following patents databases were consulted: European Patent Office (Espacenet), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the United States Latin America Patents (LATIPAT), Patent scope -Search International and National Patent Collections (WIPO) and Google Patents. In this review, information was collected in recent publications, including 38 patents related to different recombinant phytases production systems and their application in the animal feed industry. In this review we showed that important recombinant phytases were produced in different expression systems successfuly. In addition, this work has focused in some biotechnological tools like mutagenesis to generate novel enzymes with biochemical properties tha could be useful in animal feed industry. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bheekhee, H.; Hulman, B.; Boodoo, A.A.; Ramnauth, R.K.; Lam Heung Yuen, R.; Fakim, R.; Dobee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

  7. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Fernández-Cruz, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain); Bertelsen, U. [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Renshaw, D.W. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Peltonen, K. [Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland); Anadon, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid (Spain); Feil, A. [ForschungsinstitutFuttermitteltechnik, Braunschweig (Germany); Sanders, P. [AFSSA, LERMVD, Fougères (France); Wester, P. [RIVM, Food and Consumer Safety, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  8. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: animal and human health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorne, J L C M; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Bertelsen, U; Renshaw, D W; Peltonen, K; Anadon, A; Feil, A; Sanders, P; Wester, P; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  9. Coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de ingredientes para juvenis de jundiá Apparent digestibility coefficients of feed ingredients for jundia juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Campagnoli de Oliveira Filho

    2006-08-01

    and 82.2% of DM, while ground corn showed the lowest apparent digestibility coefficients (73.0% of protein, 59.1% of energy and 57.2% of DM. The other ingredients showed intermediary results. The broken rice (high energy ingredient showed 80.7% of protein, 64.8% of energy and 60.5% of DM, while the soybean meal and fish processing waste meal (high protein ingredient showed 88.6 and 77.7%, respectively, for protein digestibility. The energy digestibility for the same ingredients were 76.5 and 74.8%, while for DM were 73.3 and 58.6%. The results show that jundia juveniles, although presenting an omnivorous feeding habit, is able to digest high protein ingredients better than high energy ingredients, suggesting that this species is an omnivore with carnivorous tendency.

  10. Fast and simultaneous prediction of animal feed nutritive values using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi; Wajizah, S.; Munawar, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Feed plays an important factor in animal production. The purpose of this study is to apply NIRS method in determining feed values. NIRS spectra data were acquired for feed samples in wavelength range of 1000 - 2500 nm with 32 scans and 0.2 nm wavelength. Spectral data were corrected by de-trending (DT) and standard normal variate (SNV) methods. Prediction of in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) were established as model by using principal component regression (PCR) and validated using leave one out cross validation (LOOCV). Prediction performance was quantified using coefficient correlation (r) and residual predictive deviation (RPD) index. The results showed that IVDMD and IVOMD can be predicted by using SNV spectra data with r and RPD index: 0.93 and 2.78 for IVDMD ; 0.90 and 2.35 for IVOMD respectively. In conclusion, NIRS technique appears feasible to predict animal feed nutritive values.

  11. A novel PCR-based method to enumerate Salmonella in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Andersson, Gunnar; Häggblom, Per

    2010-01-01

    Animal feed can serve as a reservoir for Salmonella in the food production chain. Therefore, it is important to have rapid and sensitive methods for detection and quantification. In this study, a novel approach for quantification of low numbers of Salmonella in feed samples was developed. The pro......Animal feed can serve as a reservoir for Salmonella in the food production chain. Therefore, it is important to have rapid and sensitive methods for detection and quantification. In this study, a novel approach for quantification of low numbers of Salmonella in feed samples was developed...... the pellet and subjected to real-time PCR. The qualitative PCR method was compared to a reference culture method using modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassilades (MSRV) agar plates (ISO 6579, Amd D, 2007). Of 81 naturally or artificially contaminated samples tested (soya meal, rape seed meal, rape seed cake...

  12. Arsenic pollution of agricultural soils by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueping; Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Hu, Erdan; Xie, Xiande; Wang, Lingling; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-01-01

    Animal wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can cause soil arsenic pollution due to the widespread use of organoarsenic feed additives. This study investigated the arsenic pollution of surface soils in a typical CAFO zone, in comparison with that of agricultural soils in the Pearl River Delta, China. The mean soil arsenic contents in the CAFO zone were elevated compared to those in the local background and agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta region. Chemical speciation analysis showed that the soils in the CAFO zone were clearly contaminated by the organoarsenic feed additive, p-arsanilic acid (ASA). Transformation of ASA to inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in the surface soils was also observed. Although the potential ecological risk posed by the arsenic in the surface soils was relatively low in the CAFO zone, continuous discharge of organoarsenic feed additives could cause accumulation of arsenic and thus deserves significant attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coordinated Feeding Behavior in Trichoplax, an Animal without Synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn L Smith

    Full Text Available Trichoplax is a small disk-shaped marine metazoan that adheres to substrates and locomotes by ciliary gliding. Despite having only six cell types and lacking synapses Trichoplax coordinates a complex sequence of behaviors culminating in external digestion of algae. We combine live cell imaging with electron microscopy to show how this is accomplished. When Trichoplax glides over a patch of algae, its cilia stop beating so it ceases moving. A subset of one of the cell types, lipophils, simultaneously secretes granules whose content rapidly lyses algae. This secretion is accurately targeted, as only lipophils located near algae release granules. The animal pauses while the algal content is ingested, and then resumes gliding. Global control of gliding is coordinated with precise local control of lipophil secretion suggesting the presence of mechanisms for cellular communication and integration.

  14. Antibiotics: practice and opinions of Cambodian commercial farmers, animal feed retailers and veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhorvoin Om

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cambodia has reported multidrug resistant bacteria in poultry, similar to other countries in the region. We visited commercial food animal farms to explore opinions and antibiotic practices on the farms. Methods We used individual in-depth qualitative interviews with 16 commercial farmers, four feed retailers and nine veterinarians from food animal industry and government offices from the southwestern region of Phnom Penh. Transcribed interviews were thematically analysed. Results Widespread antibiotic use occurred on all farms and was driven by four facilitators: belief that antibiotics were necessary for animal raising, limited knowledge, unrestricted antibiotic access, and weak monitoring and control systems. “If we treat ducks for two days and they aren’t cured we change to human drugs. We cocktail 10 tablets of this, 10 tablets of that and 20 tablets of this one. Altogether 200 tablets are mixed in 100 or 200 L of water for the ducks to drink. No one taught me, just my experiences.” Antibiotics were believed to be necessary for disease prevention. “On the first day when we bring in the chicks, we let them drink Enro [enrofloxacin] and vitamins to make them resist to the weather. We place them in the house and there are some bacteria in the environment. When they are newly arrived, we have to give them feed. So we’re afraid they get diarrhea when they eat feed, we have to use Enro.” All farmers used pre-mixed feed that veterinarians and feed retailers acknowledged contained antibiotics but not all listed the antibiotics. Farmers viewed pre-mixed feed as a necessary ‘feed supplement’ for growth promotion. “….The fatten supplement is mixed in feed. Pigs aren’t growing well unless I use the supplement.” Farmers and veterinarians were concerned that ‘antibiotic residuals’ in animal meat could harm human health. But they did not link this with antibiotic resistance. Conclusions Antibiotic use in

  15. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp.) as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, AB.

    1997-01-01

    The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The ...

  16. 77 FR 58021 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... for prevention and control of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria bovis and E. zuernii in pasture cattle...) Limitations. Provide 40 to 200 milligrams of monensin (0.25 to 1.13 pounds or 4 to 18 ounces of block) per... ounces of block) per head per day, at least 1 block per 5 head of cattle. Feed blocks continuously. Do...

  17. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water sa...

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from animals and feed in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasyl, D.; Sandvang, D.; Skov, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-seven Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from poultry, swine and animal feed in Poland during the years 1979-1998 and 2000-2002 were analysed with conventional and molecular techniques. Antimicrobial resistance as well as multiresistance was found, respectively, in 80.1 % and 56......-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Poland. These findings are significant for public and animal health risks and document the dissemination of DT104 epidemic strains into new geographical regions....

  19. Molecular Structure of Feeds in Relation to Nutrient Utilization and Availability in Animals: A Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqiang Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The invention and development of new research concepts, novel methodologies, and novel bioanalytical techniques are essential in advancing the animal sciences, which include feed and nutrition science. This article introduces a novel approach that shows the potential of advanced synchrotron-based bioanalytical technology for studying the effects of molecular structural changes in feeds induced by various treatments (e.g., genetic modification, gene silencing, heat-related feed processing, biofuel processing in relation to nutrient digestion and absorption in animals. Advanced techniques based on synchrotron radiation (e.g., synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS and synchrotron radiation X-ray techniques have been developed as a fast, noninvasive, bioanalytical technology that, unlike traditional wet chemistry methods, does not damage or destroy the inherent molecular structure of the feed. The cutting-edge and advanced research tool of synchrotron light (which is a million times brighter than sunlight can be used to explore the inherent structure of biological tissue at cellular and molecular levels at ultra-high spatial resolutions. In conclusion, the use of recently developed bioanalytical techniques based on synchrotron radiation along with common research techniques is leading to dramatic advances in animal feed and nutritional research.

  20. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp. as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra, AB.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The different meal forms that can be extracted are golden snail meal (30 % calcium and 15 % crude protein, golden snail meat meal (62 % crude protein and 3336 kcal/kg and golden shell meal (35 % calcium. Feeding trials indicate that golden snail meal can be a part of swine and chicken layer diets up to 15 %. Golden snail meat meal can be a part of broiler chicken diet up to 12 %. Feeding fresh and ground golden snail to ducks can replace 50 % of their diet under total confinement system. Whereas, golden snail meat meal (75 % of the diet plus rice bran can be beneficially fed to tilapia. With the information collated, golden snail can be a promising animal feed in the Philippines.

  1. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  2. IMEP-32: Determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Cordeiro, Fernando; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    A collaborative study, IMEP-32, was conducted in accordance with international protocols to determine the performance characteristics of an analytical method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin. The method would support Directive No 2002/32/EC of the European...... Parliament and the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed [1] where it is indicated that "Upon request of the competent authorities, the responsible operator must perform an analysis to demonstrate that the content of inorganic arsenic is lower than 2 ppm". The method is based on solid phase...... extraction (SPE) separation of inorganic arsenic from organoarsenic compounds followed by detection with hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The collaborative study investigated different types of samples of marine origin, including complete feed (unspiked and spiked), fish meal...

  3. 21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfonamide drugs whether granted by approval of new animal drug applications, master files and/or antibiotic... Veterinary Medicine on protocol design and plans for future studies. (2) By April 20, 1974, data from... Chickens ......do To extend period of high egg production, to improve feed efficiency, to improve egg...

  4. Zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburgh S; Oosterom R van; Stenvers O; Aalten M; Braks M; Schimmer B; Giessen A van de; Pelt W van; Langelaar M; Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit VWS; LZO; EPI

    2007-01-01

    The report 'Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in The Netherlands 2003 - 2006' is based on data that is reported annually to the European Commission, in accordance with the Directive 2003/99/EC on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. They are supplemented with

  5. Zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburgh S; van Oosterom R; Stenvers O; Aalten M; Braks M; Schimmer B; van der Giessen A; van Pelt W; Langelaar M; LZO; EPI

    2007-01-01

    Het rapport 'Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in The Netherlands 2003 - 2006' beschrijft welke zoonosen in Nederland zijn opgenomen in een monitoringsprogramma, hoe vaak ze voorkomen, en wat er gedaan wordt aan onderzoek en bestrijding. Alle lidstaten van de

  6. Representative sampling of animal feed and mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    Sampling of grain, animal feeds (solid & liquid) including important mineral mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector is subject to an ongoing investigation with the objective of improving existing (sub-optimal) sampling procedures. Results from the first 6 months are presented here; the projec...

  7. Control on the incorporation of butterfat into animal feed (EC regulation 2409/86)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muuse, B.G.; Kamp, van der H.J.

    1986-01-01

    For control on the butter oil content of fat mixtures used for the incorporation into animal feed, the European Commission for Dairy products has decided to use the fatty acid profile as method of analysis. With this method a tolerance of 2.5% relative is established on the declared value of the

  8. 76 FR 78599 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m... Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the Water Docket is (202) 566-2426. FOR...''). An animal feeding operation (AFO) is a CAFO if it meets the regulatory definition of a Large or...

  9. Impacts of invasive plants on resident animals across ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types: a global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmel, Jens; Bundschuh, Mirco; Entling, Martin H; Kowarik, Ingo; Buchholz, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    As drivers of global change, biological invasions have fundamental ecological consequences. However, it remains unclear how invasive plant effects on resident animals vary across ecosystems, animal classes, and functional groups. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis covering 198 field and laboratory studies reporting a total of 3624 observations of invasive plant effects on animals. Invasive plants had reducing (56%) or neutral (44%) effects on animal abundance, diversity, fitness, and ecosystem function across different ecosystems, animal classes, and feeding types while we could not find any increasing effect. Most importantly, we found that invasive plants reduced overall animal abundance, diversity and fitness. However, this significant overall effect was contingent on ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types of animals. Decreasing effects of invasive plants were most evident in riparian ecosystems, possibly because frequent disturbance facilitates more intense plant invasions compared to other ecosystem types. In accordance with their immediate reliance on plants for food, invasive plant effects were strongest on herbivores. Regarding taxonomic groups, birds and insects were most strongly affected. In insects, this may be explained by their high frequency of herbivory, while birds demonstrate that invasive plant effects can also cascade up to secondary consumers. Since data on impacts of invasive plants are rather limited for many animal groups in most ecosystems, we argue for overcoming gaps in knowledge and for a more differentiated discussion on effects of invasive plant on native fauna. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The use of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a feed ingredient on air emissions and performance from laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W; Angel, R; Applegate, T J

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of feeding diets containing 0, 10, or 20% distillers dried grains plus solubles (DDGS) to laying hens (21 to 26 wk of age) on emissions of NH3 and H2S. Hy-Line W-36 hens (n = 640) were allocated randomly to 8 environmental rooms for a 5-wk period (hens in 3 rooms were offered the 10% and 20% DDGS diets each; hens in 2 rooms were offered the 0% DDGS diet). Diets were formulated to contain similar CP levels (18.3%), nonphytate P (0.46%), and Ca (4.2%). On an analyzed basis, the 0, 10, and 20% DDGS diets contained 0.22, 0.27, and 0.42% S. Egg weight (50.9 g), egg production (85%), and feed intake (87.9 g/hen per d) were unaffected by diet (P > 0.05) over the study period. Daily NH3 emissions from hens fed diets containing 0, 10, and 20% DDGS were 105.4, 91.7, and 80.2 mg/g of N consumed, respectively (P hens fed commercial diets containing 0, 10, and 20% DDGS were 2.6, 2.4, and 1.1 mg/g of S consumed, respectively. Overall, feeding 21- to 26-wk-old laying hens diets containing 20% DDGS decreased daily NH3 emissions by 24% and H2S emissions by 58%. Each hen emitted approximately 280 mg of NH3 and 0.5 mg of H2S daily when fed a control diet containing 18% CP and 0.2% S. The results of this study demonstrate that 20% DDGS derived from ethanol production can be fed to laying hens, resulting in lower emissions of NH3 and H2S with no apparent adverse effects on hen performance.

  11. Evaluation of animal performance, feed intake, and economic losses in sheep experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmênedes Dias de Brito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma vivax is a protozoan originating from the African continent, which, although it has not yet been able to complete its biological cycle in South America, due to the absence of the tsetse fly, can still cause death in ruminants. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of T. vivax on the measurements and indices in sheep that characterize animal performance, as well as on economic losses in meat animals. Twenty intact adult male sheep were used for this study, all of approximately the same ages and weights, reared in confinement, and subjected to the same management and diet, which was balanced and supplemented with adequate minerals. The animals were divided into two groups: the control group (CG and the infected group (IG, which was inoculated intravenously with 1.3 x 105 trypomastigotes of T. vivax. Feed intake was verified daily, whereas the feed conversion (FC, feed efficiency index (FEI, and weight gain were obtained weekly. Total weight gain (TWG was determined after 70 days post-infection. The economic loss was calculated by subtracting the value obtained (IG from the expected value (CG, and the difference was expressed as a percentage. A randomized block design was used to isolate the effect of the initial weight. The means were compared by the Student “t” test at 5%. Of the 10 infected animals, one died from the parasitism, yielding a rate much lower than that observed in natural outbreaks. The groups presented similar feed intakes throughout the experimental period; however, the TWG of the infected group was significantly lower (50.7% than that of the CG. Similarly, the daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion (FC, and feed efficiency index (FEI of the IG were significantly lower than those of the CG. In addition, the worst rates of FC and FEI coincided with parasitemia peaks and recurrences, probably due to immunological demand and tissue repair. The abdominal circumference of the infected animals was

  12. Silkworm feeding as the source of the animal protein for human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunan, Y.; Tang, L.; Liu, H.

    Controlled Ecological Life-Support System CELSS which is also called Bioregenerative Life Support System has been considered now as the most advanced and complicated Closed Ecological System in the world Based on the construction principle of the CELSS the resources could be permanently regenerated so the flexibility and security for long-term spaceflight and lunar-base missions could be improved The cost could be also decreased CELSS is more appropriated for long-term manned spaceflight and applied for the possibility of long-term space missions or planetary probe in the lower cost The increasing closure and reliability is considered as the development and integrality direction of Life-Support System LSS The LSS closure and configuration is mainly depended on the human space diet composition Vast researches have been carried on this aspect but these researches mainly concentrate on the space vegetable protein exploitation The animal protein supply is still a problem the solution should be found and the LSS constitution analysis also deserves being explored Many animals have been taken into account to provide the animal proteins nowadays world-wide animals selection mainly focus on the poultry for instance sheep chicken fish etc But the poultry feeding exist many problems such as the long growth periods low efficiency complex feeding procedures and capacious feeding space and these animals also cause the water and air pollution The complete food composition is often depended on the features of the nation diet habit Chinese have

  13. 77 FR 24138 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cindy L. Burnsteel, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-130), Food... environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement is required... redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 558 is amended as follows: PART 558--NEW ANIMAL...

  14. The first direct evidence of a Late Devonian coelacanth fish feeding on conodont animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoń, Michał; Broda, Krzysztof; Qvarnström, Martin; Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Ahlberg, Per Erik

    2017-04-01

    We describe the first known occurrence of a Devonian coelacanth specimen from the lower Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland, with a conodont element preserved in its digestive tract. A small spiral and phosphatic coprolite (fossil excrement) containing numerous conodont elements and other unrecognized remains was also found in the same deposits. The coprolite is tentatively attributed to the coelacanth. Although it is unclear whether the Late Devonian coelacanth from Poland was an active predator or a scavenger, these finds provide the first direct evidence of feeding on conodont animals by early coelacanth fish, and one of the few evidences of feeding on these animals known to date. It also expands our knowledge about the diet and trophic relations between the Paleozoic marine animals in general.

  15. Nutritional and anti-nutrient composition of Karaya gum tree (Sterculia setigera seed: a potential fish feed ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Moruff Adelakun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional and anti-nutritive composition of Karaya gum tree (Sterculia setigera seed collected from Federal College of Wildlife Management estate, New Bussa, Nigeria was evaluated from October to December, 2013 with the aim of providing data that will guide the effective utilization and inclusion of this under exploited tropical plant seed in fish feed formulation. The seeds were washed, dried, grounded and analyzed for the proximate composition, vitamin and mineral contents as well as the anti-nutritive factors using standard procedures. The result showed that the mean values for the proximate composition were: moisture 5.20%, ash 3.95%, fat 26.03%, fiber 6.15%, protein 13.39% and carbohydrate 45.27%. The plant also contained vitamins and relatively adequate essential mineral elements of nutritional importance of macro elements such as calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium and micro elements of iron, manganese, zinc and copper. Some anti-nutritional factor such as; alkaloids, phytate, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, steroids and trace of oxalate were also found in the plant, but their composition will pose no serious nutritional problem if well processed before its inclusion in fish diet and could therefore be a cheap source of raw materials for the fortification applications in various fish feed formulations.

  16. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) as a model for investigating the safety of GM feed ingredients (soya and maize); performance, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissener, Nini H; Johannessen, Lene E; Hevrøy, Ernst M; Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R; Berdal, Knut G; Nordgreen, Andreas; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn

    2010-01-01

    A 20-d zebrafish (Danio rerio) feeding trial, in which a near doubling of fish weight was achieved, was conducted with GM feed ingredients to evaluate feed intake, growth, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA. A partial aim of the study was to assess zebrafish as a model organism in GM safety assessments. Roundup Ready soya (RRS), YieldGard Bt maize (MON810) and their non-modified, maternal, near-isogenic lines were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Soya variety and maize variety were the main factors, both with two levels; non-GM and GM. Compared with fish fed non-GM maize, those fed GM maize exhibited significantly better growth, had lower mRNA transcription levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and a tendency (non-significant) towards lower transcription of heat shock protein 70 in liver. Sex of the fish and soya variety had significant interaction effects on total RNA yield from the whole liver and transcription of SOD-1, suggesting that some diet component affecting males and females differently was present in different levels in the GM and the non-GM soya used in the present study. Dietary DNA sequences were detected in all of the organs analysed, but not all of the samples. Soya and maize rubisco (non-transgenic, multicopy genes) were most frequently detected, while MON810 transgenic DNA fragments were detected in some samples and RRS fragments were not detected. In conclusion, zebrafish shows promise as a model for this application.

  17. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety.

  18. Determination of water in forages and animal feeds by Karl Fischer titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erem, T; Thiex, N; Pohmer, J; Poffenbarger, W M; Smith, V; Patel, E

    1998-01-01

    Oven methods for determining moisture (volatiles) in forages and other animal feeds are empirical. The moisture concentration obtained depends upon the time and temperature the sample was dried and is influenced by the presence of other volatiles than water. A validated reference method to measure water in forages and animal feeds could be used to evaluate the appropriateness of oven methods for various types of animal feeds and forages. Karl Fischer titration is a well-established method for determining water. However, thorough extraction of water from forages and feeds is a challenge because they often contain cellular structures that release water slowly. Water was successfully extracted into methanol-formamide (50 + 50) by high-speed homogenization and then titrated directly at 50 degrees C with a one-component Karl Fischer reagent based on imidazole. The method is described in detail, results of day-to-day repeatability and laboratory-to-laboratory reproducibility are reported, and preliminary comparison data between oven methods are provided.

  19. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vanesa Greco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb. Forty-four out of 49 samples (90% were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb and OTA (median 5 ppb. Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb, 42 samples (86% with ZEA (median 50 ppb, and 38 samples (78% with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb. Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety.

  20. Oxidative changes during ice storage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed different ratios of marine and vegetable feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Eymard, Sylvie; Baron, Caroline P.

    2013-01-01

    Recently fish meal and oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate...... the influence of feeding regime on composition of rainbow trout fillets, as well as on lipid and protein oxidation during storage on ice. Rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in their levels of marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Fish fillets were characterised...... significantly influenced fatty acid composition. Replacement of fish oil with vegetable oil reduced formation of primary oxidation products, but the effect on secondary oxidation products differed between different types of volatiles. The differences in protein and amino acid composition were not significant...

  1. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  2. 76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... human food or animal food/feed (including pet food). The Agency has received a request for an extension... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0238] Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Reopening of the Comment...

  3. Impact of Selenium Addition to Animal Feeds on Human Selenium Status in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Pavlovic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted during the 1980s demonstrated Se deficiency in humans. Increased inclusion of selenium in animal feeds started from the year 2000 onwards. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of selenium inclusion in animal feeds on human selenium status and dietary habits of the Serbian population related to food of animal origin. Plasma selenium concentration in healthy adult volunteers, including residents of one of the regions with the lowest (Eastern Serbia, n = 60 and of one of the regions with the highest Se serum levels reported in the past (Belgrade, n = 82, was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariate analysis was employed to determine the correlation between Se plasma levels and dietary intake data derived from food frequency questionnaires and laboratory tests. The mean plasma Se level of the participants was 84.3 ± 15.9 μg/L (range: 47.3–132.1 μg/L, while 46% of participants had plasma Se levels lower than 80 μg/L. Frequency of meat, egg, and fish consumption was significantly correlated with plasma selenium level (r = 0.437, p = 0.000. Selenium addition to animal feed in the quantity of 0.14 mg/kg contributed to the improvement of human plasma selenium levels by approximately 30 μg/L.

  4. Formation of heterocyclic amines in Chinese marinated meat: effects of animal species and ingredients (rock candy, soy sauce and rice wine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Hong, Yanting; Ke, Weixin; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one type of neo-formed contaminants in protein-rich foods during heat processing. Recently, accumulative studies have focused on the formation of HAs in Western foods. However, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of HAAs in traditional Chinese foods. The objective of this study was to determinate the contents of main HAs in traditional marinated meat products by UPLC-MS/MS, and to investigate the effects of animal species and the ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy, and rice wine) on the formation of HAAs in marinated meats. Five HAs - 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) and l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman) - were detected in 12 marinated meats, but 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was only found in three chicken marinates. The animal species and ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy and rice wine) have significant influence on the formation of HAAs in meat marinates. Beef had the highest content of total HAAs compared with pork, mutton and chicken. Meanwhile, soy sauce contributed to the formation of HAAs more greatly than rock candy, soy sauce, and rice wine. Choice of raw materials and optimisation of ingredients recipe should be become a critical point to control the HAAs formation in marinated meats. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, Jean Lou; Doerge, Daniel R.; Vandenbroeck, Marc; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Mennes, Wim; Knutsen, Helle K.; Vernazza, Francesco; Castle, Laurence; Edler, Lutz; Benford, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine–cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine–uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ► Melamine in food and feed. ► Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ► Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ► Recent EFSA risk assessment. ► Animal and human health

  6. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, Jean Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Doerge, Daniel R. [NCTR, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Vandenbroeck, Marc [Unit on Contaminants, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, Johanna [University of Utrecht (Netherlands); Mennes, Wim [RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Knutsen, Helle K. [Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Vernazza, Francesco [Dietary and Chemical Monitoring, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Castle, Laurence [FERA, York (United Kingdom); Edler, Lutz [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Benford, Diane [Food Standard Agency, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine–cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine–uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ► Melamine in food and feed. ► Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ► Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ► Recent EFSA risk assessment. ► Animal and human health.

