WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal experimentation

  1. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  2. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  3. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Popa V.I.; Lascar I.; Valcu M.; Sebe Ioana Teona; Caraban B.; Margina Arina Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  4. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa V.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  5. Experimental Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-01-01

    It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals...

  6. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  7. The ethics of animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lane-Petter, W.

    2007-01-01

    Animal experimentation arouses great emotion in many people, perhaps more especially in Britain, and this has increased as more sophisticated medical and non-medical animal experiments are demanded by modern research. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 is the only legal regulation of experiments in animals, and many of its clauses are ambiguous. So in 1963 a committee of enquiry - the Littlewood Committee - was set up. Dr Lane-Petter examines the emotional and factual background to the enquir...

  8. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  9. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment. PMID:25541541

  10. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus

  11. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soo Kwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    1999-06-01

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus.

  12. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement), "five fr...

  13. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of commi...

  14. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analog...

  15. Lipid metabolism in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Muñiz, Francisco J.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Publications are scarce in the way in chich metabolic processes are affected by the ingestion of heated fats used to prepare food. Similarly studies measuring metabolic effects of the consumption on fried food are poorly known. The purpose of this presentation is to summarize information on frying fats and frying foods upon lipid metabolism in experimental animals. Food consumption is equivalent or even higher when oils or the fat content of frying foods are poorly alterated decreasing their acceptability when their alteration degree increase. After 4hr. experiment the digestibility and absorption coefficients of a single dosis of thermooxidized oils were significantly decreased in rats, however the digestive utilization of frying thermooxidized oils included in diets showed very little change in comparison with unused oils by feeding trials on rats. Feeding rats different frying fats induced a slight hypercholesterolemic effect being the magnitude of this effect related to the linoleic decrease in diet produced by frying. However HDL, the main rat-cholesterol carrier, also increased, thus the serum cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio did not change. Results suggest that rats fed frying fats adapt their lipoprotein metabolism increasing the number of HDL particles. Deep fat frying deeply changed the fatty acid composition of foods, being possible to increase their n-9 or n-6 fatty acid and to decrease the saturated fatty acid contents by frying. When olive oil-and sunflower oil-fried sardines were used as the only protein and fat sources of rats-diets in order to prevent the dietary hypercholesterolemia it was provided that both fried-sardine diets showed a powerful check effect on the cholesterol raising effect induced by dietary cholesterol. The negative effect of feeding rats cholesterol plus bovine bile to induce hypercholesterolemia on some cell-damage markers such as lactate dehydrogenase, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, was

  16. Legislation on the protection of experimental animals:

    OpenAIRE

    Ornik, Dragica; Pogačnik, Milan

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish the current situation in the field of legislation on the protection of experimental animals in Slovenia. The protection of experimental animals has been regulated by the provisions of theProtection of Animals Act.1 On the basis of this act, the Instructions on Conditions for the Issuing of Authorisations for Experiments on Animals for Scientific and Research Purposes2 and the Rules on the Ethics Commission for Experiments on Animals 3 have been used. The ...

  17. Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations

    OpenAIRE

    Saraf, Shyam K; Vinay Kumaraswamy

    2013-01-01

    In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. The...

  18. Animal Experimentation: Issues for the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, Judith C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the extent to which issues related to animal experimentation are in conflict and proposes choices that might least comprise them. These issues include animal well-being, human well-being, self-interest of science, scientific validity and responsibility, progress in biomedical and behavioral science, and the future quality of medical care.…

  19. Ultrasonic treatment of experimental animal tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Kremkau, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Studies on the effects of ultrasound on several solid tumours in experimental animals have indicated that tumour growth rates can be reduced. These data are generally consistent with a thermal mechanism of action. Application of combined ultrasound and X-irradiation have shown that with some experimental animal tumours the radiation dose required to locally control 50% of the tumours can be reduced by ultrasound. These results were also consistent with a thermal mechanism of action hypothesis...

  20. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement, "five freedoms" for animals and "Solna principles". "Replacement" means the substitution for conscious living higher animals of insentient material. "Reduction" means reduction in the numbers of animals used to obtain information of a given amount and precision. "Refinement" means any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals which still have to be used. The "five freedoms" are: freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from adverse environmental impacts, freedom from disease and injury, freedom to exhibit normal behavior and freedom from adverse mental states. "Solna principles" state that tests for regulatory purposes need to reflect the following: biological Relevance (meaningfulness and usefulness of a test for a particular purpose, Reliability (reproducibility of results within and between laboratories, and Regulatory acceptability (suitability of a test for risk assessment purposes (human health /environment.

  1. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronesi Paola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy. Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities.

  2. Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Shyam K; Kumaraswamy, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities. PMID:23532705

  3. Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam K Saraf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities.

  4. Characterization of experimental dental research using animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the profile of experimental dental research using animals. Methods: The research comprised all the 4141 abstracts existent in the books of annals from the 22nd and 23rd Annual meetings of the Brazilian Society of Dentistry Research and the sample was composed of 377 studies (9.1%. The variables analyzed were: area of knowledge, type of institution, State of the country, type of animal and body part used, occurrence of animal sacrifice, mention of the Research Ethics Committee, receipt of funding and type of financing agency. Results: The largest number of studies concentrated on the areas of Buccomaxillofacial Surgery (27.3% and Basic Sciences (21.2%. The Public Universities were responsible for 74% of the researches, and the State Institutions were outstanding (82.4%. The State of São Paulo was responsible for 74.1% of the studies. Rats (67.1% and rabbits (11.1% were the most frequently used animals, and 68.2% of the animals were sacrificed. The oral cavity was used in 50.1% of the researches and the mandible in 59%. Only 1.9% of the studies mentioned the Research Ethics Committee and 26.3% reported that they received funding. Conclusion: In Dentistry, studies involving animals are predominant in the areas of buccomaxillofacial surgery and basic sciences, with rats andrabbits being most frequently used. A significant number of guinea pigs are sacrificed during or at the end of the experiments.

  5. Against the Use of Knowledge Gained from Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Tuvel

    2015-01-01

    While there exists considerable protest against the use of animals in experimentation, less protest is voiced against the use of knowledge gained from animal experimentation. Pulling from arguments against the use of Nazi data, I suggest that using knowledge gained from animal experimentation both disrespects animal victims and sustains the practice. It is thus pro tanto morally wrong.

  6. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichm...

  7. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Leal Paixão; Fermin Roland Schramm

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this...

  8. Is animal experimentation fundamental? A experimentação animal é fundamental?

    OpenAIRE

    Armando José d'Acampora; Lucas Félix Rossi; Jorge Bins Ely; Zulmar Acciolli de Vasconcellos

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the ...

  9. Modeling dopamine system dysfunction in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quite a substantial number of human disorders have been associated with a primary or a secondary impairment of one or several of the dopaminergic pathways. Among disorders associated with a primary impairment of dopaminergic transmission are Parkinson's disease, striatonigral degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and possibly schizophrenia. Diseases of secondary dopamine dysfunction are chiefly represented by Huntington's disease in which dopaminergic transmission is being interrupted by progressive loss of the striatal neurons bearing the postsynaptic D1- and D2-dopamine receptors. Central dopaminergic systems have anatomical as well as organizational properties that render them unique by comparison to other neurotransmission systems, making them able to play a pivotal role in the modulation of various important brain functions such as locomotor activity, attention, and some cognitive abilities. These properties of dopamine neurons have obviously several implications in the clinical expression of human disorders involving dopamine neuron dysfunction. In addition, they can greatly influence the clinical/behavioral consequences of experimental lesions in animal models of dopamine dysfunctions

  10. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paixão Rita Leal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this theme in the field of health.

  11. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods. PMID:26364776

  12. Experimental Animal Models in Periodontology: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Struillou, Xavier; Boutigny, Hervé; Soueidan, Assem; Layrolle, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    In periodontal research, animal studies are complementary to in vitro experiments prior to testing new treatments. Animal models should make possible the validation of hypotheses and prove the safety and efficacy of new regenerating approaches using biomaterials, growth factors or stem cells. A review of the literature was carried out by using electronic databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Science). Numerous animal models in different species such as rats, hamsters, rabbits, ferrets, canines and pr...

  13. The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Nonhuman animal (“animal”) experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability...

  14. Metabolic effects of hypergravity on experimental animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several experiments concerned with the exposure of animals to acute or chronic centrifugation are described. The effects of hypergravity particularly discussed include the decreased growth rate and body weight, increased metabolic rate, skeletal deformation, and loss of body fat.

  15. Criticizing animal experimentation, at my peril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    Initiatives leading to even modest reduction in animal use at major U.S. universities are likely to continue to face strong opposition. At least, that's the conclusion the author draws from his efforts at Northwestern University. In fact, despite a growing body of evidence that animal-based research is flawed at best and misleading or un-scientific at worst its use is growing at Northwestern and elsewhere. Moreover, recent discoveries concerning animal consciousness and emotion have not led to notable improvements in the conditions in which AWA protected animals live at the Chicago vivarium. There, animals languish in featureless rooms or sterile cages without access to daylight and with little opportunity to express their natural behaviors and aptitudes. The writer's public exposure of these conditions led to a fierce backlash. Unless there is a significant change in laboratory and university culture, change will only come when the marketplace and funding agencies demand better and more reliable, non-animal models for the testing of drug toxicity and effectiveness. PMID:26560136

  16. Guidelines in the field of animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Perše, Martina

    2015-01-01

    V juniju 2007 je v Italiji potekalo skupno srečanje FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations) in ICLAS (International Council for Laboratory Animal Science), katerega se je udeležilo preko 1100 strokovnjakov iz vseh kontinentov. Na simpoziju je bil predstavljen obsežen pregled najnovejših znanstvenih dognanj in tehnologije s področja znanosti o laboratorijskih živalih, ki je potekal v znamenju predstavitev, konzultacij ter pripravljanja smernic za prihodnost. Na s...

  17. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  18. Animal Experimentation: Bringing Ethical Issues into Biology Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)

  19. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichment. They need to be evaluated for use by taking into account the following: the species of an animal, its needs, habits and capabilities, the type of an enrichment device, the device's ability to stimulate the animal's interest and the safety of the device. Enrichment programmes should always include two forms of enrichment: behavioral enrichment and environmental enrichment. Enrichment comes in many forms such as structural or physical enrichment, sensory enrichment (auditory and olfactory stimulation, dietary enrichment, manipulatable enrichment and social enrichment.

  20. Rabbit as an animal model for experimental research

    OpenAIRE

    Manjeet Mapara; Betsy Sara Thomas; Bhat, K M

    2012-01-01

    Animal experimentation is carried out in consultation with the veterinary wing but it is essential that be familiar with experimental protocols of animal model to be able to design an approriate study. This is more so in place where the veterinary facilities are not easily available.Span Rabbits are commonly used as subjects for screening implant material. They have gained favour for their numerous advantages even though they should be ideally used prior to testing in a larger animal model. T...

  1. Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political worldto feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry

  2. Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awar, Amin; Kupai, Krisztina; Veszelka, Médea; Szűcs, Gergő; Attieh, Zouhair; Murlasits, Zsolt; Török, Szilvia; Pósa, Anikó; Varga, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. Diabetes mellitus disease, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels for a prolonged time. To avoid late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic symptoms, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies. We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes in relation to its complications in type 1 and type 2 mice along with rat models, including Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, BB rats, LEW 1AR1/-iddm rats, Goto-Kakizaki rats, chemically induced diabetic models, and Nonobese Diabetic mouse, and Akita mice model. The advantages and disadvantages that these models comprise were also addressed in this review. This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans. PMID:27595114

  3. Instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Watanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animal models offer possibilities of physiology knowledge, pathogenesis of disease and action of drugs that are directly related to quality nursing care. This integrative review describes the current state of the instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models, including the main recommendations of ethics committees that focus on animal welfare and raises questions about the impact of their findings in nursing care. Data show that, in Brazil, the progress in ethics for the use of animals for scientific purposes was consolidated with Law No. 11.794/2008 establishing ethical procedures, attending health, genetic and experimental parameters. The application of ethics in handling of animals for scientific and educational purposes and obtaining consistent and quality data brings unquestionable contributions to the nurse, as they offer subsidies to relate pathophysiological mechanisms and the clinical aspect on the patient.

  4. Animal experimentation and scientific knowledge: a thought style?

    OpenAIRE

    Thales de Astrogildo e Tréz

    2010-01-01

    Animal experimentation, besides a research method extensively applied in the production of scientific knowledge, is also considered essential to science and with undeniable historical relevance in advances in human health. In this survey, a questionnaire was applied to a group of researchers involved with research based on non-animal models (n =18), and to another group involved with research based on animal models (n =18). The data analysis was grounded in Ludwik Fleck (1896 -1961) epistemol...

  5. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    John Webster

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary When making a choice of species for animal experimentation we must balance its suitability as a model for human medicine against the potential harms to the animals both from the procedures and the quality of their lifetime experience. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primate...

  6. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products. PMID:25183445

  7. Rabbit as an animal model for experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Mapara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal experimentation is carried out in consultation with the veterinary wing but it is essential that be familiar with experimental protocols of animal model to be able to design an approriate study. This is more so in place where the veterinary facilities are not easily available.Span Rabbits are commonly used as subjects for screening implant material. They have gained favour for their numerous advantages even though they should be ideally used prior to testing in a larger animal model. Though experimentation on rabbits seems to be easy there are many pitfalls. Our endeavor in this article is to integrate all the data about maintaining rabbits as a model and to critically analyze it on the basis of our experimentation.

  8. Animal experimentation in forensic sciences: How far have we come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, C; Maderna, E; Rendinelli, A; Gibelli, D

    2015-09-01

    In the third millennium where ethical, ethological and cultural evolution seem to be leading more and more towards an inter-species society, the issue of animal experimentation is a moral dilemma. Speaking from a self-interested human perspective, avoiding all animal testing where human disease and therapy are concerned may be very difficult or even impossible; such testing may not be so easily justifiable when suffering-or killing-of non human animals is inflicted for forensic research. In order to verify how forensic scientists are evolving in this ethical issue, we undertook a systematic review of the current literature. We investigated the frequency of animal experimentation in forensic studies in the past 15 years and trends in publication in the main forensic science journals. Types of species, lesions inflicted, manner of sedation or anesthesia and euthanasia were examined in a total of 404 articles reviewed, among which 279 (69.1%) concerned studies involving animals sacrificed exclusively for the sake of the experiment. Killing still frequently includes painful methods such as blunt trauma, electrocution, mechanical asphyxia, hypothermia, and even exsanguination; of all these animals, apparently only 60.8% were anesthetized. The most recent call for a severe reduction if not a total halt to the use of animals in forensic sciences was made by Bernard Knight in 1992. In fact the principle of reduction and replacement, frequently respected in clinical research, must be considered the basis for forensic science research needing animals. PMID:26216717

  9. Animal experimentation in Malta : regulatory processes and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Scerri, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Prior to Malta’s accession to the European Union (EU) in May 2004, new legislative processes regulating the use of animals for scientific research purposes were adopted in line with the provisions found under the European Union Council Directive 86/609/EEC. The scope of these regulations is to protect animals used or intended to be used in scientific experimental procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm, using evaluation procedures that promote refinement, reductio...

  10. Chemical and radiation carcinogenesis in man and experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now well established that some cancer in man results from exposures to certain chemicals and radiations, both ultraviolet and ionizing radiations. These chemical and physical agents are also carcinogenic in experimental animals and, where adequately tested, in mammalian cell cultures. However, only very limited data are available on the relative roles of and the interrelationships, if any, between these various environmental agents in the causation of the majority of the cancers in man. Nothing is known of the relationship between these agents and possible carcinogenic viral information in the etiology of cancer in man. Furthermore, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which chemicals and radiations induce cancers in either man or experimental animals. The objective of this brief review is to present certain aspects of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis in man and experimental animals and some of the problems in the elucidation of their roles in carinogenesis in the human

  11. A living will clause for supporters of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztybel, David

    2006-01-01

    Many people assume that invasive research on animals is justified because of its supposed benefits and because of the supposed mental inferiority of animals. However probably most people would be unwilling to sign a living will which consigns themselves to live biomedical experimentation if they ever, through misfortune, end up with a mental capacity equivalent to a laboratory animal. The benefits would be greater by far for medical science if living will signatories were to be used, and also the mental superiority boast would no longer apply. Ultimately, it is argued that invasive biomedical experiments would be unacceptable in a democratic society whose members are philosophically self-consistent. PMID:17036430

  12. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  13. Animal experimentation in snake venom research and in vitro alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, Paula G

    2003-08-01

    Current experimental techniques used in snake venom research (with and without the use of animals) are reviewed. The emphasis is on the reduction of the use of animals in the development of antivenoms for the clinical treatment of snakebite. Diagnostic and research techniques for the major pathologies of envenoming are described and those using animals are contrasted with non-sentient methods where possible. In particular, LD50 and ED50 assays using animals (in vivo) and fertilised eggs (in vivo, non-sentient) are compared as well as in vitro procedures (ELISA and haemolytic test) for ED50 estimations. The social context of antivenom production, supply and demand is outlined together with the consequent tension between the benefits derived and the increase in opposition to experiments on animals. Stringent regulations governing the use of animals, limited research funds and public pressure all focus the need for progress towards non-animal, or non-sentient, research methods. Some achievements are noted but success is hampered by lack of detailed knowledge of the many constituents of venom which have to be assessed as a whole rather than individually. The only way to evaluate the net pathological effect of venom is to use a living system, usually a rodent, and similarly, the efficacy of antivenoms is also measured in vivo. The pre-clinical testing of antivenoms in animals is therefore a legal requirement in many countries and is strictly monitored by government authorities. New technologies applied to the characterisation of individual venom proteins should enable novel in vitro assays to be designed thus reducing the number of animals required. In the meantime, the principles of Reduce, Refine and Replace relating to animals in research are increasingly endorsed by those working in the field and the many agencies regulating ethical and research policy. PMID:12906883

  14. Multivariate Analysis for Animal Selection in Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Mercuri Pinto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several researchers seek methods for the selection of homogeneous groups of animals in experimental studies, a fact justified because homogeneity is an indispensable prerequisite for casualization of treatments. The lack of robust methods that comply with statistical and biological principles is the reason why researchers use empirical or subjective methods, influencing their results. Objective: To develop a multivariate statistical model for the selection of a homogeneous group of animals for experimental research and to elaborate a computational package to use it. Methods: The set of echocardiographic data of 115 male Wistar rats with supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS was used as an example of model development. Initially, the data were standardized, and became dimensionless. Then, the variance matrix of the set was submitted to principal components analysis (PCA, aiming at reducing the parametric space and at retaining the relevant variability. That technique established a new Cartesian system into which the animals were allocated, and finally the confidence region (ellipsoid was built for the profile of the animals’ homogeneous responses. The animals located inside the ellipsoid were considered as belonging to the homogeneous batch; those outside the ellipsoid were considered spurious. Results: The PCA established eight descriptive axes that represented the accumulated variance of the data set in 88.71%. The allocation of the animals in the new system and the construction of the confidence region revealed six spurious animals as compared to the homogeneous batch of 109 animals. Conclusion: The biometric criterion presented proved to be effective, because it considers the animal as a whole, analyzing jointly all parameters measured, in addition to having a small discard rate.

  15. Respiratory tract retention of inhaled particles in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of inhalation studies have been reviewed to develop a model for describing the retention of particles in the respiratory tracts of several species of experimental animals. Presently, the respiratory tract clearance model receives the greatest use in the radiation protection field. This model has several disadvantages in its basic construction and in its application to radionuclide exposures of people to heterogeneous aerosolized substances. These are discussed and an alternative model is described. The alternative model uses time-varying solubility functions to described absorption of material from the lung and upper respiratory tract. The solubility functions can be determined from studies in experimental animals or can be approximated from in vitro chemical systems. Application of this model to data from several experimental studies is included

  16. Is animal experimentation fundamental? A experimentação animal é fundamental?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando José d'Acampora

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.A compreensão a respeito da utilização de animais de experimentação em pesquisas científicas e para o ensino é por vezes matéria intrincada. Especial atenção é necessária em busca do entendimento pela população em geral, da importância da experimentação animal na pesquisa experimental e na graduação em Medicina. O ensino e a pesquisa experimental na área médica estruturado na disponibilidade de animais para experimentação é importante e necessário para o desenvolvimento pessoal e científico do futuro médico. O arsenal tecnológico que pretende mimetizar os animais de experimentação e com isso substituir totalmente o seu uso muitas vezes não se demonstra compatível com a realidade do animal vivo. Este artigo objetiva expor aspectos concernentes ao tema trazendo à tona o assunto que sem dúvida é complexo e passível de profundas reflexões.

  17. [For active dermatocosmetics and free of unnecessary animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    1998-06-01

    At the dawn of this century, dermocosmetology is at cross-roads because new European regulations are changing its face. The proof of claims must be given and the entire composition of the product must be released. In addition, animal testing is about to be banned. Such new regulations incite to search for and validate predictive tests aiming at the objective evaluation of the activity and tolerance claimed by dermocosmetic products. Such tests must be an alternative to unnecessary animal experimentation. These aspects are scrutinized scientifically by the EEMCO experts in combination with the ECVAM and COLIPA organizations. PMID:9713214

  18. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2014-01-01

    Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals' lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the "lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity". However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large. PMID:26479009

  19. Tupaia belangeri as an experimental animal model for viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2014-01-01

    Tupaias, or tree shrews, are small mammals that are similar in appearance to squirrels. The morphological and behavioral characteristics of the group have been extensively characterized, and despite previously being classified as primates, recent studies have placed the group in its own family, the Tupaiidae. Genomic analysis has revealed that the genus Tupaia is closer to humans than it is to rodents. In addition, tupaias are susceptible to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The only other experimental animal that has been demonstrated to be sensitive to both of these viruses is the chimpanzee, but restrictions on animal testing have meant that experiments using chimpanzees have become almost impossible. Consequently, the development of the tupaia for use as an animal infection model could become a powerful tool for hepatitis virus research and in preclinical studies on drug development. PMID:25048261

  20. A systematic review of animal models for experimental neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, Francesca; Giesen, Thomas; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral neuromas can result in an unbearable neuropathic pain and functional impairment. Their treatment is still challenging, and their optimal management is to be defined. Experimental research still plays a major role, but - although numerous neuroma models have been proposed on different animals - there is still no single model recognised as being the reference. Several models show advantages over the others in specific aspects of neuroma physiopathology, prevention or treatment, making it unlikely that a single model could be of reference. A reproducible and standardised model of peripheral neuroma would allow better comparison of results from different studies. We present a systematic review of the literature on experimental in vivo models, analysing advantages and disadvantages, specific features and indications, with the goal of providing suggestions to help their standardisation. Published models greatly differ in the animal and the nerve employed, the mechanisms of nerve injury and the evaluation methods. Specific experimental models exist for terminal neuromas and neuromas in continuity (NIC). The rat is the most widely employed animal, the rabbit being the second most popular model. NIC models are more actively researched, but it is more difficult to generate such studies in a reproducible manner. Nerve transection is considered the best method to cause terminal neuromas, whereas partial transection is the best method to cause NIC. Traditional histomorphology is the historical gold-standard evaluation method, but immunolabelling, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and proteomics are gaining increasing popularity. Computerised gait analysis is the gold standard for motor-recovery evaluation, whereas mechanical testing of allodynia and hyperalgesia reproducibly assesses sensory recovery. This review summarises current knowledge on experimental neuroma models, and it provides a useful tool for defining experimental protocols

  1. Animal experimentation and scientific knowledge: a thought style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales de Astrogildo e Tréz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal experimentation, besides a research method extensively applied in the production of scientific knowledge, is also considered essential to science and with undeniable historical relevance in advances in human health. In this survey, a questionnaire was applied to a group of researchers involved with research based on non-animal models (n =18, and to another group involved with research based on animal models (n =18. The data analysis was grounded in Ludwik Fleck (1896 -1961 epistemological assumptions. The results suggested that there are at least two thought styles operating in consonance on the same research problem (advances in human health conditions with significantly different conceptions not only concerning the research practices involved, but also the historical conceptions related to the role of animal experimentation.A experimentação animal, além de método amplamente aplicado na produção do conhecimento científico, é considerada como essencial à ciência e com valor histórico inegável no progresso das condições de saúde humana. Neste levantamento, um questionário foi aplicado a um grupo de pesquisadores com trabalhos baseados em modelos não-animais (n =18 e a outro grupo com trabalhos baseados em modelos animais (n =18. A análise de dados se baseou nos pressupostos epitemológicos de Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961. Os dados sugerem que existem pelo menos dois estilos de pensamento operando em consonância sobre o mesmo problema de pesquisa (avanços nas condições de saúde humana, com concepções significativamente diferentes sobre as práticas de pesquisa envolvidas, assim como as concepções históricas relacionadas ao papel da experimentação animal.

  2. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Webster

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  3. Experimental animal data and modeling of late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section is restricted to radiation-induced life shortening and cancer and mainly to studies with external radiation. The emphasis will be on the experimental data that are available and the experimental systems that could provide the type of data with which to either formulate or test models. Genetic effects which are of concern are not discussed in this section. Experimental animal radiation studies fall into those that establish general principles and those that demonstrate mechanisms. General principles include the influence of dose, radiation quality, dose rate, fractionation, protraction and such biological factors as age and gender. The influence of these factors are considered as general principles because they are independent, at least qualitatively, of the species studied. For example, if an increase in the LET of the radiation causes an increased effectiveness in cancer induction in a mouse a comparable increase in effectiveness can be expected in humans. Thus, models, whether empirical or mechanistic, formulated from experimental animal data should be generally applicable

  4. Tendências em experimentação animal Trends in animal experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A busca do entendimento de fatores etiológicos, mecanismos e tratamento das doenças tem levado ao desenvolvimento de vários modelos animais nas últimas décadas. OBJETIVO: Esse artigo tem por objetivo discutir aspectos relacionados a modelos animais de experimentação, escolha do animal e tendências atuais nesse campo em nosso país. Além disso, esse estudo buscou avaliar o espaço ocupado por artigos experimentais em revistas médicas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas cinco revistas brasileiras, indexadas na LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, e recentemente incorporadas pelo Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports. Foram selecionados pelo resumo ou abstract todos os artigos publicados nessas revistas, nos anos de 2007 e 2008, que empregaram modelos animais. RESULTADOS: Do total de 832 artigos publicados no período pelas revistas analisadas, foram selecionados 92 (11,1% que empregavam animais de experimentação. O número de artigos experimentais variou de 5,2% a 17,9% do conteúdo global da revista. Nas instruções aos autores de quatro (80% das revistas avaliadas, havia referência explícita aos princípios éticos na condução de estudos com animais. Os modelos animais induzidos representaram 100% dos artigos analisados neste estudo. O rato foi o animal mais empregado nos artigos analisados, sendo utilizado em 78,3% deles. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo poderá fornecer subsídios para adoção de políticas editoriais futuras relativas à publicação de artigos originários de pesquisa animal na RBCCV.INTRODUCTION: The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. OBJECTIVE: To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in

  5. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: worker and experimental animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M

    2012-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses. PMID:22734811

  6. [Animal experimental tests of a new filling material (Isocap)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethe, P; Rotgans, J; Schmalz, G

    1978-09-01

    An experimental investigation with animals (Rhesus monkeys) concerning pulp tolerance to two premeasured dosages of calcium hydroxide cement (Reocap and Reocap-E) as well as a pre-measured dosage of filling material (Isocap) in an injection capsule was carried out (78 class V cavities). As with the negative controls, a very slight reaction, or none at all, developed in response to the two calcium hydroxide cements and the new filling material, with and without application of capping material. When five other accidentally exposed pulpae were dissected, direct capping under the corresponding preconditions (punctate exposed pulpa, longer storage period for calcium hydroxide cement) showed the characteristic formation of reparative dentin. PMID:100305

  7. Effects of leached mirex on experimental communities of estuarine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagatz, M E; Borthwick, P W; Ivey, J M; Knight, J

    1976-01-01

    Experimental communities of various estuarine animals in outdoor tanks were exposed to a continuous flow of water containing mirex for 10 weeks. The mirex was leached from fire ant bait (0.3% active ingredient) by fresh water which was then mixed with salt water to yield exposure concentrations averaging 0.038 mug/L. The experiment simulated runoff from treated land into estuarine areas. Mortality of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes vulgaris), pin, shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), common mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii), and striped hermit crabs (Clibanarius vittatus) was significantly high in tanks containing the toxicant. Mortality of ribbed mussels (Modiolus demissus) and American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) was significantly lower in treated tanks, probably because numbers of both species of crabs, which ate the bivalves, were reduced. Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were least affected by mirex. Almost all deaths occurred after 10 or more days of exposure. All exposed animals accumulated mirex, with maximum concentrations ranging from 5,500X (pink shrimp) to 73,700X (soft tissues of oysters) above the concentration in the water. Sand substratum contained mirex up to 1,500X that in the water. The study demonstrated that mirex can be leached from bait by fresh water and concentrated by and affect survival of members in an experimental estuarine community. PMID:999334

  8. Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirmala M; Girija K; Lakshman K; Divya T

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods:Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Results:Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M.paradisiaca. Conclusions: The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models.

  9. A review of experimental animal radon health effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abundant epidemiological data from underground miners confirm that radon decay products (progeny) are carcinogenic, although the evidence is less conclusive on the quantitative risks of these exposures, especially for indoor air. The imprecision results principally from differences between exposures in mining and domestic environments and from uncertainties about the interaction between smoking and exposure to radon progeny. Experimental animal studies of radon-induced lung cancer are particularly valuable for understanding the carcinogenicity of human radon exposures in the home and in the workplace. Animals can be exposed to a variety of agents under carefully controlled conditions and then sacrificed for the study of developing lesions or held for their life span for tumor development. The doses to critical cells in the respiratory tract can be determined, and these in turn can be related to doses to critical cells in the respiratory tract of humans exposed to similar aerosols. The study of radon-induced mutations and changes in expression of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes as well as growth factors and growth factor receptors during tumor progression in animals also provides valuable evidence on the underlying mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. This evidence, particularly that of the efficiency for oncogenic transformation at low dose rates, is crucial to the determination of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to indoor levels of radon. This review of animal health effects data emphasizes the carcinogenicity of radon exposures in rats; mechanistic data on radon-induced lung tumors in rats are currently sparse and are not reviewed here. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Using and Selection Criterias of Laboratory Animals with Experimental Purpose in Endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    ertuğrul, ihsan furkan; MADEN, Murat; Orhan, Ekim Onur

    2013-01-01

    Animal experimentation is the use of animals in scientific research. Animal experimants help scientists understand diseases that exist animals and humans, for example new medicines oe new surgical techniques. Animal models have an significiant place in endodontics. Planning the animal experiments, choosing the animal models and the applying ethical principles, in researchs have been included in this review. We concluded that the animal experimants could be conducted on rats, mices and ferrets...

  11. Cats on the Couch: The Experimental Production of Animal Neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Alison

    2016-03-01

    Argument In the 1940s-50s, one of the most central questions in psychological research related to the nature of neurosis. In the final years of the Second World War and the following decade, neurosis became one of the most prominent psychiatric disorders, afflicting a high proportion of military casualties and veterans. The condition became central to the concerns of several psychological fields, from psychoanalysis to Pavlovian psychology. This paper reconstructs the efforts of Chicago psychiatrist Jules Masserman to study neurosis in the laboratory during the 1940s and 1950s. Masserman used Pavlovian techniques in a bid to subject this central psychoanalytic subject to disciplined scientific experimentation. More generally, his project was an effort to bolster the legitimacy of psychoanalysis as a human science by articulating a convergence of psychoanalytic categories across multiple species. Masserman sought to orchestrate a convergence of psychological knowledge between fields that were often taken to be irreconcilable. A central focus of this paper is the role of moving images in this project, not only as a means of recording experimental data but also as a rhetorical device. The paper argues that for Masserman film played an important role in enabling scientific observers (and then subsequent viewers) to see agency and emotion in the animals they observed. PMID:26903373

  12. Phage therapy of staphylococcal chronic osteomyelitis in experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kishor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are the commonest cause of osteomyelitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of an alternative therapy i.e. application of S. aureus specific bacteriophages in cases of osteomyelitis caused by MRSA in animal model. Methods: Twenty two rabbits were included in this study. The first two rabbits were used to test the safety of phage cocktail while the remaining 20 rabbits were divided into three groups; group A (n=4 to assess the establishment of osteomyelitis; group B (n=4 osteomyelitis developed but therapy started only after six weeks; and group C (n=12 osteomyelitis developed and therapy started after three weeks. Groups B and C rabbits were treated with four doses of cocktail of seven virulent bacteriophages at the interval of 48 h. Comparison between three groups was made on the basis of observation of clinical, radiological, microbiological, and histopathological examinations. Results: Experimental group rabbits recovered from the illness in the subsequent two weeks of the therapy. Appetite and activity of the rabbits improved, local oedema, erythema and induration subsided. There were minimal changes associated with osteomyelitis in X-ray and histopathology also showed no signs of infection with new bone formation. Control B group rabbits also recovered well from the infection. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study shows a potential of phage therapy to treat difficult infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria.

  13. Reduction of animal use: experimental design and quality of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, M F

    1994-07-01

    Poorly designed and analysed experiments can lead to a waste of scientific resources, and may even reach the wrong conclusions. Surveys of published papers by a number of authors have shown that many experiments are poorly analysed statistically, and one survey suggested that about a third of experiments may be unnecessarily large. Few toxicologists attempted to control variability using blocking or covariance analysis. In this study experimental design and statistical methods in 3 papers published in toxicological journals were used as case studies and were examined in detail. The first used dogs to study the effects of ethanol on blood and hepatic parameters following chronic alcohol consumption in a 2 x 4 factorial experimental design. However, the authors used mongrel dogs of both sexes and different ages with a wide range of body weights without any attempt to control the variation. They had also attempted to analyse a factorial design using Student's t-test rather than the analysis of variance. Means of 2 blood parameters presented with one decimal place had apparently been rounded to the nearest 5 units. It is suggested that this experiment could equally well have been done in 3 blocks using 24 instead of 46 dogs. The second case study was an investigation of the response of 2 strains of mice to a toxic agent causing bladder injury. The first experiment involved 40 treatment combinations (2 strains x 4 doses x 5 days) with 3-6 mice per combination. There was no explanation of how the experiment involving approximately 180 mice had actually been done, but unequal subclass numbers suggest that the experiment may have been done on an ad hoc basis rather than being properly designed. It is suggested that the experiment could have been done as 2 blocks involving 80 instead of about 180 mice. The third study again involved a factorial design with 4 dose levels of a compound and 2 sexes, with a total of 80 mice. Open field behaviour was examined. The author

  14. Antistress activity of Argyreia speciosa roots in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj B Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antistress effect of a seven-day treatment (100 and 200 mg / kg, p.o. of the hydroalcoholic extract of Argyreia speciosa root (ASE was evaluated by using the swimming endurance test, acetic acid-induced writhing test, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion test, anoxic tolerance test, cold-restraint, stress-induced gastric ulcers, aspirin-induced ulcers, and biochemical, and histopathological changes in the cold-restraint stress test. The immunomodulatory activity was also evaluated for the same doses, and treatment of ASE was done using the hemagglutination test. Both the doses of ASE showed antistress activity in all the tested models. The ASE-treated animals showed a decrease in immobility time and an increase in anoxic tolerance time in swimming endurance and the anoxic tolerance tests, respectively. The effect of glacial acetic acid and pentylenetetrazole were also reduced by decreasing the number of writhing responses and increasing the onset of convulsions, respectively. In the cold restrained stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models, ASE showed a significant reduction in the ulcer index. Pretreatment with ASE significantly ameliorated the cold stress-induced variations in biochemical levels such as increased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, and cortisol. ASE was also effective in preventing the pathological changes in the adrenal gland, due to cold restrained stress, in rats. In mice immunized with sheep red blood cells, the treatment groups subjected to restraint stress prevented the humoral immune response to the antigen. The immunostimulating activity of the ASE was indicated by an increase in the antibody titer in mice pre-immunized with sheep red blood cells and subjected to restraint stress. The findings of the present investigations indicate that the ASE has significant antistress activity, which may be due to the immunostimulating property and increased resistance, nonspecifically, against all

  15. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed. PMID:26827492

  16. Alternatives to animal experimentation for hormonal compounds research

    OpenAIRE

    M. PENZA; Jeremic, M.; Montani, C.; Unkila, M.; L. Caimi; G. Mazzoleni; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Alternatives to animal testing and the identification of reliable methods that may decrease the need for animals are currently the subject of intense investigation worldwide. Alternative testing procedures are particularly important for synthetic and natural chemicals that exert their biological actions through binding nuclear receptors, called nuclear receptors-interacting compounds (NR-ICs), for which research is increasingly emphasizing the limits of several models in the accurate estimati...

  17. Gentamicin nephrotoxicity: Animal experimental correlate with human pharmacovigilance outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunsho Awodele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC, which is responsible for pharmacovigilance activity in Nigeria, recently withdrew injection gentamicin 280 mg, used in the management of life-threatening and multidrug-resistant infections from circulation, due to reported toxicity. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the toxicity profile of the commonly used strengths (80 mg and 280 mg of gentamicin on kidney using animal models. Methods: Animals were divided into five groups of 16 rats each. For rats of groups 1 and 2, gentamicin (1.14 mg/kg each group was administered intramuscularly twice daily for 7 and 14 days, respectively, after which eight of them were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture and the kidneys were carefully removed and weighed immediately. The remaining eight animals were kept for reversibility study for another 7 and 14 days, respectively. For groups 3 and 4, gentamicin (4 mg/kg each group was administered as a single daily dose for 7 and 14 days, respectively, and eight animals from the groups were subjected to reversibility study for 7 and 14 days, respectively. Group 5, the control group animals, were given 10 ml/kg distilled water for 14 days. Histopathology of the kidneys, serum creatinine levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities were investigated. Results: Significant increase (p ≤ 0.001 in the level of creatinine of rats administered 4.0 mg/kg for 14 days was observed compared with all other groups. Significant (p ≤ 0.001 elevations in the lipid peroxidation in all gentamicin-administered animals and acute tubular necrosis in most of the gentamicin-administered animals were observed. Conclusion: Toxicity profile of gentamicin on the kidneys is dependent on both dose and duration of administration. The findings justify the decision made by NAFDAC to ban the use of high-dose inj. gentamicin 280 mg in Nigeria.

  18. Prevention of occupational risks in animal experimentation; Prevencion de riesgos laborales en experimentacion animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Palacio, J. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    This work focuses on the main specific risks for those working with laboratory animals in a Research Center such as CIEMAT. First we present the general biological risks, their laws and rules. Next, we development the specific risks associated with the laboratory animals, zoonotic diseases and allergies. then we deal with the risks that can be consequence of working with laboratory animals, ionizing radiations, chemical products, genetically modified organisms, liquid nitrogen management, bio containment and human samples management. As they are subjects of interest, we also include the workers health assesment for those exposed to biological agents, including recommendations about hygiene and disinfections. (Author)

  19. The study of biological effects of electromagnetic mobile phone radiation on experimental animals by combining numerical modeling and experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Krstić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study biological effects of electromagneticradiation, it is essential to know the real values of field componentsthat penetrated the tissue. The study of biological effects is usuallyperformed on experimental animals. The biological effects observedon experimental animals should be linked with penetrating field inthe tissue. The penetrating electromagnetic field is almost impossibleto measure; therefore, modeling process must be carried out and thefield components in models of experimental animals could becalculated. This paper presents an approach to modeling of fieldpenetration and gives contribution to understanding the real effects of the fields and the sensitivity of tissues to electromagnetic radiation generated by mobile phone.

  20. Lipid metabolism, adipocyte depot physiology and utilization of meat animals as experimental models for metabolic research

    OpenAIRE

    Michael V. Dodson, Gary J. Hausman, LeLuo Guan, Min Du, Theodore P. Rasmussen, Sylvia P. Poulos, Priya Mir, Werner G. Bergen, Melinda E. Fernyhough, Douglas C. McFarland, Robert P. Rhoads, Beatrice Soret, James M. Reecy, Sandra G. Velleman, Zhihua Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Meat animals are unique as experimental models for both lipid metabolism and adipocyte studies because of their direct economic value for animal production. This paper discusses the principles that regulate adipogenesis in major meat animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs), the definition of adipose depot-specific regulation of lipid metabolism or adipogenesis, and introduces the potential value of these animals as models for metabolic research including mammary biology and the ontogeny...

  1. Lipid metabolism, adipocyte depot physiology and utilization of meat animals as experimental models for metabolic research

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, Michael V.; Hausman, Gary J.; Guan, Leluo; Du, Min; Rasmussen, Theodore P.; Poulos, Sylvia P; Mir, Priya; Bergen, Werner G.; Fernyhough, Melinda E.; McFarland, Douglas C.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Soret Lafraya, Beatriz; Reecy, James M.; Velleman, Sandra G; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    Meat animals are unique as experimental models for both lipid metabolism and adipocyte studies because of their direct economic value for animal production. This paper discusses the principles that regulate adipogenesis in major meat animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs), the definition of adipose depot-specific regulation of lipid metabolism or adipogenesis, and introduces the potential value of these animals as models for metabolic research including mammary biology and the onto...

  2. Standard of reporting animal-based experimental research in Indian Journal of Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Umme Aiman; Syed Ziaur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of present study was to survey and determine the reporting standards of animal studies published during three years from 2012 to 2014 in the Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP). Material and Methods: All issues of IJP published in the year 2012, 2013 and 2014 were reviewed to identify animal studies. Each animal study was searched for 15 parameters specifically designed to review standards of animal experimentation and research methodology. Observation: All pub...

  3. An Experimental Animal Model for Abdominal Fascia Healing after Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, J; Pommergaard, H-C; Klein, M;

    2013-01-01

    used to evaluate the actively healing fascia. Such an animal model may promote future research in the prevention of IH. Methods: 86 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish a model involving six experiments (experiments A-F). Mechanical testing of the breaking strength of the healed fascia was......Background: Incisional hernia (IH) is a well-known complication after abdominal surgical procedures. The exact etiology of IH is still unknown even though many risk factors have been suggested. The aim of this study was to create an animal model of a weakly healed abdominal fascia that could be...... performed by testing tissue strips from the healed fascia versus the unincised control fascia 7 and 28 days postoperatively. Results: During the six experiments a healing model was created that produced significantly weaker coherent fascia when compared with the control tissue measured in terms of...

  4. Hollow fiber-optic Raman probes for small experimental animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Takashi; Hattori, Yusuke; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Matsuura, Yuji; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2007-02-01

    Two types of hollow fiber-optic probes are developed to measure the in vivo Raman spectra of small animals. One is the minimized probe which is end-sealed with the micro-ball lens. The measured spectra reflect the information of the sample's sub-surface. This probe is used for the measurement of the esophagus and the stomach via an endoscope. The other probe is a confocal Raman probe which consists of a single fiber and a lens system. It is integrated into the handheld microscope. A simple and small multimodal probe is realized because the hollow optical fiber requires no optical filters. The performance of each probe is examined and the effectiveness of these probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy is shown by animal tests.

  5. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. PMID:24548737

  6. A review of spinal cord injury decompression in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is major permanent sequelae of trauma with high burden and low frequency. In the setting of SCI is there any correlation between the timing of surgical decompression and sensory-motor improvement.Material and Methods: A literature review was performed using PUBMED from 1966 to 25th January 2010. Cross referencing of discovered articles was also reviewed.Results: The results of animal studies have shown that aside from the kind of procedure and s...

  7. Phage therapy of staphylococcal chronic osteomyelitis in experimental animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Chandan Kishor; Raghvendra Raman Mishra; Saraf, Shyam K.; Mohan Kumar; Arvind K Srivastav; Gopal Nath

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are the commonest cause of osteomyelitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of an alternative therapy i.e. application of S. aureus specific bacteriophages in cases of osteomyelitis caused by MRSA in animal model. Methods: Twenty two rabbits were included in this study. The first two rabbits were used to test the safety of phage cocktail while the remaining 20 rabbits were divided into three groups; g...

  8. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments

  9. The study of biological effects of electromagnetic mobile phone radiation on experimental animals by combining numerical modeling and experimental research

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Krstić; Darko Zigar; Dušan Sokolović; Boris Đinđić; Branka Đorđević; Momir Dunjić; Goran Ristić

    2012-01-01

    In order to study biological effects of electromagneticradiation, it is essential to know the real values of field componentsthat penetrated the tissue. The study of biological effects is usuallyperformed on experimental animals. The biological effects observedon experimental animals should be linked with penetrating field inthe tissue. The penetrating electromagnetic field is almost impossibleto measure; therefore, modeling process must be carried out and thefield components in models of exp...

  10. The use of experimental animals in spa research

    OpenAIRE

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory rat is a rat of species Rattus norvegicus which is bred and kept for scientific research. Laboratory rats have served as an important animal model for reaserch in psychology medicine , and other fields.Laboratory rats share origins with their cousins in domestication , the fancy rats. In 18th century Europe , wild Brown rats ran rampant and this infestation fueled the industry of rat-catching .Rat-cathcers would not only make money by trapping the rodents , but also by turning ...

  11. Effects of different ways of fasting in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zari Naderi Ghalenoie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While fasting has been practiced for centuries, its beneficial effects was unknown until recently. This review tries to analyze the current literature of how fasting and intermittent fasting (IF could affect clinical pathological parameters, learning, mood and brain plasticity. The effects of different ways of fasting on metabolism and stress were also explored. Animal experiments have elucidated fasting and IF could exert positive effects on learning, mood and brain, plus metabolic functions such lowering plasma glucose and insulin level and improvement in lipid metabolism (reduced visceral fat tissue and increased plasma adiponectin level, and an increased resistance to stress. Thus, more clinical studies are necessary to test the effectiveness of fasting and IF in preventing different diseases.

  12. The use of experimental animals in spa research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory rat is a rat of species Rattus norvegicus which is bred and kept for scientific research. Laboratory rats have served as an important animal model for reaserch in psychology medicine , and other fields.Laboratory rats share origins with their cousins in domestication , the fancy rats. In 18th century Europe , wild Brown rats ran rampant and this infestation fueled the industry of rat-catching .Rat-cathcers would not only make money by trapping the rodents , but also by turning around and selling them for food , or more importantly , for rat-baiting . Rat-baiting was a popular sport which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a terrier to kill them all.

  13. Research perspectives for pre-screening alternatives to animal experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MEIC study revealed a high predictivity of in vitro cytotoxicity data for human acute systemic toxicity. The idea, put forward by several authors, that compounds that show high cytotoxicity should not need further testing for confirmation but could be assumed toxic also in vivo provides a convenient concept for the selection of the most relevant compounds for further studies in large sets of chemicals, as in the REACH program. The automated techniques applied in high throughput screening (HTS) by the pharmaceutical and biotech industries to select hits in extensive compound collections represent an opportunity to significantly increase the capacity of cytotoxicity testing. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a combination of cytotoxicity data and some basic biokinetic information would greatly improve the accuracy in the extrapolation from in vitro to in vivo and thus make it possible to identify additional toxic compounds that might have escaped in the initial screen. Such information, which can be obtained in a medium throughput screening mode (MTS), includes biotransformation, absorption and some aspects of distribution. The measurement of the net flux of a compound over a cellular barrier, as the one formed in culture by human Caco-2 cells, gives useful, but limited, information on both gut absorption and blood-brain barrier penetration. The test procedures discussed here, as well as other supplementary in vitro tests, cannot always easily be described in terms of animal-based test replacements. In those instances, the necessary test validation cannot be carried out using animal reference data, and prediction models may have to be adapted to new ideas. Consequently, concepts of prospective validation to supplement the now well-established retrospective validation have to be developed

  14. ‘Wanted—standard guinea pigs’: standardisation and the experimental animal market in Britain ca. 1919–1947

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Robert G. W.

