WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal experimental models

  1. Experimental Animal Models in Periodontology: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Struillou, Xavier; Boutigny, Hervé; Soueidan, Assem; Layrolle, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    In periodontal research, animal studies are complementary to in vitro experiments prior to testing new treatments. Animal models should make possible the validation of hypotheses and prove the safety and efficacy of new regenerating approaches using biomaterials, growth factors or stem cells. A review of the literature was carried out by using electronic databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Science). Numerous animal models in different species such as rats, hamsters, rabbits, ferrets, canines and pr...

  2. Modeling dopamine system dysfunction in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quite a substantial number of human disorders have been associated with a primary or a secondary impairment of one or several of the dopaminergic pathways. Among disorders associated with a primary impairment of dopaminergic transmission are Parkinson's disease, striatonigral degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and possibly schizophrenia. Diseases of secondary dopamine dysfunction are chiefly represented by Huntington's disease in which dopaminergic transmission is being interrupted by progressive loss of the striatal neurons bearing the postsynaptic D1- and D2-dopamine receptors. Central dopaminergic systems have anatomical as well as organizational properties that render them unique by comparison to other neurotransmission systems, making them able to play a pivotal role in the modulation of various important brain functions such as locomotor activity, attention, and some cognitive abilities. These properties of dopamine neurons have obviously several implications in the clinical expression of human disorders involving dopamine neuron dysfunction. In addition, they can greatly influence the clinical/behavioral consequences of experimental lesions in animal models of dopamine dysfunctions

  3. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronesi Paola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy. Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities.

  4. Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awar, Amin; Kupai, Krisztina; Veszelka, Médea; Szűcs, Gergő; Attieh, Zouhair; Murlasits, Zsolt; Török, Szilvia; Pósa, Anikó; Varga, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. Diabetes mellitus disease, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels for a prolonged time. To avoid late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic symptoms, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies. We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes in relation to its complications in type 1 and type 2 mice along with rat models, including Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, BB rats, LEW 1AR1/-iddm rats, Goto-Kakizaki rats, chemically induced diabetic models, and Nonobese Diabetic mouse, and Akita mice model. The advantages and disadvantages that these models comprise were also addressed in this review. This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans. PMID:27595114

  5. Rabbit as an animal model for experimental research

    OpenAIRE

    Manjeet Mapara; Betsy Sara Thomas; Bhat, K M

    2012-01-01

    Animal experimentation is carried out in consultation with the veterinary wing but it is essential that be familiar with experimental protocols of animal model to be able to design an approriate study. This is more so in place where the veterinary facilities are not easily available.Span Rabbits are commonly used as subjects for screening implant material. They have gained favour for their numerous advantages even though they should be ideally used prior to testing in a larger animal model. T...

  6. Instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Watanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animal models offer possibilities of physiology knowledge, pathogenesis of disease and action of drugs that are directly related to quality nursing care. This integrative review describes the current state of the instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models, including the main recommendations of ethics committees that focus on animal welfare and raises questions about the impact of their findings in nursing care. Data show that, in Brazil, the progress in ethics for the use of animals for scientific purposes was consolidated with Law No. 11.794/2008 establishing ethical procedures, attending health, genetic and experimental parameters. The application of ethics in handling of animals for scientific and educational purposes and obtaining consistent and quality data brings unquestionable contributions to the nurse, as they offer subsidies to relate pathophysiological mechanisms and the clinical aspect on the patient.

  7. Rabbit as an animal model for experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Mapara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal experimentation is carried out in consultation with the veterinary wing but it is essential that be familiar with experimental protocols of animal model to be able to design an approriate study. This is more so in place where the veterinary facilities are not easily available.Span Rabbits are commonly used as subjects for screening implant material. They have gained favour for their numerous advantages even though they should be ideally used prior to testing in a larger animal model. Though experimentation on rabbits seems to be easy there are many pitfalls. Our endeavor in this article is to integrate all the data about maintaining rabbits as a model and to critically analyze it on the basis of our experimentation.

  8. A systematic review of animal models for experimental neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, Francesca; Giesen, Thomas; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral neuromas can result in an unbearable neuropathic pain and functional impairment. Their treatment is still challenging, and their optimal management is to be defined. Experimental research still plays a major role, but - although numerous neuroma models have been proposed on different animals - there is still no single model recognised as being the reference. Several models show advantages over the others in specific aspects of neuroma physiopathology, prevention or treatment, making it unlikely that a single model could be of reference. A reproducible and standardised model of peripheral neuroma would allow better comparison of results from different studies. We present a systematic review of the literature on experimental in vivo models, analysing advantages and disadvantages, specific features and indications, with the goal of providing suggestions to help their standardisation. Published models greatly differ in the animal and the nerve employed, the mechanisms of nerve injury and the evaluation methods. Specific experimental models exist for terminal neuromas and neuromas in continuity (NIC). The rat is the most widely employed animal, the rabbit being the second most popular model. NIC models are more actively researched, but it is more difficult to generate such studies in a reproducible manner. Nerve transection is considered the best method to cause terminal neuromas, whereas partial transection is the best method to cause NIC. Traditional histomorphology is the historical gold-standard evaluation method, but immunolabelling, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and proteomics are gaining increasing popularity. Computerised gait analysis is the gold standard for motor-recovery evaluation, whereas mechanical testing of allodynia and hyperalgesia reproducibly assesses sensory recovery. This review summarises current knowledge on experimental neuroma models, and it provides a useful tool for defining experimental protocols

  9. Tupaia belangeri as an experimental animal model for viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2014-01-01

    Tupaias, or tree shrews, are small mammals that are similar in appearance to squirrels. The morphological and behavioral characteristics of the group have been extensively characterized, and despite previously being classified as primates, recent studies have placed the group in its own family, the Tupaiidae. Genomic analysis has revealed that the genus Tupaia is closer to humans than it is to rodents. In addition, tupaias are susceptible to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The only other experimental animal that has been demonstrated to be sensitive to both of these viruses is the chimpanzee, but restrictions on animal testing have meant that experiments using chimpanzees have become almost impossible. Consequently, the development of the tupaia for use as an animal infection model could become a powerful tool for hepatitis virus research and in preclinical studies on drug development. PMID:25048261

  10. Experimental animal data and modeling of late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section is restricted to radiation-induced life shortening and cancer and mainly to studies with external radiation. The emphasis will be on the experimental data that are available and the experimental systems that could provide the type of data with which to either formulate or test models. Genetic effects which are of concern are not discussed in this section. Experimental animal radiation studies fall into those that establish general principles and those that demonstrate mechanisms. General principles include the influence of dose, radiation quality, dose rate, fractionation, protraction and such biological factors as age and gender. The influence of these factors are considered as general principles because they are independent, at least qualitatively, of the species studied. For example, if an increase in the LET of the radiation causes an increased effectiveness in cancer induction in a mouse a comparable increase in effectiveness can be expected in humans. Thus, models, whether empirical or mechanistic, formulated from experimental animal data should be generally applicable

  11. Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirmala M; Girija K; Lakshman K; Divya T

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods:Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Results:Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M.paradisiaca. Conclusions: The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models.

  12. Phage therapy of staphylococcal chronic osteomyelitis in experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kishor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are the commonest cause of osteomyelitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of an alternative therapy i.e. application of S. aureus specific bacteriophages in cases of osteomyelitis caused by MRSA in animal model. Methods: Twenty two rabbits were included in this study. The first two rabbits were used to test the safety of phage cocktail while the remaining 20 rabbits were divided into three groups; group A (n=4 to assess the establishment of osteomyelitis; group B (n=4 osteomyelitis developed but therapy started only after six weeks; and group C (n=12 osteomyelitis developed and therapy started after three weeks. Groups B and C rabbits were treated with four doses of cocktail of seven virulent bacteriophages at the interval of 48 h. Comparison between three groups was made on the basis of observation of clinical, radiological, microbiological, and histopathological examinations. Results: Experimental group rabbits recovered from the illness in the subsequent two weeks of the therapy. Appetite and activity of the rabbits improved, local oedema, erythema and induration subsided. There were minimal changes associated with osteomyelitis in X-ray and histopathology also showed no signs of infection with new bone formation. Control B group rabbits also recovered well from the infection. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study shows a potential of phage therapy to treat difficult infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria.

  13. An Experimental Animal Model for Abdominal Fascia Healing after Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, J; Pommergaard, H-C; Klein, M;

    2013-01-01

    used to evaluate the actively healing fascia. Such an animal model may promote future research in the prevention of IH. Methods: 86 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish a model involving six experiments (experiments A-F). Mechanical testing of the breaking strength of the healed fascia was......Background: Incisional hernia (IH) is a well-known complication after abdominal surgical procedures. The exact etiology of IH is still unknown even though many risk factors have been suggested. The aim of this study was to create an animal model of a weakly healed abdominal fascia that could be...... performed by testing tissue strips from the healed fascia versus the unincised control fascia 7 and 28 days postoperatively. Results: During the six experiments a healing model was created that produced significantly weaker coherent fascia when compared with the control tissue measured in terms of...

  14. Phage therapy of staphylococcal chronic osteomyelitis in experimental animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Chandan Kishor; Raghvendra Raman Mishra; Saraf, Shyam K.; Mohan Kumar; Arvind K Srivastav; Gopal Nath

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are the commonest cause of osteomyelitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of an alternative therapy i.e. application of S. aureus specific bacteriophages in cases of osteomyelitis caused by MRSA in animal model. Methods: Twenty two rabbits were included in this study. The first two rabbits were used to test the safety of phage cocktail while the remaining 20 rabbits were divided into three groups; g...

  15. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  16. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  17. Lipid metabolism, adipocyte depot physiology and utilization of meat animals as experimental models for metabolic research

    OpenAIRE

    Michael V. Dodson, Gary J. Hausman, LeLuo Guan, Min Du, Theodore P. Rasmussen, Sylvia P. Poulos, Priya Mir, Werner G. Bergen, Melinda E. Fernyhough, Douglas C. McFarland, Robert P. Rhoads, Beatrice Soret, James M. Reecy, Sandra G. Velleman, Zhihua Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Meat animals are unique as experimental models for both lipid metabolism and adipocyte studies because of their direct economic value for animal production. This paper discusses the principles that regulate adipogenesis in major meat animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs), the definition of adipose depot-specific regulation of lipid metabolism or adipogenesis, and introduces the potential value of these animals as models for metabolic research including mammary biology and the ontogeny...

  18. Lipid metabolism, adipocyte depot physiology and utilization of meat animals as experimental models for metabolic research

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, Michael V.; Hausman, Gary J.; Guan, Leluo; Du, Min; Rasmussen, Theodore P.; Poulos, Sylvia P; Mir, Priya; Bergen, Werner G.; Fernyhough, Melinda E.; McFarland, Douglas C.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Soret Lafraya, Beatriz; Reecy, James M.; Velleman, Sandra G; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    Meat animals are unique as experimental models for both lipid metabolism and adipocyte studies because of their direct economic value for animal production. This paper discusses the principles that regulate adipogenesis in major meat animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, and pigs), the definition of adipose depot-specific regulation of lipid metabolism or adipogenesis, and introduces the potential value of these animals as models for metabolic research including mammary biology and the onto...

  19. The study of biological effects of electromagnetic mobile phone radiation on experimental animals by combining numerical modeling and experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Krstić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study biological effects of electromagneticradiation, it is essential to know the real values of field componentsthat penetrated the tissue. The study of biological effects is usuallyperformed on experimental animals. The biological effects observedon experimental animals should be linked with penetrating field inthe tissue. The penetrating electromagnetic field is almost impossibleto measure; therefore, modeling process must be carried out and thefield components in models of experimental animals could becalculated. This paper presents an approach to modeling of fieldpenetration and gives contribution to understanding the real effects of the fields and the sensitivity of tissues to electromagnetic radiation generated by mobile phone.

  20. Hepatoprotective activity of Annona squamosa Linn. on experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Mohamed Saleem

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Natural remedies from medicinal plants are considered to be effective and safe alternative treatment for liver toxicity. Our aim was to demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of alcoholic and water extract of Annona squamosa (custard apple hepatotoxic animals with a view to explore its use for the treatment of hepatotoxicity in human. These extracts were used to study the Hepatoprotective effect in isoniazid + rifampicin induced hepatotoxic model. There was a significant decrease in total bilirubin accompanied by significant increase in the level of total protein and also significant decrease in ALP, AST, ALT and γ-GT in treatment group as compared to the hepatotoxic group. In the histopathological study the hepatotoxic group showed hepatocytic necrosis and inflammation in the centrilobular region with portal triaditis. The treatment group showed minimal inflammation with moderate portal triaditis and their lobular architecture was normal. It should be concluded that the extracts of Annona squamosa were not able to revert completely hepatic injury induced by isoniazid + rifampicin, but it could limit the effect of these drugs in liver. The effect of extracts compared with standard drug silymarin.   Industrial relevance: A clear definition of herbal product is required at this stage, so as to provide a proper focus and strategy for the development of the industry. The development of herbal products only as medicinal inputs would clearly identify the potential beneficiaries and enable the medical practitioners to recognize the products as such. This would inevitably lead to quicker development in the field and pave the way for providing a scientific and technological explanation and justification for the use of the products in the medicinal sector. Today a substantial number of drugs are developed from plants. The majority of these involve the isolation of active ingredient found in a particular medicinal plant and its subsequent

  1. The study of biological effects of electromagnetic mobile phone radiation on experimental animals by combining numerical modeling and experimental research

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Krstić; Darko Zigar; Dušan Sokolović; Boris Đinđić; Branka Đorđević; Momir Dunjić; Goran Ristić

    2012-01-01

    In order to study biological effects of electromagneticradiation, it is essential to know the real values of field componentsthat penetrated the tissue. The study of biological effects is usuallyperformed on experimental animals. The biological effects observedon experimental animals should be linked with penetrating field inthe tissue. The penetrating electromagnetic field is almost impossibleto measure; therefore, modeling process must be carried out and thefield components in models of exp...

  2. Experimental autoimmune uveitis and other animal models of uveitis: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Svati Bansal; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Daiju Iwata; Rupesh Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, animal models of autoimmune uveitis directed at eye-specific antigens (Ags) have been developed. These have allowed researchers to understand the basic mechanisms that lead to these diseases and also recently helped the researchers in translational research for therapeutic interventions. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is an animal disease model of human endogenous uveitis and can be induced in susceptible animals by immunization with retinal Ags. Ever sin...

  3. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Popa V.I.; Lascar I.; Valcu M.; Sebe Ioana Teona; Caraban B.; Margina Arina Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  4. Bioethics in animal experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa V.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal experiments are used on a large scale worldwide in order to develop or to refine new medicines, medicinal products or surgical procedures. It is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer, this is why animal experimentation causes serious moral problems.

  5. Evaluating the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants in animal models: Current experimental methods and perspectives (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuska, Vaclav; Moztarzadeh, Omid; Kubikova, Tereza; Moztarzadeh, Amin; Hrusak, Daniel; Tonar, Zbynek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the experimental methods currently being used to evaluate the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants using animal models. The material modifications are linked to the biocompatibility of various types of oral implants, such as laser-treated, acid-etched, plasma-coated, and sand-blasted surface modifications. The types of implants are reviewed according to their implantation site (endoosseous, subperiosteal, and transosseous implants). The animal species and target bones used in experimental implantology are carefully compared in terms of the ratio of compact to spongy bone. The surgical technique in animal experiments is briefly described, and all phases of the histological evaluation of osseointegration are described in detail, including harvesting tissue samples, processing undemineralized ground sections, and qualitative and quantitative histological assessment of the bone-implant interface. The results of histological staining methods used in implantology are illustrated and compared. A standardized and reproducible technique for stereological quantification of bone-implant contact is proposed and demonstrated. In conclusion, histological evaluation of the experimental osseointegration of dental implants requires careful selection of the experimental animals, bones, and implantation sites. It is also advisable to use larger animal models and older animals with a slower growth rate rather than small or growing experimental animals. Bones with a similar ratio of compact to spongy bone, such as the human maxilla and mandible, are preferred. A number of practical recommendations for the experimental procedures, harvesting of samples, tissue processing, and quantitative histological evaluations are provided. PMID:27421518

  6. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Christian; Luedde, Tom; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Scholten, David; Streetz, Konrad; Tacke, Frank; Tolba, René; Trautwein, Christian; Trebicka, Jonel; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of inflammatoryand autoimmune diseases in experimental animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew W Klinker; Cheng-Hong Wei

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [also known asmesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are currently beingstudied as a cell-based treatment for inflammatorydisorders. Experimental animal models of humanimmune-mediated diseases have been instrumental inestablishing their immunosuppressive properties. Inthis review, we summarize recent studies examiningthe effectiveness of MSCs as immunotherapy in severalwidely-studied animal models, including type 1 diabetes,experimental autoimmune arthritis, experimentalautoimmune encephalomyelitis, inflammatory boweldisease, graft-vs -host disease, and systemic lupuserythematosus. In addition, we discuss mechanismsidentified by which MSCs mediate immune suppressionin specific disease models, and potential sources offunctional variability of MSCs between studies.

  8. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  9. Experimental Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-01-01

    It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals...

  10. Experimental animal models and inflammatory cellular changes in cerebral ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Tao; Chopp, Michael; Chen, Jieli

    2015-01-01

    Stroke, including cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, is the leading cause of long-term disability and death worldwide. Animal models have greatly contributed to our understanding of the risk factors and the pathophysiology of stroke, as well as the development of therapeutic strategies for its treatment. Further development and investigation of experimental models, however, are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of stroke and to enhance and expand nove...

  11. Biokinetic models for radionuclides in experimental animals; Modelos biocineticos de radionucleidos en animales de experimentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcillo, M. A. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The biokinetic models for many radionuclides are, to a large extent, based on data obtained in experimental animals. The methods used in the experimental development of a biokinetic model can be classified in two groups (i) those applied during the experimental work, which include the activity determination of a given radionuclide at different times and in different biological media such as blood, serum, organs/tissues, urine, bile and faeces and (ii) those methods used for the analysis and study of the experimental data, based in mathematical tools. Some of these methods are reviewed,with special emphasis in the whole body macro autoradiography. To conclude, the contribution that this type of studies can have in two fields of radiation protection is discussed, namely optimization of dosimetric evaluations and decorporation of radionuclides. (Author)

  12. Effects of exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (an animal model of multiple sclerosis)

    OpenAIRE

    Klaren, Rachel E; Motl, Robert W.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training has improved many outcomes in “clinical” research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is limited understanding of the underlying “basic” pathophysiological mechanisms. The animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), seems ideal for examining the effects of exercise training on MS-disease pathophysiology. EAE is an autoimmune T-helper cell-mediated disease characterized by T-cell and monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the ...

  13. Investigation of nutriactive phytochemical - gamma-oryzanol in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szcześniak, K A; Ostaszewski, P; Ciecierska, A; Sadkowski, T

    2016-08-01

    Gamma-oryzanol (GO) is an abundant dietary antioxidant that is considered to have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Other potential properties of GO include inhibition of gastric acid secretion and decreased post-exercise muscle fatigue. GO is a unique mixture of triterpene alcohol and sterol ferulates present in rice bran oil, a byproduct of rice processing. GO has been studied by many researchers over the last three decades. In particular, the utility of GO supplementation has been documented in numerous animal models. A large variety of species was examined, and various experimental methodologies and targets were applied. The aim of this study was to summarize the body of research on GO supplementation in animals and to examine possible mechanisms of GO action. Furthermore, while the safety of GO supplementation in animals has been well documented, studies demonstrating pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and efficiency are less clear. The observed differences in these findings are also discussed. PMID:26718022

  14. Effects of exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (an animal model of multiple sclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaren, Rachel E; Motl, Robert W; Woods, Jeffrey A; Miller, Stephen D

    2014-09-15

    Exercise training has improved many outcomes in "clinical" research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is limited understanding of the underlying "basic" pathophysiological mechanisms. The animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), seems ideal for examining the effects of exercise training on MS-disease pathophysiology. EAE is an autoimmune T-helper cell-mediated disease characterized by T-cell and monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the CNS. To that end, this paper briefly describes common models of EAE, reviews existing research on exercise and EAE, and then identifies future research directions for understanding the consequences of exercise training using EAE. PMID:24999244

  15. Effects of exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (an animal model of multiple sclerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Motl, Robert W.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has improved many outcomes in “clinical” research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is limited understanding of the underlying “basic” pathophysiological mechanisms. The animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), seems ideal for examining the effects of exercise training on MS-disease pathophysiology. EAE is an autoimmune T-helper cell-mediated disease characterized by T-cell and monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the CNS. To that end, this paper briefly describes common models of EAE, reviews existing research on exercise and EAE, and then identifies future research directions for understanding the consequences of exercise training using EAE. PMID:24999244

  16. Animal model of atherosclerosis using rabbit experimentally induced by combination of X-ray and hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to prepare an animal model of atherosclerosis similar to human lesions. The experimental animals were male Japanese white rabbits weighting about 2 kg. Hypercholesterolemia was experimentally induced by giving a 1% cholesterol diet. Four weeks later, a single dose of 45 Gy was delivered to the femur to produce vascular changes. Soon after irradiation, immunohistochemical examination revealed the adhesion and invasion of macrophages to endothelial cells, followed by accumulation of foam cells and thickness of the intimal plaques. Three months after irradiation, these thickened plaques became fibrotic, calcified, and necrotic. The tunica media was thinned and the internal elastic lamella was destroyed. Irradiated arteries exhibited not only severe narrowing of the lumen but also aneurysmal dilation and the lesions of the irradiated arteries resembled human atherosclerosis. In conclusion, the atherosclerotic model produced by combining experimental hypercholesterolemia and X-ray irradiaiton may serve as a useful model for studies on atherosclerosis because it can be prepared with no need of complicated or time-consuming procedures. (N.K.)

  17. Animal experimental model of Peyronie’s disease: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Cerruto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Peyronie's disease (PD is an idiopathic disorder of connective tissue of the penis, that involves the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa and the adjacent areolar space. It is a growing clinical evidence to support the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells and histological findings has assumed a possible application of lipofilling technique in patients with PD. The objective of this experimental study is the creation of a murine experimental model of PD, evaluating with MRI the penis of the rats (feasibility study, in order to plane the application of lipofilling technique in an animal model. Methods: Four male Wistar rats were anesthetized, fixed in prone position and subjected to MRI. The animals underwent, subsequently, an injection of thrombin in the tunica albuginea and MRI images were acquired at 7 and 21 days after injection with incision of the dartos. Results: The MRI acquisitions, both in coronal and axial projection, showed an adequate visibility of the anatomical structures. At 7 days after thrombin injection with the dartos incision it was evident an oedematous portion, visible as a hyperintense area, located at the injection area. At 21 days after injection, oedema was partially resolved: the injection part of the hyperintense area remains unchanged, while the remaining area appears to be part of a re-absorption and re-organization process. Conclusions: Since none of the various treatment modalities currently available for the management of PD is able to bring healing, the researchers’ attention is increasingly directed towards innovative treatment programs, such as the use of stem cells of mesenchymal origin. At the present time, the research in PD is hampered by the lack of universally accepted animal model and this is likely attributed to the limited insight into PD mechanisms and the difficulties faced by current animal models to truly represent the complexity.

  18. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  19. Role of adipose-derived stromal cells in pedicle skin flap survival in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroglou, Pericles; Karathanasis, Vasileios; Demiri, Efterpi; Koliakos, George; Papadakis, Marios

    2016-03-26

    The use of skin flaps in reconstructive surgery is the first-line surgical treatment for the reconstruction of skin defects and is essentially considered the starting point of plastic surgery. Despite their excellent usability, their application includes general surgical risks or possible complications, the primary and most common is necrosis of the flap. To improve flap survival, researchers have used different methods, including the use of adipose-derived stem cells, with significant positive results. In our research we will report the use of adipose-derived stem cells in pedicle skin flap survival based on current literature on various experimental models in animals. PMID:27022440

  20. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Liedtke, Christian; Luedde, Tom; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Scholten, David; Streetz, Konrad; Tacke, Frank; Tolba, René; Trautwein, Christian; Trebicka, Jonel; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 20...

  1. The Retrograde Ventriculosinusal Shunt in an Animal Experimental Model of Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Fernando Campos Gomes; Becco, Rodrigo; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Luiz Francisco; Souza, Podalyro Amaral de; Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes de; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2016-01-01

    Currently, hydrocephalus treatment is performed mainly with ventriculoperitoneal shunting. This experimental study aims at assessing whether the experimental model of hydrocephalus in dogs is applicable to the laboratory study of the retrograde ventriculosinusal shunt (RVSS). Four mongrel dogs were assessed. After randomization, the animals were divided into two groups: an experimental group that underwent the induction of hydrocephalus/RVSS and a control group, for the measurement of the mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure and pressure in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). The controls presented a mean arterial pressure of 68 mm Hg (71 and 65), an intracranial pressure of 163 mm H2O (149.6 and 176.8) and a pressure at the SSS of 40 mm H2O (40 and 40). The kaolin injection into the cisterna magna at a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml was capable of inducing the clinical and radiological mechanism of hydrocephalus (intracranial pressure = 250 mm H2O, pressure at the SSS = 50 mm H2O). The caliber of the SSS was 2.5 ± 1.0 mm. The fact that the SSS caliber of the dog was the same size as the external diameter of the catheter used resulted in the complete obstruction of the SSS when the catheter was inserted. We believe we could design and perform an experimental model to test the RVSS. It is applicable and feasible. The model of hydrocephalus, the surgical apparatus and the scenario were adequate, but the shunt system needs to be proportionally made to the canine anatomy. PMID:26942592

  2. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment. PMID:27604715

  3. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Shimamura; Nobuo Kubota; Kazutoshi Shibuya

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the presen...

  4. Teaching Neurophysiology, Neuropharmacology, and Experimental Design Using Animal Models of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsink, Maarten C.; Dukers, Danny F.

    2009-01-01

    Animal models have been widely used for studying the physiology and pharmacology of psychiatric and neurological diseases. The concepts of face, construct, and predictive validity are used as indicators to estimate the extent to which the animal model mimics the disease. Currently, we used these three concepts to design a theoretical assignment to…

  5. Study of analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Mukherjee, Meghali Chaliha and Swarnamoni Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the central and peripheral analgesic action of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus in experimental animal models. The extract was prepared by percolation method and acute oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flick method (for central action and glacial acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and aspirin (100 mg/kg showed significant peripheral analgesic activity (p<0.05. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and pethidine (50 mg/kg, i.p. also showed significant central analgesic activity (p<0.05. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c. was used to find the mechanism of central analgesic action. Some partial agonistic activity for the opioid receptors seems to be probable mechanism of action.

  6. Experimental Psychiatric Illness and Drug Abuse Models: From Human to Animal, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical animal models have supported much of the recent rapid expansion of neuroscience research and have facilitated critical discoveries that undoubtedly benefit patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. This overview serves as an introduction for the following chapters describing both in vivo and in vitro preclinical models of psychiatric disease components and briefly describes models related to drug dependence and affective disorders. Although there are no perfect animal models ...

  7. Increased wall thickness using ultrasonography is associated with inflammation in an animal model of experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lied GA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gülen Arslan Lied,1 Anne Marita Milde,2 Kim Nylund,1,3 Maja Mujic,1 Tore Grimstad,1,4 Trygve Hausken,1,3 Odd Helge Gilja1,31Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway; 2Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway; 3National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 4Division of Gastroenterology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: Experimentally induced colitis is used in animals to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease. When following disease course and treatment effects, it should be possible to perform repeated measurements without harming the animals. This pilot study was performed to investigate whether transabdominal ultrasound using a clinical scanner could be used on rats to demonstrate bowel inflammation in an experimental colitis model. Colitis was induced by either 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water for 7 days or a single dose of intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Using ultrasonography, wall thickness of distal colon, cecum, and small bowel was recorded prior to and after DSS, and prior to, 2, and 7 days after TNBS. Blood (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha and fecal samples (HemoFEC occult blood were taken from each group on the same days as sonography. Thereafter, rats were killed and specimens for histology were taken. Wall thickness of distal colon, not of cecum or small bowel, increased significantly after 7 days of DSS, and wall thickness of both distal colon and small bowel increased on day 2 and 7 after TNBS. TNF-alpha increased after 7 days in the latter group only. There was a significant correlation between ultrasonographic measurements and combined histology score of distal colon in the DSS group. HemoFEC was also positive in accordance with sonographic and histological features. Increased intestinal wall thickness in response to both DSS- and TNBS

  8. The Importance of Cognitive Phenotypes in Experimental Modeling of Animal Anxiety and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kalueff, Allan V.; Murphy, Dennis L.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunctions are commonly seen in many stress-related disorders, including anxiety and depression—the world's most common neuropsychiatric illnesses. Various genetic, pharmacological, and behavioral animal models have long been used to establish animal anxiety-like and depression-like phenotypes, as well as to assess their memory, learning, and other cognitive functions. Mounting clinical and animal evidences strongly supports the notion that disturbed cognitions repr...

  9. The ethics of animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lane-Petter, W.

    2007-01-01

    Animal experimentation arouses great emotion in many people, perhaps more especially in Britain, and this has increased as more sophisticated medical and non-medical animal experiments are demanded by modern research. The Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 is the only legal regulation of experiments in animals, and many of its clauses are ambiguous. So in 1963 a committee of enquiry - the Littlewood Committee - was set up. Dr Lane-Petter examines the emotional and factual background to the enquir...

  10. How To Become a Top Model: Impact of Animal Experimentation on Human Salmonella Disease Research ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolis, Renée M.; Xavier, Mariana N.; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sus...

  11. Understanding the cognitive consequences of critical illness through experimental animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Gunther, Max; English, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Tuon and colleagues have developed an animal model to examine the impact of sepsis on memory in rats. They report important data that expand the understanding of the cognitive consequences of critical illness. Future research should follow this path of inquiry and extend animal models beyond aversive conditioning to include recently developed paradigms that will permit assessment of complex and cognitive processes, such as attention, episodic memory and orientation to time and place. This has...

  12. Reduced animal use in efficacy testing in disease models with use of sequential experimental designs.

    OpenAIRE

    Waterton JC, Middleton BJ, Pickford R, Allott CP, Checkley D, Keith RA.

    2000-01-01

    Although the use of animals in efficacy tests has declined substantially, there remains a small number of well-documented disease models which provide essential information about the efficacy of new compounds. Such models are typically used after extensive in vitro testing, to evaluate small numbers of compounds and to select the most promising agents for clinical trial in humans. The aim of this study was to reduce the number of animals required to achieve valid results, without compromising...

  13. Preliminary studies on local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr. in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Family: Compositae is a herb that grows throughout the tropics. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, fever, sore throat, and hemorrhoids. A tincture of the flowers is used to relieve toothache. The leaves and flowers produce numbness of the tongue when eaten as salad. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of S. acmella in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : Aqueous extract of S. acmella Murr. (SAM was tested for local anesthetic action by (i intracutaneous wheal in guinea pigs and (ii plexus anesthesia in frogs. In both the models, 2% xylocaine was used as the standard drug. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Aspirin 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Result : The test drug in concentrations of 10% and 20% produced 70.36% and 87.02% anesthesia respectively by the intracutaneous wheal compared to 97.22% anesthetic effect produced by 2% xylocaine (P<0.001. The mean onset of anesthesia with the test drug was 5.33±0.57 min compared to 2.75±0.31 min (P<0.001 for the standard drug in the plexus anesthesia model. In the anti-pyretic model, ASA in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg produced dose-dependent reduction in mean temperature at various hours of observation. Conclusion : The present study shows that SAM has significant local anesthetic and antipyretic activities.

  14. Experimental animal model for analyzing immunobiological responses following vaccination with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akihito; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccine was developed in the 1960s. However, this vaccine does not prevent infection in RSV-naïve recipients and has the paradoxical effect of increasing the severity of RSV illness following natural infection, which has been a major obstacle to developing RSV vaccines. Several experimental animal models for determining the cause of the severe symptoms in FI-RSV recipients have been developed. In the present study, cotton rats immunized with FI-RSV were challenged with RSV and histopathological findings and recovery of infectious virus were studied. Copy numbers of mRNA of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were measured in lung tissues to gain better understanding of their immune responses. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and prominent interstitial pneumonitis were observed in the FI-RSV group, as was induction of mRNA of Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and RANTES. Rats immunized with recombinant measles virus expressing the RSV F protein (MVAIK/RSV/F) and those treated with anti-RSV mAb (palivizumab) showed very mild interstitial pneumonitis. Amounts of mRNA of IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-4 were higher in the MVAIK/RSV/F group. Administration of palivizumab before RSV challenge decreased the severity of interstitial pneumonitis in the FI-RSV group. FI-RSV induced skewed Th2 responses, resulting in severe inflammatory responses. PMID:26865035

  15. Cisplatin-Induced Non-Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury in a Pediatric Experimental Animal Model in Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Maria José; Fernández, Sarah Nicole; Lázaro, Alberto; González, Rafael; Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; Solana, Maria José; Toledo, Blanca; del Castillo, Jimena; Tejedor, Alberto; López-Herce, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objective To design an experimental pediatric animal model of acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin. Methods Prospective comparative observational animal study in two different phases. Acute kidney injury was induced using three different doses of cisplatin (2, 3 and 5 mg/kg). The development of nephrotoxicity was assessed 2 to 4 days after cisplatin administration by estimating biochemical parameters, diuresis and renal morphology. Analytical values and renal morphology were compared betw...