  7. Exposure of livestock to GM feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal, Anna; Giacomo, De Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; Dijk, van Jeroen; Wal, Jean Michel; Pla, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU

  8. Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Takehisa, Masaaki; Iizuka, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    In this study, the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals, and the effect of radiation inactivation of the microorganisms were investigated. The contamination of animal feeds was remarkable, and the number of total count in the mash for chicken and other animals was from 5.3 x 10 4 to 2.2 x 10 6 per gram. The number of coliforms was from 5.1 x 10 3 to 6.8 x 10 5 per gram and they were mainly Enterobacter and Klebsiella. The number of osmophilic moulds was from 9.6 x 10 2 to 4.5 x 10 5 per gram. In case of the mixed feeds in pellets, the total count was from 5.3 x 10 3 to 1.0 x 10 6 per gram. The contamination of fish meals was not remarkable, and only mixed fish meals were contaminated largely by faecal coliforms and others. The species of bacteria in the total count of mixed feeds were Bacilli, Micrococci, Enterobacteria and Klebsiellas, and the osmophilic moulds were Aspergilus glaucus group, A. gracilis and A. candidus. As the result, it seemed to be necessary to prevent the damage to feed stuff caused by the growth of moulds and insects and to eliminate pathogens. Osmopholic moulds are sensitive to radiation, and ere eliminated to below the identification limit by 0.2 Mrad irradation. Coliforms were more resistant to radiation, and eliminated by up to 0.8 Mrad of radiation. But some bacteria survived up to 1.5 Mrad dose. The irradiation at 0.5 Mrad seemed to be enough to reduce the total count to below 10 3 per gram, and to eliminate faecal coliforms from mixed feeds. (Kako, I.)

  9. Regulating manure application discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, Terence J.; Feitshans, Theodore A.

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, reducing pollution from agriculture has received attention due to data suggesting that this is the leading source of impairment of many waterbodies. The federal government revised its regulations governing concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to enhance governmental oversight over sources of pollution. For the application of manure resulting in pollutant discharges, CAFOs need to implement nutrient management plans. A federal court affirmed the ability of the US federal government to oversee the application of manure from CAFOs that have discharges. Simultaneously, owners and operators of CAFOs who have implemented an appropriate nutrient management plan may forgo securing a permit if their discharges qualify under the agricultural stormwater discharge exemption. - New rules applying to the application of manure by large concentrated animal feeding operations should reduce water contamination

  10. Comparison of Selective Media for the Enumeration of Probiotic Enterococci from Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Johann Domig

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The project »Methods for the Official Control of Probiotics Used as Feed Additives« has been undertaken to develop and validate methods for the selective enumeration and strain identification of six probiotic microorganism genera (enterococci, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, pediococci, bacilli and yeast. A diversity of media has been used for the detection, isolation and enumeration of enterococci. Aiming at the selective enumeration of enterococci (mainly Enterococcus faecium present in probiotic animal feeds, either as a single component or in combination with other microorganisms, an extensive screening of published methods for culturing and enumerating enterococci was carried out. A collection of enterococcal strains used as probiotics in animal feeds and of isolates as well as reference strains from culture collections was established. Moreover, selected strains of lactobacilli, pediococci and streptococci were included for reference purposes. Based on a multitude of publications, twelve commercially available media were selected for testing and then compared with regard to their usefulness and selectivity. Bile esculin azide (BEA agar showed good selectivity and pronounced growth of most enterococcal strains. Good reproducibility and electivity (esculin hydrolysis as well as no influence of the feed matrix on the colony counts and a simple preparation procedure formed the basis for the proposed enumeration protocol. This work formed the basis for the enumeration protocol that was adapted to ISO format and validated in a collaborative study involving twenty laboratories from twelve European countries.

  11. Hepatitis E virus and coliphages in waters proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Myers, Kevin; Pisanic, Nora; Heaney, Christopher; Stewart, Jill

    2014-01-01

    North Carolina is the second leading state in pork production in the United States, with over 10 million swine. Swine manure in NC is typically collected and stored in open-pit lagoons before the liquid waste is sprayed onto agricultural fields for disposal. Components of this waste may be able to impact surface water quality with the potential for human exposure. This study examined viruses of public health concern in creeks adjacent to swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) spra...

  12. Stability of aflatoxin B1 in animal feed candidate reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A.H.; Mazijk, van R.J.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Huf, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    Two candidate reference materials animal feed were stored at a temperature of -18°C, 4 C, 20°C and 37°C. The stability of aflatoxin B1 was studied duringa period of two years. A significant decrease in the aflatoxin B1 content was measured in the samples stared at 20°C and 37°C. In the samples

  13. Control on the incorporation of butterfat into animal feed (EC regulation 2409/86)

    OpenAIRE

    Muuse, B.G.; Kamp, van der, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    For control on the butter oil content of fat mixtures used for the incorporation into animal feed, the European Commission for Dairy products has decided to use the fatty acid profile as method of analysis. With this method a tolerance of 2.5% relative is established on the declared value of the butter oil content. This procedure was applied on laboratory mixtures of butter oil and beef fat 40- 60% to study the precision of the method.

  14. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  15. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  16. Effect of water activity and temperature on the growth of Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Pardo, Alejandro; Pose, Graciela; Patriarca, Andrea

    Xerophilic fungi represent a serious problem due to their ability to grow at low water activities causing the spoiling of low and intermediate moisture foods, stored goods and animal feeds, with the consequent economic losses. The combined effect of water activity and temperature of four Eurotium species isolated from animal feeds was investigated. Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium chevalieri, Eurotium repens and Eurotium rubrum were grown at 5, 15, 25, 37 and 45°C on malt extract agar adjusted with glycerol in the range 0.710-0.993 of water activities. The cardinal model proposed by Rosso and Robinson (2001) was applied to fit growth data, with the variable water activity at fixed temperatures, obtaining three cardinal water activities (a wmin , a wmax , a wopt ) and the specific growth rate at the optimum a w (μ opt ). A probabilistic model was also applied to define the interface between growth and no-growth. The cardinal model provided an adequate estimation of the optimal a w to grow and the maximum growth rate. The probabilistic model showed a good performance to fit growth/no-growth cases in the predicted range. The results presented here could be applied to predict Eurotium species growth in animal feeds. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary Fibres: Their Analysis in Animal Feeding, and Their Role in Rabbit Nutrition and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Gidenne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries ago Heinrich Einhof developed the so-called Weende method (crude fibre, to first deals with the fibre content of the feeds for ruminants, and proposes to isolate a residue called the "crude fibre". Then, dietary fibre concepts evolve and differ in animal feeding compared to human nutrition and health. Animal nutritionists deal with various fibre sources, often from whole plants (forages, by products of seeds processing, and recover a larger range of polysaccharidic components, including other polymers, such polyphenolic (lignins, tannins or polylipidic compounds (cutins. Dietary fibres are generally defined as polysaccharides and associated substances resistant to mammal enzyme digestion and absorption that can be partially or totally fermented in the gut. However, today this topic is still subjected to very active research, because of the complexity of the physical structure and chemical composition of the plant cell walls, and in the wide and different physiological effects of these different constituents. The importance of dietary fibre in animal feeding is due to its influence on rate of passage, mucosa functionality and its role as substrate for gut microbes performances and digestive health. This review will describe the definition and different structure of fibres and cell wall constituents and their analytical methods.

  18. Transformation of Beauveria bassiana to produce EGFP in Tenebrio molitor for use as animal feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Se Jin; Lee, Ju Hyun; Fu, Zhenli; Skinner, Margaret; Parker, Bruce L; Je, Yeon Ho

    2013-07-01

    Efforts are underway to develop more effective and safer animal feed additives. Entomopathogenic fungi can be considered practical expression platforms of functional genes within insects which have been used as animal feed additives. In this work, as a model, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene was expressed in yellow mealworms, Tenebrio molitor by highly infective Beauveria bassiana ERL1170. Among seven test isolates, ERL1170 treatment showed 57.1% and 98.3% mortality of mealworms 2 and 5 days after infection, respectively. The fungal transformation vector, pABeG containing the egfp gene, was inserted into the genomic DNA of ERL1170 using the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method. This resulted in the generation of the transformant, Bb-egfp#3, which showed the highest level of fluorescence. Bb-egfp#3-treated mealworms gradually turned dark brown, and in 7-days mealworm sections showed a strong fluorescence. This did not occur in the wild-type strain. This work suggests that further valuable proteins can be efficiently produced in this mealworm-based fungal expression platform, thereby increasing the value of mealworms in the animal feed additive industry. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The choice of animal feeding system influences fatty acid intakes of the average French diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Bernard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids intake of French adult population does not comply with the French Population Reference Intakes (PRI. The aim the study is to quantify the impact of a modification of animal feeding system on the fatty acids intake of French population. A 15-day diet representative of average consumption for the French adult male population was developed with animal products derived either from conventional production system (STD either from a specific production system (Bleu-Blanc-Cœur® [BBC] that acts on the fatty acids profile of animal products. The impact of a such change in feeding system on fatty acids content has been quantified. BBC diet contributes to reducing the gap between the fatty acid content of a STD diet and the PRI with highest impact on C12:0–14:0–16:0 fatty acids (−4.6 g/d, i.e. 63.3%, C18:3n-3 (+0.8 g/d, i.e. 48.2%, C20:5n-3 (+35 mg/d, i.e. 42.7%, C22:6n-3 (+49 mg/d, i.e. 35% and the C18:2n-6/C18:3n-3 ratio (−4.9 points, i.e. 43.5%. The research also shows that animal products complement one another. Consuming a variety of animal source foods derived from a specific feeding practices could help reduce the gap between actual consumption and recommended dietary intake of fatty acids.

  20. Survey the frequency and type of Fungal Contaminants in Animal Feed of Yazd Dairy Cattles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad taghi ghaneian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction About 500,000 species of fungi have been realized up to now. There are abundant fungi in air, soil and our environment. So the growth of them increases in the presence of air moisture and appropriate temperature. However saprophytic fungi have a wide distribution in nature, they are responsible for decomposition of organic materials and playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of major nutrients. Some saprophytes are toxic that contaminate human foods and animal feeds by production of mycotoxins. Aflatoxins are the most common and dangerous mycotoxins produced by few species of Aspergillus and penicillium. This group of mycotoxin has disorder and risks, including the induction of liver cancer. They are mutagenic and teratogenic. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2, which are naturally produced by several toxic fungi, may contaminate a wide range of dairy animal feeds resulted severe economic loss of cattle meat. Since Aflatoxin B1 and B2 can be transmitted via mammalian’s milk and cheese in form of synthetic Aflatoxin M1 and M2 to human consumers, cause significant health problems. Therefore contamination of animal feed with common toxic airborne saprophytic fungi is a major concern of health officials. Wheat, barley, corn, soybean and other animal feeds may be contaminated with toxic fungi during implantation, harvesting and storage. There are many dairy and livestock centers in Yazd that prepare milk and dairy products for Yazd and neighboring provinces. The aim of current study was to evaluate the amount and type of fungal contaminates of dairy feeds in Yazd dairies. Materials and methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the summer of 2012 on 23 dairies in Yazd. Samples of different animal feeds including concentrates, wheat straw, hay, corn, silage corn, soybean and canola as well as waste of bread, were randomly selected from their bulks. The temperature and humidity of feed storage were recorded

  1. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.14 Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry...

  2. The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Mares

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

  3. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products.

  4. Screening of mycotoxins in animal feed from the region of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokić Bojana M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of screening of mycotoxins in animal feed originating from the region of Vojvodina. Permanent screening is needed on all levels of production and storage, as well as the use of known methods to reduce mould contamination or toxin content in feedstuffs and feed. A total of 56 representative samples were collected from feed companies from the region of Vojvodina. Samples were collected during February 2009. The collected samples included 41 samples of feedstuffs (soybean, soybean meal, soybean grits, soybean cake, maize, sunflower meal, barley, wheat feed flour, rapeseed meal, dehydrated sugar beet pulps, alfalfa meal, yeast, dried whey, fish meal, meat-bone meal and 15 samples of complete feedingstuffs. The amounts of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol were determined. Screening method for the analysis was done using Neogen Veratox® testing kits. The test itself is a competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA. Mycotoxins were present in 71.4% of the samples, but the values determined were below the maximum allowed limits for both Serbian and EC reference values. Zearalenone was found with the highest incidence (57.1% of samples, followed by ochratoxin A (37.5%, fumonisin (33.9%, deoxynivalenol (14.3% and aflatoxins (3.6%.

  5. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meals in animal feed by real-time polymerase chain reaction: Result of an interlaboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado, M.; Berben, G.; Fumière, O.; Duijn, G. van; Mensinga-Kruize, J.; Reaney, S.; Boix, A.; Holst, C. von

    2007-01-01

    The commercialization of animal feeds infected by prions proved to be the main cause of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, feed bans were enforced, initially for ruminant feeds, and later for all feeds for farmed animals. The development and validation of analytical

  6. Cloth-based hybridization array system for expanded identification of the animal species origin of derived materials in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Johanna; Armour, Jennifer; Blais, Burton W

    2007-12-01

    A cloth-based hybridization array system (CHAS) previously developed for the detection of animal species for which prohibited materials have been specified (cattle, sheep, goat, elk, and deer) has been expanded to include the detection of animal species for which there are no prohibitions (pig and horse) in Canadian and American animal feeds. Animal species were identified by amplification of mitochondrial DNA sequences by PCR and subsequent hybridization of the amplicons with an array of species-specific oligonucleotide capture probes immobilized on a polyester cloth support, followed by an immunoenzymatic assay of the bound PCR products. The CHAS permitted sensitive and specific detection of meat meals from different animal species blended in a grain-based feed and should provide a useful adjunct to microscopic examination for the identification of prohibited materials in animal feeds.

  7. Characterization of Animal By-Product Hydrolysates to Be Used as Healthy and Bioactive Ingredients in Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Trine Desiree

    and their “meat factor” effect, i.e. their ability to enhance in vitro iron availability. Hydrolysates of different animal by-products displayed antioxidant capacities as observed by several assays intended to test different antioxidant mechanisms. The radical scavenging capacity of the hydrolysates was found......The world meat production and consumption has increased rapidly over the last couple of decades, due to population and income growth. In contrast to the meat, the consumption of animal by-products has been declining, leaving large amounts of by-products underutilized. As many by-products are highly...... nutritious as well as being good sources of protein, they represent interesting substrates for the generation of bioactive hydrolysates and peptides. Different porcine and bovine by-products were hydrolysed with a mixture consisting of Alcalase®and Protamex, and tested in relation to antioxidant capacity...

  8. Liquid chromatographic determination of zearalenone and zearalenol in animal feeds and grains, using fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagneris, R W; Gaul, J A; Ware, G M

    1986-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the determination of zearalenone and zearalenol in grains and mixed animal feeds. Samples are extracted with chloroform and purified by a base-acid liquid-liquid partition. Zearalenone and zearalenol are separated by reverse phase LC and determined by fluorescence detection, excitation wavelength 236 nm with a 418 nm cutoff filter. The method was applied to the determination of zearalenone and zearalenol in 395 survey samples of corn, oats, barley, sorghum, silage, and finished feeds. The limit of detection is 10 ng/g for both toxins. The range of naturally occurring toxins found was 10-4,000 ng/g. Average recoveries were 84% for zearlenone and 69% for zearalenol. Coefficients of variation were 24.6% for zearalenone and 30.8% for zearalenol for crop year 1980, and 28.3% for zearalenone and 22.0% for zearalenol for crop year 1981.

  9. Production of astaxanthin rich feed supplement for animals from Phaffia rhodozyma yeast at low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtiza, Ayesha; Shatunova, Svetlana; Glukhareva, Tatiana; Kovaleva, Elena

    2017-09-01

    Dietary nutrients such as amino acids, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants can play a significant role in determining meat quality and also the growth rate of poultry or animal. Phaffia rhodozyma was grown on waste from brewery industry to produce astaxanthin rich feed supplements at a very low cost. Phaffia rhodozyma is yeast specie that has ability to produce carotenoids and approximately 80% of its total carotenoid content is astaxanthin, which is highly valuable carotenoid for food, feed and aquaculture industry. This study was carried out to test yeast extract of spent yeast from brewing industry waste (residual yeast) as potential nitrogen source for growth of Phaffia rhodozyma. Cultivation was carried out in liquid media prepared by yeast extracts and other components (glucose and peptone). Carotenoids from the biomass were released into biomass by suspending cells in DMSO for destruction of cells followed by extraction with petroleum ether. The extracted carotenoids were studied by spectrophotometry to identify and quantify astaxanthin and other carotenoids produced.

  10. USE OF FOLIAGE FROM RAMON (Brosimum alicastrum Swarth IN ANIMAL FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ángel Rojas-Schroeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramón (Brosimum alicastrum Swarth is a tree which is commonly used in animal feed in the mexican tropics. It has been used in a traditional way in the feeding of productive domestic species. However, the systematic evaluation of its nutritional value has not been as broad as might be expected. In the present review the reported nutritional value for bovines, ovines, pigs and rabbits is presented. Ramón foliage has a nutritional value suitable for use in the diet of most domestic productive species. However, its use is greater in ruminant species. Specific studies are required to determine with greater precision its energy and protein value in each species of interest.

  11. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  12. Studying the elimination of pathogenic agents in laboratory animals feed by use of nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhosseini, G.; Raisali, G.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory animals are being used all around the world for different kinds of experiments in biological and medical sciences and related fields for the purposes such as prevention, control, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases in livestock, poultry, human, reproduction, breeding, etc. This is very important to keep in the breeding and reproduction environment of laboratory animals, pathogenic microorganisms as low as possible or completely remove them. The most prevailing and important way of such contamination is through feeding laboratory animals. In this research work, it is tried to use gamma radiation as a useful nuclear technique for decrease or resolve the problem. Two kinds of standard forms of diets consumed by rabbit and guinea pig in the form of small pellets and by mouse, rat and hamster in the form of big pellets (with different feed formula) and also two kinds of additive food i.e. dry milk and vitamin C have been examined. Un-irradiated samples have been used for control. Total of 226 samples were irradiated, among which optimum doses were found 25 kilo Gray for both small and big pellets, 18 kilo Gray for dry milk. Since there was not any contamination in vitamin C un-irradiated sample, irradiation was done only to observe the effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C compounds. (Author)

  13. EPA's Review of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Permits and Nutrient Management Plans in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting in 2013, EPA conducted reviews of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) permits and nutrient management plans (NMPs) in six of the Bay jurisdictions (Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia).

  14. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, Paul; van Krimpen, Marinus M; van Wikselaar, Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; van Hal, Jaap W; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Cone, John W; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically feasible value chain. In this study, such a biorefinery approach is presented for the green seaweed Ulva lactuca containing 225 g protein ( N  × 4.6) kg -1 dry matter (DM). The sugars in the biomass were solubilised by hot water treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation resulting in a sugar-rich hydrolysate (38.8 g L -1 sugars) containing glucose, rhamnose and xylose, and a protein-enriched (343 g kg -1 in DM) extracted fraction. This extracted fraction was characterised for use in animal feed, as compared to U. lactuca biomass. Based on the content of essential amino acids and the in vitro N (85 %) and organic matter (90 %) digestibility, the extracted fraction seems a promising protein source in diets for monogastric animals with improved characteristics as compared to the intact U. lactuca . The gas production test indicated a moderate rumen fermentation of U. lactuca and the extracted fraction, about similar to that of alfalfa. Reduction of the high content of minerals and trace elements may be required to allow a high inclusion level of U. lactuca products in animal diets. The hydrolysate was used successfully for the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol and 1,2-propanediol by clostridial fermentation, and the rhamnose fermentation pattern was studied.

  15. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  16. 76 FR 13638 - Ensuring the Safety of Imported Foods and Animal Feed: Comparability of Food Safety Systems and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... enhance the safety of imported foods and animal feed and lessons learned through equivalence... feed and fulfill its public health mission in a global age, it must embrace new approaches that take... third party provisions)? Maintaining Comparability Status 1. For cases where a country's food safety...

  17. Effects of in-feed chlortetracycline prophylaxis of beef cattle on animal health and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TETr) Escherichia coli, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr) E. coli. We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal h...

  18. Distiller’s Dried Grains With Solubles (DDGS for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Distiller’s Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS is co-product from dry milling of ethanol industry after removal of ethanol and CO2. From every 25.4 kg (1 bushel of corn, it can produce around 7.7 kg of DDGS. DDGS offers an opportunity for cost savings in animal feed rations, and will be available in abundant quantities in coming years. DDGS has been traded in many parts of the world with 27% protein, 9 – 10% fat and < 7% fiber. Although DDGS is mainly used for feeding ruminant, more DDGS are used for monogastric animals such as swine and poultry and recently an interest to be used for aquaculture. Recent studies by University of Arkansas indicated that Metabolizable Energy value of DDGS for poultry is 2850 kcal/kg. It was also reported that DDGS can be included up to 15% in broiler feed without affecting performance and higher level of inclusion was possible for finisher broiler. On swine diet, Digestible and Metabolizable Energy of DDGS is equal to corn and much higher value than that reported by NRC 1998. DDGS is a good source of protein, fat, phosphorus and energy for lactating dairy cows. Distiller’s grains can be included in dairy cow diets up to 20% of the ration without decreasing dry matter intake, milk production, milk fat and protein percentage. For beef cattle, it can effectively be used as an energy source and be fed up to 40% of ration with excellent growth performance, carcass and meat quality. For aquaculture, DDGS can be used up to 30% in freshwater fish such as catfish and tilapia and up to 20% in trout; it can also be used to feed shrimp up to 10%. However, in order to use DDGS for animal feeding, several quality factors include physical, chemical and biological should be considered especially in formulating a diet. DDGS quality may vary depending on the origin and corn quality, processing condition especially drying temperature and time and amount of solubles being added to distiller’s grains.

  19. Determination of ash in animal feed: AOAC official method 942.05 revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiex, Nancy; Novotny, Lawrence; Crawford, Andy

    2012-01-01

    AOAC Official Method 942.05, Ash in Animal Feed, has been applied in feed laboratories since its publication in the Official Methods of Analysis in 1942. It is a routine test with renewed interest due to the incorporation of "ash values" into modern equations for the estimation of energy content of dairy feed, beef feed, and pet food. As with other empirical methods, results obtained are a function of the test conditions. For this method, the critical conditions are the ignition time, ignition temperature, and any other furnace or weighing conditions. Complete ignition can be observed by the absence of black color (due to residual carbonaceous material) in the ash residue. To investigate performance of AOAC 942.05, 15 samples were chosen to be representative of a wide range of feed materials. These materials were tested at the conditions of AOAC 942.05 (ignition at 600 degrees C for 2 h) and similar or more rigorous conditions. The additional conditions investigated included: 600 degrees C for 4 h; 600 degrees C for 2 h, cool, and ignite 2 additional h; 600 degrees C for 2 h, cool, wet, dry, and ignite 2 additional h; 550 degrees C for 6 h; 550 degrees C for 3 h, cool, and ignite 3 additional h; and 550 degrees C for 3 h, cool, wet, dry, ignite 3 additional h. Results for all other conditions investigated were found to be significantly different from the current AOAC Method 942.05. All ignition conditions were significantly different from each other except two: 550 degrees C for 3 h, cool, ignite 3 additional h; and 550 degrees C for 3 h, cool, wet, dry, and ignite 3 additional h. Recommendations for modification to AOAC Official Method 942.05 are suggested based on statistical analysis of the data and a review of the literature.

  20. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge using reactor waste to obtain acceptable fertilizer or animal supplement feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    This document is a report of the Beneficial Uses Program. This program consists of a number of activities at Sandia Laboratories to develop the necessary technology for cost-beneficial use of a maximum amount of radioactive waste. Major activity is currently concentrated in the Waste Resources Utilization Program which has as its objective the use of cesium-134/137 as a gamma radiation source, coupled with modest heating, to treat sewage sludge to rid it of pathogenic organisms so that it may safely be used as a fertilizer or a feed supplement for ruminant animals. (author)

  1. Lime treatment of shrimp head waste for the generation of highly digestible animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward-Kelly, Guillermo; Agbogbo, Frank K; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2006-09-01

    In addition to approximately 20% ash, shrimp processing by-products contain 64% protein and chitin, both of which can be used to generate several valuable products. Chitin and chitosan production is currently based on several crustacean wastes, and at the present time the protein fraction is not being used. This paper describes the thermo-chemical treatment of shrimp processing wastes with lime to generate a protein-rich material with a well-balanced amino acid content that can be used as a monogastric animal feed supplement. The residual solid, rich in calcium carbonate and chitin, can still be used to generate chitin and chitosan through well-established processes.

  2. Representative sampling of animal feed and mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    Sampling of grain, animal feeds (solid & liquid) including important mineral mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector is subject to an ongoing investigation with the objective of improving existing (sub-optimal) sampling procedures. Results from the first 6 months are presented here; the project...... will continue for two more years and will include international collaborators (Australia, Canada). The Danish authorities have instituted a system of control analysis, which contains a set of mandated sampling and analysis methods. From a preliminary survey it was concluded that in fact all of the existing...... sampling procedures are not optimized in the light of Pierre Gy’s Theory of Sampling (TOS)....

  3. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected...... for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable...... and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were...

  4. Treatment of animal feeds with ionizing radiation. II. Effects of gamma radicidation on the biological value of poultry feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.H.; Eisenberg, E.; Lapidot, M.; Tsir, D.