    2008-01-01

    In 1942 a coalition of twenty scientific societies formed the Conference on the Supply of Experimental Animals (CSEA) in an attempt to pressure the Medical Research Council to accept responsibility for the provision of standardised experimental animals in Britain. The practice of animal experimentation was subject to State regulation under the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876, but no provision existed for the provision of animals for experimental use. Consequently, day-to-day laboratory work wa...

  15. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2014: A new format, and hopefully a new era of diminishing animal experimentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2016-03-01

    The Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2014 reports a welcome decline in animal experimentation in the UK. However, caution has to be exercised when interpreting these most recent figures, due to the significant changes made to satisfy the requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU as to what information is reported and how it is reported. Comparisons to the figures and trends reported in previous years is difficult, so this paper focuses on the specifics of the current report, providing information on overall animal use and highlighting specific issues associated with genetically-altered animals, fish and primates. There is a detailed discussion of the extent of the changes, commenting on the benefits and disadvantages of the new format, in areas such as severity of procedures, legislation and techniques of special interest. It also considers the consequences of the changes on the effective monitoring of laboratory animal use, the openness and transparency regarding the impacts of animal use, and the implementation of Three Rs initiatives. In addition, suggestions for further improvements to the new format are made to the Home Office. PMID:27031603

  16. Tendências em experimentação animal Trends in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosangela Monteiro; Ricardo Brandau; Walter J. Gomes; Domingo M. Braile

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A busca do entendimento de fatores etiológicos, mecanismos e tratamento das doenças tem levado ao desenvolvimento de vários modelos animais nas últimas décadas. OBJETIVO: Esse artigo tem por objetivo discutir aspectos relacionados a modelos animais de experimentação, escolha do animal e tendências atuais nesse campo em nosso país. Além disso, esse estudo buscou avaliar o espaço ocupado por artigos experimentais em revistas médicas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas cinco revistas brasil...

  17. Evaluating the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants in animal models: Current experimental methods and perspectives (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuska, Vaclav; Moztarzadeh, Omid; Kubikova, Tereza; Moztarzadeh, Amin; Hrusak, Daniel; Tonar, Zbynek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the experimental methods currently being used to evaluate the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants using animal models. The material modifications are linked to the biocompatibility of various types of oral implants, such as laser-treated, acid-etched, plasma-coated, and sand-blasted surface modifications. The types of implants are reviewed according to their implantation site (endoosseous, subperiosteal, and transosseous implants). The animal species and target bones used in experimental implantology are carefully compared in terms of the ratio of compact to spongy bone. The surgical technique in animal experiments is briefly described, and all phases of the histological evaluation of osseointegration are described in detail, including harvesting tissue samples, processing undemineralized ground sections, and qualitative and quantitative histological assessment of the bone-implant interface. The results of histological staining methods used in implantology are illustrated and compared. A standardized and reproducible technique for stereological quantification of bone-implant contact is proposed and demonstrated. In conclusion, histological evaluation of the experimental osseointegration of dental implants requires careful selection of the experimental animals, bones, and implantation sites. It is also advisable to use larger animal models and older animals with a slower growth rate rather than small or growing experimental animals. Bones with a similar ratio of compact to spongy bone, such as the human maxilla and mandible, are preferred. A number of practical recommendations for the experimental procedures, harvesting of samples, tissue processing, and quantitative histological evaluations are provided. PMID:27421518

  18. A review of spinal cord injury decompression in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI is major permanent sequelae of trauma with high burden and low frequency. In the setting of SCI is there any correlation between the timing of surgical decompression and sensory-motor improvement.Material and Methods: A literature review was performed using PUBMED from 1966 to 25th January 2010. Cross referencing of discovered articles was also reviewed.Results: The results of animal studies have shown that aside from the kind of procedure and species, when compression is less severe and of shorter duration, the neurological and histopathological recovery is significantly good. One meta-analysis, nine prospective studies, and one randomized clinical trial were identified. Conclusion: There are presently no standards regarding the role and timing of decompression in acute SCI. As a practice guideline, early surgery in less than 24 hours can be done safely in patients with acute SCI and urgent decompression is a reasonable practice option. Traction is the most practical method of achieving urgent decompression after cervical SCI. There are class III data to support a recommendation for urgent decompression in any patient with incomplete SCI with or without neurologic deterioration, with or without bilateral irreducible facet dislocations. There is emerging evidence that surgery within 24 hours may reduce both the length of intensive care unit stay and incidence of medical complications

  19. COMPARED PERFORMANCES OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DIGESTERS OF THE ANIMAL BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to look further into experimentally of the effect of the variation of certain physicochemical parameters of anaerobic digestion on the quantitative gas productivity of four digesters of treating bovine dejections. Moreover, four digesters supplied with the avicolous droppings, in different concentrations of Dry Matter (DM, were followed. The assessments of depollution (Suspended Matter and Biological Demand for Oxygen together with qualitative energy (gas composition and calorific value were also appreciated. We can release particularly that: the quantity of bovine biogas produced is variable according to the parameters of digestion. It is maximum in the presence of high temperature and under mechanical agitation of the substrate introduced; the quantitative productivity is more interesting in the case of the digesters avicolous. It is more important with the increase of the concentration of solids; the digester with 8% DM presents attractive valuations of depollution and energy efficiency.

  20. A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshian, Mardas; Akbarsha, Mohammad A.; Blaauboer, Bas; Caloni, Francesca; Cosson, Pierre; Curren, Rodger; Goldberg, Alan; Gruber, Franz; Ohl, Frauke; Pfaller, Walter; Van der Valk, Jan; Vinardell, Pilar; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Development of improved communication and education strategies is important to make alternatives to the use of animals, and the broad range of applications of the 3Rs concept better known and understood by different audiences. For this purpose, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing in Europe (CAAT-Europe) together with the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t(4)) hosted a three-day workshop on "Teaching Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation". A compilation of the recomme...

  1. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Liedtke, Christian; Luedde, Tom; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Scholten, David; Streetz, Konrad; Tacke, Frank; Tolba, René; Trautwein, Christian; Trebicka, Jonel; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 20...

  2. Experimental autoimmune uveitis and other animal models of uveitis: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Svati Bansal; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Daiju Iwata; Rupesh Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, animal models of autoimmune uveitis directed at eye-specific antigens (Ags) have been developed. These have allowed researchers to understand the basic mechanisms that lead to these diseases and also recently helped the researchers in translational research for therapeutic interventions. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is an animal disease model of human endogenous uveitis and can be induced in susceptible animals by immunization with retinal Ags. Ever sin...

  3. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Christian; Luedde, Tom; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Scholten, David; Streetz, Konrad; Tacke, Frank; Tolba, René; Trautwein, Christian; Trebicka, Jonel; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of Annona squamosa Linn. on experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Mohamed Saleem

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Natural remedies from medicinal plants are considered to be effective and safe alternative treatment for liver toxicity. Our aim was to demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of alcoholic and water extract of Annona squamosa (custard apple hepatotoxic animals with a view to explore its use for the treatment of hepatotoxicity in human. These extracts were used to study the Hepatoprotective effect in isoniazid + rifampicin induced hepatotoxic model. There was a significant decrease in total bilirubin accompanied by significant increase in the level of total protein and also significant decrease in ALP, AST, ALT and γ-GT in treatment group as compared to the hepatotoxic group. In the histopathological study the hepatotoxic group showed hepatocytic necrosis and inflammation in the centrilobular region with portal triaditis. The treatment group showed minimal inflammation with moderate portal triaditis and their lobular architecture was normal. It should be concluded that the extracts of Annona squamosa were not able to revert completely hepatic injury induced by isoniazid + rifampicin, but it could limit the effect of these drugs in liver. The effect of extracts compared with standard drug silymarin.   Industrial relevance: A clear definition of herbal product is required at this stage, so as to provide a proper focus and strategy for the development of the industry. The development of herbal products only as medicinal inputs would clearly identify the potential beneficiaries and enable the medical practitioners to recognize the products as such. This would inevitably lead to quicker development in the field and pave the way for providing a scientific and technological explanation and justification for the use of the products in the medicinal sector. Today a substantial number of drugs are developed from plants. The majority of these involve the isolation of active ingredient found in a particular medicinal plant and its subsequent

  5. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical iss...

  6. Welfare and housing in animal production: airquality evaluation and new experimental device in different species

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The research has been divided into two step: the first one concerning the evaluation of ventilation in cattle and broilers houses, the second one concerning the study of a new experimental device for pigs breeding. Ventilation flow in livestock buildings can determine the indoor climate and air quality and so it affects directly the welfare of the reared animals. The realization of the animal houses in many cases, has not allowed the correct activation of the plants caused by the objective...

  7. The relevance of animal experimental results for the assessment of radiation genetic risks in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No suitable data are available from man for the quantitative assessment of genetic radiation risk. Therefore, the results from experiments on animals must be utilized. Two hypotheses are presented here in drawing analogical conclusions from one species to another. Although the extrapolation of results from animal experiments remains an open question, the use of experimental results from mice seems to be justified for an assessment of the genetic radiation risk in man. (orig.)

  8. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  9. 实验动物与生物安全%Experimental Animals and Biosecurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱军; 孙玉成

    2011-01-01

    实验动物是从事科学研究、教学、生产、检定等的重要工具和支撑条件.随着科学技术的飞速发展,科学研究中使用的实验动物和实验用动物的种类、品系越来越多,生物安全问题已经明显地威胁到生物多样性、生态环境和人类健康.本文分析了实验动物的潜在生物安全危害,探讨了实验动物生物安全管理方面存在的问题并就应对实验动物生物安全提出了一些建议.%Experimental animals are an important tool and supporting condition for research , leaching, production, standardization. The species and strain of experimental animals used in research have been increased markedly alone with development al full speed of science and technique. But the biological diversity, ecological environment and human health have been threatened by experimental animals bio-safety issues in our country. This review analyzed the potential bio-safety hidden danger in experimental animals raising and use, investigated problems existed in experimentalanimals bio-safety control,and proposed some measures and advice to laboratory animals bio-safety.

  10. Experimental adiaspiromycosis in animals with a modified reactivity (Albino mice) after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the pathologic process in experimental adiaspiromycosis, following intraperitoneal inoculation with elements of the mycelium phase of Emmonsia crescens Emmons et Jellison (1960), depends on the reactivity of the experimental animals. Compared with a control group of animals, inoculated albino mice (with a single dose of 250 rad) contracted adiaspiromycosis more readily, there was a higher incidence of positive findings, aleirospore dissemination to distant organs outside the abdominal cavity occurred earlier, the intensity of tissue and organ insemination of the host was much higher. The results of these studies show that individuals with low resistance and increased susceptibility to infection are particularly liable to contract adiaspiromycosis. (author)

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of inflammatoryand autoimmune diseases in experimental animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew W Klinker; Cheng-Hong Wei

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [also known asmesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are currently beingstudied as a cell-based treatment for inflammatorydisorders. Experimental animal models of humanimmune-mediated diseases have been instrumental inestablishing their immunosuppressive properties. Inthis review, we summarize recent studies examiningthe effectiveness of MSCs as immunotherapy in severalwidely-studied animal models, including type 1 diabetes,experimental autoimmune arthritis, experimentalautoimmune encephalomyelitis, inflammatory boweldisease, graft-vs -host disease, and systemic lupuserythematosus. In addition, we discuss mechanismsidentified by which MSCs mediate immune suppressionin specific disease models, and potential sources offunctional variability of MSCs between studies.

  12. Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed

    OpenAIRE

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R.; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). One of the factors currently impeding the production of ‘high-quality’ SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is ra...

  13. A new rabies vaccine with an experimental adjuvant for domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Süli Judit; Beníšek Z.; Ondrejková Ana; Ondrejka R.; Prokeš M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors had developed a new experimental adjuvant based on squalene and its efficacy was tested on target domestic animals - cats and dogs by means of different rabies vaccines. In this experiment the authors compared the immune response on the rabies vaccine without adjuvant and with aluminium adjuvant or experimental squalene adjuvant, respectively. The level of rabies antibodies was determined by rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test on days 14, 3...

  14. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  15. Accuracy of measurement of acoustic rhinometry applied to small experimental animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaise, Toshihiko; Ukai, Kotara; Pedersen, Ole Finn;

    1999-01-01

    -sectional areas as a function of the distance from the nostril. We modified the equipment used on humans to assess dimensions of nasal airway geometry of small experimental animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of measurement of the modified acoustic rhinometry applied to small...... experimental animals using nasal cavity models and guinea pigs. Measurement of the nasal cavity models (made of cylindrical silicone tubes) showed that the acoustic rhinometry estimated 85.5% of actual area and 79.0% of actual volume. In guinea pigs, nasal cavity volume determined by the acoustic rhinometry......Nasal obstruction is one of the major symptoms of allergic rhinitis. In the study of the mechanism of nasal obstruction, experiments on animal are useful. In adult humans, acoustic rhinometry has been used to evaluate nasal obstruction by determining nasal cavity dimensions in terms of cross...

  16. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases.

  17. [Effect of phenibut on the behavior of experimental animals under conditions of voluntary chronic alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiurenkov, I N; Voronkov, A V; Borodkina, L E

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phenibut on the locomotor and orientation-research activity, as well as on the alcohol and food motivation, was studied on experimental animals under conditions of voluntary chronic alcoholism. Phenibut decreased the manifestations of alcohol-induced behavioral disorders and reduced alcohol motivation. PMID:16047680

  18. Expanding the three Rs to meet new challenges in humane animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Fraser, David; McDonald, Michael

    2004-11-01

    The Three Rs are the main principles used by Animal Ethics Committees in the governance of animal experimentation, but they appear not to cover some ethical issues that arise today. These include: a) claims that certain species should be exempted on principle from harmful research; b) increased emphasis on enhancing quality of life of research animals; c) research involving genetically modified (GM) animals; and d) animals bred as models of disease. In some cases, the Three Rs can be extended to cover these developments. The burgeoning use of GM animals in science calls for new forms of reduction through improved genetic modification technology, plus continued attention to alternative approaches and cost-benefit analyses that include the large numbers of animals involved indirectly. The adoption of more expanded definitions of refinement that go beyond minimising distress will capture concerns for enhancing the quality of life of animals through improved husbandry and handling. Targeting refinement to the unpredictable effects of gene modification may be difficult; in these cases, careful attention to monitoring and endpoints are the obvious options. Refinement can also include sharing data about the welfare impacts of gene modifications, and modelling earlier stages of disease, in order to reduce the potential suffering caused to disease models. Other issues may require a move beyond the Three Rs. Certain levels of harm, or numbers and use of certain species, may be unacceptable, regardless of potential benefits. This can be addressed by supplementing the utilitarian basis of the Three Rs with principles based on deontological and relational ethics. The Three Rs remain very useful, but they require thoughtful interpretation and expansion in order for Animal Ethics Committees to address the full range of issues in animal-based research. PMID:15656775

  19. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases. PMID:25541548

  20. Influence of different methods of internal bone fixation on characteristics of bone callus in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Correct choice of osteosynthesis method is a very important factor in providing the optimal conditions for appropriate healing of the fracture. There are still disagreements about the method of stabilization of some long bone fractures. Critically observed, no method of fracture fixation is ideal. Each osteosynthesis method has both advantages and weaknesses. Objective. The objective of this study was to compare the results of the experimental application of three different internal fixation methods: plate fixation, intramedullary nail fixation and self-dynamisable internal fixator (SIF. Methods. A series of 30 animals were used (Lepus cuniculus as experimental animals, divided into three groups of ten animals each. Femoral diaphysis of each animal was osteotomized and fixed with one of three implants. Ten weeks later all animals were sacrificed and each specimen underwent histological and biomechanical testing. Results. Histology showed that the healing process with SIF was more complete and bone callus was more mature in comparison to other two methods. During biomechanical investigation (computerized bending stress test, it was documented with high statistical significance that using SIF led to stronger healing ten weeks after the operation. Conclusion. According to the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that SIF is a suitable method for fracture treatment.

  1. [Christian responsibility and experimental medicine. Experiments with and on humans, experiments on animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Heinrich W

    2002-01-01

    The Jewish-Christian convictions that man was created as the image of God founded the "ethics of unavailability" which contrast with the utilitarian "ethics of interests." As man s nature is imperfect according to biblical understanding, those responsible in the field of experimental medicine should counteract all tendencies in society which promote an utopian definition of health and an eugenic mentality (idea of the "perfection of mankind"). Consequently, scientists must reflect their own image of man and the effects of their actions on this image. The goals of experimental medicine must also be examined under the aspect of fairness: do they only benefit a minority in the rich industrial nations? As in research on humans, the ethical evaluation of animal experiments must consider the question of the underlying image of humanity and the responsibility of mankind connected to it. Because of changes in society's values, the validity of traditional anthropocentrism is increasingly questioned. However, this does not affect the view of the special position of man as the bearer of responsibility. Even though there are different biblical statements on the relationship between man and animal, the Christian maxim to minimise violence towards animals can be derived from them. In the case of animal experiments this means: experiments which cause the animals severe suffering must be avoided by waiving the potential gain of knowledge from them. In general: in an ethical discussion on medical experiments using humans or animals, the public must be informed completely and involved effectively. A moratorium must be possible before plans become facts. Thinking about ethical problems in the area of experimental medicine should not be separated from the far-reaching questions about changes in our lifestyle and consumer behaviour. PMID:12457205

  2. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  3. Desferal (DFO) induced Ga-67 washout from normal tissue, tumor and abscess in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the experimental animal, desferal (DFO) given intravenously washes out Ga-67 from all tissues. This effect is not uniform: blood activity is reduced very markedly, while liver activity is less affected. Maximal effect of DFO occurs if given close to the Ga-67 injection. When the time interval between the two is increased, the absolute amount of Ga-67 excreted in the urine in excess of the spontaneous excretion is reduced. Administration of DFO does not effect Ga-67 gastrointestinal excretion. In three animal tumor models (EMT-6 sarcoma in Balb/c mice, spontaneous adenocarcinoma in mice, and spontaneous adenocarcinoma in the rabbit) and in sterile abscess-bearing rats, the administration of DFO 24 hrs after Ga-67-citrate improves significantly the target-to-nontarget ratio. Animals given 50 mg/kg DFO I.V. after Ga-67 citrate showed a significant reduction in the whole-body activity as seen in a one-week follow up

  4. Investigation of nutriactive phytochemical - gamma-oryzanol in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szcześniak, K A; Ostaszewski, P; Ciecierska, A; Sadkowski, T

    2016-08-01

    Gamma-oryzanol (GO) is an abundant dietary antioxidant that is considered to have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Other potential properties of GO include inhibition of gastric acid secretion and decreased post-exercise muscle fatigue. GO is a unique mixture of triterpene alcohol and sterol ferulates present in rice bran oil, a byproduct of rice processing. GO has been studied by many researchers over the last three decades. In particular, the utility of GO supplementation has been documented in numerous animal models. A large variety of species was examined, and various experimental methodologies and targets were applied. The aim of this study was to summarize the body of research on GO supplementation in animals and to examine possible mechanisms of GO action. Furthermore, while the safety of GO supplementation in animals has been well documented, studies demonstrating pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and efficiency are less clear. The observed differences in these findings are also discussed. PMID:26718022

  5. Music in film and animation: experimental semiotics applied to visual, sound and musical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Roger A.

    2010-02-01

    The relationship of music to film has only recently received the attention of experimental psychologists and quantificational musicologists. This paper outlines theory, semiotical analysis, and experimental results using relations among variables of temporally organized visuals and music. 1. A comparison and contrast is developed among the ideas in semiotics and experimental research, including historical and recent developments. 2. Musicological Exploration: The resulting multidimensional structures of associative meanings, iconic meanings, and embodied meanings are applied to the analysis and interpretation of a range of film with music. 3. Experimental Verification: A series of experiments testing the perceptual fit of musical and visual patterns layered together in animations determined goodness of fit between all pattern combinations, results of which confirmed aspects of the theory. However, exceptions were found when the complexity of the stratified stimuli resulted in cognitive overload.

  6. Biokinetic models for radionuclides in experimental animals; Modelos biocineticos de radionucleidos en animales de experimentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcillo, M. A. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The biokinetic models for many radionuclides are, to a large extent, based on data obtained in experimental animals. The methods used in the experimental development of a biokinetic model can be classified in two groups (i) those applied during the experimental work, which include the activity determination of a given radionuclide at different times and in different biological media such as blood, serum, organs/tissues, urine, bile and faeces and (ii) those methods used for the analysis and study of the experimental data, based in mathematical tools. Some of these methods are reviewed,with special emphasis in the whole body macro autoradiography. To conclude, the contribution that this type of studies can have in two fields of radiation protection is discussed, namely optimization of dosimetric evaluations and decorporation of radionuclides. (Author)

  7. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  8. Animal experimentation in Spacelab - Present and future U.S. plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Current development of life-sciences hardware and experiments for the fourth Spacelab mission in the Life Sciences Flight Experiments Program at NASA Ames is reviewed. The research-animal holding facility, the general-purpose work station, and the life sciences laboratory equipment are characterized, and the 14 Ames projects accepted for the mission are listed and discussed. Several hardware systems and experimental procedures will be verified on the Spacelab-3 mission scheduled for late 1984.

  9. Effects of exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (an animal model of multiple sclerosis)

    OpenAIRE

    Klaren, Rachel E; Motl, Robert W.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training has improved many outcomes in “clinical” research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is limited understanding of the underlying “basic” pathophysiological mechanisms. The animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), seems ideal for examining the effects of exercise training on MS-disease pathophysiology. EAE is an autoimmune T-helper cell-mediated disease characterized by T-cell and monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the ...

  10. Evidence for effects of chronic lead exposure on blood pressure in experimental animals: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Victery, W

    1988-01-01

    Information obtained in a number of experimental studies conducted over the last 40 years on the effects of lead on blood pressure is reviewed. Differences in animal species, age at beginning of exposure, level of lead exposure, indices of lead burden, and blood pressure effects of each study are reported. In several of the high-dose experiments, hypertension was observed, but nephrotoxicity of lead may have contributed to its development. Moreover, in other high-dose experiments, no hyperten...

  11. Experimental animal models and inflammatory cellular changes in cerebral ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Tao; Chopp, Michael; Chen, Jieli

    2015-01-01

    Stroke, including cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, is the leading cause of long-term disability and death worldwide. Animal models have greatly contributed to our understanding of the risk factors and the pathophysiology of stroke, as well as the development of therapeutic strategies for its treatment. Further development and investigation of experimental models, however, are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of stroke and to enhance and expand nove...

  12. Different Roles of Mast Cells in Obesity and Diabetes: Lessons from Experimental Animals and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Michael A.; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) play an important role in allergic hyperresponsiveness and in defending microorganism infections. Recent studies of experimental animals and humans have suggested that MCs participate in obesity and diabetes. MC distribution and activities in adipose tissues may vary, depending on the locations of different adipose tissues. In addition to releasing inflammatory mediators to affect adipose tissue extracellular matrix remodeling and to promote inflammatory cell recruitment and ...

  13. Antidiarrheal potential of standardized extract of Rhododendron arboreum Smith flowers in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Verma; Singh, Anil P.; Amresh Gupta; Sahu, P. K.; Rao, Ch V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To investigate standardized ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (EFRA) flowers for antidiarrheal activity in experimental animals. Materials and Methods : A simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was used for the determination of hyperin in EFRA. The standardized fraction was investigated for castor oil, magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea, measurement of gastrointestinal transit using charcoal and castor oil-induced enteropooling...

  14. Experimental strategies for the identification and characterization of adhesive proteins in animals: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebert, Elise; Maldonado, Barbara; Ladurner, Peter; Flammang, Patrick; Santos, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Adhesive secretions occur in both aquatic and terrestrial animals, in which they perform diverse functions. Biological adhesives can therefore be remarkably complex and involve a large range of components with different functions and interactions. However, being mainly protein based, biological adhesives can be characterized by classical molecular methods. This review compiles experimental strategies that were successfully used to identify, characterize and obtain the full-length sequence of ...

  15. Protection of the Experimental Animal for Animal Testing%动物试验中的实验动物保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜生; 杨玉; 岳文斌

    2012-01-01

    This paper discussed the basic theory for the position and role of animal testing and for the choice of experimental animal, and put forward corresponding countermeasures and measures for experimental animal protection.%论文论述了动物试验的地位和作用、动物试验中实验动物的选择等基本理论,并对在动物试验中实验动物的保护提出了相应的对策和措施.

  16. Cadmium osteotoxicity in experimental animals: Mechanisms and relationship to human exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive epidemiological studies have recently demonstrated increased cadmium exposure correlating significantly with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture incidence in humans at lower exposure levels than ever before evaluated. Studies in experimental animals have addressed whether very low concentrations of dietary cadmium can negatively impact the skeleton. This overview evaluates results in experimental animals regarding mechanisms of action on bone and the application of these results to humans. Results demonstrate that long-term dietary exposures in rats, at levels corresponding to environmental exposures in humans, result in increased skeletal fragility and decreased mineral density. Cadmium-induced demineralization begins soon after exposure, within 24 h of an oral dose to mice. In bone culture systems, cadmium at low concentrations acts directly on bone cells to cause both decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, independent of its effects on kidney, intestine, or circulating hormone concentrations. Results from gene expression microarray and gene knock-out mouse models provide insight into mechanisms by which cadmium may affect bone. Application of the results to humans is considered with respect to cigarette smoke exposure pathways and direct vs. indirect effects of cadmium. Clearly, understanding the mechanism(s) by which cadmium causes bone loss in experimental animals will provide insight into its diverse effects in humans. Preventing bone loss is critical to maintaining an active, independent lifestyle, particularly among elderly persons. Identifying environmental factors such as cadmium that contribute to increased fractures in humans is an important undertaking and a first step to prevention.

  17. Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium

  18. The Magnus-Rademaker Scientific Film Collection: Ethical Issues on Animal Experimentation (1908-1940).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J; Lameris, Bregt

    2016-01-01

    The Magnus-Rademaker scientific film collection (1908-1940) deals with the physiology of body posture by the equilibrium of reflex musculature contractions for which experimental studies were carried out with animals (e.g., labyrinthectomies, cerebellectomies, and brain stem sections) as well as observations done on patients. The films were made for demonstrations at congresses as well as educational objectives and film stills were published in their books. The purpose of the present study is to position these films and their makers within the contemporary discourse on ethical issues and animal rights in the Netherlands and the earlier international debates. Following an introduction on animal rights and antivivisection movements, we describe what Magnus and Rademaker thought about these issues. Their publications did not provide much information in this respect, probably reflecting their adherence to implicit ethical codes that did not need explicit mentioning in publications. Newspaper articles, however, revealed interesting information. Unnecessary suffering of an animal never found mercy in Magnus' opinion. The use of cinematography was expanded to the reduction of animal experimentation in student education, at least in the case of Rademaker, who in the 1930s was involved in a governmental committee for the regulation of vivisection and cooperated with the antivivisection movement. This resulted not only in a propaganda film for the movement but also in films that demonstrate physiological experiments for students with the purpose to avert repetition and to improve the teaching of experiments. We were able to identify the pertinent films in the Magnus-Rademaker film collection. The production of vivisection films with this purpose appears to have been common, as is shown in news messages in European medical journals of the period. PMID:26684427

  19. Development of experimental animals for studies of radiation effects. Contribution to the studies of the team for laboratory animal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author's team for the title purpose in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) mainly handles the reproductive physiology and embryonic technology to meet the researchers' needs. For developing gene-modified animals, the system is established for freeze-storing the ovum of those animals based on techniques of the micro-manipulation for external handling of ovum, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and early embryo culture. For preparing transgenic and/or knockout mice, embryos of 2-8 cell stages are usually freeze-stored. IVF/implanting fertilized ovum systems are also run for requests for storing the gene-modified ova and for supplying quickly many (up to about 100) animals. Techniques for freeze-storing unfertilized ova are to be established within this year. As well, the team is conducting the practical studies for the animals like genetic diagnoses of diseases and for the rapid supply of animals in accordance to research needs. (S.I.)

  20. CHANGING METABOLIC FUNCTIONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AFTER INTRODUCTION OF THE XENOBIOTIC, IMMUNOTROPIC DRUG AND PROBIOTIC

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    Zvyagintseva O.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate in vivo changes in metabolic and barrier function of the resistance factors (activity of enzymes of neutrophils, the efficiency of phagocytosis, some biochemical parameters (concentration of ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin and proliferate activity in vitro cells after introduction of copper sulfate, probiotics and immunostimulant "Fungidol" the experimental animals. Material and methods. The in vivo experiments were performed on 6-month-old male rats of Wistar line. Identified the following groups: group 1 - control animals, which were intraperitoneally injected with saline (n = 5; group 2 - animals that were administered saline per os and 48 hours a solution of copper sulphate intraperitoneally (n = 5; group 3 - animals, which were injected with immunotropic drug "Fungidol" per os and 48 hours a solution of copper sulphate intraperitoneally (n = 5; group 4 animals, which were injected with a solution of probiotics per os and 48 hours a solution of copper sulphate intraperitoneally (n = 5. As a probiotic used capsules firm Yogurt that contains active Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophillus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus. The concentration of haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin were determined spectrophotometrically. Oxygen-dependent metabolism of neutrophils was investigated by microscopy according to their ability to absorb nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT-test and restore it to deformazione in the form of granules blue color under the influence of superoxide anion, which is formed in the NADP-oxidase reaction, initiating the process of stimulation of phagocytosis (NBT-test. To determine the barrier function of phagocytic cells by light microscopy to evaluate the activity of phagocytosis of neutrophilic granulocytes with subsequent determination of phagocytic index, phagocytic number and the index of completeness of phagocytosis. As a microbial agent used is a suspension culture of

  1. Animal model of atherosclerosis using rabbit experimentally induced by combination of X-ray and hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to prepare an animal model of atherosclerosis similar to human lesions. The experimental animals were male Japanese white rabbits weighting about 2 kg. Hypercholesterolemia was experimentally induced by giving a 1% cholesterol diet. Four weeks later, a single dose of 45 Gy was delivered to the femur to produce vascular changes. Soon after irradiation, immunohistochemical examination revealed the adhesion and invasion of macrophages to endothelial cells, followed by accumulation of foam cells and thickness of the intimal plaques. Three months after irradiation, these thickened plaques became fibrotic, calcified, and necrotic. The tunica media was thinned and the internal elastic lamella was destroyed. Irradiated arteries exhibited not only severe narrowing of the lumen but also aneurysmal dilation and the lesions of the irradiated arteries resembled human atherosclerosis. In conclusion, the atherosclerotic model produced by combining experimental hypercholesterolemia and X-ray irradiaiton may serve as a useful model for studies on atherosclerosis because it can be prepared with no need of complicated or time-consuming procedures. (N.K.)

  2. [F18]-FDG imaging of experimental animal tumours using a hybrid gamma-camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical studies. This technology permits detection of compounds labelled with positron emitting radionuclides and in particular, [F18]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([F18]-FDG).[F18]-FDG uptake and accumulation is generally related to malignancy; some recent works have suggested the usefulness of PET camera dedicated to small laboratory animals (micro-PET). Our study dealt with the feasibility of [F18]-FDG imaging of malignant tumours in animal models by means of an hybrid camera dedicated for human scintigraphy. We evaluated the ability of coincidence detection emission tomography (CDET) using this hybrid camera to visualize in vivo subcutaneous tumours grafted to mice or rats. P815 murine mastocytoma grafted in syngeneic DBA/2 mice resulted with foci of very high FDG uptake. Tumours with a diameter of only 3 mm were clearly visualized. Medullary thyroid cancer provoked by rMTC 6/23 and CA77 lines in syngeneic Wag/Rij rat was also detected. The differentiated CA77 tumours exhibited avidity for [F18]-FDG and a tumour, which was just palpable (diameter lower than 2 mm), was identified. In conclusion, CDET-FDG is a non-invasive imaging tool which can be used to follow grafted tumours in the small laboratory animal, even when their size is smaller than 1 cm. It has the potential to evaluate experimental anticancer treatments in small series of animals by individual follow-up. It offers the opportunity to develop experimental PET research within a nuclear medicine or biophysics department, the shift to a dedicated micro-PET device being subsequently necessary. It is indeed compulsory to strictly follow the rules for non contamination and disinfection of the hybrid camera. (authors)

  3. Animal experimental model of Peyronie’s disease: A pilot study

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    Maria Angela Cerruto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Peyronie's disease (PD is an idiopathic disorder of connective tissue of the penis, that involves the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa and the adjacent areolar space. It is a growing clinical evidence to support the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells and histological findings has assumed a possible application of lipofilling technique in patients with PD. The objective of this experimental study is the creation of a murine experimental model of PD, evaluating with MRI the penis of the rats (feasibility study, in order to plane the application of lipofilling technique in an animal model. Methods: Four male Wistar rats were anesthetized, fixed in prone position and subjected to MRI. The animals underwent, subsequently, an injection of thrombin in the tunica albuginea and MRI images were acquired at 7 and 21 days after injection with incision of the dartos. Results: The MRI acquisitions, both in coronal and axial projection, showed an adequate visibility of the anatomical structures. At 7 days after thrombin injection with the dartos incision it was evident an oedematous portion, visible as a hyperintense area, located at the injection area. At 21 days after injection, oedema was partially resolved: the injection part of the hyperintense area remains unchanged, while the remaining area appears to be part of a re-absorption and re-organization process. Conclusions: Since none of the various treatment modalities currently available for the management of PD is able to bring healing, the researchers’ attention is increasingly directed towards innovative treatment programs, such as the use of stem cells of mesenchymal origin. At the present time, the research in PD is hampered by the lack of universally accepted animal model and this is likely attributed to the limited insight into PD mechanisms and the difficulties faced by current animal models to truly represent the complexity.

  4. Role of adipose-derived stromal cells in pedicle skin flap survival in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroglou, Pericles; Karathanasis, Vasileios; Demiri, Efterpi; Koliakos, George; Papadakis, Marios

    2016-03-26

    The use of skin flaps in reconstructive surgery is the first-line surgical treatment for the reconstruction of skin defects and is essentially considered the starting point of plastic surgery. Despite their excellent usability, their application includes general surgical risks or possible complications, the primary and most common is necrosis of the flap. To improve flap survival, researchers have used different methods, including the use of adipose-derived stem cells, with significant positive results. In our research we will report the use of adipose-derived stem cells in pedicle skin flap survival based on current literature on various experimental models in animals. PMID:27022440

  5. Effects of exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (an animal model of multiple sclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaren, Rachel E; Motl, Robert W; Woods, Jeffrey A; Miller, Stephen D

    2014-09-15

    Exercise training has improved many outcomes in "clinical" research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is limited understanding of the underlying "basic" pathophysiological mechanisms. The animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), seems ideal for examining the effects of exercise training on MS-disease pathophysiology. EAE is an autoimmune T-helper cell-mediated disease characterized by T-cell and monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the CNS. To that end, this paper briefly describes common models of EAE, reviews existing research on exercise and EAE, and then identifies future research directions for understanding the consequences of exercise training using EAE. PMID:24999244

  6. Effects of exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (an animal model of multiple sclerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Motl, Robert W.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has improved many outcomes in “clinical” research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is limited understanding of the underlying “basic” pathophysiological mechanisms. The animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), seems ideal for examining the effects of exercise training on MS-disease pathophysiology. EAE is an autoimmune T-helper cell-mediated disease characterized by T-cell and monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the CNS. To that end, this paper briefly describes common models of EAE, reviews existing research on exercise and EAE, and then identifies future research directions for understanding the consequences of exercise training using EAE. PMID:24999244

  7. Moral Legislation in the Nederlands on Euthanasia and Animal Experimentation : a philosophical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zwarth, Hub

    2010-01-01

    The principal objective of this article is to reflect (in a philosophical manner) on recent developments in moral legislation in The Netherlands. The term ›moral legislation‹ refers to all forms of legislation on issues which can be regarded as ›moral‹ – such as euthanasia and animal experimentation. The reason for focussing on The Netherlands is that, on an international level, it is a country which has gained a reputation for being ›liberal‹, and is therefore admired by some and held in abh...

  8. EVALUATION OF NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION SR-105 IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Ladde Shivakumar; Gouda Shivaraj T; N. Venkat Rao; Shalam; Verma Richa

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed work is to evaluate the beneficial effect of SR-105 on CNS mainly for its locomotor and nootropic activities in different experimental animal models like passive paradigm, sodium nitrite induced amnesia, lithium induced head twitches. Also evaluate anticholinesterase activity on rat’s brain. The LD50 of SR-105 was found more than 2000 mg/kg as OECD guidelines no-425. No significant alteration in motor activity was observed with all the doses of formulation t...

  9. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Cananga odorata Lam in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A; C. H. Janaki Devi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluates the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Cananga odorata Lam (EECO) in experimental animals. Methods: Acute toxicity test was done following OECD guidelines. Carrageenan induced paw edema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of EECO (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. p.o) were used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st hr, ...

  10. Effects of experimental radiotherapy and hyperthermia on tumors and normal tissues in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on responses of tumors, implanted subcutaneously in the leg, to irradiation alone or combined with heat are reported. The influence of factors modifying the fraction of hypoxic cells (e.g. anesthesia of the animal and tumor volume) is also discussed. The radiosensitivity of developing lung tumors was examined for spontaneous as well as for artificial lung metastases. Both experimental tumor models were compared with regard to their value in experimental radiotherapy. Data obtained on the response of artificial metastases and lung tissue to combined treatment with irradiation and several drugs are presented. Data on damage of the mouse foot, as a result of heat and/or irradiation treatments are presented. In particular the influence of thermotolerance on thermal enhancement of the radiation induced skin reaction was studied. Tolerance of the skin of previously irradiated mice to retreatment with irradiation, to hyperthermia alone and combined with X-rays was assessed. (Auth.)

  11. Settling standards for body content of 238Pu in man based on animal experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to an urgent problem of radiation medicine, that of setting standards for body content of 238Pu which is of great practical significance. The analysis is based on literature and experimental findings of the authors on the 238Pu metabolism and biological effect for a wide range of doses on 4 animal species: mice, rats, rabbits and monkey. The report consists of two parts. The first deals with experimental results on body distribution of 238Pu, its elimination kinetics, and microdistribution in organs and tissues following intratracheal administration. In the second, characteristics of the radionuclide's biological effect are considered. General regularities for different animal species, as well as some specific peculiarities are established. Some interest are data on 238Pu microdistribution, on mechanisms and consequences of damage relative to changes in the lung tumour spectrum as influenced by the activity administered. Data for the damaging effect of α-radiation on the thymus structure due to relatively low absorbed doses are presented. Late effects of the incorporated 238Pu are studied in detail blastomogenic effect being the most significant. The incidence, latent period, and tumour spectrum are shown to depend on the activity administered. The analysis of experimental evidence suggests that damage of bone marrow stem cells due to low doses of 238Pu results in haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues tumours at late times. The significance of regulatory system damage for tumour genesis is discussed. The data obtained by the authors and clinical observations of lung tumours in uranium miners served as a basis for comparison of lung and bone radiosensitivities, and conclusion that susceptibilities of the rat and human lung tissues to α-radiation are similar, thus permitting direct extrapolation to man of experimental findings on carcinogenic effect of the incorporated 238Pu. From the analysis made, the authors conclude that safety factors of the

  12. Ethics and Animal Experimentation in the Laboratory. A Critical Analysis of the Arguments for"Animal Rights"and"Animal Equality"

    OpenAIRE

    Tagha, Yuninui Eric

    2005-01-01

    Growing up as a child, we had a Dog. To us, it was like a means to an end. That is, hunting other animals for food and for protection, with no special care and treatment given to this animal. Butas days passed by I began to witness a wind of change against such actions. I was made to understand that we were committing two crimes-: using the Dog as a means to an end (for hunting and for eating animals). Today almost every newspaper has something to say about the treatment of animals by humans,...

  13. Investigations in the scintiscanning of joints of animals with experimental and rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 69 guinea pigs with experimental hyperergic arthritis scintiscanning was done to study the course of the inflammation and the deposition of the radionuclides used. During the first days there was an added storage in the inflamed joints of those animals on whom scintiscanning with Tc99m04 had been performed. The accumulation of Tc99m04 in the joints was due to its uptake by synovial tissue and hydrarthrosis as shown by scintiscanning after haemorrhage and perfusion, macroscopic autoradiography and measurements of radioactivity in tissue samples. In 13 animals with rheumatoid arthritis scintiscanning was done twice with Tc99m04 and three times with Tc99mMDP over a period of 13 to 21 months; concomitantly laboratory tests and X-rays were conducted. After Tc99m04 there was a fall in the scintigraphic inflammation index during treatment. That index was determined by forming the quotient from the activities established above the proximal interphalangeal joints and the tibial head. Scintiscanning with Tc99mMDP led to a fall of the inflammation index in animals with classical rheumatoid arthritis, whereas in the ones with probable rheumatoid arthritis it again rose after an initial fall. Unlike x-ray investigation, scintiscanning permits an early diagnosis and course control. (orig.)

  14. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience. PMID:25023419

  15. Antidiarrheal potential of standardized extract of Rhododendron arboreum Smith flowers in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To investigate standardized ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (EFRA flowers for antidiarrheal activity in experimental animals. Materials and Methods : A simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC method was used for the determination of hyperin in EFRA. The standardized fraction was investigated for castor oil, magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea, measurement of gastrointestinal transit using charcoal and castor oil-induced enteropooling. Results : The concentration of hyperin in flowers of R. arboreum was found to be 0.148% by HPTLC. Oral administration of EFRA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited dose-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.001 antidiarrheal potential in castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea. EFRA at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg also produced significant (P<0.05-0.001 dose-dependent reduction in propulsive movement in castor oil-induced gastrointestinal transit using charcoal meal in rats. EFRA was found to possess an antienteropooling in castor oil-induced experimental animals by reducing both weight and volume of intestinal content significantly. Conclusion : These findings demonstrate that standardized ethyl acetate fraction of R. arboreum flowers has potent antidiarrheal activity thus justifying its traditional use in diarrhea and have great potential as a source for natural health products.

  16. Determination of absorbed dose in the experimental animal irradiated on the Leksell gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and quantify inaccuracy of Leksell GammaPlan relative and absolute dose calculations for the experimental animal and to determine necessary corrections that must be applied. Both TLD and semiconductor detectors appeared to be suitable for measurement of absorbed dose in the rat brain irradiated on the Leksell gamma knife. Both detectors, due to their size, measured mean doses, nay doses to maximum. The Leksell GammaPlan treatment planning system can be employed for the calculation of absorbed doses even in such an extreme condition like irradiation of experimental animals. However, in our concrete case, it was necessary to apply correction factor of 1.0779 for the absolute absorbed dose to obtain reliable results. Comparison of dose profiles in all three axis calculated by the treatment planning system and measured ones by polymer gel dosimeter showed acceptable agreement. Results presented in this study are strictly related to the Leksell GammaPlan treatment planning system and the special fixation device developed in Na Homolce Hospital. (authors)

  17. COMPARISON OF ANTI - INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALPINIA GALANGAL IN THREE EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS

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    Venuturumilli Lakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is not a disease but a non - specific response of the body defence 1 . Anti - inflammatory drugs have become popular because of their ability in controlling the inflammatory reaction and mitigating the suffering in such clinical situations. Edema represents the early phase of inflammation. 2 In the present study acute and subacute experimental methods were compared with standard drug Indomethacin. R at hind paw edema, formalin induced peritonitis in mice were used as acute methods, paper disc induced granuloma in rats was used as subacute method. Institutional animal ethics committee permission was taken for all the methods as per CPCSEA guide lines. Inflammation was induced by the following 3 methods: i Hind paw edema was produced by sub plantar injection of 0.1ml of1% carrageenin 3 and paw volume was measured by digital plethysmometer at 0, 3hours. ii Intraperitoneal injection of 1.5% formalin 3 was given to albino mice in peritonitis method and ascitic fluid was measured after 6hours by sacrificing the animals. iii Under ether anesthesia, sterilized &weighed paper discs were implanted subcutaneously in each axilla and groin of male wistar rats sutur ed under sterilized conditions in granuloma 4 method. The discs were cleared of extraneous tissue, dried and weighed on the 5 th day by sacrificing the animals. In all the methods 6 animals in each group (test, standard and control were taken. Results were tabulated in each method separately and statistical analysis was done by student t test. P value < 0.05 considered significant. Percentage inhibition in each method was calculated.

  18. They see a rat, we seek a cure for diseases: the current status of animal experimentation in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Elijah O

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review article was to examine current and prospective developments in the scientific use of laboratory animals, and to find out whether or not there are still valid scientific benefits of and justification for animal experimentation. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the following key words: animal models, basic research, pharmaceutical research, toxicity testing, experimental surgery, surgical simulation, ethics, animal welfare, benign, malignant diseases. Important relevant reviews, original articles and references from 1970 to 2012 were reviewed for data on the use of experimental animals in the study of diseases. The use of laboratory animals in scientific research continues to generate intense public debate. Their use can be justified today in the following areas of research: basic scientific research, use of animals as models for human diseases, pharmaceutical research and development, toxicity testing and teaching of new surgical techniques. This is because there are inherent limitations in the use of alternatives such as in vitro studies, human clinical trials or computer simulation. However, there are problems of transferability of results obtained from animal research to humans. Efforts are on-going to find suitable alternatives to animal experimentation like cell and tissue culture and computer simulation. For the foreseeable future, it would appear that to enable scientists to have a more precise understanding of human disease, including its diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic intervention, there will still be enough grounds to advocate animal experimentation. However, efforts must continue to minimize or eliminate the need for animal testing in scientific research as soon as possible. PMID:24217224

  19. "The Queen Has Been Dreadfully Shocked": Aspects of Teaching Experimental Physiology Using Animals in Britain, 1876-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, E. M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the impact of legislation on animal experimentation that has been in effect since 1876 in Great Britain. Focuses on the impact of these laws on the teaching of practical physiology to undergraduate students. Contains 26 references. (DDR)

  20. Plasma rico em plaquetas de coelhos: introdução a um modelo animal experimental Platelet-rich plasma in rabbits: introduction of one experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Oliveira-Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Muitas dúvidas ainda permanecem no que se refere às ações dos fatores de crescimento e do plasma rico em plaquetas sobre o mecanismo de reparação tissular. Há necessidade de serem esclarecidos pontos controversos ainda existentes. OBJETIVO: Obter o plasma rico em plaquetas em coelhos através de um método simplificado e ao mesmo tempo adequado, introduzindo um modelo experimental que possa ser utilizado em estudos posteriores. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 25 coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia e sem doenças prévias. Quinze mL de sangue de cada animal foi coletado, sendo 10 mL submetidos à dupla centrifugação. Para comprovar a efetividade do método proposto realizou-se contagem mecânica do sangue, bem como do produto final. RESULTADO: Obteve-se uma concentração média de plaquetas no plasma rico em plaquetas 687% maior que a contagem inicial observada no sangue venoso periférico. Para as variáveis: contagem inicial de plaquetas, contagem de plaquetas no plasma rico em plaquetas e enriquecimento, foram obtidos os limites de 95% de confiança para suas médias, sendo que, no que se refere ao percentual de enriquecimento, existe 95% de chance de que o intervalo de (530-844 contenha a média real de enriquecimento de plaquetas. CONCLUSÃO: O método simplificado utilizado permite a obtenção de plasma rico em plaquetas adequado permitindo seu uso em estudos dos fatores de crescimento nos mecanismos de reparação tecidual.BACKGROUND: Multiple uncertainties still exist about the action of the growth factors and the platelet-rich plasma on the mechanism of repair. AIM: To obtain the platelet-rich plasma in rabbits through a simplified and suitable method, creating an experimental model. METHODS: Twenty-five female New Zealand rabbits without previous diseases were used. Fifteen mL of blood of each rabbit was collected and 10 mL of the collected blood were twice centrifugated. To check the effectiveness of the proposed method

  1. Study of analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Mukherjee, Meghali Chaliha and Swarnamoni Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the central and peripheral analgesic action of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus in experimental animal models. The extract was prepared by percolation method and acute oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flick method (for central action and glacial acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and aspirin (100 mg/kg showed significant peripheral analgesic activity (p<0.05. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and pethidine (50 mg/kg, i.p. also showed significant central analgesic activity (p<0.05. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c. was used to find the mechanism of central analgesic action. Some partial agonistic activity for the opioid receptors seems to be probable mechanism of action.