  16. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  17. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis in experimental animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam Mandal; Chandan Chatterjee; Mitali Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bougainvillea spectabilis (BS) (family Nyctaginaceae) is said to possess hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. We had set forward to examine the potential anti-inflammatory activities of BS in experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Fresh dried leaves from the flowering plant of BS were collected from the local area during the flowering season and air dried (215.00 g). Methanol was extracted, and the solvent was removed on a rot...

  18. Development of an Animal Experimental Model for a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Suk Jung; Kim, Kun Il; Park, Nam Hee; Song, Jong Min; Choi, In Cheol; Shim, Jee Yeon; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Young Joo; Kim, Chang Nyung; Lee, Jae Won

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a pre-clinical large animal model for the in vivo hemodynamic testing of prosthetic valves in the aortic position without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass. Ten male pigs were used. A composite valved conduit was constructed in the operating room by implanting a prosthetic valve between two separate pieces of vascular conduits, which bypassed the ascending aorta to the descending aorta. Prior to applying a side-biting clamp to the ascending aorta f...

  19. Circuit Models and Experimental Noise Measurements of Micropipette Amplifiers for Extracellular Neural Recordings from Live Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Hao Chen; Sio Hang Pun; Peng Un Mak; Vai, Mang I.; Achim Klug; Lei, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    Glass micropipettes are widely used to record neural activity from single neurons or clusters of neurons extracellularly in live animals. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive study of noise in extracellular recordings with glass micropipettes. The purpose of this work was to assess various noise sources that affect extracellular recordings and to create model systems in which novel micropipette neural amplifier designs can be tested. An equivalent circuit of the glass micropipett...

  20. Development of an animal experimental model to study the effects of levonorgestrel on the human endometrium

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Gonzalez, Maria-Luz; Galant, C.; Frankenne, F.; Nisolle, Michelle; Labied, Soraya; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Marbaix, E; Beliard, Aude

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to develop an animal model to test the response of endometrium to local progestin delivery. METHODS: Proliferative human endometrium was subcutaneously grafted in two groups of SCID mice that received, 2 days before, a subcutaneous estradiol (E2) pellet and, for half of them, an additional implant of levonorgestrel (LNG). Mice were sacrificed 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after endometrial implantation and grafts were histologically analysed. Proliferation, stero...

  1. Experimental Autoimmune Vasculitis : An Animal Model of Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody-Associated Systemic Vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Mark A.; Smyth, Lucy; Salama, Alan D; Mukherjee, Sriparna; Smith, Jennifer; Haskard, Dorian; Nourshargh, Sussan; Cook, H. Terence; Charles D. Pusey

    2009-01-01

    The morbidity burden associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis is increasing, and many novel biological therapies are now entering the drug development pipeline. There is thus an urgent need to develop a representative animal model to facilitate testing of these agents. We previously examined the effect of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in WKY rats via immunization with human myeloperoxidase. We now seek to ex...

  2. The Development and the Use of Experimental Animal Models to Study the Underlying Mechanisms of CA Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiro Aoki; Masaki Nishimura

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysms (CAs) have a high prevalence and can cause a lethal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Currently, CAs can only be treated with invasive surgical procedures. To unravel the underlying mechanisms of CA formation and to develop new therapeutic drugs for CAs, animal models of CA have been established, modified, and analyzed. Experimental findings from these models have clarified some of the potential mechanisms of CA formation, especially the relationship between hemodynamic stress and c...

  3. COMPARISON OF ANTI - INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALPINIA GALANGAL IN THREE EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venuturumilli Lakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is not a disease but a non - specific response of the body defence 1 . Anti - inflammatory drugs have become popular because of their ability in controlling the inflammatory reaction and mitigating the suffering in such clinical situations. Edema represents the early phase of inflammation. 2 In the present study acute and subacute experimental methods were compared with standard drug Indomethacin. R at hind paw edema, formalin induced peritonitis in mice were used as acute methods, paper disc induced granuloma in rats was used as subacute method. Institutional animal ethics committee permission was taken for all the methods as per CPCSEA guide lines. Inflammation was induced by the following 3 methods: i Hind paw edema was produced by sub plantar injection of 0.1ml of1% carrageenin 3 and paw volume was measured by digital plethysmometer at 0, 3hours. ii Intraperitoneal injection of 1.5% formalin 3 was given to albino mice in peritonitis method and ascitic fluid was measured after 6hours by sacrificing the animals. iii Under ether anesthesia, sterilized &weighed paper discs were implanted subcutaneously in each axilla and groin of male wistar rats sutur ed under sterilized conditions in granuloma 4 method. The discs were cleared of extraneous tissue, dried and weighed on the 5 th day by sacrificing the animals. In all the methods 6 animals in each group (test, standard and control were taken. Results were tabulated in each method separately and statistical analysis was done by student t test. P value < 0.05 considered significant. Percentage inhibition in each method was calculated.

  4. Plasma rico em plaquetas de coelhos: introdução a um modelo animal experimental Platelet-rich plasma in rabbits: introduction of one experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Oliveira-Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Muitas dúvidas ainda permanecem no que se refere às ações dos fatores de crescimento e do plasma rico em plaquetas sobre o mecanismo de reparação tissular. Há necessidade de serem esclarecidos pontos controversos ainda existentes. OBJETIVO: Obter o plasma rico em plaquetas em coelhos através de um método simplificado e ao mesmo tempo adequado, introduzindo um modelo experimental que possa ser utilizado em estudos posteriores. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 25 coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia e sem doenças prévias. Quinze mL de sangue de cada animal foi coletado, sendo 10 mL submetidos à dupla centrifugação. Para comprovar a efetividade do método proposto realizou-se contagem mecânica do sangue, bem como do produto final. RESULTADO: Obteve-se uma concentração média de plaquetas no plasma rico em plaquetas 687% maior que a contagem inicial observada no sangue venoso periférico. Para as variáveis: contagem inicial de plaquetas, contagem de plaquetas no plasma rico em plaquetas e enriquecimento, foram obtidos os limites de 95% de confiança para suas médias, sendo que, no que se refere ao percentual de enriquecimento, existe 95% de chance de que o intervalo de (530-844 contenha a média real de enriquecimento de plaquetas. CONCLUSÃO: O método simplificado utilizado permite a obtenção de plasma rico em plaquetas adequado permitindo seu uso em estudos dos fatores de crescimento nos mecanismos de reparação tecidual.BACKGROUND: Multiple uncertainties still exist about the action of the growth factors and the platelet-rich plasma on the mechanism of repair. AIM: To obtain the platelet-rich plasma in rabbits through a simplified and suitable method, creating an experimental model. METHODS: Twenty-five female New Zealand rabbits without previous diseases were used. Fifteen mL of blood of each rabbit was collected and 10 mL of the collected blood were twice centrifugated. To check the effectiveness of the proposed method

  5. Animal husbandry and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    If the scientist needs to contact the animal facility after any study to inquire about husbandry details, this represents a lost opportunity, which can ultimately interfere with the study results and their interpretation. There is a clear tendency for authors to describe methodological procedures down to the smallest detail, but at the same time to provide minimal information on animals and their husbandry. Controlling all major variables as far as possible is the key issue when establishing an experimental design. The other common mechanism affecting study results is a change in the variation. Factors causing bias or variation changes are also detectable within husbandry. Our lives and the lives of animals are governed by cycles: the seasons, the reproductive cycle, the weekend-working days, the cage change/room sanitation cycle, and the diurnal rhythm. Some of these may be attributable to routine husbandry, and the rest are cycles, which may be affected by husbandry procedures. Other issues to be considered are consequences of in-house transport, restrictions caused by caging, randomization of cage location, the physical environment inside the cage, the acoustic environment audible to animals, olfactory environment, materials in the cage, cage complexity, feeding regimens, kinship, and humans. Laboratory animal husbandry issues are an integral but underappreciated part of investigators' experimental design, which if ignored can cause major interference with the results. All researchers should familiarize themselves with the current routine animal care of the facility serving them, including their capabilities for the monitoring of biological and physicochemical environment. PMID:25541541

  6. Experimental animal models for studies on the mechanisms of blast induced neurotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MårtenRisling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED in current military conflicts. Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal.” BINT is characterized by extreme forces and their complex propagation. Modern body protection and the development of armored military vehicles can be assumed to have changed the outcome of BINT. Primary blast injuries are caused by overpressure waves whereas secondary, tertiary and quaternary blast injuries can have more varied origins such as the impact of fragments, abnormal movements or heat. The characteristics of the blast wave can be assumed to be significantly different in open field detonations compared to explosions in a confined space, such an armored vehicle. Important parameters include peak pressure, duration and shape of the pulse. Reflections from walls and armor can make the prediction of effects in individual cases very complex. Epidemiological data do not contain information of the relative importance of the different blast mechanisms. It is therefore important to generate data in carefully designed animal models. Such models can be selective reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial importance that the physical parameters of the employed models are well characterized so that the experiments can be reproduced in different laboratory settings. Ideally, pressure recordings should be calibrated by using the same equipment in several laboratories. With carefully designed models and thoroughly evaluated animal data it should be possible to achieve a translation of data between animal and clinical data. Imaging and computer simulation represent a possible link

  7. Abdominal ventral hernia repair with current biological prostheses: an experimental large animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwix, Matthew G; Nam, Arthur J; Hui-Chou, Helen G; Ferrari, Jonathan P; Aberman, Harold M; Hawes, Michael L; Keledjian, Kaspar M; Jones, Luke S; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2011-04-01

    Biologic prostheses have emerged to address the limitations of synthetic materials for ventral hernia repairs; however, they lack experimental comparative data. Fifteen swine were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 bioprosthetic groups (DermaMatrix, AlloDerm, and Permacol) after creation of a full thickness ventral fascial defect. At 15 weeks, host incorporation, hernia recurrence, adhesion formation, neovascularization, inflammation, and biomechanical properties were assessed. No animals had hernia recurrence or eventration. DermaMatrix and Alloderm implants demonstrated more adhesions, greater inflammatory infiltration, and more longitudinal laxity, but near identical neovascularization and tensile strength to Permacol. We found that porcine acellular dermal products (Permacol) contain following essential properties of an ideal ventral hernia repair material: low inflammation, less elastin and stretch, lower adhesion rates and cost, and more contracture. The addition of lower cost xenogeneic acellular dermal products to the repertoire of available acellular dermal products demonstrates promise, but requires long-term clinical studies to verify advantages and efficacy. PMID:21042180

  8. Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa) as an Animal Model for Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauri, Verónica; Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E; Verastegui, Manuela; Angulo, Noelia; Recuenco, Fernando; Cabello, Ines; Malaga, Edith; Bern, Caryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    Pigs were infected with a Bolivian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (genotype I) and evaluated up to 150 days postinoculation (dpi) to determine the use of pigs as an animal model of Chagas disease. Parasitemia was observed in the infected pigs during the acute phase (15-40 dpi). Anti-T. cruzi immunoglobulin M was detected during 15-75 dpi; high levels of anti-T. cruzi immunoglobulin G were detected in all infected pigs from 75 to 150 dpi. Parasitic DNA was observed by western blot (58%, 28/48) and polymerase chain reaction (27%, 13/48) in urine samples, and in the brain (75%, 3/4), spleen (50%, 2/4), and duodenum (25%, 1/4), but no parasitic DNA was found in the heart, colon, and kidney. Parasites were not observed microscopically in tissues samples, but mild inflammation, vasculitis, and congestion was observed in heart, brain, kidney, and spleen. This pig model was useful for the standardization of the urine test because of the higher volume that can be obtained as compared with other small animal models. However, further experiments are required to observe pathological changes characteristic of Chagas disease in humans. PMID:26928841

  9. A comparative study of analgesic property of whole plant and fruit extracts of Fragaria vesca in experimental animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Lalit Kanodia; Swarnamoni Das

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of fruits and whole plant of Fragaria vesca in experimental animal models. The extracts were prepared by percolation method and oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flickmethod (for central action) and acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action). Fruit extract, whole plant extract and aspirin showed significant analgesic activity, both ...

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities A of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apparecido N. Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia caryophyllata, popular name "clove", is grown naturally in Indonesia and cultivated in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Clove is used in cooking, food processing, pharmacy; perfumery, cosmetics and the clove oil (eugenol have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions include use in dental care, as an antiseptic and analgesic. The objective of this study was evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of eugenol used for dentistry purposes following oral administration in animal models in vivo. The anti-inflammatory activity of eugenol was evaluated by inflammatory exudates volume and leukocytes migration in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests in rats. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests in mice. Eugenol (200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the volume of pleural exudates without changing the total blood leukocyte counts. At dose of 200 mg/kg, eugenol significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema, 2-4 h after injection of the flogistic agent. In the hot-plate test, eugenol administration (100 mg/kg showed unremarkable activity against the time-to-discomfort reaction, recorded as response latency, which is blocked by meperidine. Eugenol at doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg had a significant antinociceptive effect in the test of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, compared to the control animals. The data suggest that eugenol possesses anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activities.

  11. Evaluation of agents to detect inflammatory foci using an experimental animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have evaluated the propensities of four agents- two metal complexes and two protein species, viz. 67Ga-citrate, 99mTc-citrate, 99mTc-human immunoglobulin (99mTc-HIG); and 99mTc-human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA), for localization of (turpentine- induced) inflammatory lesions in a rat and rabbit animal model systems. All these radiopharmaceuticals showed fairly good uptake in inflammatory lesions. 99mTc-HIG, 99mTc-HSA and 67Ga-citrate showed slower blood clearance and higher liver uptakes. On the other hand 99mTc-citrate demonstrated faster blood clearance and negligible liver and gut accumulation. The respective inflamed/normal muscle (IM/NM) ratios obtained with these agents in this animal model were in the following order: 99mTc-HIG>99mTc-HSA> 67Ga-citrate>99mTc-citrate at 5 h post injection. Although the IM/NM was relatively low in the case of 99mTc-citrate as compared with other radiopharmaceuticals the inflammation could be detected within 1-3 h. post injection because of the higher activities that could be injected with this radiopharmaceutical. Since 99mTc-citrate is predominantly excreted via renal pathway it is rapidly cleared from blood and shows fairly good accumulation in infection/inflammatory lesions at early time periods along with low uptakes in liver and adjacent organs. This agent can therefore be beneficially used to detect the abdominal abscess(es)/inflammation(s) within 1-3 h post injection. Because of its favourable characteristics, physical, biological, clinical, and even cost-effectiveness, it is suggested that 99mTc-citrate could be tried out as an agent for detection of inflammation including abdominal and vertebral abscess(es). (author)

  12. Circuit Models and Experimental Noise Measurements of Micropipette Amplifiers for Extracellular Neural Recordings from Live Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass micropipettes are widely used to record neural activity from single neurons or clusters of neurons extracellularly in live animals. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive study of noise in extracellular recordings with glass micropipettes. The purpose of this work was to assess various noise sources that affect extracellular recordings and to create model systems in which novel micropipette neural amplifier designs can be tested. An equivalent circuit of the glass micropipette and the noise model of this circuit, which accurately describe the various noise sources involved in extracellular recordings, have been developed. Measurement schemes using dead brain tissue as well as extracellular recordings from neurons in the inferior colliculus, an auditory brain nucleus of an anesthetized gerbil, were used to characterize noise performance and amplification efficacy of the proposed micropipette neural amplifier. According to our model, the major noise sources which influence the signal to noise ratio are the intrinsic noise of the neural amplifier and the thermal noise from distributed pipette resistance. These two types of noise were calculated and measured and were shown to be the dominating sources of background noise for in vivo experiments.

  13. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5′ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention

  14. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mami, E-mail: mtakahas@ncc.go.jp; Hori, Mika; Mutoh, Michihiro [Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Keiji [Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada 52-1, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Nakagama, Hitoshi [Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2011-02-09

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5′ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention.

  15. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome: insights from the high-fat diet experimental rabbit animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Annamaria; Vignozzi, Linda; Maggi, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is complex and involves the interplay between environmental, lifestyle and genetic determinants. MetS in men can be associated with a biochemical pattern of partial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). A similar pattern has been noted in both men and women with a variety of acute illnesses and chronic diseases, and there is ongoing debate regarding whether this phenomenon might adaptive (e.g. diverting resources from reproduction into survival), or maladaptive (e.g. anemia, sarcopenia, osteopenia and fatigue of androgen-deficiency amplify and widen the adverse consequences of the original disease-trigger). In women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA-HH secondary to chronic bioenergetic deficit from dietary restriction and/or intensive exercise), a genetic link to congenital HH (CHH) was recently established; women carrying monoallelic CHH gene mutations will typically not develop CHH, but are significantly more susceptible to HA. However, the male reproductive axis seems to be more resistant to similar environmental insults. In contrast, MetS-associated HH (mHH) is specifically a male phenomenon; the reproductive phenotype of females with MetS tending instead towards hyperandrogenism, rather than hypogonadism. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms responsible for mHH have not been clearly identified and, as yet, there has been no investigation of a potential role for CHH mutation carriage in its etiology. Over the decades, the use of either genetic- or diet-induced obesity and/or MetS animal models has greatly helped to illuminate the complex etiology of metabolic dysregulation, but the strong relationship between obesity/MetS and mHH in males has been largely neglected, with little or no information about the regulation of reproductive function by metabolic factors under conditions of bioenergetic excess. However, the pathogenic link between MetS and HH in males has been recently investigated in an animal model of high fat

  16. [A better understanding of clinical pain. Experimental data on 3 animal models of pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, G

    1991-01-01

    For a better understanding of clinical pain, several groups involved in the study of basic pain mechanisms have proposed the use of various experimental models close to clinical situations. These models are based either on neurogenic or inflammatory process. Data obtained with three of these models will be developed in the paper: rats rendered arthritic by Freund's adjuvant injection into the tail, rats with an intraplantar injection of carrageenin in one hindpaw, rats with a moderate ligature of one common sciatic nerve. The various pharmacological approaches revealed dramatic changes of the analgesic effects of morphine and other opioid substances, and a spectacular modification of the endogenous opioid reactivity. A further enhancement of the initial hyperalgesia was observed with high doses (1-3 mg/kg i.v.) of naloxone (known as an antagonist of morphine), contrasting with the paradoxical analgesia induced with the low dose (peaking up for 3 micrograms/kg i.v.). Electrophysiological studies emphasized dramatic changes of neuronal responsiveness in structures involved in the transmission of the nociceptive messages, from the periphery to the cortex. In each of these models electrophysiological data provide new insights on the physiopathological mechanisms of the related clinical pain. PMID:1922633

  17. Establishment of animal model for potency evaluation of inactivated SARS virus experimental vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANMUDONG; QIAN; YANKONG; WENXUELIU; LIHINGYANG; JUNZHIWANG; YONGXINYU; YAOLONGSHU; ZHENGWANG; WEIDONGYIN; QINGYUZHU; HAIFAZHENG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of source virus strain for the manufacture of the inactivated SARS virus vaccine, and establish an experimental method and preliminary standard for potency evaluation. Mice were divided into groups for being immunized with corresponding serially diluted experimental SARS virus inactivated vaccine. And the rabbits were immunized with undiluted vaccine. Challenge assay was conducted with a heterologous SARS virus. And the neutralization antibody was determined with plaque reduction neutralization test(PRNT), to which the neutralization antibody in the convalescent serum of SARS patients was compared. The experimental vaccine viral strains were proved to be suitable for manufacturing the vaccine. Mice immunized by vaccines of serial dilutions were able to elicit neutralizing antibody. The antibody titer from mice immunized with the undiluted vaccine could reach up to 1:495.2, while those of rabbits immunized with the undiluted vaccine could reach a GMT of 55.0-79.9. The capability of the antibody to neutralize the virus from Guangdong is more efficient than that from Beijing. The GMT of neutralizing antibody in SARS convalescents living in south and north China ranged from 50.12 to 54.95, and the titers of convalescents from north China were higher than those from south China. Mice and rabbits used as the model for evaluation of potency are of sensitivity, and the test is of reproducibility. The candidate challenge viral strains showed a relatively consistent effect on evaluating antibodies produced by various batches and different vaccine-source strains,hence they can be used to evaluate potency of the vaccine. The method for testing the vaccine potency and the evaluation standard was established preliminarily.

  18. Animal Models for imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Barbara Y.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models can be used in the study of disease. This chapter discusses imaging animal models to elucidate the process of human disease. The mouse is used as the primary model. Though this choice simplifies many research choices, it necessitates compromises for in vivo imaging. In the future, we can expect improvements in both animal models and imaging techniques.

  19. Cisplatin-Induced Non-Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury in a Pediatric Experimental Animal Model in Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Santiago

    Full Text Available To design an experimental pediatric animal model of acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin.Prospective comparative observational animal study in two different phases. Acute kidney injury was induced using three different doses of cisplatin (2, 3 and 5 mg/kg. The development of nephrotoxicity was assessed 2 to 4 days after cisplatin administration by estimating biochemical parameters, diuresis and renal morphology. Analytical values and renal morphology were compared between 15 piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg and 15 control piglets in the second phase of the study.41 piglets were studied. The dose of 3 mg/kg administered 48 hours before the experience induced a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea without an increase in potassium levels. Piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg had significantly higher values of creatinine, urea, phosphate and amylase, less diuresis and lower values of potassium, sodium and bicarbonate than control piglets. Histological findings showed evidence of a dose-dependent increase in renal damage.a dose of 3 mg/kg of cisplatin induces a significant alteration in renal function 48 hours after its administration, so it can be used as a pediatric animal model of non-oliguric acute kidney injury.

  20. Cisplatin-Induced Non-Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury in a Pediatric Experimental Animal Model in Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Alberto; González, Rafael; Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; Solana, Maria José; Toledo, Blanca; del Castillo, Jimena; Tejedor, Alberto; López-Herce, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objective To design an experimental pediatric animal model of acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin. Methods Prospective comparative observational animal study in two different phases. Acute kidney injury was induced using three different doses of cisplatin (2, 3 and 5 mg/kg). The development of nephrotoxicity was assessed 2 to 4 days after cisplatin administration by estimating biochemical parameters, diuresis and renal morphology. Analytical values and renal morphology were compared between 15 piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg and 15 control piglets in the second phase of the study. Results 41 piglets were studied. The dose of 3 mg/kg administered 48 hours before the experience induced a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea without an increase in potassium levels. Piglets treated with cisplatin 3 mg/kg had significantly higher values of creatinine, urea, phosphate and amylase, less diuresis and lower values of potassium, sodium and bicarbonate than control piglets. Histological findings showed evidence of a dose-dependent increase in renal damage. Conclusions a dose of 3 mg/kg of cisplatin induces a significant alteration in renal function 48 hours after its administration, so it can be used as a pediatric animal model of non-oliguric acute kidney injury. PMID:26871589

  1. Screening of Psidium guajava Leaf Extracts for Antistress Activity in Different Experimental Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi, B. V. S.; Sudhakar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of leaves of Psidium guajava was investigated on anoxia stress tolerance test in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute heat induced stress to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Psidium guajava in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 2 h) for 10 days. Stimulation of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal a...

  2. EFFECT OF ELECTRON BEAM RADIATIONS ON ANXIETY IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa B; Shyamjith Manikkoth

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to test the effect of whole body electron beam radiation on anxiety statein Swiss albino mice. Methods: Mice were irradiated with three different doses (2Gy,4Gy,6Gy)of electron beam radiations.After 24hours of radiation exposure animals were taken for testing level of anxiety using elevated plus maze and light dark arena apparatus. Results: Whole body electron beam irradiation at doses of 2, 4 and 6Gy lead to significant (p

  3. Initial study of sediment antagonism and characteristics of silver nanoparticle-coated biliary stents in an experimental animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yigeng; Xia, Mingfeng; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Zhen; Wen, Qingbin; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zongzhen; Li, Tao; Tian, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Plastic biliary stents used to relieve obstructive jaundice are frequently blocked by sediment, resulting in loss of drainage. We prepared stents coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and compared their ability to resist sedimentation with Teflon stents in a beagle model of obstructive jaundice. Methods AgNP-coated Teflon biliary stents were prepared by chemical oxidation–reduction and evaluated in an obstructive jaundice model that was produced by ligation of common bile duct (CBD); animals were randomized to two equal groups for placement of AgNP-coated or Teflon control stents. Liver function and inflammatory index were found to be similar in the two groups, and the obstruction was relieved. Stents were removed 21 days after insertion and observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNP coating was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and the composition of sediment was assayed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results Electron microscopy revealed a black, closely adherent AgNP stent coating, with thicknesses of 1.5–6 µm. Sediment thickness and density were greater on Teflon than on AgNP-coated stents. EDXA confirmed the stability and integrity of the AgNP coating before and after in vivo animal experimentation. FTIR spectroscopy identified stent sediment components including bilirubin, cholesterol, bile acid, protein, calcium, and other substances. Conclusion AgNP-coated biliary stents resisted sediment accumulation in this canine model of obstructive jaundice caused by ligation of the CBD.

  4. Increased wall thickness using ultrasonography is associated with inflammation in an animal model of experimental colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lied GA; Milde AM; Nylund K; Mujic M; Grimstad T; Hausken T; Gilja OH

    2012-01-01

    Gülen Arslan Lied,1 Anne Marita Milde,2 Kim Nylund,1,3 Maja Mujic,1 Tore Grimstad,1,4 Trygve Hausken,1,3 Odd Helge Gilja1,31Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway; 2Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway; 3National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 4Division of Gastroenterology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: Experimentally induced colitis is used in ...

  5. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus

  6. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soo Kwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    1999-06-01

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus.

  7. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement), "five fr...

  8. The immunology of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Sriram, S

    1995-01-01

    Two questions were posed at the beginning of this article. Is EAE a good model for MS? And, is MS an autoimmune disease? The first question is easier to address than the second. EAE is the best available model for the inflammatory processes that occur in MS, and for the disease process. The latte...

  9. Experimental flow and perfusion measurement in an animal model with magnetic resonance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim. Validation of non-invasive methods for morphologic and functional imaging of the kidney under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Material and Methods. In chronically instrumented animals (foxhounds) comparative measurements of renal flow and perfusion were performed. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were compared to data obtained from implanted flow probes and total kidney weight post mortem. In the MR system, different degrees of renal artery stenosis could be induced by means of an implanted inflatable cuff. The degree of stenosis was verified with high-resolution 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography (3D-CE-MRA) using an intravascular contrast agent. Results. The MR-data agreed well with the invasively obtained results. Artifacts resulting from the implanted flow probes and other devices could be kept to a minimum due to appropriate selection of the probe materials and measurement strategies. Stenoses could be reproduced reliably and quantified from the induced morphologic and functional changes. Conclusion. Morphologic and functional MR techniques are well suited for non-invasive in vivo assessment of renal blood flow physiology. (orig.)

  10. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who......This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  11. Differential effect of Pistacia vera extracts on experimental atherosclerosis in the rabbit animal model: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Halabalaki Maria; Magiatis Prokopios; Chatziioannou Achilles; Papalois Apostolos; Iliopoulos Dimitrios; Karatzas Theodore; Agrogiannis George; Georgopoulou Katerina; Marinou Katerina A; Tsantila Nektaria; Skaltsounis Leandros A; Patsouris Efstratios; Dontas Ismene A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Lipid-enriched diets and oxidative stress are risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. The effects of the methanolic (ME) and cyclohexane (CHE) extracts of the Pistacia vera nut, often included in the Mediterranean diet, were studied in the rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Methods and results Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits received atherogenic diet (Control Group), supplemented with ME (Group ME) or CHE (Group CHE) for 3 months. Previously, a GC-MS and a...

  12. Symptomatic animal models for dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Bethany K.; Hess, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic animal models have clinical features consistent with human disorders and are often used to identify the anatomical and physiological processes involved in the expression of symptoms and to experimentally demonstrate causality where it would be infeasible in the patient population. Rodent and primate models of dystonia have identified basal ganglia abnormalities, including alterations in striatal GABAergic and dopaminergic transmission. Symptomatic animal models have also establish...

  13. The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Nonhuman animal (“animal”) experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability...

  14. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods. PMID:26364776

  15. Boron neutron capture therapy for oral precancer: proof of principle in an experimental animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Monti Hughes; ECC Pozzi; S. Thorp; M. A. Garabalino; R. O. Farias; S. J. Gonzalez; E. M. Heber; M. E. Itoiz; R. F. Aromando; A. J. Molinari; M. Miller; D. W. Nigg; P. Curotto; V. A. Trivillin; A. E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Field-cancerized tissue can give rise to second primary tumours, causing therapeutic failure. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on biological targeting and would serve to treat undetectable foci of malignant transformation. The aim of this study was to optimize BNCT for the integral treatment for oral cancer, with particular emphasis on the inhibitory effect on tumour development originating in precancerous conditions, and radiotoxicity of different BNCT protocols in a hamster cheek pouch oral precancer model.

  16. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of commi...

  17. Lesion Expansion in Experimental Demyelination Animal Models and Multiple Sclerosis Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große-Veldmann, René; Becker, Birte; Amor, Sandra; van der Valk, Paul; Beyer, Cordian; Kipp, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Gray matter pathology is an important aspect of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis and disease progression. In a recent study, we were able to demonstrate that the higher myelin content in the white matter parts of the brain is an important variable in the neuroinflammatory response during demyelinating events. Whether higher white matter myelination contributes to lesion development and progression is not known. Here, we compared lesion size of intra-cortical vs. white matter MS lesions. Furthermore, dynamics of lesion development was compared in the cuprizone and lysophosphatidylcholine models. We provide clear evidence that in the human brain, white matter lesions are significantly increased in size as compared to intra-cortical gray matter lesions. In addition, studies using the cuprizone mouse model revealed that the autonomous progression of white matter lesions is more severe compared to that in the gray matter. Focal demyelination revealed that the application of equal amounts of lysophosphatidylcholine results in more severe demyelination in the white compared to the gray matter. In summary, lesion progression is most intense in myelin-rich white matter regions, irrespective of the initial lesion trigger mechanism. A better understanding of myelin debris-triggered lesion expansion will pave the way for the development of new protective strategies in the future. PMID:26363796

  18. Differential effect of Pistacia vera extracts on experimental atherosclerosis in the rabbit animal model: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halabalaki Maria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid-enriched diets and oxidative stress are risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. The effects of the methanolic (ME and cyclohexane (CHE extracts of the Pistacia vera nut, often included in the Mediterranean diet, were studied in the rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Methods and results Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits received atherogenic diet (Control Group, supplemented with ME (Group ME or CHE (Group CHE for 3 months. Previously, a GC-MS and a UHPLC LC-DAD-ESI(--HRMS/MS method were developed to investigate the extracts' chemical profiles. Blood samples at baseline and monthly determined lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and liver function. The aorta, myocardium and liver were examined histologically at 3 months. Groups ME and CHE had significantly higher HDL- and non-significantly lower LDL-cholesterol median % changes from baseline than the Control Group. Triacylglycerol was significantly higher in Group CHE vs. Control. MDA values were significantly lower in Group ME vs. Control and CHE. ALT and AST were significantly higher in Group CHE vs. Control. γ-GT was lower in Group ME vs. Control. Aortic intimal thickness was significantly less in Groups ME and CHE vs. Control; Group ME atherosclerotic lesions were significantly less extensive vs. Groups Control and CHE. Only Group CHE had significant liver fatty infiltration. Conclusions During short-term administration concomitantly with atherogenic diet, both P. vera extracts were beneficial on HDL-, LDL-cholesterol and aortic intimal thickness. The ME additionally presented an antioxidant effect and significant decrease of aortic surface lesions. These results indicate that P. vera dietary inclusion, in particular its ME, is potentially beneficial in atherosclerosis management.

  19. Models for comparing lung-cancer risks in radon- and plutonium-exposed experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies of radon-exposed underground miners have provided the primary basis for estimating human lung-cancer risks resulting from radon exposure. These studies are sometimes used to estimate lung-cancer risks resulting from exposure to other alpha- emitters as well. The latter use, often referred to as the dosimetric approach, is based on the assumption that a specified dose to the lung produces the same lung-tumor risk regardless of the substance producing the dose. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory, experiments have been conducted in which laboratory rodents have been given inhalation exposures to radon and to plutonium (239PuO2). These experiments offer a unique opportunity to compare risks, and thus to investigate the validity of the dosimetric approach. This comparison is made most effectively by modeling the age-specific risk as a function of dose in a way that is comparable to analyses of human data. Such modeling requires assumptions about whether tumors are the cause of death or whether they are found incidental to death from other causes. Results based on the assumption that tumors are fatal indicate that the radon and plutonium dose-response curves differ, with a linear function providing a good description of the radon data, and a pure quadratic function providing a good description of the plutonium data. However, results based on the assumption that tumors are incidental to death indicate that the dose-response curves for the two exposures are very similar, and thus support the dosimetric approach. 14 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bougainvillea spectabilis (BS (family Nyctaginaceae is said to possess hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. We had set forward to examine the potential anti-inflammatory activities of BS in experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Fresh dried leaves from the flowering plant of BS were collected from the local area during the flowering season and air dried (215.00 g. Methanol was extracted, and the solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The extract was freeze-dried (lyophilized and the yield was 8 g. This was used as an emulsion prepared in propylene glycol and orally administered (20 and 50 mg/kg. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of BS was evaluated using carrageenan and dextran whereas chronic anti-inflammatory (immunoregulatory activity was evaluated by Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Results: BS (20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg had shown significant anti-inflammatory effects 20.6% and 67.6%, respectively, on carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory models. In dextran-induced edema, the effect was 30% and 66%, respectively. The standard drug indomethacin (87.3% and 91.5%, respectively showed better inhibitory response in both models. In arthritic model 50 mg/kg of BS showed significant chronic anti-inflammatory effect (38.46% in comparison to the standard drug dexamethasone (84.6%. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the methanol extract of BS (50 mg/kg leaves has significant anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activity. Further studies involving isolation of active principles will help to pinpoint the mechanisms contributing to the observed activities of BS.