    1978-01-01

    Poultry is a major local meat source which is often contaminated with salmonella. A major source of contamination was found to be salmonella-infected poultry feed. Since gamma radiation at doses of up to 1 Mrad reduced salmonella populations in feed by 6 to 7 logs, this study was undertaken to determine if radicidized poultry feed can be used as a step in reducing contamination of poultry without affecting breeder flock performance and longevity. Two breeder flocks, each comprising 300 hens and 50 roosters, were kept in separate coops. One flock was fed untreated feed, while the feed of the other was radicidized at 1 Mrad, which resulted in a level of less than 10 enterobacteria per gram. The flocks were studied for over 12 months, from the emergence of chicks to the end of 6 months of egg production. The quantity of feed supply was controlled to ensure early detection of detrimental effects on the biological value of the feed. For the first 8 weeks, when the feed was freely supplied, no differences were observed in feed utilization or growth. After limited feeding was started, no significant differences were observed in feed utilization and in total amount of feed consumed. The number of fertile eggs, the feed consumption per egg, the age at which the first egg was laid, mortality and the total weight after 22 weeks and 12 1/4 months were practically equivalent in both flocks. Chicks obtained from both flocks showed no significant differences in weight or in feed utilization. (author)

  5. The Prospect of Using Complete Feed in Goat Production: A Review on its Utility and Physical Form and Animal Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Complete feed is a strategic feeding system that has been widely adopted by the dairy cattle industry, but it has been rarely practised in goat enterprises. The prospect of using complete feed for goat production could be considered from two aspects, namely 1 its relevancy to the goat metabolic requirement, and 2 its potential as an effective means for maximal utilization of crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts as alternative feeds. Metabolically, the higher energy requirement and the lower gut capacity of goats due to its relatively smaller body size make this animal more adapted to feedstuffs with denser nutrient contents as typified by the complete feed. As complete feed is characteristically dry, it has potential to cause hypovolemia and induce later a lower feed consumption when fed to goats. But, this event occurs only during the initial meal and the condition returns to the normal state thereafter. Total saliva secretion tend to decrease by consuming dry feed which can cause parakeratosis, laminitis or acidosis. However, these metabolic disorder could be prevented by formulating complete feed with optimal roughage/concentrate ratio. Review from literatures showed that, when used in complete feed, the inclusion rate of several low palatability crop residues or agro-industrial ranged from 15 to 60%. The roughage/concentrate ratio was in the range of 0.25 to 3.0. Some physical characteristics are important for effective complete feed such as the particle size of roughage, the content of physically effective fibre and the form of the complete feed. Complete feed processed into pellet generally resulted in better performances. The ME and CP content of complete feed used ranged from 1800 to 2800 kcal/kg DM and from 15 to 20%, respectively. The rate of feed intake by goats receiving complete feed ranged from 2.0 to 4.9% BW, the ADG ranged from 40 to 145 g, FCR ranged from 5.2 to 13.0 and DM digestibility ranged from 62 to 81%. These

  6. Radioimmunoassay determination of the effect on animal reproduction of alternative of feeding suplementation in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Patricio; Ambuludi, Eduardo

    1993-01-01

    The principal object of this trial was to evaluate the influence of three alternatives of feeding suplementation in dairy cows in the post-partum period in ecuadorian highlands. Thirty sic animals in fist lactation were used in this experiment and were divided in three groups according to the feed intake: Group A diet was 5 Kg. of a commercial concentrate mixture with 12 per cent of crude protein plus pasture ad libitum; Group B diet was green banans (Musa paradisiaca) and pasture and Group C diet was the control only pasture. Using Radioimmunoassay technique (RIA), progesterone values were determinated in milk from each cow. the sampling was sequential, two samples a week, starting 6 days after parturition, until the animal was pregnant or until the study was finished, 150 days after post-partum for each cow. This research allowed us to evaluate the ovaric post-partum activity of each group: Frequency and length of the oestrus cycles; efficiency of oestrus detection, calving-first, oestrus period, calving-conception length, conception rate, and services per conception. Additional datas were used in this study such as: milk production, palpations and treatments

  7. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  8. Biological preservation of plant derived animal feed with antifungal microorganisms: safety and formulation aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Petter; Sundh, Ingvar; Håkansson, Sebastian; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-08-01

    During storage of moist animal feed, growth of detrimental fungi causing spoilage, or being mycotoxigenic or pathogenic, is a severe problem. Addition of biopreservative yeasts or lactic acid bacteria can significantly reduce this problem. However, their use requires several careful considerations. One is the safety to the animal, humans and the environment, tightly connected to legal aspects and the need for pre-market authorisation when supplementing feed with microorganisms. Although both yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are considered comparatively safe organisms due to low production of toxic metabolites, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms behind the biopreservative abilities. Another important issue concerns practical aspects, such as the economic production of large amounts of the organisms and the development of a suitable formulation giving the organisms a long shelf life. These aspects are discussed and a recommendation of this review is that both safety and formulation aspects of a specific microbe should be considered at an early stage in the selection of new organisms with biopreservation potential.

  9. Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Shoji; Mutaat, H.H.; Awang, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation treatment has been investigated in order to recycle the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows; decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media using oil palm wastes by irradiation, inoculation of useful microorganisms, and subsequent microbial digestion of cellulosic materials as well as production of proteins. The dose of 25 kGy was required to sterilize the contaminated bacteria whereas the dose of 5 - 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus was selected as the most suitable seed microorganism for the fermentation of EFB (Empty Fruit Bunch of oil palm). The protein content increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20 % after 30 days incubation with C. cinereus at 30degC in solid state fermentation. It is considered that these fermented products can be used for the ruminant animal feeds. (author)

  10. Do whole-food animal feeding studies have any value in the safety assessment of GM crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) waste is a cost effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO waste to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluat...

  12. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Ganai, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Haidar Ali

    2017-04-01

    Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial by-products, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  13. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Kim, Mi Hyung; Balmford, Andrew; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment. This study investigates the potential benefits of diverting food waste for pig feed in the UK. A hybrid, consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental and health impacts of four technologies for food waste processing: two technologies of South Korean style-animal feed production (as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed) were compared with two widespread UK disposal technologies: AD and composting. Results of 14 mid-point impact categories show that the processing of food waste as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed have the best and second-best scores, respectively, for 13/14 and 12/14 environmental and health impacts. The low impact of food waste feed stems in large part from its substitution of conventional feed, the production of which has substantial environmental and health impacts. While the re-legalisation of the use of food waste as pig feed could offer environmental and public health benefits, this will require support from policy makers, the public, and the pig industry, as well as investment in separated food waste collection which currently occurs in only a minority of regions.

  14. Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L.

    1985-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. Mean fractional GI absorption values in fasted adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 15 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) bicarbonate, 20 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) nitrate (pH2), 17 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) citrate, 24 x 10 -4 ; and Pu(IV) polymer, 3 x 10 -4 . Values in fed adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 1.4 x 10 -4 ; Pu(IV) polymer, 0.3 x 10 -4 . Pu(VI) is the oxidation state in chlorinated drinking waters and Pu(IV) is the oxidation state in many untreated natural waters. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. Fractional GI absorption values obtained by this method were 23 +- 10 x 10 -4 for fasted baboons (n=5) and 1.4 +- 0.9 x 10 -4 for fed baboons (n=3). We have so far validated this method in one baboon and are currently completing validation in two additional animals. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state [Pu(VI) vs Pu(IV)] and administration medium (bicarbonate vs nitrate vs citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Attributional versus consequential life cycle assessment and feed optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van Hannah H.E.; Bikker, Paul; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Feed production is responsible for the majority of the environmental impact of livestock production, especially for monogastric animals, such as pigs. Some feeding strategies demonstrated that replacing one ingredient with a high impact, e.g. soybean meal (SBM), with an alternative

  16. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  17. Rationalization of motive power use in animal feed industry; Racionalizacao do uso de forca motriz em fabrica de racao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Carlos A.; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio F. de; Martins, Jose H. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mails: carlos, delly, alacerda, jmartins@vicosa.ufv.br

    2005-05-15

    The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pif Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: to adjust relays and to choose fuses, to schedule operation and to build storage facilities. (author)

  18. Biofuels done right: land efficient animal feeds enable large environmental and energy benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Bals, Bryan D; Kim, Seungdo; Eranki, Pragnya

    2010-11-15

    There is an intense ongoing debate regarding the potential scale of biofuel production without creating adverse effects on food supply. We explore the possibility of three land-efficient technologies for producing food (actually animal feed), including leaf protein concentrates, pretreated forages, and double crops to increase the total amount of plant biomass available for biofuels. Using less than 30% of total U.S. cropland, pasture, and range, 400 billion liters of ethanol can be produced annually without decreasing domestic food production or agricultural exports. This approach also reduces U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by 670 Tg CO₂-equivalent per year, or over 10% of total U.S. annual emissions, while increasing soil fertility and promoting biodiversity. Thus we can replace a large fraction of U.S. petroleum consumption without indirect land use change.

  19. Composition and nutritive value of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes) in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, M E; Murillo, M G

    1984-06-01

    Nutritive assessment of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes) meals included proximal composition of the lipid and nitrogenous fractions. Caloric values obtained as true metabolizable energy (TME) indicate that the pejibaye has a higher content of energy than corn and that it is not necessary to separate the seeds from the fruits in animal feeds; the level of indispensable aminoacids is considerably low, especially methionine, which is lower than in corn; thin layer chromatography shows that most of the free fatty acids are present in a ratio of 2:1 in unsaturated to saturated acids. The predominant fatty acids in whole pejibaye meal are oleic and palmitic acids with adequate levels of linoleic acid. Saturated fatty acids are predominant in the seed, with a very high content of lauric and myristic acids.

  20. Biodiesel-derived crude glycerol bioconversion to animal feed: a sustainable option for a biodiesel refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the potential of producing an edible fungus, Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus, on biodiesel-derived crude glycerol. Prolific fungal growth was observed with a fungal biomass yield of 0.83 ± 0.02 (g biomass increase/ginitial biomass) under optimal cultivation conditions (e.g. nonsterile crude glycerol at a concentration of 75% (w/v) with nutrient supplementation and without pH control). The potential of utilizing front-end processed banagrass (Pennisetum purpureum) juice as a source of nutrients for crude glycerol fermentation was evaluated with a 2.3-fold improvement in the fungal biomass yield. The glycerol-derived fungal biomass showed high amounts of threonine, one of the main limiting amino acids in non-ruminant feeds. An inexpensive fungal protein has the potential to reduce meat product prices by lowering the production costs of animal feeds. The application of fungal technology thus provides a unique sustainable option for biodiesel refineries by providing an additional source of revenue from fungal products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Weber's law, the magnitude effect and discrimination of sugar concentrations in nectar-feeding animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Nachev

    Full Text Available Weber's law quantifies the perception of difference between stimuli. For instance, it can explain why we are less likely to detect the removal of three nuts from a bowl if the bowl is full than if it is nearly empty. This is an example of the magnitude effect - the phenomenon that the subjective perception of a linear difference between a pair of stimuli progressively diminishes when the average magnitude of the stimuli increases. Although discrimination performances of both human and animal subjects in various sensory modalities exhibit the magnitude effect, results sometimes systematically deviate from the quantitative predictions based on Weber's law. An attempt to reformulate the law to better fit data from acoustic discrimination tasks has been dubbed the "near-miss to Weber's law". Here, we tested the gustatory discrimination performance of nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina, in order to investigate whether the original version of Weber's law accurately predicts choice behavior in a two-alternative forced choice task. As expected, bats either preferred the sweeter of the two options or showed no preference. In 4 out of 6 bats the near-miss to Weber's law provided a better fit and Weber's law underestimated the magnitude effect. In order to test the generality of this observation in nectar-feeders, we reviewed previously published data on bats, hummingbirds, honeybees, and bumblebees. In all groups of animals the near-miss to Weber's law provided better fits than Weber's law. Furthermore, whereas the magnitude effect was stronger than predicted by Weber's law in vertebrates, it was weaker than predicted in insects. Thus nectar-feeding vertebrates and insects seem to differ in how their choice behavior changes as sugar concentration is increased. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of the observed patterns of sugar concentration discrimination.

  2. Reducing the CP content in broiler feeds: impact on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, P; Méda, B; Lambert, W; Corrent, E; Juin, H; Lessire, M; Tesseraud, S

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the dietary CP content is an efficient way to limit nitrogen excretion in broilers but, as reported in the literature, it often reduces performance, probably because of an inadequate provision in amino acids (AA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing the CP content in the diet on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization in growing-finishing broilers using an optimized dietary AA profile based on the ideal protein concept. Two experiments (1 and 2) were performed using 1-day-old PM3 Ross male broilers (1520 and 912 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) using the minimum AA:Lys ratios proposed by Mack et al. with modifications for Thr and Arg. The digestible Thr (dThr): dLys ratio was increased from 63% to 68% and the dArg:dLys ratio was decreased from 112% to 108%. In experiment 1, the reduction of dietary CP from 19% to 15% (five treatments) did not alter feed intake or BW, but the feed conversion ratio was increased for the 16% and 15% CP diets (+2.4% and +3.6%, respectively), while in experiment 2 (three treatments: 19%, 17.5% and 16% CP) there was no effect of dietary CP on performance. In both experiments, dietary CP content did not affect breast meat yield. However, abdominal fat content (expressed as a percentage of BW) was increased by the decrease in CP content (up to +0.5 and +0.2 percentage point, in experiments 1 and 2, respectively). In experiment 2, meat quality traits responded to dietary CP content with a higher ultimate pH and lower lightness and drip loss values for the low CP diets. Nitrogen retention efficiency increased when reducing CP content in both experiments (+3.5 points/CP percentage point). The main consequence of this higher efficiency was a decrease in nitrogen excretion (-2.5 g N/kg BW gain) and volatilization (expressed as a percentage of excretion: -5 points/CP percentage point). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that with an adapted AA profile, it is possible to reduce

  3. Determination of aflatoxins B1 and M1 in animal feeds and liquid milk using thin layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njue, W.; Gitu, L.; Kaberia, F.

    1996-01-01

    Animal feed samples were collected from feeding troughs and analysed for levels of aflatoxins B 1 , a toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. When aflatoxin B 1 is consumed by dairy cattle some of it is hydroxylated to form aflatoxin M 1 , which can appear in milk. Since aflatoxin M 1 , is also toxic and carcinogenic, it was determined in liquid milk. The determinations were carried out using thin-layer chromatography. Some of the feed samples were found to contain concentrations of aflatoxin B 1 that were above maximum tolerated values in foods and feeds in various countries. Brewers grain and used poultry feed contained 133.4 ppb, while the barley husks had a maximum value of 27.4 ppb. The details of the experimental results and analytical methods used are presented.(author)

  4. Consistency of feed efficiency ranking and mechanisms associated with inter-animal variation among growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, A; Shabtay, A; Cohen-Zinder, M; Aharoni, Y; Miron, J; Agmon, R; Halachmi, I; Orlov, A; Haim, A; Tedeschi, L O; Carstens, G E; Johnson, K A; Brosh, A

    2018-04-03

    This study investigated the possible mechanisms for explaining interanimal variation in efficiency of feed utilization in intact male Holstein calves. Additionally, we examined whether the feed efficiency (FE) ranking of calves (n = 26) changed due to age and/or diet quality. Calves were evaluated during three periods (P1, P2, and P3) while fed a high-quality diet (calculated mobilizable energy [ME] of 11.8 MJ/kg DM) during P1 and P3, and a low-quality diet (calculated ME of 7.7 MJ/kg DM) during P2. The study periods were 84, 119, and 127 d, respectively. Initial ages of the calves in P1, P2, and P3 were 7, 11, and 15 mo, respectively, and initial body weight (BW) were 245, 367, and 458 kg, respectively. Individual dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), diet digestibility, and heat production (HP) were measured in all periods. The measured FE indexes were: residual feed intake (RFI), the gain-to-feed ratio (G:F), residual gain (RG), residual gain and intake (RIG), the ratio of HP-to-ME intake (HP/MEI), and residual heat production (RHP). For statistical analysis, animals' performance data in each period, were ranked by RFI, and categorized into high-, medium-, and low-RFI groups (H-RFI, M-RFI, and L-RFI). RFI was not correlated with in vivo digestibility, age, BW, BCS, or ADG in all three periods. The L-RFI group had lowest DMI, MEI, HP, retained energy (RE), and RE/ADG. Chemical analysis of the longissimus dorsi muscle shows that the L-RFI group had a higher percentage of protein and a lower percentage of fat compared to the H-RFI group. We suggested that the main mechanism separating L- from H-RFI calves is the protein-to-fat ratio in the deposited tissues. When efficiency was related to kg/day (DMI and ADG) and not to daily retained energy, the selected efficient L-RFI calves deposited more protein and less fat per daily gain than less efficient H-RFI calves. However, when the significant greater heat increment and maintenance energy requirement of

  5. Role of the gut microbiota in host appetite control: bacterial growth to animal feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2017-01-01

    The life of all animals is dominated by alternating feelings of hunger and satiety - the main involuntary motivations for feeding-related behaviour. Gut bacteria depend fully on their host for providing the nutrients necessary for their growth. The intrinsic ability of bacteria to regulate their growth and to maintain their population within the gut suggests that gut bacteria can interfere with molecular pathways controlling energy balance in the host. The current model of appetite control is based mainly on gut-brain signalling and the animal's own needs to maintain energy homeostasis; an alternative model might also involve bacteria-host communications. Several bacterial components and metabolites have been shown to stimulate intestinal satiety pathways; at the same time, their production depends on bacterial growth cycles. This short-term bacterial growth-linked modulation of intestinal satiety can be coupled with long-term regulation of appetite, controlled by the neuropeptidergic circuitry in the hypothalamus. Indeed, several bacterial products are detected in the systemic circulation, which might act directly on hypothalamic neurons. This Review analyses the data relevant to possible involvement of the gut bacteria in the regulation of host appetite and proposes an integrative homeostatic model of appetite control that includes energy needs of both the host and its gut bacteria.

  6. Wholesomeness and toxicological safety of irradiated animal feed by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Hakiem, N.F.; Hilali, E.A.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; Farag, M. Diaa Elp-Din H.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the wholesomeness and toxicological safety of irradiated animal feed by-products after eliminating the pathogenic microorganisms by using gamma irradiation. Five groups of Dokki-4 chicks each group consists of 60 one-day old cockerels were fed for 24 weeks on a ration containing irradiated fish, meat, and blood meals by dose level 0.5, 10.0, 20.0, and 50,0 KGY for 24 weeks. The ratio of animal proteins to the total protein of ration fed was 56% for non-irradiated or irradiated meals. The effects of consumption of irradiated meals on live body weight and internal organ weights (heart, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys) were studied. The observation gave an indication that body weight of all group as well as organs weight were normal and similar for the control group. Also, there was no clinically significant differences among the groups regarding red and white blood cells counts, haemoglobin contents, haematocrite value, and ESR for all groups. The results also showed no differences in total plasma protein, alkaline phosphatase activity and plasma Na, K, Mg, and Zn ions between the five groups studied

  7. Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja; Broesboel-Jensen, B.

    2012-01-01

    distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary......By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried...

  8. How Inefficient Are Nutrient Application Limits? A Dynamic Analysis of Groundwater Nitrate Pollution from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J; Baerenklau, KA

    2015-01-01

    Animal waste from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a significant contributor to nitrate contamination of groundwater. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies for controlling nitrate pollution at both the field and farm level, this article utilizes a structural dynamic model of a representative CAFO. The model accounts for herd management, manure handling systems, crop rotations, water sources, irrigation systems, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissi...

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica isolated from food-producing animals, animal feed and food products of animal origin, in Portugal - Genetic analysis of isolates with reduced susceptibility/resistance to third generation cephalosporins and cephamycins

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, Lurdes; Manageiro, Vera; Jones-Dias, Daniela; Ferreira, Eugénia; Correia, Ivone; Themudo, Patrícia; Albuquerque, Teresa; Caniça, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is a widely distributed foodborne pathogen and one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illnesses in humans. An epidemiologic study was conducted on 1600 Salmonella spp isolates recovered from poultry, swine, other animal species, animal feed and food products of animal origin, over the period of 2009-2013, to determine their serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of ten antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, trimethopri...

  10. A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction approach for estimating processed animal proteins in feed: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cesarina Abete

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifting of the ban on the use of processed animal proteins (PAPs from non-ruminants in non-ruminant feed is in the wind, avoiding intraspecies recycling. Discrimination of species will be performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR, which is at a moment a merely qualitative method. Nevertheless, quantification of PAPs in feed is needed. The aim of this study was to approach the quantitative determination of PAPs in feed through Real Time (RT-PCR technique; three different protocols picked up from the literature were tested. Three different kind of matrices were examined: pure animal meals (bovine, chicken and pork; one feed sample certified by the European reference laboratory on animal proteins (EURL AP in feed spiked with 0.1% bovine meal; and genomic DNAs from bovine, chicken and pork muscles. The limit of detection (LOD of the three protocols was set up. All the results obtained from the three protocols considered failed in the quantification process, most likely due to the uncertain copy numbers of the analytical targets chosen. This preliminary study will allow us to address further investigations, with the purpose of developing a RT-PCR quantitative method.

  11. Mass Spectrometry-based Immunoassay for the Quantification of Banned Ruminant Processed Animal Proteins in Vegetal Feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhilber, Andreas E; Schmidt, Felix F; Naboulsi, Wael; Planatscher, Hannes; Niedzwiecka, Alicia; Zagon, Jutta; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso; Joos, Thomas O; Poetz, Oliver

    2018-02-22

    The ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed for farmed animals introduced in 2001 was one of the main EU measures to control the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis. Currently, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are the official methods for the detection of illegal PAPs in feed. However, the progressive release of the feed ban, recently with the legalization of non-ruminant PAPs for the use in aquaculture, requires the development of alternative methods to determine the species origin and the source (legal or not). Additionally, discussions about the need for quantitative tests came up, particularly if the zero-tolerance-concept is replaced by introducing PAP thresholds. To address this issue, we developed and partially validated a multiplex mass spectrometry-based immunoassay to quantify ruminant specific peptides in vegetal cattle feed. The workflow comprises a new sample preparation procedure based on a tryptic digestion of PAPs in suspension, a subsequent immunoaffinity enrichment of the released peptides and a LC-MS/MS based analysis for peptide quantification using isotope labelled standard peptides. For the very first time, a mass spectrometry-based method is capable of detecting and quantifying illegal PAPs in animal feed over a concentration range of four orders of magnitude with a detection limit in the range of 0.1 % to 1 % (w/w).

  12. Growing duckweed to recover nutrients from wastewaters and for production of fuel ethanol and animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jay J. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Stomp, Anne M. [Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Lemnaceae or duckweed is an aquatic plant that can be used to recover nutrients from wastewaters. The grown duckweed can be a good resource of proteins and starch, and utilized for the production of value-added products such as animal feed and fuel ethanol. In the last eleven years we have been working on growing duckweed on anaerobically treated swine wastewater and utilizing the duckweed for fuel ethanol production. Duckweed strains that grew well on the swine wastewater were screened in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The selected duckweed strains were then tested for nutrient recovery under laboratory and field conditions. The rates of nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by the duckweed growing in the laboratory and field systems were determined in the study. The mechanisms of nutrient uptake by the duckweed and the growth of duckweed in a nutrient-limited environment have been studied. When there are nutrients (N and P) available in the wastewater, duckweed takes the nutrients from the wastewater to support its growth and to store the nutrients in its tissue. When the N and P are completely removed from the wastewater, duckweed can use its internally stored nutrients to keep its growth for a significant period of time. A modified Monod model has been developed to describe nitrogen transport in a duckweed-covered pond for nutrient recovery from anaerobically treated swine wastewater. Nutrient reserve in the duckweed biomass has been found the key to the kinetics of duckweed growth. Utilization of duckweed for value-added products has a good potential. Using duckweed to feed animals, poultry, and fish has been extensively studied with promising results. Duckweed is also an alternative starch source for fuel ethanol production. Spirodela polyrrhiza grown on anaerobically treated swine wastewater was found to have a starch content of 45.8% (dry weight). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the duckweed biomass with amylases yielded a hydrolysate with a reducing sugar content

  13. Scientific opinion on risks for animal health related to the presence of zearalenone and its modified forms in feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurs predominantly in cereal grains. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to ZEN and its modified forms in feed. Modified forms of ZEN occurring in feed include phase I......, rabbits, mink and cats. For modified forms, no reference points could be established for any animal species and relative potency factors previously established from rodents by the CONTAM Panel in 2016 were used. The dietary exposure was estimated on 17,706 analytical results with high proportions of left...... of adverse health effects of feed containing ZEN was considered extremely low for poultry and low for sheep, dog, pig and fish. The same conclusions also apply to the sum of ZEN and its modified forms....

  14. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives

  15. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  16. 21 CFR 2.35 - Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Investigations by the Food and Drug Administration, the National Communicable Disease Center of the U.S. Public... original use of these containers for the storage and shipment of articles containing or bearing disease... frequently consumed without heat treatment. (2) Some potato growers and producers of animal feeds use...

  17. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.23 Section 122.23 Protection of Environment... Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). (a) Scope... owner or operator (see § 122.21(b)); (ii) The CAFO name and address, the county name and the latitude...

  18. Lactic acid fermentation for refining proteins from green crops and obtaining a high quality feed product for monogastric animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santamaria-Fernandez, M.; Molinuevo-Salces, B.; Kiel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the organic farming sector is growing at a fast pace in Europe while needs to face the lack of organic protein sources and in particular, feeding monogastric animals is becoming more and more urgent. Green biorefinery concepts might become the suitable solution for the production of org...

  19. Effects of different sampling intervals on apparent protein and energy digestibility of common feed ingredients by juvenile oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus=Diferentes intervalos de coleta na determinação da digestibilidade aparente da proteína e da energia de ingredientes comuns para o apaiari (Astronotus ocellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the apparent protein and energy digestibility of common feed ingredients (soybean meal, fish meal, wheat meal and corn by juvenile oscars using two different sampling intervals (30 min. and 12h. The 160 juvenile oscar fish tested (22.37 ± 3.06 g BW were divided into four cylindrical plastic net cages, each one placed in a 1000 L feeding tank. The experiment was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial design (2 feces collection intervals and 4 feed ingredients with four replications. The statistical tests did not detect an interaction effect of sampling interval and type of ingredient on digestibility coefficients. Sampling interval did not affect protein and energy digestibility. The physical characteristics of juvenile oscar feces likely make them less susceptible to nutrient loss by leaching and can therefore be collected at longer intervals. Protein digestibility of the different ingredients was similar, showing that apparent digestibility of both animal and plant ingredients by juvenile oscars was efficient. Energy digestibility coefficients of fish meal and soybean meal were higher than those of wheat meal and corn. Carbohydrate-rich ingredients (wheat meal and corn had the worst energy digestibility coefficients and are therefore not used efficiently by juvenile oscars.O presente estudo avaliou a digestibilidade aparente da proteína e da energia de ingredientes (farelo de soja, farinha de peixe, farelo de trigo e milho por juvenis de apaiari (Astronotus ocellatus usando dois diferentes intervalos de coleta (30 min. e 12h. Os 160 juvenis de apaiari utilizados (22,37 ± 3,06 g de peso corporal foram divididos em quatro tanques rede plásticos e cilíndricos, cada um colocado em um tanque de alimentação de 1.000 L. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (2 intervalos de coleta de fezes e 4 ingredientes foram com quatro repetições. Os testes estatísticos não detectaram efeito da

  20. Radionuclides in Animal Feed (Poultry) 'Assessment of Radiation Dose'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algadi, S.; Salih, I. [Radiation Safety Institute (Sudan)

    2014-07-01

    In this work a comprehensive study has been carried out for the determination of presents evaluation of effective dose due to consumption of chicken fed by fodders collected from four major Sudanese companies (Hader, Koudjs, Wifi and Preconex SPN.V). The concentrations of radionuclides in the thirty two (32) feed samples have been determined by gamma spectrometry using NaI(Tl) detector. Radionuclides observed were: Pb-212 (daughter of Th-238), Pb-214, Bi-214 (daughters of U-238), Cs-137 and K-40 concentration. In additives the activity concentration of these radionuclides has found in the following ranges: 0.81 - 22.06 Bq/kg, 0.59 - 32.07 Bq/kg, 0.64 - 15.77 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 2.02 Bq/kg and 33.58 - 204.61 Bq/kg respectively. In feed concentrates activity concentration ranges has: 0.73 - 13.79 Bq/kg, 0.33 - 20.04 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 1.67 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 0.28 Bq/kg, 26.86 - 99.21 Bq/kg respectively. In fodders the activity concentration ranges has: 1.25 - 1.52 Bq/kg, 0.12 - 1.24 Bq/kg, 0.51 - 1.25 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 0.61 Bq/kg, 11.94 - 127.88 Bq/kg respectively. The 'animal product' activity concentration ranges has: 0.31 - 1.65 Bq/kg, 0.22 - 1.11 Bq/kg, 0.26 - 1.07 Bq/kg, 0.03 - 0.51 Bq/kg, 14.07 - 79.93 Bq/kg respectively. High concentrations (233.3 Bq/Kg) has typically found in toxo(additive); the lowest concentration (27.9 Bq/Kg ) has found in concentrate for layers and animal product. The total average effective dose due to the different feed-stuff has estimated and found to be 5.89x10{sup -6}±3.11x10{sup -6}mSv/y and 13.9 x 10{sup -7} ± 7.24 x 10{sup -7}mSv/y for age categories 7-12 y and >17 y respectively. If compared with the limits - Radioactivity Levels Permitted in foodstuffs Part 1 the Saudi Standards, Metrology and quality (300 Bq/Kg) and ICRP,FAO organization (5 mSv/y) - these values are very low. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. The association between proximity to animal feeding operations and community health: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M O'Connor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs and the health of individuals living near AFOs.The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor.There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable.