  2. Abdominal ventral hernia repair with current biological prostheses: an experimental large animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwix, Matthew G; Nam, Arthur J; Hui-Chou, Helen G; Ferrari, Jonathan P; Aberman, Harold M; Hawes, Michael L; Keledjian, Kaspar M; Jones, Luke S; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2011-04-01

    Biologic prostheses have emerged to address the limitations of synthetic materials for ventral hernia repairs; however, they lack experimental comparative data. Fifteen swine were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 bioprosthetic groups (DermaMatrix, AlloDerm, and Permacol) after creation of a full thickness ventral fascial defect. At 15 weeks, host incorporation, hernia recurrence, adhesion formation, neovascularization, inflammation, and biomechanical properties were assessed. No animals had hernia recurrence or eventration. DermaMatrix and Alloderm implants demonstrated more adhesions, greater inflammatory infiltration, and more longitudinal laxity, but near identical neovascularization and tensile strength to Permacol. We found that porcine acellular dermal products (Permacol) contain following essential properties of an ideal ventral hernia repair material: low inflammation, less elastin and stretch, lower adhesion rates and cost, and more contracture. The addition of lower cost xenogeneic acellular dermal products to the repertoire of available acellular dermal products demonstrates promise, but requires long-term clinical studies to verify advantages and efficacy. PMID:21042180

  3. Innovativeness as an emergent property: a new alignment of comparative and experimental research on animal innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Andrea S

    2016-03-19

    Innovation and creativity are key defining features of human societies. As we face the global challenges of the twenty-first century, they are also facets upon which we must become increasingly reliant. But what makes Homo sapiens so innovative and where does our high innovation propensity come from? Comparative research on innovativeness in non-human animals allows us to peer back through evolutionary time and investigate the ecological factors that drove the evolution of innovativeness, whereas experimental research identifies and manipulates underpinning creative processes. In commenting on the present theme issue, I highlight the controversies that have typified this research field and show how a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about innovativeness will contribute to resolving these tensions. In the past decade, innovativeness has been considered by many as a trait, a direct product of cognition, and a direct target of selection. The evidence I review here suggests that innovativeness will be hereon viewed as one component, or even an emergent property of a larger array of traits, which have evolved to deal with environmental variation. I illustrate how research should capitalize on taxonomic diversity to unravel the full range of psychological processes that underpin innovativeness in non-human animals. PMID:26926287

  4. Increased wall thickness using ultrasonography is associated with inflammation in an animal model of experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lied GA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gülen Arslan Lied,1 Anne Marita Milde,2 Kim Nylund,1,3 Maja Mujic,1 Tore Grimstad,1,4 Trygve Hausken,1,3 Odd Helge Gilja1,31Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway; 2Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway; 3National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 4Division of Gastroenterology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: Experimentally induced colitis is used in animals to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease. When following disease course and treatment effects, it should be possible to perform repeated measurements without harming the animals. This pilot study was performed to investigate whether transabdominal ultrasound using a clinical scanner could be used on rats to demonstrate bowel inflammation in an experimental colitis model. Colitis was induced by either 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water for 7 days or a single dose of intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Using ultrasonography, wall thickness of distal colon, cecum, and small bowel was recorded prior to and after DSS, and prior to, 2, and 7 days after TNBS. Blood (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha and fecal samples (HemoFEC occult blood were taken from each group on the same days as sonography. Thereafter, rats were killed and specimens for histology were taken. Wall thickness of distal colon, not of cecum or small bowel, increased significantly after 7 days of DSS, and wall thickness of both distal colon and small bowel increased on day 2 and 7 after TNBS. TNF-alpha increased after 7 days in the latter group only. There was a significant correlation between ultrasonographic measurements and combined histology score of distal colon in the DSS group. HemoFEC was also positive in accordance with sonographic and histological features. Increased intestinal wall thickness in response to both DSS- and TNBS

  5. Animal Experiments and Experimental Animal Selection in Traditional Chinese Medicine%中医药学中动物实验与实验动物的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪梅; 周雪; 迟成涛; 侯甲福; 贾少华; 李津明

    2011-01-01

    Animal experiments made great contribution to the development of modern medicine. The emergence of each new medicine and therapy is closely related to animal experiment. Experimental animals are living instruments, whose importance has been recognized worldwide. The reasonable and the correct selection of experimental animals must depend on the understanding of their limitations. The direction of future research is to provide more valuable information in the correct selection of animals.%医学中的动物实验,为现代医学的发展作出了贡献,可以说每一种新的西药的出现和每一种新疗法的诞生,都离不开动物实验.实验动物是活的精密仪器,其重要性已受到世界各国科学家的共同认可.要合理正确选择实验动物,必须了解它的局限性.为学习研究提供更广阔的思路是今后进行学习研究的发展方向.

  6. In vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extracts of Daucus carota seeds in experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamlesh Singh; Nisha Singh; Anish Chandy; Ashish Manigauha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the In vivo antioxidFant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Daucus carota (D. carota) seeds in experimental animals. Methods: Methanolic extracts of D. carota seeds is used for hepatoprotection assessment. Oxidative stress were induced in rats by thioacetamide 100 mg/kg s.c, in four groups of rats (two test, standard and toxic control). Two test groups received D. carota seeds extract (DCSE) at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Standard group received silymarin (25 mg/kg) and toxic control received only thioacetamide. Control group received only vehicle. On the 8th day animals were sacrificed and liver enzyme like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in blood serum and antioxidant enzyme like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated in liver homogenate. Results: A significant decrease in SGPT, SGOT and ALP levels was observed in all drug treated groups as compared to thioacetamide group (P < 0.001) and in case of antioxidant enzyme a significant (P < 0.001) increase in SOD, CAT, GRD, GPX and GST was observed in all drug treated groups as compared with thioacetamide group. But in case of LPO a significant (P< 0.001) reduction was observed as compared to toxic control group. Conclusions: DCSE has contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress and the protection of liver in experimental rats.

  7. The Retrograde Ventriculosinusal Shunt in an Animal Experimental Model of Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Fernando Campos Gomes; Becco, Rodrigo; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Luiz Francisco; Souza, Podalyro Amaral de; Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes de; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2016-01-01

    Currently, hydrocephalus treatment is performed mainly with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. This experimental study aims at assessing whether the experimental model of hydrocephalus in dogs is applicable to the laboratory study of the retrograde ventriculosinusal shunt (RVSS). Four mongrel dogs were assessed. After randomization, the animals were divided into two groups: an experimental group that underwent the induction of hydrocephalus/RVSS and a control group, for the measurement of the mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure and pressure in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). The controls presented a mean arterial pressure of 68 mm Hg (71 and 65), an intracranial pressure of 163 mm H2O (149.6 and 176.8) and a pressure at the SSS of 40 mm H2O (40 and 40). The kaolin injection into the cisterna magna at a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml was capable of inducing the clinical and radiological mechanism of hydrocephalus (intracranial pressure = 250 mm H2O, pressure at the SSS = 50 mm H2O). The caliber of the SSS was 2.5 ± 1.0 mm. The fact that the SSS caliber of the dog was the same size as the external diameter of the catheter used resulted in the complete obstruction of the SSS when the catheter was inserted. We believe we could design and perform an experimental model to test the RVSS. It is applicable and feasible. The model of hydrocephalus, the surgical apparatus and the scenario were adequate, but the shunt system needs to be proportionally made to the canine anatomy. PMID:26942592

  8. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment. PMID:27604715

  9. Radiological data of the animal experimentation with 131I in cancer gene therapy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Na/I symporter (NIS) gene is expressed mainly in the thyroid and is responsible for iodide accumulation in this organ. Historically, radioiodine (131I) is used for the treatment of thyroid cancer as a result of native thyroidal expression of NIS. Currents studies of gene therapy experimentation carried out with animal models have allowed the expression of the NIS gene in various types of non thyroid cancer (prostate, lung, breast) making it possible the iodide uptake in these cancer and the therapeutic use of 131I. In the Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas 'Alberto Sols' (CSIC - UAM) different studies of gene therapy experimentation have been carried out in animal models, using the Na/I symporter (NIS). In the first place the non thyroid cancer is induced in the nude mice, then, Adenovirus (as expression vector) infection allows the NIS gene expression. Finally, the 131I is administrated to the animals. This therapeutic use of 131I may cause in some cases tumor regression or reduction in tumor volume. The therapeutic label of nude mice using the solution containing Na 131I involves irradiation risk due to the radionuclide (iodine-131 is a high-energy gamma emitter) and the amount of activity used (in the range of MBq). Besides, there is a contamination risk caused by the administration of unsealed radionuclide and animal models handling (bites, aerosols, etc.). A specific radiological procedure is applied during the technique development. This document established, among others aspects, the protection measurements to reduce the exposure of workers and public and the contamination and radiation measurements. The monitoring for external exposure has been carried out using TLD dosimeters and making radiation measurements in realtime, during the technique development. Monitoring of radiation dose of different workplaces (controlled areas and public areas) has been carried out using TLD dosimeters. The aim of this work has been to collect and to analyse the

  10. Influence of Water with Modified Isotope Structure on Development of Radiation Damage in Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakov, D. V.; Fedorenko, B. S.; Sinyak, Yu. E.

    begin table htbp begin center begin tabular p 442pt hline As the duration of space missions increases the problem of durability of space crews and their resistivity to space flight factors becomes more important The purpose of the present work was to study the radioprotective effects of lowered deuterium content water in experimental animals after repeated exposures to low doses of gamma radiation Both male and female adult mice of NAAoN57Al6 F1 and BALB c lines were exposed to 0 25 0 5 and 1 0 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays by multiple fractions The dose rate was 0 32 Gy min Starting from one month prior to the first irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment the animals were only supplied with lowered deuterium content water ad libitum The control group of mice consumed tap water only The mice were sacrificed by means of cervical dislocation within one month after finishing the last irradiation fraction The following parameters were registered the weight of body thymus and spleen number of leucocytes blood formula number of caryocytes in femur bone marrow cytogenetic lesions in nucleated bone marrow cells The water with lowered deuterium content was produced by means of electrolysis with a special device in the Institute for Biomedical Problems par A long-term consumption of water with lowered deuterium content by irradiated mice was found to result in lower levels of depletion of peripheral blood leucocytes and bone marrow cells in a decrease in the yield of cytogenetic aberrations and in a less intensive reduction of the mass

  11. A comparison of the anatomical structure of the pancreas in experimental animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchitani, Minoru; Sato, Junko; Kokoshima, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    As basic knowledge for evaluation of pancreatic toxicity, anatomical structures were compared among experimental animal species, including rats, dogs, monkeys, and minipigs. In terms of gross anatomy, the pancreases of dogs, monkeys, and minipigs are compact and similar to that of humans. The rat pancreas is relatively compact at the splenic segment, but the duodenal segment is dispersed within the mesentery. In terms of histology, the islet of each animal is characterized by a topographic distribution pattern of α- versus β-cells. β-cells occupy the large central part of the rat islet, and α-cells are located in the periphery and occasionally exhibit cuffing. In dog islets, β-cells are distributed in all parts and α-cells are scattered in the center or periphery of the islet (at body and left lobe); whereas β-cells occupy all parts of the islet and no α-cells are present in the islet (at right lobe). Monkey islets show two distinct patterns, that is, α-cell-rich or β-cell-rich islets, and the former represent peripheral β-cells forming an irregular ring. Minipig islets show an irregular outline, and both α- and β-cells are present in all parts of the islet, intermingling with each other. According to morphometry, the endocrine tissue accounts for pancreas roughly in rats and minipigs, and that of monkeys accounts for >7% of the pancreas (at tail). The endocrine tissue proportion tends to increase as the position changes from right to left in the pancreas in each species.

  12. Animal experimental study of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogastric drainage for the management of biliary tract obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic cholangio-gastric drainage (PTCGD) for the management of obstructive jaundice, especially, for the refractory cases. Methods: The ligations of common bile ducts were performed in 20 healthy pigs, including 9 males and 11 females. They were randomly divided into two groups after 14 days of ligation. Group A (n=10) underwent PTCGD, and Croup B (n=10) served as control group (without management). Liver function, including TBIL, DBIL, ALT and ALB in plasma; and furthermore with CT of liver were carried out in different period for comparison between the 2 groups consisting those before and after the ligation. The changes were demonstrated on CT and the pathology was investigated through hematoxylin and eosin stain under microscopy. Results: The technical success rate reached 100% in Group A, with complications occurred mainly of biliary hemobilia and fever. TBIL,DBIL and ALT continuously increased after the ligation but obviously decreased after PTCGD, with rebuilt of the damaged liver tissue. On the contrary, all animals in Group B died on the 23 rd to 32nd day after the ligation of common bile duct. The mean survival time was 28.3 days. TBIL, DBIL and ALT continuously increased from ligation until death. The intra-and extra-hepatic ducts were obviously dilated on the cholangiograms. Severe necrosis of hepatic cells and bile stasis of infra-lobule biliary ducts appeared under microscopy. Conclusions: PTCGD is a safe, microinvasive and effective palliative therapy for biliary obstruction, especially the refractory cases in the experimental animals. (authors)

  13. Investigation of the mutagenic effects of aluminium trioxide implants on embrions in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelić Obrad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several diseases as well as trauma can affect the composition and integrity of periodontal tissues loading eventually to the destruction of connective tissue matrix and cells, loss of attachment and resorption of alveolar bone often followed by tooth loss. Replacement of the missing tooth could then be provided by endosseous dental implants healing in a form of osseo -or fibrosseal integration to the alveolar bone. Aluminium oxide ceramics, a form, of endosseous implant, allows osseointegration type of healing and has demonstrated excellent biocompatibility. However, potential aluminium toxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical disorders and for this reason we examined the reproductive and mutagenic effect of aluminium trioxide ceramic implant in experimental mice. 720 female and 45 fertile male BALB-cAn NCR mice were included in the study. 3 experimental groups of fertile male mice (15 for each group were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of aluminium trioxide (I g/kg of body weight, group I, with ethyl-methane-sulphonate as a positive control (200 mg/kg, group II and with Tween-80 (10 ing/kg as negative control, Group III. Each of the labeled male mice fertilized previously uncoupled female mice during 8 weeks (a pair per week to facilitate appropriate pre-and post-meiotic conditions of spermatogenesis to occur. Female mice were sacrificed with cervical dislocation at day 13 after fertilization. Immediately upon sacrifice the uterus was removed and the number of alive and healthy, or alive but mutated and/or dead embryos was computed to determine the dominant lethal of mutagenic effects. Animals treated with aluminium trioxide demonstrated similar effects on the reproductive and mutagenic capacity as the negative control, whereas the animals treated as positive controls exhibited significantly reduced reproductive and mutagenic capacity. Collectively, we concluded that aluminium trioxide has a very low

  14. Cisplatin-Induced Non-Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury in a Pediatric Experimental Animal Model in Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Maria José; Fernández, Sarah Nicole; Lázaro, Alberto; González, Rafael; Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; Solana, Maria José; Toledo, Blanca; del Castillo, Jimena; Tejedor, Alberto; López-Herce, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objective To design an experimental pediatric animal model of acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin. Methods Prospective comparative observational animal study in two different phases. Acute kidney injury was induced using three different doses of cisplatin (2, 3 and 5 mg/kg). The development of nephrotoxicity was assessed 2 to 4 days after cisplatin administration by estimating biochemical parameters, diuresis and renal morphology. Analytical values and renal morphology were compared betw...

  15. A Study of Trend of Animal Experimentation in Medical Education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Jaswant Rai, Amandeep Singh

    2006-01-01

    A debate on the continuation or discontinuation of animal experiments in pharmacological practicalteaching of medical undergraduates is still in progress.The present study has been done to know thecurrent status of animal experiments in medical education in India using structured questionary. 81.25%pharmacologists and 74% of the medical graduates and clinicians favour the continuation of animalexperiments, preferably with the refinement or reduction of use of animals.Animal based experimentsp...

  16. 'I think it will eventually be done away with': Attitudes among healthcare professionals towards the current system of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignon, Andrée

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a study of attitudes to the current system of animal experimentation (for the production of health interventions) among 52 UK healthcare professionals. These healthcare professionals participated in three separate focus groups (of 18, 17 and 17 participants) and were invited to respond to the question 'what is your opinion about the current system of animal testing?' The study focused specifically on their views of the current system (rather than their views of animal testing in general). The healthcare professionals were critical of the current system, particularly with regard to regulation, secrecy, validity, unnecessary suffering and welfare. PMID:25476576

  17. Review of reproductive and developmental toxicity induced by organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, A.; Takagi, A.; Nishimura, T.; Kanno, J.; Ema, M. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Widespread use of organotins has caused increasing amounts to be released into the environment. The most important non-pesticidal route of entry of organotins into the environment is through leaching of organotin-stabilized PVC in water, and the use in antifouling agents, resulting in the introduction of organotin into the aquatic environment. Data are available regarding the detection of butyltins and phenyltins in aquatic marine organisms and marine products. Food chain bioamplification of butyltin in oysters, mud crabs, marine mussels, chinook salmons, dolphins, tunas, and sharks and of phenyltin in carps and horseshoe crabs has been reported. These findings indicate that organotins accumulate in the food chain and are bioconcentrated, and that humans can be exposed to organotins via seafood. The levels of organotin compounds in seafood are not considered to be sufficiently high to affect human health. However, Belfroid et al. (2000) noted that more research on residual TBT levels in seafood was needed before a definitive conclusion on possible health risks could be drawn. Although the toxicity of organotins has been extensively reviewed, the reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins is not well understood. We summarized the data of the studies on reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals.

  18. Natural antioxidants may prevent posttraumatic epilepsy: a proposal based on experimental animal studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori A

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Head injury or hemorrhagic cortical infarction results in extravasation of blood and breakdown of red blood cells and hemoglobin. Iron liberated from hemoglobin, and hemoglobin itself, are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS. ROS and RNS have been demonstrated to be involved in the mechanism of seizures induced by iron ions in the rat brain, an experimental animal model for posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE. ROS are responsible for the induction for peroxidation of neural lipids, i.e., an injury of neuronal membranes, and also could induce disorders in the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Antioxidants, such as a phosphate diester of vitamin E and C (EPC-K1 and antiepileptic zonisamide, have been known to prevent the epileptogenic focus formation, or to attenuate seizure activities in the iron-injected rat brain. Natural antioxidants, such as alpha-tocopherol, and condensed tannins, including (--epigallocatechin and (--epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, adenosine and its derivative, melatonin, uyaku (Lindera Strychnifolia, fermented papaya preparations, Gastrodia elata BI., and Guilingji, have been demonstrated to scavenge ROS and/or RNS and to be prophylactic for the occurrence of epileptic discharge in the iron-injected rat brain.

  19. Experimental study of osthole on treatment of hyperlipidemic and alcoholic fatty liver in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Song; Mei-Lin Xie; Lu-Jia Zhu; Ke-Ping Zhang; Jie Xue; Zhen-Lun Gu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of osthole on fatty liver,and investigate the possible mechanism.METHODS: A quail model with hyperlipidemic fatty liver and rat model with alcoholic fatty liver were set up by feeding high fat diet and alcohol, respectively. These experimental animals were then treated with osthole 5-20 mg/kg for 6 wk, respectively. Whereafter, the lipid in serum and hepatic tissue, and coefficient of hepatic weight were measured.RESULTS: After treatment with osthole the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), lower density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), coefficient of hepatic weight, and the hepatic tissue contents of TC and TG were significantly decreased. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver was improved.In alcohol-induced fatty liver rats, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver was decreased. In high fat-induced fatty liver quails, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in liver was significantly improved. The histological evaluation of liver specimens demonstrated that the osthole dramatically decreased lipid accumulation.CONCLUSION: These results suggested that osthole had therapeutic effects on both alcohol and high fatinduced fatty liver. The mechanism might be associated with its antioxidation.

  20. Experimental strategies for the identification and characterization of adhesive proteins in animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Elise; Maldonado, Barbara; Ladurner, Peter; Flammang, Patrick; Santos, Romana

    2015-02-01

    Adhesive secretions occur in both aquatic and terrestrial animals, in which they perform diverse functions. Biological adhesives can therefore be remarkably complex and involve a large range of components with different functions and interactions. However, being mainly protein based, biological adhesives can be characterized by classical molecular methods. This review compiles experimental strategies that were successfully used to identify, characterize and obtain the full-length sequence of adhesive proteins from nine biological models: echinoderms, barnacles, tubeworms, mussels, sticklebacks, slugs, velvet worms, spiders and ticks. A brief description and practical examples are given for a variety of tools used to study adhesive molecules at different levels from genes to secreted proteins. In most studies, proteins, extracted from secreted materials or from adhesive organs, are analysed for the presence of post-translational modifications and submitted to peptide sequencing. The peptide sequences are then used directly for a BLAST search in genomic or transcriptomic databases, or to design degenerate primers to perform RT-PCR, both allowing the recovery of the sequence of the cDNA coding for the investigated protein. These sequences can then be used for functional validation and recombinant production. In recent years, the dual proteomic and transcriptomic approach has emerged as the best way leading to the identification of novel adhesive proteins and retrieval of their complete sequences. PMID:25657842

  1. EVALUATION OF MEMORY ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF SR-105 IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladde Shivakumar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The learning and memory is closely associated with the functional status of the central cholinergic system and others monoamines. Based on literature in ayurveda, SHRUSHTI a Herbal Pharma Industry of Bangalore has come out with the Polyherbal formulation SR-105 for Memory enhancing activity; consisting of plant ingredients like Convolvulus miorophyllus, Celastrus paniculata, Acorus calamus and Bacopa monniera. Hence in the present work an effort has been made to identify the Memory enhancing activity of SR-105 in experimental animals studies i.e., scopolamine-induced amnesia on active avoidance paradigm and inhibition of cholinesterase activity in rats brain. The LD50 studies of SR-105 were conducted according to OECD guidelines No.425; up to 2000 mg/kg the formulation had not produced any mortality. Piracetam and the different doses of polyherbal formulation SR-105 treated groups had shown decreased the time spent in shock zone and number of errors on active avoidance paradigm and also shows dose dependent inhibition of cholinesterase enzyme activity. In the light of above, it may be worthwhile to explore the potential of this SR-105 polyherbal formulation in the management of Alzheimer’s disease.

  2. EVALUATION OF NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION SR-105 IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladde Shivakumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the proposed work is to evaluate the beneficial effect of SR-105 on CNS mainly for its locomotor and nootropic activities in different experimental animal models like passive paradigm, sodium nitrite induced amnesia, lithium induced head twitches. Also evaluate anticholinesterase activity on rat’s brain. The LD50 of SR-105 was found more than 2000 mg/kg as OECD guidelines no-425. No significant alteration in motor activity was observed with all the doses of formulation tested on Actophotometer. In case of passive avoidance paradigm all dose of polyherbal formulation have shown an increased step-down latency (SDL, decreased time spent in shock zone and no of errors. SR-105 also reverse sodium nitrite induced amnesia and decreases lithium induced head twitches. In the present study. Polyherbal formulation SR-105, showed elevation of acetylcholine level by significant reduction of cholinesterase activity in rat’s brain and ultimately improved memory. In the light of above, it may be worthwhile to explore the potential of this formulation in the management of Alzheimer patients.

  3. Experimental animal model for analyzing immunobiological responses following vaccination with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akihito; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccine was developed in the 1960s. However, this vaccine does not prevent infection in RSV-naïve recipients and has the paradoxical effect of increasing the severity of RSV illness following natural infection, which has been a major obstacle to developing RSV vaccines. Several experimental animal models for determining the cause of the severe symptoms in FI-RSV recipients have been developed. In the present study, cotton rats immunized with FI-RSV were challenged with RSV and histopathological findings and recovery of infectious virus were studied. Copy numbers of mRNA of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were measured in lung tissues to gain better understanding of their immune responses. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and prominent interstitial pneumonitis were observed in the FI-RSV group, as was induction of mRNA of Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and RANTES. Rats immunized with recombinant measles virus expressing the RSV F protein (MVAIK/RSV/F) and those treated with anti-RSV mAb (palivizumab) showed very mild interstitial pneumonitis. Amounts of mRNA of IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-4 were higher in the MVAIK/RSV/F group. Administration of palivizumab before RSV challenge decreased the severity of interstitial pneumonitis in the FI-RSV group. FI-RSV induced skewed Th2 responses, resulting in severe inflammatory responses. PMID:26865035

  4. r-Sm14 - pRSETA efficacy in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Celso Raul Romero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies carried out with Sm14 in experimental vaccination against Schistosoma mansoni or Fasciola hepatica infections were performed with recombinant Sm14 (rSm14 produced in Escherichia coli by the pGEMEX system (Promega. The rSm14 was expressed as a 40 kDa fusion protein with the major bacteriophage T7 capsid protein. Vaccination experiments with this rSm14 in animal models resulted in consistent high protective activity against S. mansoni cercariae challenge and enabled rSm14 to be included among the vaccine antigens endorsed by the World Health Organization for phase I/II clinical trials. Since the preparation of pGEMEX based rSm14 is time consuming and results in low yield for large scale production, we have tested other E. coli expression systems which would be more suitable for scale up and downstream processing. We expressed two different 6XHis-tagged Sm14 fusion proteins in a T7 promoter based plasmids. The 6XHis-tag fusions allowed rapid purification of the recombinant proteins through a Ni+2-charged resin. The resulted recombinant 18 and 16 kDa proteins were recognized by anti-Sm14 antibodies and also by antiserum against adult S. mansoni soluble secreted/excreted proteins in Western-Blot. Both proteins were also protective against S. mansoni cercariae infection to the same extent as the rSm14 expressed by the pGEMEX system.

  5. Experimental animal studies on effects of hyperthermia on the central nervous system: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: From the experimental studies reported in the literature it may be concluded that the maximum tolerable heat dose in CNS is 42oC to 42.5oC for 40 to 60 min or 43oC for 10 to 30 min. This in spite of diversity in animal species studied, as well as the different endpoints for assessment of effects, the different parts of CNS treated, differences in procedures used for anesthesia, thermometry and heating techniques applied. The effects of hyperthermia are expressed immediately or within a few days after treatment and heat injury to neural tissue apparently results in neurological abnormalities which, unless lethal, are transient in most cases. Histological studies show irreversible lesions after high heat dose, characterized by coagulation necrosis. Thermal injury to normal neural tissue is repaired by fibrotic or gliotic scarring. Surviving neuronal elements my be responsible for functional recovery from heat injury, which is, however, dependent on the injured volume and anatomical site of the lesion. Hence, the data indicate a correlation between the exposed volume and toxicity of the heat treatment. The relatively high heat dose tolerated in interstitial heating can be ascribed to this volume effect, since the heated volume of normal neural tissue generally was small and not responsible for vital functions. Late effects, many months after treatment have not been reported. The spinal cord data on maximum tolerable heat dose, point in the same direction as the data on the brain. All studies show that, as with brain, the spinal cord is sensitive to heat. The maximum tolerated heat dose of the cervical part after local hyperthermia lies in the range of 40-60 min at 42-42.5oC, or less than 30 min at 43oC. No late effects were reported. The observations on neurology and heat sensitivity of the spinal cord in mice are very similar to those of the rat. There is good evidence indicating that white matter is more heat resistant than grey matter as data on the rat

  6. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis in experimental animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam Mandal; Chandan Chatterjee; Mitali Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bougainvillea spectabilis (BS) (family Nyctaginaceae) is said to possess hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. We had set forward to examine the potential anti-inflammatory activities of BS in experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Fresh dried leaves from the flowering plant of BS were collected from the local area during the flowering season and air dried (215.00 g). Methanol was extracted, and the solvent was removed on a rot...

  7. The Importance of Cognitive Phenotypes in Experimental Modeling of Animal Anxiety and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kalueff, Allan V.; Murphy, Dennis L.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunctions are commonly seen in many stress-related disorders, including anxiety and depression—the world's most common neuropsychiatric illnesses. Various genetic, pharmacological, and behavioral animal models have long been used to establish animal anxiety-like and depression-like phenotypes, as well as to assess their memory, learning, and other cognitive functions. Mounting clinical and animal evidences strongly supports the notion that disturbed cognitions repr...

  8. A Study of Trend of Animal Experimentation in Medical Education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaswant Rai, Amandeep Singh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A debate on the continuation or discontinuation of animal experiments in pharmacological practicalteaching of medical undergraduates is still in progress.The present study has been done to know thecurrent status of animal experiments in medical education in India using structured questionary. 81.25%pharmacologists and 74% of the medical graduates and clinicians favour the continuation of animalexperiments, preferably with the refinement or reduction of use of animals.Animal based experimentsplay a pivotal role in pharmacological teaching and research in India. However the pattern of practicalpharmacology teaching is not uniform and specific guidelines should be framed to ensure uniformity.

  9. Preliminary studies on local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr. in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Family: Compositae is a herb that grows throughout the tropics. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, fever, sore throat, and hemorrhoids. A tincture of the flowers is used to relieve toothache. The leaves and flowers produce numbness of the tongue when eaten as salad. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of S. acmella in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : Aqueous extract of S. acmella Murr. (SAM was tested for local anesthetic action by (i intracutaneous wheal in guinea pigs and (ii plexus anesthesia in frogs. In both the models, 2% xylocaine was used as the standard drug. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Aspirin 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Result : The test drug in concentrations of 10% and 20% produced 70.36% and 87.02% anesthesia respectively by the intracutaneous wheal compared to 97.22% anesthetic effect produced by 2% xylocaine (P<0.001. The mean onset of anesthesia with the test drug was 5.33±0.57 min compared to 2.75±0.31 min (P<0.001 for the standard drug in the plexus anesthesia model. In the anti-pyretic model, ASA in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg produced dose-dependent reduction in mean temperature at various hours of observation. Conclusion : The present study shows that SAM has significant local anesthetic and antipyretic activities.

  10. "The queen has been dreadfully shocked": Aspects of teaching experimental physiology using animals in Britain, 1876-1986

    OpenAIRE

    Tansey, E M

    1998-01-01

    Animal experimentation has been subject to legislative control in the United Kingdom since 1876. This paper reviews the impact of that legislation, which was replaced in 1986, on the teaching of practical physiology to undergraduate students. Highlights and case studies are also presented, drawing on Government reports and statistics, published books and papers, and unpublished archival data.

  11. Standard of reporting animal-based experimental research in Indian Journal of Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umme Aiman

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Present study demonstrates relatively good reporting standards in animal studies published in IJP. The items which need to be improved are randomization, blinding, sample size calculation, stating the limitations of study, sources of support and conflict of interest. The knowledge shared in the present paper could be used for better reporting of animal based experiments.

  12. Teaching Neurophysiology, Neuropharmacology, and Experimental Design Using Animal Models of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsink, Maarten C.; Dukers, Danny F.

    2009-01-01

    Animal models have been widely used for studying the physiology and pharmacology of psychiatric and neurological diseases. The concepts of face, construct, and predictive validity are used as indicators to estimate the extent to which the animal model mimics the disease. Currently, we used these three concepts to design a theoretical assignment to…

  13. Beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate the beagle organ burden data to humans. Among soft tissues, only the lungs, lymph nodes, kidney and liver, and skeleton contained measurable amounts of Th isotopes. The organ distribution pattern of Th isotopes in humans and dog are similar, the majority of Th being in the skeleton of both species. The average skeletal concentrations of 228Th in dogs were 30 to 40 times higher than the average skeletal concentrations of the parent 232Th, whereas the concentration of 228Th in human skeleton was only four to five times higher than 232Th. This suggests that dogs have a higher intake of 228Ra through food than humans. There is a similar trend in the accumulations of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in the lungs of dog and humans. The percentages of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are 26, 9.7 and 4.8, respectively, compared to 4.2, 2.6 and 0.48, respectively, in dog lungs. The larger percentages of Th isotopes in human lungs may be due simply to the longer life span of humans. If the burdens of Th isotopes in human lungs are normalized to an exposure time of 9.2 y (mean age of dogs at the time of sacrifice), the percent burden of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are estimated to be 3.6, 1.3 and 0.66, respectively. These results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

  14. Comments of European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental or other scientific purposes ETS 123

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanisav; Herman

    2005-01-01

    PreambleIn1997,the Council of Europe(CoE)establishedfour expert groups.The groups were to advise the CoE Working Partyon whether,howandto what extentAppendix Aof the Convention ETS123(European Conventionfor theProtection of Vertebrate Animals usedfor Experimental and otherScientific Purposes,1986)needed revision.Main goals of newcommissions:basic laboratory housing should meet the behavioural and physical needs of the animals...the graphs for minimumcage dimensions(figs.1-7Appendix A,1986)andfor maximumstoc...

  15. How To Become a Top Model: Impact of Animal Experimentation on Human Salmonella Disease Research ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolis, Renée M.; Xavier, Mariana N.; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sus...

  16. Restriction on animal experimentation for medical education and research: pros and cons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot have been written and discussed about animal experiments and ethics. Still there is too much confusion among academicians and researchers about the future of use of animals in biomedical research and up to what extent their use in laboratory, research institutions, and medical colleges. This article highlighted and discussed about various aspects of this burning issue along with several pros and cons. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 388-390

  17. Understanding the cognitive consequences of critical illness through experimental animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Gunther, Max; English, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Tuon and colleagues have developed an animal model to examine the impact of sepsis on memory in rats. They report important data that expand the understanding of the cognitive consequences of critical illness. Future research should follow this path of inquiry and extend animal models beyond aversive conditioning to include recently developed paradigms that will permit assessment of complex and cognitive processes, such as attention, episodic memory and orientation to time and place. This has...

  18. Experimental Psychiatric Illness and Drug Abuse Models: From Human to Animal, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical animal models have supported much of the recent rapid expansion of neuroscience research and have facilitated critical discoveries that undoubtedly benefit patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. This overview serves as an introduction for the following chapters describing both in vivo and in vitro preclinical models of psychiatric disease components and briefly describes models related to drug dependence and affective disorders. Although there are no perfect animal models ...

  19. Restriction on animal experimentation for medical education and research: pros and cons

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Kumar; Sarvesh Singh; Rishi Pal; Rakesh Kumar Dixit; Rajendra Nath; Narendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a lot have been written and discussed about animal experiments and ethics. Still there is too much confusion among academicians and researchers about the future of use of animals in biomedical research and up to what extent their use in laboratory, research institutions, and medical colleges. This article highlighted and discussed about various aspects of this burning issue along with several pros and cons. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000): 388-390

  20. Noninvasive In Vivo Small Animal MRI and MRS: Basic Experimental Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Donghoon; Marcinek, David

    2009-01-01

    Small animal Magnetic Resonance (MR) research has emerged as an important element of modern biomedical research due to its non-invasive nature and the richness of biological information it provides. MR does not require any ionizing radiation and can noninvasively provide higher resolution and better signal-to-noise ratio in comparison to other tomographic or spectroscopic modalities. In this protocol, we will focus on small animal MR imaging and MR spectroscopy (MRI/MRS) to noninvasively acqu...

  1. Reduced animal use in efficacy testing in disease models with use of sequential experimental designs.

    OpenAIRE

    Waterton JC, Middleton BJ, Pickford R, Allott CP, Checkley D, Keith RA.

    2000-01-01

    Although the use of animals in efficacy tests has declined substantially, there remains a small number of well-documented disease models which provide essential information about the efficacy of new compounds. Such models are typically used after extensive in vitro testing, to evaluate small numbers of compounds and to select the most promising agents for clinical trial in humans. The aim of this study was to reduce the number of animals required to achieve valid results, without compromising...

  2. Review of Research Projects on Qualitative and Quantitative Effects of Radiation on Haematopoietic Tissue in Man and Experimental Animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By way of introduction to a review of Research Projects of the Division of Radiological Health concerned with effects of radiation on the haematopoietic tissue in man and the experimental animal, I should like first to discuss briefly the organization of research. Our research is organized into three major disciplines: (1) Epidemiology, (2) Radiation biology, and (3) Environmental sciences. Briefly, epidemiology is concerned with studies, of populations and effects of radiation in.man; radiation biology is concerned with effects in the experimental animal under controlled situations and also concerned with basic research in cellular and sub-cellular effects; and environmental science is concerned with transport mechanisms in the biosphere and how these mechanisms may operate and be interrupted to reduce radiation hazard to man

  3. Studies on food in experimental animal and possible role of irradiation detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeseed is one of the important oilseed crops in the far east and in the northern parts of europe and north america (daun and bushuk 1983). It was introduce to egypt during 1980 by the agriculture research center, ministry of agriculture, egypt (moharam et al., 1982). rapeseed is mainly used as a source of oil and its meal used as animal feed and it could be used as a potential source of a protein. The oil content ranges from 33.2 to 476% and protein content from 29.5 to 57.5% (Anjou et al., 1977). Rapeseed contains some biologically active substances, which act as anti nutritional factors glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products have presented a major obstacle to the utilization of rapeseed meal in animal or human nutrition. They have been implicated in several physiological disorders in animal including goiter and haemorrhagic liver syndrome

  4. A comparative study of analgesic property of whole plant and fruit extracts of Fragaria vesca in experimental animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Lalit Kanodia; Swarnamoni Das

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of fruits and whole plant of Fragaria vesca in experimental animal models. The extracts were prepared by percolation method and oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flickmethod (for central action) and acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action). Fruit extract, whole plant extract and aspirin showed significant analgesic activity, both ...

  5. The Development and the Use of Experimental Animal Models to Study the Underlying Mechanisms of CA Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiro Aoki; Masaki Nishimura

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysms (CAs) have a high prevalence and can cause a lethal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Currently, CAs can only be treated with invasive surgical procedures. To unravel the underlying mechanisms of CA formation and to develop new therapeutic drugs for CAs, animal models of CA have been established, modified, and analyzed. Experimental findings from these models have clarified some of the potential mechanisms of CA formation, especially the relationship between hemodynamic stress and c...

  6. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Corine S.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Haven, Carola J.; Smit, Edith G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  7. Investigations into the effect of immunostimulating drugs on the immune system of irradiated experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments with mice and pigs a sublethal irradiation before vaccination proved to be by far more efficient than an irradiation with the same dose following vaccination. In the irradiated animals a retarded beginning of the immune response compared with the controls was observed. In the experiments with mice positive effects of the adjuvant azimexon and levamisol on the radiation induced immunosuppression was seen. In the experiments with pigs the radiation iduced immunosuppression was completely abolished by addition of incomplete Freund adjuvant to the antigen. Azimexon as adjuvant was efficient both when given before or after exposition. Post-endotoxic serum from BCG-infected animals (BCG/ET) had only a weak effect in animals immunized before exposition. Serum immunoglobulin levels of pigs were stable against irradiation and application of immunomodulating agents. Stimulation effects of the irradiation on the antibody response were observed in mice and pigs if the animals were first immunized and irradiated afterwards. In the irradiated pigs the mitogenic stimulation of T and B cells was depressed. After application of azimexon the stimulation of T cells was significantly increased in irradiated pigs; the impaired B cell stimulation, however, remained unaltered. By using the monoclonal antibody technique functionally distinct subpopulations of peripherals lymphocytes in swine were detected, each showing a different sensibility towards in vivo irradiation. (orig.) With 10 refs., 21 figs

  8. 实验昆虫实验动物化的初步研究%Preliminary Research on Experimental Animalization of Experiment Insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安学芳; 夏克祥; 朱幼玲

    2003-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, life-science is involving in many fields. The requirements for the methods of experiment and experiment object are more abroad, more strict and more diversified. As laboratory animals of experimental material in the life-science, great changes have taken place since then. As for the exploitation of new kind of laboratory animals, it is not only limited in experimental Animalization of ordinary mammals but also expands steadily from Experimental Animalization of birds, reptiles, fish and invertebrates. Now insects of invertebrate have been used in life science research and are enriched gradually in application fields.

  9. Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant

  10. Human versus animal: contrasting decomposition dynamics of mammalian analogues in experimental taphonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Kathryn L; Forbes, Shari L; Tibbett, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Taphonomic studies regularly employ animal analogues for human decomposition due to ethical restrictions relating to the use of human tissue. However, the validity of using animal analogues in soil decomposition studies is still questioned. This study compared the decomposition of skeletal muscle tissues (SMTs) from human (Homo sapiens), pork (Sus scrofa), beef (Bos taurus), and lamb (Ovis aries) interred in soil microcosms. Fixed interval samples were collected from the SMT for microbial activity and mass tissue loss determination; samples were also taken from the underlying soil for pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient (potassium, phosphate, ammonium, and nitrate) analysis. The overall patterns of nutrient fluxes and chemical changes in nonhuman SMT and the underlying soil followed that of human SMT. Ovine tissue was the most similar to human tissue in many of the measured parameters. Although no single analogue was a precise predictor of human decomposition in soil, all models offered close approximations in decomposition dynamics. PMID:23550805

  11. Chemotherapy of radiation disease in experimental animals with intestine microflora resistant to some antibiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumanyan, M.A.; Izvekova, A.V.

    1974-01-01

    Infectious complications of radiation sickness in rats and rabbits with artificially developed resistance of the intestine microflora to penicillin, streptomycin and levomycetin were treated with antibiotics administered orally. Kanamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin and oxacillin were administered twice a day for 20 to 25 days after the irradiation. The efficacy of the treatment determined by the animal survival for a month after the irradiation showed that the intestine microflora resistance to some antibiotics did not lower the effect of the others. Erythromycin and combinations of kanamycin with tetracycline or erythromycin and ampicillin with erythromycin providing 50 percent survival of the animals irradiated in doses of LD/sub 100/30/ proved to be most effective, when the intestine microflora was resistant to penicillin, streptomycin and levomycetin.

  12. Studies on the fate of poisonous metals in experimental animal, (8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 30 -- 60 μCi/0.15 mg Cd/kg of cadmium chloride solution containing sup(115m)Cd was injected intraperitoneally to mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits and quails, and thereafter the whole body retention of Cd was measured continuously for 60 -- 92 days in order to find the biological half lives of the metal in these animals. The whole body retention was determined by whole body counting of radioactivity in mice, rats, guinea pigs and quails, but in the case of rabbit it was determined by counting rates of excreta. The biological half lives thus obtained in mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit and quail were 220, 150 and 181, 334, 299 and 367 days, respectively. Namely, an apparent species difference was observed even under the same conditions such as sex of animal, dose of metal per kg and dosing route. (auth.)

  13. Development of an Animal Experimental Model for a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Suk Jung; Kim, Kun Il; Park, Nam Hee; Song, Jong Min; Choi, In Cheol; Shim, Jee Yeon; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Young Joo; Kim, Chang Nyung; Lee, Jae Won

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a pre-clinical large animal model for the in vivo hemodynamic testing of prosthetic valves in the aortic position without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass. Ten male pigs were used. A composite valved conduit was constructed in the operating room by implanting a prosthetic valve between two separate pieces of vascular conduits, which bypassed the ascending aorta to the descending aorta. Prior to applying a side-biting clamp to the ascending aorta f...

  14. Circuit Models and Experimental Noise Measurements of Micropipette Amplifiers for Extracellular Neural Recordings from Live Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Hao Chen; Sio Hang Pun; Peng Un Mak; Vai, Mang I.; Achim Klug; Lei, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    Glass micropipettes are widely used to record neural activity from single neurons or clusters of neurons extracellularly in live animals. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive study of noise in extracellular recordings with glass micropipettes. The purpose of this work was to assess various noise sources that affect extracellular recordings and to create model systems in which novel micropipette neural amplifier designs can be tested. An equivalent circuit of the glass micropipett...

  15. Effects of nicotine in experimental animals and humans: an update on addictive properties

    OpenAIRE

    Le Foll, Bernard; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use through cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the developed world. Nicotine, a psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to play a major role in tobacco dependence, but reinforcing effects of nicotine have often been difficult to demonstrate directly in controlled studies with laboratory animals or human subjects. Here we update our earlier review published in Psychopharmacology (Berl) in 2006 on findings obtained with various procedures developed to stud...

  16. Assortative mating among animals of captive and wild origin following experimental conservation releases

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Brendan; Parrott, Marissa L.; Paproth, Aleisha; Magrath, Michael J L; Gillespie, Graeme R.; Jessop, Tim S.

    2014-01-01

    Captive breeding is a high profile management tool used for conserving threatened species. However, the inevitable consequence of generations in captivity is broad scale and often-rapid phenotypic divergence between captive and wild individuals, through environmental differences and genetic processes. Although poorly understood, mate choice preference is one of the changes that may occur in captivity that could have important implications for the reintroduction success of captive-bred animals...

  17. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Nicole C.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to ‘knock out’ specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the...

  18. Intestinal functions in animals : An experimental study on horses, pigs, cows and fish

    OpenAIRE

    Collinder, Eje

    2001-01-01

    Animals and humans live in symbiosis with an active gastrointestinal ecosystem. The balance of the system is maintained by the main actors, the macroorganism, the microflora and the environment, in concert. Microflora-associated characteristics (MACs), defined as the recording of any anatomical structure, physiological, biochemical or immunological function in the host (macroorganism) that has been influenced by the intestinal microflora, are parameters reflecting the ecosys...

  19. Screening of Psidium guajava Leaf Extracts for Antistress Activity in Different Experimental Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi, B. V. S.; Sudhakar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of leaves of Psidium guajava was investigated on anoxia stress tolerance test in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute heat induced stress to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Psidium guajava in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 2 h) for 10 days. Stimulation of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal a...