  1. Effect of electron beam radiations on anxiety in experimental animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposures to ionizing radiation have been an inevitable part of the environment. This type of radiation can disrupt atoms, creating positive and negative charged particles, and cause biological harm. Ionizing radiation includes X-rays, gamma rays, alpha particles, beta particles and neutrons. They have the potential to cause both beneficial and harmful effects. There are concerns about these radiations as they are widely used in hospitals for treatment and diagnosis of various diseases. The present work was designed to test the effect of whole body electron beam radiation on anxiety in mice using the Elevated plus maze and Light dark arena, the commonly used models for assessing anxiety in rodents. Mice were irradiated with three different doses (2 Gy, 4 Gy and 6 Gy) of electron beam radiations. Statistical analysis revealed that whole body irradiation of the moderate dose range (2-6 Gy) of electron beam leads to a significant (p<0.001) anxiogenic activity in irradiated mice. Electron beam induced anxiety can be due to radiation induced reactive oxygen species in brain. (author)

  2. Modification of sleep architecture in an animal model of experimental cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anabel Jiménez-Anguiano; Vanessa Díaz-Medina; Blanca Eugenia Farfán-Labonne; Gloria Giono-Chiang; David Kersenobich; Mario García-Lorenzana; Maria Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruiz; Javier Velázquez-Moctezuma

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the polygraphic sleep patterns during cirrhosis progression in a rat model by repeated CCl_4 administration.METHODS: Male Wistar rats received three weekly injections of CCl_4 for 11 wk, and were analyzed before and during the induction of cirrhosis. Rats were implanted with electrodes to record their sleep patterns.Polygraph recordings were made weekly over 11 wk for 8 h, during the light period. After a basal recording,rats received three weekly injections of CCl_4. Histological confirmation of cirrhosis was performed after 11 wk.RESULTS: The results showed a progressive decrease in total wake time that reached statistical significance from the second week of treatment. In addition, there was an increase in total time of slow wave sleep (SWS) Ⅱ and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) in most of the 11 wk. SWS Ⅰ showed no significant variations.During the final weeks, a significant increase in REM sleep frequency was also observed. Histological analyses of the livers showed unequivocal signs of cirrhosis.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that hepatic failure produced by CCl_4 administration is capable of modifying the sleep pattern even after only a few doses.

  3. A study of the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmistha Dutta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The aim is to study the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava (PGE on experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : Fresh leaves were collected, air-dried, powdered, and percolated in 95% ethanol. Acute toxicity test was done according to OECD guidelines. Four groups of animals of either sex, weighing 150-200g of the species Rattus norvegicus were taken for the study (n = 6. Group A was taken as control (3% gum acacia in 10 mL/kg body weight, Group B as test group (PGE 250 mg/kg body weight, Group C as test group (PGE 500 mg/kg body weight, and Group D as standard (Aspirin 100 mg/kg body weight. The animals were studied for acute inflammation by Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, subacute inflammation by Granuloma pouch method, and chronic inflammation by Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis method. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance followed by multiple comparison tests. Results : In acute inflammation, there was significant inhibition of paw edema in Groups B, C, and D in comparison with Group A (P < 0.05. In subacute inflammation, there was significant inhibition of exudate formation in Groups B, C, and D in comparison to Group A (P < 0.05. In chronic inflammation, there was significant inhibition of paw edema and inhibition of weight reduction in Groups B, C, and D compared with Group A. Downregulation of arthritis index was also significant in Groups B, C, and D in comparison with Group A (P < 0.05. Conclusion : The ethanolic extract of PGE has significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  5. Initial study of sediment antagonism and characteristics of silver nanoparticle-coated biliary stents in an experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yigeng Tian,1,* Mingfeng Xia,2,* Shuai Zhang,3 Zhen Fu,4 Qingbin Wen,2 Feng Liu,4 Zongzhen Xu,4 Tao Li,4 Hu Tian4 1Department of Physics, School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Surgery, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of General Surgery, Sixth People’s Hospital of Jinan, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of General Surgery, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Plastic biliary stents used to relieve obstructive jaundice are frequently blocked by sediment, resulting in loss of drainage. We prepared stents coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and compared their ability to resist sedimentation with Teflon stents in a beagle model of obstructive jaundice.Methods: AgNP-coated Teflon biliary stents were prepared by chemical oxidation–reduction and evaluated in an obstructive jaundice model that was produced by ligation of common bile duct (CBD; animals were randomized to two equal groups for placement of AgNP-coated or Teflon control stents. Liver function and inflammatory index were found to be similar in the two groups, and the obstruction was relieved. Stents were removed 21 days after insertion and observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNP coating was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA, and the composition of sediment was assayed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy.Results: Electron microscopy revealed a black, closely adherent AgNP stent coating, with thicknesses of 1.5–6 µm. Sediment thickness and density were greater on Teflon than on AgNP-coated stents. EDXA confirmed the stability and integrity of the AgNP coating before and after in vivo animal experimentation. FTIR

  6. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analog...

  7. Illuminating the Effects of Stroke on the Diabetic Brain: Insights From Imaging Neural and Vascular Networks in Experimental Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeson, Patrick; Jeffery, Andrew; Brown, Craig E

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes is known to cause circulatory problems in the eyes, heart, and limbs, and the brain is no exception. Because of the insidious effects of diabetes on brain circulation, patients with diabetes are two to four times more likely to have an ischemic stroke and are less likely to regain functions that are lost. To provide a more mechanistic understanding of this clinically significant problem, imaging studies have focused on how stroke affects neural and vascular networks in experimental models of type 1 diabetes. The emerging picture is that diabetes leads to maladaptive changes in the cerebrovascular system that ultimately limit neuronal rewiring and recovery of functions after stroke. At the cellular and systems level, diabetes is associated with abnormal cerebral blood flow in surviving brain regions and greater disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The abnormal vascular responses to stroke can be partly attributed to aberrant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling because genetic or pharmacological inhibition of VEGF signaling can mitigate vascular dysfunction and improve stroke recovery in diabetic animals. These experimental studies offer new insights and strategies for optimizing stroke recovery in diabetic populations. PMID:27329953

  8. Lipid metabolism in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Muñiz, Francisco J.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Publications are scarce in the way in chich metabolic processes are affected by the ingestion of heated fats used to prepare food. Similarly studies measuring metabolic effects of the consumption on fried food are poorly known. The purpose of this presentation is to summarize information on frying fats and frying foods upon lipid metabolism in experimental animals. Food consumption is equivalent or even higher when oils or the fat content of frying foods are poorly alterated decreasing their acceptability when their alteration degree increase. After 4hr. experiment the digestibility and absorption coefficients of a single dosis of thermooxidized oils were significantly decreased in rats, however the digestive utilization of frying thermooxidized oils included in diets showed very little change in comparison with unused oils by feeding trials on rats. Feeding rats different frying fats induced a slight hypercholesterolemic effect being the magnitude of this effect related to the linoleic decrease in diet produced by frying. However HDL, the main rat-cholesterol carrier, also increased, thus the serum cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio did not change. Results suggest that rats fed frying fats adapt their lipoprotein metabolism increasing the number of HDL particles. Deep fat frying deeply changed the fatty acid composition of foods, being possible to increase their n-9 or n-6 fatty acid and to decrease the saturated fatty acid contents by frying. When olive oil-and sunflower oil-fried sardines were used as the only protein and fat sources of rats-diets in order to prevent the dietary hypercholesterolemia it was provided that both fried-sardine diets showed a powerful check effect on the cholesterol raising effect induced by dietary cholesterol. The negative effect of feeding rats cholesterol plus bovine bile to induce hypercholesterolemia on some cell-damage markers such as lactate dehydrogenase, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, was

  9. Legislation on the protection of experimental animals:

    OpenAIRE

    Ornik, Dragica; Pogačnik, Milan

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish the current situation in the field of legislation on the protection of experimental animals in Slovenia. The protection of experimental animals has been regulated by the provisions of theProtection of Animals Act.1 On the basis of this act, the Instructions on Conditions for the Issuing of Authorisations for Experiments on Animals for Scientific and Research Purposes2 and the Rules on the Ethics Commission for Experiments on Animals 3 have been used. The ...

  10. XX. Animal models of pneumocystosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dei-Cas, E.; Brun-Pascaud, M.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;

    1998-01-01

    As in vitro culture systems allowing to isolate Pneumocystis samples from patients or other mammal hosts are still not available, animal models have critical importance in Pneumocystis research. The parasite was reported in numerous mammals but P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) experimental models were...... source of parasites taxonomically related to P. carinii sp. f hominis. Moreover, primates might be used as experimental hosts to human Pneumocystis. A marked variability of parasite levels among corticosteroid-treated animals and the fact that the origin of the parasite strain remains unknown, are...... important drawbacks of the corticosteroid-treated models. For these reasons, inoculated animal models of PCP were developed. The intratracheal inoculation of lung homogenates containing viable parasites in corticosteroid-treated non-latently infected rats resulted in extensive, reproducible Pneumocystis...

  11. Animal Models of Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Nagakura, Yukinori; Ito, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Yasuaki

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of disease states are valuable tools for developing new treatments and investigating underlying mechanisms. They should mimic the symptoms and pathology of the disease and importantly be predictive of effective treatments. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain with associated co-morbid symptoms that include fatigue, depression, anxiety and sleep dysfunction. In this review, we present different animal models that mimic the signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia. T...

  12. Animal models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rod...

  13. Animal models of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  14. Animal models of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  15. A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundam Borah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. Objective: To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA in an experimental mice model of CFS. Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g were selected for the study, with five animals in each group. Group A served as the naïve control and Group B served as the stressed control. Groups C and D received EETA (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.. Group E received imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w.. Except for Group A, mice in each group were forced to swim 6 min each for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was measured on every alternate day. After 7 days, various behavioral tests (mirror chamber and elevated plus maize test for anxiety, open field test for locomotor activity and biochemical estimations (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase activity in mice brain were performed. Results: Forced swimming in the stressed group resulted in a significant increase in immobility period, decrease in locomotor activity and elevated anxiety level. The brain homogenate showed significantly increased MDA and decreased catalase levels. The extract-treated groups showed significantly (P < 0.05 improved locomotor activity, decreased anxiety level, elevated catalase levels and reduction of MDA. Conclusion: The study confirms the protective effects of EETA in CFS.

  16. Preliminary results in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with an experimental bioabsorbable cage – clinical and radiological findings in an ovine animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Daentzer, Dorothea; Floerkemeier, Thilo; Bartsch, Ivonne; Masalha, Waseem; Welke, Bastian; Hurschler, Christof; Kauth, Theresa; Kaltbeitzel, Daniel; HOPMANN, Christian; Kujat, Bernd; Kalla, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioabsorbable implants are not widely used in spine surgery. This study investigated the clinical and radiological findings after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in an ovine animal model with an experimental bioabsorbable cage consisting of magnesium and polymer (poly-ϵ-caprolactone, PCL) in comparison to a tricortical bone graft as the gold standard procedure. Materials and Methods 24 full-grown sheep had ACDF of C3/4 and C5/6 with an experimental bioabsorbable impl...

  17. Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations

    OpenAIRE

    Saraf, Shyam K; Vinay Kumaraswamy

    2013-01-01

    In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. The...

  18. Animal Experimentation: Issues for the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, Judith C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the extent to which issues related to animal experimentation are in conflict and proposes choices that might least comprise them. These issues include animal well-being, human well-being, self-interest of science, scientific validity and responsibility, progress in biomedical and behavioral science, and the future quality of medical care.…

  19. Ultrasonic treatment of experimental animal tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Kremkau, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Studies on the effects of ultrasound on several solid tumours in experimental animals have indicated that tumour growth rates can be reduced. These data are generally consistent with a thermal mechanism of action. Application of combined ultrasound and X-irradiation have shown that with some experimental animal tumours the radiation dose required to locally control 50% of the tumours can be reduced by ultrasound. These results were also consistent with a thermal mechanism of action hypothesis...

  20. Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of ACE inhibitors (imidapril and quinapril) in experimentally induced animal models of epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    VH, Pushpa; Poornima R.; HL, Kalabharathi; AM, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate seizures, may be associated with emotional and cognitive dysfunction. Objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the anticonvulsant activity of different doses of imidapril and quinapril in animal models of epilepsy. Methods: Swiss albino mice weighing around 25-30g of either sex were divided into 6 groups: control (R.O-10 ml/kg), standard-sodium valproate (40 mg/kg), Q1...

  1. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement, "five freedoms" for animals and "Solna principles". "Replacement" means the substitution for conscious living higher animals of insentient material. "Reduction" means reduction in the numbers of animals used to obtain information of a given amount and precision. "Refinement" means any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals which still have to be used. The "five freedoms" are: freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from adverse environmental impacts, freedom from disease and injury, freedom to exhibit normal behavior and freedom from adverse mental states. "Solna principles" state that tests for regulatory purposes need to reflect the following: biological Relevance (meaningfulness and usefulness of a test for a particular purpose, Reliability (reproducibility of results within and between laboratories, and Regulatory acceptability (suitability of a test for risk assessment purposes (human health /environment.

  2. Animal experimentation and scientific knowledge: a thought style?

    OpenAIRE

    Thales de Astrogildo e Tréz

    2010-01-01

    Animal experimentation, besides a research method extensively applied in the production of scientific knowledge, is also considered essential to science and with undeniable historical relevance in advances in human health. In this survey, a questionnaire was applied to a group of researchers involved with research based on non-animal models (n =18), and to another group involved with research based on animal models (n =18). The data analysis was grounded in Ludwik Fleck (1896 -1961) epistemol...

  3. Animal Models of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey S Getz; Reardon, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular disease. Both cells of the vessel wall and cells of the immune system participate in atherogenesis. This process is heavily influenced by plasma lipoproteins, genetics and the hemodynamics of the blood flow in the artery. A variety of small and large animal models have been used to study the atherogenic process. No model is ideal as each has its own advantages and limitations with respect to...

  4. [Which animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma (NASH-HCC) have more practical value in experimental investigations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, N N; Wu, J

    2016-03-20

    In the past, we used to think that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) only occurred when nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progressed to liver cirrhosis. However, recent clinical studies have shown that HCC may occur during the stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The prevalence of NAFLD and the increasing incidence of NASH-associated HCC require the elucidation of the pathogenesis of NASH-HCC and the assessment of the efficacy of novel therapies as early as possible, while these evaluations need reliable animal models. This article reviews the characteristics of NASH-HCC models with a practical value to uncover the mysteries of NASH-HCC. PMID:27095770

  5. Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Shyam K; Kumaraswamy, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities. PMID:23532705

  6. Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam K Saraf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities.

  7. Development of an Experimental Animal Model for Lower Back Pain by Percutaneous Injury-Induced Lumbar Facet Joint Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Ahmadinia, Kasra; Li, Xin; Hamilton, John L; Andrews, Steven; Haralampus, Chris A; Xiao, Guozhi; Sohn, Hong-Moon; You, Jae-Won; Seo, Yo-Seob; Stein, Gary S; Van Wijnen, Andre J; Kim, Su-Gwan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    We report generation and characterization of pain-related behavior in a minimally invasive facet joint degeneration (FJD) animal model in rats. FJD was produced by a non-open percutaneous puncture-induced injury on the right lumbar FJs at three consecutive levels. Pressure hyperalgesia in the lower back was assessed by measuring the vocalization response to pressure from a force transducer. After hyperalgesia was established, pathological changes in lumbar FJs and alterations of intervertebral foramen size were assessed by histological and imaging analyses. To investigate treatment options for lumber FJ osteoarthritis-induced pain, animals with established hyperalgesia were administered with analgesic drugs, such as morphine, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (ketorolac), or pregabalin. Effects were assessed by behavioral pain responses. One week after percutaneous puncture-induced injury of the lumbar FJs, ipsilateral primary pressure hyperalgesia developed and was maintained for at least 12 weeks without foraminal stenosis. Animals showed decreased spontaneous activity, but no secondary hyperalgesia in the hind paws. Histopathological and microfocus X-ray computed tomography analyses demonstrated that the percutaneous puncture injury resulted in osteoarthritis-like structural changes in the FJs cartilage and subchondral bone. Pressure hyperalgesia was completely reversed by morphine. The administration of celecoxib produced moderate pain reduction with no statistical significance while the administration of ketorolac and pregabalin produced no analgesic effect on FJ osteoarthritis-induced back pain. Our animal model of non-open percutanous puncture-induced injury of the lumbar FJs in rats shows similar characteristics of low back pain produced by human facet arthropathy. PMID:25858171

  8. Animal models of cardiac cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Francesca; Malara, Natalia; Mollace, Vincenzo; Rosano, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Elisabetta

    2016-09-15

    Cachexia is the loss of body weight associated with several chronic diseases including chronic heart failure (CHF). The cachectic condition is mainly due to loss of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue depletion. The majority of experimental in vivo studies on cachexia rely on animal models of cancer cachexia while a reliable and appropriate model for cardiac cachexia has not yet been established. A critical issue in generating a cardiac cachexia model is that genetic modifications or pharmacological treatments impairing the heart functionality and used to obtain the heart failure model might likely impair the skeletal muscle, this also being a striated muscle and sharing with the myocardium several molecular and physiological mechanisms. On the other hand, often, the induction of heart damage in the several existing models of heart failure does not necessarily lead to skeletal muscle loss and cachexia. Here we describe the main features of cardiac cachexia and illustrate some animal models proposed for cardiac cachexia studies; they include the genetic calsequestrin and Dahl salt-sensitive models, the monocrotaline model and the surgical models obtained by left anterior descending (LAD) ligation, transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and ascending aortic banding. The availability of a specific animal model for cardiac cachexia is a crucial issue since, besides the common aspects of cachexia in the different syndromes, each disease has some peculiarities in its etiology and pathophysiology leading to cachexia. Such peculiarities need to be unraveled in order to find new targets for effective therapies. PMID:27317993

  9. Tools to fight the cataract epidemic: A review of experimental animal models that mimic age related nuclear cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Julie C; Umapathy, Ankita; Donaldson, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide and accounts for approximately half of all forms of vision loss. Currently, the only way to treat cataracts is by surgery. However, with an ageing population, the demand for surgery and the need for cost effective alternative solutions grows exponentially. To reduce the need for cataract surgery, alternative medical therapies to delay cataracts are urgently required. However, given the difficulty in accessing human cataract lenses, investigating the process of cataract formation and testing the efficacy of potential therapies in humans is problematic. Therefore, researchers have looked to create suitable animal models of cataractogenesis to identify therapeutic options. This review will provide an overview of the cataract specific changes previously reported in human cataract lenses, before focussing on the specific changes that occur in age related nuclear (ARN) cataract, the most common form of cataract in humans. This will be followed by a discussion of a range of existing animal cataract models and their respective suitability for mimicking the processes associated with the development of ARN cataract, and therefore their utility as models to test anti-cataract therapies for future use in humans. PMID:26391448

  10. Animal models of sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Mitchell P.

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis remains a common, serious, and heterogeneous clinical entity that is difficult to define adequately. Despite its importance as a public health problem, efforts to develop and gain regulatory approval for a specific therapeutic agent for the adjuvant treatment of sepsis have been remarkably unsuccessful. One step in the critical pathway for the development of a new agent for adjuvant treatment of sepsis is evaluation in an appropriate animal model of the human condition. Unfortunately, ...

  11. Animal Models of Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lichao; Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.; McCARLEY, ROBERT W.

    2009-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as its two major symptoms. Although this disease was first described about one century ago, an animal model was not available until the 1970s. With the establishment of the Stanford canine narcolepsy colony, researchers were able to conduct multiple neurochemical studies to explore the pathophysiology of this disease. It was concluded that there was an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic sy...

  12. The experimental study of 32P-colloid perfusion therapy in the animal-models of chronic maxillary sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To search for the mechanism of 32P-colloid perfusion therapy in the animal models of chronic maxillary sinusitis. Methods: 32P-colloid were injected into the male sheep maxillary sinuses of the animal-models of chronic maxillary sinusitis in different dosage group. The changes of bacteria and mucosael pathomorphology were observed by periodic germiculture and pathology in 1,3,6 months after injection. Results: After 32P-colloid perfusion therapy, the amounts of bacterial species and chronic phlogistic cells were remarkable reduced, and the structure of cilia cells did not change. The curable rate was 83.3% in 6 months. There were remarkable difference in groups. Conclusions: 32P-colloid was provided with antibiosis and reducing chronic phlogistic responses. The authors had found the optimal dose of 32P-colloid perfusion in the maxillary sinuses through the study. The curable rate of single dose of 32P-colloid perfusion in the maxillary sinuses was higher than other therapy, 32P-colloid perfusion was simple and convenient. There was high selectivity of 32P in the target organ, when there was no effect on other important organs through radiobiological measurement. (authors)

  13. Targeting Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Lesions to a Predetermined Axonal Tract System Allows for Refined Behavioral Testing in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kerschensteiner, Martin; Stadelmann, Christine; Buddeberg, Bigna S.; Merkler, Doron; Bareyre, Florence M.; Anthony, Daniel C.; Linington, Christopher; Brück, Wolfgang; Schwab, Martin E.

    2004-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) the structural damage to axons determines the persistent clinical deficit patients acquire during the course of the disease. It is therefore important to test therapeutic strategies that can prevent or reverse this structural damage. The conventional animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), typically shows disseminated inflammation in the central nervous system, which leads to a clinical deficit that cannot be directly attributed to a def...

  14. Modeling animal landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W P; Ostrowski, S; Williams, J B

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need to assess the effects of climate and land-use change on habitat quality, ideally from a mechanistic basis. The symposium "Molecules to Migration: Pressures of Life" at the Fourth International Conference in Africa for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, 2008, illustrated how the principles of biophysical ecology can capture the mechanistic links between organisms, climate, and other habitat features. These principles provide spatially explicit assessments of habitat quality from a physiological perspective (i.e., "animal landscapes") that can be validated independently of the data used to derive and parameterize them. The contents of this symposium showcased how the modeling of animal landscapes can be used to assess key issues in applied and theoretical ecology. The presentations included applications to amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The rare Arabian oryx on the Arabian Peninsula is used as an example for energetic calculations and their implications for behavior on the landscape. PMID:20670170

  15. A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mukundam Borah; Phulen Sarma; Swarnamoni Das

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. Objective: To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA) in an experimental mice model of CFS. Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g)...

  16. In vitro Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Pongamia Pinnata Stem Bark in Experimental Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sagar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptivepotential of the ethanolic extract of pongamia pinnata stem bark (PSBE in different experimental animal models.The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract ofpongamia pinnataand compared with ascorbic acid (Standard and theanalgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. The extract has an anti-inflammatory effect demonstrated by its inhibitory effects on Carrageenan induced paw edema.PSBE (200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute (carrageenan induced hind paw edema and chronic (cotton pellet granuloma models of inflammationPSBE did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality up to a dose level of 10.125 g/kg, p.o. in mice. Both acute as well as chronic administration PSBE (200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. did not produce any gastric lesion in rats.The analgesic activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response in albino mice and tail flick method in albino rats.Its ethanolic extract shows the most effective anti-inflammatory activityat doses of 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg significantly throughout the observation period.In the tail flick model, the PSBE in the above doses increased the pain threshold significantly after 30 min., 1, 2, and 4 hr. of administration. pongamia pinnatashowed dose-dependent action in all experimental animal models.

  17. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    John Webster

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary When making a choice of species for animal experimentation we must balance its suitability as a model for human medicine against the potential harms to the animals both from the procedures and the quality of their lifetime experience. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primate...

  18. Physical and biological dosimetry at the RA-3 facility for small animal irradiation: preliminary BNCT studies in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment modality based on the capture reaction that occurs between thermal neutrons and boron-10 atoms that accumulate selectively in tumor tissue, emitting high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (5-9 microns) particles (alpha y 7Li). Thus, BNCT would potentially target tumor tissue selectively, sparing normal tissue. Herein we evaluated the feasibility of treating experimental oral mucosa tumors with BNCT at RA-3 (CAE) employing the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and characterized the irradiation field at the RA-3 facility. We evaluated the therapeutic effect on tumor of BNCT mediated by BPA in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and the potential radio toxic effects in normal tissue. We evidenced a moderate biological response in tumor, with no radio toxic effects in normal tissue following irradiations with no shielding for the animal body. Given the sub-optimal therapeutic response, we designed and built a 6Li2CO3 shielding for the body of the animal to increase the irradiation dose to tumor, without exceeding normal tissue radio tolerance. The measured absolute magnitude of thermal neutron flux and the characterization of the beam with and without the shielding in place, suggest that the irradiation facility in the thermal column of RA-3 would afford an excellent platform to perform BNCT studies in vitro and in vivo in small experimental animals. The present findings must be confirmed and extended by performing in vivo BNCT radiobiological studies in small experimental animals, employing the shielding device for the animal body. (author)

  19. Characterization of experimental dental research using animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the profile of experimental dental research using animals. Methods: The research comprised all the 4141 abstracts existent in the books of annals from the 22nd and 23rd Annual meetings of the Brazilian Society of Dentistry Research and the sample was composed of 377 studies (9.1%. The variables analyzed were: area of knowledge, type of institution, State of the country, type of animal and body part used, occurrence of animal sacrifice, mention of the Research Ethics Committee, receipt of funding and type of financing agency. Results: The largest number of studies concentrated on the areas of Buccomaxillofacial Surgery (27.3% and Basic Sciences (21.2%. The Public Universities were responsible for 74% of the researches, and the State Institutions were outstanding (82.4%. The State of São Paulo was responsible for 74.1% of the studies. Rats (67.1% and rabbits (11.1% were the most frequently used animals, and 68.2% of the animals were sacrificed. The oral cavity was used in 50.1% of the researches and the mandible in 59%. Only 1.9% of the studies mentioned the Research Ethics Committee and 26.3% reported that they received funding. Conclusion: In Dentistry, studies involving animals are predominant in the areas of buccomaxillofacial surgery and basic sciences, with rats andrabbits being most frequently used. A significant number of guinea pigs are sacrificed during or at the end of the experiments.

  20. Using and Selection Criterias of Laboratory Animals with Experimental Purpose in Endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    ertuğrul, ihsan furkan; MADEN, Murat; Orhan, Ekim Onur

    2013-01-01

    Animal experimentation is the use of animals in scientific research. Animal experimants help scientists understand diseases that exist animals and humans, for example new medicines oe new surgical techniques. Animal models have an significiant place in endodontics. Planning the animal experiments, choosing the animal models and the applying ethical principles, in researchs have been included in this review. We concluded that the animal experimants could be conducted on rats, mices and ferrets...

  1. Models of experimental epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ekici

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological conditionin the world, with an estimated prevalence of 1% ofthe population. A large number of experimental modelsof seizure and epilepsy have been developed. These experimentalmodels are elicited by chemical convulsants,electrical stimulation, genetic models, structural lesions,physical stimuli (cold, pressure, hyperthermia, electricalin animals. Well-characterized animal models may allowthe understanding of the basic mechanisms underlyingepileptogenesis (it refers to the alteration of a normalneuronal network into a hyperexcitable network in whichrecurrent, spontaneous seizures occur. Moreover, thesemodels might also prove useful in identifying novel therapeuticapproaches to treatment of epilepsy. J Clin ExpInvest 2011; 2(1: 118-123

  2. A micro-PET/CT approach using O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine in an experimental animal model of F98 glioma for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichetti, L., E-mail: luca.menichetti@ifc.cnr.it [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Petroni, D.; Panetta, D. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Burchielli, S. [Fondazione CNR/Regione Toscana G. Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Bortolussi, Silva [Dept. Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Matteucci, M. [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Pascali, G.; Del Turco, S. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Altieri, S. [Dept. Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Salvadori, P.A. [CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The present study focuses on a micro-PET/CT application to be used for experimental Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), which integrates, in the same frame, micro-CT derived anatomy and PET radiotracer distribution. Preliminary results have demonstrated that {sup 18}F-fluoroethyl-tyrosine (FET)/PET allows the identification of the extent of cerebral lesions in F98 tumor bearing rat. Neutron autoradiography and {alpha}-spectrometry on axial tissues slices confirmed the tumor localization and extraction, after the administration of fructose-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Therefore, FET-PET approach can be used to assess the transport, the net influx, and the accumulation of FET, as an aromatic amino acid analog of BPA, in experimental animal model. Coregistered micro-CT images allowed the accurate morphological localization of the radiotracer distribution and its potential use for experimental BNCT.

  3. Respiratory tract retention of inhaled particles in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of inhalation studies have been reviewed to develop a model for describing the retention of particles in the respiratory tracts of several species of experimental animals. Presently, the respiratory tract clearance model receives the greatest use in the radiation protection field. This model has several disadvantages in its basic construction and in its application to radionuclide exposures of people to heterogeneous aerosolized substances. These are discussed and an alternative model is described. The alternative model uses time-varying solubility functions to described absorption of material from the lung and upper respiratory tract. The solubility functions can be determined from studies in experimental animals or can be approximated from in vitro chemical systems. Application of this model to data from several experimental studies is included

  4. Criticizing animal experimentation, at my peril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    Initiatives leading to even modest reduction in animal use at major U.S. universities are likely to continue to face strong opposition. At least, that's the conclusion the author draws from his efforts at Northwestern University. In fact, despite a growing body of evidence that animal-based research is flawed at best and misleading or un-scientific at worst its use is growing at Northwestern and elsewhere. Moreover, recent discoveries concerning animal consciousness and emotion have not led to notable improvements in the conditions in which AWA protected animals live at the Chicago vivarium. There, animals languish in featureless rooms or sterile cages without access to daylight and with little opportunity to express their natural behaviors and aptitudes. The writer's public exposure of these conditions led to a fierce backlash. Unless there is a significant change in laboratory and university culture, change will only come when the marketplace and funding agencies demand better and more reliable, non-animal models for the testing of drug toxicity and effectiveness. PMID:26560136

  5. Detection of deep venous thrombosis in an experimental animal model using radioactive labelled tirofiban GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT), including biochemical information on thrombus formation, is one of the most important issues in clinical nuclear medicine. Thus, development of radiolabelled small peptide or peptidomimetic ligands that can bind platelets and their specific expressed receptor have been suggested as a new approach to detect clot location and, more essentially, determine the age and morphology of the evolving thrombus. This new approach has focused on the use of a series of radiolabelled platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonists. Tirofiban N-(butylsulfonyl)- 4-O-(4-(4-piperidyl)-L-tyrosine is a non-peptide tyrosine derivate. The aim of the study was to introduce radioactive labelled tirofiban as a specific imaging agent for acute DVT. Iodine-125-tirofiban labelling was performed using the Iodo-gen method with a >95% yield. Technetium-99-tirofiban labelling in the presence of a stannous reducing agent was obtained with a >95% yield. Both labelled preparations have a fast blood clearance in the normal rat model (without induced thrombosis). More than 80% of the injected dose was eliminated from the circulation in the first hour after injection. Biodistribution and visualization of the labelled molecule was carried out using an experimental model of thrombosis in the male Wistar rat. Planar images were obtained 30 min and 60 min after application of 2-6 x 106 counts/min 99mTc-tirofiban, as well as 2 h and 24 h after application of 1.6-2.1 x 106 counts/min in the rat's tail vein. Sensitivity and specificity were determined using the ratio 'left leg positive for DVT' and 'right leg negative for DVT'. The obtained ratio was 1.76 after 1 h, 1.99 after 3 h and 2.06 after 24 h in the case of iodine labelled tirofiban, and 1.54 after 30 min and 5.04 after 60 min with 99mTc-tirofiban. These values were considered as positive in the detection of acute DVT. The results from experimental studies show that radiolabelled tirofiban could be helpful in

  6. Against the Use of Knowledge Gained from Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Tuvel

    2015-01-01

    While there exists considerable protest against the use of animals in experimentation, less protest is voiced against the use of knowledge gained from animal experimentation. Pulling from arguments against the use of Nazi data, I suggest that using knowledge gained from animal experimentation both disrespects animal victims and sustains the practice. It is thus pro tanto morally wrong.

  7. Stochastic modelling of animal movement

    OpenAIRE

    Smouse, Peter E.; Focardi, Stefano; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Kie, John G.; Forester, James D.; Morales, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern animal movement modelling derives from two traditions. Lagrangian models, based on random walk behaviour, are useful for multi-step trajectories of single animals. Continuous Eulerian models describe expected behaviour, averaged over stochastic realizations, and are usefully applied to ensembles of individuals. We illustrate three modern research arenas. (i) Models of home-range formation describe the process of an animal ‘settling down’, accomplished by including one or more focal poi...