  2. Unmanned aerial system laser based measurements of ammonia and methane emissions from animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, S.; McHale, L.; Miller, T.; Yalin, A.

    2017-12-01

    In the US, 40 Tg of ammonia is emitted every year into the atmosphere via agricultural activities. Ammonia is the third most abundant nitrogen containing species in the atmosphere and it has important impacts on atmospheric chemistry, health, and the environment. Since the atmospheric lifetime of ammonia is a few days, it typically deposits to the ground close to its source. In this study we are developing two laser-based sensors to measure ammonia and methane emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) with the specific goal of quantifying the dry deposition of ammonia in the first few kilometers downwind of the CAFOs. Since methane is nonreactive and does not undergo dry deposition, its change in concentration with downwind distance is due to dispersion alone. We therefore plan to use methane as a conservative tracer, and will infer the ammonia deposition from the changing (deceasing) ratio of ammonia to methane as a function of downwind position. The laser sensors (ammonia and methane) developed in this study are relatively lightweight (physical structures are made from carbon-fiber. For each sensor, a custom electronics module has been designed to control and power the electro-optic components, as well as to acquire, analyze, and save data (including concentration, temperature, pressure, and GPS time and position). The sensors have been characterized in the lab (Allan variance) and show sensitivities of 1.5 ppb (at 1 Hz) and 20 ppb (at 1 Hz), for ammonia and methane respectively.

  3. The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Annette M.; Auvermann, Brent; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Kirkhorn, Steve; Sargeant, Jan M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Von Essen, Susanna G.

    2010-01-01

    Background A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. Conclusions/Significance There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable. PMID:20224825

  4. Application of gamma radiation on disinfestation feed grain based food for domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Amanda Cristina Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to realize a survey to identify the associated insects to feed the city Sao Paulo / SP and also to assess the effect of gamma radiation on food ration for domestic animals infested by pests. Samples of 20 stores, 'Pet Shop' in different regions in Sao Paulo / SP were subjected to trials of 1 and 45 days for collection of insects with the aid of plastic tray and screens of different sizes. The species Sitophilus zeamais, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Lasioderma serricorne and Oryzaephilus sp. showed a higher frequency. In assessing the effects of gamma radiation we used samples of maize, sunflower seeds and mix for rodents infested with adults of the species Sitophilus zeamais, Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, after the period of 7 to 10 days the insects were removed and samples subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation. The species Sitophilus zeamais and Lasioderma serricorne subjected doses from 0,25 to 1,50 kGy and species Plodia interpunctella doses from 0,10 to 2,0 kGy. After 40 days of irradiation was evaluated the number of insects emerged. The results of bioassays with Sitophilus zeamais and with Lasioderma serricorne demonstrated that doses starting at 0,5 kGy was sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and newly emerged larvae. The results with Plodia interpunctella from the 1,5 kGy, hasn't emerged adult insects, concluding that these doses were sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and larvae. (author)

  5. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens as Animal Feed and Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shiang Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  6. Phosphorus Bioavailability: A Key Aspect for Conserving this Critical Animal Feed Resource with Reference to Broiler Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhua Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential element, and the majority of animal feed phosphate is derived from phosphate rock that is a non-renewable resource. Current global P reserves may be depleted in 50–100 years. This poses the challenge of securing future P supply for the global animal feed industries. Currently, nutritionists formulate diets with substantial safety margins to guarantee that animals do not become P deficient. Excessive dietary P concentrations increase, not only the cost of diets, but also P excretion and pollution of the environment. We contend that understanding P bioavailability is central to the sustainable use of this mineral in animal agriculture. Poultry accounts for approximately 50% of animal feed phosphate consumption worldwide and for this reason we use the meat chicken or broiler as a case study to explore the nuances of P bioavailability. We conclude that, to tackle the challenge of dietary P bioavailability, cooperative research on a global scale is needed to standardise measurement procedures in order to produce a robust and reliable database which can be used by nutritionists to formulate diets to meet the bird’s P requirements precisely. Achievement of this goal will assist endeavours to sustain the global supply of phosphorus.

  7. Solar energy project and biogas for animal feed production and jelly; Projeto de energia solar e biogas para producao de racao animal e geleia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, J.P. de; Selvam, P.V.P.; Silva, R.T. da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mails: johnsonmoura@yahoo.com.br, tatianesil@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a study for utilization of surplus of horticulture industry for the production of jam and sweet from the fruit pulp and the manufacture of animal feed, organic fertilizer and biogas from the waste of this production. It also presents the equipment development of low-cost construction and operation that enables high energy efficiency (without heat loss) and can then be traded with greater advantage over other products on the market.

  8. The analysis of soil characteristics near the animal feed and fertiliser mill using the Bartington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhari, Adinda Syifa; Agustine, Eleonora; Fitriani, Dini

    2017-07-01

    Industrial activities have the potential to make pollution in agricultural land, the waste contains poisonous material and it is dangerous for the environment. In general, waste from factory is dumped directly into the river, but in the current study an object that is going to be conscientious is soil on around mill. There are three sampling sites are around fertilizer plants, feed mills and original uncontaminated soil. This research has been conducted to assess the impact of pollution resulting from the two mills for the environment. Physical parameter that used is magnetic susceptibility. Sampling was conducted using the method of magnetic susceptibility of rock to see the value of low frequency (lf) and shows Frequency Dependent (fd%) using the MS2B Bartington. The results from this study is at a location close to the fertilizer plant at a depth of 0-5 cm has a value susceptibility low frequency ( lf)=187.1 - 494.8, fd (%)=1.37 - 2:46, at a depth of 6-10 cm susceptibility value of low frequency (lf)=211 - 832.7,fd (%)=1.04 - 5.37. Results in the area of animal feed mill at a depth of 0-5 cm value susceptibility low frequency (lf)=111.9 - 325.7, fd (%)=0.8 - 3.57, at a depth of 6-10 cm value susceptibility low frequency (lf)=189.2 to 386.8,fd (%)=0.33 - 3.7. Results in the original soil at a depth of 0-5 cm susceptibility value of low frequency (lf)=1188.7 - 2237.8,fd (%)=2.75 - 4.65, at a depth of 6-10 cm value susceptibility low frequency (lf)=977.7 - 2134.7,fd (%)=3.06 - 6.21. The highest value was in the arealf original, shows the area has a high mineral content andlf lows were in the area near the factory fodder it is caused by high pollution, resulting in lower mineral content in the soil.

  9. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages (AFRA project II-17 - RAF/5/041). Project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.

    2002-01-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA programme has supported animal production research in Africa for many years through country Technical Co-operation (TC) Projects, Regional Projects (AFRA) and Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). These activities have helped to build up the infrastructure needed in the countries concerned to conduct much of the research in animal reproduction and nutrition. In the past the Agency has provided technical assistance in defining reproductive indices of ruminant livestock species and identifying nutritional constraints to productivity of animals maintained on smallholder farms under various topographical and environmental conditions. In view of the satisfactory progress of AFRA Project VIII in identifying the major constraints to livestock productivity in the region, and the recognition of many Member States of the importance of supplementary feeding for improving milk and meat production, a regional strategy was proposed for developing affordable and sustainable supplementation packages for improving productivity from smallholder farms using locally available feed resources. The new Regional Project was initiated in 1997 with the following objectives: 1. To produce a supplementary feed in the form of a convenient and easy-to-use package for improving milk and meat production in peri-urban areas 2. To promote the uptake of this technology through demonstrations of its advantages in terms of increased productivity and benefit: cost ratio 3. To maximize the use of locally available feed material such as molasses, cereal bran, legume tree leaves, oil seed meals, etc. for feeding ruminant livestock, thereby reducing the use of high cost concentrate feeds 4. To promote technical co-operation amongst developing countries (TCDC) in the region and take advantage of established infrastructure and available human and technical resources to solve problems of common interest. From 1997 until 2000 the project has been operational with 13 Member States

  10. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs): chemical compositions and separation of sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Eilerman, Scott; Peischl, Jeff; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-04-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. In this study, we conducted mobile laboratory measurements of VOCs, methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) downwind of dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep and chicken CAFO facilities in northeastern Colorado using a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS), which can detect numerous VOCs. Regional measurements of CAFO emissions in northeastern Colorado were also performed using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations and the reactivity of the VOCs with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species provide the largest contributions to the odor activity values and the nitrate radical (NO3) reactivity of VOC emissions, respectively. VOC compositions determined from mobile laboratory and aircraft measurements generally agree well with each other. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow for the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the emissions of ethanol are primarily associated with feed storage and handling. Based on mobile laboratory measurements, we apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to determine the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids and sulfur-containing species. Emissions of phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste.

  11. Innovation in Feed Technology for Self Sufficiency in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is self sufficient in poultry production to meet the local demand for broiler and egg, mainly derived from modern poultry rather than the local village chicken. Feed may contribute up to 70% of total cost of poultry production. Poultry feed is formulated using least cost feed formulation technique to meet the bird requirement and composed by several ingredients both locally available and imported materials. Feed ingredients are classified based on energy sources, protein sources, agro-industrial by products, mineral sources and supplements. In many cases the poultry feed was supplemented with additives (antibiotics, enzymes, preservatives, etc. to improve animal performance. In 2005, Indonesian feed production reached almost 7 million tonnes and comprised around 85% as poultry feed, while the rest for aquaculture, swine and others. Poultry feed is based on corn-soy diet and average corn usage may reach more than 55% while soybean meal more than 23%. Ingredients requirement has been calculated based on the feed production and in order to fulfill the requirement. In 2006, Indonesia will import more than 1.6 million tonnes of corn from Argentina, USA and China, and more than 1.5 million tonnes of protein meal due to insufficiency of the local production. Major problems related in feed production are raw materials supply, quality and price fluctuation along with limited information. Several research have been conducted to use unconventional ingredients as protein sources such as local beans, leguminous seeds, leaf protein, animal by products but they were limited in availability. Research to improve protein level from carbohydrate source or by products had been attempted but it was not feasible for commercial feed industry. In future, technology innovation should be developed based on the existing problems related with feed industry including the areas to improve production efficiency, managing feed quality, processing technology and feed

  12. Critical evaluation of the literature concerning the transfer feed/meat of strontium, radium, technetium in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliegl, E.; Schelenz, R.; Fischer, E.

    1981-12-01

    A literature study concerning the transfer of Sr, Ra, Te, Co and Fe from feed to meat of domestic animals has been carried out. Approx. 4200 publications from 1950-1980 have been evaluated. General criteria for the influence of experimental conditions on the transfer factor have been pointed out. The transfer factor of growing animals is greater than that of adult animals. After completion of growth the transfer factor is independent of age. The transfer factors differ with various animal species. From these findings the following average transfer factors meat/feed in d/kg have been derived during steady state equilibrium between daily intake and excretion of the isotope. For Sr: cattle 6x10 -4 , calf 2x10 -3 , sheep 2,1x10 -3 , goat 3.3x10 -3 , pig 3,6x10 -4 , hen 1,8x10 -2 . For Ra: cattle 6x10 -4 , pig 2,6x10 -4 , caribou 2,3x10 -3 . These values have been derived mainly from metabolic experiments and from literature values of concentrations in feed and meat. For Te, Co and Fe it was not possible to find relevant values. A transfer factor for Tc of 8x10 -3 d/kg for beef was derived indirectly using values of meat and vegetables. (orig.) [de

  13. Propolis and essential oils additives in the diets improved animal performance and feed efficiency of bulls finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was realized to evaluate the effect of natural additives as propolis or essential oils addition on animal performance, feed intake, apparent digestibility and carcass characteristics of bulls finished in feedlot. Thirty bulls (½ Aberdeen Angus vs. ½ Nellore were randomly assigned in one of three diets (control – CON, propolis – PRO and essential oils – OIL and kept in feedlot (individual pen during 55 days. CON diet consists of 45% corn silage, 40% concentrate (cracked corn, soybean meal, limestone and mineral salt and 15% glycerine. The PRO group received same diet that control plus 3 grams to animal day-1 of propolis dry added to the concentrate. The OIL oils group received same diet that control and 3 grams to animal day-1 of essential oils (cashew and castor oils added to the concentrate. Final weight, average daily gain, feed efficiency and hot carcass weightwere better for bulls supplemented with essential oils and propolis than for bulls fed control diet. The feed intake, apparent digestibility, carcass conformation and tissue composition were unaffected by the additives addition. The addition of propolis and essential oils in the diets of bulls finished in feedlot improve animal performance and carcass weight.

  14. Convective transport of pollutants from eastern Colorado concentrated animal feeding operations into the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, A.; Denning, A.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    As the population of the urban corridor along the eastern Front Range grows at an unprecedented rate, concern about pollutant transport into the Rocky Mountains is on the rise. The confluence of mountain meteorology and major pollution sources conspire to transport pollutants across the Front Range, especially nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, orgN, and NO3-) from concentrated animal feeding operations and urban regions, into the Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountains have coarse-textured soils which disallow the uptake nitrogen-rich precipitation, allowing most ions in precipitation to reach, be stored in, and eutrophicate alpine terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The focus of this study was to examine the meteorological conditions in which atmospheric deposition of pollutants at two mountain sites was anomalously high due to convective transport. We looked at 19 years (1994-2013) of precipitation and wet deposition data from two National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NAPD) sites in the Rocky Mountains: Beaver Meadows (CO19) and Loch Vale (CO98). Loch Vale (3159 m) and Beaver Meadows (2477 m) are located approximately 11 km apart but differ in height by 682 m resulting in different seasonal precipitation composition and totals. The Advanced Research WRF model was used to simulate the meteorology at a high resolution for the progression of the upslope event that led to high nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains. Data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was used to observe and verify synoptic conditions produced by the WRF model that influenced the high-deposition events. Dispersion plumes showed a mesoscale mountain circulation caused by differential heating between mountains-tops and the plains was the main driver of the westward convective transport towards the mountains. Additionally and unexpectedly, a lee trough and high precipitable water values associated with a cold front played significant roles in the nitrogen deposition into the Rocky

  15. Availability of information about airborne hazardous releases from animal feeding operations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler J S Smith

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air from animal feeding operations (AFOs has been shown to transport numerous contaminants of public health concern. While federal statutes like the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA generally require that facilities report hazardous releases, AFOs have been exempted from most of these requirements by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. We assessed the availability of information about AFO airborne hazardous releases following these exemptions. METHODS: We submitted public records requests to 7 states overlapping with or adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay watershed for reports of hazardous releases made by AFOs under EPCRA. From the records received, we calculated the proportion of AFOs in each state for which ≥1 reports were available. We also determined the availability of specific types of information required under EPCRA. The numbers of AFOs permitted under the Clean Water Act (CWA or analogous state laws, as determined from permitting databases obtained from states, were used as denominators. RESULTS: We received both EPCRA reports and permitting databases from 4 of 7 states. Across these 4 states, the mean proportion of AFOs for which ≥1 EPCRA reports were available was 15% (range: 2-33%. The mean proportions of AFOs for which the name or identity of the substance released, ≥1 estimates of quantity released, and information about nearby population density and sensitive populations were available were 15% (range: 2-33%, 8% (range: 0-22%, and 14% (range: 2-8%, respectively. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that information about the airborne hazardous releases of a large majority of AFOs is not available under federal law in the states that we investigated. While the results cannot be attributed to specific factors by this method, attention to multiple factors, including revision of the EPA's exemptions, may increase the availability of information relevant to the health of populations

  16. Availability of information about airborne hazardous releases from animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler J S; Rubenstein, Leonard S; Nachman, Keeve E

    2013-01-01

    Air from animal feeding operations (AFOs) has been shown to transport numerous contaminants of public health concern. While federal statutes like the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) generally require that facilities report hazardous releases, AFOs have been exempted from most of these requirements by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We assessed the availability of information about AFO airborne hazardous releases following these exemptions. We submitted public records requests to 7 states overlapping with or adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay watershed for reports of hazardous releases made by AFOs under EPCRA. From the records received, we calculated the proportion of AFOs in each state for which ≥1 reports were available. We also determined the availability of specific types of information required under EPCRA. The numbers of AFOs permitted under the Clean Water Act (CWA) or analogous state laws, as determined from permitting databases obtained from states, were used as denominators. We received both EPCRA reports and permitting databases from 4 of 7 states. Across these 4 states, the mean proportion of AFOs for which ≥1 EPCRA reports were available was 15% (range: 2-33%). The mean proportions of AFOs for which the name or identity of the substance released, ≥1 estimates of quantity released, and information about nearby population density and sensitive populations were available were 15% (range: 2-33%), 8% (range: 0-22%), and 14% (range: 2-8%), respectively. These results suggest that information about the airborne hazardous releases of a large majority of AFOs is not available under federal law in the states that we investigated. While the results cannot be attributed to specific factors by this method, attention to multiple factors, including revision of the EPA's exemptions, may increase the availability of information relevant to the health of populations living or working near AFOs.

  17. Relative exposure to swine animal feeding operations and childhood asthma prevalence in an agricultural cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonis, Brian T; Sanderson, Wayne T; Merchant, James A

    2013-04-01

    Large swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) have become the model of livestock production throughout the United States. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an increase in adverse respiratory symptoms among workers at AFOs. However, the impact on communities surrounding these facilities is still being investigated. We evaluated the association between relative environmental exposure to AFOs and the prevalence of prescribed medication for wheeze and/or childhood asthma in rural Iowa. Demographic and health information on 565 children aged 0-17 was obtained from a previous population-based cohort study while data on the AFOs were collected from publically available tax records. We created a metric of each child's relative environmental exposure to swine CAFOs which incorporated the size of the AFO as well as distance and wind direction. We determined the association between self-reported prescription medication for wheeze and/or self-reported physician diagnosed asthma and relative exposure while controlling for recognized risk factors using correlated logistic regression. The prevalence of childhood asthma in the cohort was 11.0% while 22.7% of children had been previously prescribed medication for wheeze or had a lifetime asthma diagnosis. Children with a larger relative environmental exposure to AFOs had a significantly increased odds of both outcomes (OR=1.51, p=0.014 asthma; OR=1.38, p=0.023 asthma or medication for wheeze). When stratified into exposure quartiles a linear trend was observed with asthma or medication for wheeze as the dependent variable but not with asthma alone. This study is the first to investigate children's cumulative relative exposure to smaller AFOs and adds to the growing volume of literature supporting a link between proximity to swine AFOs and adverse respiratory health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Zinc and copper in animal feed – development of resistance and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in bacteria of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Yazdankhah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Farmed animals such as pig and poultry receive additional Zn and Cu in their diets due to supplementing elements in compound feed as well as medical remedies. Enteral bacteria in farmed animals are shown to develop resistance to trace elements such as Zn and Cu. Resistance to Zn is often linked with resistance to methicillin in staphylococci, and Zn supplementation to animal feed may increase the proportion of multiresistant E. coli in the gut. Resistance to Cu in bacteria, in particular enterococci, is often associated with resistance to antimicrobial drugs like macrolides and glycopeptides (e.g. vancomycin. Such resistant bacteria may be transferred from the food-producing animals to humans (farmers, veterinarians, and consumers. Data on dose-response relation for Zn/Cu exposure and resistance are lacking; however, it seems more likely that a resistance-driven effect occurs at high trace element exposure than at more basal exposure levels. There is also lack of data which could demonstrate whether Zn/Cu-resistant bacteria may acquire antibiotic resistance genes/become antibiotics resistant, or if antibiotics-resistant bacteria are more capable to become Zn/Cu resistant than antibiotics-susceptible bacteria. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between Zn/Cu and antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

  19. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    .... FDA-2008-F-0151] (formerly Docket No. 2007F-0478) Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in... agent in swine feed. This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj of...

  20. Between animal variation in biological efficiency as related to residual feed consumption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiting, P.; Urff, E.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Production levels in livestock (cattle, pigs and poultry) have been increased considerably, with a correlated increase in gross feed efficiency. However, mature body weight has also increased, leading to higher maintenance costs. Thus, net feed efficiency has been little improved. Breeding for lower

  1. Domestic animal hosts strongly influence human-feeding rates of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, Ricardo E; Cecere, María C; Vázquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Gurevitz, Juan M; Fernández, María Del Pilar; Kitron, Uriel; Cohen, Joel E

    2014-01-01

    The host species composition in a household and their relative availability affect the host-feeding choices of blood-sucking insects and parasite transmission risks. We investigated four hypotheses regarding factors that affect blood-feeding rates, proportion of human-fed bugs (human blood index), and daily human-feeding rates of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease. A cross-sectional survey collected triatomines in human sleeping quarters (domiciles) of 49 of 270 rural houses in northwestern Argentina. We developed an improved way of estimating the human-feeding rate of domestic T. infestans populations. We fitted generalized linear mixed-effects models to a global model with six explanatory variables (chicken blood index, dog blood index, bug stage, numbers of human residents, bug abundance, and maximum temperature during the night preceding bug catch) and three response variables (daily blood-feeding rate, human blood index, and daily human-feeding rate). Coefficients were estimated via multimodel inference with model averaging. Median blood-feeding intervals per late-stage bug were 4.1 days, with large variations among households. The main bloodmeal sources were humans (68%), chickens (22%), and dogs (9%). Blood-feeding rates decreased with increases in the chicken blood index. Both the human blood index and daily human-feeding rate decreased substantially with increasing proportions of chicken- or dog-fed bugs, or the presence of chickens indoors. Improved calculations estimated the mean daily human-feeding rate per late-stage bug at 0.231 (95% confidence interval, 0.157-0.305). Based on the changing availability of chickens in domiciles during spring-summer and the much larger infectivity of dogs compared with humans, we infer that the net effects of chickens in the presence of transmission-competent hosts may be more adequately described by zoopotentiation than by zooprophylaxis. Domestic animals in domiciles profoundly affect the host-feeding

  2. Domestic animal hosts strongly influence human-feeding rates of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo E Gürtler

    Full Text Available The host species composition in a household and their relative availability affect the host-feeding choices of blood-sucking insects and parasite transmission risks. We investigated four hypotheses regarding factors that affect blood-feeding rates, proportion of human-fed bugs (human blood index, and daily human-feeding rates of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease.A cross-sectional survey collected triatomines in human sleeping quarters (domiciles of 49 of 270 rural houses in northwestern Argentina. We developed an improved way of estimating the human-feeding rate of domestic T. infestans populations. We fitted generalized linear mixed-effects models to a global model with six explanatory variables (chicken blood index, dog blood index, bug stage, numbers of human residents, bug abundance, and maximum temperature during the night preceding bug catch and three response variables (daily blood-feeding rate, human blood index, and daily human-feeding rate. Coefficients were estimated via multimodel inference with model averaging.Median blood-feeding intervals per late-stage bug were 4.1 days, with large variations among households. The main bloodmeal sources were humans (68%, chickens (22%, and dogs (9%. Blood-feeding rates decreased with increases in the chicken blood index. Both the human blood index and daily human-feeding rate decreased substantially with increasing proportions of chicken- or dog-fed bugs, or the presence of chickens indoors. Improved calculations estimated the mean daily human-feeding rate per late-stage bug at 0.231 (95% confidence interval, 0.157-0.305.Based on the changing availability of chickens in domiciles during spring-summer and the much larger infectivity of dogs compared with humans, we infer that the net effects of chickens in the presence of transmission-competent hosts may be more adequately described by zoopotentiation than by zooprophylaxis. Domestic animals in domiciles profoundly affect the

  3. Determination of tetracyclines in animal feeds in the presence of other drugs by thin-layer chromatography and microbiological method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, P K

    1996-01-01

    This method was developed to separate, detect, and quantitate oxytetracycline (OTC) or chlortetracycline hydrochloride (CTC.HCl) in animal feeds in the presence of 11 other drugs: 3 nitrofurans, 2 macrolide antibiotics, 3 sulfonamides, 2 coccidiostatics, and 1 antibacterial growth promoter. OTC or CTC.HCl was separated from coexisting drugs and detected by thin-layer chromatography, then quantitated microbiologically by the agar diffusion method. Analysis of 125 experimental animal feed samples fortified at 5 levels (7.5-400 ppm) with OTC or CTC.HCl and at 1 level (50 ppm) with the rest of the drugs, respectively, gave a limit of quantitation of 1.25 or 0.625 ppm, a recovery of 90.6 or 92.9%, and a coefficient of variation of 2.9-6.1 or 2.3-4.4%.

  4. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; Zimmerman, Patrick R; Harper, Michael T; Hristova, Rada A; Zimmerman, R Scott; Branco, Antonio F

    2015-09-07

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but with variable accuracy). The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas method is commonly used to measure enteric CH4 production by animal scientists and more recently, application of an Automated Head-Chamber System (AHCS) (GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD), which is the focus of this experiment, has been growing. AHCS is an automated system to monitor CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) mass fluxes from the breath of ruminant animals. In a typical AHCS operation, small quantities of baiting feed are dispensed to individual animals to lure them to AHCS multiple times daily. As the animal visits AHCS, a fan system pulls air past the animal's muzzle into an intake manifold, and through an air collection pipe where continuous airflow rates are measured. A sub-sample of air is pumped out of the pipe into non-dispersive infra-red sensors for continuous measurement of CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Field comparisons of AHCS to respiration chambers or SF6 have demonstrated that AHCS produces repeatable and accurate CH4 emission results, provided that animal visits to AHCS are sufficient so emission estimates are representative of the diurnal rhythm of rumen gas production. Here, we demonstrate the use of AHCS to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes from dairy cows given a control diet or a diet supplemented with technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid.