  20. Development of an animal experimental model to study the effects of levonorgestrel on the human endometrium

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Gonzalez, Maria-Luz; Galant, C.; Frankenne, F.; Nisolle, Michelle; Labied, Soraya; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Marbaix, E; Beliard, Aude

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to develop an animal model to test the response of endometrium to local progestin delivery. METHODS: Proliferative human endometrium was subcutaneously grafted in two groups of SCID mice that received, 2 days before, a subcutaneous estradiol (E2) pellet and, for half of them, an additional implant of levonorgestrel (LNG). Mice were sacrificed 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after endometrial implantation and grafts were histologically analysed. Proliferation, stero...

  1. Experimental Autoimmune Vasculitis : An Animal Model of Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody-Associated Systemic Vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Mark A.; Smyth, Lucy; Salama, Alan D; Mukherjee, Sriparna; Smith, Jennifer; Haskard, Dorian; Nourshargh, Sussan; Cook, H. Terence; Charles D. Pusey

    2009-01-01

    The morbidity burden associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis is increasing, and many novel biological therapies are now entering the drug development pipeline. There is thus an urgent need to develop a representative animal model to facilitate testing of these agents. We previously examined the effect of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in WKY rats via immunization with human myeloperoxidase. We now seek to ex...

  2. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated? Ética e experimentação animal: o que está em debate?

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Leal Paixão; Fermin Roland Schramm

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this...

  3. Magnetite-based Magnetoreception in Animals: 25+ Years of Theory & Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Walker, M. M.

    2005-12-01

    Living organisms ranging from bacteria through higher vertebrates rely on orientation, navigation, and homing to survive. Any sensory cue that enhances these behaviors will be subject to intense natural selection over geological time. Reproducible behavioral responses to earth-strength magnetic fields(1) have been documented in Bacteria, Protoctists, and in nearly every major group of animals, and are possibly also present in the Archaea. Several groups of animals, including birds and cetaceans, respond behaviorally to magnetic anomalies below 100 nT in magnitude, implying that their magnetoreception ability approaches the thermal noise limit. This approach to thermal noise is commonly observed in other sensory systems, including hearing, olfaction, and electroreception. The hypothesis of magnetite-based magnetoreception(2) is the only theory proposed so far that is capable of explaining all of the magnetic behavioral data. Tiny crystals of single-domain magnetite (or in some bacteria, greigite) rotate the cells of microorganisms passively like a simple compass needle. The initial detection of biogenic magnetite with rock magnetic techniques in birds and bees over 25 years ago has led progressively to the identification of a group of specialized cells in fish and birds which contain organized magnetite-containing structures. In these animals (and presumably all vertebrates) magnetic signals are transmitted to the brain via the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve(3, 4). Experiments with pulse-remagnetization, like those that convert North-seeking bacteria into South-seekers, have dramatic effects on animal behavior, confirming the role of magnetite in the sensory system. This is therefore a general mechanism for a highly sensitive magnetic sense, the origin of which probably dates to the ancestral metazoan, and perhaps earlier. The largest debate presently occurring in the field concerns the interpretation of magnetic compass responses that vary with intensity

  4. TLR Agonist Augments Prophylactic Potential of Acid Inducible Antigen Rv3203 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in Experimental Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Owais; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Gurpreet; Faisal, Syed Mohd; Azhar, Asim; Rauf, Mohd Ahmar; Gupta, Umesh Dutt; Gupta, Pushpa; Pal, Rahul; Zubair, Swaleha

    2016-01-01

    In general, the members of Lip gene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evoke strong immune response in the host. Keeping this fact into consideration, we investigated role of Rv3203, a cell wall associated protein with lipolytic activity, in imparting protection against experimental murine tuberculosis. The data of the present study suggested that archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 induce strong lymphocyte proliferation, up-regulated Th-1 biased cytokines profile, increased expression of co-stimulatory markers on both antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes. The immuno-prophylactic response was further modulated by exposure of the animals to zymosan, a TLR2/6 agonist, prior to immunization with archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203. Interestingly, pre-treatment of experimental animals with zymosan boosted strong immunological memory as compared to archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 as well as BCG vaccine. We conclude that priming of immunized animal with TLR agonist followed by immunization with archaeosomes encapsulated Rv3203 offer substantial protection against tuberculosis infection and could be a potential subunit vaccine based prophylactic strategy. PMID:27023750

  5. TLR Agonist Augments Prophylactic Potential of Acid Inducible Antigen Rv3203 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Syed Mohd; Azhar, Asim; Rauf, Mohd Ahmar; Gupta, Umesh Dutt; Gupta, Pushpa; Pal, Rahul; Zubair, Swaleha

    2016-01-01

    In general, the members of Lip gene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis evoke strong immune response in the host. Keeping this fact into consideration, we investigated role of Rv3203, a cell wall associated protein with lipolytic activity, in imparting protection against experimental murine tuberculosis. The data of the present study suggested that archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 induce strong lymphocyte proliferation, up-regulated Th-1 biased cytokines profile, increased expression of co-stimulatory markers on both antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes. The immuno-prophylactic response was further modulated by exposure of the animals to zymosan, a TLR2/6 agonist, prior to immunization with archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203. Interestingly, pre-treatment of experimental animals with zymosan boosted strong immunological memory as compared to archaeosome encapsulated Rv3203 as well as BCG vaccine. We conclude that priming of immunized animal with TLR agonist followed by immunization with archaeosomes encapsulated Rv3203 offer substantial protection against tuberculosis infection and could be a potential subunit vaccine based prophylactic strategy. PMID:27023750

  6. Deposition, translocation and effects of transuranic particles inhaled by experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation exposure constitutes the most likely route of entrance for transuranics into the body. Cancer is the most likely consequence of exposure, but several thousand workers have been exposed during the last 30 yrs without, so far, evidence of exposure-related effects. Several soluble and insoluble transuranic compounds have been studied in rodents and dogs, either alone or combined with exposure to other materials (e.g., PuO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/ fuel and Na). These studies have provided a wide variety of spatial and temporal dose distribution patterns in the lung. The distribution and total initial deposition in the respiratory tract is a function of the physical characteristics of the inhaled aerosols (size distribution, shape, hygroscopicity) and of the morphology and physiology of the animal. Translocation rates, organ and tissue distribution and excretion in urine and feces, are a function of the physicochemical characteristics of the deposited material (solubility, specific activity, chemical compound, etc.). Differences in rate of translocation of the solubilized material, primarily to the liver and bone, determines the radiation dose to the various tissues involved. Insoluble particles of plutonium dioxide are transferred to the thoracic lymph nodes, which may be functionally destroyed as a consequence. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are the main causes of death in animals with cumulative radiation doses to the lung of a few thousand rads. The most significant long-term effect of inhaled transuranic compounds in animals is the development of lung and bone tumors. The main type of lung tumor in both dog and rat is the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). However, tumor type is a function of radiation dose and dose-distribution at high doses. Bone ranks next to lung as the tissue developing the most tumors following inhalation of transuranics

  7. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, L.; Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  8. Experimental animal models for studies on the mechanisms of blast induced neurotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MårtenRisling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED in current military conflicts. Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal.” BINT is characterized by extreme forces and their complex propagation. Modern body protection and the development of armored military vehicles can be assumed to have changed the outcome of BINT. Primary blast injuries are caused by overpressure waves whereas secondary, tertiary and quaternary blast injuries can have more varied origins such as the impact of fragments, abnormal movements or heat. The characteristics of the blast wave can be assumed to be significantly different in open field detonations compared to explosions in a confined space, such an armored vehicle. Important parameters include peak pressure, duration and shape of the pulse. Reflections from walls and armor can make the prediction of effects in individual cases very complex. Epidemiological data do not contain information of the relative importance of the different blast mechanisms. It is therefore important to generate data in carefully designed animal models. Such models can be selective reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial importance that the physical parameters of the employed models are well characterized so that the experiments can be reproduced in different laboratory settings. Ideally, pressure recordings should be calibrated by using the same equipment in several laboratories. With carefully designed models and thoroughly evaluated animal data it should be possible to achieve a translation of data between animal and clinical data. Imaging and computer simulation represent a possible link

  9. EFFECT OF ELECTRON BEAM RADIATIONS ON ANXIETY IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa B; Shyamjith Manikkoth

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to test the effect of whole body electron beam radiation on anxiety statein Swiss albino mice. Methods: Mice were irradiated with three different doses (2Gy,4Gy,6Gy)of electron beam radiations.After 24hours of radiation exposure animals were taken for testing level of anxiety using elevated plus maze and light dark arena apparatus. Results: Whole body electron beam irradiation at doses of 2, 4 and 6Gy lead to significant (p

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  11. Experimental substantiation of infected burn wounds of skin in laboratory animals

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrejkin Е.А.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a method of simulation of infected area and depth-controlled burn wound through the use of laser radiation. Material and methods: The contact surgical fiber laser at heating mode of 220°C within 2 с has been used in a surgical experiment on 50 white lab rats under the control of a thermal imager, copper laser nozzle on the skin of an animal. Burn wounds have been infected. Results: Controlled single laser effect by the developed method helps speed up the simulation and s...

  12. Effect of Protein Depletion on Host and Tumor Response to Paclitaxel in Experimental Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Abdel-Moneim M.; Azza A. Abdel-Fatah; Basent B. Hassan; Mahmoud M. El-Merzebani; Damanhouri, Zoheir A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is aimed to examine the possible effects of Protein Malnutrition (PM) on the therapeutic activity and toxicity of paclitaxel in mice implanted with Ehrlich carcinoma cells. Mice that were fed either with standard or low protein diets were treated with a single dose of paclitaxel (10 mg kg-1, i.p.). Paclitaxel administration increased the tumor growth delay of Ehrlich carcinoma from 2.8 days in protein deficient animals to 4.9 days in normal feeding mice and this represented ...

  13. Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa) as an Animal Model for Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauri, Verónica; Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E; Verastegui, Manuela; Angulo, Noelia; Recuenco, Fernando; Cabello, Ines; Malaga, Edith; Bern, Caryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    Pigs were infected with a Bolivian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (genotype I) and evaluated up to 150 days postinoculation (dpi) to determine the use of pigs as an animal model of Chagas disease. Parasitemia was observed in the infected pigs during the acute phase (15-40 dpi). Anti-T. cruzi immunoglobulin M was detected during 15-75 dpi; high levels of anti-T. cruzi immunoglobulin G were detected in all infected pigs from 75 to 150 dpi. Parasitic DNA was observed by western blot (58%, 28/48) and polymerase chain reaction (27%, 13/48) in urine samples, and in the brain (75%, 3/4), spleen (50%, 2/4), and duodenum (25%, 1/4), but no parasitic DNA was found in the heart, colon, and kidney. Parasites were not observed microscopically in tissues samples, but mild inflammation, vasculitis, and congestion was observed in heart, brain, kidney, and spleen. This pig model was useful for the standardization of the urine test because of the higher volume that can be obtained as compared with other small animal models. However, further experiments are required to observe pathological changes characteristic of Chagas disease in humans. PMID:26928841

  14. MRI of the hyaline knee joint cartilage. Animal experimental and clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of MR imaging for the detection of hyaline cartilage lesions using 2-D spin-echo and 3-D gradient-echo imaging was evaluated in an animal experiment in 10 dogs and in a clinical study in 30 patients. MR imaging findings were compared with histopathological and arthroscopy findings, respectively. Using MRI neither grade I nor grade II hyaline cartilage lesions were detectable. In the animal experiments 77% of grade III lesions and all the grade IV lesions were seen. However, in the clinical study only about the half of grade III and IV lesions were detected. 3-D gradient-echo MR imaging was superior to 2-D spin-echo imaging (p<0.001), while 3-D FLASH and 3-D FISP did not differ significantly in the detection rate (p<0.34). 3-D gradient-echo MR imaging seems to be the best method for the delineation of high grade cartilage lesions. However, early stages of cartilage degeneration are invisible even with this imaging modality. (orig.)

  15. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities A of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apparecido N. Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia caryophyllata, popular name "clove", is grown naturally in Indonesia and cultivated in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Clove is used in cooking, food processing, pharmacy; perfumery, cosmetics and the clove oil (eugenol have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions include use in dental care, as an antiseptic and analgesic. The objective of this study was evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of eugenol used for dentistry purposes following oral administration in animal models in vivo. The anti-inflammatory activity of eugenol was evaluated by inflammatory exudates volume and leukocytes migration in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests in rats. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests in mice. Eugenol (200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the volume of pleural exudates without changing the total blood leukocyte counts. At dose of 200 mg/kg, eugenol significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema, 2-4 h after injection of the flogistic agent. In the hot-plate test, eugenol administration (100 mg/kg showed unremarkable activity against the time-to-discomfort reaction, recorded as response latency, which is blocked by meperidine. Eugenol at doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg had a significant antinociceptive effect in the test of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, compared to the control animals. The data suggest that eugenol possesses anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activities.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhaldev Mohapatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite bhasma (SMB has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas . The experimental animals (rats were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.

  17. Solving an Ethical Issue Involved in Experimentation with Animals in a Brazilian Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Natalia I. V.; Viana, Henrique V.; Rodrigues, Carlos R.; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Silva, Thais D. N.; Cardoso, Fernanda Serpa; Santos, Dilvani Oliveira; Castro, Helena C.

    2004-01-01

    Changes are occurring within Brazilian institutes of higher education; currently several universities are reviewing their course offerings and teaching approaches to determine if they meet the needs of today's undergraduate students. When changes are made to the curriculum of experimental courses, there should be an understood guarantee that all…

  18. Time-dependent cytokine expression in bone of experimental animals after hydroxyapatite (Hap) implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilmane, M [Riga Stradins University, Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Dzirciema 16, LV-1007, Riga (Latvia); Salms, G; Salma, I; Skagers, A [Riga Stradins University, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dzirciema 20. LV-1007, Riga (Latvia); Locs, J; Loca, D; Berzina-Cimdina, L, E-mail: pilmane@latnet.lv [Riga Technical University, Riga Biomaterials innovation and development centre, Pulka 3/3, LV-1007, Riga (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    Proinflammatory cytokines mediate bone loss around the implants in patients with peri-implant disease. However, there is no complete data about the expression of cytokines into the bone around the implants. The aim of this work was to investigate the distribution and appearance of inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory proteins in the bone of jaw of experimental rabbits in different time periods after HAp implantation. Material was obtained from 8 rabbits in lower jaw 6 and 8 months after HAp implants were placed. Tissues were processed for immunohistochemical detection of tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF{alpha}), Interleukin 1, 6, 8, 10 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) and defensin 2. Results demonstrated practically unchanged expression of IL-6 and IL-10 between both - experimental and control side 6 months after implantation, while IL-1 and IL-8 notably increased in control side. IL-1 and IL-10 expression did not change in either the experimental side nor the controle side after 8 months HAP implantation, but IL-6 and IL-8 demonstrated a decrease in the control sites. Only IL-8 was elevated with time in experimental sites, while IL-10 showed individual variations in 2 cases.

  19. Kinetics of sup(99m)Tc-EHDP administered by intramuscular injection in man and in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of assessing the kinetics of a diphosphonate administered by intramuscular injection, we have studied the behaviour of sup(99m)Tc-labelled 1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate in man and in experimental animals, after intramuscular injection. The curves of plasma and urine radioactivity were analyzed in a six-compartment kinetic model containing seven transition coefficients. The results show that the diphosphonate given by intramuscular injection is absorbed rapidly and completely. Therefore the possibility of using this way of administration should be considered in the pathological conditions in which diphosphonates are used as therapeutic agents. (orig.)

  20. A liquid Xenon Positron Emission Tomograph for small animal imaging : first experimental results of a prototype cell

    CERN Document Server

    Gallin-Martel, M L; Grondin, Y; Rossetto, O; Collot, J; Grondin, D; Jan, S; Martin, Ph; Mayet, F; Petit, P; Vezzu, F

    2008-01-01

    A detector using liquid Xenon (LXe) in the scintillation mode is studied for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of small animals. Its specific design aims at taking full advantage of the Liquid Xenon scintillation properties. This paper reports on energy, time and spatial resolution capabilities of the first LXe prototype module equipped with a Position Sensitive Photo- Multiplier tube (PSPMT) operating in the VUV range (178 nm) and at 165 K. The experimental results show that such a LXe PET configuration might be a promising solution insensitive to any parallax effect.

  1. Experimental substantiation of infected burn wounds of skin in laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrejkin Е.А.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a method of simulation of infected area and depth-controlled burn wound through the use of laser radiation. Material and methods: The contact surgical fiber laser at heating mode of 220°C within 2 с has been used in a surgical experiment on 50 white lab rats under the control of a thermal imager, copper laser nozzle on the skin of an animal. Burn wounds have been infected. Results: Controlled single laser effect by the developed method helps speed up the simulation and subsequent infection of burn wounds, all layers of the skin. Conclusion. The infected burn wound model is suitable for the development of effective combined surgical treatment.

  2. [Experimental animal studies on the topical and systemic activity of prednisolone-17-ethylcarbonate-21-propionate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpermann, H G; Sandow, J; Vogel, H G

    1982-01-01

    Prednisolone-17-ethylcarbonate-21-propionate (PrEP, Hoe 777) was tested for antiinflammatory activity in various animal models by topical and systemic administration. In those models being indicative of topical efficacy, the potency of PrEP was the same as that of desoximetasone. However, systemic effects after topical administration of PrEP in shaved skin of the dorsum of rats were relatively weak compared with the reference compound. Moreover, there were less systemic glucocorticoid effects after s.c. administration of PrEP than after desoximetasone. Thus, PrEP is obviously a compound with a considerable split of topical and systemic activity, suggesting its testing in man for systemic effects after topical administration. PMID:6981416

  3. Is degradable antibiotic coating for synthetic meshes provide protection against experimental animal infection after fascia repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letouzey, Vincent; Lavigne, Jean Philippe; Garric, Xavier; Coudane, Jean; de Tayrac, Renaud; Callaghan, David O

    2012-02-01

    The surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapse using synthetic mesh can fail because of slow or partial implant integration due to poor biocompatibility or infection. As systemic antibiotic prophylaxis has only limited success, we have developed a system that coats standard polypropylene mesh with clinically relevant antibiotics. Amoxicillin and ofloxacin are both released from the mesh in vitro at high levels over 3 days, preventing adhesion and biofilm formation by a clinical isolate of E. coli. In an in vivo incisional hernia repair model in rats, the antibiotic-coated mesh results in appropriate tissue integration with adequate vascularization and collagen formation. When implanted animals are infected with virulent E. coli, both antibiotic coatings provide full protection against infection (as assessed both clinically and microbiologically), thus demonstrating their bioavailability. This method is a specific approach for producing a therapeutic coating that could reduce postsurgical infections. PMID:22102417

  4. Evaluation of agents to detect inflammatory foci using an experimental animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have evaluated the propensities of four agents- two metal complexes and two protein species, viz. 67Ga-citrate, 99mTc-citrate, 99mTc-human immunoglobulin (99mTc-HIG); and 99mTc-human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA), for localization of (turpentine- induced) inflammatory lesions in a rat and rabbit animal model systems. All these radiopharmaceuticals showed fairly good uptake in inflammatory lesions. 99mTc-HIG, 99mTc-HSA and 67Ga-citrate showed slower blood clearance and higher liver uptakes. On the other hand 99mTc-citrate demonstrated faster blood clearance and negligible liver and gut accumulation. The respective inflamed/normal muscle (IM/NM) ratios obtained with these agents in this animal model were in the following order: 99mTc-HIG>99mTc-HSA> 67Ga-citrate>99mTc-citrate at 5 h post injection. Although the IM/NM was relatively low in the case of 99mTc-citrate as compared with other radiopharmaceuticals the inflammation could be detected within 1-3 h. post injection because of the higher activities that could be injected with this radiopharmaceutical. Since 99mTc-citrate is predominantly excreted via renal pathway it is rapidly cleared from blood and shows fairly good accumulation in infection/inflammatory lesions at early time periods along with low uptakes in liver and adjacent organs. This agent can therefore be beneficially used to detect the abdominal abscess(es)/inflammation(s) within 1-3 h post injection. Because of its favourable characteristics, physical, biological, clinical, and even cost-effectiveness, it is suggested that 99mTc-citrate could be tried out as an agent for detection of inflammation including abdominal and vertebral abscess(es). (author)

  5. Severe Embryotoxicity of Artemisinin Derivatives in Experimental Animals, but Possibly Safe in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigui Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies in rodents have demonstrated that artemisinins, especially injectable artesunate, can induce fetal death and congenital malformations at a low dose range. The embryotoxicity can be induced in those animals only within a narrow window in early embryogenesis. Evidence was presented that the mechanism by which embryotoxicity of artemisinins occurs seems to be limited to fetal erythropoiesis and vasculogenesis/ angiogenesison the very earliest developing red blood cells, causing severe anemia in the embryos with higher drug peak concentrations. However, this embryotoxicity has not been convincingly observed in clinical trials from 1,837 pregnant women, including 176 patients in the first trimester exposed to an artemisinin agent or artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT from 1989 to 2009. In the rodent, the sensitive early red cells are produced synchronously over one day with single or multiple exposures to the drug can result in a high proportion of cell deaths. In contrast, primates required a longer period of treatment of 12 days to induce such embryonic loss. In humans only limited information is available about this stage of red cell development; however, it is known to take place over a longer time period, and it may well be that a limited period of treatment of 2 to 3 days for malaria would not produce serious toxic effects. In addition, current oral intake, the most commonly used route of administration in pregnant women with an ACT, results in lower peak concentration and shorter exposure time of artemisinins that demonstrated that such a concentration–course profile is unlikely to induce the embryotoxicity. When relating the animal and human toxicity of artemisinins, the different drug sensitive period and pharmacokinetic profiles as reviewed in the present report may provide a great margin of safety in the pregnant women.

  6. Leukocyte scintigraphy with 111In in acute and chronic osteomyelitis of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on 28 New Zealand white rabbits with experimentally induced osteomyelitis show that 111In-leukocyte scans turn negative when inflammation changes from the acute stage (histologically represented mainly by granulocytes and only small development of collageneous fibres) into the chronic stage (histologically showing marked lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and increased development of connective tissue). Falsely negative scans (i.e. cold lesions) are due to marked medullar necroses accompanied by diminished development of an abscess wall and reduced concentration of granulocytes within the necroses. Truly negative scans (i.e. cold lesions) are seen in chronic osteomyelitis with extended medullar fibrosis accompanied by reduced blood flow in comparison to the normal medullar bone of the contralateral side. The histological course of experimental osteomyelitis in rabbits is in some respect comparable with the stages of osteomyelitis in man and allows to predict the result of the leukocyte scan. (orig.)

  7. Distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in infected animals and efficacy against experimental infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, R J; Beale, A S; Comber, K. R.; Pierce, C V; Sutherland, R.

    1982-01-01

    The therapeutic effects produced by formulations of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (BRL 25 000A and BRL 25 000G) were compared with those of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid separately against a variety of infections produced by amoxicillin-susceptible and beta-lactamase-producing (amoxicillin-resistant) bacteria. The infection models studied included intraperitoneal infections, a mouse pneumonia, experimental pyelonephritis, and local lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Bacteroides ...

  8. [Cholagogic effect of trimethylglycine in normal animals of different ages and in experimental atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapadniuk, V I; Panteleĭmonova, T N

    1987-07-01

    Trimethylglycine at a dose of 1.5 g/kg was found to produce marked bile secretory effect in young and old rats. In rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis, trimethylglycine increased the content of biliary acids in the bile and normalized the indexes of lipid metabolism in the blood serum. Apparently, the effect on cholesterol transformation into biliary acids and its excretion with the bile is one of the mechanisms of anti-atherosclerotic action of trimethylglycine. PMID:3620644

  9. Increased wall thickness using ultrasonography is associated with inflammation in an animal model of experimental colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lied GA; Milde AM; Nylund K; Mujic M; Grimstad T; Hausken T; Gilja OH

    2012-01-01

    Gülen Arslan Lied,1 Anne Marita Milde,2 Kim Nylund,1,3 Maja Mujic,1 Tore Grimstad,1,4 Trygve Hausken,1,3 Odd Helge Gilja1,31Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway; 2Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway; 3National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 4Division of Gastroenterology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: Experimentally induced colitis is used in ...

  10. A new system using NMR technology for measurement of body composition in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of body composition (fat mass) is an important item in pathophysiological and pharmacological studies using small animals (mice) in the fields of obesity and diabetes. The existing methods are, however, difficult, time consuming, and require a shielding facility. Now a novel system using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was developed for measurement of body composition in small animals (mice) that provides noninvasive and rapid measurement without anesthetics; we introduced and evaluated this system and tried another application of this system. First, we validated this system using canola oil, soft tissues (adipose and skeletal muscle), and various kinds of rodent chows. Accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of this system were demonstrated to be equal to those in standard chemical methods. A strong positive correlation (y=x) between the results of NMR and chemical methods was found. Secondly, we evaluated accuracy and assay range of the NMR method using live mice that were fasted overnight or fed high fat diet (HFD). In fasted mice, a small but quantitative decrease of fat mass (5.1% from 9.1%) was detected. Total decrease of fat and lean mass (5.0 g) in fasted mice was equivalent to the decrease of body weight (5.0 g). In mice fed the HFD, increase of fat mass with relative decrease of lean mass were qualitatively detected in a time-dependent manner. We would like to emphasize that operation of the system was actually easy and measurements were accomplished in a short time (1 minute). Thirdly, we tried to use the NMR system for determination of hepatic fat contents using mice fasted or treated with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonist; our results showed a quantitative increase in fat by fasting or in decrease in fat by the drug treatment. The changes of fat contents determined by the NMR method were well correlated with the changes in triglyceride and total cholesterol values obtained by the biochemical assays

  11. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome: insights from the high-fat diet experimental rabbit animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Annamaria; Vignozzi, Linda; Maggi, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is complex and involves the interplay between environmental, lifestyle and genetic determinants. MetS in men can be associated with a biochemical pattern of partial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). A similar pattern has been noted in both men and women with a variety of acute illnesses and chronic diseases, and there is ongoing debate regarding whether this phenomenon might adaptive (e.g. diverting resources from reproduction into survival), or maladaptive (e.g. anemia, sarcopenia, osteopenia and fatigue of androgen-deficiency amplify and widen the adverse consequences of the original disease-trigger). In women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA-HH secondary to chronic bioenergetic deficit from dietary restriction and/or intensive exercise), a genetic link to congenital HH (CHH) was recently established; women carrying monoallelic CHH gene mutations will typically not develop CHH, but are significantly more susceptible to HA. However, the male reproductive axis seems to be more resistant to similar environmental insults. In contrast, MetS-associated HH (mHH) is specifically a male phenomenon; the reproductive phenotype of females with MetS tending instead towards hyperandrogenism, rather than hypogonadism. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms responsible for mHH have not been clearly identified and, as yet, there has been no investigation of a potential role for CHH mutation carriage in its etiology. Over the decades, the use of either genetic- or diet-induced obesity and/or MetS animal models has greatly helped to illuminate the complex etiology of metabolic dysregulation, but the strong relationship between obesity/MetS and mHH in males has been largely neglected, with little or no information about the regulation of reproductive function by metabolic factors under conditions of bioenergetic excess. However, the pathogenic link between MetS and HH in males has been recently investigated in an animal model of high fat

  12. Establishment of animal model for potency evaluation of inactivated SARS virus experimental vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANMUDONG; QIAN; YANKONG; WENXUELIU; LIHINGYANG; JUNZHIWANG; YONGXINYU; YAOLONGSHU; ZHENGWANG; WEIDONGYIN; QINGYUZHU; HAIFAZHENG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of source virus strain for the manufacture of the inactivated SARS virus vaccine, and establish an experimental method and preliminary standard for potency evaluation. Mice were divided into groups for being immunized with corresponding serially diluted experimental SARS virus inactivated vaccine. And the rabbits were immunized with undiluted vaccine. Challenge assay was conducted with a heterologous SARS virus. And the neutralization antibody was determined with plaque reduction neutralization test(PRNT), to which the neutralization antibody in the convalescent serum of SARS patients was compared. The experimental vaccine viral strains were proved to be suitable for manufacturing the vaccine. Mice immunized by vaccines of serial dilutions were able to elicit neutralizing antibody. The antibody titer from mice immunized with the undiluted vaccine could reach up to 1:495.2, while those of rabbits immunized with the undiluted vaccine could reach a GMT of 55.0-79.9. The capability of the antibody to neutralize the virus from Guangdong is more efficient than that from Beijing. The GMT of neutralizing antibody in SARS convalescents living in south and north China ranged from 50.12 to 54.95, and the titers of convalescents from north China were higher than those from south China. Mice and rabbits used as the model for evaluation of potency are of sensitivity, and the test is of reproducibility. The candidate challenge viral strains showed a relatively consistent effect on evaluating antibodies produced by various batches and different vaccine-source strains,hence they can be used to evaluate potency of the vaccine. The method for testing the vaccine potency and the evaluation standard was established preliminarily.

  13. An experimental study on the thermal valorization of municipal and animal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamvuka, Despina; Sfakiotakis, Stelios [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Crete (Greece); Panopoulos, Kyriakos D. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas / Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), 4th klm. Nat. Rd. Ptolemais-Kozani-P.O. box 95 – GR 50200 Ptolemais (Greece)

    2013-07-01

    Poultry wastes and refused derived fuel disposal through thermochemical processes, such as combustion, has been proposed. These fuels have calorific values that in many cases exceed 20MJ kg-1. An extensive analysis has been performed of pyrolysis and combustion results obtained by thermal analysis measurements. The weight loss data were recorded continuously, under dynamic conditions, in the range 25-1300 deg C. A first order parallel reactions model and a power low model fitted the experimental results accurately for pyrolysis and combustion, respectively. The pyrolysis of poultry waste was a complex process, occurring up to 1300 deg C with high activation energies.

  14. An experimental study on the thermal valorization of municipal and animal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Vamvuka, Stelios Sfakiotakis, Kyriakos D. Panopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry wastes and refused derived fuel disposal through thermochemical processes, such as combustion, has been proposed. These fuels have calorific values that in many cases exceed 20MJ kg-1. An extensive analysis has been performed of pyrolysis and combustion results obtained by thermal analysis measurements. The weight loss data were recorded continuously, under dynamic conditions, in the range 25-1300ºC. A first order parallel reactions model and a power low model fitted the experimental results accurately for pyrolysis and combustion, respectively. The pyrolysis of poultry waste was a complex process, occurring up to 1300°C with high activation energies.

  15. Cisplatin-Induced Non-Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury in a Pediatric Experimental Animal Model in Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Santiago

    Full Text Available To design an experimental pediatric animal model of acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin.Prospective comparative observational animal study in two different phases. Acute kidney injury was induced using three different doses of cisplatin (2, 3 and 5 mg/kg. The development of nephrotoxicity was assessed 2 to 4 days after cisplatin administration by estimating biochemical parameters, diuresis and renal morphology. Analytical values and renal morphology were compared between 15 piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg and 15 control piglets in the second phase of the study.41 piglets were studied. The dose of 3 mg/kg administered 48 hours before the experience induced a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea without an increase in potassium levels. Piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg had significantly higher values of creatinine, urea, phosphate and amylase, less diuresis and lower values of potassium, sodium and bicarbonate than control piglets. Histological findings showed evidence of a dose-dependent increase in renal damage.a dose of 3 mg/kg of cisplatin induces a significant alteration in renal function 48 hours after its administration, so it can be used as a pediatric animal model of non-oliguric acute kidney injury.

  16. Cisplatin-Induced Non-Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury in a Pediatric Experimental Animal Model in Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Alberto; González, Rafael; Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; Solana, Maria José; Toledo, Blanca; del Castillo, Jimena; Tejedor, Alberto; López-Herce, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objective To design an experimental pediatric animal model of acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin. Methods Prospective comparative observational animal study in two different phases. Acute kidney injury was induced using three different doses of cisplatin (2, 3 and 5 mg/kg). The development of nephrotoxicity was assessed 2 to 4 days after cisplatin administration by estimating biochemical parameters, diuresis and renal morphology. Analytical values and renal morphology were compared between 15 piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg and 15 control piglets in the second phase of the study. Results 41 piglets were studied. The dose of 3 mg/kg administered 48 hours before the experience induced a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea without an increase in potassium levels. Piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg had significantly higher values of creatinine, urea, phosphate and amylase, less diuresis and lower values of potassium, sodium and bicarbonate than control piglets. Histological findings showed evidence of a dose-dependent increase in renal damage. Conclusions a dose of 3 mg/kg of cisplatin induces a significant alteration in renal function 48 hours after its administration, so it can be used as a pediatric animal model of non-oliguric acute kidney injury. PMID:26871589

  17. Biological effects of daily inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrian golden hamsters, C57BL mice, and specific-pathogen-free rats were exposed simultaneously in groups of 16 animals each for 90 hours per week to aerosols consisting of radon plus 3000--6000 Working Levels of radon-daughters with and without 18 mg/m3 carnotite uranium ore dust. Condensation nuclei concentrations ranged from 2000--4000 per ml and from 90,000--120,000 per ml in the chamber without and with uranium ore dust, respectively. At 4 months of exposure only one of the rodents remained alive. Histopathology of radon-daughter exposed mice includes acute interstitial pneumonitis, severe pulmonary congestion, and supperative rhinitis; mice inhaling radon-daughters with ore showed these lesions plus macrophage proliferation, alveolar septal cell hyperplasia, and bronchial epithelial hyperplasia. Hamsters inhaling radon-daughters showed proliferating lesions characterized by alveolar septal thickening, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, septal fibrosis, and occasionally adenomatoid metaplasia and squamous metaplasia. Hamsters inhaling radon-daughters with ore dust showed similar effects plus granulomatous response and intense septal fibrosis. Rats inhaling radon-daughters showed lesions similar to those of hamsters but more focalized with classic radiation pneumonitis; rats exposed to radon-daughters with ore showed similar lesions, with greater consolidation and pneumoconiosis. These findings will be discussed in relation to pulmonary pathology in uranium miners

  18. Circuit Models and Experimental Noise Measurements of Micropipette Amplifiers for Extracellular Neural Recordings from Live Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass micropipettes are widely used to record neural activity from single neurons or clusters of neurons extracellularly in live animals. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive study of noise in extracellular recordings with glass micropipettes. The purpose of this work was to assess various noise sources that affect extracellular recordings and to create model systems in which novel micropipette neural amplifier designs can be tested. An equivalent circuit of the glass micropipette and the noise model of this circuit, which accurately describe the various noise sources involved in extracellular recordings, have been developed. Measurement schemes using dead brain tissue as well as extracellular recordings from neurons in the inferior colliculus, an auditory brain nucleus of an anesthetized gerbil, were used to characterize noise performance and amplification efficacy of the proposed micropipette neural amplifier. According to our model, the major noise sources which influence the signal to noise ratio are the intrinsic noise of the neural amplifier and the thermal noise from distributed pipette resistance. These two types of noise were calculated and measured and were shown to be the dominating sources of background noise for in vivo experiments.

  19. Antiinflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of the seeds ofCarica papaya in experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amazu LU; Azikiwe CCA; Njoku CJ; Osuala FN; Nwosu PJC; Ajugwo AO; Enye JC

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To scientifically verify the claims of our traditional healers on the anti-inflammatory activity ofCarica papaya (C. papaya) and possibly deduce its activities.Methods:0.1 mL of fresh egg albumin was injected into the right hind-paw of adult white Wistar rats to induce inflammation an hour post intraperitoneal (IP) administration of50-200 mg/kg doses of the extract to3groups of5 rats per group. The 4th group of5 rats was used as negative control and received2 mL/kg(IP) of physiological saline, while the 5th group of5rats was used as positive-comparative control and received (IP) 150 mg/kg of aspirin. Increases in diameter of the paw were measured with the aid of Veneer Calipers before extract administration and at interval of30minutes post administration for further 2 hours. Percentage inhibition of oedema was calculated for each dose group and results were subjected to statistical analysis using studentt-test and analysis of variance(ANOVA).Results: All doses of extract showed a dose and time dependent inhibition effects of oedema(P<0.05).Conclusions:This work is at present though limited to animals, the anti-inflammatory activity of the seeds ofC. papaya is perhaps proven.

  20. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Guduchi Satva in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rohit; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, B K; Galib, R; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar; Ravishankar, B

    2013-10-01

    Over the centuries, herbs have served as a major source of medicines for prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. These herbs are getting more importance around the globe and many studies have provided safety and efficacy of such herbal drugs in different condition. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Miers) is reported as highly potent Pramehahara (anti-diabetic) herb in Ayurveda and Guduchi Satva (GS) is popularly used to treat Paittika type of Prameha. In the present study, GS prepared from the stem of T. cordifolia was evaluated for hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in 18 h fasted mice. GS was suspended in distilled water and administered to animals at the dose of 130 mg/kg that showed the marginal reduction in blood sugar level (BSL) at all the time intervals in normoglycemic mice. In anti-hyperglycemic activity, administration of GS prior to glucose over load failed to attenuate BSL at all-time interval in comparison to glucose control group. The study concludes that mild hypoglycemic insignificant anti-hyperglycemic activities of GS. PMID:24695802

  1. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5′ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention

  2. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mami, E-mail: mtakahas@ncc.go.jp; Hori, Mika; Mutoh, Michihiro [Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Keiji [Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada 52-1, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Nakagama, Hitoshi [Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2011-02-09

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5′ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention.

  3. The Significance of Biogenic Amines as Radio-Indicators in Experimental Animals with Reference to Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although variable results have been obtained by various investigators, radiation-induced release of biogenic amines from several tissues in a variety of animals appears to be well established. Such a release will lead to enhanced blood levels and subsequendy give rise to an increase in the urinary excretion of the native compounds. To a certain extent the released bio-amines are broken down thus causing an increase in the urinary level of bio-amine metabolites. Apart from these two possibilities a minute quantity of the released amines seems to be trapped by adequate receptor sites introducing responses either of physiological or, by disturbing physiological processes based upon the normal delicately balanced release of bioamines, of a pathological nature. As such, the erythemal response, radiation sickness and a rise of body temperature may be mentioned. Recently, by employing pharmacological techniques, the irradiation-induced rise in body temperature was shown to be based upon the release of catecholamines in the rabbit and of serotonin in the cat. It is believed that this temperature response, which is maximal 2 to 3 hours following a radiation insult, might be evaluated as a simple, additional factor for indicating radiation injury, perhaps rather than the bio-amine compounds in urine. As such, biogenic amines might be worth studying more extensively in regard to recovery from radiation injury

  4. Radiation dosimetry in experimental animals exposed to tritiated water under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose to the germ cells of male mice, which sired the offspring scored in a specific-locus mutation test of injected tritiated water, was calculated. The weighted mean dose for germ cells which received all of the radiation at postspermatogonial stages was 430 rads, while that for germ cells irradiated almost entirely as spermatogonia was 615 rads. Most of the animals received a single intraperitoneal injection of HTO of 0.50 mCi/g body weight, but a few of them received 00.75 mCi/g. These weighted mean doses reflect the contribution of both groups. The percentage of the total dose delivered from 3H incorporated into macromolecules is small - less than 0.5%. The percentage of the total radioactivity in dry material from the testis on day 1 postinjection is 0.6%, on day 7 it is 3.2%, and on day 605 it is 95%. Tritium is incorporated into testicular DNA from tritiated water, and peak levels of radioactivity in this macromolecule are reached from 3 to 9 days following injection. The stable incorporation of tritium into trichloracetic acid insoluble materials is about 75% in protein and 25% in nucleic acids at all time periods following injection. Doses from single injections of tritiated water are inherently more variable than for protracted low-level exposures. This is because small differences in water balance near the time of injection can make a very large difference in total radiation dose

  5. Experimental flow and perfusion measurement in an animal model with magnetic resonance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim. Validation of non-invasive methods for morphologic and functional imaging of the kidney under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Material and Methods. In chronically instrumented animals (foxhounds) comparative measurements of renal flow and perfusion were performed. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were compared to data obtained from implanted flow probes and total kidney weight post mortem. In the MR system, different degrees of renal artery stenosis could be induced by means of an implanted inflatable cuff. The degree of stenosis was verified with high-resolution 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography (3D-CE-MRA) using an intravascular contrast agent. Results. The MR-data agreed well with the invasively obtained results. Artifacts resulting from the implanted flow probes and other devices could be kept to a minimum due to appropriate selection of the probe materials and measurement strategies. Stenoses could be reproduced reliably and quantified from the induced morphologic and functional changes. Conclusion. Morphologic and functional MR techniques are well suited for non-invasive in vivo assessment of renal blood flow physiology. (orig.)

  6. Hormonal changes in acute and chronic irradiation of experimental animals and men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male Wistar rats in sexual maturity received acute gamma irradiation (0.5 Gy, 1 Gy, 2 Gy, 4 Gy and 6 Gy; 1.26 Gy/min). The levels of the following hormones in the blood plasma were determined: testosterone, LH, FSH, TTH, T3, T4, ACTH, cortisol, aldosteron, prolactin and somatotropic hormones (STH). A strongly expressed disfunction was established in the gonadal, thyroid and suprarenal axes, which persisted up to day 40 of the investigation. Well expressed hypofunction occured in the gonadal and thyroid axes of the animals irradiated with higher doses. The blood plasma of 15 males and 253 females occupationally irradiated with maximum permissible doses was analysed for the content of the following hormones: testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, LH, FSH, cortisol and aldosteron. It was established a hypofunction of the peripheral hormones testosterone, progesteron and estradiol, and statistically reliable increase of the levels of the central sexual hormones LH and FSH. It is concluded that endocrine glands react early and distinctly on low and high radiation doses, which could be used as a immunological evaluation test for radiation injury

  7. [Animal experimental studies on immunogenicity, humoral response and danger of anaphylaxis in parenteral administration of hyaluronidase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, H; Dellas, T; Bellmann, H

    1978-01-01

    The widespread intravenous application of hyaluronidase rises questions for its potential immunogenicity, formation of humoral antibodies, and danger of anaphylaxis. In experiments on 21 rabbits and 40 rats, the authors searched for precipitating antibodies after subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous application of hyaluronidase in doses equivalent to the human. Intravenous and intramuscular shots of 150 to 75 000 IU of Hylase were applied in order to test anaphylaxis. By all proving procedures antibodies against Hylase were found. The formation of antibodies occurred earlier and in higher concentrations after subcutaneous and intramuscular application. The antibodies belonged to the IgG group. One third of the animals showed anaphylactic responses at doses which were 13 to 630 times as high. 26 per cent of human patients developed antibodies after application of Hylase. No anaphylactic reactions were observed in 17 patients with antibodies when intravenous application of hyaluronidase was continued. In the dosage used in the man anaphylactic response is obviously rare though it is possible. PMID:654375

  8. Carcinogenesis related to intense pulsed light and UV exposure: an experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedelund, L; Lerche, C; Wulf, H C; Haedersdal, M

    2006-12-01

    This study examines whether intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment has a carcinogenic potential itself or may influence ultraviolet (UV)-induced carcinogenesis. Secondly, it evaluates whether UV exposure may influence IPL-induced side effects. Hairless, lightly pigmented mice (n=144) received three IPL treatments at 2-week intervals. Simulated solar radiation was administered preoperatively [six standard erythema doses (SED) four times weekly for 11 weeks] as well as pre- and postoperatively (six SED four times weekly up to 26 weeks). Skin tumors were assessed weekly during a 12-month observation period. Side effects were evaluated clinically. No tumors appeared in untreated control mice or in just IPL-treated mice. Skin tumors developed in UV-exposed mice independently of IPL treatments. The time it took for 50% of the mice to first develop skin tumor ranged from 47 to 49 weeks in preoperative UV-exposed mice (p=0.94) and from 22 to 23 weeks in pre- and postoperative UV-exposed mice (p=0.11). IPL rejuvenation of lightly pigmented skin did not induce pigmentary changes (p=1.00). IPL rejuvenation of UV-pigmented skin resulted in an immediate increased skin pigmentation and a subsequent short-term reduced skin pigmentation (pIPL-induced pigment reduction (p=0.12). No texture changes were observed. Postoperative edema and erythema were increased by preoperative UV exposure (pIPL rejuvenation has no carcinogenic potential itself and does not influence UV-induced carcinogenesis. UV exposure influences the occurrence of side effects after IPL rejuvenation in an animal model. PMID:16964439

  9. Studies on the fate of poisonous metals in experimental animal, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three doses of cadmium chloride solutions (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg/day) were given orally and repeatedly to 3 groups of male rats (27--28 rats per 1 group) for 20 days. In 1 mg/kg group, depression of daily gain of body weight was observed to some extent after 13th day, and significant depression was noted earlier in 5 and 10 mg/kg groups. Decrease of daily food and water consumption was observed after 10--12th day, and mortality of each group until 21st day was 2/27, 8/27 and 9/28, respectively. At 21st day, solution of sup(115m)CdCl2(2μCi/mg CdCl2/2 ml/kg) was given orally to investigate the alternative distribution of this metal, dissecting the animals and measuring the radioactivities. Comparing with the control group, increase of adrenal weight, decrease of seminal vesicle weight, relaxation of gastrointestinal tract and increase of the contents of the tract were found in every pretreated group. Thicker distribution of sup(115m)Cd were seen in many organs and tissues, including blood, or every pretreated group compared with control group, however, the concentration in liver and bone was lower contrarily. Especially, the amount of remaining sup(115m)Cd in stomach was more in 1 and 5 mg/kg groups than the control group, and the fact suggested the delay of gastric emptying rate. (auth.)

  10. Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somia El-Maghraby; Galal A Nawwar; Reda FA Bakr; Nadia Helmy; Omnia MHM Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods: The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results:White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24%in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions:Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide.

  11. Influence of a productive solution of uranium on some biochemical parameters of blood of an organism at experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work authors inform results on studying influence of a productive solution of uranium on some biochemical parameters of blood of an organism at experimental animals. It is established that all samples of a productive solution of uranium possesses high toxicity and causes destruction of experimental animals with infringement of a picture of blood. Experiments on influence on biochemical and hematology defined parameters of blood on chickens - broilers and on which female quails from daily age raised on cellular batteries in communities on 50 heads in conditions adequate to the requirement. Fed in plenty with the dry forages prepared according to 'Recommendations on the normalized feeding an agricultural bird' (1996), recipes 5-2; 6-1. To chickens in plenty allowed water from auto drinking bowls. Conditions of a micro climate corresponded to hygienic requirements. At carrying out of experiences studied the following parameters: preservation of a livestock, the reason of a withdrawal, weight of a body - weekly up to the end of experience, consumption of a forage, an expense of a forage for 1 kg of a gain have established weight of a body the methods standard in poultry farming. After application of a productive solution took blood from under wings of a vein and in blood have established maintenance of hemoglobin, quantity of red cells, leukocytes and a leukocyte of the formula, the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus. An application of a productive solution for experimental birds for the fifth day has caused clinical symptoms of a poisoning and destruction in groups. At the survived birds in blood it has been established changes biochemical and hematology. Week age chickens of skilled group lagged behind in growth development in comparison with control group on 30 % and at the end of the skilled period skilled have lagged behind in growth and development on 62 %. Among a livestock of chickens of skilled group of a case was more on 53 % on comparisons with the

  12. An animal experimental study of porous magnesium scaffold degradation and osteogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.J.; Yang, Z.Y. [The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang (China); Tan, L.L. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Li, H. [The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang (China); Zhang, Y.Z. [The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang (China); The Key Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang (China)

    2014-08-19

    Our objective was to observe the biodegradable and osteogenic properties of magnesium scaffolding under in vivo conditions. Twelve 6-month-old male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. The chosen operation site was the femoral condyle on the right side. The experimental group was implanted with porous magnesium scaffolds, while the control group was implanted with hydroxyapatite scaffolds. X-ray and blood tests, which included serum magnesium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine (CREA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were performed serially at 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 months. All rabbits were killed 3 months postoperatively, and the heart, kidney, spleen, and liver were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The bone samples were subjected to microcomputed tomography scanning (micro-CT) and hard tissue biopsy. SPSS 13.0 (USA) was used for data analysis, and values of P<0.05 were considered to be significant. Bubbles appeared in the X-ray of the experimental group after 2 weeks, whereas there was no gas in the control group. There were no statistical differences for the serum magnesium concentrations, ALT, BUN, and CREA between the two groups (P>0.05). All HE-stained slices were normal, which suggested good biocompatibility of the scaffold. Micro-CT showed that magnesium scaffolds degraded mainly from the outside to inside, and new bone was ingrown following the degradation of magnesium scaffolds. The hydroxyapatite scaffold was not degraded and had fewer osteoblasts scattered on its surface. There was a significant difference in the new bone formation and scaffold bioabsorption between the two groups (9.29±1.27 vs 1.40±0.49 and 7.80±0.50 vs 0.00±0.00 mm{sup 3}, respectively; P<0.05). The magnesium scaffold performed well in degradation and osteogenesis, and is a promising material for orthopedics.