  8. Flat-detector computed tomography evaluation in an experimental animal aneurysm model after endovascular treatment: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Sabine; Gölitz, Philipp; Adamek, Edyta; Royalty, Kevin; Doerfler, Arnd; Struffert, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    We compared flat-detector computed tomography angiography (FD-CTA) to multislice computed tomography (MS-CTA) and digital subtracted angiography (DSA) for the visualization of experimental aneurysms treated with stents, coils or a combination of both.In 20 rabbits, aneurysms were created using the rabbit elastase aneurysm model. Seven aneurysms were treated with coils, seven with coils and stents, and six with self-expandable stents alone. Imaging was performed by DSA, MS-CTA and FD-CTA immediately after treatment. Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) was performed and two experienced reviewers compared aneurysm/coil package size, aneurysm occlusion, stent diameters and artifacts for each modality.In aneurysms treated with stents alone, the visualization of the aneurysms was identical in all three imaging modalities. Residual aneurysm perfusion was present in two cases and visible in DSA and FD-CTA but not in MS-CTA. The diameter of coil-packages was overestimated in MS-CT by 56% and only by 16% in FD-CTA compared to DSA (p metal hardening artifacts impaired image quality more severely in MS-CTA compared to FD-CTA.MS-CTA is impaired by blooming and beam/metal hardening artifacts in the visualization of implanted devices. There was no significant difference between measurements made with noninvasive FD-CTA compared to gold standard of DSA after stenting and after coiling/stent-assisted coiling of aneurysms. FD-CTA may be considered as a non-invasive alternative to the gold standard 2D DSA in selected patients that require follow up imaging after stenting. PMID:26111985

  9. Validating Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Atanasova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I respond to the challenge raised against contemporary experimental neurobiology according to which the field is in a state of crisis because of the multiple experimental protocols employed in different laboratories and strengthening their reliability that presumably preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. I provide an alternative account of experimentation in neurobiology which makes sense of its experimental practices. I argue that maintaining a multiplicity of experimental protocols and strengthening their reliability are well justified and they foster rather than preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. Thus, their presence indicates thriving rather than crisis of experimental neurobiology.

  10. Animal experimental model of a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction after allogenic transplantation of bone marrow in lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft-versus-host (GVH) disease represents a serious still unsolved problem in the human allogenic transplantation of bone marrow. An experimental model of GVH reaction after an allogenic transplantation of bone marrow in the adult mouse has been worked out as a prerequisite for further studies on the therapeutic influence of this syndrome. 3 groups have been formed out of 82 lethally X-irradiated C57 Bl mice. The non-transplanted control group died to a hundred per cent within 12 days. While out of the 2nd group treated with syngenic bone marrow 55 per cent survived from the 22nd day, 30 per cent of the third animal group, allogenicly transplanted with histoincompatible AKR donor marrow developed a chronic GVH syndrome. The following symptoms were observed: retardation, alterations of the skin, diarrhea, edemas of the legs, failing increase of leukocytes in blood and proliferation of lymphocytes in bone marrow of about 60 per cent (18 per cent in syngenically transplanted animals), in lacking proliferation of hematopoiesis. The increase of liver and especially spleen index is not characteristic in comparison with the syngenically transplanted group, since in the latter there is also an increase of the values on account of a strong hematopoetic proliferation. The model is suitable and sufficiently well characterized for the performance of further experimental studies. (author)

  11. Validating Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Atanasova

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I respond to the challenge raised against contemporary experimental neurobiology according to which the field is in a state of crisis because of the multiple experimental protocols employed in different laboratories and strengthening their reliability that presumably preclude the validity of neurobiological knowledge. I provide an alternative account of experimentation in neurobiology which makes sense of its experimental practices. I argue that maintaining a multiplicity of ex...

  12. Comparison of animal models of hyperlipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-mei LIU

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To select the proper experimental animal model for research on prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia. Method: Hyperlipidemia models of mouse, rat, golden hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, pigeon and quail often used in the last ten years were compared. Results: Golden hamster and guinea pig models are similar to human beings in lipid metabolism and have unique superiority in experimental study, while the models of rat, mouse, pigeon and quail have significant difference as compared...

  13. Animal Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nestler, Eric J.; Steven E Hyman

    2010-01-01

    Modeling of human neuropsychiatric disorders in animals is extremely challenging given the subjective nature of many key symptoms, the lack of biomarkers and objective diagnostic tests, and the early state of the relevant neurobiology and genetics. Nonetheless, progress in understanding pathophysiology and in treatment development would benefit greatly from improved animal models. Here we review the current state of animal models of mental illness, with a focus on schizophrenia, depression, a...

  14. Pharmacokinetic modeling in aquatic animals. 1. Models and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, M.G.; Stehly, Guy R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    While clinical and toxicological applications of pharmacokinetics have continued to evolve both conceptually and experimentally, pharmacokinetics modeling in aquatic animals has not progressed accordingly. In this paper we present methods and concepts of pharmacokinetic modeling in aquatic animals using multicompartmental, clearance-based, non-compartmental and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models. These models should be considered as alternatives to traditional approaches, which assume that the animal acts as a single homogeneous compartment based on apparent monoexponential elimination.

  15. An experimental animal model of aseptic loosening of hip prostheses in sheep to study early biochemical changes at the interface membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akens Margarete K

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis as it occurs in clinical cases in human patients was attributed to wear particles of the implants, the response of the tissue dominated by macrophages and the production of inflammatory mediators and matrix degrading enzymes; however, the cascade of events initiating the process and their interaction regarding the time course is still open and discussed controversially. Therefore, the goal of this study was to establish an experimental animal model in sheep allowing to follow the cascade of early mechanical and biochemical events within the interface membrane and study the sequence of how they contribute to the pathological bone resorption necessary for aseptic loosening of the implant. Methods A cemented modular system (Biomedtrix was used as a hip replacement in 24 adult Swiss Alpine sheep, with one group receiving a complete cement mantle as controls (n = 12, and the other group a cement mantle with a standardized, lateral, primary defect in the cement mantle (n = 12. Animals were followed over time for 2 and 8.5 months (n = 6 each. After sacrifice, samples from the interface membranes were harvested from five different regions of the femur and joint capsule. Explant cell cultures were performed and supernatant of cultures were tested and assayed for nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, caseinolytic and collagenolytic activity. RNA extraction and quantification were performed for inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6. Overall differences between groups and time periods and interactions thereof were calculated using a factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results The development of an interface membrane was noticed in both groups at both time points. However, in the controls the interface membrane regressed in thickness and biological activity, while both variables increased in the experimental group with the primary cement mantle defect over time

  16. 偏头痛实验动物模型的研究现状%The Current Research Situation of Experimental Animal Models of Migraine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁博博

    2011-01-01

    偏头痛是一种由体外触发和体内病理生理机制相互作用、伴有神经心理及胃肠症状、具有遗传性及复发性的头痛综合征.其发病机制至今尚未完全明了,动物模型基于三叉神经血管学说、皮层扩散抑制学说和血管学说等理论而建立.现从造模机制、特点、适用范围及效度等方面对目前常用的偏头痛动物模型的研究现状进行综述.%Migraine is a genetically related recurrent headache syndrome appearing with neuro-psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms, implicating interaction between external triggers and internal pathophysiology. Its pathogenesis is still not completely clarified, animal models are established on the basis of trigeminovascular theory,cortical spreading depression theory and neurovascular theory. Here is to review the current migraine experimental animal models from the perspectives of modeling mechanism, characteristics,scope and validity, etc.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL MODELS OF DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sharad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas to secret the adequate amount of insulin, to transport glucose from blood into different cells of the body. If the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the produced insulin does not work properly, the glucose cannot enter the body cells. So glucose stays in the blood cells, which makes the blood sugar level, become high causing diabetes. It is initially characterized by a loss of glucose homeostasis. Experimental models are conventions. The community of scientists designates, often informally, its subjects of study. Today scientists not only breed their experimental animals; they also exercise the power to add to, delete, exchange, or mutate the animal genes. Like all inventions, they may be judged by the way they serve our need.KEYWORDS:

  18. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    methods, even if published in the scientific literature, are little standardised and reproducible. The suggestion is put forward that publicly accessible databases should make available more detailed descriptions of methodologies. Due to limitations in space, many scientific journals cannot publish detailed methodological descriptions. However, nowadays a supplementary central deposit of methods could easily be linked to the respective article. In numerous cases though, there is simply a lack of will to change procedures to methods without animal tests or to pose questions differently in order to avoid the use of animals or to reduce their number or, at least, to reduce stress. In other cases, researchers are simply not aware of the limitations of the animal experiment as such. A thorough review of the validity of critical animal experiments should be carried out and made available publicly. For example, many animal experiments are dramatically "under-powered", i.e. carried out with groups that are too small to allow conclusions to be drawn from the outcome. This stands in marked contrast to in vitro experiments where replicate experiments usually represent no major problem. Since in vitro models are generally more prone to artefacts due to the numerous variables, e.g. of cell culture, the key requirement for their application is their validation and quality control. Guided by the experience from validation studies for alternative methods in toxicology, concepts of a Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) are currently being developed which aim to define minimum quality standards for in vitro techniques. This initiative aiming to increase quality must be complemented by a concept to systematically assess the relevance of the tests in order to finally achieve an evidence-based biomedical research. A change in this direction is only possible if those public funds, which were previously assigned predominantly to alternatives to the animal tests required by law, are now channelled

  19. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichm...

  20. An animal model of fetishism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Falih; Domjan, Michael; Kurt, Adnan; Sertel, Ozlem; Orüng, Sabiha; Bowers, Rob; Kumru, Gulsen

    2004-12-01

    An animal model of sexual fetishism was developed with male Japanese quail based on persistence of conditioned sexual responding during extinction to an inanimate object made of terrycloth (Experiments 1 and 3). This persistent responding occurred only in subjects that came to copulate with the terrycloth object, suggesting that the copulatory behavior served to maintain the fetishistic behavior. Sexual conditioning was carried out by pairing a conditioned stimulus (CS) with the opportunity to copulate with a female (the unconditioned stimulus or US). Copulation with the CS object and persistent responding did not develop if the CS was a light (Experiment 1) or if conditioning was carried out with a food US (Experiment 2). In addition, subjects that showed persistence in responding to the terrycloth CS did not persist in their responding to a light CS (Experiment 3). The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned copulatory behavior creates a form of self-maintenance that leads to persistent responding to an inanimate object. The development of an animal model of such fetishistic behavior should facilitate experimental analysis of the phenomenon. PMID:15500813

  1. Animal Models of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert L.; Fleet, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that afflicts a large number of people in the United States. The use of animal models has the potential to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis, tumor biology, and the impact of specific molecular events on colon biology. In addition, animal models with features of specific human colorectal cancers can be used to test strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review we provide an overview of the mechanisms driving human cancer, we discuss the approaches one can take to model colon cancer in animals, and we describe a number of specific animal models that have been developed for the study of colon cancer. We believe that there are many valuable animal models to study various aspects of human colorectal cancer. However, opportunities for improving upon these models exist. PMID:23076650

  2. Animal Models for the Study of Osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Mitul; Rojavin, Yuri; Jamali, Amir A.; Wasielewski, Samantha J.; Salgado, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory process of the bone and its related structures secondary to an infection with pyogenic organisms. Because of the variety in disease presentations and pathophysiology of osteomyelitis, it is very difficult to evaluate in clinical studies. Therefore, animal models have been created for in vivo experimentation. A PubMed and OVID search was performed on March 31, 2008, using keywords osteomyelitis, animal model (rabbit, rat, mouse, avian, dog, she...

  3. Use of animal models in musculoskeletal research.

    OpenAIRE

    Neyt, J. G.; Buckwalter, J. A.; Carroll, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding of the human musculoskeletal system and common clinical disorders of bones, joints and soft tissues has been enhanced by the use of experimental animal models. Articles reporting on the results of these biomedical experiments frequently include conclusions that are based on the assumption that the biology of the animal model is similar to that of a human being for the disease process under investigation. The purpose of this investigation was to study the criteria and the conside...

  4. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  5. Animal models of osteoporosis - necessity and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner A. Simon

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need to further characterise the available animal models for postmenopausal osteoporosis, for the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, investigation of new therapies (e.g. selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs and evaluation of prosthetic devices in osteoporotic bone. Animal models that have been used in the past include non-human primates, dogs, cats, rodents, rabbits, guinea pigs and minipigs, all of which have advantages and disadvantages. Sheep are a promising model for various reasons: they are docile, easy to handle and house, relatively inexpensive, available in large numbers, spontaneously ovulate, and the sheep's bones are large enough to evaluate orthopaedic implants. Most animal models have used females and osteoporosis in the male has been largely ignored. Recently, interest in development of appropriate prosthetic devices which would stimulate osseointegration into osteoporotic, appendicular, axial and mandibular bone has intensified. Augmentation of osteopenic lumbar vertebrae with bioactive ceramics (vertebroplasty is another area that will require testing in the appropriate animal model. Using experimental animal models for the study of these different facets of osteoporosis minimizes some of the difficulties associated with studying the disease in humans, namely time and behavioral variability among test subjects. New experimental drug therapies and orthopaedic implants can potentially be tested on large numbers of animals subjected to a level of experimental control impossible in human clinical research.

  6. Comparison of different morphological parameters with duration of obstruction created experimentally in unilateral upper ureters: An animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasanka Shekhar Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the following study is to determine and to compare the different morphological parameters with duration of obstruction created experimentally in unilateral upper ureters of rats. Materials and Methods: Unilateral upper ureteric obstruction was created in 60 adult Wistar rats that were reversed after predetermined intervals. Rats were sacrificed and ipsilateral kidneys were subjected for analysis of morphological parameters such as renal height, cranio-caudal diameter, antero-posterior diameter, lateral diameter, volume of the pelvis and average cortical thickness: Renal height. Results: Renal height and cranio-caudal diameter of renal pelvis after ipsilateral upper ureteric obstruction started rising as early as 7 days of creating obstruction and were affected earlier than antero-posterior and lateral diameter and also were reversed earlier than other parameters after reversal of obstruction. Renal cortical thickness and volume of the pelvis were affected after prolonged obstruction (> 3 weeks and were the late parameters to be reversed after reversal of obstruction. Conclusions: Cranio-caudal diameter and renal height were the early morphological parameters to be affected and reversed after reversal of obstruction in experimentally created ipsilateral upper ureteric obstruction.

  7. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%–24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera

  8. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%-24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera

  9. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Leal Paixão; Fermin Roland Schramm

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this...

  10. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abubakar Amali Muhammad,1 Palanisamy Arulselvan,1 Cheah Pike See,2 Farida Abas,3 Sharida Fakurazi1,2 1Laboratory of Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, 2Unit of Anatomy, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 3Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia Abstract: Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15% of diabetics and up to 15%–24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine. Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue

  11. Multivariate Analysis for Animal Selection in Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Mercuri Pinto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several researchers seek methods for the selection of homogeneous groups of animals in experimental studies, a fact justified because homogeneity is an indispensable prerequisite for casualization of treatments. The lack of robust methods that comply with statistical and biological principles is the reason why researchers use empirical or subjective methods, influencing their results. Objective: To develop a multivariate statistical model for the selection of a homogeneous group of animals for experimental research and to elaborate a computational package to use it. Methods: The set of echocardiographic data of 115 male Wistar rats with supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS was used as an example of model development. Initially, the data were standardized, and became dimensionless. Then, the variance matrix of the set was submitted to principal components analysis (PCA, aiming at reducing the parametric space and at retaining the relevant variability. That technique established a new Cartesian system into which the animals were allocated, and finally the confidence region (ellipsoid was built for the profile of the animals’ homogeneous responses. The animals located inside the ellipsoid were considered as belonging to the homogeneous batch; those outside the ellipsoid were considered spurious. Results: The PCA established eight descriptive axes that represented the accumulated variance of the data set in 88.71%. The allocation of the animals in the new system and the construction of the confidence region revealed six spurious animals as compared to the homogeneous batch of 109 animals. Conclusion: The biometric criterion presented proved to be effective, because it considers the animal as a whole, analyzing jointly all parameters measured, in addition to having a small discard rate.

  12. In Vivo Evaluation of 5-ASA Colon-Specific Tablets Using Experimental-Induced Colitis Rat Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawarkar, Sujata P; Deshpande, S G; Bajaj, A N; Nikam, V S

    2015-12-01

    Colonic drug delivery is intended not only for local treatment in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but also for systemic delivery of therapeutics. Intestinal myeloperoxidase (MPO) determination could be used to estimate the average level of inflammation in colon as well as to determine the efficacy of drugs to be used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases or study the specificity of dosage forms to be used for colonic targeting of anti-inflammatory drugs. Colonic prodrug sulfasalazine (SASP) gets metabolized to give 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is the active portion of SASP. However, when given orally, 5-ASA is absorbed in upper part of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and not made available in colon. In the present study, colon-targeted delivery of 5-ASA was achieved by formulating tablets with two natural polymers namely guar gum and pectin using compression coating method. Colonic specificity of 5-ASA tablets (prepared using guar gum and pectin as polymers) was evaluated in vitro using simulated fluids mimicking in vivo environment as well as in vivo method using chemically (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and acetic acid)-induced colitis rat model. Both colon-specific formulations of 5-ASA (guar gum and pectin) were observed to be more effective in reducing inflammation in chemically induced colitis rat models when compared to colon-specific prodrug sulfasalazine as well as conventional 5-ASA administered orally. PMID:26017284

  13. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  14. Animal models in peritoneal dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitidou, Olga; Peppa, Vasiliki I.; Leivaditis, Konstantinos; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G.; Liakopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been extensively used over the past years as a method of kidney replacement therapy for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). In an attempt to better understand the properties of the peritoneal membrane and the mechanisms involved in major complications associated with PD, such as inflammation, peritonitis and peritoneal injury, both in vivo and ex vivo animal models have been used. The aim of the present review is to briefly describe the animal models that have been used, and comment on the main problems encountered while working with these models. Moreover, the differences characterizing these animal models, as well as, the differences with humans are highlighted. Finally, it is suggested that the use of standardized protocols is a necessity in order to take full advantage of animal models, extrapolate their results in humans, overcome the problems related to PD and help promote its use. PMID:26388781

  15. Animal Models in Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGA eNIKITIDOU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal dialysis (PD has been extensively used over the past years as a method of kidney replacement therapy for patients with end stage renal disease. In an attempt to better understand the properties of the peritoneal membrane and the mechanisms involved in major complications associated with PD, such as inflammation, peritonitis and peritoneal injury, both in vivo and ex vivo animal models have been used. The aim of the present review is to briefly describe the animal models that have been used, and comment on the main problems encountered while working with these models. Moreover, the differences characterizing these animal models, as well as, the differences with humans are highlighted. Finally, it is suggested that the use of standardized protocols is a necessity in order to take full advantage of animal models, extrapolate their results in humans, overcome the problems related to PD and help promote its use.

  16. Cobalt Protoporphyrin Improves Heart Function by Attenuating Cardiac Beta-oxidation and Restoring Redox Balance in an Animal Model of Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaderG.Abraham

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial dysfunction and coronary macro/microvascular alterations are the hallmarks of diabetic cardiomyopathy and are ascribed to increased oxidative stress and altered nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity. We hypothesize that pretreatment by cobalt-protoporphyrin IX (CoPP ameliorates both myocardial function and coronary circulation in streptozotocin(STZ-induced diabetic rats. Isolated hearts from diabetic rats in Langendorff configuration displayed lower left ventricular (LV function and higher coronary resistance (CR compared to hearts from control animals. CoPP treatment of diabetic animals (0.3mg/100g body weight i.p., once a week for three weeks significantly increased all the contractile/relaxation indexes (p<0.01, while decreasing CR (p<0.01. CoPP enhanced HO-1 protein levels and reduced oxidative/nitrosative stress in diabetic animals, as indicated by the significant (p<0.05 decrease in heart GSSG/GSHtotal, O2-, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 3-nitrotyrosine levels. CoPP increased adiponectin levels and phosphorylation of AKT and AMPK and reversed the eNOS/iNOS expression imbalance observed in the untreated diabetic heart. Furthermore, after CoPP treatment, a rise in malonylCoA as well as a decrease in acetylCoA was observed in diabetic hearts. In this experimental model of diabetic cardiomyopathy, CoPP treatment improved both cardiac function and coronary flow by blunting oxidative/nitrosative stress, restoring eNOS/ iNOS expression balance and increasing HO-1 levels, thereby favoring improvement in both endothelial function and insulin sensitivity.

  17. Is animal experimentation fundamental? A experimentação animal é fundamental?

    OpenAIRE

    Armando José d'Acampora; Lucas Félix Rossi; Jorge Bins Ely; Zulmar Acciolli de Vasconcellos

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the ...

  18. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paixão Rita Leal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this theme in the field of health.

  19. Experimental animal models in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%注意缺陷多动障碍的实验动物模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小兰; 陈燕惠

    2015-01-01

    目的 以国内外2000~2014年发表的关于注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)动物模型的文献,综述几种常见ADHD动物模型的优缺点,为今后研究ADHD的发病机制提供新思路.方法 2015年1月在中国知网、万方数据库、OVID、Pubmed等数据库,利用“注意缺陷多动障碍”“动物模型”等做检索词,分析国内外研究ADHD发病机制所使用的实验动物模型,每种实验动物模型的优缺点和研究价值.结果 文献纳入分析29篇,结果显示目前常用的ADHD实验动物模型有自发性高血压大鼠、多巴胺转运体基因敲除小鼠、缺失突变小鼠模型等遗传学模型,新生期六羟多巴胺损害的幼年大鼠模型、新生期大鼠缺氧模型、X线照射损伤大鼠海马模型等脑组织损伤模型和隔离饲养模型,每种动物模型都有研究ADHD发病机制的优缺点和特殊的研究价值.结论 本文系统评价了国内外研究比较常见的几种ADHD动物模型的特点,自发性高血压大鼠神经内分泌改变与ADHD儿童有一定程度的一致性,针对HPA轴深入探讨,寻找ADHD儿童与SHR动物模型在神经内分泌方面的一致性,有可能为研究ADHD发病机制开辟一条新路径.%Objective To review the advantages and disadvantages of common attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) animal models,published in 2000-2014 at home and abroad,with an attempt to provide new ideas for the future study of the pathogenesis in ADHD.Methods Major online database including CNKI,Wan Fang databases,OVID,Pubmed databases were searched in January 2015,using the key words " attention deficit hyperactivity disorder"," animal models " and so on,to analysis the advantages and disadvantages of each type of experimental animal models and research value in ADHD.Results Totally 29 studies were enrolled,and the analysis show that the current commonly used experimental animal models of ADHD are spontaneously

  20. Animal Models of Ricin Toxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Chad J; Song, Kejing; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Gardner, Donald J.; Seth H Pincus

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of ricin toxicosis are necessary for testing the efficacy of therapeutic measures, as well studying the mechanisms by which ricin exerts its toxicity in intact animals. Because ricin can serve as a particularly well-characterized model of tissue damage, and the host response to that damage, studies of the mechanisms of ricin toxicity may have more general applicability. For example, our studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of ricin-induced hypoglycemia ...

  1. Animal models for human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, J H

    1982-01-01

    The use of animal models for the study of human disease is, for the most part, a recent development. This discussion of the use of animal models for human diseases directs attention to the sterile period, early advances, some personal experiences, the human as the model, biological oddities among common laboratory animals, malignancies in laboratory animals, problems created by federal regulations, cancer tests with animals, and what the future holds in terms of the use of animal models as an aid to understanding human disease. In terms of early use of animal models, there was a school of rabbis, some of whom were also physicians, in Babylon who studied and wrote extensively on ritual slaughter and the suitability of birds and beasts for food. Considerable detailed information on animal pathology, physiology, anatomy, and medicine in general can be found in the Soncino Babylonian Talmudic Translations. The 1906 edition of the "Jewish Encyclopedia," has been a rich resource. Although it has not been possible to establish what diseases of animals were studied and their relationship to the diseases of humans, there are fascinating clues to pursue, despite the fact that these were sterile years for research in medicine. The quotation from the Talmud is of interest: "The medical knowledge of the Talmudist was based upon tradition, the dissection of human bodies, observation of disease and experiments upon animals." A bright light in the lackluster years of medical research was provided by Galen, considered the originator of research in physiology and anatomy. His dissection of animals and work on apes and other lower animals were models for human anatomy and physiology and the bases for many treatises. Yet, Galen never seemed to suggest that animals could serve as models for human diseases. Most early physicians who can be considered to have been students of disease developed their medical knowledge by observing the sick under their care. 1 early medical investigator

  2. Animal models of portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan G Abraldes; Marcos Pasarín; Juan Carlos; García-Pagán

    2006-01-01

    Animal models have allowed detailed study of hemodynamic alterations typical of portal hypertension and the molecular mechanisms involved in abnormalities in splanchnic and systemic circulation associated with this syndrome. Models of prehepatic portal hypertension can be used to study alterations in the splanchnic circulation and the pathophysiology of the hyperdynamic circulation. Models of cirrhosis allow study of the alterations in intrahepatic microcirculation that lead to increased resistance to portal flow. This review summarizes the currently available literature on animal models of portal hypertension and analyzes their relative utility. The criteria for choosing a particular model,depending on the specific objectives of the study, are also discussed.

  3. Animal Models for Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Heather R.; Huppler, Anna R.; Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Multiple forms of candidiasis are clinically important in humans. Established murine models of disseminated, oropharyngeal, vaginal, and cutaneous candidiasis caused by Candida albicans are described in this unit. Detailed materials and methods for C. albicans growth and detection are also described.

  4. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoç, Tunç

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Allergic disease such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing prevelanceand affect up to 15% of population in Westernized countries. Among them, asthma is achronic inflammatory disease of airways and the underlying physiological and immunologicalprocesses are not fully understood. Mouse models of asthma dupicates many featuresof human asthma, including airway hyperreactivity, andairway inflammation. Therefore, relevantmodels for asthma are important to understand the mechanis...

  5. Animal models in myopia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffel, Frank; Feldkaemper, Marita

    2015-11-01

    Our current understanding of the development of refractive errors, in particular myopia, would be substantially limited had Wiesel and Raviola not discovered by accident that monkeys develop axial myopia as a result of deprivation of form vision. Similarly, if Josh Wallman and colleagues had not found that simple plastic goggles attached to the chicken eye generate large amounts of myopia, the chicken model would perhaps not have become such an important animal model. Contrary to previous assumptions about the mechanisms of myopia, these animal models suggested that eye growth is visually controlled locally by the retina, that an afferent connection to the brain is not essential and that emmetropisation uses more sophisticated cues than just the magnitude of retinal blur. While animal models have shown that the retina can determine the sign of defocus, the underlying mechanism is still not entirely clear. Animal models have also provided knowledge about the biochemical nature of the signal cascade converting the output of retinal image processing to changes in choroidal thickness and scleral growth; however, a critical question was, and still is, can the results from animal models be applied to myopia in children? While the basic findings from chickens appear applicable to monkeys, some fundamental questions remain. If eye growth is guided by visual feedback, why is myopic development not self-limiting? Why does undercorrection not arrest myopic progression even though positive lenses induce myopic defocus, which leads to the development of hyperopia in emmetropic animals? Why do some spectacle or contact lens designs reduce myopic progression and others not? It appears that some major differences exist between animals reared with imposed defocus and children treated with various optical corrections, although without the basic knowledge obtained from animal models, we would be lost in an abundance of untestable hypotheses concerning human myopia. PMID:26769177

  6. Advance of Experimental Animal Models of Steroid-induced Osteonecrosis%激素性骨坏死动物模型研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱和玉

    2012-01-01

    Osteonecrosis( ON)or avascular necrosis is a common bone metabolic disorder,mostly affecting femoral head, called osteonecrosis femoral head( ONFH ). One of the most common risk factors for ONFH is use of corticosteroids. Although many biological,biophysical,and surgical methods have been tested to preserve the femoral head with ON, none has been proven fully satisfactory. A number of preclinical animal steroid-induced ON models have been established for testing potential efficacy of various modalities developed for prevention and treatment of steroid-induced ON before introduction into clinics for potential applications. Here is to make a review on a number of different methods for creating experimental animal models of steroid-induced ON.%骨坏死或缺血性坏死是一种常见的骨代谢疾病,可以发生在全身多个部位,临床上以股骨头坏死(ONFH)最为常见.随着激素性药物在临床上的广泛应用,糖皮质激素已成为造成非创伤性ONFH的主要原因之一.虽然可以通过许多生物学、生物物理学和手术方式进行ONFH的保头治疗,但结果都不能令人满意.在各种预防和治疗骨坏死的方法应用于临床之前,首先必须通过建立相关的动物模型更科学、准确地检验这些方法的有效性.现就目前国内外激素性骨坏死动物模型建模方法研究进展进行综述.

  7. Progress in the development of experimental animal models of HCV infection%HCV实验动物模型研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶万银; 张岩; 钟劲

    2012-01-01

    HCV是威胁人类健康的重要病原体之一,可在人体肝脏形成持续性感染,导致慢性肝炎、肝纤维化、肝硬化和肝癌.HCV的实验动物模型不仅是HCV免疫学、病理学和病毒学等基础科学的重要研究手段,还为HCV疫苗和药物的研发提供了关键的工具和平台.黑猩猩是除了人类以外唯一可以被HCV感染的灵长类动物,为HCV的研究做出了重要贡献,但其使用受到了成本及伦理上的限制.近年在利用树鼩和人源化小鼠建立HCV小动物模型的研究上取得良好的进展.本文将总结常用HCV实验动物模型的现状和挑战.%HCV is one of the major pathogens that pose threats to human public health. It can establish persistent infection in human liver, leading to chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The experimental animal models for HCV infection are not only important research means for investigating immunology, pathology and virology of HCV infection, but also serve as the means and platform for the development of HCV vaccines and novel agents. Chimpanzees, the sole primate except hu man beings who can be infected by HCV, have made significant contributions to HCV research. However, their application has been hampered due to their cost and ethical issues. A big progress has been made in developing small animal models for HCV research using tupaia and humanized mice in recent years. This review summarizes the current status and challenges of the development of HCV animal models.

  8. Animal experimentation and scientific knowledge: a thought style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales de Astrogildo e Tréz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal experimentation, besides a research method extensively applied in the production of scientific knowledge, is also considered essential to science and with undeniable historical relevance in advances in human health. In this survey, a questionnaire was applied to a group of researchers involved with research based on non-animal models (n =18, and to another group involved with research based on animal models (n =18. The data analysis was grounded in Ludwik Fleck (1896 -1961 epistemological assumptions. The results suggested that there are at least two thought styles operating in consonance on the same research problem (advances in human health conditions with significantly different conceptions not only concerning the research practices involved, but also the historical conceptions related to the role of animal experimentation.A experimentação animal, além de método amplamente aplicado na produção do conhecimento científico, é considerada como essencial à ciência e com valor histórico inegável no progresso das condições de saúde humana. Neste levantamento, um questionário foi aplicado a um grupo de pesquisadores com trabalhos baseados em modelos não-animais (n =18 e a outro grupo com trabalhos baseados em modelos animais (n =18. A análise de dados se baseou nos pressupostos epitemológicos de Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961. Os dados sugerem que existem pelo menos dois estilos de pensamento operando em consonância sobre o mesmo problema de pesquisa (avanços nas condições de saúde humana, com concepções significativamente diferentes sobre as práticas de pesquisa envolvidas, assim como as concepções históricas relacionadas ao papel da experimentação animal.

  9. Novel Animal Models of Pediatric Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Auvin, Stéphane; Pineda, Eduardo; Shin, Don; Gressens, Pierre; Mazarati, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    When mimicking epileptic processes in a laboratory setting, it is important to understand the differences between experimental models of seizures and epilepsy. Because human epilepsy is defined by the appearance of multiple spontaneous recurrent seizures, the induction of a single acute seizure without recurrence does not constitute an adequate epilepsy model. Animal models of epilepsy might be useful for various tasks. They allow for the investigation of pathophysiological mechanisms of the ...

  10. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.;

    2014-01-01

    , to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...... makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias...... in an encamped state. Though the attraction to the group centroid is relatively weak, our model successfully captures group-influenced movement dynamics. Specifically, as compared to a regular mixture of correlated random walks, the group dynamic model more accurately predicts the non-diffusive behaviour...

  11. ANIMAL MODELS FOR FOOD ALLERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models have been used to provide insight into the complex immunological and pathophysioligical mechanisms of human Type 1 allergic diseases. Research efforts that include mechanistic studies in search of new therapies and screening models for hazard identification of potential allergens in a...

  12. Metabolic effects of hypergravity on experimental animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several experiments concerned with the exposure of animals to acute or chronic centrifugation are described. The effects of hypergravity particularly discussed include the decreased growth rate and body weight, increased metabolic rate, skeletal deformation, and loss of body fat.

  13. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    OpenAIRE

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, Grant; Blackwell, Paul; Goodall, Victoria; King, Ruth; Niu, Mu; Patterson, Toby; Pedersen, Martin; Skarin, Anna; Schick, Robert Schilling

    2013-01-01

    1). Group dynamics are a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognized, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However, to date, practical statistical methods, which can include group dynamics in animal movement models, have been lacking. 2). We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level ...