  5. 76 FR 11330 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... a New Animal Drug Applications; Phenylbutazone; Pyrantel; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug..., Division of Yoder, Inc., NADA 96-161; Hy-Con TYLAN Sec. 558.625 (035369). Kalona, IA 52247. Premix (tylosin...-352; Seeco T-10 Sec. 558.625 (053740). MN 56201. Premix (tylosin phosphate). Seeco, Inc., P.O. Box...

  6. 76 FR 17776 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ...; Levamisole; Nitrofurazone; Phenylbutazone; Pyrantel; Tylosin; Tylosin and Sulfamethazine AGENCY: Food and... Premix (tylosin phosphate/ sulfamethazine). Abraxis Pharmaceutical Products, Division NADA 100-840..., McNess Custom 558.625 (010439). Premix L200 (tylosin phosphate). Fort Dodge Animal Health, Division of...

  7. Comparison of fermented animal feed and mushroom growth media as two value-added options for waste Cassava pulp management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakulvichean, Sivalee; Chaiprasert, Pawinee; Otmakhova, Julia; Songkasiri, Warinthorn

    2017-12-01

    Cassava is one of the main processed crops in Thailand, but this generates large amounts (7.3 million tons in 2015) of waste cassava pulp (WCP). The solid WCP is sold directly to farmers or pulp-drying companies at a low cost to reduce the burden of on-site waste storage. Using an integrated direct and environmental cost model, fermented animal feed and mushroom growth media were compared as added-value waste management alternatives for WCP to mitigate environmental problems. Primary and secondary data were collected from the literature, field data, and case studies. Data boundaries were restricted to a gate-to-gate scenario with a receiving capacity of 500 t WCP/d, and based on a new production unit being set up at the starch factory. The total production cost of each WCP utilization option was analyzed from the economic and environmental costs. Fermented animal feed was an economically attractive scenario, giving a higher net present value (NPV), lower investment cost and environmental impact, and a shorter payback period for the 10-year operational period. The selling price of mushrooms was the most sensitive parameter regarding the NPV, while the NPV for the price of fermented animal feed had the highest value in the best-case scenario.

  8. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  9. Incrust technology. Procedure for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell. Phase 2.2. Centre feeding; Incrust technology. Fremgangsmaede for produktion af foder indkapslet i en fordoejelig skal. Fase 2.2. Centerfoedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    More than 120 million tons animal feeds are produced within the European Union a year Denmark alone produces more than 6 million tons. Current industrial production of animal feeds implies different problems. This project aims at reducing or removing the following problems: Odour nuisances; Bacterium, especially salmonella; Nutrition, especially preservation of the animal feeds' natural elements; Energy, especially reduction of carbon dioxide emission; Independence of raw materials composition; Improved hygienic storage of the finished product. During the project a new method for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell (feeding blocks) has been developed. Extruded feeding stuff is lead from an extruder to a common die, in which a shell pipe is formed vertically. Shape, diameter, and pipe thickness can be changed by adjustment of a set of nozzles. The shell pipe is lead to a cutter that shortens and closes one end. The shell pipe is now filled with the core product (feed mixture) from a feeder with a dosing screw. The quantity can be adjusted to the size of the feeding block by changing the number of the dosing screw's revolutions and the rotation speed. When the core product has been dosed into the shell pipe a shortening device shortens and closes the open end of the feeding block. The shortening device can be regulated so that make the feeding block form a line that is broken later in the process. If necessary a conveyor belt with condensate ventilation takes a number of feeding blocks in a line to a marker. Marks on the feeding blocks can be made with either a laser printer or an ink jet printer. (BA)

  10. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from northern australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13 μg mL(-1) culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed.

  11. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from Outback Australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thang eDuong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory – Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 µg mL-1 culture and 99.13 µg mL-1, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed.

  12. Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: From domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P.; Andersen, S.; Knudsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    of their breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter...... the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake...

  13. Analysis of the Potential Solid Waste Palm Oil as Animal Feed Cattle in Province Riau

    OpenAIRE

    Chalid, Nursiah; Flordeluna, Cattelya

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze the potential of solid waste as cattle feed in the Riau province where oil palm solid waste is estimated each year has increased the amount of solid waste production as the increasing production of fresh fruit bunches ( FFB ) is in if every year .The data used in this study are primary and secondary data . The method used in this peneilitan is descriptive method . To see the right strategy in the potential of oil palm solid waste as cattle feed in the p...

  14. Apparent digestibility of nutrients and energy of conventional ingredients for the silver mojarra, Diapterus rhombeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Oliveira de Magalhães Júnior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the nutritional value of feed ingredient is an important step in the formulation of diets in order to maximize animal productivity. Thus a study was conducted to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of dry matter (ADCDM, crude protein (ADCCP, gross energy (ADCGE and amino acids (ADCAA of conventional feed ingredients for juvenile silver mojarra (13.0 ± 3.23 g. The study was conducted in the laboratory for nutrition and feeding of fish (AQUANUT, using 80 silver mojarra collected in nature, which were kept in digestibility aquaria for a period of 21 days. The following ingredients were evaluated: fish meal, soybean meal, corn meal, corn gluten meal, rice bran, wheat bran and starch, which substituted 30% of a reference pelletized diet with 325.00 g kg-1 crude protein and 3,692 Kcal kg-1 gross energy. Additionally 1.0 g kg-1 chrome oxide was added to each diet as a marker. The excreta were obtained using three repetitions for each tested ingredient, which were dried for further analyses. The soybean meal showed the best ADCDM value (67.45%, followed by the other ingredients. There was no significant difference between the soybean meal (95.16%, fish meal (92.97% and the corn meal (91.90% for the best ADCCP coefficients. The ADCGE for soybean meal and maize meal were 65.23% and 60.31%, respectively, followed by fish meal (51.85%. The results demonstrate that silver mojarra can digest animal protein as well as that of vegetal origin. Silver mojarra can also efficiently digest and absorb some of the main amino acids of fish, such as lysine, methionine and threonine, from the same studied ingredients.

  15. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge to eliminate pathogens for safe use as fertilizer and animal feed supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, H.D.; Whitfield, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a research program titled ''Waste Resources Utilization'' using a new technique called thermoradiation to destroy pathogenic organisms in sewage sludge. The thermoradiated sewage sludge will be used to study the feasibility of use for safe land application as fertilizer and soil conditioner and use as a feed supplement for ruminant animals. Experiments to date have shown good results for sludge disinfection of resistant bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Thermoradiation experiments are being carried out at a temperature of 65 0 C combined with 160 krad gamma dose for a total of 2000 pounds of dried treated sludge. The sludge will be shipped to New Mexico State University for the feeding studies and land application studies. (auth)

  16. Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

  17. Fluoride Levels in Water, Animal Feeds, Cow Milk, Cow Urine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kiambu and Thika Districts are situated in Central part of Kenya. Most of the available land is suitable for agricultural use. Majority of the farmers are small scale or subsistence dairy farmers. Intake of excess fluoride in water, feed and mineral supplements may adversely affect health, reproduction and production in dairy ...

  18. Extrusion-cooking to improve the animal feed quality of broad beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscicki, L.; Wojcik, S.; Plaur, K.; Zuilichem, van D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Extrusion-cooking of broad beans with a single-screw extruder has been investigated. Attention was focused on process requirements as well as on the nutritional effects of extrusion-cooked broad beans in a chicken feed formulation. The optimal thermal process conditions required for a product of

  19. Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified maize in commercial animal feeds and food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkec, Aydin; Lucas, Stuart J; Karlık, Elif

    2016-07-01

    EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9 g kg(-1) (for approved GM crops). We screened maize-containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. With this aim, 83 food and feed products - none labelled as containing GM material - were screened using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for four common GM elements (35S/NOS/bar/FMV). Of these, 18.2% of feeds and 6% of food samples tested positive for one or more of these elements, and were subjected to event-specific PCR to identify which GM organisms they contained. Most samples were negative for the approved GM events tested, suggesting that they may contain adventitious GM contaminants. One sample was shown to contain an unapproved GM event (MON810, along with GA21) at a concentration well above the statutory labelling requirement. Current legislation has restricted the penetration of GM maize into the Turkish food industry but not eliminated it, and the proliferation of different GM events is making monitoring increasingly complex. Our results indicate that labelling requirements are not being followed in some cases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Fermentation instead of animal feeding; In den Fermenter statt in den Magen des Schweins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombach, T.

    2008-07-01

    Since 2006, Germany has prohibited the feeding of class K3 waste food from gastronomy, canteens and the food industry to pigs. Fermentation is a creative solution. In Haid on the Schwaebische Alb mountain range, two creative waste managers developed a plant for power generation from fat and used oils. (orig.)

  1. Assessing environmental consequences of using co-products in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.; Mollenhorst, H.; Vries, de J.W.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The livestock sector has a major impact on the environment. This environmental impact may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products (e.g. beet tails) to livestock, as this transforms inedible products for humans into edible products, e.g. pork or beef. Nevertheless, co-products have different

  2. Application of inulin-type fructans in animal feed and pet food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Shim, S.B.; Leeuwen, van P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The inulin-type fructans are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are fermented in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals and pets. This review focuses on the various effects of inulin-type fructans in pigs, poultry, calves and companion animals. Effects of the inulin-type fructans on gut

  3. A TaqMan real-time PCR method based on alternative oxidase genes for detection of plant species in animal feed samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doroteia Campos

    Full Text Available Traceability of processed food and feed products has been gaining importance due to the impact that those products can have on human/animal health and to the associated economic and legal concerns, often related to adulterations and frauds as it can be the case for meat and milk. Despite mandatory traceability requirements for the analysis of feed composition, few reliable and accurate methods are presently available to enforce the legislative frame and allow the authentication of animal feeds. In this study, nine sensitive and species-specific real-time PCR TaqMan MGB assays are described for plant species detection in animal feed samples. The method is based on selective real-time qPCR (RT-qPCR amplification of target genes belonging to the alternative oxidase (AOX gene family. The plant species selected for detection in feed samples were wheat, maize, barley, soybean, rice and sunflower as common components of feeds, and cotton, flax and peanut as possible undesirable contaminants. The obtained results were compared with end-point PCR methodology. The applicability of the AOX TaqMan assays was evaluated through the screening of commercial feed samples, and by the analysis of plant mixtures with known composition. The RT-qPCR methodology allowed the detection of the most abundant species in feeds but also the identification of contaminant species present in lower amounts, down to 1% w/w. AOX-based methodology provides a suitable molecular marker approach to ascertain plant species composition of animal feed samples, thus supporting feed control and enforcement of the feed sector and animal production.

  4. A TaqMan real-time PCR method based on alternative oxidase genes for detection of plant species in animal feed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Maria Doroteia; Valadas, Vera; Campos, Catarina; Morello, Laura; Braglia, Luca; Breviario, Diego; Cardoso, Hélia G

    2018-01-01

    Traceability of processed food and feed products has been gaining importance due to the impact that those products can have on human/animal health and to the associated economic and legal concerns, often related to adulterations and frauds as it can be the case for meat and milk. Despite mandatory traceability requirements for the analysis of feed composition, few reliable and accurate methods are presently available to enforce the legislative frame and allow the authentication of animal feeds. In this study, nine sensitive and species-specific real-time PCR TaqMan MGB assays are described for plant species detection in animal feed samples. The method is based on selective real-time qPCR (RT-qPCR) amplification of target genes belonging to the alternative oxidase (AOX) gene family. The plant species selected for detection in feed samples were wheat, maize, barley, soybean, rice and sunflower as common components of feeds, and cotton, flax and peanut as possible undesirable contaminants. The obtained results were compared with end-point PCR methodology. The applicability of the AOX TaqMan assays was evaluated through the screening of commercial feed samples, and by the analysis of plant mixtures with known composition. The RT-qPCR methodology allowed the detection of the most abundant species in feeds but also the identification of contaminant species present in lower amounts, down to 1% w/w. AOX-based methodology provides a suitable molecular marker approach to ascertain plant species composition of animal feed samples, thus supporting feed control and enforcement of the feed sector and animal production.

  5. Metabolic Design of Corynebacterium glutamicum for Production of l-Cysteine with Consideration of Sulfur-Supplemented Animal Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young-Chul; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-06-14

    l-Cysteine is a valuable sulfur-containing amino acid widely used as a nutrition supplement in industrial food production, agriculture, and animal feed. However, this amino acid is mostly produced by acid hydrolysis and extraction from human or animal hairs. In this study, we constructed recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strains that overexpress combinatorial genes for l-cysteine production. The aims of this work were to investigate the effect of the combined overexpression of serine acetyltransferase (CysE), O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (CysK), and the transcriptional regulator CysR on l-cysteine production. The CysR-overexpressing strain accumulated approximately 2.7-fold more intracellular sulfide than the control strain (empty pMT-tac vector). Moreover, in the resulting CysEKR recombinant strain, combinatorial overexpression of genes involved in l-cysteine production successfully enhanced its production by approximately 3.0-fold relative to that in the control strain. This study demonstrates a biotechnological model for the production of animal feed supplements such as l-cysteine using metabolically engineered C. glutamicum.

  6. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-Hofstad, I.; Lankveld, van W.D.M.; Tomassen, M.J.H.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172

  7. The effect of feed contamination with mycotoxins on animals and ways for prevention and degradation of mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ciobotaru

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that are capable of causing illness and sometimes death to animals and not only animals even humans. In 1960 it was established that some fungal metabolites, now called mycotoxins, that have a destructive effect on animal health, since then people were interested on the effect and the way to stop it. Among them, aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 & G2 synthesized mainly byAspergillus flavus/ Aspergillus parasiticus are known to induce severe effects on animal: can cause liver damage, decreased milk production, reduced reproductively and suppressed immunity in animals consuming low dietary concentrations, decreased feed intake and efficiency, weight loss, jaundice, drop in milk production, nervous signs, bleeding and death. The aim of this work was the isolation of aflatoxin producing fungi in order to investigate new ways that can determinate, inhibit or degradation of aflatoxin, ochratoxin, using lactic bacteria and yeast. A number of 17Aspergillus spp. isolates were obtained from wheat, barley, triticale, oats, and sunflower seeds and identified, based on macroscopic and microscopic features as A.flavus/A.parasiticus. The ability of aflatoxin biosynthesis was detected on PDA medium with β cyclodextrine and sodium deoxycholate were evaluated by TLC and RIDA Screen R-biopharm. At this stage of experiments 3 fungal isolates, designated as GE2, G32, T11 were selected as aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and used for further analysis (molecular identification, interactions with LAB and yeasts.

  8. Youden analysis of Karl Fischer titration data from an interlaboratory study determining water in animal feed, grain, and forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frank E

    2005-01-01

    Data from a recent interlaboratory study of the determination of water (moisture) in animal feed, grain, and forage (plant tissue) by Karl Fischer titration were re-analyzed using Youden plots. The purpose was to show the unique ability these plots possess of separating random and systematic errors visually while providing numerical estimates of the precision and the systematic error of the method. Furthermore, the usefulness of the technique is underscored because AOAC INTERNATIONAL allows the use of matched pairs in collaborative studies to obtain estimates of repeatability and reproducibility.

  9. Effects of Animal Feeding Operations on Water Resources and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Davis – Colorado State University Nitrogen, sulfate, chloride, and manganese in ground water in the alluvial deposits of the South Platte River...agriculture is dominated by a large and geographically intense poultry industry. Approximately 260,000,000 broiler chickens are produced each year in a State...meal, meat/ bone meal, tapioca, maize grits) from 57 feed mills. Among the isolated bacteria, the most frequent serotype was Salmonella hadar. Harris

  10. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme. As a replacement, an enzymatic-colorimetric starch assay developed in 1997 that had advantages in ease of sample handling and accuracy compared to other methods was considered. The assay was further modified to improve utilization of laboratory resources and reduce time required for the assay. The assay is quasi-empirical: glucose is the analyte detected, but its release is determined by run conditions and specification of enzymes. The modified assay was tested in an AOAC collaborative study to evaluate its accuracy and reliability for determination of dietary starch in animal feedstuffs and pet foods. In the assay, samples are incubated in screw cap tubes with thermostable α-amylase in pH 5.0 sodium acetate buffer for 1 h at 100°C with periodic mixing to gelatinize and partially hydrolyze α-glucan. Amyloglucosidase is added, and the reaction mixture is incubated at 50°C for 2 h and mixed once. After subsequent addition of water, mixing, clarification, and dilution as needed, free + enzymatically released glucose are measured. Values from a separate determination of free glucose are subtracted to give values for enzymatically released glucose. Dietary starch equals enzymatically released glucose multiplied by 162/180 (or 0.9) divided by the weight of the as received sample. Fifteen laboratories that represented feed company, regulatory, research, and commercial feed

  11. Attributional versus consequential life cycle assessment and feed optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, Hannah H.E.; Bikker, Paul; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.; Boer, de, Imke J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Feed production is responsible for the majority of the environmental impact of livestock production, especially for monogastric animals, such as pigs. Some feeding strategies demonstrated that replacing one ingredient with a high impact, e.g. soybean meal (SBM), with an alternative protein source, e.g. locally produced peas or rapeseed meal, has potential to reduce the environmental impact. These studies, however, used an attributional life cycle assessment (ALCA), which solely addre...

  12. Surface-water quality in agricultural watersheds of the North Carolina Coastal Plain associated with concentrated animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on water quality were investigated at 54 agricultural stream sites throughout the North Carolina Coastal Plain during 2012 and 2013. Three general watershed land-use types were examined during the study, including 18 background watersheds with no active CAFOs (BK sites), 18 watersheds with one or more active swine CAFOs but no poultry CAFOs (SW sites), and 18 watersheds with at least one active swine CAFO and one active dry-litter poultry CAFO (SP sites). The watershed drainage areas for these 54 stream sites ranged from 1.2 to 17.5 square miles. Conventional fertilizers used for crop production are the primary source of nutrients at the BK sites. Animal-waste manures represent an additional source of nutrients at the SW and SP study sites.

  13. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-08

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples.

  14. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  15. Chemistry, Antimicrobial Mechanisms, and Antibiotic Activities of Cinnamaldehyde against Pathogenic Bacteria in Animal Feeds and Human Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2017-12-06

    Cinnamaldehyde is a major constituent of cinnamon essential oils produced by aromatic cinnamon plants. This compound has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties in vitro in laboratory media and in animal feeds and human foods contaminated with disease-causing bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. This integrated review surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the chemistry, analysis, safety, mechanism of action, and antibiotic activities of cinnamaldehyde in food animal (cattle, lambs, calves, pigs, poultry) diets and in widely consumed liquid (apple, carrot, tomato, and watermelon juices, milk) and solid foods. Solid foods include various fruits (bayberries, blueberries, raspberries, and strawberries), vegetables (carrots, celery, lettuce, spinach, cucumbers, and tomatoes), meats (beef, ham, pork, and frankfurters), poultry (chickens and turkeys), seafood (oysters and shrimp), bread, cheese, eggs, infant formula, and peanut paste. The described findings are not only of fundamental interest but also have practical implications for food safety, nutrition, and animal and human health. The collated information and suggested research needs will hopefully facilitate and guide further studies needed to optimize the use of cinnamaldehyde alone and in combination with other natural antimicrobials and medicinal antibiotics to help prevent and treat food animal and human diseases.

  16. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, Enzo R; Johnson, Kammy R; Karpati, Adam; Rubin, Carol S; Kolpin, Dana W; Meyer, Michael T; Esteban, J Emilio; Currier, Russell W; Smith, Kathleen; Thu, Kendall M; McGeehin, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of > 100 microg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  17. Comportamento alimentar da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus frente a diferentes ingredientes alimentares Alimentary ingredients and the feeding behavior of Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as respostas comportamentais da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus frente a 14 ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes: farinhas de carne, de peixe, de crisálidas, de camarão, de girassol, de algodão e de mandioca, ovo integral liofilizado, levedura de cana-de-açúcar, farelos de soja e de trigo, glúten de milho, fubá de milho e raspa de mandioca. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado a uma ração denominada controle. Foram empregados quatro aquários (750 litros, contendo, cada um, três alevinos e dois comedouros instalados nos cantos direito e esquerdo, sendo registradas as respostas dos animais para cada ingrediente, separadamente. Concluiu-se que as respostas comportamentais da tilápia variam de acordo com o ingrediente oferecido e que parece existir uma correlação positiva entre o grau de atrato-palatabilidade de um ingrediente e a ocorrência de confrontos agonísticos entre os indivíduos. Sugere-se que ingredientes classificados como de alta atrato-palatabilidade (farinhas de crisálidas, de peixe, de carne, de camarão e ovo liofilizado integral sejam adicionados às dietas especiais para peixes, visando ao aumento da ingestão alimentar nos períodos pré-invernais, situações de estresse ou estados patológicos.Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus responses to attractivity and taste of fourteen food ingredients, here classified as animal sources (shrimp, fish, silkworm and meat meal, integral lyophilized egg and sugar-cane-yeast, vegetable protein sources (maize gluten, soybean bran, sunflower meal and cotton bran and energetics (maize flour, manioc scraping, manioc bran and wheat bran were investigated. These ingredients were compared to a control diet, using a two-choice method. Four 750 liters aquaria stocked with three fries each and two feeders installed respectively at the right and left corner where used to register the responses of the

  18. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbaya, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  19. Selection and identification of oleaginous yeast isolated from soil, animal feed and ruminal fluid for use as feed supplement in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paserakung, A; Pattarajinda, V; Vichitphan, K; Froetschel, M A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to select oleaginous yeast for microbial lipid production. Sixty-four yeast isolates were obtained from soil (GSY1-12), animal feeds (FDY1-21), and ruminal fluid (RMY1-31) using yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) agar. The cultivation of these isolates on nitrogen limited-medium revealed that GSY2 to GSY6, GSY10, FDY2, FDY12 and FDY14 accumulated lipid over 20% of dry biomass. Therefore, they were preliminarily classified as oleaginous yeast. In subsequent experiment, an 8 × 3 factorial in completely randomized design was conducted to examine the effect of eight oleaginous yeast strains and three nitrogen sources (peptone, (NH4 )2 SO4 , urea) on lipid accumulation when using molasses as substrate. The result illustrated that only GSY3 and GSY10 accumulated lipid over 20% of biomass when using peptone or (NH4 )2 SO4 but urea did not. However, GSY10 gave higher biomass and lipid yield than GSY3 (P < 0·05). Identification of GSY10 using 26S rDNA illustrated that GSY10 belongs to Trichosporon asahii. Fatty acid profiles of this strain contained unsaturated fats up to 62·5% of which oleic acid (C18:1 ) was predominant. In conclusion, T. asahii GSY10 was the most promising oleaginous yeast for microbial lipid production from molasses. This study illustrated the ability of T. asahii GSY10 to utilize molasses and (NH4 )2 SO4 for synthesizing and accumulating cellular lipid of which oleic acid (C18:1 ) was predominant. This yeast would be used for microbial lipid production used as feed supplement in dairy cattle. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Metabolizable energy and amino acids relationships with the soluble fractions of protein and fiber of vegetable feed ingredients Energia metabolizável e relações de aminoácidos com as frações solúveis de proteína e fibra de ingredientes vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Bellaver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate nutrient and energy digestion with animal from in vitro variables it is necessary to control factors that may interfere on digestion such as: source and concentration of digestor substance, as well as the origin and processing of test ingredients. In this study there were performed five laboratory assays, two with poultry and finally regression equations were established based on variables generated with twelve vegetable ingredients. The results showed that there is greater solubility of proteins with NaOH than with KOH. On average, both alkali produced better discrimination of soluble protein with concentration of 0.02% (range of 68.61% in relation to a concentration of 0.2% (range of 37.97%. Considering interaction between alkali and concentration, the best discrimination on protein solubility was reached with NaOH at 0.02%. The methods of protein or fiber solubilization together with the chemical analysis showed significant results variation among ingredients and when they were used to estimate in vivo variables they produced good estimates. It was concluded that reliable digestion estimates for energy or amino acids from vegetable feed ingredients could be obtained from in vitro variables, when considering solubilities of protein and fiber with chemical analysis.Para estimar a digestão de nutrientes e de energia dos animais a partir de variáveis in vitro, é necessário controlar os fatores que interferem na digestão - origem e concentração da substância digestora - e ter conhecimento da fonte e do processo que envolve o ingrediente em teste. Neste trabalho, foram conduzidos cinco ensaios laboratoriais, dois com animais e, por fim, estabelecidas equações de regressão a partir das variáveis geradas com a utilização de 12 ingredientes vegetais. Os resultados mostraram que há maior solubilidade das proteínas com o NaOH que com o KOH e que, na média de ambos os álcalis, a concentração de 0,02% permite maior

  1. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulrich, K; Böhme, H; Daenicke, R; Halle, I; Flachowsky, G

    2001-01-01

    During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future. The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The results of the analysed corn samples as well as of the silage samples illustrated substantial equivalence in all investigated ingredients, such as crude nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and non-starch polysaccharides. The results of the experiments using poultry, pigs, wethers and fattening bulls were not influenced by the genetic modification of corn. The determined values for the digestibilities and the energy contents for poultry, pigs and wethers were not affected by the used corn variety. Neither the examined parameters of the fattening experiments with bulls nor the slaughter results showed any significant differences between the bulls fed on silages made from the nontransgenic or transgenic corn.

  2. Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochhar, H.P.S.; Gifford, G.A.; Kahn, S.

    2005-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from

  3. Quantitative analysis of penicillins in porcine tissues, milk and animal feed using derivatisation with piperidine and stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holthoon, Frédérique; Mulder, Patrick P J; van Bennekom, Eric O; Heskamp, Henri; Zuidema, Tina; van Rhijn, Hans J A

    2010-04-01

    Penicillins are used universally in both human and veterinary medicine. The European Union (EU) has established maximum residue levels (MRLs) for most ss-lactam antibiotics in milk and animal tissues and included them in the National Residue Monitoring Programs. In this study, a novel method is described for the determination and confirmation of eight penicillins in porcine tissues, milk and animal feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To prevent degradation of penicillin residues during workup, a derivatisation procedure was developed, by which penicillins were converted to stable piperidine derivatives. Deuterated piperidine derivatives were synthesised for all relevant penicillins, enabling the use of isotope dilution for accurate quantification. Penicillin residues were derivatised in the crude extract with piperidine and isolated using solid-phase extraction. The penicillin piperidine derivatives were determined by LC-MS/MS. The method was validated at the current MRLs, which range from 25-300 microg kg(-1) in muscle and kidney to 4-30 microg kg(-1) in milk as well as at the target value of 100 microg kg(-1) chosen for animal feed, according to the EU requirements for a quantitative confirmatory method. Accuracy ranged from 94-113% (muscle), 83-111% (kidney) and 87-103% (milk) to 88-116% (animal feed). Intra-day precision (relative standard deviation (RSD)(r)) ranged from 5-13% (muscle, n = 18), 4-17% (kidney, n = 7) and 5-18% (milk, n = 7) to 11-32% (animal feed, n = 18). Inter-day precision (RSD(RL), n = 18) ranged from 6-23% (muscle) to 11-36% (animal feed). From the results, it was concluded that the method was fit for purpose at the target MRLs in animal tissue and target levels for animal feed.