  13. Experimental verification of an interpolation algorithm for improved estimates of animal position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Chad; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2004-07-01

    This article presents experimental verification of an interpolation algorithm that was previously proposed in Jaffe [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 3168-3175 (1999)]. The goal of the algorithm is to improve estimates of both target position and target strength by minimizing a least-squares residual between noise-corrupted target measurement data and the output of a model of the sonar's amplitude response to a target at a set of known locations. Although this positional estimator was shown to be a maximum likelihood estimator, in principle, experimental verification was desired because of interest in understanding its true performance. Here, the accuracy of the algorithm is investigated by analyzing the correspondence between a target's true position and the algorithm's estimate. True target position was measured by precise translation of a small test target (bead) or from the analysis of images of fish from a coregistered optical imaging system. Results with the stationary spherical test bead in a high signal-to-noise environment indicate that a large increase in resolution is possible, while results with commercial aquarium fish indicate a smaller increase is obtainable. However, in both experiments the algorithm provides improved estimates of target position over those obtained by simply accepting the angular positions of the sonar beam with maximum output as target position. In addition, increased accuracy in target strength estimation is possible by considering the effects of the sonar beam patterns relative to the interpolated position. A benefit of the algorithm is that it can be applied ``ex post facto'' to existing data sets from commercial multibeam sonar systems when only the beam intensities have been stored after suitable calibration.

  14. An animal experimental study of porous magnesium scaffold degradation and osteogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to observe the biodegradable and osteogenic properties of magnesium scaffolding under in vivo conditions. Twelve 6-month-old male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. The chosen operation site was the femoral condyle on the right side. The experimental group was implanted with porous magnesium scaffolds, while the control group was implanted with hydroxyapatite scaffolds. X-ray and blood tests, which included serum magnesium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine (CREA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were performed serially at 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 months. All rabbits were killed 3 months postoperatively, and the heart, kidney, spleen, and liver were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The bone samples were subjected to microcomputed tomography scanning (micro-CT) and hard tissue biopsy. SPSS 13.0 (USA) was used for data analysis, and values of P<0.05 were considered to be significant. Bubbles appeared in the X-ray of the experimental group after 2 weeks, whereas there was no gas in the control group. There were no statistical differences for the serum magnesium concentrations, ALT, BUN, and CREA between the two groups (P>0.05). All HE-stained slices were normal, which suggested good biocompatibility of the scaffold. Micro-CT showed that magnesium scaffolds degraded mainly from the outside to inside, and new bone was ingrown following the degradation of magnesium scaffolds. The hydroxyapatite scaffold was not degraded and had fewer osteoblasts scattered on its surface. There was a significant difference in the new bone formation and scaffold bioabsorption between the two groups (9.29±1.27 vs 1.40±0.49 and 7.80±0.50 vs 0.00±0.00 mm3, respectively; P<0.05). The magnesium scaffold performed well in degradation and osteogenesis, and is a promising material for orthopedics

  15. Amperometric cell for subcutaneous detection of hydrogen sulfide in anesthetized experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas. It has been recognized that H2S evolving in biochemical reactions in living organisms has an important role in different physiologic processes. Nowadays, H2S is known as an endogenous messenger molecule. Natural sulfurous spring water has been proved beneficial in the therapy of diseases of the skin and other organs (Boros et al 2013). In vivo real-time detection of local H2S concentration is an important but challenging task. We developed a two-electrode amperometric cell for selective subcutaneous detection of H2S in anesthetized mice. The cell is a small size implantable gas sensor containing a platinum disc anode and a silver cathode. The selectivity is provided by a membrane permeable only by gases. There is a buffered reversible electrochemical mediator solution in an oxidized form inside the cell. As gaseous H2S penetrates into the cell the mediator is reduced, and +0.4 V versus the reference is employed on the platinum working electrode. The reduced mediator is oxidized on the anode surface. The current provides an analytical signal representing the concentration of H2S. Appropriate shape, size and membrane material were selected, and optimal working parameters—such as mediator concentration, pH and cell voltage—were determined in vitro. The lower limit of detection in the stirred sample solution at pH = 5.5 was as small as 9.4  ×  10−7 M and a dynamic concentration range of 0–6  ×  10–4 M could be achieved. The detecting surfaces of the cell were covered with freshly dissected mouse skin to test dermal H2S permeability. In other experiments, the cell was implanted subcutaneously in an anesthetized mouse and the animal was submerged in a buffer solution containing different concentrations of H2S so that the skin surface over the sensor was covered by the solution. Measurements of subcutaneous H2S concentration were taken. The experiments clearly proved that H2S diffuses through the skin

  16. Animal experimental study of safety for a self-made vena cava stent-filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the safety of a self-made vena cava stent-filter(VCSF)for prevention of pulmonary embolism. Methods: Fusiform unmhrella-like vena cava filter was made of Nitinol wires and stainless steel metal pole, and then ten mongrel dogs were implanted with these self-made filters and divided into 5 groups according to the different periods (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 w) of filter placement, with 2 dogs in each group. After the VCSFs were placed in inferior vena cava via the right femoral vein approach, the dogs in each group were bred for 2-6 weeks, respectively. The blood flow of inferior vena cava and the position of the filters were inspected by inferior vena-cavography according to the indwelling periods. Finally the metal pole was retrieved via the femoral vein, leaving the VCSF as permanent venousz stent. The feasibility of retrieval and the free state of filter net with the adhering vascular wall were evaluated. Laparotomies were performed to remove the inferior vena cava from the animals for gross and electron microscopic examinations of the inferior vena cava intimal changes of the involved segment. Results: All 10 VCSFs were placed at the right positions of the dogs successfully. Angiography showed patent inferior vena cava without filter thrombosis at 2-6 weeks. There were no tilting and migration of the filter and all the metal poles were successfully retrieved. The superior and inferior extremities of filter nets could be set free with all the filters turning into venous stents. Postmortem displayed retroperitoneal hemorrhage and caval thrombosis. The barbs of the filters penetrated over the caval adventitial coat. Under electron microscope, a thin layer of neointima already covered the braiding net of VCSFs at 2 weeks after the deployment. The tunica intima became slightly thick at 3-4 weeks and with moderate proliferation at 5-6 weeks. Conclusions: The self-made vena cava stent-filter possesses rather long indwelling period according to the

  17. Study of diffusion phenomenon using an experimental magnetic resonance system (SIS 200/400) for small animals. Reliability and apparent diffusion coefficient of normal animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a magnetic resonance (MR) spin echo method to obtain diffusion weighted imaging using motion probing gradient (MPG) pulses in orthogonal direction before and after a 180 degree pulse. Phantom models containing water, acetone, cupric sulfate and agar, and normal brains of Wistar rats and puppies were examined. MRI was performed using a SISCO SIS 200/400 MRI/MRS experimental system for small animals (4.7 tesla, 400 mm bore). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, given in mm2/sec, were 2.19±0.02 x 10-3 in water, 4.51±0. 18 x 10-3 in acetone, and the ADC of water was independent on longitudinal (T1) or transverse (T2) relaxation time. Time-dependent ADC changes were not demonstrated, however position-dependent ADC changes were significant. It is therefore important to set the sample at the same position for repeated MRI studies and for the evaluation of the time course of experimental studies. Mean ADC values of rat brains were 0.65 x 10-3 for cortex, 0.69 x 10-3 for caudate-putamen, 0.69 x 10-3 (perpendicular to axon) for corpus callosum, 1.11 x 10-3 (parallel to axon) for optic nerve, and 1.38 x 10-3 (parallel to axon) for trigeminal nerve. Those of puppies were 1.14- 1.42 x 10-3 for gray matter, 1.17 (parallel to axon) and 0.89 (perpendicular to axon) x 10-3 for white matter, 1.66 (parallel to axon) and 0.57 (perpendicular to axon) x 10-3 for internal capsule, and 0.91-0.95 x 10-3 for thalamus. On the in vivo ADC maps, white matter tracts successfully showed anisotropic diffusion. This technique has promising implications for the evaluation of the time course of cerebral damage and degenerative changes. (author)

  18. [A better understanding of clinical pain. Experimental data on 3 animal models of pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, G

    1991-01-01

    For a better understanding of clinical pain, several groups involved in the study of basic pain mechanisms have proposed the use of various experimental models close to clinical situations. These models are based either on neurogenic or inflammatory process. Data obtained with three of these models will be developed in the paper: rats rendered arthritic by Freund's adjuvant injection into the tail, rats with an intraplantar injection of carrageenin in one hindpaw, rats with a moderate ligature of one common sciatic nerve. The various pharmacological approaches revealed dramatic changes of the analgesic effects of morphine and other opioid substances, and a spectacular modification of the endogenous opioid reactivity. A further enhancement of the initial hyperalgesia was observed with high doses (1-3 mg/kg i.v.) of naloxone (known as an antagonist of morphine), contrasting with the paradoxical analgesia induced with the low dose (peaking up for 3 micrograms/kg i.v.). Electrophysiological studies emphasized dramatic changes of neuronal responsiveness in structures involved in the transmission of the nociceptive messages, from the periphery to the cortex. In each of these models electrophysiological data provide new insights on the physiopathological mechanisms of the related clinical pain. PMID:1922633

  19. Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by virgin argan oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahcen, Said; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hakkou, Abdelkader; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    The argan tree plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role in South Morocco. Moreover, there is much evidence for the beneficial effects of virgin argan oil (VAO) on human health. Thus, this study investigated whether administering VAO to rats can prevent the development of diabetes. VAO extracted by a traditional method from the almonds of Argania spinosa (2 mL/kg) was administered orally (for 7 consecutive days) to rats before and during intraperitoneal alloxan administration (75 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days). An alloxan diabetic-induced untreated group and treated by table oil were used as control groups. Body mass, blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were evaluated. In the present study, subchronic treatment with VAO at a dose of 2 mL/kg, before the experimental induction of diabetes, prevented the body mass loss, induced a significant reduction of blood glucose and a significant increase of hepatic glycogen level (p argan oil should be further investigated in a human study to clarify its possible role in reducing weight loss in diabetics, and even in inhibiting the development or progression of diabetes. This antidiabetic effect could be due to the richness of VAO in tocopherols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21584872

  20. Biphasic dose-effect relationships in experimental studies of radiation cancer in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biphasic dose-effect relationships in radiation cancer are characterized by a decrease in cancer rate at low doses, a minimum and an increase at higher doses (inversion or radiation hormesis). A simple and argumentative methodology of proving such relationships is a model-free analysis which is based exclusively on the observed changes in cancer rate in dependence on dose without using special fitting functions. It is tested by means of well-known statistical tests whether the changes in cancer rate observed both in the low dose range and at higher doses are statistically significant. The model-free analysis of experimental results obtained in radiation cancer studies on RFM/Un-mice of both sexes and on female BC3F1-mice in the dose range 0.. 3 Gy by two independent research groups at Oak Ridge (ORNL) and at Casaccio near Rome leads for gamma radiation and X-rays to a statistically significant decrease of the cancer rate at low doses and therefore to biphasic relationships for tumors of the reticular tissue, for several solid tumors as well as for cancer as a whole. (orig.)

  1. An animal experimental study of porous magnesium scaffold degradation and osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to observe the biodegradable and osteogenic properties of magnesium scaffolding under in vivo conditions. Twelve 6-month-old male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. The chosen operation site was the femoral condyle on the right side. The experimental group was implanted with porous magnesium scaffolds, while the control group was implanted with hydroxyapatite scaffolds. X-ray and blood tests, which included serum magnesium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine (CREA, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN were performed serially at 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 months. All rabbits were killed 3 months postoperatively, and the heart, kidney, spleen, and liver were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining. The bone samples were subjected to microcomputed tomography scanning (micro-CT and hard tissue biopsy. SPSS 13.0 (USA was used for data analysis, and values of P0.05. All HE-stained slices were normal, which suggested good biocompatibility of the scaffold. Micro-CT showed that magnesium scaffolds degraded mainly from the outside to inside, and new bone was ingrown following the degradation of magnesium scaffolds. The hydroxyapatite scaffold was not degraded and had fewer osteoblasts scattered on its surface. There was a significant difference in the new bone formation and scaffold bioabsorption between the two groups (9.29±1.27 vs 1.40±0.49 and 7.80±0.50 vs 0.00±0.00 mm3, respectively; P<0.05. The magnesium scaffold performed well in degradation and osteogenesis, and is a promising material for orthopedics.

  2. Therapeutic and side effects of particle beam radiation in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human tumors are heterogeneous in various biological features including radiosensitivities. We here studied significance of tumor heterogeneity in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ion therapy by using artificially mixed and transplanted experimental tumors in syngeneic mice. Sensitivity of three fibrosarcoma that we used for an experiment is as follows. Carbon ions: no.6107= no.8697> no.9037, Cs-137 γrays: no.6107 > no.8697> no.9037. We changed a combination and the mixture ratio of these sarcomas and prvided RBE. And we got the following conclusions. RBE of carbon ions depended on carbon-ion sensitivities but not γ-ray sensitivities of tumors. It was carbon-ion sensitive tumors but not resistant tumors that determine an RBE of a heterogeneous tumor. Feet of mice were locally irradiated with mono-peak carbon ions (290 MeV/u). Single doses and daily fractionation up to 6 fractions were used. Isoeffect doses were plotted against number of fractions for carbon ions. A linear regression line well fit to gamma-ray data in Fe-plot. However, this linearlity was gradually lost with an increase of linear energy transfer (LET) so that reciprocal isoeffect doses did not increase between single and 2 fractions for 58 keV/mm carbon ions. This means that sensitivity of skin cells for high LET carbon ions is different between single and fractionated doses. Prepared the new ridge filter by the data of the experiment of 18B157. And examine the biological effect by the new ridge filter. (author)

  3. Therapeutic and side effects of particle beam radiation in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human tumors are heterogeneous in various biological features including radiosensitivities. We here studied significance of tumor heterogeneity in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ion therapy by using artificially mixed and transplanted experimental tumors in syngeneic mice. Sensitivity of three fibrosarcoma that we used for an experiment is as follows. Carbon ions: no.6107= no.8697> no.9037, Cs-137 γ-rays: no.6107> no.8697> no.9037 We changed a combination and the mixture ratio of these sarcomas and provided RBE. And we got the following conclusions. RBE of carbon ions depended on carbon-ion sensitivities but not γ-ray sensitivities of tumors. It was carbon-ion sensitive tumors but not resistant tumors that determine an RBE of a heterogeneous tumor. Feet of mice were locally irradiated with mono-peak carbon ions (290 MeV/u). Single doses and daily fractionation up to 6 fractions were used. Isoeffect doses were plotted against number of fractions for carbon ions. A linear regression line well fit to gamma-ray data in Fe-plot. However, this linearlity was gradually lost with an increase of linear energy transfer (LET) so that reciprocal isoeffect doses did not increase between single and 2 fractions for 58 keV/mm carbon ions. This means that sensitivity of skin cells for high LET carbon ions is different between single and fractionated doses. Prepared the new ridge filter by the data of the experiment of 18B157. And I examined biological influence in three position of LET in spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) of new ridge filter. (author)

  4. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated? Ética e experimentação animal: o que está em debate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Leal Paixão

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this theme in the field of health.Este artigo tem por objetivo fornecer alguns elementos para a compreensão do debate atual sobre a questão ética no que diz respeito à utilização de animais de laboratório. Nessa perspectiva, o que se pretende é apresentar as várias posições no campo das reflexões científicas e morais, que delimitam diferentes áreas de consideração para com os animais, assim como categorias distintas, tais como ética animal, direito animal e bem-estar animal. Portanto, visa-se demonstrar a importância e o crescimento de tal debate, propondo-se uma necessária ampliação da abordagem acadêmica sobre o tema na área da saúde.

  5. A study of the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmistha Dutta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The aim is to study the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava (PGE on experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : Fresh leaves were collected, air-dried, powdered, and percolated in 95% ethanol. Acute toxicity test was done according to OECD guidelines. Four groups of animals of either sex, weighing 150-200g of the species Rattus norvegicus were taken for the study (n = 6. Group A was taken as control (3% gum acacia in 10 mL/kg body weight, Group B as test group (PGE 250 mg/kg body weight, Group C as test group (PGE 500 mg/kg body weight, and Group D as standard (Aspirin 100 mg/kg body weight. The animals were studied for acute inflammation by Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, subacute inflammation by Granuloma pouch method, and chronic inflammation by Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis method. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance followed by multiple comparison tests. Results : In acute inflammation, there was significant inhibition of paw edema in Groups B, C, and D in comparison with Group A (P < 0.05. In subacute inflammation, there was significant inhibition of exudate formation in Groups B, C, and D in comparison to Group A (P < 0.05. In chronic inflammation, there was significant inhibition of paw edema and inhibition of weight reduction in Groups B, C, and D compared with Group A. Downregulation of arthritis index was also significant in Groups B, C, and D in comparison with Group A (P < 0.05. Conclusion : The ethanolic extract of PGE has significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  6. Animal mortality resulting from uniform exposures to photon radiations: Calculated LD50s and a compilation of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies conducted during the 1950s and 1960s of radiation-induced mortality to diverse animal species under various exposure protocols were compiled into a mortality data base. Some 24 variables were extracted and recomputed from each of the published studies, which were collected from a variety of available sources, primarily journal articles. Two features of this compilation effort are (1) an attempt to give an estimate of the uniform dose received by the bone marrow in each treatment so that interspecies differences due to body size were minimized and (2) a recomputation of the LD50 where sufficient experimental data are available. Exposure rates varied in magnitude from about 10-2 to 103 R/min. This report describes the data base, the sources of data, and the data-handling techniques; presents a bibliography of studies compiled; and tabulates data from each study. 103 refs., 44 tabs

  7. Initial study of sediment antagonism and characteristics of silver nanoparticle-coated biliary stents in an experimental animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yigeng; Xia, Mingfeng; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Zhen; Wen, Qingbin; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zongzhen; Li, Tao; Tian, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Plastic biliary stents used to relieve obstructive jaundice are frequently blocked by sediment, resulting in loss of drainage. We prepared stents coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and compared their ability to resist sedimentation with Teflon stents in a beagle model of obstructive jaundice. Methods AgNP-coated Teflon biliary stents were prepared by chemical oxidation–reduction and evaluated in an obstructive jaundice model that was produced by ligation of common bile duct (CBD); animals were randomized to two equal groups for placement of AgNP-coated or Teflon control stents. Liver function and inflammatory index were found to be similar in the two groups, and the obstruction was relieved. Stents were removed 21 days after insertion and observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNP coating was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and the composition of sediment was assayed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results Electron microscopy revealed a black, closely adherent AgNP stent coating, with thicknesses of 1.5–6 µm. Sediment thickness and density were greater on Teflon than on AgNP-coated stents. EDXA confirmed the stability and integrity of the AgNP coating before and after in vivo animal experimentation. FTIR spectroscopy identified stent sediment components including bilirubin, cholesterol, bile acid, protein, calcium, and other substances. Conclusion AgNP-coated biliary stents resisted sediment accumulation in this canine model of obstructive jaundice caused by ligation of the CBD.

  8. Recruiting "Friends of Medical Progress": Evolving Tactics in the Defense of Animal Experimentation, 1910s and 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Karen D

    2015-07-01

    In 1923, Thomas Barbour of Harvard announced the creation of a national lay organization, the Society of Friends of Medical Progress (FMP), to defend animal research in the United States against a resurgent antivivisection movement. After decades of successful behind-the-scenes lobbying and avoiding the public spotlight, medical scientists significantly altered their tactics and sought public engagement, at least by proxy. Although the authority of scientific medicine was rising, women's suffrage, the advent of the ballot initiative, and a growing alliance of antivivisectionists and other groups in opposition to allopathic medicine so altered the political landscape that medical scientists reconsidered formerly rejected ideas such partnering with laymen. Medical scientists, Walter B. Cannon and Simon Flexner chief among them, hoped that the FMP would relieve the scientists of a time-consuming burden and defend against government regulation of medical institutions without the charge of material self-interest. However, financial problems and the frequent conflicts that arose between the lay leadership and Flexner eventually undermined the FMP's value as a defender of animal experimentation and reveal the distrust of reformers like Flexner who did not believe that laymen could speak for scientific medicine. PMID:24957068

  9. The influence of a number of decorporates on the state of lipid peroxidation system of blood of experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhul, L. M.; Volykhina, V. E.; Gatsko, G. G.; Bagel, J. M. [Institute of Radiobiology of NASB, Minsk (Belarus)

    2002-07-01

    The investigations directed to the search for the substants of radioprophylactic and radiotherapeutical action have important theoretical and practical importance. Since the base of damaging effect of ionizing radiations is the chain free radical reactions initiating the processes of lipid peroxidation in the organism, we carried out the study of the influence of a number of decorporates on the content of Strontium-85 and Caesium-137 in the organism and on the lipid peroxidation system in blood of experimental animals too. The experiments were carried out on the 4-month old male rats to which Strontium-85 (2282 Bq) and Caesium-137 (3101 Bq) - group 4 were administered per os during 30 days. Against a backgourd of daily incorporation of radionuclides, the animals were treated with a number of decorporates and food products: group 1 - 1% alginic acid, 2% - the bone protein and 0.05% - vitamin PP; group 2 - 20 g of laminaria, group 3 - ferrocin in dose of 0.02 g/rat per day. It was shown, that the most favourable effect was exerted by laminaria not causing the increase of he weight, decorporating both strontiu and caesium, reducing verifiably the content of primary products of lipid peroxidation in the blood. It allows to recommend it for inclusion in the ration of population of radiocontaminated areas.

  10. Hepatoprotective effect ofSolanum xanthocarpum fruit extract against CCl4 induced acute liver toxicity in experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesh K Gupta; Talib Hussain; G Panigrahi; Avik Das; Gireesh Narayan Singh; K Sweety; Md Faiyazuddin; Chandana Venkateswara Rao

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the hepatoprotective potential ofSolanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) (S. xanthocarpum) in experimental rats to validate its traditional claim.Methods: 50%ethanolic fruit extract ofS. xanthocarpum (SXE, 100, 200or400 mg/kg body weight) was administered daily for14days in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, byCCl4administration (1 mL/kg i.p.).The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), Serum alkaline phosphatise (SALP) and total bilirubin. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione(GSH), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) were screened along with histopathological studies.Results: Obtained results demonstrated that the treatment with SXE significantly (P<0.05- <0.001) and dose-dependently prevented chemically induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore,SXE significantly (up toP<0.001) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and catalase towards normal levels. Histopathology of the liver tissue showed thatSXE attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis and led to reduction of inflammatory cells inflltration. Conclusions: The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect ofSXE against acute liver injury which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity, and there by scientifically support its traditional use.

  11. Illuminating the Effects of Stroke on the Diabetic Brain: Insights From Imaging Neural and Vascular Networks in Experimental Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeson, Patrick; Jeffery, Andrew; Brown, Craig E

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes is known to cause circulatory problems in the eyes, heart, and limbs, and the brain is no exception. Because of the insidious effects of diabetes on brain circulation, patients with diabetes are two to four times more likely to have an ischemic stroke and are less likely to regain functions that are lost. To provide a more mechanistic understanding of this clinically significant problem, imaging studies have focused on how stroke affects neural and vascular networks in experimental models of type 1 diabetes. The emerging picture is that diabetes leads to maladaptive changes in the cerebrovascular system that ultimately limit neuronal rewiring and recovery of functions after stroke. At the cellular and systems level, diabetes is associated with abnormal cerebral blood flow in surviving brain regions and greater disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The abnormal vascular responses to stroke can be partly attributed to aberrant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling because genetic or pharmacological inhibition of VEGF signaling can mitigate vascular dysfunction and improve stroke recovery in diabetic animals. These experimental studies offer new insights and strategies for optimizing stroke recovery in diabetic populations. PMID:27329953

  12. Discussion on the Problem of Animal Welfare in the Course of Animal Experimental Teaching of Basic Medicine%基础医学动物实验教学过程中动物福利问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明昊; 李亚萍; 李玉洁; 孙曙光; 潘晓丽

    2015-01-01

    Animal is commonly used as the test object in the experimental teaching of basic medicine.For a long time, the teachers have being faced with the fact that how to seek the pathways to solve the matter of animal welfare in the experimental teaching.It is important for us to help medical students to build the concept of protecting the experimental animal’ s welfare in classroom teaching.The author discussed how to carry out the education of animal welfare from four aspects of the concept of animal welfare, the status of animal experiment, the implementation of 3R principle and ecological philosophy.The aim is to provide reference for the animal welfare education in the animal experimental teaching.%在基础医学实验教学中,动物常被用作实验对象,而实验教学中动物福利问题一直受到人们的关注。在课堂教学中,培养医药专业学生树立保护动物福利的观念具有重要意义。笔者从动物福利含义、动物实验教学现状、3R原则的实施及生态哲学理论等几个方面出发,对如何开展动物福利教育进行了论述,旨在为高校动物实验教学中开展动物福利教育提供参考。

  13. 基础医学动物实验教学过程中动物福利问题的探讨%Discussion on the Problem of Animal Welfare in the Course of Animal Experimental Teaching of Basic Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明昊; 李亚萍; 李玉洁; 孙曙光; 潘晓丽

    2015-01-01

    Animal is commonly used as the test object in the experimental teaching of basic medicine.For a long time, the teachers have being faced with the fact that how to seek the pathways to solve the matter of animal welfare in the experimental teaching.It is important for us to help medical students to build the concept of protecting the experimental animal’ s welfare in classroom teaching.The author discussed how to carry out the education of animal welfare from four aspects of the concept of animal welfare, the status of animal experiment, the implementation of 3R principle and ecological philosophy.The aim is to provide reference for the animal welfare education in the animal experimental teaching.%在基础医学实验教学中,动物常被用作实验对象,而实验教学中动物福利问题一直受到人们的关注。在课堂教学中,培养医药专业学生树立保护动物福利的观念具有重要意义。笔者从动物福利含义、动物实验教学现状、3R原则的实施及生态哲学理论等几个方面出发,对如何开展动物福利教育进行了论述,旨在为高校动物实验教学中开展动物福利教育提供参考。

  14. Experimental study on L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test for quantitative assessment of liver function with animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Using a small animal breath test model we designed and L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) of rats, the authors investigated its feasibility and validity and determined effective parameter of the test. Methods: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) weighting 280-290 g rats randomized into two groups acute hepatitis rats (n=10) and control rats (n=10). Hepatitis was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) olive oil administration through intragastric gavage. PheBT was assisted by small mechanical ventilator improved and air samples were collected discontinuously, 20 mg/kg body weight L-[1-13C] phenylalanine (13C-Phe) was administered intravenously. Twenty-nine breath samples were taken before and different intervals within sixty minutes after administration. 13Cenrichment was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Results: All time phase curves of 13C enrichment in rat breath reached a peak almost at 2 min after the intravenous administration of 13C-Phe. The PheBT parameters, 13C excretion rate constant (PheBT-K), of CCl4 hepatitis rats were significantly lower than that of normal control rats [(2.45 ± 0.25) x 10-2 min-1 vs (2.98 ± 0.19) x 10-2 min-1, t = 5.40, P13C fast phase disposition constant did not statistically differ between the two groups (t=0.58, P>0.05). PheBT-K had significant negative cor-relation with serum ALT, AKP, TBA and total bilirum TBIL (the correlation coefficient r is -0.74, -0.73, -0.82 and -0.67 respectively, P0.05). Conclusions: It was indicated that the small animal breath test model we designed was a virtual tool to use in experimental study on breath test and PheBT-K was a sensitive index. (authors)

  15. Initial study of sediment antagonism and characteristics of silver nanoparticle-coated biliary stents in an experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yigeng Tian,1,* Mingfeng Xia,2,* Shuai Zhang,3 Zhen Fu,4 Qingbin Wen,2 Feng Liu,4 Zongzhen Xu,4 Tao Li,4 Hu Tian4 1Department of Physics, School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Surgery, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of General Surgery, Sixth People’s Hospital of Jinan, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of General Surgery, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Plastic biliary stents used to relieve obstructive jaundice are frequently blocked by sediment, resulting in loss of drainage. We prepared stents coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and compared their ability to resist sedimentation with Teflon stents in a beagle model of obstructive jaundice.Methods: AgNP-coated Teflon biliary stents were prepared by chemical oxidation–reduction and evaluated in an obstructive jaundice model that was produced by ligation of common bile duct (CBD; animals were randomized to two equal groups for placement of AgNP-coated or Teflon control stents. Liver function and inflammatory index were found to be similar in the two groups, and the obstruction was relieved. Stents were removed 21 days after insertion and observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNP coating was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA, and the composition of sediment was assayed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy.Results: Electron microscopy revealed a black, closely adherent AgNP stent coating, with thicknesses of 1.5–6 µm. Sediment thickness and density were greater on Teflon than on AgNP-coated stents. EDXA confirmed the stability and integrity of the AgNP coating before and after in vivo animal experimentation. FTIR

  16. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bougainvillea spectabilis (BS (family Nyctaginaceae is said to possess hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. We had set forward to examine the potential anti-inflammatory activities of BS in experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Fresh dried leaves from the flowering plant of BS were collected from the local area during the flowering season and air dried (215.00 g. Methanol was extracted, and the solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The extract was freeze-dried (lyophilized and the yield was 8 g. This was used as an emulsion prepared in propylene glycol and orally administered (20 and 50 mg/kg. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of BS was evaluated using carrageenan and dextran whereas chronic anti-inflammatory (immunoregulatory activity was evaluated by Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Results: BS (20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg had shown significant anti-inflammatory effects 20.6% and 67.6%, respectively, on carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory models. In dextran-induced edema, the effect was 30% and 66%, respectively. The standard drug indomethacin (87.3% and 91.5%, respectively showed better inhibitory response in both models. In arthritic model 50 mg/kg of BS showed significant chronic anti-inflammatory effect (38.46% in comparison to the standard drug dexamethasone (84.6%. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the methanol extract of BS (50 mg/kg leaves has significant anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activity. Further studies involving isolation of active principles will help to pinpoint the mechanisms contributing to the observed activities of BS.

  17. Anticonvulsant action of gamma-irradiated diazepam with correlation to certain brain amino acids and electrocorticogram activity in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of sterilization by gamma irradiation (215 KGy) of diazepam on is anticonvulsant action, on norma and depleted cerebral gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), on glutamic acid, as well as electrocorticogram activity (ECOG) was determined in the experimental animals. For the evaluation of the anticonvulsant action of either diazepam (D) or irradiated diazepam (ID), pentyl ene tetrazole seizure test, was used and the protective dose 50 (PD50) was determined in adult male mice. GABA, the main central inhibitory transmitter which is implicated in the mechanism of the anticonvulsant action of D and its precursor glutamic acid, were electrophoretically separated and spectrophotometrical evaluated. Moreover, brain electrical activity was recorded using an electroencephalograph apparatus. Although the PD50 of ID as well the effect on normal brain cerebral GABA and glutamic acids did not differ significantly from that of D, yet there was certain variabilities. Thus, the effect of D was about 4 times more potent than the ID on elevating depleted cerebral GABA. Also, electrocorticogram records demonstrated that D produced a slight inhibition while ID induced a decrease in B rhythm with remarkable in the amplitude of ECOG waves. The same pattern of effects were obtained when D or ID were used in combination with INH (250 mg kg-1). 1 tab. 1 fig

  18. Labelling study of galacturonic acid with Tc-99m and investigation of the biokinetic behaviour in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main criterion in the selection of a proper ligand to be labelled with Technetium is to match the requirement of a radiopharmaceutical of good biological specificity, where the target organ-to-background ratio is considerably high. Perliminary study on experimental animals has shown, that galacturonic acid is among those ligands of high renal specificity after complexing with Tc-99. In this communication we describe for the first time the labelling of galacturonic acid with Tc-99, using stannous chloride as a reducing agent for pertechnetate. The radioanalytical results assessed by gelchromatography column scanning (GCS) method, reveal that, the labelling efficiency of (Tc)99-galacturonate complex is promoted by raising the pH of the reaction mixture to a value higher than 7 using tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane buffer. The optimal amounts of the reactants to obtain a high labelled and stable complex with high kidney uptake, were found to be not less than 50 mg galacturonic acid and not more than 200 Mg SnCl2.H2O in the preparation

  19. In vivo multitracer analysis technique. Screening of radioactive probes for noninvasive measurement of physiological functions in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel screening experiment, to find radioactive probes for non-invasive measurements of physiological functions in experimental animals, was tested using the in vivo multitracer analysis technique. The details of the efficiency of the detector settings used in the in vivo multitracer analysis technique were examined by both computer simulations and practical measurements. Multiple radioactive isotopes, i.e. multitracer, were prepared by irradiating a silver foil target with a heavy ion beam at the RIKEN ring cyclotron. After chemical separation of the silver target, the multitracer was finally dissolved in isotonic citrate buffer. The multitracer solution was intravenously injected into rats. Using a γ-ray detector equipped with a well-defined slit, the collimated γ-rays from the upper abdomen of living rats were measured. After correction of detection efficiencies, it was possible to compare the distribution of radioactive elements between two groups of rats different in body weight. The in vivo measurement showed that the tissue substantial volume of the selenium-deficient (SeD) rat liver increased compared to normal rats. The possibility of a functional estimation of tissue/blood volume for living rats was proposed based on the characteristic in vivo distribution of 74As, 83Rb and 103Ru. (author)

  20. Levantamento pedológico da estação experimental de produção animal, em Pindamonhangaba Pedological studies in estação experimental de produção animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Verdade

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available A Estação Experimental de Produção Animal situa-se no município de Pindamonhangaba e destina-se a fazer pesquisas para incrementar a produção-agro-pecuária dessa vasta região paulista. 0 presente estudo faz parte do levantamento detalhado da Bacia de Taubaté (Vale do Paraíba e o seu início em áreas governamentais visou relacionar os dados de solos com os de outras pesquisas. Os resultados obtidos serão fornecidos aos agricultores quando terminarem os trabalhos do levantamento regional. Os solos distribuem-se nas categorias zonais, intrazonais e azonais. No primeiro encontram-se os da subordem Latosaolo, correspondendo às séries monotípicas (ou tipos de solo Pinhão, Pinda, Polêmica, Ponte Alta, Feital, Ipiranga e Coruja, como bem drenados, e Guatemala, Gleba e Campo, como moderadamente drenados. Na categoria de intermediário entre o vermelho-amarelo podzólico e os Latossolos enquadra-se a série Tumirim. Nos inírazonaia encontram-se três grandes grupos. O primeiro formado pelas séries Goiabal, Ribeirão, Córrego e Mosqueada e correspondem ao Glei Pouco Húmico. A série Estação é considerada como Glei Húmico enquanto as séries Haras, Orvalho e Leitosa pertencem ao Bog.This experimental station is located in the Pindamonhangaba County and its main objective is to study the animal husbandry problems of regional interest. The pedological study is a part of the soil survey work carried out at Paraíba Valley (Taubaté Basin through a cooperative project between the Instituto Agronômico and the Serviço do Vale do Paraíba. The soils of the station are derived from terciary sediments, quaternary deposits as alluvial, terraces and organic ones. The zonal soils belong to the sub-order Latosol, and include mono-typical series (soil type, Pinhão, Pinda, Polêmica, Ponte Alta, Feital, Ipiranga and Coruja as well drained soils; the Guatemala, Gleba and Campo are considered as moderate drained soils. The Tumirim series is

  1. Preliminary results in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with an experimental bioabsorbable cage – clinical and radiological findings in an ovine animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Daentzer, Dorothea; Floerkemeier, Thilo; Bartsch, Ivonne; Masalha, Waseem; Welke, Bastian; Hurschler, Christof; Kauth, Theresa; Kaltbeitzel, Daniel; HOPMANN, Christian; Kujat, Bernd; Kalla, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioabsorbable implants are not widely used in spine surgery. This study investigated the clinical and radiological findings after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in an ovine animal model with an experimental bioabsorbable cage consisting of magnesium and polymer (poly-ϵ-caprolactone, PCL) in comparison to a tricortical bone graft as the gold standard procedure. Materials and Methods 24 full-grown sheep had ACDF of C3/4 and C5/6 with an experimental bioabsorbable impl...

  2. Fundamental steps in experimental design for animal studies Passos fundamentais em desenhos experimentais de estudos envolvendo animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies continue to have a vital role in science development. The aim of this review is to provide to new investigators an overview of the important steps involved in experimental designs and also to suggest some practical information that is commonly associated with this process. Investigators should adhere to the ethical procedure and follow strictly the scientific method. Both the aims and well-formulated hypothesis are essential and practical. In this regard a profound literature search and the aid of an experienced statistician is encouraged. The need of randomization, blinding, and attempting to minimize variation is discussed and recommended. The choosing of good control groups and the employment of pilot studies are useful. Finally, the formulation of new questions to be further responded is expected.Estudos em animais continuam a ser vital para o desenvolvimento da ciência. O objetivo dessa revisão é o de apresentar a novos pesquisadores, uma visão geral dos passos importantes envolvidos no desenho experimental e, ao mesmo tempo, sugerir algumas informações de ordem prática que geralmente estão incluídas no processo da pesquisa. Os pesquisadores devem atentar sempre aos princípios éticos e seguir estritamente o método científico. Hipóteses bem formuladas e objetivas claros são essenciais e práticos. Nesse contexto, uma pesquisa bibliográfica profunda deve ser executada previamente e o pesquisador deve contar, se possível, com o auxilio de um estatístico experiente. A necessidade de randomização, de planejar um estudo cego e de se minimizar a variação são discutidas e enfatizadas. A escolha de bons grupos controles e o emprego de um estudo piloto são recomendados. Finalmente, a formulação de novas questões para serem respondidas por novas pesquisas é esperada.

  3. A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundam Borah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. Objective: To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA in an experimental mice model of CFS. Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g were selected for the study, with five animals in each group. Group A served as the naïve control and Group B served as the stressed control. Groups C and D received EETA (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.. Group E received imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w.. Except for Group A, mice in each group were forced to swim 6 min each for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was measured on every alternate day. After 7 days, various behavioral tests (mirror chamber and elevated plus maize test for anxiety, open field test for locomotor activity and biochemical estimations (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase activity in mice brain were performed. Results: Forced swimming in the stressed group resulted in a significant increase in immobility period, decrease in locomotor activity and elevated anxiety level. The brain homogenate showed significantly increased MDA and decreased catalase levels. The extract-treated groups showed significantly (P < 0.05 improved locomotor activity, decreased anxiety level, elevated catalase levels and reduction of MDA. Conclusion: The study confirms the protective effects of EETA in CFS.

  4. Research progress of fundus fluorescein angiography on experimental animals%实验动物眼底血管荧光造影的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊宏; 李强; 段俊国

    2013-01-01

    As one of the essential diagnostic methods of fundus oculi diseases ,fluorescein fundus angiography(FFA )plays an important role in modeling fundus oculi disease of experimental animal and evaluating treatment effects of medicine in the research of experimental animals .This paper expounds several common FFA methods of experimental animal ,briefly covers the advantages and disadvantages and discusses reasonable way of FFA for experimental animals .%在实验动物研究中,眼底血管荧光造影(FFA )作为眼底疾病诊断必备的检测方法之一,对眼底病动物模型的建立和药物治疗作用效果的评估有重要作用。本文阐述几种常见的实验动物 FFA方法,简述它们的优缺点,探讨合理的实验动物FFA方式。

  5. Experimental results and first 22Na source image reconstruction by two prototype modules in coincidence of a liquid xenon positron emission tomograph for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detector with a very specific design using liquid Xenon (LXe) in the scintillation mode is studied for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of small animals. Two prototype modules equipped with Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tubes (PSPMTs) operating in the VUV range (178 nm) and at 165 K were built and studied in coincidence. This paper reports on energy, time and spatial resolution capabilities of this experimental test bench. Furthermore, these experimental results were used to perform the first image reconstruction of a 22Na source placed in the experimental setup.

  6. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  7. Experimental Animals and Quality Control and Development of Veterinary Biologicals%实验动物与兽用生物制品检验和研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光华

    2011-01-01

    Many species and a large number of experimental animals have been widely used with a long history in the control tests and development of veterinary biologicals. The existing problems related to the animals used in the control tests or research of veterinary biologicals are discussed in the article and sortie suggestions on the establishment of large experimental animal bases to guarantee supply, improvement of the quality standards to guarantee quality, renewal of thought and improvement of laws and regulations to decrease the number of experimental animals used and reinforced management to ensure biosafety and biosecurity have been presented.%在兽用生物制品的质量检验和研发中,实验动物的应用极其普遍.其应用的历史悠久、使用面广,涉及的动物种类多、数量大.本文对应用动物进行兽用生物制品检验和研发中存在的问题进行了分析,并提出了建立大动物基地、保证供应,完善标准、保证质量,更新观念、完善法规、减少动物用量,加强管理、确保生物安全等方面的建议.

  8. 实验动物电子商务平台建设之构想%Constructing the E-commerce Platform for Experimental Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志满; 李国婧; 张晓红; 董玉杰; 刘闯

    2011-01-01

    根据电子商务可以为企业、商家、客户提供全新、方便、快捷、有效的贸易和商品交易活动形式等特点,结合实验动物的应用特性及国内实验动物供需渠道不畅的现状,阐明建设实验动物电子商务平台的构想和方案.指出电子商务的应用将创新实验动物的交易模式,消除传统的实验动物供销活动中信息传递与交流的时空障碍,降低交易成本,提高实验动物资源利用率,可解决实验动物资源的共享问题,为我国的医药科学科技创新提供有利的条件支撑和技术保障.%According to the characteristics of the e-commerce which is can provide enterprises, business, and customers with new, convenient, fast and effective form of trade and commodity trading activities, combined with the application characteristics of experimental animals and the poor status of the supply and demand of domestic animal sources, this paper will clarify the concept and the construction of the e-commerce platform for experimental animals. The paper will point out that the applications of e-commerce will innovative the trading patterns in experimental animals eliminate the time and space barriers of information transfer and exchange in traditional supply activity of experimental animals, reduce transaction costs and improve the resource utilization of the experimental animals. What is more, it also can solve problems of the sharing of laboratory animal resources and provide favorable conditions and technical support for China's medical science innovation and technology.

  9. Anaesthesia and physiological monitoring during in vivo imaging of laboratory rodents: considerations on experimental outcomes and animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Tremoleda, Jordi L.; Kerton, Angela; Gsell, Willy

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of imaging technologies has dramatically increased the efficiency of preclinical studies, enabling a powerful, non-invasive and clinically translatable way for monitoring disease progression in real time and testing new therapies. The ability to image live animals is one of the most important advantages of these technologies. However, this also represents an important challenge as, in contrast to human studies, imaging of animals generally requires anaesthesia to restrain t...

  10. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  11. The life-span of experimental animals and their progeny under influence of the ecological conditions in the Chernobyl zone of alienation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory three-month old animals (white mongrel rats F0) were delivered to Chernobyl. The control animals were kept in a Kyiv vivarium. The indices of lifespan and dynamics of mortality of rats and their progeny have been determined using the life table methodology. The results have shown no essential difference in the indices of mortality and lifespan between control and experimental animals of the F0 generation. The expected lifespan of irradiated rats of the F1 - F2 generations increased in the age interval of 300 - 600 days. It's necessary to note that a decrease of this index in the Chernobyl groups of the F3 - F6 generations has been observed

  12. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  13. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6Li2CO3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author)

  14. Studies on the transmission of malignant catarrhal fever in experimental animals: A serial infection of cattle and buffalo by means of whole blood inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wiyono

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal disease especially affecting cattle and buffaloes. A study on the serial blood transmission of MCF was conducted by injecting whole blood of MCF animals into 9 experimental animals. Diagnosis of MCF was based on the clinico-pathological fmdings and polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. The disease has successfully, been achieved in six animals of three Bali cattle and three buffaloes but not in a Bali-cross breed and two Bos indicus (Ongole cattle. Wide range of clinical signs and gross-pathological features were observed. The study showed the degree of susceptibility of experimental animals: Bali cattle and buffalo were highly susceptible (3 out of 3 affected with MCF, Bali-cross breed and Bos indicus (Ongole cattle seemed not susceptible to whole blood experimental transmission. It shows that when Bali cattle acted as inoculum donor, buffalo tended to be clinically more severe than Bali cattle. On the other hand, when buffalo acted as inoculum donor, Bali cattle suffered from MCF more severe than buffalo. The diagnosis of MCF by histopathological examination and the PCR test bad positive correlation (100% in the first experiment, while in the second experiment the PCR test tends to be more sensitive. Based on the restriction endonuclease (RE test, the MCF causal agent in this study appeared to be genetically similar in each case. It is concluded that the serial experimental transmission of MCF by means of whole blood inoculation has been successfully achieved in Bali cattle and buffalo but not in Bali-cross breed and Ongole cattle, and there is a positive correlation between the PCR test and histopathological examination with the PCR test tends to be more sensitive.

  15. The impact of inspiratory pressure on stroke volume variation and the evaluation of indexing stroke volume variation to inspiratory pressure under various preload conditions in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kawazoe, Yu; Nakashima, Tsuyoshi; Iseri, Toshie; Yonetani, Chiaki; Ueda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Yuka; Kato, Seiya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stroke volume variation (SVV) measures fluid responsiveness, enabling optimal fluid management under positive pressure ventilation. We aimed to investigate the effect of peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) on SVV under various preload conditions in experimental animals and to ascertain whether SVV indexed to PIP decreases the effect. Methods Mild and moderate hemorrhage models were created in nine anesthetized, mechanically ventilated beagle dogs by sequentially removing 10 and then an ad...

  16. Targeting Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Lesions to a Predetermined Axonal Tract System Allows for Refined Behavioral Testing in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kerschensteiner, Martin; Stadelmann, Christine; Buddeberg, Bigna S.; Merkler, Doron; Bareyre, Florence M.; Anthony, Daniel C.; Linington, Christopher; Brück, Wolfgang; Schwab, Martin E.