  14. ANIMAL MODELS OF CANCER: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana M. Navale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. In USA three persons out of five will develop some type of cancer. Beyond these statistics of mortality, the morbidity due to cancer presents a real scary picture. Last 50 years of research has rendered some types of cancer curable, but still the major fear factor associated with this disease is unchanged. Animal models are classified according to the method of induction of cancer in the animal. Spontaneous tumor models are the most primitive models. Although these models show good resemblance to the natural disease in humans, they were not capable of keeping pace with developing experimental therapeutics programs. It has therefore been necessary to take a further step towards artificiality, away from the clinical problem in the search for satisfactory testing method. From this step, the journey of artificially induced tumor models started. It is possible to induce cancer reproducibly in animals by exposing them to various agents and now, by transplanting tumor cells or tissue. The development of Genetically Engineered Animal models has provided a great help in knowing the disease. This article takes a review of present animal models used in anti-cancer drug discovery.

  15. Tendências em experimentação animal Trends in animal experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A busca do entendimento de fatores etiológicos, mecanismos e tratamento das doenças tem levado ao desenvolvimento de vários modelos animais nas últimas décadas. OBJETIVO: Esse artigo tem por objetivo discutir aspectos relacionados a modelos animais de experimentação, escolha do animal e tendências atuais nesse campo em nosso país. Além disso, esse estudo buscou avaliar o espaço ocupado por artigos experimentais em revistas médicas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas cinco revistas brasileiras, indexadas na LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, e recentemente incorporadas pelo Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports. Foram selecionados pelo resumo ou abstract todos os artigos publicados nessas revistas, nos anos de 2007 e 2008, que empregaram modelos animais. RESULTADOS: Do total de 832 artigos publicados no período pelas revistas analisadas, foram selecionados 92 (11,1% que empregavam animais de experimentação. O número de artigos experimentais variou de 5,2% a 17,9% do conteúdo global da revista. Nas instruções aos autores de quatro (80% das revistas avaliadas, havia referência explícita aos princípios éticos na condução de estudos com animais. Os modelos animais induzidos representaram 100% dos artigos analisados neste estudo. O rato foi o animal mais empregado nos artigos analisados, sendo utilizado em 78,3% deles. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo poderá fornecer subsídios para adoção de políticas editoriais futuras relativas à publicação de artigos originários de pesquisa animal na RBCCV.INTRODUCTION: The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. OBJECTIVE: To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in

  16. Guidelines in the field of animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Perše, Martina

    2015-01-01

    V juniju 2007 je v Italiji potekalo skupno srečanje FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations) in ICLAS (International Council for Laboratory Animal Science), katerega se je udeležilo preko 1100 strokovnjakov iz vseh kontinentov. Na simpoziju je bil predstavljen obsežen pregled najnovejših znanstvenih dognanj in tehnologije s področja znanosti o laboratorijskih živalih, ki je potekal v znamenju predstavitev, konzultacij ter pripravljanja smernic za prihodnost. Na s...

  17. Animal Experimentation: Bringing Ethical Issues into Biology Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)

  18. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichment. They need to be evaluated for use by taking into account the following: the species of an animal, its needs, habits and capabilities, the type of an enrichment device, the device's ability to stimulate the animal's interest and the safety of the device. Enrichment programmes should always include two forms of enrichment: behavioral enrichment and environmental enrichment. Enrichment comes in many forms such as structural or physical enrichment, sensory enrichment (auditory and olfactory stimulation, dietary enrichment, manipulatable enrichment and social enrichment.

  19. Animal models of CNS disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is intense interest in the development and application of animal models of CNS disorders to explore pathology and molecular mechanisms, identify potential biomarkers, and to assess the therapeutic utility, estimate safety margins and establish pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters of new chemical entities (NCEs). This is a daunting undertaking, due to the complex and heterogeneous nature of these disorders, the subjective and sometimes contradictory nature of the clinical endpoints and the paucity of information regarding underlying molecular mechanisms. Historically, these models have been invaluable in the discovery of therapeutics for a range of disorders including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. Recently, however, they have been increasingly criticized in the wake of numerous clinical trial failures of NCEs with promising preclinical profiles. These failures have resulted from a number of factors including inherent limitations of the models, over-interpretation of preclinical results and the complex nature of clinical trials for CNS disorders. This review discusses the rationale, strengths, weaknesses and predictive validity of the most commonly used models for psychiatric, neurodegenerative and neurological disorders as well as critical factors that affect the variability and reproducibility of these models. It also addresses how progress in molecular genetics and the development of transgenic animals has fundamentally changed the approach to neurodegenerative disorder research. To date, transgenic animal models\\have not been the panacea for drug discovery that many had hoped for. However continual refinement of these models is leading to steady progress with the promise of eventual therapeutic breakthroughs. PMID:23811310

  20. Animal models for diseases of respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Adil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latest trends in understanding of respiratory diseases in human beings can be derived from thorough clinical studies of these diseases occurring in man, but conducting such studies in man is difficult in terms of experimental manipulation. In the last 2 decades, various types of experimental respiratory disease models has been developed and utilized by investigators, which have contributed a lot to the understanding of respiratory diseases in man, but only little investigation has been done on the naturally occurring pulmonary diseases of animals as potential models which could have added to our knowledge. There are certain selected examples of spontaneous pulmonary disease in animals that may serve as exploitable models for human chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema, interstitial lung disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hyaline membrane disease, and bronchial asthma.

  1. Animal Models of Williams Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Lucy R.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have generated a variety of mouse models in an attempt to dissect the contribution of individual genes to the complex phenotype associated with Williams syndrome (WS). The mouse genome is easily manipulated to produce animals that are copies of humans with genetic conditions, be it with null mutations, hypomorphic mutations, point mutations, or even large deletions encompassing many genes. The existing mouse models certainly seem to implicate hemizygosity for ELN,...

  2. ANIMAL BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF TINNITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Qiuju; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood and treatments are often unsuccessful. A number of animal models have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of tinnitus. A great deal has been learned from these models re-garding the electrophysiological and neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus following exposure to noise or ototoxic drugs. Re-liable behavioral data is important for determining whether such electrophysiological or neuroanatomical changes are indeed related to tinnitus. Of the many documented tinnitus animal behavioral paradigms, the acoustic startle reflex had been pro-posed as a simple method to identify the presence or absence of tinnitus. Several behavioral models based on conditioned re-sponse suppression paradigms have also been developed. In addition to determining the presence or absence of tinnitus, some of the behavioral paradigms have provided signs of the onset, frequency, and intensity of tinnitus in animals. Although none of these behavioral models have been proved to be a perfect model, these studies provide useful information on understanding the neural mechanisms underlying tinnitus.

  3. La evaluación del dolor experimental en el laboratorio: los modelos de dolor neuropático en animales Evaluation of experimental pain in the laboratory: models of neuropathic pain in animal's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Baños

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pese a los avances realizados en los últimos años, el dolor neuropático constituye aún un serio problema asistencial. Los tratamientos disponibles sólo permiten aliviar adecuadamente un tercio de los pacientes. Los modelos experimentales pueden contribuir a conocer la fisiopatología de este cuadro clínico, así como a probar nuevos fármacos. Existen básicamente dos tipos de modelos, aquellos que realizan una lesión en el nervio periférico y los que causan alteraciones en el sistema nervioso central. A pesar de sus limitaciones, los modelos animales pueden contribuir a avanzar en el conocimiento de este síndrome y algunos de ellos pueden ayudar a predecir la utilidad terapéutica de nuevos medicamentos. Obviamente, sólo los ensayos clínicos bien diseñados permitirán conocer su eficacia real en el ámbito clínico.In spite of the advancement of pain research in the last decade, the therapy of neuropathic pain is still an unresolved issue. Available treatments only adequately improve only a third of patients. Experimental models may contribute to the knowledge of its pathophysiology, as well as to the development of new drugs. Basically, two types of animal models are available: those that cause a lesion in the peripheral nerves and those that injury the central nervous system. Beyond these limitations, animal models may help to improve the knowledge of neuropathic pain and some of them have predictive value on the usefulness of analgesic efficacy of new drugs. Obviously, only well-designed, controlled clinical trials will permit to establish their actual efficacy in the clinical setting.

  4. Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political worldto feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry

  5. Animal models for studying penile hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HiroyaMizusawa; OsamuIshizuka

    2002-01-01

    Animal models for the study of erectile function monitoring the changes in intracavernous pressure(ICP)during penile erection was reviewed.The development of new modwls using small commercially-available experimen-tal animals,rats and mice,in the last edcade facilitated in vivo investigation of erectile physiology.The technique enabled to evaluate even subtle erectile responses by analyzing ICPand systemic blood pressure,Moreover,the method has been well improved and studies using conscious animal models without the influence of any drug or anesthesia are more appropriate in exploring the precise physiological and pharmacological mechanisms in erection.Also,more natural and physiological sexual arousal instead of electrical or pharmacological stimulation is desirable in most of the studies.This article reviewed the development of ICPstudies in rats and mice.

  6. Penile autotransplantation in rats: An animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Seyam, Raouf M.; Said A Kattan; Assad, Lina W.; Raafat M El-Sayed; Falah H Almohanna

    2013-01-01

    Context: Penile allotransplantation might be a viable option for patients who need penile reconstruction. Aims: A successful autotransplantation rat model is the first step toward proceeding for allotransplantation. We herein evaluate autotransplantation following transaction of the rat penis just distal to the urethral bulb. Settings and Design: Experimental animal study. Materials and Methods: Five Sprague-Dawely rats weighing 520 g (SD 19) were used. Utilizing a magnification o...

  7. Evaluation of Surrogate Animal Models of Melioidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Warawa, Jonathan Mark

    2010-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for the disease melioidosis. B. pseudomallei establishes disease in susceptible individuals through multiple routes of infection, all of which may proceed to a septicemic disease associated with a high mortality rate. B. pseudomallei opportunistically infects humans and a wide range of animals directly from the environment, and modeling of experimental melioidosis has been conducted in numerous biologically relevant...

  8. Bridging Animal and Human Models

    OpenAIRE

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Crabbe, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Genetics play an important role in the development and course of alcohol abuse, and understanding genetic contributions to this disorder may lead to improved preventative and therapeutic strategies in the future. Studies both in humans and in animal models are necessary to fully understand the neurobiology of alcoholism from the molecular to the cognitive level. By dissecting the complex facets of alcoholism into discrete, well-defined phenotypes that are measurable in both human populations ...

  9. Animal models of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sangwon F.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet develop...

  10. Modeling Autistic Features in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    A variety of features of autism can be simulated in rodents, including the core behavioral hallmarks of stereotyped and repetitive behaviors, and deficits in social interaction and communication. Other behaviors frequently found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) such as neophobia, enhanced anxiety, abnormal pain sensitivity and eye blink conditioning, disturbed sleep patterns, seizures, and deficits in sensorimotor gating are also present in some of the animal models. Neuropathology and some...

  11. Animal Models in Burn Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the...

  12. Animal models for microbicide studies

    OpenAIRE

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Shattock, Robin J.; Klasse, Per Johan; Moore, John P.

    2012-01-01

    There have been encouraging recent successes in the development of safe and effective topical microbicides to prevent vaginal or rectal HIV-1 transmission, based on the use of anti-retroviral drugs. However, much work remains to be accomplished before a microbicide becomes a standard element of prevention science strategies. Animal models should continue to play an important role in pre-clinical testing, with emphasis on safety, pharmacokinetic and efficacy testing.

  13. The preliminary study of Ultraviolet-Irradiated and Oxygenated Blood Transfusion Therapy(UOBT) for Experimental Cerebral Infarction of Animal Brain Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Xiu-Chu; Feng You-Qi; Zhou gang; Wu jun-yi

    2000-01-01

    In this presented study, we have developed a photochemical model of cerebral in farction in rabbit with stable and reproducible infarct size and extent. This model is similar to the pathological changes in human cerebral infarction. Using this model, therapeutic effects and mechanisms of UOBT on brain ischemic injury were invetigated in rabbits following the photochemical infarcnon The results showed that UOBT could significantly reduce the mtarcted size, and improve the cerebral blood flow compared with the control animals treated with non-u-radiated ad non-oxygenated blood transfusion. These data suggest that the UOBT may have a therapeutic potential for clinical rehabilitation effect in stroke treatment

  14. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  15. Animal models of gene-nutrient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Danielle R

    2008-12-01

    Food intake of humans is governed by the food's nutritional value and pleasing taste, but also by other factors such as food cost and availability, cultural imperatives, and social status. The biological determinants of human food intake are not easily parsed from these other factors, making them hard to study against the whirligig aspects of human life in a modern age. The study of animals provides a useful alternative. Humans have a history of studying animal food intake, for agricultural reasons (e.g., pigs and cows), and for personal reasons (e.g., dogs and cats), and these practical concerns have been joined with the appreciation that other models can teach us the principles of behavior, genetics, and nutrition. Thus there is a steady use of the traditional animal models in this type of research, as well as growth in the use of other systems such as worms and flies. Rats and mice occupy a special niche as animal models for two reasons; first, they share with humans a love of the same types of food, and second, they are the target of a number of well-developed genetic tools. The available genetic tools that make mice a popular model include a well-annotated genome (Mouse Build 37), profiles of RNA expression from many tissues, a diverse panel of inbred strains, and the ability to manipulate genes in the whole animal, including removing a gene only in specific tissues (e.g., Cre-lox system). Mice have been harnessed to find genotypes that contribute to sweet-liking, and other studies are underway to understand how genetic variation might at least partially explain other puzzles of human appetites. Animal models provide a way to study the genetic determinants of food selection with experimental rigor and therefore complement human genetics studies. PMID:19037208

  16. Henipavirus Infections: Lessons from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin P. Dhondt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Henipavirus genus contains two highly lethal viruses, the Hendra and Nipah viruses and one, recently discovered, apparently nonpathogenic member; Cedar virus. These three, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, are hosted by fruit bats and use EphrinB2 receptors for entry into cells. The Hendra and Nipah viruses are zoonotic pathogens that emerged in the middle of 90s and have caused severe, and often fatal, neurologic and/or respiratory diseases in both humans and different animals; including spillover into equine and porcine species. Development of relevant models is critical for a better understanding of viral pathogenesis, generating new diagnostic tools, and assessing anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines. This review summarizes available data on several animal models where natural and/or experimental infection has been demonstrated; including pteroid bats, horses, pigs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, ferrets, and nonhuman primates. It recapitulates the principal features of viral pathogenesis in these animals and current knowledge on anti-viral immune responses. Lastly it describes the recently characterized murine animal model, which provides the possibility to use numerous and powerful tools available for mice to further decipher henipaviruses immunopathogenesis, prophylaxis, and treatment. The utility of different models to analyze important aspects of henipaviruses-induced disease in humans, potential routes of transmission, and therapeutic approaches are equally discussed.

  17. Henipavirus infections: lessons from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, Kévin P; Horvat, Branka

    2013-01-01

    The Henipavirus genus contains two highly lethal viruses, the Hendra and Nipah viruses and one, recently discovered, apparently nonpathogenic member; Cedar virus. These three, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, are hosted by fruit bats and use EphrinB2 receptors for entry into cells. The Hendra and Nipah viruses are zoonotic pathogens that emerged in the middle of 90s and have caused severe, and often fatal, neurologic and/or respiratory diseases in both humans and different animals; including spillover into equine and porcine species. Development of relevant models is critical for a better understanding of viral pathogenesis, generating new diagnostic tools, and assessing anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines. This review summarizes available data on several animal models where natural and/or experimental infection has been demonstrated; including pteroid bats, horses, pigs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, ferrets, and nonhuman primates. It recapitulates the principal features of viral pathogenesis in these animals and current knowledge on anti-viral immune responses. Lastly it describes the recently characterized murine animal model, which provides the possibility to use numerous and powerful tools available for mice to further decipher henipaviruses immunopathogenesis, prophylaxis, and treatment. The utility of different models to analyze important aspects of henipaviruses-induced disease in humans, potential routes of transmission, and therapeutic approaches are equally discussed. PMID:25437037

  18. Aspects of animal models for major neuropsychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lefter Radu; Cojocaru Dumitru; Ciobica Alin; Paulet Manuel Ioan; Serban Lacramioara Ionela; Anton Emil

    2014-01-01

    We will review the main animal models for the major neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, anxiety and autism. Although these mental disorders are specifically human pathologies and therefore impossible to perfectly replicate in animals, the use of experimental animals is based on the physiological and anatomical similarities between humans and animals such as the rat, and mouse, and on t...

  19. Evaluation of surrogate animal models of melioidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Mark Warawa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for the disease melioidosis. B. pseudomallei establishes disease in susceptible individuals through multiple routes of infection, all of which may proceed to a septicemic disease associated with a high mortality rate. B. pseudomallei opportunistically infects humans and a wide range of animals directly from the environment, and modeling of experimental melioidosis has been conducted in numerous biologically relevant models including mammalian and invertebrate hosts. This review seeks to summarize published findings related to established animal models of melioidosis, with an aim to compare and contrast the virulence of B. pseudomallei in these models. The effect of the route of delivery on disease is also discussed for intravenous, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intranasal, aerosol, oral, and intratracheal infection methodologies, with a particular focus on how they relate to modeling clinical melioidosis. The importance of the translational validity of the animal models used in B. pseudomallei research is highlighted as these studies have become increasingly therapeutic in nature.

  20. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products. PMID:25183445

  1. Evaluation of animal models of neurobehavioral disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nordquist Rebecca E; Arndt Saskia S; van der Staay F Josef

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Animal models play a central role in all areas of biomedical research. The process of animal model building, development and evaluation has rarely been addressed systematically, despite the long history of using animal models in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders and behavioral dysfunctions. An iterative, multi-stage trajectory for developing animal models and assessing their quality is proposed. The process starts with defining the purpose(s) of the model, preferentiall...

  2. Animal models and conserved processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greek Ray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? Methods We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Results Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. Conclusion We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is

  3. Animal models of recurrent or bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Kasahara, T; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Kato, T M; Nakajima, K

    2016-05-01

    Animal models of mental disorders should ideally have construct, face, and predictive validity, but current animal models do not always satisfy these validity criteria. Additionally, animal models of depression rely mainly on stress-induced behavioral changes. These stress-induced models have limited validity, because stress is not a risk factor specific to depression, and the models do not recapitulate the recurrent and spontaneous nature of depressive episodes. Although animal models exhibiting recurrent depressive episodes or bipolar depression have not yet been established, several researchers are trying to generate such animals by modeling clinical risk factors as well as by manipulating a specific neural circuit using emerging techniques. PMID:26265551

  4. 99mTc human IgG radiolabelled by HYNIC. Biodistribution and scintigraphy of experimentally induced inflammatory lesions in animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our goal was the efficient labelling of highly purified human gammaglobulin. This radioactive protein fraction can be used as a basic compound of radiopharmaceutical formulation for inflammation lesion diagnosis. This application was experimentally illustrated in animal models with artificially induced inflammatory lesions after turpentine oil injection into mouse leg muscle. Hydrazine nicotinamine derivative of human gammaglobulin (IgG-HYNIC) was synthesized according to Abrams method. The radionuclide: technetium 99mTc has been introduced into protein molecules by indirect method incorporation in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, in the presence of stannous chloride as a reducing agent for sodium pertechnetate, and EDTA as a coligand. Radiochemical purity was estimated by thin layer chromatography. The stability of labelled IgG-HYNIC derivative in human serum in presence of copper, cobalt, iron and manganese salts was analyzed by HPLC method (BioSEP SEC 4000, eluent: 0.1mol/L phosphate). Inflammation lesions were induced in Balb/3 mice muscles by injection of 0.2 ml turpentine oil into the leg muscle. Five days later, inflammation lesions were visualized by hIgG-HYNIC- 99mTc injections. The tracer accumulation in tissue was evaluated by gamma camera at 1 to 24 hour intervals. Efficiency of technetium 99mTc human gammaglobulin labelling (pH 7.4, temp. 37oC) was strictly dependant on ligand and coligand presence in the reaction mixture. Labelling of IgG molecules without any supplements resulted in very low efficiency, never exceeding the range of 5%. Presence of EDTA or hydrazine nicotinamide (HYNIC) conjugated with IgG increased radiolabelling efficiency to 50%. IgG-HYNIC derivative in EDTA presence enables us to reach value above 95% radiochemical purity. Stability of IgG-HYNIC derivative labelled with technetium 99mTc decreased rapidly in serum in time - up to 70% of initial value in 30 minutes and only 20% during further 4 hr incubation. This means that as much as 80

  5. Improvement on the animal model of local irradiation for experimental tumors%实验肿瘤局部照射动物模型的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玉军; 徐文清; 刘晓秋; 周则卫; 龙伟; 张晓东; 王浩; 洪阁; 韩英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To improve the reliability of experimental outcome in radio-sensitive drug research by improving the animal model of locally irradiated tumor.Methods Liver cancer cells H22 were implanted into legs and insteps subcutaneously in mice,respectively,and made them grow into solid tumors.Then the tumors were treated with the γ ray of 137Cs at the dosage of 5 Gy.Measured length,width and height of tumors once per day,and calculated volume of tumors,observed for 24 days.Results Volume and weight of the irradiated tumor inoculated into legs were no obvious difference (t=0.55、0.70,both P>0.05).But volume and weight of the irradiated tumors inoculated subcutaneously into insteps of the tested mice were obviously lower than that of control mice (t=2.25,P<0.05 in volume; t=3.14,P<0.01 in weight).Conclusion The insteps subcutaneous approach of tumors in mice is a more simple,convenient and practicable operation,and will make the testing result more accurate and reliabe.%目的 对局部照射肿瘤实验动物模型进行改进以提高肿瘤放疗增敏药物增敏实验结果的可靠性.方法 分别在小鼠腿上皮下(传统方法)和小鼠脚背皮下(改进方法)接种肝癌H22细胞,使其生长成实体瘤;用5 Gy γ射线照射肿瘤后,每隔1d测量肿瘤的长、宽、高并计算肿瘤体积,连续观察24 d.结果 将肿瘤接种于小鼠腿上皮下时,照射组的肿瘤体积和质量与对照组之间的差异无统计学意义(t=0.55、0.70,P均>0.05);而将肿瘤接种于脚背皮下时,照射组的肿瘤体积和质量均明显低于对照组(t=2.25,P<0.05; t=3.14,P<0.01).结论 肿瘤接种于小鼠脚背皮下的方法,操作简单、方便、易行且实验结果准确、可靠.

  6. Animal experimentation in forensic sciences: How far have we come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, C; Maderna, E; Rendinelli, A; Gibelli, D

    2015-09-01

    In the third millennium where ethical, ethological and cultural evolution seem to be leading more and more towards an inter-species society, the issue of animal experimentation is a moral dilemma. Speaking from a self-interested human perspective, avoiding all animal testing where human disease and therapy are concerned may be very difficult or even impossible; such testing may not be so easily justifiable when suffering-or killing-of non human animals is inflicted for forensic research. In order to verify how forensic scientists are evolving in this ethical issue, we undertook a systematic review of the current literature. We investigated the frequency of animal experimentation in forensic studies in the past 15 years and trends in publication in the main forensic science journals. Types of species, lesions inflicted, manner of sedation or anesthesia and euthanasia were examined in a total of 404 articles reviewed, among which 279 (69.1%) concerned studies involving animals sacrificed exclusively for the sake of the experiment. Killing still frequently includes painful methods such as blunt trauma, electrocution, mechanical asphyxia, hypothermia, and even exsanguination; of all these animals, apparently only 60.8% were anesthetized. The most recent call for a severe reduction if not a total halt to the use of animals in forensic sciences was made by Bernard Knight in 1992. In fact the principle of reduction and replacement, frequently respected in clinical research, must be considered the basis for forensic science research needing animals. PMID:26216717

  7. Neph1 Is Reduced in Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome, and Corresponding Experimental Animal Models of Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy and Puromycin Aminonucleoside Nephrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hulkko, Jenny; Patrakka, Jaakko; Lal, Mark; Tryggvason, Karl; Hultenby, Kjell; Wernerson, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The transmembrane proteins Neph1 and nephrin form a complex in the slit diaphragm (SD) of podocytes. As recent studies indicate an involvement of this complex in the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and proteinuria, we wanted to study the subcellular localization of Neph1 in the normal human kidney and its expression in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS), and the corresponding experimental models of Adriamycin-induced ne...

  8. Animal experimentation in Malta : regulatory processes and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Scerri, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Prior to Malta’s accession to the European Union (EU) in May 2004, new legislative processes regulating the use of animals for scientific research purposes were adopted in line with the provisions found under the European Union Council Directive 86/609/EEC. The scope of these regulations is to protect animals used or intended to be used in scientific experimental procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm, using evaluation procedures that promote refinement, reductio...

  9. Chemical and radiation carcinogenesis in man and experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now well established that some cancer in man results from exposures to certain chemicals and radiations, both ultraviolet and ionizing radiations. These chemical and physical agents are also carcinogenic in experimental animals and, where adequately tested, in mammalian cell cultures. However, only very limited data are available on the relative roles of and the interrelationships, if any, between these various environmental agents in the causation of the majority of the cancers in man. Nothing is known of the relationship between these agents and possible carcinogenic viral information in the etiology of cancer in man. Furthermore, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which chemicals and radiations induce cancers in either man or experimental animals. The objective of this brief review is to present certain aspects of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis in man and experimental animals and some of the problems in the elucidation of their roles in carinogenesis in the human

  10. Animal models of extracranial pediatric solid tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Guido; Armeanu-Ebinger, Sorin; WARMANN, STEVEN; Fuchs, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Animal models, including xenografts, models of metastatic invasion, syngeneic models and transgenic models, are important tools for basic research in solid pediatric tumors, while humanized animal models are useful for novel immunotherapeutical approaches. Optical and molecular imaging techniques are used for in vivo imaging and may be used in conjunction with alternative treatment approaches, including photodynamic therapy. The aim of this review is to highlight the various animal models tha...

  11. A living will clause for supporters of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztybel, David

    2006-01-01

    Many people assume that invasive research on animals is justified because of its supposed benefits and because of the supposed mental inferiority of animals. However probably most people would be unwilling to sign a living will which consigns themselves to live biomedical experimentation if they ever, through misfortune, end up with a mental capacity equivalent to a laboratory animal. The benefits would be greater by far for medical science if living will signatories were to be used, and also the mental superiority boast would no longer apply. Ultimately, it is argued that invasive biomedical experiments would be unacceptable in a democratic society whose members are philosophically self-consistent. PMID:17036430

  12. The methods of inducing polymyositis animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the methods of inducing polymyosistis(PM) animal model. Methods: In order to develope a induce PM animal model in purified guinea pia muscle myosin mixed with complete Freund adjuvant was injected subcutaneously to SD rats many times and the results of the clinical finding, the EMG, the pathologic changes and the musclar MRI changes in SD rats was assessed. Results: The PM animal models were similar to the human in clinical findings, the EMG, the pathologic changes, the musclar MRI changes and so on. Conclusion: The animal model is similar to the human PM, it is an ideal animal model to investigate PM. (authors)

  13. An experimental animal model of chronic myocardial hibernation: comparative study of cine-MR, myocardial single photon emission computed tomography and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish the chronic low-flow myocardial hibernation animal model in pigs, and to assess the diagnostic value for myocardial hibernation by using various imaging methods. Methods: A total of 13 miniswine (30-40 kg) were used. All animals underwent general anesthesia and orotracheal intubation while the animals were mechanically ventilated. Under sterile conditions, left ventriculography and coronary angiography were performed by introduction of catheter into the right femoral artery. Further, a left anterolateral thoracotomy was performed in the third intercostal space. The proximal LCX was dissected free to allow placement of an ameroid constrictor. More than 1 month later, left ventriculography and coronary angiography were performed again, followed by cine-MRI at rest and during stress with low-dose of dobutamine (5μg·kg-1·min-1), respectively. Traditional and/or breath-hold cine-MRI were used to evaluate regional left ventricular wall motion, corresponding to basal, midventricular and apical short-axis tomograms. Regional wall motion score index (WMSI) was calculated. At the same time 99mTc-MIBI myocardial SPECT was performed at rest and during nitroglycerin administration, respectively. All animals were finally sacrificed for pathological examination. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to assess the myocardial infarction. Electron microscopy was used to identify myocardial cellular changes characteristic of hibernating myocardium. Results: Three pigs died during surgery or within two weeks after surgery. One pig died of anesthesia during SPECT examination, 1 pig suffered from aneurysm, and another one pig showed negative findings. The other 7 pigs were found with hypokinetic (n=4) or akinetic (n=3) myocardial regions related to stenosed LCX (70%-99%). Resting cine-MRI demonstrated decreased regional motion of the lateral and posteroinferior walls (ischemic regions) of the left ventricle (n=7), compared with the nonischemic

  14. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibody T1h and variant anti-CD6 murine 10D12 in healthy animals and in experimental arthritis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodistribution and pharmacokinetic of two radio labeled monoclonal antibodies was performed with the help of imaging techniques. Isotopic labeling was carried out by means of standardized methods. Pharmacokinetic evaluation was performed using the population approach and sparse data design. Introduction: Targeted therapy with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) is an efficient option for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Th1 is a MAb anti human CD6 developed for the treatment of autoimmune disease and 10D12 is its counterpart anti murine CD6 developed as a pharmacological tool to get deep into the response mechanisms in animals models of rheumatoid arthritis.To investigate the behavior of both antibodies in the assay system, molecules were labeled with 125I to evaluate pharmacokinetic in healthy animals and with 99mTc to evaluate the antibody uptake in inflamed area of induced arthritis. Materials and methods: Antibodies were supplied by the Center of Molecular immunology. Iodination was performed by the iodogen method and technetium labeling was carried out directly by Schwarz method. Female C57BL6 from CENPALAB were used for experiments. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetic was performed by a sparse data design using the population approach. Uptake in region of inflammation was quantified by gammagraphy at the same time points of blood sampling. A compartmental model was build to quantify uptake kinetic. Pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed using MONOLIX software version 4.2. Results: Minor pharmacokinetic differences were found between monoclonal antibodies labeled with 125I and 99mTc. As a humanized antibody, T1h shows a faster clearance than 10D12 and a biodistribution pattern reflecting preference for excretion mechanisms. The arthritis accumulation was not consistent with a targeted mediated uptake. On the other hand, radio labeled 10D12 shows an accumulation profile in arthritis with two peaks of maximum concentration representing an initial transit to

  15. 丙型肝炎病毒感染实验动物模型的研究进展%Advances in research on experimental animal models of HCV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晨晨; 彭宗根

    2014-01-01

    丙型肝炎病毒( HCV)感染是导致人类慢性病毒性肝炎、肝硬化和肝癌的最主要病因之一。由于缺乏合适的HCV感染实验动物模型,使得针对HCV感染更为有效的疗法及疫苗的研发滞后。黑猩猩是HCV感染研究的最佳实验动物,但由于其来源有限、价格昂贵及临床症状等诸多问题,其应用受限,因此发展新的实验动物模型用于HCV感染相关的基础和应用研究迫在眉睫。近年来,以啮齿类等动物为替代模型取得了不少进展,应用转基因等实验技术使替代动物感染了HCV,并成功应用于多个学科领域的研究。本文分析了 HCV自然感染的实验动物、自然感染和非自然感染的替代实验动物在致病机制研究、药物评价和疫苗研发应用中的优缺点及未来研究趋势。%Hepatitis C virus ( HCV) is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcino-ma in humans.Due to the lack of suitable experimental animal models for HCV infection, the development of more effective treatment of HCV infection and vaccines has been delayed.Chimpanzee is the best experimental animal model for the re-search of hepatitis C virus ( HCV) infection.However, because of its limited in resource, expensive in breeding, and difference in clinical symptoms, thus developing new experimental animal models for HCV-related basic and applied re-search is imminent.In recent years, as a surrogate animal model, the development of rodent model and other models has been achieved a lot of progress.Using such as genetically modified experimental techniques, those surrogate animals were infected with HCV in vivo and were successfully applied to research in several areas.In this review, we will focus on the a-chieved progress in naturally infected animal model and transgenic surrogate experimental models, and their advantage and limitation in usage in study on the pathogenetic mechanism of infection, drug

  16. Potency of Animal Models in KANSEI Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Shigeru; Hisano, Setsuji; Iwamoto, Yoshiki

    Various species of animals have been used as animal models for neuroscience and provided critical information about the brain functions. Although it seems difficult to elucidate a highly advanced function of the human brain, animal models have potency to clarify the fundamental mechanisms of emotion, decision-making and social behavior. In this review, we will pick up common animal models and point to both the merits and demerits caused by the characteristics. We will also mention that wide-ranging approaches from animal models are advantageous to understand KANSEI as well as mind in humans.