  4. Definition of key parameters for constructing an online reference micrographs collection of processed animal particles in feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinchon Crespo, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Reference Laboratory for the detection of animal proteins in feedingstuffs (EURL-AP has developed an online micrographs collection supporting its network activities within the European Union for the detection of prohibited animal by-products in feed. So far, the only official method for detecting these by-products is light microscopy, which is highly dependent on the skills of a microscopist because it relies on particle recognition. In order to help the microscopist network to achieve high proficiency levels, it was necessary to create an online reference tool based on micrographs and accessible via an Intranet platform. Members of the National Reference Laboratories for animal proteins in feedingstuffs (NRL-AP and the International Association for Feedingstuff Analysis – Section Feedingstuff Microscopy (IAG have access to this micrographs collection. This paper describes how the online collection was created and what conditions had to be taken into account in creating such a tool. It also describes how information are periodically updated and managed within the context of the large amount of information included in each micrograph. The need for a robust back-office system as the foundation for all the research activities in this project is also covered, and the evaluation of the use of the online collection is discussed.

  5. A review of nutritional and toxicological implications of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) meal in animal feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, T O; Odunsi, A A; Akinfala, E O

    2016-04-01

    The nutrient-rich defatted castor meal has been tested as a potential source of protein in diets of many livestock species but has limitation due to challenges of toxins. This review was conducted to compile the relevant research information on advances in the use of raw and differently processed castor seed meal in animal feed. In this article, distribution and uses of castor and its products were identified. Research findings on the nutrients profile, principal toxins, various detoxification strategies, nutritional value and toxicity on common livestock species were compiled and reviewed. The defatted seed meal had crude protein range of 32-48%, gross energy of about 3200 kcal/kg. Ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, and the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g. The meal had high activity of lectin, which produced agglutination at about 4.70 mg/ml minimum assays. Reports of detoxification strategies showed varying degrees of success but high pH, moist heating and microbial techniques appeared to exert greater effect on deactivating ricin. Detoxification strategy for the allergen component is inconclusive. Tannins and the phenolic contents were present at trace level and did not constitute notable threat. It was concluded that castor seed holds great potential as feedstuff when upgraded but such upgrading must be safe, cost-effective and labour efficient for commercial acceptability. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. MANUFACTURING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A COMPATIBLE UNIT TO PRODUCE ANIMAL FEED PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to manufacture and evaluate a compatible unit including mixing and pelleting to produce Rabbit feed pellets formula in one operation. The compatible was evaluated under operating parameters including four different retention time (2,3.5,4 and 5min and four L/D ratio (5:1 5.5:1, 6:1 and 6.5:1 were investigated under the above mentioned parameters. The optimum results compatible unit were die L/D ratio of 5.5:1, 3.5min of mixing retention time, and rollers teeth width of 10mm. 427.87kg/h production rate 37.96 kW.h/ton energy requirement.88.29% mixing efficiency, 0.671gm/cm3 bulk density, 93.21% durability, 49.01N hardiness, and 566.36 LE/ton using residues formulation including black seed meal.

  7. Radiation-sensitivities and DNA homology of radiation-resistant. Acinetobacter strains isolated from ingredient of animal feeds such as fish meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Seven typical strains belonging to genus Acinetobacter were isolated from fish meals and bone meals. Guanin + cytosine contents of DNA of these strains were ranged to be 41 to 45%. Many taxonomic characteristics of strains of F1, F14, F50, B4 and J5 were similar to A. radioresistens FO-1, and DNA homology values were obtained to be 71 to 92% compared with 100% of A. radioresistens FO-1. On the contrary, strains of J16 and J22 had similar characteristics with A. calcoaceticus ATCC23055 and also each DNA homology values were obtained to be 37% compared with A. radioresistens FO-1. Their D 10 values of strains F1, F14, F50, B4 and J5 in gamma-rays under air-equilibrium were also obtained to be 0.60 to 1.70 kGy as similar radiation-resistance with 1.70 kGy of A. radioresistens FO-1. However, D 10 values of J16 and J22 were obtained to be 0.35 kGy as similar to 0.12 kGy of A. calcoaceticus ATCC23055. (author)

  8. Equivalence testing using existing reference data: An example with genetically modified and conventional crops in animal feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, Hilko; Goedhart, Paul W; Schmidt, Kerstin

    2017-11-01

    An equivalence testing method is described to assess the safety of regulated products using relevant data obtained in historical studies with assumedly safe reference products. The method is illustrated using data from a series of animal feeding studies with genetically modified and reference maize varieties. Several criteria for quantifying equivalence are discussed, and study-corrected distribution-wise equivalence is selected as being appropriate for the example case study. An equivalence test is proposed based on a high probability of declaring equivalence in a simplified situation, where there is no between-group variation, where the historical and current studies have the same residual variance, and where the current study is assumed to have a sample size as set by a regulator. The method makes use of generalized fiducial inference methods to integrate uncertainties from both the historical and the current data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [Animal nutrition for veterinarians--actual cases: tulip bulbs with leaves (Tulipa gesneriana)--an unusual and high risk plant for ruminant feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P; Blanke, H J; Wohlsein, P; Kamphues, J; Stöber, M

    2003-07-01

    14 cattle (mainly younger ones) of a total of 50 extensively kept Galloways died within 6 weeks in late winter 2001/02. According to the owner's report, grass growth had been rather poor; therefore, the herd was fed additionally hay as well as large amounts of tulip onions. In the microbiological examination a highly reduced hygienic quality of the roughage could be detected. In the rumen contents of two dissected young cattle parts of tulip onions were found. According to pertinent literature, tulip onions (in particular their external layers) contain variant-specific amounts of anti-nutritive substances; main active agents are tulipin (a glycoprotein), tuliposid A and B, and lectins. They may cause intensive mucosal irritation, accompanied by reduced feed digestion and body-weight gains, drooling, vomiting and diarrhea. This case report underlines risks caused by feeding of plants originally not destined as forage, if their active ingredients and effects are unknown or remain unconsidered.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF FEED FOR UNPRODUCTIVE ANIMALS WITH THE HELP OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Alekseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a new approach to improve the resource saving in the production of pet food through the use of secondary raw materials and optimal food recipes provided by mathematical modeling on the basis of fuzzy logic device. Unstable quality indicators of raw materials and the interaction between the components of the mixture make it more difficult to construct a complete mathematical model. That is why modeling of recipes for unproductive animals food is carried out by means of fuzzy logic device. The advantage of this method is the ability to carry out the analysis, in a subjective evaluation of empirical data and the absence of an explicit numerical form of result. The advantages of these systems are particularly bright when designing multicomponent food products, where the uncertainty of input and output parameters is high and the quality is assessed by sensory analysis. Fuzzy logic device allows to improve the quality of objects management, to determine the optimal ratio of recipe components when designing new types of multicomponent dry food products and to reduce the number of experiments. Moreover it provides the opportunity to improve the production management and the finished product control quality in conditions of information uncertainty, which is typical for real production in food industries. To implement the proposed method, we used the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox module, included in the MatLab package, and to represent the modeling results graphically, we used the Surfase Viewer module. The analytical calculations and experimental results showing the efficiency of the proposed method for different gender groups of animals are given.

  11. Nutritional content of modular feeds: how accurate is feed production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sharon; Daly, Anne; Ashmore, Catherine; Gokmen-Ozel, Hulya; Dileva, Rosemary; Dumbleton, Belinda; Chahal, Satnam; Macdonald, Anita

    2013-03-01

    This prospective, observational study examined the accuracy of modular feed preparation for children with complex medical conditions requiring specialist feeds. Participants who regularly prepare special feeds at home were observed preparing two feeds with equivalent nutrient composition: a 2-ingredient (2-IF) and 6-ingredient feed (6-IF) under research-conditions, and 8 weeks later under home-conditions. The same feeds (2-IF and 6-IF) prepared by a trained feed-maker served as controls. Biochemical analysis of nutrient content was performed as an objective measure of feed preparation accuracy. 52 participants were studied: one patient and 51 caregivers. Biochemical nutrient analysis was inaccurate for both feeds including control-feeds but was better for the 2-IF. Both feeds were lower in fat than the expected calculation but more so in the 6-IF than the 2-IF (median: 34% vs 84% of calculated research-condition values and 66% vs 90% home-conditions; pfeeds there was equipment inaccuracy, poor ingredient emulsification and ingredient residue left in mixing/measuring containers. Fewer errors occurred with powdered than liquid ingredients. Many errors associated with special feed production are difficult to control. Carers of children with complex medical conditions require improved preparation equipment and techniques and the development of premeasured or combined ingredient preparations to maximise feed accuracy and minimise clinical risk.

  12. Chemical and biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feed suitable for production of high-quality meat from farm animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburina, M. I.; Ivankin, A. N.; Stanovova, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    The process of chemical biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feeds for effective pig rearing was studied. Protein components of feeds were obtained as a result of hydrolysis in the presence of lactic acid of the animal collagen from secondary raw materials, which comprised subcutaneous collagen (cuticle), skin and veined mass with tendons from cattle. For comparison, a method is described for preparing protein components of feeds by cultivating Lactobacillus plantarum. Analysis of the kinetic data of the conversion of a high-molecular collagen protein to an aminolyte polypeptide mixture showed the advantage of microbiological synthesis in obtaining a protein for feeds. Feed formulations have been developed to include the components obtained, and which result in high quality pork suitable for the production of quality meat products.

  13. Encapsulated whey-native yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus as a feed additive for animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vergara, Ladislao; Pereyra, Carina Maricel; Montenegro, Mariana; Pena, Gabriela Alejandra; Aminahuel, Carla Ayelen; Cavaglieri, Lilia R

    2017-05-01

    Whey is the main byproduct of the cheese industry. While the composition is variable, it retains up to 55% of milk nutrients. The beneficial features of whey indicates a promising source of new potentially probiotic strains for the development of food additives destined for animal production. The aim of this study was to identify Kluyveromyces spp. isolated from whey, to study some probiotic properties and to select the best strain to be encapsulated using derivatised chitosan. Kluyveromyces marxianus strains (VM003, VM004 and VM005) were isolated from whey and identified by phenotypic and molecular techniques. These three yeast strains were able to survive under gastrointestinal conditions. Moreover, they exhibited weak auto-aggregation and co-aggregation with pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp., Serratia sp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium). In general the K. marxianus strains had a strong antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. The potential probiotic K. marxianus VM004 strain was selected for derivatised-chitosan encapsulation. Material treated with native chitosan exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity of K. marxianus, showing a total growth inhibition at 10 min exposure. However, derivatised-chitosan encapsulation showed a reduced antimicrobial activity. This is the first study to show some probiotic properties of whey-native K. marxianus, in vitro. An encapsulation strategy was applied using derivatised chitosan.

  14. Social behaviour of dogs encountering AIBO, an animal-like robot in a neutral and in a feeding situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Miklósi, Adám; Kaplan, Frédéric; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József; Csányi, Vilmos

    2004-03-31

    The use of animal-like autonomous robots might offer new possibilities in the study of animal interactions, if the subject recognises it as a social partner. In this paper we investigate whether AIBO, a dog-like robot of the Sony Corp. can be used for this purpose. Twenty-four adult and sixteen 4-5 months old pet dogs were tested in two situations where subjects encountered one of four different test-partners: (1) a remote controlled car; (2) an AIBO robot; (3) AIBO with a puppy-scented furry cover; and (4) a 2-month-old puppy. In the neutral situation the dog could interact freely with one of the partners for 1 min in a closed arena in the presence of its owner. In the feeding situation the encounters were started while the dog was eating food. Our results show that age and context influence the social behaviour of dogs. Further, we have found that although both age groups differentiated the living and non-living test-partners for some extent, the furry AIBO evoked significantly increased responses in comparison to the car. These experiments show the first steps towards the application of robots in behavioural studies, notwithstanding that at present AIBO's limited ability to move constrains its effectiveness as social partner for dogs.

  15. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  16. A novel FT-IR spectroscopic method based on lipid characteristics for qualitative and quantitative analysis of animal-derived feedstuff adulterated with ruminant ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Zhou, Simiao; Han, Lujia; Yang, Zengling; Liu, Xian

    2017-12-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the ability of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to authenticate adulterated animal-derived feedstuff. A total of 18 raw meat and bone meals (MBMs), including 9 non-ruminant MBMs and 9 ruminant MBMs, were mixed to obtain 81 binary mixtures with specific proportions (1-35%). Lipid spectral characteristics were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. Changes in FT-IR spectra were observed as adulterant concentration was varied. The results illustrate ruminant adulteration can be successfully distinguished based on lipid characteristics. PLS model was established to quantify ruminant adulteration, which was shown to be valid (R 2 P >0.90). Furthermore, the ratios of CC/CO and CC/CH(CH 2 ), as well as the number of CH(CH 2 ) in the fatty acids of adulterated lipids, were calculated, which showed that differences in the trans fatty acid content and the degree of unsaturation were the main contributors to determination of adulteration based on FT-IR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Validation of an open-formula, diagnostic real-time PCR method for 20-hr detection of Salmonella in animal feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of a 20-hr, non-commercial, open-formula PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL 187, for detection of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) on 8.......6%, respectively. This method is the fastest open PCR based analysis protocol for detection of Salmonella in feed samples. Implementing rapid methods such as the one validated in this study can speed up Salmonella testing of feed for food-producing animals...... artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water for 16 ± 2 h followed by a magnetic beads based semi automated DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis, including an internal amplification control. The limit of detection (LOD...

  18. Effects of pretreatment of wheat bran on the quality of protein-rich residue for animal feeding and on monosaccharide release for ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Kabel, M.A.; Briens, M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of hydrothermal conditions for pretreating wheat bran on the quality of residual protein for animal feeding, and on monosaccharide release for ethanol production were studied according to a 4 × 2 × 2 design with the factors, temperature (120, 140, 160, and 180 °C), acidity (pH 2.3 and

  19. Banned antibacterial growth promoters in animal feed: Collaborative trial on the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method developed in the feedstuffs-radius project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poucke, C.V.; Dumoulin, F.; Yakkundi, S.; Situ, C.; Elliott, C.T.; Grutters, E.M.; Verheijen, R.; Schilt, R.; Eriksson, S.; Peteghem, C.V.

    2006-01-01

    A chemical confirmation method for the identification and quantification of five banned antibacterial growth promoters (AGPs) in animal feed was developed and in-house validated as part of the European Feedstuffs-RADIUS project [1]. To complete the validation process a collaborative trial was

  20. Terra Incognita: Absence of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations from the National Land Cover Database and Implications for Environmental Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K. L.; Emanuel, R. E.; Vose, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The number of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has increased rapidly in recent decades. Although important to food supplies, CAFOs may present significant risks to human health and environmental quality. The National land cover database (NLCD) is a publically available database of land cover whose purpose is to provide assessment of ecosystem health, facilitate nutrient modeling, land use planning, and developing land management practices. However, CAFOs do not align with any existing NLCD land cover classes. This is especially concerning due to their distinct nutrient loading characteristics, potential for other environmental impacts, and given that individual CAFOs may occupy several NLCD pixels worth of ground area. Using 2011 NLCD data, we examined the land cover classification of CAFO sites in North Carolina (USA). Federal regulations require CAFOs with a liquid waste disposal system to obtain a water quality permit. In North Carolina, there were 2679 permitted sites as of 2015, primarily in the southeastern part of the state. As poultry operations most frequently use dry waste disposal systems, they are not required to obtain a permit and thus, their locations are undocumented. For each permitted CAFO, we determined the mode of the NLCD land uses within a 50m buffer surrounding point coordinates. We found permitted CAFOS were most likely to be classified as hay/pasture (58%). An additional 13% were identified as row crops, leaving 29% as a non-agricultural land cover class, including wetlands (12%). This misclassification of CAFOs can have implications for environmental management and public policy. Scientists and land managers need access to better spatial data on the distribution of these operations to monitor the environmental impacts and identify the best landscape scale mitigation strategies. We recommend adding a new land cover class (concentrated animal operations) to the NLCD database.

  1. Surf or Turf: How shifting from animal feed to food production could reduce nutrient loading to the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S. D.

    2004-12-01

    The use of nitrogen fertilizers on croplands in central U.S. is commonly blamed for the increase in nitrogen export by the Mississippi River since the 1950s and the emergence of the large seasonal hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico. The majority of production of the major Mississippi Basin crops like corn and soybean is currently used as animal feed rather than directly for human food. This study uses U.S. Department of Agriculture inventory data and nutrient cycling models to investigate how replacing the meat protein produced from Mississippi croplands with vegetable protein would affect nutrient inputs to Mississippi Basin and nitrogen loading to the Gulf of Mexico. The results show that a shift to only vegetable, dairy and some poultry production from Mississippi Basin croplands could produce the same amount of dietary protein with less than half the current land and nutrient demands. These changes would reduce the annual export of nitrate-nitrogen by the Mississippi River to a consistently low level at which hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico has historically been small or non-existent.

  2. Human and veterinary pharmaceutical abundance and transport in a rural central Indiana stream influenced by confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, Melody J; Smith, Lora; Frey, Jeff

    2013-02-15

    Previous research has documented the ubiquity of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in freshwater, though their persistence and transport is relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the abundance and transport of human and veterinary PPCPs in a rural, central Indiana stream influenced by confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Research objectives also aimed to identify mechanisms controlling abundance and transport. PPCP concentrations and stream physicochemical characteristics were measured monthly over one year at multiple sites along a 60 km reach. Overall, human PPCPs were more abundant and measured at higher concentrations than veterinary pharmaceuticals. Veterinary pharmaceutical concentrations (lincomycin, sulfamethazine) were greatest in stream reaches adjacent to CAFOs. No distinct spatial variation was observed for human PPCPs. However, caffeine and paraxanthine had significant temporal variation with higher concentrations in winter. In contrast, DEET had higher concentrations in summer. Pharmaceutical load (μg/s) ranged fromcaffeine are transported farther than triclosan though had lower loss velocities (loss relative to abundance). Loss rate of PPCPs was an order of magnitude lower than nitrate-N loss rate. Human PPCPs were more abundant than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this rural watershed influenced by CAFOs. Further, concentrations had significant temporal and spatial variation highlighting differential sources and fates. Thus, mechanisms driving PPCP retention and transport need to be identified to aid management of these emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Proposed Food and Drug Administration protective action guides for human food and animal feed: methods and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.D.; Shleien, B.; Chiacchierini, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's proposed recommendations to State and local agencies provide guidance on appropriate planning actions necessary for evaluating and preventing radioactive contamination of foods and animal feeds and the control and use of such products should they become contaminated. This presentation will cover the recommendations on implementation of the Preventive and Emergency PAG's. These recommendations include (1) the use of 'Dietary Factors' to obtain PAG's for specific food items from the general guidance, (2) procedures to be used for radionuclide mixtures and other radionuclides, (3) field and laboratory methods for the measurement of the level of contamination in the event of an incident and, (4) protective actions to be implemented by State and local agencies to limit the radiation dose to the public. Specific protective actions which should be considered for implementation when the projected dose exceeds the Preventive PAG are given for application to pasture, milk, fruits and vegetables, and grains. At the Emergency PAG level, the protective action decision is whether condemnation or other disposition is appropriate. (author)

  4. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

    1993-10-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

  5. Studies on the control of mold and its toxin in indirect foods(animal feeds) by radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Duck Hwa; Shim, Won Bo; Cho, Sik Bee; Nimakashim; Song, Jung Un

    2010-04-01

    For determining susceptibility of the hazard fungi in feed to radiation, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mycotoxin free feed and reconfirm liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection of mycotoxin. The growth of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi in the feeds were completely inhibited at > 3 kGy of both radiations, and the zearalenone producing fungi in the feeds was controlled at > 5 kGy of both radiations. The growth and mycotoxin productivity of three fungi (aflatoxigenic, ochratoxigenic and zearalenone producing fungi) were fully controlled at > 7 kGy of gamma-irradiation. This means that the growth and mycotoxin productivity of fungi in feed could be fully inhibited by gamma-irradiation at > 7 kGy and the safety feed also can produce and preserve by the proper radiation level and hygienic management of feed factory and livestock raiser

  6. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus – effects on animal performance and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Finstad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen reindeer (8 steers and 6 females were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets (a feed mix based on barley, brome hay and soybean meal (SBM or fishmeal (WFM as protein source on animal growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and ultimate meat quality. Samples from free-ranging reindeer (n=4; 2 steers and 2 females on the Seward Peninsula were included to provide comparisons with the traditional reindeer meat produced in Alaska. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM and SBM animals or between females and steers; however, the feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher for the reindeer fed the WFM mix. Carcass dressing percentage from the SBM group was higher compared with the WFM animals. No differences were found in live weight, carcass characteristics, meat pH, temperature decline, shear force, meat color or cooking loss when comparing the treatment groups. The meat samples (M. longissimus from the free-range group had the highest amount of omega-3 fatty acids and also the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Meat from the animals fed SBM was significantly higher in triglyceride content and lower in phospholipid content compared with the two other groups. No significant differences were found when the trained panel compared the sensory attributes of the meat. Off-flavor attributes related to “wild’ or “gamey” flavor was reported by consumers for samples from the WFM and free-range reindeer (15 and 24 per cent of the consumers, respectively. No “fish-related” flavor was reported. In conclusion, no negative effects in either animal performance or meat quality characteristics by using fish meal as opposed to soybean meal as a protein supplement in a milled reindeer diet were found.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Utfordring av ren med soja- eller fiskmjøl – effekter på tillväxt, foderutnyttjande och köttkvalitet I vår unders

  7. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can limit the growth of desirable aquatic plants in surface waters and protect disease-causing microorganisms. Pesticides & Hormones Researchers have associated pesticides and hormones with ...

  8. Feasibility of feeding yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) in bioregenerative life support systems as a source of animal protein for humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, LeYuan; Zhao, ZhiRuo; Liu, Hong

    2013-11-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems, using inedible plant biomass to feed animals can provide animal protein for astronauts, while at the same time treating with wastes so as to increase the degree of system closure. In this study, the potential of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) as an animal candidate in the system was analyzed. The feasibility of feeding T. molitor with inedible parts of wheat and vegetable was studied. To improve the feed quality of wheat straw, three methods of fermentation were tested. A feeding regime was designed to contain a proper proportion of bran, straw and old leaves. The results showed that T. molitor larvae fed on the plant waste diets grew healthily, their fresh and dry weight reached 56.15% and 46.76% of the larvae fed on a conventional diet (control), respectively. The economic coefficient of the larvae was 16.07%, which was 88.05% of the control. The protein and fat contents of the larvae were 76.14% and 6.44% on dry weigh basis, respectively. Through the processes of facultative anaerobic fermentation and larval consumption, the straw lost about 47.79% of the initial dry weight, and its lignocellulose had a degradation of about 45.74%. Wheat germination test indicated that the frass of T. molitor needs a certain treatment before the addition to the cultivation substrate.

  9. Simultaneous determination of fifteen illegal dyes in animal feeds and poultry products by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongyuan; Hei, Wenjing; He, Pingli; Li, Zhen

    2011-08-15

    With the increasing presence of illegal dyes, such as sudan reds and malachite green, in animal feeds and food products during the last few years, there is an urgent need of accurate quantitative determination methods for these illicit compounds. Here we established an accurate method for the simultaneous determination of 15 illegal dyes in animal feeds, meat, eggs and other food products using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with a simple procedure using acetonitrile and solid phase extraction cleaning up. The application of C(18) rapid column can achieve satisfactory separation of the 15 dyes within 16 min; and multiple reaction monitoring of positive ions ensure confirmative detection of these illegal dyes. With the developed method, a sample can be analyzed in less than 2h. Dyes spiked in feeds, poultry meat and eggs in the range of 0.1-5.0 mg kg(-1) were tested in terms of linearity, sensitivity, repeatability and recovery. Recoveries for the compounds ranged from 60 to 140%. Intra- and inter-day precisions (RSDs) were less than 15%. Limit of quantification ranged from 0.01 to 5.61 μg kg(-1) for different dyes. The developed UHPLC-MS/MS method could be used as a qualitative and quantitative technique for the simultaneous determination of illegal dyes in animal feeds and poultry products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  11. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  12. 100% Organic Poultry Feed: Can Algae Replace Soybean Expeller in Organic Broiler Diets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Gerrard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current EU regulations allow 5% of feed for organic poultry to come from non-organic production. This is due to concerns about a 100% organic diet meeting the requirements for specific amino acids such as methionine. This exception is due to end on 31st December 2017. While this may match consumer expectations, protein sourced from global organic production may have a negative impact on perceptions of organic poultry in other ways. Soybean is a commonly used ingredient in poultry feed but soybean production has negative environmental and social impacts. Consumers may also prefer organic poultry to have been fed on locally produced feed and, indeed, this would be in line with organic principles. Preliminary feasibility feed trials were carried out during a summer and a winter season using organic broilers in the UK to test three 100% organic feeds: a control diet with globally sourced ingredients including soybean expeller, a diet based on locally sourced (i.e. within Europe organic ingredients, and a diet based on locally sourced organic ingredients and algae (a good source of methionine. The results of the summer feed trial showed that there were no significant differences in broiler weight gains. In the winter feed trial differences were found. There was a significant difference (P = 0.034 in weight gain between the local feed (lower weight gain and the local feed with algae but no significant difference between the control diet with soybean and the two local diets. These preliminary feed trials indicate that there is no significant impact on broiler performance or animal welfare parameters when replacing soybean with European protein sources, possibly including algae, suggesting that, although the research is still at a very early stage, such feeds may be a viable option for 100% organic poultry feed in the future.

  13. Propolis extract in the diet of crossbred (½ Angus vs. ½ Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the replacement of monensin by propolis on performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristic of bulls finished in feedlot. The bulls, kept in feedlot for 70 days, were allocated in three diets: Control (CON, Monensin (MON and Propolis (PRO. They were fed on corn silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Further, 250 mg monensin and 35 g propolis/bulls/day were included respectively in the MON and PRO diets. Animal performance and carcass characteristics were similar (P>0.05 among diets. Feed intake was higher (P0.05 urinary excretion, microbial synthesis and carcass characteristics.