    2004-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) the structural damage to axons determines the persistent clinical deficit patients acquire during the course of the disease. It is therefore important to test therapeutic strategies that can prevent or reverse this structural damage. The conventional animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), typically shows disseminated inflammation in the central nervous system, which leads to a clinical deficit that cannot be directly attributed to a def...

  17. Effect of Xiaoke Granule(消渴冲剂)on Blood Sugar and Blood Rheological Property in Experimental Diabetic Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季晓梅; 刘根尚; 齐昉; 郑虎占; 佘靖; 龚慕辛; 孙军; 章红英

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the pharmacological effect of Xiaoke Granule (XKG, 消渴冲剂) on blood sugar and blood rheological property in the diabetic animals.Methods: Alloxan induced diabetic mice or rats were grouped randomly. The effects of XKG on blood sugar, appetite, capacity of drinking, glucose tolerance, blood lipid and blood rheological property were observed and compared among groups.Results:XKG showed a trend in reducing the appetite and capacity of drinking, increasing the body weight, and significantly inhibiting the increase of blood sugar coused by ectogenic glucose in mice, and could improve the blood lipid and blood rheological property in rats.Conclusion:XKG is effective in reducing serum total cholesterol, lowering the blood viscosity, improving the blood rheological property of alloxan induced diabetic animals. Therefore, it might effective in treating and preventing the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and the complications of blood stasis.

  18. Effect of low-dose total gamma irradiation on the pharmacokinetics of chrysanol precursor in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was aimed at investigating the pharmacokinetics of chrysanol, an antiinflammatory drug, in the organism of laboratory animals following a total low-dose exposure. The distribution of sodium salt of aurothiopropanol-2-sulfonic acid, a precursor of chrysanol was examined in irradiated organs and tissues. As agent labelled with 35S in indicator quantities was utilized. Total irradiation in doses of 0.1 to 1.5 Gy was found to influence the drug pharmacokinetics, which manifested mainly by a reduction of its level in irradiated animals organs 3 and 24 postradiation. Accelerated elimination of the agent from the organism of exposure rats may be significant in therapeutic use of chrysanol Na salt. Study of the pharmacokinetic parameters of different radiopharmaceuticals may be used as a fine instrument for investigating the biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation

  19. The Directive 2010/63/EU on animal experimentation may skew the conclusions of pharmacological and behavioural studies

    OpenAIRE

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Laviola, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    All laboratory animals shall be provided some form of environmental enrichment (EE) in the nearest future (Directive 2010/63/EU). Displacing standard housing with EE entails the possibility that data obtained under traditional housing may be reconsidered. Specifically, while EE often contrasts the abnormalities of consolidated disease models, it also indirectly demonstrates that their validity depends on housing conditions. We mimicked a situation in which the consequences of a novel pharmaco...

  20. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of ACE inhibitors (imidapril and quinapril) in experimentally induced animal models of epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    VH, Pushpa; Poornima R.; HL, Kalabharathi; AM, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate seizures, may be associated with emotional and cognitive dysfunction. Objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the anticonvulsant activity of different doses of imidapril and quinapril in animal models of epilepsy. Methods: Swiss albino mice weighing around 25-30g of either sex were divided into 6 groups: control (R.O-10 ml/kg), standard-sodium valproate (40 mg/kg), Q1...

  1. Development of an Experimental Animal Model for Lower Back Pain by Percutaneous Injury-Induced Lumbar Facet Joint Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Ahmadinia, Kasra; Li, Xin; Hamilton, John L; Andrews, Steven; Haralampus, Chris A; Xiao, Guozhi; Sohn, Hong-Moon; You, Jae-Won; Seo, Yo-Seob; Stein, Gary S; Van Wijnen, Andre J; Kim, Su-Gwan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    We report generation and characterization of pain-related behavior in a minimally invasive facet joint degeneration (FJD) animal model in rats. FJD was produced by a non-open percutaneous puncture-induced injury on the right lumbar FJs at three consecutive levels. Pressure hyperalgesia in the lower back was assessed by measuring the vocalization response to pressure from a force transducer. After hyperalgesia was established, pathological changes in lumbar FJs and alterations of intervertebral foramen size were assessed by histological and imaging analyses. To investigate treatment options for lumber FJ osteoarthritis-induced pain, animals with established hyperalgesia were administered with analgesic drugs, such as morphine, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (ketorolac), or pregabalin. Effects were assessed by behavioral pain responses. One week after percutaneous puncture-induced injury of the lumbar FJs, ipsilateral primary pressure hyperalgesia developed and was maintained for at least 12 weeks without foraminal stenosis. Animals showed decreased spontaneous activity, but no secondary hyperalgesia in the hind paws. Histopathological and microfocus X-ray computed tomography analyses demonstrated that the percutaneous puncture injury resulted in osteoarthritis-like structural changes in the FJs cartilage and subchondral bone. Pressure hyperalgesia was completely reversed by morphine. The administration of celecoxib produced moderate pain reduction with no statistical significance while the administration of ketorolac and pregabalin produced no analgesic effect on FJ osteoarthritis-induced back pain. Our animal model of non-open percutanous puncture-induced injury of the lumbar FJs in rats shows similar characteristics of low back pain produced by human facet arthropathy. PMID:25858171

  2. Attenuation of Acute and Chronic Restraint Stress-induced Perturbations in Experimental Animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, M. P.; Juvekar, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) for 7 da...

  3. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni M; Juvekar A

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) f...

  4. Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafillidis, John K.; Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Vagianos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in experimental colitis. All relevant studies published in Medline and Embase up to June 2015 have been reviewed. The results of bowel histology and serum parameters have been recorded. A satisfactory number of published experimental studies, and a quite large one of both herbal and plant products tested in different s...

  5. A micro-PET/CT approach using O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine in an experimental animal model of F98 glioma for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichetti, L., E-mail: luca.menichetti@ifc.cnr.it [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Petroni, D.; Panetta, D. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Burchielli, S. [Fondazione CNR/Regione Toscana G. Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Bortolussi, Silva [Dept. Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Matteucci, M. [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Pascali, G.; Del Turco, S. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Altieri, S. [Dept. Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Salvadori, P.A. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The present study focuses on a micro-PET/CT application to be used for experimental Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), which integrates, in the same frame, micro-CT derived anatomy and PET radiotracer distribution. Preliminary results have demonstrated that {sup 18}F-fluoroethyl-tyrosine (FET)/PET allows the identification of the extent of cerebral lesions in F98 tumor bearing rat. Neutron autoradiography and {alpha}-spectrometry on axial tissues slices confirmed the tumor localization and extraction, after the administration of fructose-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Therefore, FET-PET approach can be used to assess the transport, the net influx, and the accumulation of FET, as an aromatic amino acid analog of BPA, in experimental animal model. Coregistered micro-CT images allowed the accurate morphological localization of the radiotracer distribution and its potential use for experimental BNCT.

  6. In vitro Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Pongamia Pinnata Stem Bark in Experimental Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sagar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptivepotential of the ethanolic extract of pongamia pinnata stem bark (PSBE in different experimental animal models.The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract ofpongamia pinnataand compared with ascorbic acid (Standard and theanalgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. The extract has an anti-inflammatory effect demonstrated by its inhibitory effects on Carrageenan induced paw edema.PSBE (200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute (carrageenan induced hind paw edema and chronic (cotton pellet granuloma models of inflammationPSBE did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality up to a dose level of 10.125 g/kg, p.o. in mice. Both acute as well as chronic administration PSBE (200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. did not produce any gastric lesion in rats.The analgesic activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response in albino mice and tail flick method in albino rats.Its ethanolic extract shows the most effective anti-inflammatory activityat doses of 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg significantly throughout the observation period.In the tail flick model, the PSBE in the above doses increased the pain threshold significantly after 30 min., 1, 2, and 4 hr. of administration. pongamia pinnatashowed dose-dependent action in all experimental animal models.

  7. The Reconsideration of Animal Experimental Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine%中医药动物实验研究的再思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿; 苗艳艳; 苗明三

    2015-01-01

    关于未来中医药动物实验的再思考有5点:①中医药动物实验的伦理问题:改善实验动物的生活条件,杜绝虐杀实验动物的现象,规范动物实验的技术操作,成立动物伦理委员会及专家组,推动“3R”(减量、优化、替代原则)研究的进展。②中医药动物实验必须充分体现中医的基本特点:依据中医辨证论治理论,以中医病因病机为准则,采用多种方法复制“证”的动物模型,然后用药物反证法检验“证”的模型。③加强中医临床研究,重视人体科学:中医证候的确立要依靠望、闻、问、切,中医的证很难在动物身上体现,人与动物存在本质的差异,必须以临床病人为载体,应在人体证候规范化的基础上研究中医证候的基础。④建立中医证候动物评价标准:优化动物的造模因素,建立规范的动物模型评价方法,选择具有特征性的评价指标。⑤中医药动物实验研究要回归到中医药临床的现实中:在动物实验研究中,要把实验的标准化和临床的真实性衔接起来,实验研究的目的不单是为了机制、为了论文、为了所谓的科学,更多的研究结果要能实用,能在现实开放的环境中有作用,让中医药的研究回归自然,回归到真实世界,让理论研究与真实世界相一致。%Thinking over the future of animal experiment of traditional Chinese medicine have five points:①the ethical issues of animal experiments of traditional Chinese medicine:improve the living conditions for experimental animals,put an end to cruelty of experimen-tal animals,standard of the technical operation of animal experiments,establish animal ethical committee and the professor group,re-search progress of advancing the "3R"(reduction,majorization,replacement).② Animal experiments of traditional Chinese medicine must be fully embody the basic characteristics of TCM:Based on the

  8. [Which animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma (NASH-HCC) have more practical value in experimental investigations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, N N; Wu, J

    2016-03-20

    In the past, we used to think that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) only occurred when nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progressed to liver cirrhosis. However, recent clinical studies have shown that HCC may occur during the stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The prevalence of NAFLD and the increasing incidence of NASH-associated HCC require the elucidation of the pathogenesis of NASH-HCC and the assessment of the efficacy of novel therapies as early as possible, while these evaluations need reliable animal models. This article reviews the characteristics of NASH-HCC models with a practical value to uncover the mysteries of NASH-HCC. PMID:27095770

  9. Potentiality of Melatonin as a Radiation Protector against Hemoglobin Damage in the Experimental Animals Due to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation causes serious damage in biological system. Some drugs and antioxidants are used to prevent such damage. In the present study two doses of melatonin (10 mg⁄kg and 30 mg⁄kg) were selected to be used for such purpose. The radioprotective effects of melatonin on hemoglobin of red blood cells from female mice was studied through UV absorption spectrum, ESR spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and relative viscosity .The results of Hemoglobin absorption indicate that a pronounced increase in the average value of peak position and width at half maximum Whmax followed by a decrease in the absorbance of sort band, decrease in absorption ratio A578 / A540 in addition to disappearance of globin band at 275 nm. The free radicals which are expected to be formed after exposing to γ-irradiation are detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The results indicate that the intensity of ESR signal for hemoglobin extracted from animals exposed to γ- irradiation is greater as compared with normal hemoglobin. Dielectric measurements indicate that there is an increase in dielectric permittivity (ε‵), the dielectric loss (ε‶) and the a.c conductivity (σac) while some decrease is noticed in the viscosity measurements after exposing to irradiation. The data obtained from the whole studied parameters after treating animals with melatonin become closer to those for unirradiated samples.

  10. Tools to fight the cataract epidemic: A review of experimental animal models that mimic age related nuclear cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Julie C; Umapathy, Ankita; Donaldson, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide and accounts for approximately half of all forms of vision loss. Currently, the only way to treat cataracts is by surgery. However, with an ageing population, the demand for surgery and the need for cost effective alternative solutions grows exponentially. To reduce the need for cataract surgery, alternative medical therapies to delay cataracts are urgently required. However, given the difficulty in accessing human cataract lenses, investigating the process of cataract formation and testing the efficacy of potential therapies in humans is problematic. Therefore, researchers have looked to create suitable animal models of cataractogenesis to identify therapeutic options. This review will provide an overview of the cataract specific changes previously reported in human cataract lenses, before focussing on the specific changes that occur in age related nuclear (ARN) cataract, the most common form of cataract in humans. This will be followed by a discussion of a range of existing animal cataract models and their respective suitability for mimicking the processes associated with the development of ARN cataract, and therefore their utility as models to test anti-cataract therapies for future use in humans. PMID:26391448

  11. The experimental study of 32P-colloid perfusion therapy in the animal-models of chronic maxillary sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To search for the mechanism of 32P-colloid perfusion therapy in the animal models of chronic maxillary sinusitis. Methods: 32P-colloid were injected into the male sheep maxillary sinuses of the animal-models of chronic maxillary sinusitis in different dosage group. The changes of bacteria and mucosael pathomorphology were observed by periodic germiculture and pathology in 1,3,6 months after injection. Results: After 32P-colloid perfusion therapy, the amounts of bacterial species and chronic phlogistic cells were remarkable reduced, and the structure of cilia cells did not change. The curable rate was 83.3% in 6 months. There were remarkable difference in groups. Conclusions: 32P-colloid was provided with antibiosis and reducing chronic phlogistic responses. The authors had found the optimal dose of 32P-colloid perfusion in the maxillary sinuses through the study. The curable rate of single dose of 32P-colloid perfusion in the maxillary sinuses was higher than other therapy, 32P-colloid perfusion was simple and convenient. There was high selectivity of 32P in the target organ, when there was no effect on other important organs through radiobiological measurement. (authors)

  12. Accumulation of pathological prion protein PrPSc in the skin of animals with experimental and natural scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Thomzig

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Prion infectivity and its molecular marker, the pathological prion protein PrP(Sc, accumulate in the central nervous system and often also in lymphoid tissue of animals or humans affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Recently, PrP(Sc was found in tissues previously considered not to be invaded by prions (e.g., skeletal muscles. Here, we address the question of whether prions target the skin and show widespread PrP(Sc deposition in this organ in hamsters perorally or parenterally challenged with scrapie. In hamsters fed with scrapie, PrP(Sc was detected before the onset of symptoms, but the bulk of skin-associated PrP(Sc accumulated in the clinical phase. PrP(Sc was localized in nerve fibres within the skin but not in keratinocytes, and the deposition of PrP(Sc in skin showed no dependence from the route of infection and lymphotropic dissemination. The data indicated a neurally mediated centrifugal spread of prions to the skin. Furthermore, in a follow-up study, we examined sheep naturally infected with scrapie and detected PrP(Sc by Western blotting in skin samples from two out of five animals. Our findings point to the skin as a potential reservoir of prions, which should be further investigated in relation to disease transmission.

  13. Synergistic activity of curcumin with methotrexate in ameliorating Freund's Complete Adjuvant induced arthritis with reduced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banji, David; Pinnapureddy, Jyothi; Banji, Otilia J F; Saidulu, A; Hayath, Md Sikinder

    2011-10-01

    Methotrexate is employed in low doses for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. One of the major drawbacks with methotrexate is hepatotoxicity resulting in poor compliance of therapy. Curcumin is an extensively used spice possessing both anti-arthritic and hepatoprotective potential. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of curcumin (30 and 100 mg/kg) in combination with subtherapeutic dose of methotrexate (1 mg/kg) is salvaging hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress and producing synergistic anti-arthritic action with methotrexate. Wistar albino rats were induced with arthritis by subplantar injection of Freund's Complete Adjuvant and pronounced arthritis was seen after 9 days of injection. Groups of animals were treated with subtherapeutic dose of methotrexate followed half an hour later with 30 and 100mg/kg of curcumin from day 9 up to days 45 by intraperitoneal route. Methotrexate treatment in Freund's Complete Adjuvant induced arthritic animals produced elevation in the levels of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin. Enhanced oxidative stress in terms of measured lipid peroxides was observed in the methotrexate treated group. Curcumin significantly circumvented hepatotoxicity induced by methotrexate as evidenced by a change in biochemical markers possibly due to its strong anti-oxidant action. Hepatoprotective potential of curcumin was also confirmed from histological evaluation. Sub-therapeutic dose of methotrexate elicited substantial anti-arthritic action when used in combination with curcumin implying that the latter potentiated its action. Concomitant administration of curcumin with methotrexate was also found to minimize liver damage. PMID:21693118

  14. Animals' Use of Landmarks and Metric Information to Reorient: Effects of the Size of the Experimental Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Bisazza, Angelo; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Disoriented children could use geometric information in combination with landmark information to reorient themselves in large but not in small experimental spaces. We tested fish in the same task and found that they were able to conjoin geometric and non-geometric (landmark) information to reorient themselves in both the large and the small space…

  15. Role of Some Natural Plant to Enhance the Immune System Against Exposure of Ionizing Radiation in Experimental Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α), Transforming growth factor (TGF-1β), Interleukin-5 (IL-5), liver enzymes and Malondialdehyde were determined in 50 male albino rats which are divided into 5 groups: control and 4 irradiated groups, all are exposed to the following γ-radiation doses: 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 Gy double dose for two successive weeks, once weekly. All groups except control, 0.5 and 1 Gy groups were treated with Ambrosin extract (natural product) with 20 mg/kg body weight 8 times once weekly. All animals were sacrificed after one week of the last dose of Ambrosin. The results revealed that all immuno response TNF-alpha, TGF-1β and Il-5 showed a highly amelioration after treatment by Ambrosin in the groups which exposed to 1.5, and 2 Gy in comparison with the untreated groups. superoxide dismutase (SOD)

  16. Comparative experimental studies into radioimmunoscintigraphy using radioactive antibodies in animals with HeLa cell carcinomas and Yoshida sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TPA-positive and TPA-negative tumour-bearing animal systems (HeLa cell carcinomas in RNU rats and Yoshida sarcomas in Wistar rats) were examined to show that the method of scanning can well be used to visualise tumour tissue. In this connection, further attempts were made to shed light on the specifity of immunoscintigraphy in the search for tumour tissue. 125-Iodine-anti-TPA was found to be a specific carcinoma-seeking substance. The amount of antibodies accumulating in the tumour was multiplied by previous intravenous treatment of test animals with unspecific immunoglobulin. In control studies using 125-iodine-immunoglobulin the site of the carcinomatous tissue could not be determined with sufficient diagnostic accuracy. It was found that the discriminating power of radioimmunoscintigraphy using 125-iodine-anti-TPA is quite unrelated to an increased circulation in the proliferating carcinomatous tissue. For the detection of TPA in HeLa cell carcinomas anti-TPA PAP stains were prepared. Radionuclide studies using 125-iodine-anti-TPA were also useful in the visualisation of the Yoshida sarcoma, even though this scores negative on TPA. Here, the amounts of radioactivity accumulating in the tumour were smaller than with the HeLa cell carcinoma. Moreover, peak levels were measured after no less than one day, as compared to the five days required for HeLa cell tumours to reach maximum levels. This finding would appear to provide presumptive evidence that there are other, unspecific mechanisms of tumour selectivity. (orig/MG)

  17. A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mukundam Borah; Phulen Sarma; Swarnamoni Das

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. Objective: To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA) in an experimental mice model of CFS. Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g)...

  18. Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafillidis, John K; Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Vagianos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in experimental colitis. All relevant studies published in Medline and Embase up to June 2015 have been reviewed. The results of bowel histology and serum parameters have been recorded. A satisfactory number of published experimental studies, and a quite large one of both herbal and plant products tested in different studies have been reported. The results showed that in the majority of the studies, herbal therapy reduced the inflammatory activity of experimental colitis and diminished the levels of many inflammatory indices, including serum cytokines and indices of oxidative stress. The most promising plant and herbal products were tormentil extracts, wormwoodherb, Aloe vera, germinated barley foodstuff, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, Panax notoginseng, Ixeris dentata, green tea, Cordia dichotoma, Plantago lanceolata, Iridoidglycosides, and mastic gum. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit via various mechanisms, including immune regulation, anti-oxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-κB, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing these natural substances should be urgently conducted. PMID:27366027

  19. Salivary biochemical markers as potential acute toxicity parameters for acute radiation injury: A study on small experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, S; Agrawal, P; Kumar, N; Mittal, G; Nishad, D K; Chaudhury, N K; Bhatnagar, A; Basu, M; Chhillar, N

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have been evaluating several biodosimetric/screening approaches to assess acute radiation injury, related to mass causality. Keeping in mind this background, we hypothesized that effect of whole-body irradiation in single fraction in graded doses can affect the secretion of various salivary components that could be used as acute radiation injury/toxicity marker, which can be used in screening of large population at the time of nuclear accidents/disaster. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats treated with whole-body cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of dose 1-5 Gy (dose rate: 0.95 Gy/min) were included in this study. Whole mixed saliva was collected from all animals before and after radiation up to 72 h postradiation. Saliva was analyzed for electrolytes, total protein, urea, and amylase. Intragroup comparison of salivary parameters at different radiation doses showed significant differences. Potassium was significantly increased as the dose increased from 1 Gy to 5 Gy (p 0.5). Sodium was significantly altered after 3-5 Gy (p 0.5), except 1 and 2 Gy, whereas changes in sodium level were nonsignificant (p > 0.5). Urea, total protein, and amylase levels were also significantly increased as the radiation dose increased (p 0.5). This study suggests that salivary parameters were sensitive toward radiation even at low radiation dose which can be used as a predictor of radiation injury. PMID:25813962

  20. Neuroprotective and nootropic activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn.(Fabaceae leaves on diabetes induced cognitive decline in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna A Talpate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea (EECT was evaluated in diabetes-induced cognitive decline rat model for its nootropic and neuroprotective activity. Materials and Methods: Effect on spatial working memory, spatial reference memory and spatial working-reference memory was evaluated by Y maze, Morris water maze and Radial arm maze respectively. Neuroprotective effects of EECT was studied by assaying acetylcholinesterase, lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total nitric oxide (NO, catalase (CAT and glutathione (GSH levels in the brain of diabetic rats. Results: The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg was found to cause significant increase in spatial working memory ( P < 0.05, spatial reference memory ( P < 0.001 and spatial working-reference ( P < 0.001 in retention trials on Y maze, Morris water maze and Radial arm maze respectively. Whereas significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity ( P < 0.05, lipid peroxide ( P < 0.001, total NO ( P < 0.001 and significant increase in SOD, CAT and GSH levels was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg compared to diabetic control group. Conclusions: The present data indicates that Clitorea ternatea tenders protection against diabetes induced cognitive decline and merits the need for further studies to elucidate its mode of action.

  1. An experimental animal model of aseptic loosening of hip prostheses in sheep to study early biochemical changes at the interface membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akens Margarete K

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis as it occurs in clinical cases in human patients was attributed to wear particles of the implants, the response of the tissue dominated by macrophages and the production of inflammatory mediators and matrix degrading enzymes; however, the cascade of events initiating the process and their interaction regarding the time course is still open and discussed controversially. Therefore, the goal of this study was to establish an experimental animal model in sheep allowing to follow the cascade of early mechanical and biochemical events within the interface membrane and study the sequence of how they contribute to the pathological bone resorption necessary for aseptic loosening of the implant. Methods A cemented modular system (Biomedtrix was used as a hip replacement in 24 adult Swiss Alpine sheep, with one group receiving a complete cement mantle as controls (n = 12, and the other group a cement mantle with a standardized, lateral, primary defect in the cement mantle (n = 12. Animals were followed over time for 2 and 8.5 months (n = 6 each. After sacrifice, samples from the interface membranes were harvested from five different regions of the femur and joint capsule. Explant cell cultures were performed and supernatant of cultures were tested and assayed for nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, caseinolytic and collagenolytic activity. RNA extraction and quantification were performed for inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6. Overall differences between groups and time periods and interactions thereof were calculated using a factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results The development of an interface membrane was noticed in both groups at both time points. However, in the controls the interface membrane regressed in thickness and biological activity, while both variables increased in the experimental group with the primary cement mantle defect over time

  2. Comparison of different morphological parameters with duration of obstruction created experimentally in unilateral upper ureters: An animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasanka Shekhar Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the following study is to determine and to compare the different morphological parameters with duration of obstruction created experimentally in unilateral upper ureters of rats. Materials and Methods: Unilateral upper ureteric obstruction was created in 60 adult Wistar rats that were reversed after predetermined intervals. Rats were sacrificed and ipsilateral kidneys were subjected for analysis of morphological parameters such as renal height, cranio-caudal diameter, antero-posterior diameter, lateral diameter, volume of the pelvis and average cortical thickness: Renal height. Results: Renal height and cranio-caudal diameter of renal pelvis after ipsilateral upper ureteric obstruction started rising as early as 7 days of creating obstruction and were affected earlier than antero-posterior and lateral diameter and also were reversed earlier than other parameters after reversal of obstruction. Renal cortical thickness and volume of the pelvis were affected after prolonged obstruction (> 3 weeks and were the late parameters to be reversed after reversal of obstruction. Conclusions: Cranio-caudal diameter and renal height were the early morphological parameters to be affected and reversed after reversal of obstruction in experimentally created ipsilateral upper ureteric obstruction.

  3. Animal experimental model of a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction after allogenic transplantation of bone marrow in lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft-versus-host (GVH) disease represents a serious still unsolved problem in the human allogenic transplantation of bone marrow. An experimental model of GVH reaction after an allogenic transplantation of bone marrow in the adult mouse has been worked out as a prerequisite for further studies on the therapeutic influence of this syndrome. 3 groups have been formed out of 82 lethally X-irradiated C57 Bl mice. The non-transplanted control group died to a hundred per cent within 12 days. While out of the 2nd group treated with syngenic bone marrow 55 per cent survived from the 22nd day, 30 per cent of the third animal group, allogenicly transplanted with histoincompatible AKR donor marrow developed a chronic GVH syndrome. The following symptoms were observed: retardation, alterations of the skin, diarrhea, edemas of the legs, failing increase of leukocytes in blood and proliferation of lymphocytes in bone marrow of about 60 per cent (18 per cent in syngenically transplanted animals), in lacking proliferation of hematopoiesis. The increase of liver and especially spleen index is not characteristic in comparison with the syngenically transplanted group, since in the latter there is also an increase of the values on account of a strong hematopoetic proliferation. The model is suitable and sufficiently well characterized for the performance of further experimental studies. (author)

  4. Monte Carlo simulations versus experimental measurements in a small animal PET system. A comparison in the NEMA NU 4-2008 framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popota, F. D.; Aguiar, P.; España, S.; Lois, C.; Udias, J. M.; Ros, D.; Pavia, J.; Gispert, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    In this work a comparison between experimental and simulated data using GATE and PeneloPET Monte Carlo simulation packages is presented. All simulated setups, as well as the experimental measurements, followed exactly the guidelines of the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards using the microPET R4 scanner. The comparison was focused on spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and counting rates performance. Both GATE and PeneloPET showed reasonable agreement for the spatial resolution when compared to experimental measurements, although they lead to slight underestimations for the points close to the edge. High accuracy was obtained between experiments and simulations of the system’s sensitivity and scatter fraction for an energy window of 350-650 keV, as well as for the counting rate simulations. The latter was the most complicated test to perform since each code demands different specifications for the characterization of the system’s dead time. Although simulated and experimental results were in excellent agreement for both simulation codes, PeneloPET demanded more information about the behavior of the real data acquisition system. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first validation of these Monte Carlo codes for the full NEMA NU 4-2008 standards for small animal PET imaging systems.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations versus experimental measurements in a small animal PET system. A comparison in the NEMA NU 4-2008 framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a comparison between experimental and simulated data using GATE and PeneloPET Monte Carlo simulation packages is presented. All simulated setups, as well as the experimental measurements, followed exactly the guidelines of the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards using the microPET R4 scanner. The comparison was focused on spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and counting rates performance. Both GATE and PeneloPET showed reasonable agreement for the spatial resolution when compared to experimental measurements, although they lead to slight underestimations for the points close to the edge. High accuracy was obtained between experiments and simulations of the system’s sensitivity and scatter fraction for an energy window of 350–650 keV, as well as for the counting rate simulations. The latter was the most complicated test to perform since each code demands different specifications for the characterization of the system’s dead time. Although simulated and experimental results were in excellent agreement for both simulation codes, PeneloPET demanded more information about the behavior of the real data acquisition system. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first validation of these Monte Carlo codes for the full NEMA NU 4-2008 standards for small animal PET imaging systems. (paper)

  6. Designing of 14C, 3H-labeled liposomal preparations and their distribution in inner organs of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Development of methods for introduction of drug liposomal forms into practice is an urgent task for medicine and radiobiology. Per oral way of administration of the medications has been unexplored properly yet. Preservation of their stability in the gastro-intestinal tract is the essential requirement to the liposomes. Literature data and our studies showed that the elevated saturation of fatty acids and viscosity of liposomal membrane bilayer increases their stability to acidic and alkaline media of the digestive system. To prepare the liposome we used 14C,H-labeled lipids isolated from tissues by means of preparative chromatography after administration of D(1-614C)glucose (specific radioactivity 100 mkCu/mM) as well as of D(1-3H)-galactose (specific radioactivity 900 mkCU/mM) to 10 rats. Organ-specific liposomes were prepared in accordance with the special method without ultrasound processing to administered them with milk per orally to rats by means of a gastric probe. Before administration of 14C,3H liposomes the animals were not fed for 16-20 hours for complete emptying of the gastrointestinal tract. Under these conditions 1-1.5 hours after administration of liposomes their maximum amount was absorbed from he intestine. We found tissue specificity of the liposome administered. If the amount of administered liposomes for each tissue to be taken for 100%, in target organs their distribution (in %) would be as follows: 0.30/0.39 in the heart, 0.54/0.06 in the skeletal muscle, 0.4/0.6 in the brain, 4.2/10.2 in the spleen, 2.9/6.1 in the pancreas, 5.1/1.2 in the kidney. In these experiments liposomes had covering of 14C,3H-glycosphingolipids of the spleen. Under these conditions 3H-cAMP in the form of liposomes was administered to mice per orally to measure radioactivity (in cpm 100mg of tissue) in the organs. The values were as follows: 77±6.3 in the liver, 750±47 in the spleen, 250±19 in the kidney, 70±77 in the heart, 267±21 in the lung and 95

  7. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%–24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera

  8. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%-24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera

  9. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abubakar Amali Muhammad,1 Palanisamy Arulselvan,1 Cheah Pike See,2 Farida Abas,3 Sharida Fakurazi1,2 1Laboratory of Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, 2Unit of Anatomy, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 3Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Abstract: Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15% of diabetics and up to 15%–24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine. Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue

  10. Detection of deep venous thrombosis in an experimental animal model using radioactive labelled tirofiban GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT), including biochemical information on thrombus formation, is one of the most important issues in clinical nuclear medicine. Thus, development of radiolabelled small peptide or peptidomimetic ligands that can bind platelets and their specific expressed receptor have been suggested as a new approach to detect clot location and, more essentially, determine the age and morphology of the evolving thrombus. This new approach has focused on the use of a series of radiolabelled platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonists. Tirofiban N-(butylsulfonyl)- 4-O-(4-(4-piperidyl)-L-tyrosine is a non-peptide tyrosine derivate. The aim of the study was to introduce radioactive labelled tirofiban as a specific imaging agent for acute DVT. Iodine-125-tirofiban labelling was performed using the Iodo-gen method with a >95% yield. Technetium-99-tirofiban labelling in the presence of a stannous reducing agent was obtained with a >95% yield. Both labelled preparations have a fast blood clearance in the normal rat model (without induced thrombosis). More than 80% of the injected dose was eliminated from the circulation in the first hour after injection. Biodistribution and visualization of the labelled molecule was carried out using an experimental model of thrombosis in the male Wistar rat. Planar images were obtained 30 min and 60 min after application of 2-6 x 106 counts/min 99mTc-tirofiban, as well as 2 h and 24 h after application of 1.6-2.1 x 106 counts/min in the rat's tail vein. Sensitivity and specificity were determined using the ratio 'left leg positive for DVT' and 'right leg negative for DVT'. The obtained ratio was 1.76 after 1 h, 1.99 after 3 h and 2.06 after 24 h in the case of iodine labelled tirofiban, and 1.54 after 30 min and 5.04 after 60 min with 99mTc-tirofiban. These values were considered as positive in the detection of acute DVT. The results from experimental studies show that radiolabelled tirofiban could be helpful in

  11. Changes in Renal Function and Oxidative Status Associated with the Hypotensive Effects of Oleanolic Acid and Related Synthetic Derivatives in Experimental Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlengiwe Pretty Madlala

    Full Text Available The triterpene oleanolic acid (OA is known to possess antihypertensive actions. In the present study we to compared the effects of the triterpene on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and kidney function following acute administration in normotensive animals with those of its related oleanane synthetic derivatives (brominated oleanolic acid, Br-OA and oleanolic acid methyl ester, Me-OA. We also used experimental models of hypertension to further explore the effects of sub-chronic oral OA treatment and evaluated influences on oxidative status.OA was extracted from dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum using a previously validated protocol in our laboratory. Me-OA and Br-OA were synthesized according to a method described. Rats were supplemented with lithium chloride (12 mmol L-1 prior to experimentation in order to raise plasma lithium to allow measurements of lithium clearance and fractional excretion (FELi as indices of proximal tubular Na+ handling. Anaesthetized animals were continuously infused via the right jugular with 0.077M NaCl. MAP was measured via a cannula inserted in the carotid artery, and urine was collected through a cannula inserted in the bladder. After a 3.5 h equilibration, MAP, urine flow, electrolyte excretion rates were determined for 4 h of 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. OA, Me-OA and Br-OA were added to the infusate during the treatment period. We evaluated sub-chronic effects on MAP and kidney function in normotensive Wistar rats and in two animal models of hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS rats, during 9-week administration of OA (p.o.. Tissue oxidative status was examined in these animals at the end of the study. Increasing evidence suggests that and renal function disturbances and oxidative stress play major roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension.Acute infusion OA and oleanane derivatives displayed qualitatively similar effects in decreasing

  12. Animal experimental studies on the influence of flow restriction on thrombogenicity of the Palmaz stent via 111indium marked thrombocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this experimental study in dogs is to evaluate the influence of restricted flow on the thrombogenicity of balloon-expandable intravascular stents (Palmaz type). We implanted 24 Palmaz stents in the femoral artery of mongrel dogs. 12 dogs experienced a 75% flow restriction by means of an artificial stenosis distal to the start in the outflow tract. We used 111In labelled thrombocytes as a marker for thrombus detection within the stent. The results presented demonstrate that there is no considerable risk of thrombus formation if the stent is implanted into vessels with good outflow tracts and therefore high blood flow velocities within the stent. Under conditions of highly impaired flow, a 68% rate of stent occlusion occur if no anticoagulation therapy is performed. After i.v. administration of 100 IU/kg body weight of heparin the occlusion rade drops to zero. It can be concluded that even under low-flow conditions as a result of a restricted outflow tract situation the Palmaz stent can be implanted without any risk of stent occlusion as long a sufficient anticoagulation protocol is maintained. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of the growth dynamics of angiogenesis dependent and independent experimental glioblastomas by multimodal small animal PET and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypothesis of this study was that distinct experimental glioblastoma phenotypes resembling human disease can be noninvasively distinguished at various disease stages by imaging in vivo. Cultured spheroids from 2 human glioblastomas were implanted into the brains of nude rats. Glioblastoma growth dynamics were followed by PET using 18F-FDG, 11C-methyl-L-methionine (11C-MET), and 39-deoxy- 39-18F-fluoro-thymidine (18F-FLT) and by MRI at 3-6 wk after implantation. For image validation, parameters were co-registered with immunohistochemical analysis. Two tumor phenotypes (angiogenic and infiltrative) were obtained. The angiogenic phenotype showed high uptake of 11C-MET and 18F-FLT and relatively low uptake of 18F-FDG. 11C-MET was an early indicator of vessel remodeling and tumor proliferation. 18F-FLT uptake correlated to positive Ki67 staining at 6 wk. T1- and T2-weighted MR images displayed clear tumor delineation with strong gadolinium enhancement at 6 wk. The infiltrative phenotype did not accumulate 11C-MET and 18F-FLT and impaired the 18F-FDG uptake. In contrast, the Ki67 index showed a high proliferation rate. The extent of the infiltrative tumors could be observed by MRI but with low contrast. For angiogenic glioblastomas, noninvasive assessment of tumor activity corresponds well to immunohistochemical markers, and 11C-MET was more sensitive than 18F-FLT at detecting early tumor development. In contrast, infiltrative glioblastoma growth in the absence of blood-brain barrier breakdown is difficult to noninvasively follow by existing imaging techniques, and a negative 18F-FLT PET result does not exclude the presence of proliferating glioma tissue. The angiogenic model may serve as an advanced system to study imaging-guided anti-angiogenic and antiproliferative therapies. (authors)

  14. Flat-detector computed tomography evaluation in an experimental animal aneurysm model after endovascular treatment: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Sabine; Gölitz, Philipp; Adamek, Edyta; Royalty, Kevin; Doerfler, Arnd; Struffert, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    We compared flat-detector computed tomography angiography (FD-CTA) to multislice computed tomography (MS-CTA) and digital subtracted angiography (DSA) for the visualization of experimental aneurysms treated with stents, coils or a combination of both.In 20 rabbits, aneurysms were created using the rabbit elastase aneurysm model. Seven aneurysms were treated with coils, seven with coils and stents, and six with self-expandable stents alone. Imaging was performed by DSA, MS-CTA and FD-CTA immediately after treatment. Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) was performed and two experienced reviewers compared aneurysm/coil package size, aneurysm occlusion, stent diameters and artifacts for each modality.In aneurysms treated with stents alone, the visualization of the aneurysms was identical in all three imaging modalities. Residual aneurysm perfusion was present in two cases and visible in DSA and FD-CTA but not in MS-CTA. The diameter of coil-packages was overestimated in MS-CT by 56% and only by 16% in FD-CTA compared to DSA (p metal hardening artifacts impaired image quality more severely in MS-CTA compared to FD-CTA.MS-CTA is impaired by blooming and beam/metal hardening artifacts in the visualization of implanted devices. There was no significant difference between measurements made with noninvasive FD-CTA compared to gold standard of DSA after stenting and after coiling/stent-assisted coiling of aneurysms. FD-CTA may be considered as a non-invasive alternative to the gold standard 2D DSA in selected patients that require follow up imaging after stenting. PMID:26111985

  15. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  16. Cobalt Protoporphyrin Improves Heart Function by Attenuating Cardiac Beta-oxidation and Restoring Redox Balance in an Animal Model of Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaderG.Abraham

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial dysfunction and coronary macro/microvascular alterations are the hallmarks of diabetic cardiomyopathy and are ascribed to increased oxidative stress and altered nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity. We hypothesize that pretreatment by cobalt-protoporphyrin IX (CoPP ameliorates both myocardial function and coronary circulation in streptozotocin(STZ-induced diabetic rats. Isolated hearts from diabetic rats in Langendorff configuration displayed lower left ventricular (LV function and higher coronary resistance (CR compared to hearts from control animals. CoPP treatment of diabetic animals (0.3mg/100g body weight i.p., once a week for three weeks significantly increased all the contractile/relaxation indexes (p<0.01, while decreasing CR (p<0.01. CoPP enhanced HO-1 protein levels and reduced oxidative/nitrosative stress in diabetic animals, as indicated by the significant (p<0.05 decrease in heart GSSG/GSHtotal, O2-, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 3-nitrotyrosine levels. CoPP increased adiponectin levels and phosphorylation of AKT and AMPK and reversed the eNOS/iNOS expression imbalance observed in the untreated diabetic heart. Furthermore, after CoPP treatment, a rise in malonylCoA as well as a decrease in acetylCoA was observed in diabetic hearts. In this experimental model of diabetic cardiomyopathy, CoPP treatment improved both cardiac function and coronary flow by blunting oxidative/nitrosative stress, restoring eNOS/ iNOS expression balance and increasing HO-1 levels, thereby favoring improvement in both endothelial function and insulin sensitivity.

  17. [Animal experimental evidence of the long-lasting efficacy of etofenamate by prolongation of the half-life after intramuscular application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, H D; Brons, J; Fiedler, J; Kamp, R; Pelster, B

    1990-03-01

    Animal Experimental Evidence of Long-lasting Liberation of Etofenamate by Half-life Prolongation after Intramuscular Application. The purpose of this investigation was to show in animal experiments that by i.m. injection of etofenamate (active substance of Rheumon i.m.) in oily solution the following effects could be obtained: a fast onset of action (gain of therapeutically relevant drug levels shortly after injection) a long-lasting efficacy (prolonged liberation from the oil depot) and better tolerability as compared to other intramuscularly applicable antiinflammatory drugs (avoidance of high plasma spikes). Etofenamate in rats is liberated with a half-life of 1.29 days from the place of application (cutaneous half-life 8.5 h). Flufenamic acid in muscles is found only in traces. After i.m. administration of etofenamate to dogs maximum plasma levels of etofenamate and flufenamic acid were reached within 2 and 4 h, resp. The mean half-lives of plasma elimination are 14 h for etofenamate and 23.2 h for flufenamic acid formed esterolytically from etofenamate (flufenamic acid oral half-life 2-4 h). Maximum plasma levels after etofenamate are only 6.5-11.8% of the maximum levels after equivalent amounts of flufenamic acid administered orally. According to these data etofenamate i.m. is a drug formulation with fast increasing plasma levels, prolonged half-life and lower maximum plasma levels as compared to orally administered preparations. The results are confirmed in animals (pharmacodynamics, toxicology and tolerability) and man (kinetics, clinical studies). PMID:2346540

  18. Animal mortality resulting from uniform exposures to photon radiations: Calculated LD/sub 50/s and a compilation of experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Wells, S.M.; Young, R.W.

    1986-12-01

    Studies conducted during the 1950s and 1960s of radiation-induced mortality to diverse animal species under various exposure protocols were compiled into a mortality data base. Some 24 variables were extracted and recomputed from each of the published studies, which were collected from a variety of available sources, primarily journal articles. Two features of this compilation effort are (1) an attempt to give an estimate of the uniform dose received by the bone marrow in each treatment so that interspecies differences due to body size were minimized and (2) a recomputation of the LD/sub 50/ where sufficient experimental data are available. Exposure rates varied in magnitude from about 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup 3/ R/min. This report describes the data base, the sources of data, and the data-handling techniques; presents a bibliography of studies compiled; and tabulates data from each study. 103 refs., 44 tabs.

  19. 偏头痛实验动物模型的研究现状%The Current Research Situation of Experimental Animal Models of Migraine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁博博

    2011-01-01

    偏头痛是一种由体外触发和体内病理生理机制相互作用、伴有神经心理及胃肠症状、具有遗传性及复发性的头痛综合征.其发病机制至今尚未完全明了,动物模型基于三叉神经血管学说、皮层扩散抑制学说和血管学说等理论而建立.现从造模机制、特点、适用范围及效度等方面对目前常用的偏头痛动物模型的研究现状进行综述.%Migraine is a genetically related recurrent headache syndrome appearing with neuro-psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms, implicating interaction between external triggers and internal pathophysiology. Its pathogenesis is still not completely clarified, animal models are established on the basis of trigeminovascular theory,cortical spreading depression theory and neurovascular theory. Here is to review the current migraine experimental animal models from the perspectives of modeling mechanism, characteristics,scope and validity, etc.

  20. [Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, etofenamate, in experimental animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Motoyoshi, S; Imazu, C; Ishii, K; Yokoyama, Y; Seto, Y; Kadokawa, T; Shimizu, M

    1982-08-01

    Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities of orally administered etofenamate, the diethylene glycol ester of flufenamic acid, were investigated in experimental animals. Against acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice and ultra-violet light-induced erythema in guinea pigs, etofenamate produced a dose related inhibition at doses of 40--320 mg/kg and 5--20 mg/kg, respectively. In rats, felt-pellet-induced granuloma formation and adjuvant-induced arthritis were significantly inhibited by repeated administration of etofenamate at doses of 20 mg/kg/day for 5 days and 40 mg/kg/day for 21 days, respectively. Etofenamate showed an inhibitory activity on the squeak response caused by flexing and extending the silver nitrate-induced arthritic joint in rats; and it produced a dose related anti-writhing activity at doses of 50--300 mg/kg and 10--80 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Etofenamate showed a significant anti-pyretic activity at doses of 0.2 mg/kg or more. These potencies of etofenamate were 0.5 to 1.6 times those of flufenamic acid. In particular, the anti-erythema, anti-arthritis, and anti-pyretic activities of etofenamate were approximately equivalent to or superior to those of flufenamic acid. From these results, it was suggested that etofenamate given orally, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities in experimental animals. PMID:6983482

  1. The cultivation and responsibilities of experimental animal veterinarians under the drug GLP system%GLP体系下实验动物兽医的培养与职责研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昌华; 冷佳蔚; 祝清芬

    2016-01-01

    随着我国医药工业的迅猛发展,药物非临床研究(GLP)工作也得到了快速发展,同时带动了实验动物科学和动物试验的迅速发展,实验动物的需求量越来越大。熟悉并掌握实验动物的饲养管理,疾病的预防、诊断、治疗及动物伦理福利的实验动物兽医的需求量也越来越大。因此,实验动物兽医在药物安全性评价实验室的重要性逐渐突显出来。下面结合本中心在实验动物兽医培养等方面的心得,探讨一下药物非临床研究体系下实验动物兽医的培养及职责。%With the rapid development of Chinese pharmaceutical industry,pharmaceutical non - clinical research and the work(GLP)also got rapid development,at the same time it led to the rapid development of laboratory animal science and animal experiment,the growing demand of experimental animals. Be familiar with and master experimental animal breeding management,disease prevention,diagnosis,treatment and welfare of laboratory animal veterinarians animal ethics demand is also increasing significantly. Therefore,experimental animal veterinarians in drug safety evaluation gradually high-light the importance of the laboratory. Now combine this center in aspects such as experimental animal and veterinary train-ing experience,explore the drug GLP system functions and the cultivation of experimental animal veterinarian.