  17. Cystic echinococcosis of the liver and lung treated by radiofrequency thermal ablation: An ex-vivo pilot experimental study in animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincenzo Lamonaca; Antonino Virga; Marta Ida Minervini; Roberta Di Stefano; Alessio Provenzani; Pietro Tagliareni; Giovanna Fleres; Angelo Luca; Giovanni Vizzini; Ugo Palazzo; Bruno Gridelli

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate radiofrequency thermal ablation (RTA) for treatment of cystic echinococcosis in animal models (explanted organs). METHODS: Infected livers and lungs from slaughtered animals, 10 bovine and two ovine, were collected. Cysts were photographed, and their volume, cyst content, germinal layer adhesion status, wall calcification and presence of daughter or adjacent cysts were evaluated by ultrasound. Some cysts were treated with RTA at 150 W, 80℃, 7 min. Temperature was monitored inside and outside the cyst. A second needle was placed inside the cyst for pressure stabilization. After treatment, all cysts were sectioned and examined by histology. Cysts were defined as alive if a preserved germinal layer at histology was evident, and as successfully treated if the germinal layer was necrotic. RESULTS: The subjects of the study were 17 cysts (nine hepatic and eight pulmonary), who were treated with RTA. Pathology showed 100% success rate in both hepatic (9/9) and lung cysts (8/8); immediate volume reduction of at least 65%; layer of host tissue necrosis outside the cyst, with average extension of 0.64 cm for liver and 1.57 cm for lung; and endocyst attached to the pericystium both in hepatic and lung cysts with small and focal de novo endocyst detachment in just 3/9 hepatic cysts.CONCLUSION: RTA appears to be very effective in killing hydatid cysts of explanted liver and lung.Bile duct and bronchial wall necrosis, persistence of endocyst attached to pericystium, should help avoid or greatly decrease in vivo post-treatment fistula occurrence and consequent overlapping complications that are common after surgery or percutaneous aspiration,injection and reaspiration. In vivo studies are required to confirm and validate this new therapeutic approach.

  18. Directed animals and Gas Models Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Le Borgne, Yvan; Marckert, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the enumeration of directed animals using gas models. We show that there exists a natural construction of random directed animals on any directed graph together with a particle system that explains at the level of objects the formal link known between the density of the gas model and the generating function of directed animals counted according to the area. This provides some new methods to compute the generating function of directed animals counted according to area...

  19. Aspects of animal models for major neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefter Radu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will review the main animal models for the major neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, anxiety and autism. Although these mental disorders are specifically human pathologies and therefore impossible to perfectly replicate in animals, the use of experimental animals is based on the physiological and anatomical similarities between humans and animals such as the rat, and mouse, and on the fact that 99% of human and murine genomes are shared. Pathological conditions in animals can be assessed by manipulating the metabolism of neurotransmitters, through various behavioral tests, and by determining biochemical parameters that can serve as important markers of disorders.

  20. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  1. Animal experimentation in snake venom research and in vitro alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, Paula G

    2003-08-01

    Current experimental techniques used in snake venom research (with and without the use of animals) are reviewed. The emphasis is on the reduction of the use of animals in the development of antivenoms for the clinical treatment of snakebite. Diagnostic and research techniques for the major pathologies of envenoming are described and those using animals are contrasted with non-sentient methods where possible. In particular, LD50 and ED50 assays using animals (in vivo) and fertilised eggs (in vivo, non-sentient) are compared as well as in vitro procedures (ELISA and haemolytic test) for ED50 estimations. The social context of antivenom production, supply and demand is outlined together with the consequent tension between the benefits derived and the increase in opposition to experiments on animals. Stringent regulations governing the use of animals, limited research funds and public pressure all focus the need for progress towards non-animal, or non-sentient, research methods. Some achievements are noted but success is hampered by lack of detailed knowledge of the many constituents of venom which have to be assessed as a whole rather than individually. The only way to evaluate the net pathological effect of venom is to use a living system, usually a rodent, and similarly, the efficacy of antivenoms is also measured in vivo. The pre-clinical testing of antivenoms in animals is therefore a legal requirement in many countries and is strictly monitored by government authorities. New technologies applied to the characterisation of individual venom proteins should enable novel in vitro assays to be designed thus reducing the number of animals required. In the meantime, the principles of Reduce, Refine and Replace relating to animals in research are increasingly endorsed by those working in the field and the many agencies regulating ethical and research policy. PMID:12906883

  2. Animal Models for Vascular Tissue-Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Daniel D.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2013-01-01

    Due to rise in cardiovascular disease throughout the world, there is increasing demand for small diameter blood vessels as replacement grafts. The present review focuses on the animal models that have been used to test small-diameter TEVs with emphasis on the attributes of each model. Small animal models are used to test short-term patency and address mechanistic hypotheses; and large, pre-clinical animal models are employed to test long-term patency, remodeling and function in an environment...

  3. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kokras, N.; Dalla, C.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnos...

  4. Animal models of craving for ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, G F

    2000-08-01

    Craving has various meanings but can be defined generally in terms of a desire for the previously experienced effects of ethanol. Animal models provide a means by which to study the underlying mechanisms associated with craving and are most useful when they fulfill the requirements for predictive validity and reliability. Craving is a key part of the process of addiction that can lead to relapse and is conceptualized as having at least three components: preoccupation/anticipation, binge/intoxication and withdrawal/negative affect. Animal models of craving are hypothesized at this time to involve three domains of motivation to take drugs: excessive drinking, negative affective states and conditioned reinforcement. Excessive drinking includes the alcohol deprivation effect, drinking during withdrawal and drinking after a history of dependence. Models of the negative affective state include increases in brain reward thresholds, and conditioned reinforcement models include cue-induced resistance to extinction or cue-induced reinstatement. Experimental psychology is a rich resource of sensitive behavioral techniques by which to measure hypothetical constructs associated with the motivation to drink ethanol. Rigorous tests of predictive validity and reliability will be necessary to make them useful for understanding the neurobiology of craving and for the development of new medications for treating craving. PMID:11002904

  5. Animal models for the study of arterial hypertension

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Waleska C Dornas; Marcelo E Silva

    2011-09-01

    Hypertension is one of the leading causes of disability or death due to stroke, heart attack and kidney failure. Because the etiology of essential hypertension is not known and may be multifactorial, the use of experimental animal models has provided valuable information regarding many aspects of the disease, which include etiology, pathophysiology, complications and treatment. The models of hypertension are various, and in this review, we provide a brief overview of the most widely used animal models, their features and their importance.

  6. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farlen José Bebber Miranda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain. Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  7. Is animal experimentation fundamental? A experimentação animal é fundamental?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando José d'Acampora

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.A compreensão a respeito da utilização de animais de experimentação em pesquisas científicas e para o ensino é por vezes matéria intrincada. Especial atenção é necessária em busca do entendimento pela população em geral, da importância da experimentação animal na pesquisa experimental e na graduação em Medicina. O ensino e a pesquisa experimental na área médica estruturado na disponibilidade de animais para experimentação é importante e necessário para o desenvolvimento pessoal e científico do futuro médico. O arsenal tecnológico que pretende mimetizar os animais de experimentação e com isso substituir totalmente o seu uso muitas vezes não se demonstra compatível com a realidade do animal vivo. Este artigo objetiva expor aspectos concernentes ao tema trazendo à tona o assunto que sem dúvida é complexo e passível de profundas reflexões.

  8. Animal models of tuberculosis for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, U D; Katoch, V M

    2009-01-01

    Animal models for testing different vaccine candidates have been developed since a long time for studying tuberculosis. Mice, guinea pigs and rabbits are animals most frequently used. Each model has its own merits for studying human tuberculosis, and none completely mimics the human disease. Different animal models are being used depending upon the availability of the space, trained manpower as well as other resources. Efforts should continue to develop a vaccine which can replace/outperform the presently available vaccine BCG. PMID:19287053

  9. [For active dermatocosmetics and free of unnecessary animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    1998-06-01

    At the dawn of this century, dermocosmetology is at cross-roads because new European regulations are changing its face. The proof of claims must be given and the entire composition of the product must be released. In addition, animal testing is about to be banned. Such new regulations incite to search for and validate predictive tests aiming at the objective evaluation of the activity and tolerance claimed by dermocosmetic products. Such tests must be an alternative to unnecessary animal experimentation. These aspects are scrutinized scientifically by the EEMCO experts in combination with the ECVAM and COLIPA organizations. PMID:9713214

  10. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed. PMID:26827492

  11. Alternatives to animal experimentation for hormonal compounds research

    OpenAIRE

    M. PENZA; Jeremic, M.; Montani, C.; Unkila, M.; L. Caimi; G. Mazzoleni; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Alternatives to animal testing and the identification of reliable methods that may decrease the need for animals are currently the subject of intense investigation worldwide. Alternative testing procedures are particularly important for synthetic and natural chemicals that exert their biological actions through binding nuclear receptors, called nuclear receptors-interacting compounds (NR-ICs), for which research is increasingly emphasizing the limits of several models in the accurate estimati...

  12. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2014-01-01

    Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals' lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the "lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity". However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large. PMID:26479009

  13. Engineering large animal models of human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Timothy P Sheets; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site‐specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of...

  14. Towards a reliable animal model of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry shows a decreasing interest in the development of drugs for migraine. One of the reasons for this could be the lack of reliable animal models for studying the effect of acute and prophylactic migraine drugs. The infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is the best validated...... and most studied human migraine model. Several attempts have been made to transfer this model to animals. The different variants of this model are discussed as well as other recent models....

  15. Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research: Hypertension and Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-Fang Leong; Chun-Yi Ng; Kamsiah Jaarin

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension and atherosclerosis are among the most common causes of mortality in both developed and developing countries. Experimental animal models of hypertension and atherosclerosis have become a valuable tool for providing information on etiology, pathophysiology, and complications of the disease and on the efficacy and mechanism of action of various drugs and compounds used in treatment. An animal model has been developed to study hypertension and atherosclerosis for several reasons. Co...

  16. Antistress activity of Argyreia speciosa roots in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj B Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antistress effect of a seven-day treatment (100 and 200 mg / kg, p.o. of the hydroalcoholic extract of Argyreia speciosa root (ASE was evaluated by using the swimming endurance test, acetic acid-induced writhing test, pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion test, anoxic tolerance test, cold-restraint, stress-induced gastric ulcers, aspirin-induced ulcers, and biochemical, and histopathological changes in the cold-restraint stress test. The immunomodulatory activity was also evaluated for the same doses, and treatment of ASE was done using the hemagglutination test. Both the doses of ASE showed antistress activity in all the tested models. The ASE-treated animals showed a decrease in immobility time and an increase in anoxic tolerance time in swimming endurance and the anoxic tolerance tests, respectively. The effect of glacial acetic acid and pentylenetetrazole were also reduced by decreasing the number of writhing responses and increasing the onset of convulsions, respectively. In the cold restrained stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models, ASE showed a significant reduction in the ulcer index. Pretreatment with ASE significantly ameliorated the cold stress-induced variations in biochemical levels such as increased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, and cortisol. ASE was also effective in preventing the pathological changes in the adrenal gland, due to cold restrained stress, in rats. In mice immunized with sheep red blood cells, the treatment groups subjected to restraint stress prevented the humoral immune response to the antigen. The immunostimulating activity of the ASE was indicated by an increase in the antibody titer in mice pre-immunized with sheep red blood cells and subjected to restraint stress. The findings of the present investigations indicate that the ASE has significant antistress activity, which may be due to the immunostimulating property and increased resistance, nonspecifically, against all

  17. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Webster

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  18. Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhang; Marong Fang; Haohao Chen; Fangming Gou; Mingxing Ding

    2014-01-01

    Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies.

  19. Animal models for protein respiratory sensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Marsha D W; Selgrade, Maryjane K

    2007-01-01

    Protein induced respiratory hypersensitivity, particularly atopic disease in general, and allergic asthma in particular, has increased dramatically over the last several decades in the US and other industrialized nations as a result of ill-defined changes in living conditions in modern western society. In addition, work-related asthma has become the most frequently diagnosed occupational respiratory illness. Animal models have demonstrated great utility in developing an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of many diseases. A few models been developed as predictive models to identify a protein as an allergen or to characterize its potency. Here we describe animal models that have been used to investigate and identify protein respiratory sensitizers. In addition to prototypical experimental design, methods for exposure route, sample collection, and endpoint assessment are described. Some of the most relevant endpoints in assessing the potential for a given protein to induce atopic or allergic asthma respiratory hypersensitivity are the development of cytotropic antibodies (IgE, IgG1), eosinophil influx into the lung, and airway hyperresponsiveness to the sensitizing protein and/or to non-antigenic stimuli (Mch). The utility of technologies such as PCR and multiplexing assay systems is also described. These models and methods have been used to elucidate the potential for protein sources to induce allergy, identify environmental conditions (pollutants) to impact allergy responsiveness, and establish safe exposure limits. As an example, data are presented from an experiment designed to compare the allergenicity of a fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA) crude extract with the one of its components, conidia (CON) extract. PMID:17161304

  20. Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hraiech S; Papazian L.; Rolain JM; Bregeon F

    2015-01-01

    Sami Hraiech,1,2 Laurent Papazian,1,2 Jean-Marc Rolain,1 Fabienne Bregeon1,3IHU Méditerranée Infection, URMITE CNRS IRD INSERM UMR 7278, Marseille, France; 2Réanimation – Détresses respiratoires et Infections Sévères, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, France; 3Service d’Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, FranceAbstract: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasion...

  1. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Potashkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of the disease and provide a means for testing new treatments. However, the current animal models often fall short in replicating the true pathophysiology occurring in idiopathic PD, and thus results from animal models often do not translate to the clinic. In this paper we will explain the limitations of animal models of PD and why their use is inappropriate for the study of some aspects of PD.

  2. A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Reizner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus osteomyelitis is a significant complication for orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery, particularly with fracture fixation and arthroplasty. Given the difficulty in studying S. aureus infections in human subjects, animal models serve an integral role in exploring the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, and aid in determining the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Animal models should mimic the clinical scenarios seen in patients as closely as possible to permit the experimental results to be translated to the corresponding clinical care. To help understand existing animal models of S. aureus, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE to identify in vivo animal experiments that have investigated the management of S. aureus osteomyelitis in the context of fractures and metallic implants. In this review, experimental studies are categorised by animal species and are further classified by the setting of the infection. Study methods are summarised and the relevant advantages and disadvantages of each species and model are discussed. While no ideal animal model exists, the understanding of a model’s strengths and limitations should assist clinicians and researchers to appropriately select an animal model to translate the conclusions to the clinical setting.

  3. A REVIEW ON ANIMAL MODELS OF DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Devi* and Ramica Sharma

    2013-01-01

    As described by the world health organization (WHO), depression is the most common and serious disorder leading to suicide. Numbers of synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of this fatal disease, but are associated with serious complications. A wide diversity of animal models has been used to examine antidepressant activity. These range from relatively simple models sensitive to acute treatment, to highly sophisticated models. The number of validated animal models for affective diso...

  4. Ethological concepts enhance the translational value of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Suzanne M; Pothuizen, Helen H J; Spruijt, Berry M

    2015-07-15

    The translational value of animal models is an issue of ongoing discussion. We argue that 'Refinement' of animal experiments is needed and this can be achieved by exploiting an ethological approach when setting up and conducting experiments. Ethology aims to assess the functional meaning of behavioral changes, due to experimental manipulation or treatment, in animal models. Although the use of ethological concepts is particularly important for studies involving the measurement of animal behavior (as is the case for most studies on neuro-psychiatric conditions), it will also substantially benefit other disciplines, such as those investigating the immune system or inflammatory response. Using an ethological approach also involves using more optimal testing conditions are employed that have a biological relevance to the animal. Moreover, using a more biological relevant analysis of the data will help to clarify the functional meaning of the modeled readout (e.g. whether it is psychopathological or adaptive in nature). We advocate for instance that more behavioral studies should use animals in group-housed conditions, including the recording of their ultrasonic vocalizations, because (1) social behavior is an essential feature of animal models for human 'social' psychopathologies, such as autism and schizophrenia, and (2) social conditions are indispensable conditions for appropriate behavioral studies in social species, such as the rat. Only when taking these elements into account, the validity of animal experiments and, thus, the translation value of animal models can be enhanced. PMID:25823814

  5. Efficacy and safety of damage control in experimental animal models of injury: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cosic, Nela; Roberts, Derek J; Henry T Stelfox

    2014-01-01

    Background Although abbreviated surgery with planned reoperation (damage control surgery) is now widely used to manage major trauma patients, the procedure and its component interventions have not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While some have suggested the need for such trials, they are unlikely to be conducted because of patient safety concerns. As animal studies may overcome several of the limitations of existing observational damage control studies, the primary obj...

  6. Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term “arteriovenous malformation,” limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected.

  7. A Brief History of Animal Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Aaron C.; Crim, Marcus J; Franklin, Craig L.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative medicine is founded on the concept that other animal species share physiological, behavioral, or other characteristics with humans. Over 2,400 years ago it was recognized that by studying animals, we could learn much about ourselves. This technique has now developed to the point that animal models are employed in virtually all fields of biomedical research including, but not limited to, basic biology, immunology and infectious disease, oncology, and behavior.

  8. Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Xu; Hongzhi Xu; Zhiyong Qin

    2015-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term “arteriovenous malformation,” limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal ...

  9. Animal models for investigating chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghdassi Alexander A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a continuous or recurrent inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive and irreversible morphological changes. It typically causes pain and permanent impairment of pancreatic function. In chronic pancreatitis areas of focal necrosis are followed by perilobular and intralobular fibrosis of the parenchyma, by stone formation in the pancreatic duct, calcifications in the parenchyma as well as the formation of pseudocysts. Late in the course of the disease a progressive loss of endocrine and exocrine function occurs. Despite advances in understanding the pathogenesis no causal treatment for chronic pancreatitis is presently available. Thus, there is a need for well characterized animal models for further investigations that allow translation to the human situation. This review summarizes existing experimental models and distinguishes them according to the type of pathological stimulus used for induction of pancreatitis. There is a special focus on pancreatic duct ligation, repetitive overstimulation with caerulein and chronic alcohol feeding. Secondly, attention is drawn to genetic models that have recently been generated and which mimic features of chronic pancreatitis in man. Each technique will be supplemented with data on the pathophysiological background of the model and their limitations will be discussed.

  10. Animal models for investigating chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, Alexander A; Mayerle, Julia; Christochowitz, Sandra; Weiss, Frank U; Sendler, Matthias; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a continuous or recurrent inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive and irreversible morphological changes. It typically causes pain and permanent impairment of pancreatic function. In chronic pancreatitis areas of focal necrosis are followed by perilobular and intralobular fibrosis of the parenchyma, by stone formation in the pancreatic duct, calcifications in the parenchyma as well as the formation of pseudocysts. Late in the course of the disease a progressive loss of endocrine and exocrine function occurs. Despite advances in understanding the pathogenesis no causal treatment for chronic pancreatitis is presently available. Thus, there is a need for well characterized animal models for further investigations that allow translation to the human situation. This review summarizes existing experimental models and distinguishes them according to the type of pathological stimulus used for induction of pancreatitis. There is a special focus on pancreatic duct ligation, repetitive overstimulation with caerulein and chronic alcohol feeding. Secondly, attention is drawn to genetic models that have recently been generated and which mimic features of chronic pancreatitis in man. Each technique will be supplemented with data on the pathophysiological background of the model and their limitations will be discussed. PMID:22133269

  11. Gentamicin nephrotoxicity: Animal experimental correlate with human pharmacovigilance outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunsho Awodele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC, which is responsible for pharmacovigilance activity in Nigeria, recently withdrew injection gentamicin 280 mg, used in the management of life-threatening and multidrug-resistant infections from circulation, due to reported toxicity. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the toxicity profile of the commonly used strengths (80 mg and 280 mg of gentamicin on kidney using animal models. Methods: Animals were divided into five groups of 16 rats each. For rats of groups 1 and 2, gentamicin (1.14 mg/kg each group was administered intramuscularly twice daily for 7 and 14 days, respectively, after which eight of them were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture and the kidneys were carefully removed and weighed immediately. The remaining eight animals were kept for reversibility study for another 7 and 14 days, respectively. For groups 3 and 4, gentamicin (4 mg/kg each group was administered as a single daily dose for 7 and 14 days, respectively, and eight animals from the groups were subjected to reversibility study for 7 and 14 days, respectively. Group 5, the control group animals, were given 10 ml/kg distilled water for 14 days. Histopathology of the kidneys, serum creatinine levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities were investigated. Results: Significant increase (p ≤ 0.001 in the level of creatinine of rats administered 4.0 mg/kg for 14 days was observed compared with all other groups. Significant (p ≤ 0.001 elevations in the lipid peroxidation in all gentamicin-administered animals and acute tubular necrosis in most of the gentamicin-administered animals were observed. Conclusion: Toxicity profile of gentamicin on the kidneys is dependent on both dose and duration of administration. The findings justify the decision made by NAFDAC to ban the use of high-dose inj. gentamicin 280 mg in Nigeria.

  12. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: worker and experimental animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M

    2012-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses. PMID:22734811

  13. Development of osteoporosis animal model using micropigs

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Solis, Chester D.; Lee, Myeong-Seop; Hyun, Byung-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a known major health problem and a serious disease of the bone, there has been a great need to develop more and newer animal models for this disease. Among animal models used for testing drug efficacy, the minipig model has become useful and effective due to its close similarity with humans (validity), particularly with the pharmacokinetics of compounds via subcutaneous administration, the structure and function of the organs, the morphology of bone and the overall metabolic n...

  14. Experimental models of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojlović Olivera P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction An epileptic seizure is a clinical event and epilepsy is rather a group of symptoms than a disease. The main features all epilepsies have in common include: spontaneous occurrence, repetitiveness, and ictal correlation within the EEG. Epilepsies are manifested with distinct EEG changes, requiring exact clinical definition and consequential treatment. Current data show that 1% of the world's population (approximately 50 million people suffers from epilepsy, with 25% of patients being refractory to therapy and requiring search for new substances in order to decrease EEG and behavioral manifestations of epilepsies. Material and methods In regard to discovery and testing of anticonvulsant substances the best results were achieved by implementation of experi- mental models. Animal models of epilepsy are useful in acquiring basic knowledge regarding pathogenesis, neurotransmitters (glutamate, receptors (NMDA/AMPA/kainate, propagation of epileptic seizures and preclinical assessment of antiepileptics (competitive and non-competitive NMDA antagonists. Results and conclusions In our lab, we have developed a pharmacologic model of a (metaphit, NMDA and remacemide-cilastatin generalized, reflex, and audiogenic epilepsy. The model is suitable for testing various anticonvulsant substances (e.g. APH, APV, CPP, Mk-801 and potential antiepileptics (e.g. DSIP, its tetra- and octaanalogues.

  15. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    3-D Human Modeling and Animation Third Edition All the tools and techniques you need to bring human figures to 3-D life Thanks to today's remarkable technology, artists can create and animate realistic, three-dimensional human figures that were not possible just a few years ago. This easy-to-follow book guides you through all the necessary steps to adapt your own artistic skill in figure drawing, painting, and sculpture to this exciting digital canvas. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation, Third Edition starts you off with simple modeling, then prepares you for more advanced techniques for crea

  16. Evaluation of animal models of neurobehavioral disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordquist Rebecca E

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models play a central role in all areas of biomedical research. The process of animal model building, development and evaluation has rarely been addressed systematically, despite the long history of using animal models in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders and behavioral dysfunctions. An iterative, multi-stage trajectory for developing animal models and assessing their quality is proposed. The process starts with defining the purpose(s of the model, preferentially based on hypotheses about brain-behavior relationships. Then, the model is developed and tested. The evaluation of the model takes scientific and ethical criteria into consideration. Model development requires a multidisciplinary approach. Preclinical and clinical experts should establish a set of scientific criteria, which a model must meet. The scientific evaluation consists of assessing the replicability/reliability, predictive, construct and external validity/generalizability, and relevance of the model. We emphasize the role of (systematic and extended replications in the course of the validation process. One may apply a multiple-tiered 'replication battery' to estimate the reliability/replicability, validity, and generalizability of result. Compromised welfare is inherent in many deficiency models in animals. Unfortunately, 'animal welfare' is a vaguely defined concept, making it difficult to establish exact evaluation criteria. Weighing the animal's welfare and considerations as to whether action is indicated to reduce the discomfort must accompany the scientific evaluation at any stage of the model building and evaluation process. Animal model building should be discontinued if the model does not meet the preset scientific criteria, or when animal welfare is severely compromised. The application of the evaluation procedure is exemplified using the rat with neonatal hippocampal lesion as a proposed model of schizophrenia. In a manner congruent to

  17. [Animal experimental tests of a new filling material (Isocap)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethe, P; Rotgans, J; Schmalz, G

    1978-09-01

    An experimental investigation with animals (Rhesus monkeys) concerning pulp tolerance to two premeasured dosages of calcium hydroxide cement (Reocap and Reocap-E) as well as a pre-measured dosage of filling material (Isocap) in an injection capsule was carried out (78 class V cavities). As with the negative controls, a very slight reaction, or none at all, developed in response to the two calcium hydroxide cements and the new filling material, with and without application of capping material. When five other accidentally exposed pulpae were dissected, direct capping under the corresponding preconditions (punctate exposed pulpa, longer storage period for calcium hydroxide cement) showed the characteristic formation of reparative dentin. PMID:100305

  18. Comparative analysis of gingival phenotype in animal and human experimental models using optical coherence tomography in a non-invasive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Fernandes, Luana O.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Feitosa, Daniela S.; Cimões, Renata; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2015-06-01

    Imaging methods are widely used in diagnostic and among the diversity of modalities, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is nowadays commercially available and considered the most innovative technique used for imaging applications, in both medical and non-medical applications. In this study, we exploit the OCT technique in the oral cavity for identification and differentiation between free and attached gingiva, as well as determining the gingival phenotype, an important factor to determination of periodontal prognosis in patients. For the animal studies, five porcine jaws were analyzed using a Swept Source SS-OCT system operating at 1325nm and stereomicroscope, as gold pattern. The SSOCT at 1325nm was chosen due to the longer central wavelength, that allows to deeper penetration imaging, and the faster image acquisition, an essential factor for clinical setting. For the patient studies, a total of 30 males and female were examined using the SS-OCT at 1325nm and computer controlled periodontal probing. 2D and 3D images of tooth/gingiva interface were performed, and quantitative measurements of the gingival sulcus could be noninvasively obtained. Through the image analysis of the animals jaws, it was possible to quantify the free gingiva and the attached gingiva, the calculus deposition over teeth surface and also the subgingival calculus. For the patient's studies, we demonstrated that the gingival phenotype could be measured without the periodontal probe introduction at the gingival sulcus, confirming that OCT can be potentially useful in clinic for direct observation and quantification of gingival phenotype in a non-invasive approach.

  19. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Farlen José Bebber Miranda; Diogo Benchimol De Souza; Edwards Frazão-Teixeira; Fábio Conceição de Oliveira; João Cardoso de Melo; Carlos Magno Anselmo Mariano; Antonio Peixoto Albernaz; Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de Carvalho; Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de Oliveira; Wanderley de Souza; Renato Augusto DaMatta

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet value...

  20. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Chin Lee; Huei-Jane Lee; Chao-Hsin Lee; Chau-Jong Wang; Shiow-Fen Lee; Shou-Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glut...

  1. ANIMAL MODELS OF CANCER: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Archana M Navale

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. In USA three persons out of five will develop some type of cancer. Beyond these statistics of mortality, the morbidity due to cancer presents a real scary picture. Last 50 years of research has rendered some types of cancer curable, but still the major fear factor associated with this disease is unchanged. Animal models are classified according to the method of induction of cancer in the animal. Spontaneous tumor models are the most primi...

  2. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Potashkin; Blume, S. R.; Runkle, N. K.

    2011-01-01

    Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of t...

  3. Animal models for the study of tendinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, S. J.

    2006-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a common and significant clinical problem characterised by activity‐related pain, focal tendon tenderness and intratendinous imaging changes. Recent histopathological studies have indicated the underlying pathology to be one of tendinosis (degeneration) as opposed to tendinitis (inflammation). Relatively little is known about tendinosis and its pathogenesis. Contributing to this is an absence of validated animal models of the pathology. Animal models of tendinosis represent po...

  4. Animal models of osteoporosis - necessity and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Turner A. Simon

    2001-01-01

    There is a great need to further characterise the available animal models for postmenopausal osteoporosis, for the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, investigation of new therapies (e.g. selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)) and evaluation of prosthetic devices in osteoporotic bone. Animal models that have been used in the past include non-human primates, dogs, cats, rodents, rabbits, guinea pigs and minipigs, all of which have advantages and disadvantages. Sheep ar...

  5. Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Damaser, Margot S.

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to S...

  6. A cognitive model's view of animal cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney D'MELLO, Stan FRANKLIN

    2011-01-01

    Although it is a relatively new field of study, the animal cognition literature is quite extensive and difficult to synthesize. This paper explores the contributions a comprehensive, computational, cognitive model can make toward organizing and assimilating this literature, as well as toward identifying important concepts and their interrelations. Using the LIDA model as an example, a framework is described within which to integrate the diverse research in animal cognition. Such a framework c...

  7. Effects of leached mirex on experimental communities of estuarine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagatz, M E; Borthwick, P W; Ivey, J M; Knight, J

    1976-01-01

    Experimental communities of various estuarine animals in outdoor tanks were exposed to a continuous flow of water containing mirex for 10 weeks. The mirex was leached from fire ant bait (0.3% active ingredient) by fresh water which was then mixed with salt water to yield exposure concentrations averaging 0.038 mug/L. The experiment simulated runoff from treated land into estuarine areas. Mortality of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes vulgaris), pin, shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), common mud crabs (Panopeus herbstii), and striped hermit crabs (Clibanarius vittatus) was significantly high in tanks containing the toxicant. Mortality of ribbed mussels (Modiolus demissus) and American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) was significantly lower in treated tanks, probably because numbers of both species of crabs, which ate the bivalves, were reduced. Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were least affected by mirex. Almost all deaths occurred after 10 or more days of exposure. All exposed animals accumulated mirex, with maximum concentrations ranging from 5,500X (pink shrimp) to 73,700X (soft tissues of oysters) above the concentration in the water. Sand substratum contained mirex up to 1,500X that in the water. The study demonstrated that mirex can be leached from bait by fresh water and concentrated by and affect survival of members in an experimental estuarine community. PMID:999334

  8. Lost in translation: animal models and clinical trials in cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Isabella WY; Evaniew, Nathan; Ghert, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Due to practical and ethical concerns associated with human experimentation, animal models have been essential in cancer research. However, the average rate of successful translation from animal models to clinical cancer trials is less than 8%. Animal models are limited in their ability to mimic the extremely complex process of human carcinogenesis, physiology and progression. Therefore the safety and efficacy identified in animal studies is generally not translated to human trials. Animal mo...

  9. Desempenho de bovinos simulado pelo modelo Pampa Corte e obtido por experimentação Animal performance simulated by Pampa Corte model with experimental records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naíme de Barcellos Trevisan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a confiabilidade do Modelo Pampa Corte na predição de desempenho de bovinos de corte, em sistemas de pastejo. Para tanto, foram confrontados os valores preditos pelo modelo com dados disponíveis na literatura. Foram verificados coeficientes de correlação acima de 90% entre os dados reais e os simulados em todas as alternativas testadas. O banco de dados do Modelo precisa ser ampliado em termos de alternativas de produtividade das forrageiras, em diferentes condições climáticas. Os parâmetros qualitativos degradabilidade da proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro da consorciação aveia preta e azevém necessitam ainda ser pesquisados, assim como o desempenho de animais em pastagens singulares de aveia ou azevém.This study had the objective to evaluate Pampa Corte Model’s reliability in predicting beef cattle performance in grazing systems. For this purpose, model’s predicted values were compared to available data base of published papers. Correlation coefficients above 90 % were obtained between simulated and real data in all tested alternatives. Model’s data base should be enlarged by forage productivity data in different climatic conditions. Mixtures of Italian ryegrass and oat need more studies to obtain qualitative parameters (crude protein degradability and neutral detergent fiber, as well, animal performance in the single pastures of oat or Italian ryegrass.

  10. Effects of heliox as carrier gas on ventilation and oxygenation in an animal model of piston-type HFOV: a crossover experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroma Takehiko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to compare gas exchange with heliox and oxygen-enriched air during piston-type high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV. We hypothesized that helium gas would improve both carbon dioxide elimination and arterial oxygenation during piston-type HFOV. Method Five rabbits were prepared and ventilated by piston-type HFOV with carrier 50% helium/oxygen (heliox50 or 50% oxygen/nitrogen (nitrogen50 gas mixture in a crossover study. Changing the gas mixture from nitrogen50 to heliox50 and back was performed five times per animal with constant ventilation parameters. Arterial blood gas, vital function and respiratory test indices were recorded. Results Compared with nitrogen50, heliox50 did not change PaCO2 when stroke volume remained constant, but significantly reduced PaCO2 after alignment of amplitude pressure. No significant changes in PaO2 were seen despite significant decreases in mean airway pressure with heliox50 compared with nitrogen50. Conclusion This study demonstrated that heliox enhances CO2 elimination and maintains oxygenation at the same amplitude but with lower airway pressure compared to air/O2 mix gas during piston-type HFOV.