  14. Domestic Animal Hosts Strongly Influence Human-Feeding Rates of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Cecere, María C.; Vázquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Gurevitz, Juan M.; Fernández, María del Pilar; Kitron, Uriel; Cohen, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The host species composition in a household and their relative availability affect the host-feeding choices of blood-sucking insects and parasite transmission risks. We investigated four hypotheses regarding factors that affect blood-feeding rates, proportion of human-fed bugs (human blood index), and daily human-feeding rates of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease. Methods A cross-sectional survey collected triatomines in human sleeping quarters (domiciles) of 49...

  15. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  16. 9 CFR 318.6 - Requirements concerning ingredients and other articles used in preparation of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and other articles used in preparation of products. 318.6 Section 318.6 Animals and Animal Products... ingredients and other articles used in preparation of products. (a) All ingredients and other articles used in... products. (11) (12) Ingredients for use in any product may not bear or contain any pesticide chemical or...

  17. Defatted corn-germ flour as an ingredient in swine feed and a source of endogenous antioxidants in porkFarelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado como ingrediente na dieta de suínos e fonte de antioxidante endógeno na carne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero da Silva Agostini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of including defatted corn-germ flour (DCGF, a source of phytic acid, as an ingredient in pig feed for different periods in the growing-finishing phase were evaluated with respect to feed performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. The test group consisted of 24 male pigs from the same genetic background, with an average initial weight of 75.41±4.41 kg and an average age of 123 days. The treatments consisted of adding 50% DCGF to the feed at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days before slaughter. The zootechnical performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and antioxidant effects of phytic acid were evaluated through the analysis of lipid oxidation in the meat of the slaughtered animals. There were no effects (P>0.05 for any period of DCGF feed supplementation on the zootechnical performance or carcass characteristics. Refrigerated meat showed less oxidation as the length of the DCGF-inclusion period in the diet was increased.O experimento avaliou os efeitos de diferentes períodos de inclusão do farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado (FGMD, como ingrediente e fonte de ácido fítico em rações de suínos em fase de terminação, sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e qualidade da carne. Foram utilizados 24 suínos machos de mesma genética comercial com peso médio inicial de 75,41 ± 4,41 kg e idade média de 123 dias. Os tratamentos corresponderam a inclusão de 50% de FGMD na ração nos períodos de 0, 7, 14 e 21 dias antes ao abate. Foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico, as características de carcaça e de qualidade da carne e o efeito antioxidante do ácido fítico, através da análise de oxidação lipídica na carne. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos (peso inicial dos animais ao acaso, com 4 tratamentos e 6 repetições por tratamento. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 do tempo de inclusão do FGMD na dieta no desempenho zootécnico e nas características de carcaça. Na qualidade de carne

  18. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Paula Bergamin

    2012-01-01

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 ± 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the

  19. Free-range pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Effect of feeding strategy on growth, feed conversion and animal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Horsted, Klaus; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional contributions from free-range foraging, growth, feed conversion and behaviour were investigated in 36 growing pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (JA) and fed concentrates restrictedly (30% of energy recommendations) or ad libitum. Compared to the ad libitum fed pigs, the pigs fed...

  20. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations > 1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (> 1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R2 = 0.56–0.81) and E2Eq (R2 = 0.39–0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R2 = 0.27–0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

  1. Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, X; Brossard, L; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Edwards, S A; Meunier-Salaün, M C

    2012-08-01

    A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P < 0.05). At reduced feeder space allowance, a reduction in the percentage of time spent eating was predicted when increasing initial BW, whereas the opposite was predicted for larger feeder space allowances (P < 0.001). The reduction in visit duration to the feeder in higher BW groups became gradually more important with increasing feeder space allowance (P < 0.01), whereas the increase in the ingestion rate and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with increasing initial BW became smaller with increasing feeder space (P < 0.05). The model predicted a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) with increasing group size (P < 0.05) and floor space allowance (P < 0.01) and on solid floors with or without bedding (P < 0.05). In comparison with other feeders, wet/dry feeders were associated with more frequent but shorter feeder visits (P < 0.05), higher ingestion rates (P < 0.001) and higher ADFI (P < 0.10). The use of protection within individual feeders increased the time spent feeding (P < 0.001), reduced the number of visits per day (P < 0.01), the ingestion rate (P < 0.001) and FCR (P < 0.01) in comparison with other feeder types. Sex

  2. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  3. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 3: diversion of crops grown for human consumption to animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Wilkins, B.T.; Nisbet, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    This report forms part of a series describing a study to evaluate selected options for the management of food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. This report considers the scope for the redirection of contaminated foods grown for human consumption to animal feeds and addresses whether crops grown for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for animal production systems; what the likely impact on contamination levels in animal products is; whether amounts of waste food could be reduced in the event of a nuclear accident; and whether the option is acceptable to the farming industry, retail trade and consumers. The study identified that foods intended for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for beef cattle and sheep and, to a limited extent, for breeding sows but it is essential that a suitable nutritional balance is maintained. The scope to provide suitable alternative diets is, however, limited and is dependent upon the time of year at which the deposition occurs. If crops were contaminated at the relevant CFIL, not all of the alternative diets considered would result in animal products that were below the corresponding CFIL value, thus limiting any benefit in implementing the option. Except possibly in the most extreme of circumstances, this management option would not be considered acceptable by consumers or by the retail trade and farmers would only implement such a measure if there was a suitable market for the resultant produce. This work was undertaken under the Environmental Assessments Department and Emergency Response Group's Quality Management System, which has been approved by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance to the Quality Management Standards ISO 9001:2000 and TickIT Guide Issue 5, certificate number 956546. (author)

  4. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 3: diversion of crops grown for human consumption to animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.; Wilkins, B.T.; Nisbet, A.F

    2002-07-01

    This report forms part of a series describing a study to evaluate selected options for the management of food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. This report considers the scope for the redirection of contaminated foods grown for human consumption to animal feeds and addresses whether crops grown for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for animal production systems; what the likely impact on contamination levels in animal products is; whether amounts of waste food could be reduced in the event of a nuclear accident; and whether the option is acceptable to the farming industry, retail trade and consumers. The study identified that foods intended for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for beef cattle and sheep and, to a limited extent, for breeding sows but it is essential that a suitable nutritional balance is maintained. The scope to provide suitable alternative diets is, however, limited and is dependent upon the time of year at which the deposition occurs. If crops were contaminated at the relevant CFIL, not all of the alternative diets considered would result in animal products that were below the corresponding CFIL value, thus limiting any benefit in implementing the option. Except possibly in the most extreme of circumstances, this management option would not be considered acceptable by consumers or by the retail trade and farmers would only implement such a measure if there was a suitable market for the resultant produce. This work was undertaken under the Environmental Assessments Department and Emergency Response Group's Quality Management System, which has been approved by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance to the Quality Management Standards ISO 9001:2000 and TickIT Guide Issue 5, certificate number 956546. (author)

  5. Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans from Kelp and Copper Sulfate: Initial Investigations of Dioxin Formation in Mineral Feed Supplements (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, dioxins were discovered in animal feed ingredients during a random sampling by Irish officials and subsequently traced to particular mineral supplements produced at a Minnesota plant in the United States. These products sold under the names of SQM Mineral Products and C...

  6. Trace analysis of doxylamine succinate in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater by GC using a rubidium-sensitized nitrogen detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Bowman, M.C.

    1982-08-01

    Doxylamine succinate, a drug used as a sleep-inducing agent, an antihistamine, and in a therapeutic formulation taken by pregnant women as an antinauseant, was scheduled for toxicological evaluation as part of a structure activity relationship study, with rats and mice, because a deficiency of such data exists with regard to many antihistamines. Analytical chemical procedures that ensure proper concentration, homogeneity, and stability of the drug in dosed feed, as well as the safety of personnel and the environment, were prerequisites for the toxicological tests. GC methods using a rubidium-sensitized nitrogen detector were developed for analysis of doxylamine succinate in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater at levels as low as 1 ppm, 100 ppb, and 100 ppb, respectively. Sample extracts were cleaned up by liquid-liquid partitioning, followed by additional cleanup on a column of silica gel. Data are presented concerning the stability of the drug in animal feed, extraction efficiencies, and the use of the silica gel cleanup column to separate the caffeine interference from doxylamine in extracts of human urine. Partition values and ancillary data concerning analysis of the drug in feed, by HPLC at levels as low as 10 ppm, are also reported.

  7. Application of Neutron Activation Analysis to the determination of essential and toxic elements in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, Carla Mitie

    1999-01-01

    In the present work the concentrations of essential elements Ca (calcium), CI (chlorine), K (potassium), Mg (magnesium), Na (sodium), Co (cobalt), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), Fe (iron), Mn (manganese). Mo (molybdenum), Se (selenium), V (vanadium) and Zn (zinc), the toxic elements As (arsenic), Cd (cadmium) and Hg (mercury) and the elements without defined functions to the animal metabolism, such as Br (bromine), Eu (europium). La (lanthanum), Rb (rubidium), Sb (antinomies), Sc (scandium), Ta (tantalum), Th (thorium) and U (uranium) were determined in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Forty samples of agroindustrial by-products were analyzed, six of which are from animal origin and the others are from vegetable origin. All these materials are widely used in bovine feeding, mainly in dry season, when the forage become scarce. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated by means of analysis of the following certified reference materials: Rice Flour NIES-CRM-10C, Pig Kidney BCR-CRM, Oyster Tissue NIST-SRM-1566a e Buffalo River Sediment NIST-SRM-2704. The results, in general, are lower than 10 %. The results for the most of essential minerals were lower than the toxic limit for animals, and they reached the minimum requirements for domestic animals, although some agroindustrial by-products showed concentrations lower than the requirement. For all samples, the concentrations of toxic minerals were lower than the toxic limit (author)

  8. Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zhizeng Wang,1 Dejuan Zhi,2 Yang Zhao,1 Hailong Zhang,2 Xin Wang,2 Yi Ru,1 Hongyu Li1,2 1MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Institute of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Although high melamine (MEL intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 µg/kg, 1,000 µg/kg, and 800 µg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. Keywords: melamine, selenium nanoparticles, test strip, milk, animal feed, dairy food

  9. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of beta-agonists in animal feed and drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, C; Igualada, C; Moragues, F; León, N; Mañes, J

    2010-09-24

    A reproducible, sensitive and selective multiresidue analytical method for seven beta-agonists: clenbuterol (CBT), clenpenterol (CPT), ractopamine (RTP), brombuterol (BBT), mabuterol (MBT), mapenterol (MPT), and hydroxymethylclenbuterol (HMCBT) was developed and validated by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in feed and drinking water samples. The validation was achieved according to the criteria laid down in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, however it was necessary to use minimum required performance limits (MRPLs) proposed by the Community Reference Laboratories (CRLs) due to the lack of maximum residue limits (MRLs) for beta-agonists. By setting up these MRPLs, allows controlling their use in safe mode, since beta-agonists are commonly used in veterinary medicine sometime in a fraudulent manner, for increasing the weigh of animals. Values set for both matrices studied are 50 microg/kg for animal feed, and a range from 0.2 to 10 microg/L for drinking water. CCalpha values calculated were under the MRPLs suggested; for drinking water the lowest value obtained was 0.12 microg/L, and for animal feed 0.87 microg/kg. Values for CCbeta were ranged from 0.08 to 0.13 microg/L in drinking water and from 0.5 to 0.92 microg/kg in animal feed samples. The excellence values obtained, allowed us to conclude that the proposed analytical method is capable to control the beta-agonists studied in both matrices and that it can be successfully applied and used as a routine method in laboratories of residue analysis of veterinary food control. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analytical Method for Sugar Profile in Pet Food and Animal Feeds by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, David J; Anderson, Phillip; Berg, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for a standardized, accurate, rugged, and consistent method to measure for sugars in pet foods and animal feeds. Many traditional standard sugar methods exist for other matrixes, but when applied in collaborative studies there was poor agreement and sources of error identified with those standard methods. The advancement in technology over the years has given us the ability to improve on these standard methods of analysis. A method is described here that addresses these common issues and was subjected to a single-laboratory validation to assess performance on a wide variety of pet foods and animal feeds. Of key importance to the method performance is the sample preparation before extraction, type of extraction solvent, postextraction cleanup, and, finally, optimized chromatography using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The results obtained from the validation demonstrate how typical issues seen with these matrixes can influence performance of sugar analysis. The results also demonstrate that this method is fit-for-purpose and can meet the challenges of sugar analysis in pet food and animal feeds to lay the foundation for a standardized method of analysis.

  11. Stress Society Results From Diesel Engine Noise Sound Intensity of Animal Feed Mill Cow: Study Rural Community Pandantoyo Kediri

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, Mochammad Maftuchul; Prasetyowati, Intan Novita Ayu

    2016-01-01

    Noise is audible voice but not desired. Noise becomes the source of the stress. One source of noise in the community is the diesel engine milling cattle feed.The purpose of research to identify the relation of diesel engine noise intensity grinding cattle feed with the level of stress on the society of Pandantoyo village, Ngancar district Kediri regency. The design of the study is case control study with retrospective approach. Sampling technique used purposive sampling with a sample of 20 re...

  12. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to availability of human and domestic animals in suburban landscapes of central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Apperson, Charles S

    2006-05-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major nuisance mosquito and a potential arbovirus vector. The host-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus were investigated during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons in suburban neighborhoods in Wake County, Raleigh, NC. Hosts of blood-fed Ae. albopictus (n = 1,094) were identified with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by using antisera made in New Zealand White rabbits to the sera of animals that would commonly occur in peridomestic habitats. Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on mammalian hosts (83%). Common mammalian hosts included humans (24%), cats (21%), and dogs (14%). However, a notable proportion (7%) of bloodmeals also was taken from avian hosts. Some bloodmeals taken from birds were identified to species by a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay (PCR-HDA). Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on chickens and a northern cardinal. PCR-HDA failed to produce detectable products for 29 (58%) of 50 bloodmeals for which DNA had been amplified, indicating that these mosquitoes took mixed bloodmeals from avian and nonavian hosts. Ae. albopictus preference for humans, dogs, and cats was determined by calculating host-feeding indices for the three host pairs based on the proportion of host specific blood-fed mosquitoes collected in relation to the number of specific hosts per residence as established by a door-to-door survey conducted in 2003. Estimates of the average amount of time that residents and their pets (cats and dogs) spent out of doors were obtained. Host-feeding indices based only on host abundance indicated that Ae. albopictus was more likely to feed on domestic animals. However, when feeding indices were time-weighted, Ae. albopictus fed preferentially upon humans. Ae. albopictus blood feeding on humans was investigated using a STR/PCR-DNA profiling technique that involved amplification of three short tandem repeats loci. Of 40 human bloodmeals, 32 (80%) were from a single human, whereas

  13. Non-feed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for industrial microorganism fe...

  14. The impact of processing on amino acid racemization and protein quality in processed animal proteins of poultry origin

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Bellagamba; Fabio Caprino; Tiziana Mentasti; Mauro Vasconi; Vittorio Maria Moretti

    2015-01-01

    Re-authorization of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in EU, derived from by-products of human food production, could increase manufacturing of proteins for feed ingredients and reduce the need of imported proteins mainly of plant origin. The PAPs production is largely done by the rendering process during which authorized animal by-products are heat treated to extract valuable protein and animal fat, ensuring sterilizing conditions of raw incoming materials. Proteins exposure to certain proces...

  15. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El din, M. D.; Farag, H.; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill.

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab

  16. Bakery by-products based feeds borne-Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with probiotic and antimycotoxin effects plus antibiotic resistance properties for use in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloni, Valeria; Salvato, Lauranne; Pereyra, Carina; Oliveira, Aguida; Rosa, Carlos; Cavaglieri, Lilia; Keller, Kelly Moura

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to select S. cerevisiae strains able to exert probiotic and antimycotoxin effects plus antibiotics resistance properties for use in animal production. S. cerevisiae LL74 and S. cerevisiae LL83 were isolated from bakery by-products intended for use in animal feed and examined for phenotypic characteristics and nutritional profile. Resistance to antibiotic, tolerance to gastrointestinal conditions, autoaggregation and coaggregation assay, antagonism to animal pathogens and aflatoxin B 1 binding were studied. S. cerevisiae LL74 and S. cerevisiae LL83 showed resistance to all the antibiotics assayed (ampicillin, streptomycin, neomycin, norfloxacin, penicillin G, sulfonamide and trimethoprim). The analysis showed that exposure time to acid pH had a significant impact onto the viable cell counts onto both yeast strains. Presence of bile 0.5% increased significantly the growth of the both yeast strains. Moreover, they were able to tolerate the simulated gastrointestinal conditions assayed. In general, the coaggregation was positive whereas the autoaggregation capacity was not observed. Both strains were able to adsorb AFB 1 . In conclusion, selected S. cerevisiae LL74 and S. cerevisiae LL83 have potential application to be used as a biological method in animal feed as antibiotic therapy replacement in, reducing the adverse effects of AFB 1 and giving probiotic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional ingredients from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years

  18. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in African countries. The ruminants in the smallholder sector depend on natural pasture and fibrous crop residues for their survival, growth, reproduction and production. Since quality and quantity of the natural pasture vary with season, animals dependent on it are subjected to nutritional stress in the dry season when feed resources are senesced and in short supply leading to decreased animal productivity. The main objective of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project 11-17 (RAF/5/041) was the improvement of ruminant livestock production in AFRA Member States. It had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'Self-coating Radioimmunoassay' technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The project has developed a number of feed supplementation packages using feed resources available on-farm and by-products from agro-industrial processes. The packages involve the use of multi-nutrient blocks containing molasses and urea or poultry litter, ensilage of fibrous crop residues with poultry litter, leguminous fodder, mineral blocks etc. These packages have been evaluated on-station and on-farm to assess their potential to enhance productivity of ruminants. The cost-benefit ratio for feeding supplementation packages has been established. As a result of their use, income of the farmers has been shown to increase substantially. Needless to say, the scientists, agricultural extension officers, policy makers and the governments must work hand-in-hand to capitalize on this and ensure wider application and extension of the packages, and develop strategies for sustaining them. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone has been used in this project mainly for the assessment of ovarian activity in order to

  19. Validation of an open-formula, diagnostic real-time PCR method for 20-h detection of Salmonella in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-08-17

    A comparative study of a 20-h, non-commercial, open-formula PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL 187, for detection of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic organisation for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) on 81 artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water for 16 ± 2 h followed by a magnetic beads based semi automated DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis, including an internal amplification control. The limit of detection (LOD50) was found to be 7.19 and 7.24 CFU/sample for the PCR method and NMKL187, respectively. A very good correlation between results obtained by the two methods was found (Cohen's kappa=0.92). The relative accuracy, relative sensitivity and relative specificity were found to be 97.5%, 102.0% and 96.6%, respectively. This method is the fastest open PCR based analysis protocol for detection of Salmonella in feed samples. Implementing rapid methods such as the one validated in this study can speed up Salmonella testing of feed for food-producing animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues in animal feed by high-resolution mass spectrometry: comparison between time-of-flight and Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, María Luz; Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The use of medium-high-resolution mass spectrometers (M-HRMS) provides many advantages in multi-residue analysis. A comparison between two mass spectrometers, medium-resolution (MRMS) time-of-flight (TOF) and high-resolution (HRMS) Orbitrap, has been carried out for the analysis of toxic compounds in animal feed. More than 300 compounds belonging to several classes of veterinary drugs (VDs) and pesticides have been determined in different animal feed samples using a generic extraction method. The use of a clean-up procedure has been evaluated in both instruments, and several validation parameters have been established, such as the matrix effect, linearity, recovery and sensitivity. Finally, both instruments have been used during the analysis of 18 different feed samples (including chicken, hen, rabbit and horse). Some VDs (sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, robenidine and monensin sodium) and one pesticide (chlorpyrifos) have been identified. In general, better results were obtained using the Orbitrap, such as sensitivity (1-12.5 µg kg(-1)) and recovery values (60-125%). Moreover, this analyser had several software tools, which reduced the time for data processing and were easy to use, performing quick screening for more than 450 compounds in less than 5 min. However, some disadvantages such as the high cost and a decrease in the number of detected compounds at low concentrations must be taken into account.

  1. Evaluation of the environmental implications of the incorporation of feed-use amino acids in the manufacturing of pig and broiler feeds using Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnier, E; van der Werf, H M G; Boissy, J; Dourmad, J-Y

    2011-12-01

    The incorporation of feed-use (FU) amino acids (AAs) in diets results in a reduced use of protein-rich ingredients such as soybean meal, recognized to have elevated contributions to environmental impacts. This study investigated whether the incorporation of L-lysine.HCl, L-threonine and FU-methionine reduces the environmental impacts of pig and broiler feeds using Life Cycle Assessment. The following impact categories were considered: climate change, eutrophication, acidification, terrestrial ecotoxicity, cumulative energy demand and land occupation. Several feeds were formulated either to minimize the cost of the formulation (with or without AA utilization), to maximize AA incorporation (i.e. the cost of AA was considered to be similar to that of soybean meal), or to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. For both pig and broiler feeds, calculations were made first using only cereals and soybean meal as main ingredients and then using cereals and several protein-rich ingredients (soybean meal, rapeseed meal and peas). In addition, these calculations were performed using two types of soybean meal (from Brazil, associated with recent deforestation or not). For broiler feeds, two types of maize (from France, irrigated, with mineral fertilization v. not irrigated, with animal manure fertilization) were also tested. Regarding the feeds formulated to minimize cost, incorporation of AA decreased the values for eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity and cumulative energy demand of both pig and broiler feeds, regardless of the base ingredients. Reduction in climate change and acidification due to the incorporation of AA depended on the nature of the feed ingredients, with the effect of AA incorporation being greater when combined with ingredients with high impacts such as soybean meal associated with deforestation. Feeds formulated to maximize AA incorporation generally had a similar composition to those formulated to minimize cost, suggesting that the costs of AA were not

  2. Development of feed supplement Urea Molasses Multi nutrient Block (UMMB) using protein source from soy bean flour and gliricidia sepium (Gs) for ruminant animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyono

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this activities is to develop formula of feed supplement UMMB-Gs for ruminant animal. The development of feed supplement was carried out on a laboratory and field scale. The activities on laboratory scale include biological evaluation of feed supplement used isotope technique P-32 in order to measure ratio bacteria and protozoa and growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid by in vitro studies. Two feed supplement were developed, these were UMMB-TK and UMMB-Gs. Two UMMB-TK were produced at pesantren Al Hikmah and Famor Satwa. Gliricidia sepium meal combined with UMMB-BK were tested on Goat of PE, buffaloes and beef cattle by in vitro studies in order to measure growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid using P-32. On the next activity the effect of UMMB-Gs on production and fat concentration of milk from dairy cattle was done. Statistical analysis used were test, 3x3 latin square design and randomize block design respectively. Quality control of UMMB indicated that ratio of bacteria and protozoa was 14 : 1 on UMMB-BK formulas, whereas on UMMB-TK1 it was found 19 : 1 and UMMB-TK2 was 17 : 1 respectively. These results were better then control (grass only). The value of feed control was 1 : 4. The result of UMMB-BK combinated with Gs on laboratory scale was capable of increasing growth rate of microbial cell on rumen liquid of Goat PE, buffaloes and beef cattle. The values were 102.01%; 205.7% and 73.7% respectively compared to control. Field trial of UMMB-Gs increased milk production and fat concentration on dairy cattle. It mean that nuclear technique has a potential role on the finding of a new feed supplement formulas and capable of giving positive impact, when UMMB feed supplement was able to create job field for small business of UMMB product based on local feed resources. (author)

  3. Nutritional value of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) and its suitability as animal feed - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragan-Fonseca, K.B.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens L.; Diptera: Stratiomyidae) has been studied for its capability to convert organic waste to high quality protein, control certain harmful bacteria and insect pests, provide potential chemical precursors to produce biodiesel and for its use as feed for

  4. 9 CFR 95.13 - Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.13 Bone meal for use as fertilizer or... bone meal, which, in the normal process of manufacture, has been prepared by heating bone under a...

  5. Growth data - Stable isotope analysis as a tool to determine the metabolic fates of dietary carbohydrates from plant-based alternative feed ingredients in the carnivorous sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Development of specialized feeds for carnivorous species such as sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in which fishmeal and oil from marine sources are replaced by more...

  6. Fish culture data - Stable isotope analysis as a tool to determine the metabolic fates of dietary carbohydrates from plant-based alternative feed ingredients in the carnivorous sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Development of specialized feeds for carnivorous species such as sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in which fishmeal and oil from marine sources are replaced by more...

  7. Chemical composition of fish and diets - Stable isotope analysis as a tool to determine the metabolic fates of dietary carbohydrates from plant-based alternative feed ingredients in the carnivorous sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Development of specialized feeds for carnivorous species such as sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in which fishmeal and oil from marine sources are replaced by more...

  8. Collaborative study on the effect of grinding on the detection of bones from processed animal proteins in feed by light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veys, Pascal; Planchon, Viviane; Colbert, Ruairi; Cruz, Clara; Frick, Geneviève; Ioannou, Ioannis; Marchis, Daniela; Nordkvist, Erik; Paradies-Severin, Inge; Pohto, Arja; Weiss, Roland; Baeten, Vincent; Berben, Gilbert

    2017-08-01

    Bone fragments are essential structures for the detection of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed by light microscopy for official controls according to Annex VI of European Union Regulation EC/152/2009. The preparation of samples submitted for analysis requires a grinding step to make them suitable for microscopic slide preparation and observation. However, there are no technical guidelines set down for this step despite the fact that it can lead to an increase in bone numbers due to fragmentation. This was demonstrated by an in-house study carried out by the Irish National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for animal protein detection. The present collaborative study investigated the possible effects of three different grinding conditions on the final result for a feed adulterated with 0.05 and 0.01% (w/w) of PAP. The microscopic analysis either combined or not with an Alizarin Red staining was carried out by 10 different laboratories. The results demonstrated that although a large variation in the numbers of bone fragments was noted, five of the six different grinding/staining combinations applied at two levels of PAP adulteration did not significantly (at p = 0.05) differ from one another. The only exception occurred when grinding the feed containing 0.05% of PAP with a rotor mill equipped with a 0.5-mm sieve and combined with a staining which resulted in a greater number of bone fragments by forced fragmentation. Overall, the impact of the grinding/staining combinations on the final results was shown to be negligible when considering the regulatory limit of detection (LOD) requirement for the method and the current rules of implementation of the light microscopic method. From a total of 180 analyses carried out on the feed matrix containing 0.05% of PAP no false-negative result was observed, and at a level of 0.01% PAP only 10 false-negative results occurred.