  2. Application of Voxel Phantoms to Study the Influence of Heterogeneous Distribution of Actinides in Lungs on In Vivo Counting Calibration Factors Using Animal Experimentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration of lung counting system dedicated to retention assessment of actinides in the lungs remains critical due to large uncertainties in calibration factors. Among them, the detector positioning, the chest wall thickness and composition (muscle/fat) assessment, and the distribution of the contamination are the main parameters influencing the detector response. In order to reduce these uncertainties, a numerical approach based on the application of voxel phantoms (numerical phantoms based on tomographic images, CT or MRI) associated to a Monte-Carlo code (namely M.C.N.P.) was developed. It led to the development of a dedicated tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., that allows to easily handle realistic voxel phantoms for the simulation of in vivo measurement (or dose calculation, application that will not be presented in this paper). The goal of this paper is to present our study of the influence of the lung distribution on calibration factors using both animal experimentations and our numerical method. Indeed, physical anthropomorphic phantoms used for calibration always consider a uniform distribution of the source in the lungs, which is not true in many contamination conditions. The purpose of the study is to compare the response of the measurement detectors using a real distribution of actinide particles in the lungs, obtained from animal experimentations, with the homogeneous one considered as the reference. This comparison was performed using O.E.D.I.P.E. that can almost simulate any source distribution. A non human primate was contaminated heterogeneously by intra-tracheal administration of actinide oxide. After euthanasia, gamma spectrometry measurements were performed on the pulmonary lobes to obtain the distribution of the contamination in the lungs. This realistic distribution was used to simulate an heterogeneous contamination in the numerical phantom of the non human primate, which was compared with a simulation of an homogeneous contamination presenting the

  3. Application of Voxel Phantoms to Study the Influence of Heterogeneous Distribution of Actinides in Lungs on In Vivo Counting Calibration Factors Using Animal Experimentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamart, S.; Pierrat, N.; De Carlan, L.; Franck, D. [IRSN/DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP 17, F-92 262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Dudoignon, N. [IRSN/DRPH/SRBE/LRPAT, BP 17, F-92 262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Rateau, S.; Van der Meeren, A.; Rouit, E. [CEA/DSV/DRR/SRCA/LRT BP no 12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Bottlaender, M. [CEA/SHFJ, 4, place du General Leclerc F-91400 Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Calibration of lung counting system dedicated to retention assessment of actinides in the lungs remains critical due to large uncertainties in calibration factors. Among them, the detector positioning, the chest wall thickness and composition (muscle/fat) assessment, and the distribution of the contamination are the main parameters influencing the detector response. In order to reduce these uncertainties, a numerical approach based on the application of voxel phantoms (numerical phantoms based on tomographic images, CT or MRI) associated to a Monte-Carlo code (namely M.C.N.P.) was developed. It led to the development of a dedicated tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., that allows to easily handle realistic voxel phantoms for the simulation of in vivo measurement (or dose calculation, application that will not be presented in this paper). The goal of this paper is to present our study of the influence of the lung distribution on calibration factors using both animal experimentations and our numerical method. Indeed, physical anthropomorphic phantoms used for calibration always consider a uniform distribution of the source in the lungs, which is not true in many contamination conditions. The purpose of the study is to compare the response of the measurement detectors using a real distribution of actinide particles in the lungs, obtained from animal experimentations, with the homogeneous one considered as the reference. This comparison was performed using O.E.D.I.P.E. that can almost simulate any source distribution. A non human primate was contaminated heterogeneously by intra-tracheal administration of actinide oxide. After euthanasia, gamma spectrometry measurements were performed on the pulmonary lobes to obtain the distribution of the contamination in the lungs. This realistic distribution was used to simulate an heterogeneous contamination in the numerical phantom of the non human primate, which was compared with a simulation of an homogeneous contamination presenting the

  4. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  5. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  6. Dynamic 11C-methionine PET analysis has an additional value for differentiating malignant tumors from granulomas: an experimental study using small animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated whether the dynamic profile of L-11C-methionine (11C-MET) may have an additional value in differentiating malignant tumors from granulomas in experimental rat models by small animal positron emission tomography (PET). Rhodococcus aurantiacus and allogenic rat C6 glioma cells were inoculated, respectively, into the right and left calf muscles to generate a rat model bearing both granulomas and tumors (n = 6). Ten days after the inoculations, dynamic 11C-MET PET was performed by small animal PET up to 120 min after injection of 11C-MET. The next day, after overnight fasting, the rats were injected with 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG), and dynamic 18F-FDG PET was performed up to 180 min. The time-activity curves, static images, and mean standardized uptake value (SUV) in the lesions were calculated. 11C-MET uptake in the granuloma showed a slow exponential clearance after an initial distribution, while the uptake in the tumor gradually increased with time. The dynamic pattern of 11C-MET uptake in the granuloma was significantly different from that in the tumor (p 11C-MET, visual assessment and SUV analysis could not differentiate the tumor from the granuloma in all cases, although the mean SUV in the granuloma (1.48 ± 0.09) was significantly lower than that in the tumor (1.72 ± 0.18, p 18F-FDG in the granuloma were similar to those in the tumor (p = NS). Dynamic 11C-MET PET has an additional value for differentiating malignant tumors from granulomatous lesions, which deserves further elucidation in clinical settings. (orig.)

  7. Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a substitute fuel for diesel engines was produced from inedible animal tallow and its usability was investigated as pure biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Tallow methyl ester as biodiesel fuel was prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification of the fat with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Fuel properties of methyl ester, diesel fuel and blends of them (5%, 20% and 50% by volume) were determined. Viscosity and density of fatty acid methyl ester have been found to meet ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications. Viscosity and density of tallow methyl esters are found to be very close to that of diesel. The calorific value of biodiesel is found to be slightly lower than that of diesel. An experimental study was carried out in order to investigate of its usability as alternative fuel of tallow methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine. It was observed that the addition of biodiesel to the diesel fuel decreases the effective efficiency of engine and increases the specific fuel consumption. This is due to the lower heating value of biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. However, the effective engine power was comparable by biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and smoke opacity were reduced around 15%, 38.5%, 72.7% and 56.8%, respectively, in case of tallow methyl esters (B100) compared to diesel fuel. Besides, the lowest CO, NOx emissions and the highest exhaust temperature were obtained for B20 among all other fuels. The reductions in exhaust emissions made tallow methyl esters and its blends, especially B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and thus could help in controlling air pollution. Based on this study, animal tallow methyl esters and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel can be used a substitute for diesel in direct injection diesel engines without any engine modification. (author)

  8. Dynamic {sup 11}C-methionine PET analysis has an additional value for differentiating malignant tumors from granulomas: an experimental study using small animal PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Songji; Zhao, Yan [Hokkaido University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Hokkaido University, Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji; Hatano, Toshiyuki [Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan); Yi, Min; Kohanawa, Masashi [Hokkaido University, Department of Advanced Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Magota, Keiichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Nishijima, Ken-ichi [Hokkaido University, Department of Molecular Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    We evaluated whether the dynamic profile of L-{sup 11}C-methionine ({sup 11}C-MET) may have an additional value in differentiating malignant tumors from granulomas in experimental rat models by small animal positron emission tomography (PET). Rhodococcus aurantiacus and allogenic rat C6 glioma cells were inoculated, respectively, into the right and left calf muscles to generate a rat model bearing both granulomas and tumors (n = 6). Ten days after the inoculations, dynamic {sup 11}C-MET PET was performed by small animal PET up to 120 min after injection of {sup 11}C-MET. The next day, after overnight fasting, the rats were injected with {sup 18}F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG), and dynamic {sup 18}F-FDG PET was performed up to 180 min. The time-activity curves, static images, and mean standardized uptake value (SUV) in the lesions were calculated. {sup 11}C-MET uptake in the granuloma showed a slow exponential clearance after an initial distribution, while the uptake in the tumor gradually increased with time. The dynamic pattern of {sup 11}C-MET uptake in the granuloma was significantly different from that in the tumor (p < 0.001). In the static analysis of {sup 11}C-MET, visual assessment and SUV analysis could not differentiate the tumor from the granuloma in all cases, although the mean SUV in the granuloma (1.48 {+-} 0.09) was significantly lower than that in the tumor (1.72 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.01). The dynamic patterns, static images, and mean SUVs of {sup 18}F-FDG in the granuloma were similar to those in the tumor (p = NS). Dynamic {sup 11}C-MET PET has an additional value for differentiating malignant tumors from granulomatous lesions, which deserves further elucidation in clinical settings. (orig.)

  9. Advance of Experimental Animal Models of Steroid-induced Osteonecrosis%激素性骨坏死动物模型研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱和玉

    2012-01-01

    Osteonecrosis( ON)or avascular necrosis is a common bone metabolic disorder,mostly affecting femoral head, called osteonecrosis femoral head( ONFH ). One of the most common risk factors for ONFH is use of corticosteroids. Although many biological,biophysical,and surgical methods have been tested to preserve the femoral head with ON, none has been proven fully satisfactory. A number of preclinical animal steroid-induced ON models have been established for testing potential efficacy of various modalities developed for prevention and treatment of steroid-induced ON before introduction into clinics for potential applications. Here is to make a review on a number of different methods for creating experimental animal models of steroid-induced ON.%骨坏死或缺血性坏死是一种常见的骨代谢疾病,可以发生在全身多个部位,临床上以股骨头坏死(ONFH)最为常见.随着激素性药物在临床上的广泛应用,糖皮质激素已成为造成非创伤性ONFH的主要原因之一.虽然可以通过许多生物学、生物物理学和手术方式进行ONFH的保头治疗,但结果都不能令人满意.在各种预防和治疗骨坏死的方法应用于临床之前,首先必须通过建立相关的动物模型更科学、准确地检验这些方法的有效性.现就目前国内外激素性骨坏死动物模型建模方法研究进展进行综述.

  10. Progress in the development of experimental animal models of HCV infection%HCV实验动物模型研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶万银; 张岩; 钟劲

    2012-01-01

    HCV是威胁人类健康的重要病原体之一,可在人体肝脏形成持续性感染,导致慢性肝炎、肝纤维化、肝硬化和肝癌.HCV的实验动物模型不仅是HCV免疫学、病理学和病毒学等基础科学的重要研究手段,还为HCV疫苗和药物的研发提供了关键的工具和平台.黑猩猩是除了人类以外唯一可以被HCV感染的灵长类动物,为HCV的研究做出了重要贡献,但其使用受到了成本及伦理上的限制.近年在利用树鼩和人源化小鼠建立HCV小动物模型的研究上取得良好的进展.本文将总结常用HCV实验动物模型的现状和挑战.%HCV is one of the major pathogens that pose threats to human public health. It can establish persistent infection in human liver, leading to chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The experimental animal models for HCV infection are not only important research means for investigating immunology, pathology and virology of HCV infection, but also serve as the means and platform for the development of HCV vaccines and novel agents. Chimpanzees, the sole primate except hu man beings who can be infected by HCV, have made significant contributions to HCV research. However, their application has been hampered due to their cost and ethical issues. A big progress has been made in developing small animal models for HCV research using tupaia and humanized mice in recent years. This review summarizes the current status and challenges of the development of HCV animal models.

  11. A proposal of multiplace hyperbaric chamber for animal experimentation and veterinary use Uma proposta de câmara hiperbárica para uso em animal de experimentação e uso veterinário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Valandro Rech

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop a project of hyperbaric chamber that allows its safe and reliable use in veterinary and animal experimentation. METHODS: Based on the technical specifications for the construction of hyperbaric chambers for human beings, it has been developed a design of a chamber with dimensions and characteristics for the use of a midsize animal, (dog or pig, as well as a multiple chamber for the use in small animals (mice, rats, hamsters, rabbits or cats. The technical specifications allowed that the chamber could be used both for veterinary use and for use in experiments on Health Sciences. RESULTS: A chamber with the following characteristics was built: ASTM A36 steel for the manufacture of the master cylinder and rear cover; front door built in 5052 aluminum; internal diameter of 50.5 cm and 83.0 cm in length; weight 160Kg and internal area of 150cm³; internal space to accommodate 2 acrylic baskets; 150mm high, 280mm wide and 690mm in length. It was capable of supporting a maximum of hydrostatic pressure test of 3.0 to 4.0 BAR ACT and maximum working pressure of 2.0 BAR or 3.0 ACT; equipped with security devices and valves that triggers with load of 2.2 BAR or 3.2 ACT. Tests for engineering and biological use on animals showed the effectiveness of the device. CONCLUSION: The development of the project enabled the construction of a hyperbaric chamber with security features and reliability comparable to those required by the legal and technical specifications of a hyperbaric chamber human use.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um projeto de câmara hiperbárica que permita o seu uso seguro e confiável em veterinária e em animais de experimentação de pequeno e médio porte. MÉTODOS: Baseados em especificações técnicas de construção de câmaras hiperbáricas de seres humanos, foi desenvolvido uma adaptação de projeto de uma câmara com dimensões e características para uso em animal de médio porte (cão ou porco, assim como câmara m

  12. Vitamin D Metabolism in Experimental Animals: Kinetics of Solanum glaucophyllum Active Principle in Cows and Assessment of Calcium, Phosphorus and Vitamin D3 Requirements in Broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990 our group began working on the development of a sensitive method to measure the active principle (1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D3-glycoside) of Solanum glaucophyllum, a plant which grows wild in Argentina and causes calcinosis in breeding cattle. A radioreceptor assay (RRA) was applied to measure the free vitamin D metabolite in the plasma of experimental cows that were fed the plant in order to study the kinetics of the active principle. The 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D concentration in plasma showed a 33-fold increase four h post treatment. Peak levels were recorded 12 h after dosing, decreased by half between 24-36 h and continued declining until 48 h. More recently, this plant has been proposed as a source of vitamin D activity (VDA) and thereby may contribute to improving Ca and P utilisation by animals and environmental care. The effects of different dietary levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) over the range between commercial recommendations (control) and two thirds of NRC requirements (basal) as well as different sources of those minerals were therefore studied in experiments covering either a part or the entire breeding cycle of broilers through measurements of productive, nutritional, skeletal and biochemical parameters. Results indicated that birds fed diets deficient in these minerals exhibited skeletal responses but nevertheless showed better productive responses than those fed control diets. The high levels of vitamin D3 employed in commercial farms (25 times NRC recommendations) could enable birds fed on deficient diets to increase synthesis of the active metabolite of the vitamin in order to partially overcome deficiencies in these minerals. On the other hand, such high levels of vitamin D3 might have been unbalanced for optimal efficiency, at least under the experimental farm conditions of the present work. (author)

  13. Experimental animal models in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%注意缺陷多动障碍的实验动物模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小兰; 陈燕惠

    2015-01-01

    目的 以国内外2000~2014年发表的关于注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)动物模型的文献,综述几种常见ADHD动物模型的优缺点,为今后研究ADHD的发病机制提供新思路.方法 2015年1月在中国知网、万方数据库、OVID、Pubmed等数据库,利用“注意缺陷多动障碍”“动物模型”等做检索词,分析国内外研究ADHD发病机制所使用的实验动物模型,每种实验动物模型的优缺点和研究价值.结果 文献纳入分析29篇,结果显示目前常用的ADHD实验动物模型有自发性高血压大鼠、多巴胺转运体基因敲除小鼠、缺失突变小鼠模型等遗传学模型,新生期六羟多巴胺损害的幼年大鼠模型、新生期大鼠缺氧模型、X线照射损伤大鼠海马模型等脑组织损伤模型和隔离饲养模型,每种动物模型都有研究ADHD发病机制的优缺点和特殊的研究价值.结论 本文系统评价了国内外研究比较常见的几种ADHD动物模型的特点,自发性高血压大鼠神经内分泌改变与ADHD儿童有一定程度的一致性,针对HPA轴深入探讨,寻找ADHD儿童与SHR动物模型在神经内分泌方面的一致性,有可能为研究ADHD发病机制开辟一条新路径.%Objective To review the advantages and disadvantages of common attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) animal models,published in 2000-2014 at home and abroad,with an attempt to provide new ideas for the future study of the pathogenesis in ADHD.Methods Major online database including CNKI,Wan Fang databases,OVID,Pubmed databases were searched in January 2015,using the key words " attention deficit hyperactivity disorder"," animal models " and so on,to analysis the advantages and disadvantages of each type of experimental animal models and research value in ADHD.Results Totally 29 studies were enrolled,and the analysis show that the current commonly used experimental animal models of ADHD are spontaneously

  14. Quantitative analysis of very small quantity of organs taken from patients and experimental animals. Standard-free method for organ samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A standard-free method for small lymph node and spleen samples taken from rats, and lymph node, esophagus, colon etc. taken from real patients has been developed in order to take measure to meet increasing demands for quantitative analyses of small amount of organs. It becomes possible to quantitatively analyze organ samples of less than 1 mg collected from small experimental animals and also from patients by biopsy, and accuracy and sensitivity of the method were examined by comparing the results with those obtained by a powdered-internal-standard method and a chemical-ashing method. It is found that the method is quite effective for estimating therapeutic effect of CDDP (Cisplatin) since it allows us to quantitatively evaluate uptake of CDDP into organs by analyzing small quantity of samples taken from actual patients by biopsy. It is expected that the method will become a powerful tool for studies not only in fundamental and clinical medicines but also on practical diagnosis and treatment. (author)

  15. La evaluación del dolor experimental en el laboratorio: los modelos de dolor neuropático en animales Evaluation of experimental pain in the laboratory: models of neuropathic pain in animal's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Baños

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pese a los avances realizados en los últimos años, el dolor neuropático constituye aún un serio problema asistencial. Los tratamientos disponibles sólo permiten aliviar adecuadamente un tercio de los pacientes. Los modelos experimentales pueden contribuir a conocer la fisiopatología de este cuadro clínico, así como a probar nuevos fármacos. Existen básicamente dos tipos de modelos, aquellos que realizan una lesión en el nervio periférico y los que causan alteraciones en el sistema nervioso central. A pesar de sus limitaciones, los modelos animales pueden contribuir a avanzar en el conocimiento de este síndrome y algunos de ellos pueden ayudar a predecir la utilidad terapéutica de nuevos medicamentos. Obviamente, sólo los ensayos clínicos bien diseñados permitirán conocer su eficacia real en el ámbito clínico.In spite of the advancement of pain research in the last decade, the therapy of neuropathic pain is still an unresolved issue. Available treatments only adequately improve only a third of patients. Experimental models may contribute to the knowledge of its pathophysiology, as well as to the development of new drugs. Basically, two types of animal models are available: those that cause a lesion in the peripheral nerves and those that injury the central nervous system. Beyond these limitations, animal models may help to improve the knowledge of neuropathic pain and some of them have predictive value on the usefulness of analgesic efficacy of new drugs. Obviously, only well-designed, controlled clinical trials will permit to establish their actual efficacy in the clinical setting.

  16. Amazing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  17. Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, 72060 Batman (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    In this study, a substitute fuel for diesel engines was produced from inedible animal tallow and its usability was investigated as pure biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Tallow methyl ester as biodiesel fuel was prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification of the fat with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Fuel properties of methyl ester, diesel fuel and blends of them (5%, 20% and 50% by volume) were determined. Viscosity and density of fatty acid methyl ester have been found to meet ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications. Viscosity and density of tallow methyl esters are found to be very close to that of diesel. The calorific value of biodiesel is found to be slightly lower than that of diesel. An experimental study was carried out in order to investigate of its usability as alternative fuel of tallow methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine. It was observed that the addition of biodiesel to the diesel fuel decreases the effective efficiency of engine and increases the specific fuel consumption. This is due to the lower heating value of biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. However, the effective engine power was comparable by biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and smoke opacity were reduced around 15%, 38.5%, 72.7% and 56.8%, respectively, in case of tallow methyl esters (B100) compared to diesel fuel. Besides, the lowest CO, NO{sub x} emissions and the highest exhaust temperature were obtained for B20 among all other fuels. The reductions in exhaust emissions made tallow methyl esters and its blends, especially B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and thus could help in controlling air pollution. Based on this study, animal tallow methyl esters and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel can be used a substitute for diesel in direct injection diesel engines without any engine modification. (author)

  18. Single Prophylactic Dose Of Dexamethasone Antiemetic Versus Ondansteron In Patients Undergoing Middle Ear Surgery: A Comparative Clinical And Experimental Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Taha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in which 150 ASA I-II patients scheduled for middle ear surgery were randomized into three equal groups. The dexamethasone group (group D received a single dose of dexamethasone 10 mg IV at induction of anesthesia, ondansetron group (group O received 4 mg IV ondansetron and the control group (group C received 5 ml saline IV as placebo by the same technique. The study demonstrated that the incidence of early postoperative nausea, retching and vomiting (PONV was significantly greater in the placebo group than the dexamethasone group (P 0.05. More over, the severity of late PONV (6-24h was markedly less in the dexamethasone group than the ondansetron group (P< 0.05 and still the incidence of late PONV was markedly less in both dexamethasone and ondansetron groups than the control group (P< 0.001. The study also reported that postoperative analgesic requirement was notably lower in the dexamethasone group than the ondansetron and control groups. An experimental animal study was also done to assess the extrapyramidal reaction associated with the use of both dexamethasone and ondansetron. Increasing doses of both drugs were given IV to the rats, up to 5 times the therapeutic dose of each drug. The rats then stimulated for 24h after injection by light, sound and 6 volt electric current in the Rat Conditioning Chamber. No one rat developed akathisa or acute dystonic reaction. In conclusion, dexamethasone and ondansetron were quite effective and have limited side-effects profile when given as single prophylactic antiemetic doses in patients undergoing middle ear surgery. The advantages of dexamethasone over ondansetron were its prolonged antiemetic effect, its analgesic effect and the lower cost.

  19. Tyrosinemia produced by 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC) in experimental animals and its relationship to corneal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC) is a potent inhibitor of rat liver 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) leading to tyrosinemia and corneal opacity. We examined the effect of NTBC on the extent of tyrosinemia and production of corneal lesions in the beagle dog, rabbit and rhesus monkey, as part of safety evaluation on this drug. A single oral dose of 10 mg NTBC/kg to beagle dogs or rabbits increased the concentration of tyrosine in plasma and aqueous humour of the eye, the tyrosinemia being both time- and dose-dependent. Hepatic HPPD was markedly inhibited with little effect on the activity of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and homogentisic acid oxidase at the time of peak plasma tyrosine. Daily oral administration of NTBC to beagle dogs at 0.1, 0.5, 1.5 and 5 mg/kg/day produced corneal opacities with an incidence of 34% following 11 weeks of dosing, which reversed upon withdrawal of the drug. Tyrosine in plasma and aqueous humour was increased at all dose levels, 18 weeks after dosing. In contrast, daily oral administration of NTBC to rabbits for 6 weeks and rhesus monkeys for 12 weeks at 10 mg/kg/day produced no evidence of corneal opacities although tyrosine values were markedly increased. Our studies have shown that NTBC is a potent inhibitor of rabbit, beagle dog and by inference rhesus monkey liver HPPD producing a marked tyrosinemia in all species studied, while only beagle dogs show corneal lesions. The production of corneal lesions in experimental animals exposed to NTBC does not appear to be simply related to the concentration of tyrosine in ocular fluid, other as yet unidentified factors appear to be necessary to trigger tissue injury

  20. Evaluating the efficacy of rBmHATαc as a multivalent vaccine against lymphatic filariasis in experimental animals and optimizing the adjuvant formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Developing an effective vaccine against lymphatic filariasis will complement the WHO's effort to eradicate the infection from endemic areas. Currently 83 different countries are endemic for this infection and over 1 billion people are at risk. An effective vaccine coupled with mass drug administration will reduce the morbidity and social stigma associated with this gruesome disease. Several potential vaccine candidates that can confer partial protection in experimental animals have been reported from different laboratories. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available for this disease. Among the several vaccine antigens identified from our laboratory, three most promising antigens; rBmHSPαc (α crystalline domain and c-terminal extension of Heat Shock Protein 12.6), rBmALT-2 (Abundant larval transcript) and rBmTSP LEL (Tetraspanin large extracellular loop) was further developed as a recombinant fusion protein vaccine (rBmHATαc). In a mouse model this fusion protein vaccine gave close to 68% protection following a challenge infection. To improve the vaccine efficiency of rBmHATαc, in this study we evaluated various preparations of alum (AL007, AL019, Alhydrogel and Imject® Alum) as adjuvants. Our results show that mice immunized with rBmHATαc formulated in AL007 (alum from IDRI) and/or AL019 (alum plus TLR-4 agonist from IDRI) gave the highest IgG antibody titer compared to other groups. Subsequent in vivo challenge experiments confirmed that >95% protection can be achieved when AL007 or AL019 was used as the adjuvant. However, when Imject® Alum or alhydrogel was used as the adjuvant only 76% and 72% protection respectively could be achieved. These results show that AL007 or AL019 (IDRI) is an excellent choice of adjuvant for the rBmHATαc vaccine against B. malayi L3 in mice. PMID:24211167

  1. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Shimamura; Nobuo Kubota; Kazutoshi Shibuya

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the presen...

  2. Changes in immune system of experimental animals resulting from constant irradiation of several generations in alienation zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of the immune system on the constant exposure to the radiation of the Chernobyl discharge during the life of several generations of laboratory animals. It has been shown that the exposed animals (irrespective of the line, generation and sex) differ considerably from the controls both in definite immune characteristics (30-70% of the studied parameters) and in sensitivity to grippe virus

  3. Reflection on Ethical Issues of Experimental Animals in Scientific Research in China%对我国科学研究中实验动物伦理问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 喻婷; 刘武; 童伟文; 鲜巧阳

    2014-01-01

    实验动物为当今世界生命科学、生物技术、食品医药、畜牧兽医等研究领域突飞猛进的发展作出了巨大的贡献,随着科技的飞跃发展,动物伦理和福利问题受到了世界各国的普遍关注。文章对动物伦理的基本内涵、我国实验动物伦理和福利发展现状进行了详细地分析,提出加强制度保障和贯彻落实“3R”原则的措施。%Experimental animals have made tremendous contributions to the rapid development of life sciences, biotechnology, food, pharmaceuticals, animal husbandry and veterinary areas in today's world. With the rapid development of science and technology, animal ethics and welfare issues have been widely concerned around the world. In this paper, we made a detailed analysis on the basic content of animal ethics and the development status of experimental animal and welfare in China. Furthermore, measures were proposed such as strengthening system security and carrying out"3R"principle.

  4. 对我国科学研究中实验动物伦理问题的思考%Reflection on Ethical Issues of Experimental Animals in Scientific Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 喻婷; 刘武; 童伟文; 鲜巧阳

    2014-01-01

    Experimental animals have made tremendous contributions to the rapid development of life sciences, biotechnology, food, pharmaceuticals, animal husbandry and veterinary areas in today's world. With the rapid development of science and technology, animal ethics and welfare issues have been widely concerned around the world. In this paper, we made a detailed analysis on the basic content of animal ethics and the development status of experimental animal and welfare in China. Furthermore, measures were proposed such as strengthening system security and carrying out"3R"principle.%实验动物为当今世界生命科学、生物技术、食品医药、畜牧兽医等研究领域突飞猛进的发展作出了巨大的贡献,随着科技的飞跃发展,动物伦理和福利问题受到了世界各国的普遍关注。文章对动物伦理的基本内涵、我国实验动物伦理和福利发展现状进行了详细地分析,提出加强制度保障和贯彻落实“3R”原则的措施。

  5. Uso de animales de experimentación en la investigación biomédica en Costa Rica Using Experimental Animal in Biomedical Research in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Granados-Zúñiga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El progreso en la investigación médica y biológica ha dependido en gran medida del uso de animales experimentales Dada la importancia que históricamente han tenido los animales como reactivos biológicos en la investigación biomédica se consolidó la ciencia del animal de experimentación. Ésta persigue la obtención de animales biológicamente estandarizados mediante la selección colectiva de características anatómicas, fisiológicas, ecológicas y sanitarias.The progress in medical and biological research has relied heavily on the use of experimental animals. Given the importance animals have had historically as biological reagents, the science of experimental animals was created and is consolidated in biomedical research. It seeks to obtain biologically standardized animals by selecting their collective anatomical, physiological, ecological and health characteristics.

  6. Veterinary Students and Identity Construction : The Role of Power, Ethics and Animal Experimentation among Students at the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Different ideas exist on how human beings relate to non-human animals, and on how we make room for other creatures in ‘our’ world. In view of the frequent disparity that exist between people’s attitudes to animal welfare and their actual pattern of behaviour, it is of particular interest in the present thesis to explore the relationships and the attitudes to animals that are being shaped throughout the education of veterinary students at the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science (NVH). Veter...

  7. EFFECTS OF NATURAL ORIFICE SECRETIONS IN PERITONEAL CAVITY IN THE BACKGROUND OF NATURAL ORIFICE TRANSLUMINAL ENDOSCOPIC SURGERY (NOTES AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES is a new form of minimally invasive surgery which eliminates traditional skin incisions by accessing internal body cavities through natural orifices. In our experimental animal study, we compared the incidences intraperitoneal abscess formation , culture swab of peritoneal cavity positive for organism, intraperitoneal adhesion formation and mean adhesion score before and after lavaging the portal of entry of albino rat , i.e. transgastric and transvaginal. On vaginal route as a portal of entry into peritoneal cavity , on the 7th day , 66% rats developed abscesses , 88% rats had culture swab positive and 88% rats developed intraperitoneal adhesion (grade - 2 before any cleansing of vaginal cavity with antiseptic solution . Now after lavage with povidone iodine solution, only 11% developed abscesses , 22% were peritoneal swab culture positive and 33% had interbowel and parietal adhesion of (grade 0 - 1. On 21 st day , the complication observed was adhesion formation in pre lavage group of 66% incidence and 16% after vaginal lavage. The incidence of complications were reduced significantly after lavage with antiseptic solution as shown by p values (p<0.01 for abscess formation, p< 0.01 for culture positivity and p< 0.01 for adhesions formation. Also the mean adhesion scoring was significantly reduced (p <0.02 after vaginal lavage on the 7 th day. Gastric route as the portal of entry into the peritoneal cavity, again the same variables were compared on the 7th and the 21st day , but wash was given with antibiotic solution (Cefazolin. On the 7th day , 44% had abscesses, 77% were culture positive and 66% had adhesions (Grade 1 - 2 before gastric lavage with antibiotic solution . After wash of stomach, 11% were culture positive and 44% developed adhesions (Grade 0 - 1. Here, abscess formation (p<0.02 and mean adhesion scoring (p<0.05 were significantly reduced after stomach wash. On the 21st day

  8. Ethical aspects of biomedical animal experimentation Aspectos éticos de la experimentación biomédica en animales

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, John J.

    1991-01-01

    This article analyzes the ethical aspects of our relationship with animals specially as it concerns their use for biomedical research. A historical view on the subject is given and the opinions of the vivisectionists and antivivisectionists are discussed. Alternatives for the use of animals in biomedical research and toxicity testing are presented. A .complete bibliography is Included for those who want to furth...

  9. Summation of subthreshold impulses in case of separate and combined effects of cadmium and immobilization stress, considering typology of behavior of experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorenko Yu.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study dynamics of changes of summation-threshold index under the combined impact of cadmium and immobilization of animals depending on the typological characteristics of animal behavior. The studies were conducted on white rats, previously divided into groups of active and passive ones by terms of "horizontal activity" in the test "open field". In each group the experiments were planned according to the scheme of orthogonal design 22. Summation-threshold index was studied by Speransky S.V. method. It was found that the summation-threshold index increases on the day 10 of experiments under the action of a cadmium only in groups of "active" and "passive" animals; this testifies to inhibition processes in the CNS. The effect of cadmium, immobilization and their combined action on day 30 of experiments leads to the reduction in the of studying parameter in both groups of animals; this testifies to excitation of the CNS. The active animals are more susceptible to immobilization stress, the passive ones - to the action of cadmium. The combined action of stress factors on day 10 is characterized by desensitization, on day 30 – by unidirectional interdependent action and less than by additive effect. The processes of inhibition and excitation in the central nervous system depend on type of animal behavior, type and duration of exposure to the stress factor. The results may be taken into account when assessing adaptation process, correction, and adaptation depending on the type of behavior.

  10. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Mitchell M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an...

  11. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  12. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  13. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  14. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  15. Animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  16. Quadruped Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Skrba, Ljiljana; Reveret, Lionel; Hétroy, Franck; Cani, Marie-Paule; O'Sullivan, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation of realistic animals in the computer graphics area. In...

  17. Thin Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, D.

    1998-01-01

    Lattice animals provide a discretized model for the theta transition displayed by branched polymers in solvent. Exact graph enumeration studies have given some indications that the phase diagram of such lattice animals may contain two collapsed phases as well as an extended phase. This has not been confirmed by studies using other means. We use the exact correspondence between the q --> 1 limit of an extended Potts model and lattice animals to investigate the phase diagram of lattice animals ...

  18. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  19. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  20. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  1. 99mTc human IgG radiolabelled by HYNIC. Biodistribution and scintigraphy of experimentally induced inflammatory lesions in animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our goal was the efficient labelling of highly purified human gammaglobulin. This radioactive protein fraction can be used as a basic compound of radiopharmaceutical formulation for inflammation lesion diagnosis. This application was experimentally illustrated in animal models with artificially induced inflammatory lesions after turpentine oil injection into mouse leg muscle. Hydrazine nicotinamine derivative of human gammaglobulin (IgG-HYNIC) was synthesized according to Abrams method. The radionuclide: technetium 99mTc has been introduced into protein molecules by indirect method incorporation in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, in the presence of stannous chloride as a reducing agent for sodium pertechnetate, and EDTA as a coligand. Radiochemical purity was estimated by thin layer chromatography. The stability of labelled IgG-HYNIC derivative in human serum in presence of copper, cobalt, iron and manganese salts was analyzed by HPLC method (BioSEP SEC 4000, eluent: 0.1mol/L phosphate). Inflammation lesions were induced in Balb/3 mice muscles by injection of 0.2 ml turpentine oil into the leg muscle. Five days later, inflammation lesions were visualized by hIgG-HYNIC- 99mTc injections. The tracer accumulation in tissue was evaluated by gamma camera at 1 to 24 hour intervals. Efficiency of technetium 99mTc human gammaglobulin labelling (pH 7.4, temp. 37oC) was strictly dependant on ligand and coligand presence in the reaction mixture. Labelling of IgG molecules without any supplements resulted in very low efficiency, never exceeding the range of 5%. Presence of EDTA or hydrazine nicotinamide (HYNIC) conjugated with IgG increased radiolabelling efficiency to 50%. IgG-HYNIC derivative in EDTA presence enables us to reach value above 95% radiochemical purity. Stability of IgG-HYNIC derivative labelled with technetium 99mTc decreased rapidly in serum in time - up to 70% of initial value in 30 minutes and only 20% during further 4 hr incubation. This means that as much as 80

  2. Improvement on the animal model of local irradiation for experimental tumors%实验肿瘤局部照射动物模型的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玉军; 徐文清; 刘晓秋; 周则卫; 龙伟; 张晓东; 王浩; 洪阁; 韩英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To improve the reliability of experimental outcome in radio-sensitive drug research by improving the animal model of locally irradiated tumor.Methods Liver cancer cells H22 were implanted into legs and insteps subcutaneously in mice,respectively,and made them grow into solid tumors.Then the tumors were treated with the γ ray of 137Cs at the dosage of 5 Gy.Measured length,width and height of tumors once per day,and calculated volume of tumors,observed for 24 days.Results Volume and weight of the irradiated tumor inoculated into legs were no obvious difference (t=0.55、0.70,both P>0.05).But volume and weight of the irradiated tumors inoculated subcutaneously into insteps of the tested mice were obviously lower than that of control mice (t=2.25,P<0.05 in volume; t=3.14,P<0.01 in weight).Conclusion The insteps subcutaneous approach of tumors in mice is a more simple,convenient and practicable operation,and will make the testing result more accurate and reliabe.%目的 对局部照射肿瘤实验动物模型进行改进以提高肿瘤放疗增敏药物增敏实验结果的可靠性.方法 分别在小鼠腿上皮下(传统方法)和小鼠脚背皮下(改进方法)接种肝癌H22细胞,使其生长成实体瘤;用5 Gy γ射线照射肿瘤后,每隔1d测量肿瘤的长、宽、高并计算肿瘤体积,连续观察24 d.结果 将肿瘤接种于小鼠腿上皮下时,照射组的肿瘤体积和质量与对照组之间的差异无统计学意义(t=0.55、0.70,P均>0.05);而将肿瘤接种于脚背皮下时,照射组的肿瘤体积和质量均明显低于对照组(t=2.25,P<0.05; t=3.14,P<0.01).结论 肿瘤接种于小鼠脚背皮下的方法,操作简单、方便、易行且实验结果准确、可靠.

  3. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in science (as in any other human use that is not also in the animals’ best interest). These views are not compatible, and since all three views in more or less pure form are found in modern Western societies, use of animals for research is bound to cause controversy. However, there may be room for some kind......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  4. Low-calorie sweetener use and energy balance: Results from experimental studies in animals, and large-scale prospective studies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Sharon P G

    2016-10-01

    For more than a decade, pioneering animal studies conducted by investigators at Purdue University have provided evidence to support a central thesis: that the uncoupling of sweet taste and caloric intake by low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) can disrupt an animal's ability to predict the metabolic consequences of sweet taste, and thereby impair the animal's ability to respond appropriately to sweet-tasting foods. These investigators' work has been replicated and extended internationally. There now exists a body of evidence, from a number of investigators, that animals chronically exposed to any of a range of LCSs - including saccharin, sucralose, acesulfame potassium, aspartame, or the combination of erythritol+aspartame - have exhibited one or more of the following conditions: increased food consumption, lower post-prandial thermogenesis, increased weight gain, greater percent body fat, decreased GLP-1 release during glucose tolerance testing, and significantly greater fasting glucose, glucose area under the curve during glucose tolerance testing, and hyperinsulinemia, compared with animals exposed to plain water or - in many cases - even to calorically-sweetened foods or liquids. Adverse impacts of LCS have appeared diminished in animals on dietary restriction, but were pronounced among males, animals genetically predisposed to obesity, and animals with diet-induced obesity. Impacts have been especially striking in animals on high-energy diets: diets high in fats and sugars, and diets which resemble a highly-processed 'Western' diet, including trans-fatty acids and monosodium glutamate. These studies have offered both support for, and biologically plausible mechanisms to explain, the results from a series of large-scale, long-term prospective observational studies conducted in humans, in which longitudinal increases in weight, abdominal adiposity, and incidence of overweight and obesity have been observed among study participants who reported using diet sodas and other

  5. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  6. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  7. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  8. A novel isotonic balanced electrolyte solution with 1% glucose for perioperative fluid management in children- an animal experimental pre- authorisation study Running title: A novel balanced electrolyte solution

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Lars; Osthaus, Wilhelm Alexander; Buente, Christoph; Teich, Natascha; Hermann, Elvis; Kaske, Martin; Koppert, Wolfgang; Sümpelmann, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: The recommendations for perioperative maintenance fluid in children have been adapted from hypotonic to isotonic electrolyte solutions with lower glucose concentrations (1-2.5% instead of 5%) in order to avoid hyponatraemia or hyperglycaemia. Objective: The objective of this prospective animal study was to determine the margin of safety of a novel isotonic balanced electrolyte solution with 1% glucose (BS-G1) in comparison to normal saline with 1% glucose (N...

  9. Efficacy and safety of damage control in experimental animal models of injury: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cosic, Nela; Roberts, Derek J; Henry T Stelfox

    2014-01-01

    Background Although abbreviated surgery with planned reoperation (damage control surgery) is now widely used to manage major trauma patients, the procedure and its component interventions have not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While some have suggested the need for such trials, they are unlikely to be conducted because of patient safety concerns. As animal studies may overcome several of the limitations of existing observational damage control studies, the primary obj...

  10. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Staczek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  11. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  12. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  13. 丙型肝炎病毒感染实验动物模型的研究进展%Advances in research on experimental animal models of HCV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晨晨; 彭宗根

    2014-01-01

    丙型肝炎病毒( HCV)感染是导致人类慢性病毒性肝炎、肝硬化和肝癌的最主要病因之一。由于缺乏合适的HCV感染实验动物模型,使得针对HCV感染更为有效的疗法及疫苗的研发滞后。黑猩猩是HCV感染研究的最佳实验动物,但由于其来源有限、价格昂贵及临床症状等诸多问题,其应用受限,因此发展新的实验动物模型用于HCV感染相关的基础和应用研究迫在眉睫。近年来,以啮齿类等动物为替代模型取得了不少进展,应用转基因等实验技术使替代动物感染了HCV,并成功应用于多个学科领域的研究。本文分析了 HCV自然感染的实验动物、自然感染和非自然感染的替代实验动物在致病机制研究、药物评价和疫苗研发应用中的优缺点及未来研究趋势。%Hepatitis C virus ( HCV) is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcino-ma in humans.Due to the lack of suitable experimental animal models for HCV infection, the development of more effective treatment of HCV infection and vaccines has been delayed.Chimpanzee is the best experimental animal model for the re-search of hepatitis C virus ( HCV) infection.However, because of its limited in resource, expensive in breeding, and difference in clinical symptoms, thus developing new experimental animal models for HCV-related basic and applied re-search is imminent.In recent years, as a surrogate animal model, the development of rodent model and other models has been achieved a lot of progress.Using such as genetically modified experimental techniques, those surrogate animals were infected with HCV in vivo and were successfully applied to research in several areas.In this review, we will focus on the a-chieved progress in naturally infected animal model and transgenic surrogate experimental models, and their advantage and limitation in usage in study on the pathogenetic mechanism of infection, drug

  14. Minimaly Invasive Surgery and the Ethics of Animal Experimentation%微创外科与动物实验伦理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华

    2012-01-01

    Many animal experiments need surgical technics, which could influence animal' s tissue structure and function,and induce pathophysiology changes interfering the research aim,such as inflamation,hemorrhage,injury and pain,etc. These changes not only interfere the research results,but also cause ethics issues. Minimaly invasive surgery is one of the most rapidly innovated trend in biomedical fields. It markedly reduces the side effects of surgery. This article reviews the development of the minimaly invasive surgery, hope to promote its use in animal experiment, and improve the ethics issues.%在动物实验中经常需要外科操作,这些操作必然会对动物的正常组织结构、生理功能产生影响,波及其它非靶器官造成非目的效应,如炎性反应、出血、创伤、疼痛等,这些反应既会干扰动物实验结果,同时也引起动物伦理问题.微创外科是当今医学领域发展最快的学科方向之一,采用微创技术大大地降低了外科操作的创伤反应.本文简要介绍微创医学的新进展,以期促进该技术在动物实验研究中的应用,推动动物实验福利伦理问题的改善.

  15. The preliminary study of Ultraviolet-Irradiated and Oxygenated Blood Transfusion Therapy(UOBT) for Experimental Cerebral Infarction of Animal Brain Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Xiu-Chu; Feng You-Qi; Zhou gang; Wu jun-yi

    2000-01-01

    In this presented study, we have developed a photochemical model of cerebral in farction in rabbit with stable and reproducible infarct size and extent. This model is similar to the pathological changes in human cerebral infarction. Using this model, therapeutic effects and mechanisms of UOBT on brain ischemic injury were invetigated in rabbits following the photochemical infarcnon The results showed that UOBT could significantly reduce the mtarcted size, and improve the cerebral blood flow compared with the control animals treated with non-u-radiated ad non-oxygenated blood transfusion. These data suggest that the UOBT may have a therapeutic potential for clinical rehabilitation effect in stroke treatment

  16. Application of Ozone in Experimental Animal Lab Equipped with IVC%臭氧在IVC实验动物环境中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜骊; 李善诚; 鱼达

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of disinfection using an ozone generator in the animal lab equipped with individual ventilated cages (IVC).Method Use ozone testing tube to test the ozone concentration in the animal lab and the working IVC,observe health condition,biochemical index,histology changes of the windpipe and lungs in rats.Result The low,medium and high filters on the IVC cage have a certain barrier function to prevent ozone,and can reduce 80% of ozone.Under no special protection,the rats have a high resistance to the ozone.In the 35 m3 IVC animal lab,using an ozone generator with 3 g/h ozone production for 35 minutes exposure,there are no detectable physiological and pathological changes.Conclusion Ozone generator can be used for environment disinfection in IVC animal laboratory.%目的 探讨独立通风系统(IVC)动物实验室内使用臭氧发生器消毒的可行性.方法 使用臭氧检测管测定实验室内的和运行中的IVC内的臭氧浓度,观察大鼠的健康状况、生化指标、气管和肺的组织病理学状况.结果 发现IVC笼盒的低、中、高3级过滤器,对臭氧有一定的屏障作用,可以减少80%.大鼠在无特殊保护的情况下,对臭氧的耐受能力较高,在面积为35 m3的IVC动物实验室内,对采用臭氧发生量3 g/h的设备开启35 min, 没有检测到大鼠生理和病理的变化.结论 臭氧发生器能够用于IVC动物实验室的环境消毒.

  17. [Design of experimental approaches on the base of standard proteins for testing blood biopreparations and immunoperoxidase conjugates specific to human and animal immunoglobulines G].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, A K; Barmin, A V; Kuznetsov, A I; Nesterova, O Iu; Ushnurtseva, S A; Panin, A N; Smolenskiĭ, V I; Ulasov, V I; Sviderskiĭ, V L; Khovanskikh, A E

    2009-01-01

    Using standard forms of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and albumin, we have studied electrophoretic and chromatographic profiles of samples of pharmaceutical blood biopreparation batches. The usability of standard proteins was also demonstrated by testing analytical characteristics of immunoperoxidase conjugates specific to human and animal IgG (anti-IgG IPC). In particular, we suggest an additional estimation of analytical characteristics of anti-IgG IPC by the enzyme reaction kinetics with the standard dilution which is calculated by the direct enzyme-liked immunoassay on the homologous IgG-antigen. PMID:19764621

  18. Safety assessment and feeding value for pigs, poultry and ruminant animals of pest protected (Bt plants and herbicide tolerant (glyphosate, glufosinate plants: interpretation of experimental results observed worldwide on GM plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Aumaitre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New varieties of plants resistant to pests and/or tolerant to specific herbicides such as maize, soybean, cotton, sugarbeets, canola, have been recently developed by using genetic transformation (GT. These plants contain detectable specificactive recombinant DNA (rDNA and their derived protein. Since they have not been selected for a modification oftheir chemical composition, they can be considered as substantially equivalent to their parents or to commercial varietiesfor their content in nutrients and anti-nutritional factors. However, insect protected maize is less contaminated by mycotoxinsthan its parental counterpart conferring a higher degree of safety to animal feeds. The new feeds, grain and derivatives,and whole plants have been intensively tested in vivo up to 216 days for their safety and their nutritional equivalencefor monogastric farm animals (pig, poultry and ruminants (dairy cows, steers, lambs. The present article is basedon the interpretation and the summary of the scientific results published in original reviewed journals either as full papers(33 or as abstracts (33 available through September 2003. For the duration of the experiments adapted to the species,feed intake, weight gain, milk yield and nutritional equivalence expressed as feed conversion and/or digestibility of nutrientshave never been affected by feeding animals diets containing GT plants. In addition, in all the experimental animals,the body and carcass composition, the composition of milk and animal tissues, as well as the sensory properties of meatare not modified by the use of feeds derived from GT plants. Furthermore, the health of animals, their physiological characteristicsand the survival rate are also not affected.The presence of rDNA and derived proteins can be recognized and quantified in feeds in the case of glyphosate resistant soybeanand canola and in the case of insect protected maize. However, rDNA has never been recovered either in milk, or in

  19. Ethical aspects of biomedical animal experimentation Aspectos éticos de la experimentación biomédica en animales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Estrada

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This article analyzes the ethical aspects of our relationship with animals specially as it concerns their use for biomedical research. A historical view on the subject is given and the opinions of the vivisectionists and antivivisectionists are discussed. Alternatives for the use of animals in biomedical research and toxicity testing are presented. A .complete bibliography is Included for those who want to further explore this subject.

    En el presente artículo se analizan los aspectos éticos de nuestra relación con los animales, con énfasis en la experimentación biomédica en los mismos. Se presenta una revisión histórica del tema y se discuten las opiniones de las dos corrientes, a favor y en contra, que hayal respecto, así como las alternativas para el uso de animales en investigación biomédica y en pruebas de toxicidad. Se incluye una amplia bibliografía que permite profundizar en el tema. 