  11. A cognitive model's view of animal cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney D'MELLO, Stan FRANKLIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is a relatively new field of study, the animal cognition literature is quite extensive and difficult to synthesize. This paper explores the contributions a comprehensive, computational, cognitive model can make toward organizing and assimilating this literature, as well as toward identifying important concepts and their interrelations. Using the LIDA model as an example, a framework is described within which to integrate the diverse research in animal cognition. Such a framework can provide both an ontology of concepts and their relations, and a working model of an animal’s cognitive processes that can compliment active empirical research. In addition to helping to account for a broad range of cognitive processes, such a model can help to comparatively assess the cognitive capabilities of different animal species. After deriving an ontology for animal cognition from the LIDA model, we apply it to develop the beginnings of a database that maps the cognitive facilities of a variety of animal species. We conclude by discussing future avenues of research, particularly the use of computational models of animal cognition as valuable tools for hypotheses generation and testing [Current Zoology 57 (4: 499–513, 2011].

  12. Hemorrhoids: an experimental model in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plapler Hélio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hemorrhoids are a matter of concern due to a painful outcome. We describe a simple, easy and reliable experimental model to produce hemorrhoids in monkeys. METHODS: 14 monkeys (Cebus apella were used. After general anesthesia, hemorrhoids were induced by ligation of the inferior hemorrhoidal vein, which is very alike to humans. The vein was located through a perianal incision, dissected and ligated with a 3-0 vicryl. The skin was sutured with a 4-0 catgut thread. Animals were kept in appropriate cages and evaluated daily. RESULTS: Nine days later there were hemorrhoidal piles in the anus in fifty percent (50% of the animals. Outcome was unremarkable. There was no bleeding and all animals showed no signs of pain or suffering. CONCLUSION: This is an affordable and reliable experimental model to induce hemorrhoids for experimental studies.

  13. A review of experimental animal radon health effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abundant epidemiological data from underground miners confirm that radon decay products (progeny) are carcinogenic, although the evidence is less conclusive on the quantitative risks of these exposures, especially for indoor air. The imprecision results principally from differences between exposures in mining and domestic environments and from uncertainties about the interaction between smoking and exposure to radon progeny. Experimental animal studies of radon-induced lung cancer are particularly valuable for understanding the carcinogenicity of human radon exposures in the home and in the workplace. Animals can be exposed to a variety of agents under carefully controlled conditions and then sacrificed for the study of developing lesions or held for their life span for tumor development. The doses to critical cells in the respiratory tract can be determined, and these in turn can be related to doses to critical cells in the respiratory tract of humans exposed to similar aerosols. The study of radon-induced mutations and changes in expression of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes as well as growth factors and growth factor receptors during tumor progression in animals also provides valuable evidence on the underlying mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. This evidence, particularly that of the efficiency for oncogenic transformation at low dose rates, is crucial to the determination of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to indoor levels of radon. This review of animal health effects data emphasizes the carcinogenicity of radon exposures in rats; mechanistic data on radon-induced lung tumors in rats are currently sparse and are not reviewed here. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Platelet-rich plasma and skeletal muscle healing: a molecular analysis of the early phases of the regeneration process in an experimental animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dimauro

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has received increasing interest in applied medicine, being widely used in clinical practice with the aim of stimulating tissue healing. Despite the reported clinical success, there is still a lack of knowledge when considering the biological mechanisms at the base of the activity of PRP during the process of muscle healing. The aim of the present study was to verify whether the local delivery of PRP modulates specific molecular events involved in the early stages of the muscle regeneration process. The right flexor sublimis muscle of anesthetized Wistar rats was mechanically injured and either treated with PRP or received no treatment. At day 2 and 5 after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and the muscle samples evaluated at molecular levels. PRP treatment increased significantly the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, and TGF-β1. This phenomenon induced an increased expression at mRNA and/or protein levels of several myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD1, Myf5 and Pax7, as well as the muscular isoform of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF-1Eb. No effect was detected with respect to VEGF-A expression. In addition, PRP application modulated the expression of miR-133a together with its known target serum response factor (SRF; increased the phosphorylation of αB-cristallin, with a significant improvement in several apoptotic parameters (NF-κB-p65 and caspase 3, indexes of augmented cell survival. The results of the present study indicates that the effect of PRP in skeletal muscle injury repair is due both to the modulation of the molecular mediators of the inflammatory and myogenic pathways, and to the control of secondary pathways such as those regulated by myomiRNAs and heat shock proteins, which contribute to proper and effective tissue regeneration.

  15. Progress With Nonhuman Animal Models of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, John C

    2016-09-01

    Nonhuman animals have been major contributors to the science of the genetics of addiction. Given the explosion of interest in genetics, it is fair to ask, are we making reasonable progress toward our goals with animal models? I will argue that our goals are changing and that overall progress has been steady and seems likely to continue apace. Genetics tools have developed almost incredibly rapidly, enabling both more reductionist and more synthetic or integrative approaches. I believe that these approaches to making progress have been unbalanced in biomedical science, favoring reductionism, particularly in animal genetics. I argue that substantial, novel progress is also likely to come in the other direction, toward synthesis and abstraction. Another area in which future progress with genetic animal models seems poised to contribute more is the reconciliation of human and animal phenotypes, or consilience. The inherent power of the genetic animal models could be more profitably exploited. In the end, animal research has continued to provide novel insights about how genes influence individual differences in addiction risk and consequences. The rules of the genetics game are changing so fast that it is hard to remember how comparatively little we knew even a generation ago. Rather than worry about whether we have been wasting time and resources asking the questions we have been, we should look to the future and see if we can come up with some new ones. The valuable findings from the past will endure, and the sidetracks will be forgotten. PMID:27588527

  16. Life sciences research in space: The requirement for animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.; Philips, R. W.; Ballard, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of animals in NASA space programs is reviewed. Animals are needed because life science experimentation frequently requires long-term controlled exposure to environments, statistical validation, invasive instrumentation or biological tissue sampling, tissue destruction, exposure to dangerous or unknown agents, or sacrifice of the subject. The availability and use of human subjects inflight is complicated by the multiple needs and demands upon crew time. Because only living organisms can sense, integrate and respond to the environment around them, the sole use of tissue culture and computer models is insufficient for understanding the influence of the space environment on intact organisms. Equipment for spaceborne experiments with animals is described.

  17. Accuracy of measurement of acoustic rhinometry applied to small experimental animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaise, Toshihiko; Ukai, Kotara; Pedersen, Ole Finn;

    1999-01-01

    -sectional areas as a function of the distance from the nostril. We modified the equipment used on humans to assess dimensions of nasal airway geometry of small experimental animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of measurement of the modified acoustic rhinometry applied to small...... experimental animals using nasal cavity models and guinea pigs. Measurement of the nasal cavity models (made of cylindrical silicone tubes) showed that the acoustic rhinometry estimated 85.5% of actual area and 79.0% of actual volume. In guinea pigs, nasal cavity volume determined by the acoustic rhinometry......Nasal obstruction is one of the major symptoms of allergic rhinitis. In the study of the mechanism of nasal obstruction, experiments on animal are useful. In adult humans, acoustic rhinometry has been used to evaluate nasal obstruction by determining nasal cavity dimensions in terms of cross...

  18. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases.

  19. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  20. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling.

  1. Rheology-based facial animation realistic face model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Dan; PEI Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a rheology-based approach to animate realistic face model. The dynamic and biorheological characteristics of the force member (muscles) and stressed member (face) are considered. The stressed face can be modeled as viscoelastic bodies with the Hooke bodies and Newton bodies connected in a composite series-parallel manner. Then, the stress-strain relationship is derived, and the constitutive equations established. Using these constitutive equations, the face model can be animated with the force generated by muscles. Experimental results show that this method can realistically simulate the mechanical properties and motion characteristics of human face, and performance of this method is satisfactory.

  2. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Bem; J.B. Domachowske; H.F. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for n

  3. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    develop fulminant hepatitis, acute hepatitis, or chronic liver disease after adoptive transfer, and others spontaneously develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Among HCV transgenic mice, most develop no disease, but acute hepatitis has been observed in one model, and HCC in another. Although mice are not susceptible to HBV and HCV, their ability to replicate these viruses and to develop liver diseases characteristic of human infections provides opportunities to study pathogenesis and develop novel therapeutics In the search for the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis viral infection, two viral proteins, the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV and the HBx protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV, have been shown to possess oncogenic potential through transgenic mouse studies, indicating the direct involvement of the hepatitis viruses in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    This may explain the very high frequency of HCC in patients with HCV or HBV infection.

    Chimpanzees remain the only recognized animal model for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV. Studies performed in chimpanzees played a critical role in the discovery of HCV and are continuing to play an essential role in defining the natural history of this important human pathogen. In the absence of a reproducible cell culture system, the infectivity titer of HCV challenge pools can be determined only in chimpanzees.

    Recent studies in chimpanzees have provided new insight into the nature of host immune responses-particularly the intrahepatic responses-following primary and secondary experimental HCV infections. The immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against HCV can be tested only in chimpanzees. Finally, it would not have been possible to demonstrate

  4. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM;

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfare...... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....

  5. Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet Pierre J; Parent Marie-Thérèse; Rompré Pierre H; Lévesque Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain suscepti...

  6. Animal models of anxiety disorders and stress

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Alline C; Manoela V. Fogaca; Daniele C. Aguiar; Guimaraes, Francisco S.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents). The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mecha...

  7. Animal models of contraception: utility and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Liechty ER; Bergin IL; Bell JD

    2015-01-01

    Emma R Liechty,1 Ingrid L Bergin,1 Jason D Bell2 1Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2Program on Women's Health Care Effectiveness Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Appropriate animal modeling is vital for the successful development of novel contraceptive devices. Advances in reproductive biology have identified novel pathways for contraceptive intervention. Here we review species-specific anatomic and physiologic co...

  8. Animal models of contraception: utility and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Emma R Liechty,1 Ingrid L Bergin,1 Jason D Bell2 1Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2Program on Women's Health Care Effectiveness Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Appropriate animal modeling is vital for the successful development of novel contraceptive devices. Advances in reproductive biology have identified novel pathways for contraceptive intervention. Here we review species-specific anatomic and physiologi...

  9. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Hedyotis puberula (G. Don) R. Br. ex Arn. in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jince Mary; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Manian, Sellamuthu

    2010-07-01

    Hedyotis puberula (G. Don) R. Br. ex Arn. is used for the treatment of several ailments in the traditional system of medicine. In the present study, the methanol extract of the whole plant (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in a dose dependent manner. The analgesic effect, evaluated in mice in hot plate as well as acetic acid-induced writhings, were higher than the standard drugs pentazocine (30 mg/kg) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg), respectively. Further, the methanol extract at the dose of 400mg/kg produced significant inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema and reduced the weight of granuloma in cotton pellet-induced granuloma pouch model. PMID:20417244

  10. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments

  11. Animal model of Mycoplasma fermentans respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yáñez Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with respiratory, genitourinary tract infections and rheumatoid diseases but its role as pathogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to probe that Mycoplasma fermentans is able to produce respiratory tract infection and migrate to several organs on an experimental infection model in hamsters. One hundred and twenty six hamsters were divided in six groups (A-F of 21 hamsters each. Animals of groups A, B, C were intratracheally injected with one of the mycoplasma strains: Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 (wild strain, Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18 (type strain or Mycoplasma pneumoniae Eaton strain. Groups D, E, F were the negative, media, and sham controls. Fragments of trachea, lungs, kidney, heart, brain and spleen were cultured and used for the histopathological study. U frequency test was used to compare recovery of mycoplasmas from organs. Results Mycoplasmas were detected by culture and PCR. The three mycoplasma strains induced an interstitial pneumonia; they also migrated to several organs and persisted there for at least 50 days. Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 induced a more severe damage in lungs than Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae produced severe damage in lungs and renal damage. Conclusions Mycoplasma fermentans induced a respiratory tract infection and persisted in different organs for several weeks in hamsters. This finding may help to explain the ability of Mycoplasma fermentans to induce pneumonia and chronic infectious diseases in humans.

  12. Varicocele-Induced Infertility in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazdak Razi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is characterized by abnormal tortuosity and dilation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus within the spermatic cord. Although several reports show the mechanisms by which the varicocele exerts its infertility impact, the exact pathophysiology for varicocele-induced inflammation and its relationship with testicular endocrine disruption remain largely unknown. This review article will update previous findings by discussing the pathophysiology of long term-induced varicocele in rats. Testicular endocrine disruption in experimentally-induced varicocele, new findings related to biochemical alterations in germinal epithelium, and sperm cells apoptosis are highlighted. Recent observations show that varicocele down-regulates first and second maturation divisions, results in Leydig and Sertoli cell inflammation, and increases immune cell infiltration in the testes of the rat as an animal model. Ultimately, previous findings of our laboratory have revealed that varicocele decreased sperm motility, viability and severe DNA damage. Damage in sperm significantly lowers the animal’s fertility potential. Varicocele not only exerts its pathologic impact by lowering the testicular antioxidant capacity but it also down-regulates first and second maturation divisions by exerting biochemical alterations such as reducing the intracytoplasmic carbohydrate ratio in germinal epithelium.

  13. Expanding the three Rs to meet new challenges in humane animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Fraser, David; McDonald, Michael

    2004-11-01

    The Three Rs are the main principles used by Animal Ethics Committees in the governance of animal experimentation, but they appear not to cover some ethical issues that arise today. These include: a) claims that certain species should be exempted on principle from harmful research; b) increased emphasis on enhancing quality of life of research animals; c) research involving genetically modified (GM) animals; and d) animals bred as models of disease. In some cases, the Three Rs can be extended to cover these developments. The burgeoning use of GM animals in science calls for new forms of reduction through improved genetic modification technology, plus continued attention to alternative approaches and cost-benefit analyses that include the large numbers of animals involved indirectly. The adoption of more expanded definitions of refinement that go beyond minimising distress will capture concerns for enhancing the quality of life of animals through improved husbandry and handling. Targeting refinement to the unpredictable effects of gene modification may be difficult; in these cases, careful attention to monitoring and endpoints are the obvious options. Refinement can also include sharing data about the welfare impacts of gene modifications, and modelling earlier stages of disease, in order to reduce the potential suffering caused to disease models. Other issues may require a move beyond the Three Rs. Certain levels of harm, or numbers and use of certain species, may be unacceptable, regardless of potential benefits. This can be addressed by supplementing the utilitarian basis of the Three Rs with principles based on deontological and relational ethics. The Three Rs remain very useful, but they require thoughtful interpretation and expansion in order for Animal Ethics Committees to address the full range of issues in animal-based research. PMID:15656775

  14. Animal Models of Depression: Molecular Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Vaishnav; Nestler, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Much of the current understanding about the pathogenesis of altered mood, impaired concentration and neurovegetative symptoms in major depression has come from animal models. However, because of the unique and complex features of human depression, the generation of valid and insightful depression models has been less straightforward than modeling other disabling diseases like cancer or autoimmune conditions. Today’s popular depression models creatively merge ethologically valid behavioral ass...

  15. Animal and cellular models of human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Arends, Mark; White, Eric; Whitelaw, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this eighteenth (2016) Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology, we present a collection of 19 invited review articles that cover different aspects of cellular and animal models of disease. These include genetically-engineered models, chemically-induced models, naturally-occurring models, and combinations thereof, with the focus on recent methodological and conceptual developments across a wide range of human diseases.

  16. Phenotyping animal models of diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biessels, G J; Bril, V; Calcutt, N A;

    2014-01-01

    NIDDK, JDRF, and the Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group of EASD sponsored a meeting to explore the current status of animal models of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The goal of the workshop was to develop a set of consensus criteria for the phenotyping of rodent models of diabetic neuropathy. The...

  17. Animal models of preeclampsia; uses and limitations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, F P

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and has an unknown etiology. The limited progress made regarding new treatments to reduce the incidence and severity of preeclampsia has been attributed to the difficulties faced in the development of suitable animal models for the mechanistic research of this disease. In addition, animal models need hypotheses on which to be based and the slow development of testable hypotheses has also contributed to this poor progress. The past decade has seen significant advances in our understanding of preeclampsia and the development of viable reproducible animal models has contributed significantly to these advances. Although many of these models have features of preeclampsia, they are still poor overall models of the human disease and limited due to lack of reproducibility and because they do not include the complete spectrum of pathophysiological changes associated with preeclampsia. This review aims to provide a succinct and comprehensive assessment of current animal models of preeclampsia, their uses and limitations with particular attention paid to the best validated and most comprehensive models, in addition to those models which have been utilized to investigate potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment or prevention of preeclampsia.

  18. The use of experimental animals in spa research

    OpenAIRE

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory rat is a rat of species Rattus norvegicus which is bred and kept for scientific research. Laboratory rats have served as an important animal model for reaserch in psychology medicine , and other fields.Laboratory rats share origins with their cousins in domestication , the fancy rats. In 18th century Europe , wild Brown rats ran rampant and this infestation fueled the industry of rat-catching .Rat-cathcers would not only make money by trapping the rodents , but also by turning ...

  19. Computer simulation models are implementable as replacements for animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Modgill, Vikas; Kaur, Jasleen

    2009-04-01

    It has become increasingly difficult to perform animal experiments, because of issues related to the procurement of animals, and strict regulations and ethical issues related to their use. As a result, it is felt that the teaching of pharmacology should be more clinically oriented and that unnecessary animal experimentation should be avoided. Although a number of computer simulation models (CSMs) are available, they are not being widely used. Interactive demonstrations were conducted to encourage the departmental faculty to use CSMs. Four different animal experiments were selected, that dealt with actions of autonomic drugs. The students observed demonstrations of animal experiments involving conventional methods and the use of CSMs. This was followed by hands-on experience of the same experiment, but using CSMs in small groups, instead of hands-on experience with the animal procedures. Test scores and feedback showed that there was better understanding of the mechanisms of action of the drugs, gained in a shorter time. The majority of the students found the teaching programme used to be good to excellent. CSMs can be used repeatedly and independently by students, and this avoids unnecessary experimentation and also causing pain and trauma to animals. The CSM programme can be implemented in existing teaching schedules for pharmacology undergraduate teaching with basic infrastructure support, and is readily adaptable for use by other institutes. PMID:19453215

  20. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Farfel-Becker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD, the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD, is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display symptoms correlating with human disease and also died soon after birth. Recently, conditional knockout mice that mimic some features of the human disease have become available. Here, we review the contribution of all currently available animal models to examining pathological pathways underlying GD and to testing the efficacy of new treatment modalities, and propose a number of criteria for the generation of more appropriate animal models of GD.

  1. Cats on the Couch: The Experimental Production of Animal Neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Alison

    2016-03-01

    Argument In the 1940s-50s, one of the most central questions in psychological research related to the nature of neurosis. In the final years of the Second World War and the following decade, neurosis became one of the most prominent psychiatric disorders, afflicting a high proportion of military casualties and veterans. The condition became central to the concerns of several psychological fields, from psychoanalysis to Pavlovian psychology. This paper reconstructs the efforts of Chicago psychiatrist Jules Masserman to study neurosis in the laboratory during the 1940s and 1950s. Masserman used Pavlovian techniques in a bid to subject this central psychoanalytic subject to disciplined scientific experimentation. More generally, his project was an effort to bolster the legitimacy of psychoanalysis as a human science by articulating a convergence of psychoanalytic categories across multiple species. Masserman sought to orchestrate a convergence of psychological knowledge between fields that were often taken to be irreconcilable. A central focus of this paper is the role of moving images in this project, not only as a means of recording experimental data but also as a rhetorical device. The paper argues that for Masserman film played an important role in enabling scientific observers (and then subsequent viewers) to see agency and emotion in the animals they observed. PMID:26903373

  2. Differential Paradigms in Animal Models of Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, S Manoj Kumar; Bhat, B Vishnu

    2016-09-01

    Sepsis is a serious clinical problem involving complex mechanisms which requires better understanding and insight. Animal models of sepsis have played a major role in providing insight into the complex pathophysiology of sepsis. There have been various animal models of sepsis with different paradigms. Endotoxin, bacterial infusion, cecal ligation and puncture, and colon ascendens stent peritonitis models are the commonly practiced methods at present. Each of these models has their own advantages and also confounding factors. We have discussed the underlying mechanisms regulating each of these models along with possible reasons why each model failed to translate into the clinic. In animal models, the timing of development of the hemodynamic phases and the varied cytokine patterns could not accurately resemble the progression of clinical sepsis. More often, the exuberant and transient pro-inflammatory cytokine response is only focused in most models. Immunosuppression and apoptosis in the later phase of sepsis have been found to cause more damage than the initial acute phase of sepsis. Likewise, better understanding of the existing models of sepsis could help us create a more relevant model which could provide solution to the currently failed clinical trials in sepsis. PMID:27432263

  3. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  4. Animal models of focal brain ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sicard Kenneth M; Fisher Marc

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death in many countries. Understanding the pathophysiology of ischemic injury and developing therapies is an important endeavor that requires much additional research. Animal stroke models provide an important mechanism for these activities. A large number of stroke models have been developed and are currently used in laboratories around the world. These models are overviewed as are approaches for measuring infarct size and functional outcome.

  5. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per Torp; Ney, Denise M; Sigalet, David L;

    2014-01-01

    enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, nutritional interventions and growth factor therapies. Animal studies may...... hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor). The greater size of rats, and especially young pigs, is an advantage for testing surgical procedures and nutritional interventions (e.g. PN, milk diets, long/short chain lipids, pre- and probiotics). Conversely......, newborn pigs and weanling rats represent a translational advantage for infant SBS due to their immature intestine. A balance among practical, economical, experimental and ethical constraints determines the choice of SBS model for each clinical or basic research question....

  6. Functional GI disorders: from animal models to drug development

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, E A; Bradesi, S; Chang, L; Spiegel, B. M. R.; Bueller, J A; Naliboff, B. D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts by academic researchers and by the pharmaceutical industry, the development of novel pharmacological treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders has been slow and disappointing. The traditional approach to identifying and evaluating novel drugs for these symptom-based syndromes has relied on a fairly standard algorithm using animal models, experimental medicine models and clinical trials. In the current articl...

  7. Animal Models of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tomomi Yamamoto-Fukuda; Haruo Takahashi; Takehiko Koji

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear acquired cholesteatoma is a pathological condition associated with otitis media, which may be associated with temporal bone resorption, otorrhea and hearing loss, and occasionally various other complications. Cholesteatoma is characterized by the enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphologic characteristics. Unfortunately, our understanding of the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis is limited. To investigate its pathogenesis, different animal models have b...

  8. Animal models for genetic neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainzof, Mariz; Ayub-Guerrieri, Danielle; Onofre, Paula C G; Martins, Poliana C M; Lopes, Vanessa F; Zilberztajn, Dinorah; Maia, Lucas S; Sell, Karen; Yamamoto, Lydia U

    2008-03-01

    The neuromuscular disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, caused by mutations in genes coding sarcolemmal, sarcomeric, and citosolic muscle proteins. Deficiencies or loss of function of these proteins leads to variable degree of progressive loss of motor ability. Several animal models, manifesting phenotypes observed in neuromuscular diseases, have been identified in nature or generated in laboratory. These models generally present physiological alterations observed in human patients and can be used as important tools for genetic, clinic, and histopathological studies. The mdx mouse is the most widely used animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although it is a good genetic and biochemical model, presenting total deficiency of the protein dystrophin in the muscle, this mouse is not useful for clinical trials because of its very mild phenotype. The canine golden retriever MD model represents a more clinically similar model of DMD due to its larger size and significant muscle weakness. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle MD forms models include the SJL/J mice, which develop a spontaneous myopathy resulting from a mutation in the Dysferlin gene, being a model for LGMD2B. For the human sarcoglycanopahties (SG), the BIO14.6 hamster is the spontaneous animal model for delta-SG deficiency, whereas some canine models with deficiency of SG proteins have also been identified. More recently, using the homologous recombination technique in embryonic stem cell, several mouse models have been developed with null mutations in each one of the four SG genes. All sarcoglycan-null animals display a progressive muscular dystrophy of variable severity and share the property of a significant secondary reduction in the expression of the other members of the sarcoglycan subcomplex and other components of the Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mouse models for congenital MD include the dy/dy (dystrophia-muscularis) mouse and the allelic mutant dy(2J)/dy(2J) mouse

  9. The use of experimental animals in spa research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory rat is a rat of species Rattus norvegicus which is bred and kept for scientific research. Laboratory rats have served as an important animal model for reaserch in psychology medicine , and other fields.Laboratory rats share origins with their cousins in domestication , the fancy rats. In 18th century Europe , wild Brown rats ran rampant and this infestation fueled the industry of rat-catching .Rat-cathcers would not only make money by trapping the rodents , but also by turning around and selling them for food , or more importantly , for rat-baiting . Rat-baiting was a popular sport which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a terrier to kill them all.

  10. Animal models for meniscus repair and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deponti, Daniela; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Scotti, Celeste; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Martin, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    The meniscus plays an important role in knee function and mechanics. Meniscal lesions, however, are common phenomena and this tissue is not able to achieve spontaneous successful repair, particularly in the inner avascular zone. Several animal models have been studied and proposed for testing different reparative approaches, as well as for studying regenerative methods aiming to restore the original shape and function of this structure. This review summarizes the gross anatomy, function, ultrastructure and biochemical composition of the knee meniscus in several animal models in comparison with the human meniscus. The relevance of the models is discussed from the point of view of basic research as well as of clinical translation for meniscal repair, substitution and regeneration. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of each model for various research directions are critically discussed. PMID:23712959

  11. Different Treatment factors on Establishment of Experimental Anemic Animal Models%3种不同施加因素建立实验性贫血模型的基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范颖; 初杰; 赵友林; 林庶茹

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过考察3种不同施加因素制作的实验性贫血动物模型外周血细胞计数和血红蛋白含量变化,了解3种不同因素的对机体造成"血虚"的差异性,为临床用药提供科学依据.方法:采用血细胞计数法测定外周血红细胞和白细胞计数以及血红蛋白含童的变化.结果:失血性贫血外周血红细胞计数降低明显(P>0.05),而外周血白细胞计数虽有下降趋势,但无统计学意义(P>0.05);化疗性贫血外周血红细胞计数、白细胞计数均降低(P0.05).结论:3种不同施加因素对机体外周血细胞计数的影响具有差异性.%Objective: To analysis the peripheral hemogram variation of three different treatment factors on experimental anemic animal models, realizing the difference in blood deficiency caused by the treatment factors and providing scientific guideline for clinic. Methods ; Peripheral blood erythrocytes, peripheral blood leucocytes and hemoglobin were measured by blood count. Results;Peripheral blood erythrocytes mainly decreased in hemorrhagic anemia, peripheral blood leucocytes in chemotherapy - induced Anemia( P >0.01 ) . The amount of peripheral blood erythrocytes tended to be decreased ( P > 0.05) , and peripheral blood leucocytes decreased obviously in eating disorder, (P>0.05). Conclusion;There is difference in three different treatment factors on peripheral hemogram of experimental anemic animal models.

  12. Animal Models of Human Granulocyte Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Klein, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In vivo animal models have proven very useful to understand basic biological pathways of the immune system, a prerequisite for the development of innovate therapies. This manuscript addresses currently available models for defined human monogenetic defects of neutrophil granulocytes, including murine, zebrafish and larger mammalian species. Strengths and weaknesses of each system are summarized, and clinical investigators may thus be inspired to develop further lines of research to improve di...

  13. Animal Models of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sider, Krista L.; Blaser, Mark C.; Simmons, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active pathobiological process, with chronic inflammation emerging as a predominant, and possibly driving, factor. However, many details of the pathobiological mechanisms of CAVD remain to be described, and new approaches to treat CAVD need to be identified. Animal models are emerging as vital tools to this end, facilitated by the advent of new models and improved understanding of the u...

  14. Update on Animal Models for HIV Research

    OpenAIRE

    Haigwood, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Animal models for HIV research have been indispensible in fulfilling Koch’s postulate and in exploring issues of viral infectivity and pathogenesis, sequence divergence, route(s) of acquisition, tissue distribution and tropism, immunogenicity and protection capacity of vaccine candidates, escape from adaptive immunity, and more. Did they fail to predict the efficacy of T cell vaccines in humans? This article summarizes progress and status of models to inform and complement clinical work.

  15. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the ...

  16. Animal Models of Dengue Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Harris; Simona Zompi

    2012-01-01

    The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV) infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs) can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they do not develop overt disease. In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the ‘vascular-leak’ syndrome seen in severe deng...

  17. An improved animal model of orthotopic liver transplantation in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shu-guo; DONG Jia-hong; LENG Jian-jun; FENG Xiao-bin; MA Zheng-wei; YAN Yi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish a swine model of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) which has high standardization, superior reproducibility and stability. Methods: The rate of success, reproducibility and stability were investigated on the modification of OLTs in closed miniature swine with series of improvements. Results: 20 OLTs were performed on the basis of improvements in experimental animals,surgical procedures and operative monitorings. The mean operation time and anhepatic phase was (181±25.8) and (28.43.2) min respectively, which were significantly shorter than those of the previous re ports. Liver function of the animals recovered shortly after operation. One-week survival rate was 90%,and 15 animals survived more than 1 month. The incidence of vascular and biliary complications was lower in animals with long-term survival. Conclusion: The improved animal model of OLTs in swine is easy to operate with high standardization and rate of success, superior reproducibility and stability. It is an ideal model for series studies related to liver transplantation in big animals.

  18. Animal models of GM2 gangliosidosis: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson CA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cheryl A Lawson,1,2 Douglas R Martin2,3 1Department of Pathobiology, 2Scott-Ritchey Research Center, 3Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn, AL, USA Abstract: GM2 gangliosidosis, a subset of lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by a deficiency of the glycohydrolase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and includes the closely related Tay–Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. The enzyme deficiency prevents the normal, stepwise degradation of ganglioside, which accumulates unchecked within the cellular lysosome, particularly in neurons. As a result, individuals with GM2 gangliosidosis experience progressive neurological diseases including motor deficits, progressive weakness and hypotonia, decreased responsiveness, vision deterioration, and seizures. Mice and cats are well-established animal models for Sandhoff disease, whereas Jacob sheep are the only known laboratory animal model of Tay–Sachs disease to exhibit clinical symptoms. Since the human diseases are relatively rare, animal models are indispensable tools for further study of pathogenesis and for development of potential treatments. Though no effective treatments for gangliosidoses currently exist, animal models have been used to test promising experimental therapies. Herein, the utility and limitations of gangliosidosis animal models and how they have contributed to the development of potential new treatments are described. Keywords: GM2 gangliosidosis, Tay–Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, lysosomal storage disorder, sphingolipidosis, brain disease

  19. Animal models of GM2 gangliosidosis: utility and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Cheryl A; Martin, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis, a subset of lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by a deficiency of the glycohydrolase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and includes the closely related Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. The enzyme deficiency prevents the normal, stepwise degradation of ganglioside, which accumulates unchecked within the cellular lysosome, particularly in neurons. As a result, individuals with GM2 gangliosidosis experience progressive neurological diseases including motor deficits, progressive weakness and hypotonia, decreased responsiveness, vision deterioration, and seizures. Mice and cats are well-established animal models for Sandhoff disease, whereas Jacob sheep are the only known laboratory animal model of Tay-Sachs disease to exhibit clinical symptoms. Since the human diseases are relatively rare, animal models are indispensable tools for further study of pathogenesis and for development of potential treatments. Though no effective treatments for gangliosidoses currently exist, animal models have been used to test promising experimental therapies. Herein, the utility and limitations of gangliosidosis animal models and how they have contributed to the development of potential new treatments are described. PMID:27499644

  20. Experimental model of arteriovenous fistula in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish an experimental model of arteriovenous fistula in pigs. Ten fistulas were created in eight pigs, and angiography was performed 3 to 5 days after surgery. A follow-up angiogram of three fistulas was obtained 2 to 12 weeks later. In one animal, pathologic examination showed occlusion 8 weeks after a successful operations. Eight angiograms of nine fistulas in seven pigs were obtained; one animal died due to cardiac failure. In six pigs, high-flow fistulas were shown to be present, and in two, the fistulas were slow flow; a pseudoaneurysm was seen in one. A follow-up angiogram obtained in three cases showed occlusion of the fistula. Pathologic examination of one animal showed fibrosis in the occluded portion of the fistula. An arteriovenous fistula model was surgically established in 80% of cases; during follow-up, three fistulas were seen to be occluded due to fibrosis. This model can therefore be used within one week of surgery

  1. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...... through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...... discuss techniques for handling and representing uncertainty when modelling in experimental system development. These techniques are centred on patterns and styles for handling uncertainty in object-oriented software architectures. Tools We present the Knight tool designed for collaborative modelling in...