  9. Incrust technology. Procedure for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell. Phase 4.0. Labelling; Incrust Technology. Fremgangsmaede for produktion af foder indkapslet i en fordoejelig skal. Fase 4.0. Maerkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    More than 120 million tons animal feeds are produced within the European Union a year Denmark alone produces more than 6 million tons. Current industrial production of animal feeds implies different problems. This project aims at reducing or removing the following problems: Odour nuisances; Bacterium, especially salmonella; Nutrition, especially preservation of the animal feeds' natural elements; Energy, especially reduction of carbon dioxide emission; Independence of raw materials composition; Improved hygienic storage of the finished product. During the project a new method for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell (feeding blocks) has been developed. Extruded feeding stuff is lead from an extruder to a common die, in which a shell pipe is formed vertically. Shape, diameter, and pipe thickness can be changed by adjustment of a set of nozzles. The shell pipe is lead to a cutter that shortens and closes one end. The shell pipe is now filled with the core product (feed mixture) from a feeder with a dosing screw. The quantity can be adjusted to the size of the feeding block by changing the number of the dosing screw's revolutions and the rotation speed. When the core product has been dosed into the shell pipe a shortening device shortens and closes the open end of the feeding block. The shortening device can be regulated so that make the feeding block form a line that is broken later in the process. If necessary a conveyor belt with condensate ventilation takes a number of feeding blocks in a line to a marker. Marks on the feeding blocks can be made with either a laser printer or an ink jet printer. (BA)

  10. Incrust technology. Procedure for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell. Phase 3.0. Shortening device; Incrust Technology. Fremgangsmaede for produktion af foder indkapslet i en fordoejelig skal. Fase 3.0. Afkorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    More than 120 million tons animal feeds are produced within the European Union a year Denmark alone produces more than 6 million tons. Current industrial production of animal feeds implies different problems. This project aims at reducing or removing the following problems: Odour nuisances; Bacterium, especially salmonella; Nutrition, especially preservation of the animal feeds' natural elements; Energy, especially reduction of carbon dioxide emission; Independence of raw materials composition; Improved hygienic storage of the finished product. During the project a new method for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell (feeding blocks) has been developed. Extruded feeding stuff is lead from an extruder to a common die, in which a shell pipe is formed vertically. Shape, diameter, and pipe thickness can be changed by adjustment of a set of nozzles. The shell pipe is lead to a cutter that shortens and closes one end. The shell pipe is now filled with the core product (feed mixture) from a feeder with a dosing screw. The quantity can be adjusted to the size of the feeding block by changing the number of the dosing screw's revolutions and the rotation speed. When the core product has been dosed into the shell pipe a shortening device shortens and closes the open end of the feeding block. The shortening device can be regulated so that make the feeding block form a line that is broken later in the process. If necessary a conveyor belt with condensate ventilation takes a number of feeding blocks in a line to a marker. Marks on the feeding blocks can be made with either a laser printer or an ink jet printer. (BA)

  11. Incrust technology. Procedure for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell. Phase 1. User economy; Fremgangsmaede for produktion af foder indkapslet i en fordoejelig skal. Fase 1. Brugeroekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    More than 120 million tons animal feeds are produced within the European Union a year Denmark alone produces more than 6 million tons. Current industrial production of animal feeds implies different problems. This project aims at reducing or removing the following problems: Odour nuisances; Bacterium, especially salmonella; Nutrition, especially preservation of the animal feeds' natural elements; Energy, especially reduction of carbon dioxide emission; Independence of raw materials composition; Improved hygienic storage of the finished product. During the project a new method for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell (feeding blocks) has been developed. Extruded feeding stuff is lead from an extruder to a common die, in which a shell pipe is formed vertically. Shape, diameter, and pipe thickness can be changed by adjustment of a set of nozzles. The shell pipe is lead to a cutter that shortens and closes one end. The shell pipe is now filled with the core product (feed mixture) from a feeder with a dosing screw. The quantity can be adjusted to the size of the feeding block by changing the number of the dosing screw's revolutions and the rotation speed. When the core product has been dosed into the shell pipe a shortening device shortens and closes the open end of the feeding block. The shortening device can be regulated so that make the feeding block form a line that is broken later in the process. If necessary a conveyor belt with condensate ventilation takes a number of feeding blocks in a line to a marker. Marks on the feeding blocks can be made with either a laser printer or an ink jet printer. (BA)

  12. The evaluation of energy in fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    New and alternative plant ingredients are increasingly incorporated in fish feed due to the scarcity of captured fish and increased fishmeal and fish oil prices. As a result, current fish feeds are characterized by a highly variable ingredients composition, leading to a similar variability in the

  13. High-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based method for the determination of organic arsenic feed additives and speciation of anionic arsenics in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peilong; Zhao, Genlong; Tian, Jing; Su, Xiaoou

    2010-05-12

    A novel method has been developed to detect two organic arsenic animal feed additives including roxarsone and p-arsanilic acid, as well as other arsenic species such as arsenite, dimethylarsinic acid, monomethylarsonic acid, arsenate, and 4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-ICP-MS). The influence of the type and concentrations of ion-pairing reagents on the separation efficiency of the different arsenic compounds was examined. The effects of the mobile phase pH on the retention of arsenic species on the chromatography column were studied. When a gradient elution procedure was used, the best separation of the seven arsenic species could be achieved in 120. The extractions of arsenic compounds from formula feed samples were studied, and results showed that the extraction with methanol/water (1:1) mixture yielded the most efficient percent compound recovery and the fastest extraction time for all arsenic species. Under optimum conditions, the limits of detection were 78.5% with the relative standard deviation of <10%. The ion-pair reversed phase HPLC-ICP-MS method was then successfully applied to the speciation of arsenic in feedstuff and formula feed samples.

  14. Updating the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System feed library and analyzing model sensitivity to feed inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, R J; Chase, L E; Ross, D A; Van Amburgh, M E

    2015-09-01

    The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) is a nutritional model that evaluates the environmental and nutritional resources available in an animal production system and enables the formulation of diets that closely match the predicted animal requirements. The model includes a library of approximately 800 different ingredients that provide the platform for describing the chemical composition of the diet to be formulated. Each feed in the feed library was evaluated against data from 2 commercial laboratories and updated when required to enable more precise predictions of dietary energy and protein supply. A multistep approach was developed to predict uncertain values using linear regression, matrix regression, and optimization. The approach provided an efficient and repeatable way of evaluating and refining the composition of a large number of different feeds against commercially generated data similar to that used by CNCPS users on a daily basis. The protein A fraction in the CNCPS, formerly classified as nonprotein nitrogen, was reclassified to ammonia for ease and availability of analysis and to provide a better prediction of the contribution of metabolizable protein from free AA and small peptides. Amino acid profiles were updated using contemporary data sets and now represent the profile of AA in the whole feed rather than the insoluble residue. Model sensitivity to variation in feed library inputs was investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. Results showed the prediction of metabolizable energy was most sensitive to variation in feed chemistry and fractionation, whereas predictions of metabolizable protein were most sensitive to variation in digestion rates. Regular laboratory analysis of samples taken on-farm remains the recommended approach to characterizing the chemical components of feeds in a ration. However, updates to the CNCPS feed library provide a database of ingredients that are consistent with current feed chemistry information and

  15. Development of an Ion-Pairing Reagent and HPLC-UV Method for the Detection and Quantification of Six Water-Soluble Vitamins in Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jin Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and simple method for detecting six water-soluble vitamins in animal feed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA and ion-pairing reagent was developed. The chromatographic peaks of the six water-soluble vitamins were successfully identified by comparing their retention times and UV spectra with reference standards. The mobile phase was composed of buffers A (5 mM PICB-6 in 0.1% CH3COOH and B (5 mM PICB-6 in 65% methanol. All peaks were detected using a wavelength of 270 nm. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, and precision. The limits of detection (LODs for the instrument employed in these experiments ranged from 25 to 197 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification (LOQs ranged from 84 to 658 μg/kg. Average recoveries of the six water-soluble vitamins ranged from 82.3% to 98.9%. Method replication resulted in intraday and interday peak area variation of <5.6%. The developed method was specific and reliable and is therefore suitable for the routine analysis of water-soluble vitamins in animal feed.

  16. Influence of Gamma-Irradiation On the Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Myco toxigenic Moulds in Cereals and Animal Feed stuffs in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar, Z.A.; Mahrous, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    During the period 2003-2005. 370 samples of cereals and animal feed stuffs were examined for toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B 1 showed the highest incidence rate, it occurred in 26.5% of all samples analyzed, the highest levels being found in peanut meal at 3000-5000 μg/Kg. Ochratoxin A and citrinin were detected in commodities at low rate. The most prevalent fungi were Aspergillus spp. which were found in 63.8% of all samples, whereas, Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. identified in 25.7 and 22.4%. respectively. Also, the present study revealed that aflatoxin B 1 was detected at low level 95μg/kg after treatment of samples with 20 kGy and there was no detectives of aflatoxin B 1 at 40 kGy. Application of radiation at 25 kGy was sufficient for complete destruction of citrinin, whereas application of radiation at 30 kGy reduced the levels of ochratoxin A by 97% in the animal feed stuffs

  17. Determination of water (moisture) and dry matter in animal feed, grain, and forage (plant tissue) by Karl Fischer titration: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiex, Nancy J; Van Erem, Terri

    2002-01-01

    A Karl Fischer method for determining water (dry matter) in animal feed and forages was collaboratively studied. Water was extracted from animal feed or forage material into methanol-formamide (1 + 1) directly in the Karl Fischer titration vessel by high-speed homogenization. The water was titrated at 50 degrees C with one-component Karl Fischer reagent based on imidazole. Ten blind samples were sent to 9 collaborators in the United States, Canada, and Germany. The within-laboratory relative standard deviation (repeatability) ranged from 1.14 to 6.99% for water or from 0.09 to 0.56% for dry matter. Among-laboratory (including within-) relative standard deviation (reproducibility) ranged from 5.35 to 10.73%, or from 0.44 to 0.77% for dry matter. The authors recommend that the method be adopted as Official First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. A comparable alternative extraction procedure using boiling methanol is also recommended for Official First Action.

  18. Liquid chromatographic determination of epimerization of chlortetracycline residue to 4-epi-chlortetracycline residue in animal feed, using McIlvain's buffer as extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, E E; Shimoda, W

    1989-01-01

    A method for studying McIlvain's solution as a factor in epimerization of chlortetracycline in animal feed has been developed. McIlvain's solution (McBuffer) was used previously to extract oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline-HCl (TC-HCl), and chlortetracycline-HCl (CTC-HCl) from animal feed because it gave the best recoveries for all 3 tetracyclines; however, the McBuffer solution caused epimerization of CTC-HCl to 4-epi-chlortetracycline (4-epi-CTC). Recovery results were 30-40% lower for CTC than for OTC and TC from the same sample extract. The levels of concentration tested for CTC and 4-epi-CTC were 10 ppm, the detection limits for both were 3 ppb, and the calibration curves were linear between 5 and 80 ppm for both CTC-HCl and 4-epi-CTC. The present study shows that CTC recoveries averaged 35% lower because of epimerization initiated by the use of McBuffer in the extraction procedure.

  19. Evaluation of pre-PCR processing approaches for enumeration of Salmonella enterica in naturally contaminated animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelin, Jenny; Andersson, Gunnar; Vigre, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Three pre‐PCR processing strategies for the detection and/or quantification of Salmonella in naturally contaminated soya bean meal were evaluated. Methods included: (i) flotation‐qPCR [enumeration of intact Salmonella cells prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR)], (ii) MPN‐PCR (modified most probable...... be due to the presence of nonculturable Salmonella and/or a heterogeneous distribution of Salmonella in the material. The evaluated methods provide different possibilities to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in feed, together with the numbers of culturable, as well as nonculturable cells, and can...

  20. 75 FR 79320 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... is calculated from tumor data of the cancer bioassays using a statistical extrapolation procedure... the presence of the marker residue of the sponsored compound in the target tissue of the target animal... detectable (that is, the marker residue is below the limit of detection) using the approved regulatory...

  1. Behoefte en verbruik van micronutriënten in de diervoeding = Requirement and consumption of micro nutrients in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Bikker, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the requirements of some micro nutrients for cattle, pigs and poultry are summarized. Moreover, the global consumption of micro nutrients that are added to animal diets is calculated and compared with the total global use for all applications.

  2. 77 FR 50591 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... corresponding to no significant increase in the risk of cancer to the human consumer. However, the definition of... used in food- producing animals. Specifically, the Agency is clarifying the definition of ``S o '' and revising the definition of ``S m '' so that it conforms to the clarified definition of S o . Other...

  3. New EU legislation for risk assessment of GM food: no scientific justification for mandatory animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Harry A; Kok, Esther J; Davies, Howard V

    2013-09-01

    This commentary focuses on the potential added value of and need for (sub)-chronic testing of whole genetically modified (GM) foods in rodents to assess their safety. Such routine testing should not be required since, due to apparent weaknesses in the approach, it does not add to current risk assessment of GM foods. Moreover, the demand for routine testing using animals is in conflict with the European Union (EU) Commission's efforts to reduce animal experimentation. Regulating agencies in the EU are invited to respect the sound scientific principles applied to the risk assessment of foods derived from GM plants and not to interfere in the risk assessment by introducing extra requirements based on pseudo-scientific or political considerations. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of forage type, animal characteristics and feed intake on faecal particle size in goat, sheep, llama and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A.R.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nadeau, E.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of forage maturity stage at harvest, animal characteristics and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake on mean particle size and particle size distribution in faeces from sheep and cattle fed grass silages was studied (Study I). Models for prediction of faeces characteristics from sheep...... or restrictively with or without concentrate supplementation. The NDF content and acid detergent lignin (ADL) to NDF ratio of the forages ranged from 410 to 660 g/kg of dry matter (DM) and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively, in Study I, and from 320 to 810 g/kg of DM and from 0.05 to 0.18, respectively, in Study II...... and this effect was amplified in larger animals. The prediction model established from Study I, on the effect of BW, ADL/NDF in forage, C:F and forage NDF intake on particle size in faeces of grass silage-fed animals in Study I appeared to be valid to predict the geometric mean particle size in faeces from goat...

  5. Antiulcerogenic benefits of herbal ingredients in ethanol-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiulcerogenic benefits of herbal ingredients in ethanol-induced animal models. ... Although therapeutic approaches are widely available, preventive regimens are limited. Numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal ... gastric ulcer. Key words: Herbal Medicines, Gastric ulcer, Prevention, Animal models, Alcohol ...

  6. Large-Scale Production of Fuel and Feed from Marine Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntley, Mark [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In summary, this Consortium has demonstrated a fully integrated process for the production of biofuels and high-value nutritional bioproducts at pre-commercial scale. We have achieved unprecedented yields of algal oil, and converted the oil to viable fuels. We have demonstrated the potential value of the residual product as a viable feed ingredient for many important animals in the global food supply.

  7. Herbal plants and their derivatives as growth and health promoters in animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Reza; Davoodi, Homa

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of herbal plants and their derivatives as growth promoters for animal. Feed supplements are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth, or metabolic modifier (Hutjens, 1991). Common feed additives used in animal diets include immunostimulators, antimicrobials, antioxidants, pH control agents and enzymes. Herbal plants, are a new class of growth promoters and in recent years this feed additives have gained extensive attention in the feed industry. They are a wide variety of herbs, spices, and products derived thereof, and are mainly essential oils. Although numerous reports have demonstrated antioxidative and antimicrobial and immune stimulation efficacy in vitro, respective experimental in vivo evidence is still quite limited. A limited number of experimental comparisons of herbal plants feed additives with antibiotics or organic acid have suggested similar effects on the animal gut microflora. Gut microflora has significant effects on host nutrition, health, and growth performance by interacting with nutrient utilization and the development of gut system of the host. In addition, some phytogenic compounds seem to promote intestinal mucus production. However, the future of using herbs in animal feeding will in great measure depend on the knowledge of chemical structure, their value and characteristics of practical herbs or their extract physiological needs and well-being of animal, and, above all on consumer's preferences and expectations.

  8. The technology of fish-vegetable feed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perspective direction of the Volga-Caspian basin fisheries is increasing the productivity of aquaculture production which requires the availability of sufficient quantities of feed. The cutting waste of carp and crucian carp, crayfish processing (cephalothorax, wheat bran, soy isolate, freshwater plants – pondweed perfoliate, fish-vegetable ration, produced feeding staffs have been investigated. In researching samples of manufactured pelleted feeds the standard methods adopted in the animal feed industry have been used. The number of nitrogen-free extractives and energy value has been determined by calculation. The composition of fish-vegetable ration has been worked out. Some manufacturing inspection of fish-vegetable feed technology using proofing process has been carried out. The possibility of manufacturing on the basis of crushed fish waste of the company LLC "VES" and dry ingredients of fish-vegetable feed has been determined; the output of feed at water content of not more than 10 % is 43 % of feed mix based on the mass of directed waste equal to 84 %. The pilot batch of dry fish-vegetable feed has been investigated to establish quality indicators. It has been determined that fish-vegetable feed meets the requirements of GOST 10385–2014 "Combined feeding staffs for fishes. General specifications" as for main quality indicators and refers to economic grower for catfish and carp fish weighing more than 50 g. This reveals good palatability of the experimental batch of floating feed by carp fish species and African catfish. Thus, fish-vegetable feed manufacturing technology can be implemented in the production for processing secondary raw materials: waste from butchering fish by grinding, cooking, mixing with selected vegetable fillings which is waste of flour or grain processing industries and freshwater plants mowed annually during the reclamation works on the Volga delta.

  9. 9 CFR 381.445 - Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.445 Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw products. (a) Nutrition information on the cuts of single-ingredient, raw poultry products... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for voluntary nutrition...

  10. 9 CFR 317.345 - Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.345 Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw products. (a) Nutrition information on the cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat products... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for voluntary nutrition...

  11. Fast gas chromatographic residue analysis in animal feed using split injection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienstra, M; Portolés, T; Hernández, F; Mol, J G J

    2015-11-27

    Significant speed improvement for instrumental runtime would make GC–MS much more attractive for determination of pesticides and contaminants and as complementary technique to LC–MS. This was the trigger to develop a fast method (time between injections less than 10 min) for the determination of pesticides and PCBs that are not (or less) amenable to LC–MS. A key factor in achieving shorter analysis time was the use of split injection (1:10) which allowed the use of a much higher initial GC oven temperature. A shorter column (15 m), higher temperature ramp, and higher carrier gas flow rate (6 mL/min) further contributed to analysis-time reduction. Chromatographic resolution was slightly compromised but still well fit-for-purpose. Due to the high sensitivity of the technique used (GC–APCI-triple quadrupole MS/MS), quantification and identification were still possible down to the 10 μg/kg level, which was demonstrated by successful validation of the method for complex feed matrices according to EU guidelines. Other advantages of the method included a better compatibility of acetonitrile extracts (e.g. QuEChERS) with GC, and a reduced transfer of co-extractants into the GC column and mass spectrometer.

  12. Potential Application of Electronic Olfaction Systems in Feedstuffs Analysis and Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell'Orto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Olfaction Systems (EOSs based on a variety of gas-sensing technologies have been developed to simulate in a simplified manner animal olfactory sensing systems. EOSs have been successfully applied to many applications and fields, including food technology and agriculture. Less information is available for EOS applications in the feed technology and animal nutrition sectors. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs, which are derived from both forages and concentrate ingredients of farm animal rations, are considered and described in this review as olfactory markers for feedstock quality and safety evaluation. EOS applications to detect VOCs from feedstuffs (as analytical matrices are described, and some future scenarios are hypothesised. Furthermore, some EOS applications in animal feeding behaviour and organoleptic feed assessment are also described.

  13. Occurrence of multiple mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites in animal feed and maize samples from Egypt using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed F; Girgin, Gözde; Baydar, Terken; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of multiple toxic fungal and bacterial metabolites in 156 animal feed (n = 77) and maize (n = 79) samples collected from three regions in Upper Egypt. The target analytes were quantified using the 'dilute and shoot' approach, followed by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. In total, 115 fungal and bacterial metabolites were detected in both matrices, including the regulated mycotoxins in the European Union, in addition to the modified forms such as deoxynivalenol-3-glucosid. Furthermore, some Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillum metabolites beside other fungal and bacterial metabolites were detected for the first time in Egypt. All of the samples were contaminated with at least four toxins. On average, 26 different metabolites were detected per sample with a trend of more metabolites in feed than in maize. The maximum number of analytes observed per samples was 54 analytes at maximum concentrations ranging from 0.04 µg kg -1 for tentoxin to 25 040 µg kg -1 for kojic acid. According to the international standards, the contamination rates in the investigated regions were not alarming, except for AFB1 in maize. The necessity of further and continuous monitoring is highly recommended to establish a database for mycotoxin occurrence. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A micro-plate colorimetric assay for rapid determination of trace zinc in animal feed, pet food and drinking water by ion masking and statistical partitioning correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayi; Niu, Yiming; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Yiqiang

    2018-04-15

    A new micro-plate colorimetric assay was developed for rapid determination of zinc in animal feed, pet food and drinking water. Zinc ion was extracted from sample by trichloroacetic acid and then reacted with 2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]phenol (5-Br-PAPS) to form a Zn-PAPS complex to be detected by a micro-plate reader at 552 nm. An ion masking formula including salicylaldoxime, deferoxamine and sodium citrate were screened and applied to exclude the interference from other heavy metals and a partitioning correction approach was proposed to eliminate the matrix effect derived from feed sample. The entire procedure can be completed within 40 min and the detection range was 0.038-8.0 μg mL -1 zinc in buffer solution. Moreover, the analysis in real samples revealed the consistency of results by this assay and those by atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. These features highlighted the possibility for this proposed assay to be used for rapid determination of zinc in complex samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of sterigmatocystin in cereals, animal feed, seeds, beer and cheese by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC and LC-MS/MS quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Elaine; Brown, Phyllis; Mackie, Jennifer; Donnelly, Carol; Wilcox, Joyce; Pietri, Amedeo; Macdonald, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A method is reported for the analysis of sterigmatocystin in various food and feed matrices using a commercial sterigmatocystin immunoaffinity column (IAC) for sample clean-up prior to HPLC analysis by UV with mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). Cereals (wheat, oats, rye, maize and rice), sunflower seeds and animal feed were spiked with sterigmatocystin at levels from 0.75 to 50 µg kg(-1) to establish method performance. Using acetonitrile/water extraction followed by IAC clean-up, and analysis by HPLC with detection at 325 nm, recoveries ranged from 68% to 106%, with repeatability from 4.2% to 17.5%. The limit of quantification with UV detection in these matrices was 1.5 µg kg(-1). For the analysis of beer and cheese the sample preparation prior to IAC clean-up was changed to accommodate the different properties of the matrix, prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. For beer and cheese spiked at 5.0 µg kg(-1) the recoveries were 94% and 104%, and precision (RSDs) were 1.9% and 2.9% respectively. The limits of quantification by LC-MS/MS in beer and cheese were 0.02 and 0.6 µg kg(-1) respectively. The sterigmatocystin IAC was demonstrated to provide an efficient clean-up of various matrices to enable this mycotoxin to be determined by either HPLC with UV detection or LC-MS/MS.

  16. Determination of colistin in animal tissues, egg, milk, and feed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qin; Li, Xiaowei; Zheng, Kangni; Ke, Yuebin; Wang, Yingyu; Wang, Lina; Yu, Fugen; Xia, Xi

    2018-05-15

    A confirmatory method for the determination of colistin in animal tissues, egg, milk, and feed was developed and validated. Colistin A and colistin B were extracted from samples with the mixture of 10% trichloroacetic acid-acetonitrile and isolated with mixed-mode weak cation exchange cartridge. Analytes were separated from matrix components using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, and detected with electrospray ionization on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Mean recoveries ranged from 78.0% to 115.6% with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 8.4% and 12.4%, respectively. The quantitation limits for different matrices were between 5 and 30 μg/kg, which was satisfactory for surveillance monitoring. The developed method was applied to the analysis of real samples collected from different provinces of China, and 19 out of 348 samples were found to be contaminated, with the highest concentration of approximately 12,000 μg/kg colistin A and 10,000 μg/kg colistin B in feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  18. Feed addition of curcumin to laying hens showed anticoccidial effect, and improved egg quality and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Gabriela M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Biazus, Angelisa H; Reis, João H; Boiago, Marcel M; Topazio, Josué P; Migliorini, Marcos J; Guarda, Naiara S; Moresco, Rafael N; Ourique, Aline F; Santos, Cayane G; Lopes, Leandro S; Baldissera, Matheus D; Stefani, Lenita M

    2018-01-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of curcumin in the diet of commercial laying hens could have an anticoccidial action and improve egg quality. For this, 60 laying hens were divided into three groups: T0 (the control group); T30 and T50 (30 and 50 mg/kg of curcumin in the feed, respectively). Eggs recently laid were collected on days 14 and 21 of the experiment, and stored for 21 days. It was observed increased specific gravity and yolk index in stored eggs of the groups T30 and T50 compared to T0. The yolk color reduced in the eggs stored from groups T30 and T50 compared to T0. Moreover, TBARS levels were lower in fresh and stored eggs from groups T30 and T50. It was observed increased TAC levels in fresh eggs from groups T30 and T50 and in stored eggs from the group T50. The presence of curcumin was not detected by HPLC in the yolk and albumen. Seric levels of albumin and uric acid did not differ between groups, while seric levels of total proteins increased on day 21 on groups T30 and T50. Finally, it was observed a significant reduction on the number of oocysts in fecal samples on days 14 and 21 of T30 and T50 compared to T0. Based on these evidences, it is possible to conclude that the addition of curcumin in the diet of laying hens has an anticoccidial effect and improves egg quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... not: (1) Use animal drugs, including hormones, to promote growth; (2) Provide feed supplements or...; (5) Feed mammalian or poultry slaughter by-products to mammals or poultry; or (6) Use feed, feed...

  20. Salmonella risk to consumers via pork is related to the Salmonella prevalence in pig feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnqvist, M; Välttilä, V; Ranta, J; Tuominen, P

    2018-05-01

    Pigs are an important source of human infections with Salmonella, one of the most common causes of sporadic gastrointestinal infections and foodborne outbreaks in the European region. Feed has been estimated to be a significant source of Salmonella in piggeries in countries of a low Salmonella prevalence. To estimate Salmonella risk to consumers via the pork production chain, including feed production, a quantitative risk assessment model was constructed. The Salmonella prevalence in feeds and in animals was estimated to be generally low in Finland, but the relative importance of feed as a source of Salmonella in pigs was estimated as potentially high. Discontinuation of the present strict Salmonella control could increase the risk of Salmonella in slaughter pigs and consequent infections in consumers. The increased use of low risk and controlled feed ingredients could result in a consistently lower residual contamination in pigs and help the tracing and control of the sources of infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.