  20. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  1. An experimental animal model of chronic myocardial hibernation: comparative study of cine-MR, myocardial single photon emission computed tomography and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish the chronic low-flow myocardial hibernation animal model in pigs, and to assess the diagnostic value for myocardial hibernation by using various imaging methods. Methods: A total of 13 miniswine (30-40 kg) were used. All animals underwent general anesthesia and orotracheal intubation while the animals were mechanically ventilated. Under sterile conditions, left ventriculography and coronary angiography were performed by introduction of catheter into the right femoral artery. Further, a left anterolateral thoracotomy was performed in the third intercostal space. The proximal LCX was dissected free to allow placement of an ameroid constrictor. More than 1 month later, left ventriculography and coronary angiography were performed again, followed by cine-MRI at rest and during stress with low-dose of dobutamine (5μg·kg-1·min-1), respectively. Traditional and/or breath-hold cine-MRI were used to evaluate regional left ventricular wall motion, corresponding to basal, midventricular and apical short-axis tomograms. Regional wall motion score index (WMSI) was calculated. At the same time 99mTc-MIBI myocardial SPECT was performed at rest and during nitroglycerin administration, respectively. All animals were finally sacrificed for pathological examination. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to assess the myocardial infarction. Electron microscopy was used to identify myocardial cellular changes characteristic of hibernating myocardium. Results: Three pigs died during surgery or within two weeks after surgery. One pig died of anesthesia during SPECT examination, 1 pig suffered from aneurysm, and another one pig showed negative findings. The other 7 pigs were found with hypokinetic (n=4) or akinetic (n=3) myocardial regions related to stenosed LCX (70%-99%). Resting cine-MRI demonstrated decreased regional motion of the lateral and posteroinferior walls (ischemic regions) of the left ventricle (n=7), compared with the nonischemic

  2. Experimental Modification of Interpretation Bias about Animal Fear in Young Children: Effects on Cognition, Avoidance Behavior, Anxiety Vulnerability, and Physiological Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Field, Andy P.; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation…

  3. 自记录动物挂杠持久度测试装置的研制%Development of an experimental instrument for testing the endurance of an animal hanging on a bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠恩健; 葛尔宁; 盛振华; 黄真

    2014-01-01

    目的:研制一种检测动物挂杠持久度的实验装置,用于相关医药研究中的动物静态抗疲劳实验。方法采用51系列单片微机控制和记忆,光耦传感器、电磁水阀等组合控制电路和技术。结果成功研制出一种适用于医学及药学研究领域的带微机控制和自记忆功能的动物挂杠持久度实验装置,经28例小白鼠实验证明,效果良好。结论该实验装置为动物抗疲劳实验提供了一种全新的方法。%Objective To develop an instrument that detects the endurance of an animal hanging on a bar during medical and pharmaceutical scientific experiments .Methods One pair of opto sensors were used for signal conversion .A solenoid valve device was used for water level .A 51-Series microcontroller was used to control the experimental setup and record the results .Results We have developed a microcontroller-based experimental instrument that can automatically detects the endurance of an animal hanging on a bar during medical and pharmaceutical scientific experiments .Our experimental results with 28 mice indicated that the applicability of the instrument is good .Conclusion The instrument provides an innovative tool for detecting the endurance of an animal .

  4. Animal performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  5. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  6. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  7. Cystic echinococcosis of the liver and lung treated by radiofrequency thermal ablation: An ex-vivo pilot experimental study in animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincenzo Lamonaca; Antonino Virga; Marta Ida Minervini; Roberta Di Stefano; Alessio Provenzani; Pietro Tagliareni; Giovanna Fleres; Angelo Luca; Giovanni Vizzini; Ugo Palazzo; Bruno Gridelli

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate radiofrequency thermal ablation (RTA) for treatment of cystic echinococcosis in animal models (explanted organs). METHODS: Infected livers and lungs from slaughtered animals, 10 bovine and two ovine, were collected. Cysts were photographed, and their volume, cyst content, germinal layer adhesion status, wall calcification and presence of daughter or adjacent cysts were evaluated by ultrasound. Some cysts were treated with RTA at 150 W, 80℃, 7 min. Temperature was monitored inside and outside the cyst. A second needle was placed inside the cyst for pressure stabilization. After treatment, all cysts were sectioned and examined by histology. Cysts were defined as alive if a preserved germinal layer at histology was evident, and as successfully treated if the germinal layer was necrotic. RESULTS: The subjects of the study were 17 cysts (nine hepatic and eight pulmonary), who were treated with RTA. Pathology showed 100% success rate in both hepatic (9/9) and lung cysts (8/8); immediate volume reduction of at least 65%; layer of host tissue necrosis outside the cyst, with average extension of 0.64 cm for liver and 1.57 cm for lung; and endocyst attached to the pericystium both in hepatic and lung cysts with small and focal de novo endocyst detachment in just 3/9 hepatic cysts.CONCLUSION: RTA appears to be very effective in killing hydatid cysts of explanted liver and lung.Bile duct and bronchial wall necrosis, persistence of endocyst attached to pericystium, should help avoid or greatly decrease in vivo post-treatment fistula occurrence and consequent overlapping complications that are common after surgery or percutaneous aspiration,injection and reaspiration. In vivo studies are required to confirm and validate this new therapeutic approach.

  8. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibody T1h and variant anti-CD6 murine 10D12 in healthy animals and in experimental arthritis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodistribution and pharmacokinetic of two radio labeled monoclonal antibodies was performed with the help of imaging techniques. Isotopic labeling was carried out by means of standardized methods. Pharmacokinetic evaluation was performed using the population approach and sparse data design. Introduction: Targeted therapy with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) is an efficient option for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Th1 is a MAb anti human CD6 developed for the treatment of autoimmune disease and 10D12 is its counterpart anti murine CD6 developed as a pharmacological tool to get deep into the response mechanisms in animals models of rheumatoid arthritis.To investigate the behavior of both antibodies in the assay system, molecules were labeled with 125I to evaluate pharmacokinetic in healthy animals and with 99mTc to evaluate the antibody uptake in inflamed area of induced arthritis. Materials and methods: Antibodies were supplied by the Center of Molecular immunology. Iodination was performed by the iodogen method and technetium labeling was carried out directly by Schwarz method. Female C57BL6 from CENPALAB were used for experiments. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetic was performed by a sparse data design using the population approach. Uptake in region of inflammation was quantified by gammagraphy at the same time points of blood sampling. A compartmental model was build to quantify uptake kinetic. Pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed using MONOLIX software version 4.2. Results: Minor pharmacokinetic differences were found between monoclonal antibodies labeled with 125I and 99mTc. As a humanized antibody, T1h shows a faster clearance than 10D12 and a biodistribution pattern reflecting preference for excretion mechanisms. The arthritis accumulation was not consistent with a targeted mediated uptake. On the other hand, radio labeled 10D12 shows an accumulation profile in arthritis with two peaks of maximum concentration representing an initial transit to

  9. Comparative analysis of gingival phenotype in animal and human experimental models using optical coherence tomography in a non-invasive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Fernandes, Luana O.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Feitosa, Daniela S.; Cimões, Renata; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2015-06-01

    Imaging methods are widely used in diagnostic and among the diversity of modalities, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is nowadays commercially available and considered the most innovative technique used for imaging applications, in both medical and non-medical applications. In this study, we exploit the OCT technique in the oral cavity for identification and differentiation between free and attached gingiva, as well as determining the gingival phenotype, an important factor to determination of periodontal prognosis in patients. For the animal studies, five porcine jaws were analyzed using a Swept Source SS-OCT system operating at 1325nm and stereomicroscope, as gold pattern. The SSOCT at 1325nm was chosen due to the longer central wavelength, that allows to deeper penetration imaging, and the faster image acquisition, an essential factor for clinical setting. For the patient studies, a total of 30 males and female were examined using the SS-OCT at 1325nm and computer controlled periodontal probing. 2D and 3D images of tooth/gingiva interface were performed, and quantitative measurements of the gingival sulcus could be noninvasively obtained. Through the image analysis of the animals jaws, it was possible to quantify the free gingiva and the attached gingiva, the calculus deposition over teeth surface and also the subgingival calculus. For the patient's studies, we demonstrated that the gingival phenotype could be measured without the periodontal probe introduction at the gingival sulcus, confirming that OCT can be potentially useful in clinic for direct observation and quantification of gingival phenotype in a non-invasive approach.

  10. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  11. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Farlen José Bebber Miranda; Diogo Benchimol De Souza; Edwards Frazão-Teixeira; Fábio Conceição de Oliveira; João Cardoso de Melo; Carlos Magno Anselmo Mariano; Antonio Peixoto Albernaz; Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de Carvalho; Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de Oliveira; Wanderley de Souza; Renato Augusto DaMatta

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet value...

  12. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Chin Lee; Huei-Jane Lee; Chao-Hsin Lee; Chau-Jong Wang; Shiow-Fen Lee; Shou-Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glut...

  13. Evaluation of Analgesic & Anti-inflammatory activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf root on Experimental Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar; Rajeev Kumar; Sanjay Yadav; Satyawan Singh; Surendra Nath Pandeya

    2010-01-01

    Desmostachia bipinnata (L.) Stapf (Gramineae) occurs widely in Egypt. This plant used traditionally as analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, asthma, thirst, jaundice, vaginal discharges, vesicle calculi, diseases of bladder, skin eruptions, vomiting, and sedative to pregnant uterus. So, in the present study, Desmostachia bipinnata roots were explored for their anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced paw oedema) and analgesic potential (Hot plate method) on experimental model and compared ...

  14. Neph1 Is Reduced in Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome, and Corresponding Experimental Animal Models of Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy and Puromycin Aminonucleoside Nephrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hulkko, Jenny; Patrakka, Jaakko; Lal, Mark; Tryggvason, Karl; Hultenby, Kjell; Wernerson, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The transmembrane proteins Neph1 and nephrin form a complex in the slit diaphragm (SD) of podocytes. As recent studies indicate an involvement of this complex in the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and proteinuria, we wanted to study the subcellular localization of Neph1 in the normal human kidney and its expression in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS), and the corresponding experimental models of Adriamycin-induced ne...

  15. Desempenho de bovinos simulado pelo modelo Pampa Corte e obtido por experimentação Animal performance simulated by Pampa Corte model with experimental records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naíme de Barcellos Trevisan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a confiabilidade do Modelo Pampa Corte na predição de desempenho de bovinos de corte, em sistemas de pastejo. Para tanto, foram confrontados os valores preditos pelo modelo com dados disponíveis na literatura. Foram verificados coeficientes de correlação acima de 90% entre os dados reais e os simulados em todas as alternativas testadas. O banco de dados do Modelo precisa ser ampliado em termos de alternativas de produtividade das forrageiras, em diferentes condições climáticas. Os parâmetros qualitativos degradabilidade da proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro da consorciação aveia preta e azevém necessitam ainda ser pesquisados, assim como o desempenho de animais em pastagens singulares de aveia ou azevém.This study had the objective to evaluate Pampa Corte Model’s reliability in predicting beef cattle performance in grazing systems. For this purpose, model’s predicted values were compared to available data base of published papers. Correlation coefficients above 90 % were obtained between simulated and real data in all tested alternatives. Model’s data base should be enlarged by forage productivity data in different climatic conditions. Mixtures of Italian ryegrass and oat need more studies to obtain qualitative parameters (crude protein degradability and neutral detergent fiber, as well, animal performance in the single pastures of oat or Italian ryegrass.

  16. Effects of heliox as carrier gas on ventilation and oxygenation in an animal model of piston-type HFOV: a crossover experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroma Takehiko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to compare gas exchange with heliox and oxygen-enriched air during piston-type high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV. We hypothesized that helium gas would improve both carbon dioxide elimination and arterial oxygenation during piston-type HFOV. Method Five rabbits were prepared and ventilated by piston-type HFOV with carrier 50% helium/oxygen (heliox50 or 50% oxygen/nitrogen (nitrogen50 gas mixture in a crossover study. Changing the gas mixture from nitrogen50 to heliox50 and back was performed five times per animal with constant ventilation parameters. Arterial blood gas, vital function and respiratory test indices were recorded. Results Compared with nitrogen50, heliox50 did not change PaCO2 when stroke volume remained constant, but significantly reduced PaCO2 after alignment of amplitude pressure. No significant changes in PaO2 were seen despite significant decreases in mean airway pressure with heliox50 compared with nitrogen50. Conclusion This study demonstrated that heliox enhances CO2 elimination and maintains oxygenation at the same amplitude but with lower airway pressure compared to air/O2 mix gas during piston-type HFOV.

  17. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farlen José Bebber Miranda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain. Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  18. Biotecnologia animal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  19. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  20. Alternative methods to safety studies in experimental animals: role in the risk assessment of chemicals under the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienblum, W. [Dr. Lilienblum Consulting Toxicology LiCoTox, Hemmingen/Han (Germany); Dekant, W. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Toxicology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Foth, H. [University of Halle, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Halle/Saale (Germany); Gebel, T. [Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Dortmund (Germany); Hengstler, J.G. [University of Dortmund, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo), Dortmund (Germany); Kahl, R. [Heinrich-Heine-University, Institute of Toxicology, PO Box 101007, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kramer, P.J. [Merck KGaA, Institute of Toxicology, Darmstadt (Germany); Schweinfurth, H. [Nonclinical Drug Safety, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Wollin, K.M. [Lower Saxony Governmental Institute of Public Health, Hannover (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    During the last two decades, substantial efforts have been made towards the development and international acceptance of alternative methods to safety studies using laboratory animals. In the EU, challenging timelines for phasing out of many standard tests using laboratory animals were established in the seventh Amending Directive 2003/15/EC to Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC. In continuation of this policy, the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH) favours alternative methods to conventional in vivo testing, if validated and appropriate. Even alternative methods in the status of prevalidation or validation, but without scientific or regulatory acceptance may be used under certain conditions. Considerable progress in the establishment of alternative methods has been made in some fields, in particular with respect to methods predicting local toxic effects and genotoxicity. In more complex important fields of safety and risk assessment such as systemic single and repeated dose toxicity, toxicokinetics, sensitisation, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity, it is expected that the development and validation of in silico methods, testing batteries (in vitro and in silico) and tiered testing systems will have to overcome many scientific and regulatory obstacles which makes it extremely difficult to predict the outcome and the time needed. The main reasons are the complexity and limited knowledge of the biological processes involved on one hand and the long time frame until validation and regulatory acceptance of an alternative method on the other. New approaches in safety testing and evaluation using 'Integrated Testing Strategies' (ITS) (including combinations of existing data, the use of chemical categories/grouping, in vitro tests and QSAR) that have not been validated or not gained wide acceptance in the scientific community and by regulatory authorities will need a thorough justification of their appropriateness for a given purpose. This requires

  1. Platelet-rich plasma and skeletal muscle healing: a molecular analysis of the early phases of the regeneration process in an experimental animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dimauro

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has received increasing interest in applied medicine, being widely used in clinical practice with the aim of stimulating tissue healing. Despite the reported clinical success, there is still a lack of knowledge when considering the biological mechanisms at the base of the activity of PRP during the process of muscle healing. The aim of the present study was to verify whether the local delivery of PRP modulates specific molecular events involved in the early stages of the muscle regeneration process. The right flexor sublimis muscle of anesthetized Wistar rats was mechanically injured and either treated with PRP or received no treatment. At day 2 and 5 after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and the muscle samples evaluated at molecular levels. PRP treatment increased significantly the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, and TGF-β1. This phenomenon induced an increased expression at mRNA and/or protein levels of several myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD1, Myf5 and Pax7, as well as the muscular isoform of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF-1Eb. No effect was detected with respect to VEGF-A expression. In addition, PRP application modulated the expression of miR-133a together with its known target serum response factor (SRF; increased the phosphorylation of αB-cristallin, with a significant improvement in several apoptotic parameters (NF-κB-p65 and caspase 3, indexes of augmented cell survival. The results of the present study indicates that the effect of PRP in skeletal muscle injury repair is due both to the modulation of the molecular mediators of the inflammatory and myogenic pathways, and to the control of secondary pathways such as those regulated by myomiRNAs and heat shock proteins, which contribute to proper and effective tissue regeneration.

  2. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  3. Transgenic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  4. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  5. Responsible conduct in animal research

    OpenAIRE

    Savla, Ushma

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory animals play a crucial role in biomedical research – indeed many advances now incorporated into human health care would have been impossible without them. Informed and well-trained scientists have the privilege, but not the automatic right, to use animals as experimental subjects. This privilege must not be abused.

  6. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling.

  7. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  8. Sterility Testing of Animal Drinking Water for Beijing Experimental Animal Housing and Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains in Water%北京地区动物实验设施动物饮水无菌检测及绿脓杆菌污染菌株鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢进; 冯育芳; 高正琴; 岳秉飞; 李根平; 贺争鸣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To grasp the microbial control of animal drinking water in laboratory animal facilities of Beijing. Methods According to Method for Examination of Environment and Faeces of GF animal, the drinking water samples of the animal housing were isolated and cultured. 16SrRNA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) isolates that were amplified, and sequenced, then draw phylogenetic tree. Results In the 27 participates of this testing, sterile rate of the pre-treated water is 41% , and the treated water is only 29% in which PA positive is 30% , mainly RHH13 and ZAQ22 two strains. Conclusion The detection of experimental animal' s drinking water treatment effects is in general less than ideal. PA contamination will directly influence on the quality of laboratory animals.%目的 了解北京地区动物实验设施动物饮水微生物控制状况.方法 根据实验动物无菌动物生活环境国家标准检测方法,对实验动物设施内的动物饮用水样品进行分离培养.扩增分离绿脓杆菌的16SrRNA,并进行测序,绘制发育树.结果 在27个参与检测的单位中,未经过处理的饮水无菌生长率41%;经过处理的饮水无菌生长率仅29%.绿脓杆菌检出率30%,主要为RHH13和ZAQ22两个菌株.结论 本次检测的实验动物饮水在处理后的效果普遍不甚理想,存在绿脓杆菌的污染,直接影响实验动物质量.

  9. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  10. [Dangerous animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  11. Alternatives to animal testing: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Doke, Sonali K.; Dhawale, Shashikant C.

    2013-01-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high ...

  12. 喉全切除舌骨肌瓣喉再造的实验研究%Animal experimental study of neoglottic reconstruction after total laryngectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美球; 徐志文; 温文胜; 郑实兴; 梁杰珍; 曾曼丽

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To explore a new surgical procedure for glottic reconstruction after total laryngec-tomy by experimental dogs. [Methods] 7 adult dogs underwent total laryngectomy plus neo-glottic reconstruction in one stage. The new abductor, adductor was respectively made of hyoid muscles and pharyngeal constrictor muscles to open and close the glottis. [Results] All dogs survived, all 7 cases(7/7) resumed oral intake, 4 (4/7) rehabilitated phonation, 4 (4/7) rehabilitated nasal respiration while plugging tracheostoma, and 1 got postoperative decannulation. [Conclusion] Using hyoid muscles and pharyngeal constrictor muscles can reconstruct a functional glottis after total laryngectomy, restore deglutition, phonation and respiration at the same stage. The new surgical procedure is worth further exploration.%目的 通过动物实验研究探讨喉全切除后声门重建的新术式.方法 7只犬施行喉全切除术加一期声门重建术,术中利用舌骨及附着肌群、咽缩肌分别制成新喉的外展、内收肌,形成可开闭的新声门.结果 7只犬术后均存活.7只犬(7/7)均恢复经口进食,可堵管发音4只(4/7),可持续堵管呼吸4只(4/7),其中1只犬可拔管.结论 喉全切除术后,气管-咽吻合并利用舌骨及附着肌群、咽缩肌再造可开闭的新声门,大部分犬能同时恢复喉的吞咽、发音及呼吸三大功能,手术方法值得进一步探讨.

  13. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  14. Bone allograft and implant fixation tested under influence of bio-burden reduction, periosteal augmentation and topical antibiotics. Animal experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barckman, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Loosening of an artificial joint prosthesis is a painful and debilitating condition that can be treated only by re-operation. Re-operations accounted for approximately 15% of all hip replacement operations performed in Denmark between the year 1995 and 2010. The process of loosening is often accompanied by destructive inflammation and osteolysis, which leads to insufficient bone stock that often requires extensive bone grafting. Impacted morselized bone graft is a well-established method for improving the amount and quality of bone stock that ensures sufficient stability and anchorage of the revision implants. Among bone graft options, the autologous bone graft is considered the gold standard. It is naturally biocompatible, but its use in revision surgery is curtailed by its limited volume and by considerable donor site morbidity. Allograft bone is readily available and is the most commonly used graft material. However, it has been shown that the incorporation of allograft bone into the host bone is not always complete, and substantial fibrous tissue formation has been described. A reason for this may be that allograft bone is a foreign tissue, which, contrary to autogenic bone, may induce an immunogenic response that leads to increased fibrous tissue formation. Furthermore, the fresh-frozen allograft has minimal osteoinductive and no osteogenic capacity. The studies in this thesis have investigated ways of improving the incorporation of allograft bone by adding osteoinductive cells from the periosteum and reducing the immunogenic load of the allograft bone by rinsing. Furthermore, the impact of antibiotic protection of the bone graft has been evaluated. The same experimental implant model was used in all three studies. This model enables evaluation of early implant fixation and osseointegration of an uncemented implant surrounded by impacted morselized bone graft. Unloaded gap implants were inserted into the metaphysis of the proximal tibia (Study I) and distal

  15. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  16. Animal Intuitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  17. Standardization of experimental animals temporal bone sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalian Ding; Jintao Yu; Peng Li; Kelei Gao; Haiyan Jiang; Wenjuan Zhang; Hong Sun; Shankai Yin; Richard Salvi

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of the temporal bone for light microscopy is an important step in histological studies of the inner ear. Due to the complexity of structures of the inner ear, it is difficult to measure or compare structures of interest without a commonly accepted standardized measure of temporal bone sections. Therefore, standardization of temporal bone sections is very important for histological assessment of sensory hair cells and peripheral ganglion neurons in the cochlear and vestibular systems. The standardized temporal bone sectioning is oriented to a plane parallel to the outer and internal auditory canals. Sections are collected from the epitympanum to the hypotympanum to reveal layers in the order of the crista ampullaris of the superior and lateral semicircular canals, macula utriculi and macula sacculi, superior vestibular ganglion neurons, macula of saccule and inferior vestibular ganglion neurons, cochlear modiolus, endolymphatic duct and endolymphatic sac, and finally the crista ampullaris of the posterior semicircular canal. Moreover, technical details of preparing for temporal bone sectioning including fixation, decalcification, whole temporal bone staining, embedding penetration, and embedding orientation are also discussed.

  18. Newsreels, documentary, experimental film, shorts and animation

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente; Cerdán, Josetxo

    2013-01-01

    One of the obsessions of Spanish critics writing about Spanish cinema has been the issue of “realism.” This dates back to the initial attempts at constructing a national cinema in the late 1920s, which set up an opposition between the españolada (stereotypical representation of Spain) and a cinema that would depict Spain as it “really” was; that is, an opposition between the artificial and the genuinely Spanish. This was reactivated after the Civil War by Francoism, which equat...

  19. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  20. Science, Medicine, and Animals: Teacher's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa C.

    2005-01-01

    "Science, Medicine, and Animals" explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying "Teacher's Guide" is available to help teachers of middle and high…

  1. Animated nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  2. Different Treatment factors on Establishment of Experimental Anemic Animal Models%3种不同施加因素建立实验性贫血模型的基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范颖; 初杰; 赵友林; 林庶茹

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过考察3种不同施加因素制作的实验性贫血动物模型外周血细胞计数和血红蛋白含量变化,了解3种不同因素的对机体造成"血虚"的差异性,为临床用药提供科学依据.方法:采用血细胞计数法测定外周血红细胞和白细胞计数以及血红蛋白含童的变化.结果:失血性贫血外周血红细胞计数降低明显(P>0.05),而外周血白细胞计数虽有下降趋势,但无统计学意义(P>0.05);化疗性贫血外周血红细胞计数、白细胞计数均降低(P0.05).结论:3种不同施加因素对机体外周血细胞计数的影响具有差异性.%Objective: To analysis the peripheral hemogram variation of three different treatment factors on experimental anemic animal models, realizing the difference in blood deficiency caused by the treatment factors and providing scientific guideline for clinic. Methods ; Peripheral blood erythrocytes, peripheral blood leucocytes and hemoglobin were measured by blood count. Results;Peripheral blood erythrocytes mainly decreased in hemorrhagic anemia, peripheral blood leucocytes in chemotherapy - induced Anemia( P >0.01 ) . The amount of peripheral blood erythrocytes tended to be decreased ( P > 0.05) , and peripheral blood leucocytes decreased obviously in eating disorder, (P>0.05). Conclusion;There is difference in three different treatment factors on peripheral hemogram of experimental anemic animal models.

  3. Establishment of an experimental animal model of maxillary protraction and cephalometric analysis%上颌前牵引动物模型建立与头影测量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文星; 周洪; 邹敏; 任战平

    2009-01-01

    目的:建立模拟临床上颌骨前牵引的动物实验模型.方法:生长发育期的家兔16 只,随机分为实验组和对照组.在距上切牙约1 cm的膜龈联合处安置钛合金钉,做为前颌骨标志点.实验组用自制外置式牵引支架牵引上颌,牵引皮圈连接外置支架和切牙冠套上的牵引钩,向前持续弹性牵引30 d,牵引方向与平面呈向下方30°,力值为3.43 N;对照组仅粘固上切牙套冠,不进行牵引.2 组于实验前、后进行模型测量和头颅定位侧位X线片测量.结果:实验组前颌骨平均前移1.89 mm,而对照组为0.11 mm;头影测量分析:实验组较对照组上颌骨前移,未见明显旋转发生;上下切牙均有轻度的唇倾.2 组下颌骨的变化,无统计学差异.结论:用生长发育期兔和自制外置式牵引装置建立的上颌前牵引的动物模型科学、可靠,可以有效地使上颌骨前移.%Objective: To establish an animal model for research of maxillary protraction. Methods: 16 pubertal rabbits were assigned randomly to 2 groups. Titanium bone markers were fixed on each side of mucogingival junction, 1 cm above incisor teeth. The experimental group underwent maxillary protraction by self-made distraction devices. A down and forward elastic force (about 3.43 N) was exerted for 30 days. Results: In 30 d, the distance of premaxilla movement in the experimental group was 1.89 mm averagely, while that in the control group was only 0.11 mm. Cephalometric analysis indicated that the maxilla of rabbits was moved forward obviously by appliance in the experimental group, and maxilla was not rotated. There was no obvious difference between the control and the experimental groups. Conclusion: Animal model used in this experiment for maxillary protraction is reliable. The appliance can move the rabbits maxilla forward obviously during the maxillary protraction.

  4. Symptomatic animal models for dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Bethany K.; Hess, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic animal models have clinical features consistent with human disorders and are often used to identify the anatomical and physiological processes involved in the expression of symptoms and to experimentally demonstrate causality where it would be infeasible in the patient population. Rodent and primate models of dystonia have identified basal ganglia abnormalities, including alterations in striatal GABAergic and dopaminergic transmission. Symptomatic animal models have also establish...

  5. Ethical considerations in animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2009-01-01

    Scientists undoubtedly owe their great advance and knowledge in biomedical research to millions of animals which they use every year in often-times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. One of the important issues in scientific research is to consider ethics in animal experimentation. Since this is a crucial issue in the modern era of medical research, in this paper, we have provided some guidelines (most of which have been adopted from Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  9. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  10. SIMULATED ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS IN TEACHING AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag B. Mistry, Shreya M. Shah, Jagatkumar D. Bhatt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal experiments are of paramount importance in the pre-clinical screening of new chemical entity. On the other hand, various regulatory guidelines for animal experiments are becoming more stringent in the face of worldwide protests by animal rights activists. Moreover, simulated animal experiments’ softwares are being developed and they can be implemented in the postgraduate and graduate students’ curriculum for demonstration of standard physiological and pharmacological principles compared to real time animal experiments. In fact, implementation of virtual experiment will decrease hand on experience of animal experiments among medical students, but after medical graduation, animal experiment is lest utilized during their day to day clinical practice. Similarly, in case of postgraduate pharmacology curriculum, computer based virtual animal experiments can facilitate teaching and learning in a short span of time with various protocols, without sacrificing any animal for already established experimental outcomes.

  11. [Laboratory animals and official Mexican norms (NOM-062-ZOO-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aluja, Aline S

    2002-01-01

    This article concerns animal experimentation and official Mexican norm Nom 0062-Zoo-1999 entitled Technical specifications for the production, care and use of laboratory animals. The history of animal experimentation is briefly resumed. During the nineteenth century, doubts arose as to the right to expose animals to experimental procedures that frequently cause pain and suffering. The first law which protected animals against cruelty was passed in Great Britain in 1876; subsequently, other nations approved similar legislation. During the second part of the twentieth century, opposition to animal experimentation grew. Other groups, mainly scientists and pharmaceutical concerns, defended the right to use animals in research. New knowledge concerning the neurophysiology, cognitive capacity, and the animal faculty to experience pain is briefly mentioned. Guidelines on care and use of animals used in research published in several countries are listed. Finally, the recently published Mexican legislation (Norm) referring to production, care and use of laboratory animals is discussed and its benefits are stressed. PMID:12096401

  12. History of animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  13. Experimental establishment of animal model of temporomandibular joint ankylosis secondary to condylar sagittal fracture%髁突矢状骨折继发颞下颌关节强直动物模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霄; 张益; 李江明

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立髁突矢状骨折继发颞下颌关节强直动物模型,为进一步研究创伤性颞下颌关节强直发生机制提供实验载体.方法:小尾寒羊4只,双侧关节互为对照.实验侧通过手术造成髁突矢状骨折,破坏关节窝表面软骨,切除外侧1/2关节盘;对照侧仅造成髁突矢状骨折.术后6个月,通过CT检查和组织学观察评价实验侧颞下颌关节强直的形成.结果:4只小尾寒羊的实验侧关节均发生混合性强直,CT检查发现,关节结构消失,关节间隙变窄,周缘出现不规则增生或吸收,上、下关节面被若干上、下贯通的高密度影像所分隔,呈骨痂样改变.组织学观察可见,实验侧关节窝与髁突之间散在有骨与骨样的基质,部分区域可分辨出强直骨桥的形成.对照侧未出现强直迹象.结论:本研究中的动物实验重现了临床髁突矢状骨折继发颞下颌关节强直的发生过程,实验具有可重复性,可作为动物模型用于对创伤性关节强直的研究载体.%Objective: To experimentally develop an animal model of traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis secondary to condylar fracture in small Tail Han sheep. Methods: Four sheep were used to make sagittal fracture of condyles. The cartilage layer of articular surface was damaged and lateral half of articular disc was removed in the right side and conserved in the left side as a control. All animals were sacrificed at the end of 6 months postoperatively. CT observation and histological examination were carried out to evaluate the formation of ankylosed joints. Results: All of the animals showed a change of mixed ankylosis on the right sides. On the CT image, the joint space became narrow and the articular surfaces became irregular with high-density callus formation. Histological observation validated that the bone-like and the cartilage-like matrix scattered between the condyle and temporal fossa. The ankylosis bone bridge could be figured out in

  14. 羊脑泡状棘球蚴病实验模型建立可行性探讨%The feasibility investigation of experimental animal model of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis disease of sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚卫宏; 张泉; 王俭; 姜涛; 姜春晖; 张德清; 马娟; 吴玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨建立羊脑泡状棘球蚴(AE)病实验模型的方法,以利于人类脑 AE 病的相关研究。方法选择实验用健康新疆大尾羊10只,直视下颅骨穿刺,脑内接种 AE 源头蚴,8个月后用 MRI 观察羊脑 AE 生长状况,剖检后分析形态学及病理学特点。结果经病理及 MRI 证实,成功建模4例,成虫率40%(4/10),4例均为单发病灶,1例影像学表现具有特征性,T2 WI 表现为低信号背景下多发小囊泡群,3例 T2 WI 表现为低信号,光镜下观察病灶区有大量淋巴细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞及浆细胞浸润,周围小血管闭塞并伴有炎性反应。结论人工接种鼠源性 AE 原头蚴悬液建立羊脑 AE 病模型可行性高,方法简单,具有可重复性。%Objective To build experimental animal model of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis disease of sheep,in order to study of human alveolar hydatid disease of the brain.Methods Experiment animal models of ten Xinjiang big-tail sheep were performed by, direct skull puncture,intracerebral inoculation of echinococcus multilocularis.MRI was used to observe the growth status of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis disease of sheep after 8 months,and morphological and pathological characteristics after autopsy were ana-lysed.Results 4 sheep models (40%)were successful built which were confirmed by pathology and MRI.On MRI,4 cases all were single lesion,on T2 WI there was multiple follicles bubbles under the background of low signal in one case,and low signal in other three cases.Under the microscope,a large number of lymphocytes,eosinophils and plasma cells infiltrated the lesion area,around which small blood vessels were blocked and had inflammatory reaction were showed.Conclusion The method using artificial inocula-tion rat alveolar echinococcosis to establish experimental model of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis disease of sheep has the character-istic of feasibility,simplicity and repeatability.

  15. 水刀分离技术用于面神经解剖的动物实验观察%An animal experimental observation on facial nerve dissection by water-jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国权; 张国志; 高新宇; 马丽辉; 叶斌

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of the water-jet dissection method in parotid surgery by way of animal experiments, especially the degree of facial nerve injury. Methods Total bilateral parotidectomies with retention of the facial nerve were performed on 12 dogs. Facial nerve dissection of the experimental group (the left side) was performed by ERBE HELIX HYDRO-JET device. On the control group(the right side), traditional operation method was applied. The duration of operation was recorded. Facial paralysis information was observed and compared after operations. Results There is no significant difference in duration of operation between the two groups. The facial nerve paralysis occurrence in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion Water-jet in the use of facial nerve dissection on dog can obviously reduce facial nerve paralysis rate. It's of worthy to be applied in clinical practice.%目的 探讨螺旋水刀在腮腺切除术中的应用,观察其对实验动物面神经的损伤情况.方法 选择12只成年雄性杂种狗,实验组(左侧)采用德国ERBE螺旋水刀进行面神经解剖,对照组(右侧)采用传统方法 解剖面神经,两侧均进行保留面神经的腮腺全切术,术中记录手术时间,术后观察双侧面瘫情况并进行对比分析.结果 两组动物手术时间无明显差异.实验组面瘫发生例数与对照组相比明显减少,两组对比,差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).结论 水刀分离技术用于狗面神经解剖可以明显减轻面神经损伤,值得进一步在临床推广.

  16. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  17. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  18. Evaluating the Phylogenetic Position of Chinese Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) Based on Complete Mitochondrial Genome:Implication for Using Tree Shrew as an Alternative Experimental Animal to Primates in Biomedical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xu; Shi-Yi Chen; Wen-Hui Nie; Xue-Long Jiang; Yong-Gang Yao

    2012-01-01

    Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is currently placed in Order Scandentia and has a wide distribution in Southeast Asia and Southwest China.Due to its unique characteristics,such as small body size,high brain-to-body mass ratio,short reproductive cycle and life span,and low-cost of maintenance,tree shrew has been proposed to be an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research.However,there are some debates regarding the exact phylogenetic affinity of tree shrew to primates.In this study,we determined the mtDNA entire genomes of three Chinese tree shrews (T.belangeri chinensis) and one Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus).Combined with the published data for species in Euarchonta,we intended to discern the phylogenetic relationship among representative species of Dermoptera,Scandentia and Primates.The mtDNA genomes of Chinese tree shrews and Malayan flying lemur shared similar gene organization and structure with those of other mammals.Phylogenetic analysis based on 12 concatenated mitochondrial proteinencoding genes revealed a closer relationship between species of Scandentia and Glires,whereas species of Dermoptera were clustered with Primates.This pattern was consistent with previously reported phylogeny based on mtDNA data,but differed from the one reconstructed on the basis of nuclear genes.Our result suggested that the matrilineal affinity of tree shrew to primates may not be as close as we had thought.The ongoing project for sequencing the entire genome of Chinese tree shrew will provide more information to clarify this important issue.

  19. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  20. XX. Animal models of pneumocystosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dei-Cas, E.; Brun-Pascaud, M.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;

    1998-01-01

    As in vitro culture systems allowing to isolate Pneumocystis samples from patients or other mammal hosts are still not available, animal models have critical importance in Pneumocystis research. The parasite was reported in numerous mammals but P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) experimental models were...... source of parasites taxonomically related to P. carinii sp. f hominis. Moreover, primates might be used as experimental hosts to human Pneumocystis. A marked variability of parasite levels among corticosteroid-treated animals and the fact that the origin of the parasite strain remains unknown, are...... important drawbacks of the corticosteroid-treated models. For these reasons, inoculated animal models of PCP were developed. The intratracheal inoculation of lung homogenates containing viable parasites in corticosteroid-treated non-latently infected rats resulted in extensive, reproducible Pneumocystis...

  1. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin;

    2011-01-01

    In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... in large-scale operations, with the aim to obtain animal products for human consumption. Hence, understanding the biological traits that impact yield and quality of these products is the specific aim of much biological experimentation. However, most of the data gathered from experiments on e.g. swine...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...

  2. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M.; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  3. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  4. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, V; Alessandrini, B; Dalla Villa, P; Del Papa, S

    2005-08-01

    Effective implementation and enforcement of legislation is essential to ensure animal welfare. In the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) European Region the well-established body of national and European Union laws in existence is growing continuously. The growth is due to various factors, such as new technology in animal farming and experimentation, exploitation of wildlife, new understanding of animal needs, and increasing public awareness and concern. The latter, in particular, determines the need for new animal welfare legislation to regulate and discipline the 'use' of animals for different purposes, such as food production, companionship, work and leisure. This paper intends to provide an overview of the more relevant activities carried out by the Council of Europe and the European Union in the field of animal welfare. The authors identify eLearning as a tool to harmonise the interpretation and the implementation of animal welfare legislation. PMID:16358508

  5. Can experiments on animals constitute a criminal offence of cruelty to animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Ristivojevic Branislav; Bugarski Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    The criminal offence “killing and torturing animals” under Article 269 of the Criminal Code says that it can be committed only “contrary to regulations”. The regulations governing the treatment of experimental animals are the Animal Welfare Law from 2009 and the Law on the Ratification of the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes amended by the Protocol of amendment to the European C...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  11. Animation Trends in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Lirong Xiao

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we give a survey of animation content in education. At present, there is an extensive literature addressing the impact of animation in education and psychology fields. However, in animation field, although some software companies have developed their individual production toolboxes or platforms for animation content in education, there is lack of relevant research from the perspective of animation techniques. This paper first gives a survey of current animation content in educat...

  12. Design of Precision Adjustable Pulser of Implantable Cardiac Pacemaker Used for Experimental Animals%实验动物用埋藏式心脏起搏器精密可调脉冲发生器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛力彬; 周真; 秦勇; 杨军

    2012-01-01

    Implantable cardiac pacemaker is a precision electronic treatment apparatus, which is implanted in the body. It outputs electrical stimulation through the pulse generator to stimulate the heart to make it contraction and relaxation. To the issue of precision adjustable and low reliability of domestic pacemaker pulse generators, a precision adjustable pacemaker pulse generator based on the design principle of the pacemaker pulse generator is designed, in which the pulse amplitude and width can be precisely adjusted. The measured amplitude adjustment accuracy is 1. 230 mV, the width adjustment accuracy is 0. 1 ms, and the pacing frequency adjustment accuracy is 1 bpm. The design uses digital control technology and has small size, low power consumption, high reliability, and characteristic of precision adjustable, which can be used in various experimental animals.%埋藏式心脏起搏器是一种植入体内的精密电子治疗仪器,它通过脉冲发生器发送电刺激脉冲刺激心脏使之收缩与舒张.针对国内起搏器脉冲发生器设计参数调节精度不高、可靠性低的问题,依据埋藏式心脏起搏脉冲发生器设计原理,设计了一款精密可调脉冲发生器,可实现对起搏脉冲幅度、脉宽和起搏频率的精密调整,实测幅度调整精度1.230 mV,脉宽调整精度0.1 ms,起搏频率调整精度1 bpm.该设计采用数字化控制,体积小、功耗低、可靠性高,具有脉冲参数精密可调的特性,可应用于多种实验动物体内.

  13. Dynamic Observation on In vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Experimental Metastatic Animal Models in Nude Mice%实验性肿瘤细胞转移动物模型的活体成像观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫明霞; 朱淼鑫; 刘蕾; 李静; 林河春; 赵方瑜; 姚明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the tumor metastasis in deep organisms of the nude mice by in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. Methods The SMMC-7721-GFP/Luc cells with different concentrations were intravenously inoculated into the tail vein and spleen of the BALB/c-nu/nu mice, the distribution and expression of luciferase in nude mice were monitored by in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. Results The experimental metastatic animal models had been successfully established. The distribution and expression of luciferase ascended with cell concentration increased and decreased with the passage of time. Conclusion The in vivo bioluminescence imaging system may monitor the in vivo growth and metastasis of tumors and provide for studying the mechanisms of tumor metastasis and development of anticancer drug.%目的 利用小动物活体成像系统观察肿瘤细胞在动物体内的转移情况.方法 分别将不同浓度的绿色荧光蛋白(GPF)和荧光素酶(luciferase,Luc)双标的SMMC-7721细胞接种入裸小鼠尾静脉和脾,建立实验性转移动物模型,采用活体成像技术监测不同浓度的细胞在小鼠体内的转移情况,动态观察同一细胞于不同时间点在小鼠体内的转移情况.结果 成功建立了尾静脉接种肺转移及脾内接种肝转移的实验性转移动物模型,经小动物活体成像系统检测发现,随着接种细胞浓度的增加,荧光素的表达面积和强度逐渐增加,二者呈正比关系;随着接种时间的延长,荧光素的表达面积和强度逐渐减弱,二者呈成反比关系.结论 活体荧光成像系统可较好地观测肿瘤在动物体内深部脏器的转移情况,它将为肿瘤转移机制、抗转移治疗等研究提供有益的帮助.

  14. 人类青光眼和青光眼动物模型中神经胶质细胞的改变%Changes of neuroglia cells in human glaucoma and animal model of experimental glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凤熙; 郭文毅

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the major ocular diseases that lead to blindness.It is characterized by optic disk cupping and visual field loss.Glaucoma is a multifactorial group of diseases with many different causes but one common endpoint, progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells.Hence most studies of glaucoma focused on retinal ganglion cells and their nosogenesis.But recent studies have showed that neuroglia cells,as another major kind of cells of nerve system, also undergo an activation process in glaucoma.Their activation is closely connected with the changes of retinal ganglion cells as well as the development of the disease.Therefore, more and more attention is focused on the changes of these cells.This review is a summary about the recent studies on the pathological changes of these four different kinds of neuroglia cells in human glaucoma and in several animal models of experimental glaucoma.%青光眼是主要的致盲眼病之一,其特征性表现为视乳头的凹陷性萎缩和视野的特征性缩小.青光眼的病因复杂,但却有共同的病理结局即视网膜神经节细胞的进行性凋亡.因此对青光眼的研究多集中在视网膜神经节细胞的改变及其机制上.但近年来的研究结果表明,作为神经系统另一大类细胞即神经胶质细胞在青光眼的病理过程中也发生了活化,并且其活化与视网膜神经节细胞的改变及疾病的发生、发展密切相关.所以对青光眼中神经胶质细胞的研究也越来越深入.笔者就目前对神经胶质细胞在人类青光眼及青光眼动物模型中的改变进行综述,以供同道参考.

  15. 77 FR 76815 - Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... with other Federal agencies concerned with the welfare of animals used for research, experimentation... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 2 and 3 RIN 0579-AC69 Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  16. 经呼吸道感染马尔尼菲青霉菌的动物实验研究%Animal Experimental Study on the Infection of Penicillium Marneffei Through Respiratory Inhalation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚婉玉; 罗青华; 梁伶; 刘栋华; 曹存巍; 黄绍标; 罗虹; 刘燕芬

    2011-01-01

    Objective The pathogenicity of Penicillium marneffei isolated from bamboo rats and patients was respectively compared by animal experimental infection through respiratory inhalation. Method Experimental mice were divided into two groups. Group R and group H were inoculated with conidia suspension of wild isolates and clinical isolates respectively through respiratory inhalation. Then the mice were sacrificed after seven days. The infection status of mice lung by visual observation was compared. The left lower lobe infected by Penicillium marneffei were taken to fungal culture and the positive rates were compared. Histopathological changes of the left upper lobe were examinated and compared. The right lung tissues were cultured in PDA plate at 25℃ for 48 hours and the bacterial load were compared and analyzed by counting homogenate colonies. The state of placebo group and the blank control group were analyzed. Results The incidence of mice ( Group R and group H) infected by Penicillium marneffei was 100%. The lung damage was not different significantly by visual observation. The bacterial loads of the lung tissue were not different significantly.There was no significant difference on the pathological changes of mice lung tissue between the two groups.The lung tissue of placebo group had slight pathological changes. The lung tissue of blank control group had no pathological changes. Conclusions The two different kinds of Penicillium marneffei are pathogenic on the lung of mice infected through respiratory inhalation. There is no significant difference of pathogenicity between Penicilium marneffei isolated from bamboo rats and patients.%目的 对不同来源马尔尼菲青霉菌(penicillium marneffei,PM)的致病力情况进行初步探讨,方法,将实验组小鼠分为R组和H组,分别经呼吸道吸入接种分离自广西野生银星竹鼠的PM菌株(竹鼠寄生株)及广西地区马尔尼菲青霉病(peniciliosis marneffei,PSM)患者血液的PM菌

  17. Comprehensive analysis of teaching methods in experimental animal surgery for students with different majors and languages%不同医学专业及语言背景下动物外科教学探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆云涛; 漆松涛; 陈庆; 周伟明; 邓惠欢; 潘军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the study of animal surgery course among medical students with different majors and languages so as to provide evidences for further improve-ment education quality. Methods Ten majors and two kinds of international medical students (in total of 1 105 students;2009 grade)of Southern Medical University were subdivided into five groups ac-cording to the relationship with clinical operative manipulation. Quality of experimental animal surgery education was tested respectively. Then SPSS 13.0 was used to statistically evaluate and analyze the data. Measurement data between two groups were compared by t-test,multi-group analysis of variance between groups was conducted using one-way ANOVA. Ranked data between groups were compared using non-parametric Mann-Whitney U rank sum test. Merits and demerits of the curriculum were dis-cussed by combing statistical results with in-class condition to provide evidences for further improve-ment. Results There was no significant difference between clinical group and clinical professional group in aseptic technique and operation skills (P=0.739),but scores of the two groups were signifi-cant higher than that of associate group (P=0.004). Moreover,scores of international students who passed Chinese TOEFL were significant higher than the others (P=0.001). Differences between groups existed predominantly in the animal surgical practice rather than in basic theory or knot and sterilized methods. Conclusions For students with different majors and languages,different teaching key points should be paid attention to. Basic surgery techniques might be emphasized on for students with associ-ate clinical major and foreign students with poor Chinese language.%目的:评价不同专业和语言背景的学生动物外科手术学的学习情况,为提高教学质量提供依据。方法依据与临床手术操作工作的紧密程度,将南方医科大学2009级10个专业和2类留学生共1105人

  18. The human side of animal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2001-01-01

    An important element of behavioral research with nonhuman animals is that insights are drawn from it about human behavior, what is called here the human side of animal behavior. This article examines the origins of comparing human behavior to that of other animals, the ways in which such comparisons are described, and considerations that arise in evaluating the validity of those comparisons. The rationale for such an approach originated in the reductionism of experimental physiology and the u...

  19. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  20. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.