  2. Large genetic animal models of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A Jennifer; Howland, David S

    2013-01-01

    The dominant nature of the Huntington's disease gene mutation has allowed genetic models to be developed in multiple species, with the mutation causing an abnormal neurological phenotype in all animals in which it is expressed. Many different rodent models have been generated. The most widely used of these, the transgenic R6/2 mouse, carries the mutation in a fragment of the human huntingtin gene and has a rapidly progressive and fatal neurological phenotype with many relevant pathological changes. Nevertheless, their rapid decline has been frequently questioned in the context of a disease that takes years to manifest in humans, and strenuous efforts have been made to make rodent models that are genetically more 'relevant' to the human condition, including full length huntingtin gene transgenic and knock-in mice. While there is no doubt that we have learned, and continue to learn much from rodent models, their usefulness is limited by two species constraints. First, the brains of rodents differ significantly from humans in both their small size and their neuroanatomical organization. Second, rodents have much shorter lifespans than humans. Here, we review new approaches taken to these challenges in the development of models of Huntington's disease in large brained, long-lived animals. We discuss the need for such models, and how they might be used to fill specific niches in preclinical Huntington's disease research, particularly in testing gene-based therapeutics. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animals in which the prodromal period of disease extends over a long time span. We suggest that there is considerable 'value added' for large animal models in preclinical Huntington's disease research. PMID:25063426

  3. Animal models of cerebral ischemia for evaluation of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Y K; Briyal, Seema

    2004-10-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The resulting burden on the society continues to grow, with increase in the incidence of stroke. Brain attack is a term introduced to describe the acute presentation of stroke, which emphasizes the need for urgent action to remedy the situation. Though a large number of therapeutic agents like thrombolytics, NMDA receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers and antioxidants, have been used or being evaluated, there remains a large gap between the benefits by these agents and properties an ideal drug for stroke should offer. In recent years much attention is being paid towards the exploration of herbal preparation, antioxidant agents and combination therapies including COX-2 inhibitors in experimental model of stroke. For better evaluation of the drugs and enhancement of their predictability from animal experimentation to clinical settings, it has been realized that the selection of animal models, the parameters to be evaluated should be critically assessed. Focal and global cerebral ischemia represents diseases that are common in the human population. Understanding the mechanisms of injury and neuroprotection in these diseases is important to learn new target sites to treat ischemia. There are many animal models available to investigate injury mechanisms and neuroprotective strategies. In this article we attempted to summarize commonly explored animal models of focal and global cerebral ischemia and evaluate their advantages and limitations. PMID:15907047

  4. Animal Migraine Models for Drug Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is number seven in WHO's list of all diseases causing disability and the third most costly neurological disorder in Europe. Acute attacks are treatable by highly selective drugs such as the triptans but there is still a huge unmet therapeutic need. Unfortunately, drug development for...... headache has almost come to a standstill partly because of a lack of valid animal models. Here we review previous models with emphasis on optimal characteristics of a future model. In addition to selection of animal species, the method of induction of migraine-like changes and the method of recording...... responses elicited by such measures are crucial. The most naturalistic way of inducing attacks is by infusion of endogenous signaling molecules that are known to cause migraine in patients. The most valid response is recording of neural activity in the trigeminal system. The most useful headache related...

  5. Animal models of contraception: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liechty ER

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emma R Liechty,1 Ingrid L Bergin,1 Jason D Bell2 1Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2Program on Women's Health Care Effectiveness Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Appropriate animal modeling is vital for the successful development of novel contraceptive devices. Advances in reproductive biology have identified novel pathways for contraceptive intervention. Here we review species-specific anatomic and physiologic considerations impacting preclinical contraceptive testing, including efficacy testing, mechanistic studies, device design, and modeling off-target effects. Emphasis is placed on the use of nonhuman primate models in contraceptive device development. Keywords: nonhuman primate, preclinical, in vivo, contraceptive devices

  6. Animal models of anxiety disorders and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alline C. Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents. The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mechanisms and potential clinical effects of several drugs. Animal models of anxiety are based on conflict situations that can generate opposite motivational states induced by approach-avoidance situations. The present review revisited the main rodent models of anxiety and stress responses used worldwide. Here we defined as “ethological” the tests that assess unlearned/unpunished responses (such as the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and open field, whereas models that involve learned/punished responses are referred to as “conditioned operant conflict tests” (such as the Vogel conflict test. We also discussed models that involve mainly classical conditioning tests (fear conditioning. Finally, we addressed the main protocols used to induce stress responses in rodents, including psychosocial (social defeat and neonatal isolation stress, physical (restraint stress, and chronic unpredictable stress.

  7. Research perspectives for pre-screening alternatives to animal experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MEIC study revealed a high predictivity of in vitro cytotoxicity data for human acute systemic toxicity. The idea, put forward by several authors, that compounds that show high cytotoxicity should not need further testing for confirmation but could be assumed toxic also in vivo provides a convenient concept for the selection of the most relevant compounds for further studies in large sets of chemicals, as in the REACH program. The automated techniques applied in high throughput screening (HTS) by the pharmaceutical and biotech industries to select hits in extensive compound collections represent an opportunity to significantly increase the capacity of cytotoxicity testing. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a combination of cytotoxicity data and some basic biokinetic information would greatly improve the accuracy in the extrapolation from in vitro to in vivo and thus make it possible to identify additional toxic compounds that might have escaped in the initial screen. Such information, which can be obtained in a medium throughput screening mode (MTS), includes biotransformation, absorption and some aspects of distribution. The measurement of the net flux of a compound over a cellular barrier, as the one formed in culture by human Caco-2 cells, gives useful, but limited, information on both gut absorption and blood-brain barrier penetration. The test procedures discussed here, as well as other supplementary in vitro tests, cannot always easily be described in terms of animal-based test replacements. In those instances, the necessary test validation cannot be carried out using animal reference data, and prediction models may have to be adapted to new ideas. Consequently, concepts of prospective validation to supplement the now well-established retrospective validation have to be developed

  8. An animal model to train Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Presch, I; Pommergaard, H C;

    2013-01-01

    , thus complicating the procedure if operation should be done in the inguinal canal. The chain of lymph nodes resembles the human spermatic cord and can be used to perform Lichtenstein's hernia repair. RESULTS: This experimental surgical model has been tested on two adult male pigs and three adult female...... pigs, and a total of 55 surgeons have been educated to perform Lichtenstein's hernia repair in these animals. CONCLUSIONS: This new experimental surgical model for training Lichtenstein's hernia repair mimics the human inguinal anatomy enough to make it suitable as a training model. The operation......PURPOSE: Inguinal hernia repair is a common surgical procedure, and the majority of operations worldwide are performed ad modum Lichtenstein (open tension-free mesh repair). Until now, no suitable surgical training model has been available for this procedure. We propose an experimental surgical...

  9. Towards an animal model of food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Johannes W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2012-01-01

    The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, associated with potentially life-threatening health problems, including cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, poses an enormous public health problem. It has been proposed that the obesity epidemic can be explained by the concept of 'food addiction'. In this review we focus on possible similarities between binge eating disorder (BED), which is highly prevalent in the obese population, and drug addiction. Indeed, both behavioral and neural similarities between addiction and BED have been demonstrated. Behavioral similarities are reflected in the overlap in DSM-IV criteria for drug addiction with the (suggested) criteria for BED and by food addiction-like behavior in animals after prolonged intermittent access to palatable food. Neural similarities include the overlap in brain regions involved in food and drug craving. Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been found in animal models of binge eating, after cocaine self-administration in animals as well as in drug addiction and obesity in humans. To further explore the neurobiological basis of food addiction, it is essential to have an animal model to test the addictive potential of palatable food. A recently developed animal model for drug addiction involves three behavioral characteristics that are based on the DSM-IV criteria: i) extremely high motivation to obtain the drug, ii) difficulty in limiting drug seeking even in periods of explicit non-availability, iii) continuation of drug-seeking despite negative consequences. Indeed, it has been shown that a subgroup of rats, after prolonged cocaine self-administration, scores positive on these three criteria. If food possesses addictive properties, then food-addicted rats should also meet these criteria while searching for and consuming food. In this review we discuss evidence from literature regarding food addiction-like behavior. We also suggest future experiments that could

  10. Establishment of an experimental animal model of maxillary protraction and cephalometric analysis%上颌前牵引动物模型建立与头影测量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文星; 周洪; 邹敏; 任战平

    2009-01-01

    目的:建立模拟临床上颌骨前牵引的动物实验模型.方法:生长发育期的家兔16 只,随机分为实验组和对照组.在距上切牙约1 cm的膜龈联合处安置钛合金钉,做为前颌骨标志点.实验组用自制外置式牵引支架牵引上颌,牵引皮圈连接外置支架和切牙冠套上的牵引钩,向前持续弹性牵引30 d,牵引方向与平面呈向下方30°,力值为3.43 N;对照组仅粘固上切牙套冠,不进行牵引.2 组于实验前、后进行模型测量和头颅定位侧位X线片测量.结果:实验组前颌骨平均前移1.89 mm,而对照组为0.11 mm;头影测量分析:实验组较对照组上颌骨前移,未见明显旋转发生;上下切牙均有轻度的唇倾.2 组下颌骨的变化,无统计学差异.结论:用生长发育期兔和自制外置式牵引装置建立的上颌前牵引的动物模型科学、可靠,可以有效地使上颌骨前移.%Objective: To establish an animal model for research of maxillary protraction. Methods: 16 pubertal rabbits were assigned randomly to 2 groups. Titanium bone markers were fixed on each side of mucogingival junction, 1 cm above incisor teeth. The experimental group underwent maxillary protraction by self-made distraction devices. A down and forward elastic force (about 3.43 N) was exerted for 30 days. Results: In 30 d, the distance of premaxilla movement in the experimental group was 1.89 mm averagely, while that in the control group was only 0.11 mm. Cephalometric analysis indicated that the maxilla of rabbits was moved forward obviously by appliance in the experimental group, and maxilla was not rotated. There was no obvious difference between the control and the experimental groups. Conclusion: Animal model used in this experiment for maxillary protraction is reliable. The appliance can move the rabbits maxilla forward obviously during the maxillary protraction.

  11. Animal models of epilepsy: use and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandratavicius L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ludmyla Kandratavicius,1 Priscila Alves Balista,1 Cleiton Lopes-Aguiar,1 Rafael Naime Ruggiero,1 Eduardo Henrique Umeoka,2 Norberto Garcia-Cairasco,2 Lezio Soares Bueno-Junior,1 Joao Pereira Leite11Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, 2Department of Physiology, Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, BrazilAbstract: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures that affects millions of people worldwide. Comprehension of the complex mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and seizure generation in temporal lobe epilepsy and other forms of epilepsy cannot be fully acquired in clinical studies with humans. As a result, the use of appropriate animal models is essential. Some of these models replicate the natural history of symptomatic focal epilepsy with an initial epileptogenic insult, which is followed by an apparent latent period and by a subsequent period of chronic spontaneous seizures. Seizures are a combination of electrical and behavioral events that are able to induce chemical, molecular, and anatomic alterations. In this review, we summarize the most frequently used models of chronic epilepsy and models of acute seizures induced by chemoconvulsants, traumatic brain injury, and electrical or sound stimuli. Genetic models of absence seizures and models of seizures and status epilepticus in the immature brain were also examined. Major uses and limitations were highlighted, and neuropathological, behavioral, and neurophysiological similarities and differences between the model and the human equivalent were considered. The quest for seizure mechanisms can provide insights into overall brain functions and consciousness, and animal models of epilepsy will continue to promote the progress of both epilepsy and neurophysiology research.Keywords: epilepsy, animal model, pilocarpine, kindling, neurodevelopment

  12. Reduction of animal use: experimental design and quality of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, M F

    1994-07-01

    Poorly designed and analysed experiments can lead to a waste of scientific resources, and may even reach the wrong conclusions. Surveys of published papers by a number of authors have shown that many experiments are poorly analysed statistically, and one survey suggested that about a third of experiments may be unnecessarily large. Few toxicologists attempted to control variability using blocking or covariance analysis. In this study experimental design and statistical methods in 3 papers published in toxicological journals were used as case studies and were examined in detail. The first used dogs to study the effects of ethanol on blood and hepatic parameters following chronic alcohol consumption in a 2 x 4 factorial experimental design. However, the authors used mongrel dogs of both sexes and different ages with a wide range of body weights without any attempt to control the variation. They had also attempted to analyse a factorial design using Student's t-test rather than the analysis of variance. Means of 2 blood parameters presented with one decimal place had apparently been rounded to the nearest 5 units. It is suggested that this experiment could equally well have been done in 3 blocks using 24 instead of 46 dogs. The second case study was an investigation of the response of 2 strains of mice to a toxic agent causing bladder injury. The first experiment involved 40 treatment combinations (2 strains x 4 doses x 5 days) with 3-6 mice per combination. There was no explanation of how the experiment involving approximately 180 mice had actually been done, but unequal subclass numbers suggest that the experiment may have been done on an ad hoc basis rather than being properly designed. It is suggested that the experiment could have been done as 2 blocks involving 80 instead of about 180 mice. The third study again involved a factorial design with 4 dose levels of a compound and 2 sexes, with a total of 80 mice. Open field behaviour was examined. The author

  13. Reproduction of an animal model of landmine blast injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce an animal model of landmine blast injuries for studying its mechanism and characteristics. Methods Fifteen healthy New Zealand white rabbits (body weight 1.9-2.4 kg were prepared as experimental animals. Punctiform burster was used to simulate the landmine, and it was electrically detonated far away to produce landmine blast injuries on unilateral hind limb of rabbits in upright state. The vital signs before and 5min, 15min, 30min, 45min, 1h, 2h, 3h, 6h, 9h and 12h after injuries were recorded. Autopsy of dead animals was performed immediately and the survivors were sacrificed for pathological examination 6h and 12h after the injury. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in the injured limb and distant organs were observed. Fifteen random adult body weights were generated by random number table, and the explosive energy of M14 landmine (about 29g TNT explosive energy was simulated, to compare the ratio of explosive force equivalent to weight calculated between experimental animals and randomly selected adults. Results No significant change in blood pressure was observed at different time points before and after injuries. A broom-like change was found in the injured limb by the general observation. The subareas and pathological changes of injured limb coincided with the typical limb injuries produced by landmine explosion. Damage in different degrees was found in distant organs, and the wound characteristics and injury of major organs were in accordance with the reports of relevant literature. The ratio of explosive equivalent to weight of experimental animals (0.50±0.04g TNT/kg was similar to that of randomly selected adults (0.51±0.05g TNT/kg. Conclusion The present animal model could simulate the landmine explosive injuries, and may be used in research of landmine explosive injuries. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.14

  14. Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Pierre J; Parent, Marie-Thérèse; Rompré, Pierre H; Lévesque, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain susceptibility differences. Transgenic mice are also used to address the contribution of adaptive and maladaptive signals induced during antipsychotic drug exposure. An emphasis on non-human primate modeling is proposed, and past experimental observations reviewed in various monkey species. Rodent and primate models are complementary, but the non-human primate model appears more convincingly similar to the human condition and better suited to address therapeutic issues against tardive dyskinesia. PMID:22404856

  15. Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchet Pierre J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain susceptibility differences. Transgenic mice are also used to address the contribution of adaptive and maladaptive signals induced during antipsychotic drug exposure. An emphasis on non-human primate modeling is proposed, and past experimental observations reviewed in various monkey species. Rodent and primate models are complementary, but the non-human primate model appears more convincingly similar to the human condition and better suited to address therapeutic issues against tardive dyskinesia.

  16. Desferal (DFO) induced Ga-67 washout from normal tissue, tumor and abscess in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the experimental animal, desferal (DFO) given intravenously washes out Ga-67 from all tissues. This effect is not uniform: blood activity is reduced very markedly, while liver activity is less affected. Maximal effect of DFO occurs if given close to the Ga-67 injection. When the time interval between the two is increased, the absolute amount of Ga-67 excreted in the urine in excess of the spontaneous excretion is reduced. Administration of DFO does not effect Ga-67 gastrointestinal excretion. In three animal tumor models (EMT-6 sarcoma in Balb/c mice, spontaneous adenocarcinoma in mice, and spontaneous adenocarcinoma in the rabbit) and in sterile abscess-bearing rats, the administration of DFO 24 hrs after Ga-67-citrate improves significantly the target-to-nontarget ratio. Animals given 50 mg/kg DFO I.V. after Ga-67 citrate showed a significant reduction in the whole-body activity as seen in a one-week follow up

  17. Animal models of alcohol and drug dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra S. Planeta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction has serious health and social consequences. In the last 50 years, a wide range of techniques have been developed to model specific aspects of drug-taking behaviors and have greatly contributed to the understanding of the neurobiological basis of drug abuse and addiction. In the last two decades, new models have been proposed in an attempt to capture the more genuine aspects of addiction-like behaviors in laboratory animals. The goal of the present review is to provide an overview of the preclinical procedures used to study drug abuse and dependence and describe recent progress that has been made in studying more specific aspects of addictive behavior in animals.

  18. Deformation Models Tracking, Animation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Arnau; Gómez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The computational modelling of deformations has been actively studied for the last thirty years. This is mainly due to its large range of applications that include computer animation, medical imaging, shape estimation, face deformation as well as other parts of the human body, and object tracking. In addition, these advances have been supported by the evolution of computer processing capabilities, enabling realism in a more sophisticated way. This book encompasses relevant works of expert researchers in the field of deformation models and their applications.  The book is divided into two main parts. The first part presents recent object deformation techniques from the point of view of computer graphics and computer animation. The second part of this book presents six works that study deformations from a computer vision point of view with a common characteristic: deformations are applied in real world applications. The primary audience for this work are researchers from different multidisciplinary fields, s...

  19. Colony variability under the spotlight in animal models of arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, John H.

    2009-01-01

    A recent article by Farkas and colleagues, published in Arthritis Research & Therapy, is from the laboratory of Dr Tibor Glant and his research team in Chicago, who have investigated in considerable depth the immunopathology of experimental arthritis induced by the major cartilage component proteoglycan aggrecan in an animal model that mimics many features of human rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. This present report takes our understanding a significant step forward by questi...

  20. Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis: Insights from Large Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Vilahur; Teresa Padro; Lina Badimon

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications are responsible for remarkably high numbers of deaths. The combination of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental approaches has largely contributed to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the atherothrombotic process. Indeed, different animal models have been implemented in atherosclerosis and thrombosis research in order to provide new insights into the mechanisms that have already been outlined in isolated cells and protei...

  1. Animal models of human herpesvirus 6 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Joséphine eReynaud; Branka eHorvat

    2013-01-01

    Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A and HHV-6B are two enveloped DNA viruses of β-herpesvirus family, infecting over 90% of the population and associated with several diseases, including exanthema subitum (for HHV-6B), multiple sclerosis and encephalitis, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. Animal models are highly important to better understand the pathogenesis of viral infections. Naturally developed neutralizing antibodies to HHV-6 or a related virus were found in different species of monkey...

  2. Animal Models of Typical Heterotopic Ossification

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Kan; Kessler, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of marrow-containing bone outside of the normal skeleton. Acquired HO following traumatic events is a common and costly clinical complication. In contrast, hereditary HO is rarer, progressive, and life-threatening. Substantial effort has been directed towards understanding the mechanisms underlying HO and finding efficient treatments. However, one crucial limiting factor has been the lack of relevant animal models. This article reviews the major ...

  3. Large animal models for stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, John; Roberts, R. Michael; Mirochnitchenko, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    The field of regenerative medicine is approaching translation to clinical practice, and significant safety concerns and knowledge gaps have become clear as clinical practitioners are considering the potential risks and benefits of cell-based therapy. It is necessary to understand the full spectrum of stem cell actions and preclinical evidence for safety and therapeutic efficacy. The role of animal models for gaining this information has increased substantially. There is an urgent need for nov...

  4. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now,...

  5. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Farfel-Becker; Vitner, Einat B.; Futerman, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD), the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display sympt...

  6. Diabetic Retinopathy: Animal Models, Therapies, and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Cai; McGinnis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes. Although great efforts have been made to uncover the mechanisms underlying the pathology of DR, the exact causes of DR remain largely unknown. Because of multifactor involvement in DR etiology, currently no effective therapeutic treatments for DR are available. In this paper, we review the pathology of DR, commonly used animal models, and novel therapeutic approaches. Perspectives and future directions for DR treatment a...

  7. Animal Models of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Messaoudi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV results in varicella (chickenpox followed by the establishment of latency in sensory ganglia. Declining T cell immunity due to aging or immune suppressive treatments can lead to VZV reactivation and the development of herpes zoster (HZ, shingles. HZ is often associated with significant morbidity and occasionally mortality in elderly and immune compromised patients. There are currently two FDA-approved vaccines for the prevention of VZV: Varivax® (for varicella and Zostavax® (for HZ. Both vaccines contain the live-attenuated Oka strain of VZV. Although highly immunogenic, a two-dose regimen is required to achieve a 99% seroconversion rate. Zostavax vaccination reduces the incidence of HZ by 51% within a 3-year period, but a significant reduction in vaccine-induced immunity is observed within the first year after vaccination. Developing more efficacious vaccines and therapeutics requires a better understanding of the host response to VZV. These studies have been hampered by the scarcity of animal models that recapitulate all aspects of VZV infections in humans. In this review, we describe different animal models of VZV infection as well as an alternative animal model that leverages the infection of Old World macaques with the highly related simian varicella virus (SVV and discuss their contributions to our understanding of pathogenesis and immunity during VZV infection.

  8. Neuroteratology and Animal Modeling of Brain Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, a large number of selective neurotoxins were discovered and developed, making it possible to animal-model a broad range of human neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we highlight those neurotoxins that are most commonly used as neuroteratologic agents, to either produce lifelong destruction of neurons of a particular phenotype, or a group of neurons linked by a specific class of transporter proteins (i.e., dopamine transporter) or body of receptors for a specific neurotransmitter (i.e., NMDA class of glutamate receptors). Actions of a range of neurotoxins are described: 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), 6-hydroxydopa, DSP-4, MPTP, methamphetamine, IgG-saporin, domoate, NMDA receptor antagonists, and valproate. Their neuroteratologic features are outlined, as well as those of nerve growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and that of stress. The value of each of these neurotoxins in animal modeling of human neurologic, neurodegenerative, and neuropsychiatric disorders is discussed in terms of the respective value as well as limitations of the derived animal model. Neuroteratologic agents have proven to be of immense importance for understanding how associated neural systems in human neural disorders may be better targeted by new therapeutic agents. PMID:26857462

  9. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Di Segni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies.

  10. Animal models of compulsive eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2014-10-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating "comfort foods" in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, "food addiction" has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

  11. They see a rat, we seek a cure for diseases: the current status of animal experimentation in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Elijah O

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review article was to examine current and prospective developments in the scientific use of laboratory animals, and to find out whether or not there are still valid scientific benefits of and justification for animal experimentation. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the following key words: animal models, basic research, pharmaceutical research, toxicity testing, experimental surgery, surgical simulation, ethics, animal welfare, benign, malignant diseases. Important relevant reviews, original articles and references from 1970 to 2012 were reviewed for data on the use of experimental animals in the study of diseases. The use of laboratory animals in scientific research continues to generate intense public debate. Their use can be justified today in the following areas of research: basic scientific research, use of animals as models for human diseases, pharmaceutical research and development, toxicity testing and teaching of new surgical techniques. This is because there are inherent limitations in the use of alternatives such as in vitro studies, human clinical trials or computer simulation. However, there are problems of transferability of results obtained from animal research to humans. Efforts are on-going to find suitable alternatives to animal experimentation like cell and tissue culture and computer simulation. For the foreseeable future, it would appear that to enable scientists to have a more precise understanding of human disease, including its diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic intervention, there will still be enough grounds to advocate animal experimentation. However, efforts must continue to minimize or eliminate the need for animal testing in scientific research as soon as possible. PMID:24217224

  12. 羊脑泡状棘球蚴病实验模型建立可行性探讨%The feasibility investigation of experimental animal model of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis disease of sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚卫宏; 张泉; 王俭; 姜涛; 姜春晖; 张德清; 马娟; 吴玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨建立羊脑泡状棘球蚴(AE)病实验模型的方法,以利于人类脑 AE 病的相关研究。方法选择实验用健康新疆大尾羊10只,直视下颅骨穿刺,脑内接种 AE 源头蚴,8个月后用 MRI 观察羊脑 AE 生长状况,剖检后分析形态学及病理学特点。结果经病理及 MRI 证实,成功建模4例,成虫率40%(4/10),4例均为单发病灶,1例影像学表现具有特征性,T2 WI 表现为低信号背景下多发小囊泡群,3例 T2 WI 表现为低信号,光镜下观察病灶区有大量淋巴细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞及浆细胞浸润,周围小血管闭塞并伴有炎性反应。结论人工接种鼠源性 AE 原头蚴悬液建立羊脑 AE 病模型可行性高,方法简单,具有可重复性。%Objective To build experimental animal model of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis disease of sheep,in order to study of human alveolar hydatid disease of the brain.Methods Experiment animal models of ten Xinjiang big-tail sheep were performed by, direct skull puncture,intracerebral inoculation of echinococcus multilocularis.MRI was used to observe the growth status of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis disease of sheep after 8 months,and morphological and pathological characteristics after autopsy were ana-lysed.Results 4 sheep models (40%)were successful built which were confirmed by pathology and MRI.On MRI,4 cases all were single lesion,on T2 WI there was multiple follicles bubbles under the background of low signal in one case,and low signal in other three cases.Under the microscope,a large number of lymphocytes,eosinophils and plasma cells infiltrated the lesion area,around which small blood vessels were blocked and had inflammatory reaction were showed.Conclusion The method using artificial inocula-tion rat alveolar echinococcosis to establish experimental model of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis disease of sheep has the character-istic of feasibility,simplicity and repeatability.

  13. Minireview: Epigenetic programming of diabetes and obesity: animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yoshinori; Williams, Lyda; Vuguin, Patricia M; Charron, Maureen J

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the intrauterine (IU) environment has a significant and lasting effect on the long-term health of the growing fetus and the development of metabolic disease in later life as put forth in the fetal origins of disease hypothesis. Metabolic diseases have been associated with alterations in the epigenome that occur without changes in the DNA sequence, such as cytosine methylation of DNA, histone posttranslational modifications, and micro-RNA. Animal models of epigenetic modifications secondary to an altered IU milieu are an invaluable tool to study the mechanisms that determine the development of metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Rodent and nonlitter bearing animals are good models for the study of disease, because they have similar embryology, anatomy, and physiology to humans. Thus, it is feasible to monitor and modify the IU environment of animal models in order to gain insight into the molecular basis of human metabolic disease pathogenesis. In this review, the database of PubMed was searched for articles published between 1999 and 2011. Key words included epigenetic modifications, IU growth retardation, small for gestational age, animal models, metabolic disease, and obesity. The inclusion criteria used to select studies included animal models of epigenetic modifications during fetal and neonatal development associated with adult metabolic syndrome. Experimental manipulations included: changes in the nutritional status of the pregnant female (calorie-restricted, high-fat, or low-protein diets during pregnancy), as well as the father; interference with placenta function, or uterine blood flow, environmental toxin exposure during pregnancy, as well as dietary modifications during the neonatal (lactation) as well as pubertal period. This review article is focused solely on studies in animal models that demonstrate epigenetic changes that are correlated with manifestation of metabolic disease, including diabetes

  14. Proliferative retinopathies: animal models and therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacampa, Pilar; Haurigot, Virginia; Bosch, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative retinopathies are the leading causes of blindness in Western societies. The development of new, more efficacious treatments that take advantage of recent advances in the fields of gene and cell therapy requires further investigations on the mechanisms underlying disease onset and progression, and adequate animal models that recapitulate the pathogenesis of human proliferative retinopathy and allow evaluation of the long-term therapeutic benefits that these therapies can offer. Unfortunately, most models of retinal neovascularization have short-term evolution and diabetic rodents show a very mild retinal phenotype, limited to non-proliferative changes, and do not develop proliferative retinopathy at all. Transgenic mice overexpressing Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) in the retina (TgIGF-I) constitute the only rodent model currently available that develops most of the retinal alterations observed in diabetic eyes, with a temporal evolution that resembles that of the human disease. TgIGF-I have retinal vascular alterations that progress as animals age from non-proliferative to proliferative disease, making these mice an excellent model of proliferative retinopathy that, due to its slow progression, allows long-term evaluation of novel antiangiogenic therapies. At the molecular level, transgenic retinas recapitulate a variety of changes that are also observed in diabetic retinas, which reinforces the validity of this model. In addition to vascular and glial alterations, Tg-IGF-I mice show progressive neurodegeneration that leads to blindness in old animals. Thus, TgIGF-I are a useful model for testing the long-term efficacy and safety of innovative antiangiogenic, glial-modulating and neuroprotective therapies for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and other retinal proliferative disorders. PMID:25760215

  15. Animal models of alcohol and drug dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Planeta, Cleopatra S.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction has serious health and social consequences. In the last 50 years, a wide range of techniques have been developed to model specific aspects of drug-taking behaviors and have greatly contributed to the understanding of the neurobiological basis of drug abuse and addiction. In the last two decades, new models have been proposed in an attempt to capture the more genuine aspects of addiction-like behaviors in laboratory animals. The goal of the present review is to provide an overvi...

  16. Physically based modeling and animation of tornado

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-guang; WANG Zhang-ye; GONG Zheng; CHEN Fei-fei; PENG Qun-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Realistic modeling and rendering of dynamic tornado scene is recognized as a challenging task for researchers of computer graphics. In this paper a new physically based method for simulating and animating tornado scene is presented. We first propose a Two-Fluid model based on the physical theory of tornado, then we simulate the flow of tornado and its interaction with surrounding objects such as debris, etc. Taking the scattering and absorption of light by the participating media into account, the illumination effects of the tornado scene can be generated realistically. With the support of graphics hardware, various kinds of dynamic tornado scenes can be rendered at interactive rates.

  17. Animal Models Utilized in HTLV-1 Research

    OpenAIRE

    Panfil, Amanda R.; Al-Saleem, Jacob J; Green, Patrick L

    2013-01-01

    Since the isolation and discovery of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) over 30 years ago, researchers have utilized animal models to study HTLV-1 transmission, viral persistence, virus-elicited immune responses, and HTLV-1-associated disease development (ATL, HAM/TSP). Non-human primates, rabbits, rats, and mice have all been used to help understand HTLV-1 biology and disease progression. Non-human primates offer a model system that is phylogenetically similar to humans for examinin...

  18. Clinical relevance of animal models of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Animal models and endophenotypes of mental disorders are regarded as preclinical heuristic approaches aiming at understanding the etiopathogenesis of these diseases, and at developing drug treatment strategies. A frequently used translational model of sensorimotor gating and its deficits in some neuropsychiatric disorders is prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle. PPI is reduced in schizophrenia patients, but the exact relationship between symptoms and reduced PPI is still unclear. Recent findings suggest that the levels of PPI in humans and animals may be predictive of certain cognitive functions. Hence, this simple measure of reflex suppression may be of use for clinical research. PPI is the reduction of the acoustic startle response that occurs when a weak prestimulus is presented shortly prior to a startling noise pulse. It is considered a measure of sensorimotor gating and is regulated by a cortico-limbic striato-pallidal circuit. However, PPI does not only occur in the domain of startle. PPI of alpha, gamma, and theta oscillations at frontal and central locations has been found, suggesting a relationship between PPI and cognitive processes. In fact, levels of PPI in healthy subjects and in animals predict their performance in cognitive tasks mainly mediated by the frontal cortex. Taken together, PPI might reflect a more general filtering performance leading to gating of intrusive sensory, motor, and cognitive input, thereby improving cognitive function. Hence, PPI might be used in clinical settings to predict the impact of drugs or psychotherapy on cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients. PMID:24053035

  19. Animal models of depression: are there any?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Michael F; Moore, Nicholas A

    2003-06-01

    Simple tests for antidepressant-like activity, such as 5-HTP-induced syndrome or reserpine-induced hypomotility, are often mechanism-based tests, pharmacologically specific for certain known classes of therapeutically successful antidepressant agents. Many of these behavioural assays have been superseded by neurochemical techniques such as in vivo microdialysis. In contrast to these mechanistic-based models, investigators have also endeavoured to reproduce in the laboratory, factors that are believed to precipitate depression in people. It is a strong assumption in this approach that depression is a response to stress. This strategy profiles the consequences of chronic stress particularly psychosocial stress or early life events, in order to reproduce in animals the behavioural signs and pathologies associated with depression. The advances in the social psychological, clinical pathological and new areas such as neuroimaging research offer the possibility of establishing more sophisticated models for depression in animals with a broader range of biomarkers from the immunological and endocrinological to neurochemical and behavioural. Combining these novel insights with more traditional tests of depression may not only increase our understanding of the neurobiology of depression but also afford more precise and predictive preclinical models of depression. The responsiveness of different strains or genetically modified animals to stress is likely to be a key area of study. Furthermore we must look to individual differences in subjects, even within the same strain, to more fully understand why some individuals show pathological responses to stress whereas others appear unaffected. Conversely in validating our models using currently available treatments we must include the concept of non-responders so as not to disregard models that may extend therapeutic possibilities in these patients. PMID:12766928

  20. Making animals alcoholic: shifting laboratory models of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals as experimental organisms has been critical to the development of addiction research from the nineteenth century. They have been used as a means of generating reliable data regarding the processes of addiction that was not available from the study of human subjects. Their use, however, has been far from straightforward. Through focusing on the study of alcoholism, where the nonhuman animal proved a most reluctant collaborator, this paper will analyze the ways in which scientists attempted to deal with its determined sobriety and account for their consistent failure to replicate the volitional consumption of ethanol to the point of physical dependency. In doing so, we will see how the animal model not only served as a means of interrogating a complex pathology, but also came to embody competing definitions of alcoholism as a disease process, and alternative visions for the very structure and purpose of a research field. PMID:25740698

  1. Animal Models of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Eat, Delete, and Inflame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Samar H; Hirsova, Petra; Malhi, Harmeet; Gores, Gregory J

    2016-05-01

    With the obesity epidemic, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a public health problem with increasing prevalence. The mechanism of disease progression remains obscure and effective therapy is lacking. Therefore, there is a need to understand the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for disease development and progression in order to develop innovative therapies. To accomplish this goal, experimental animal models that recapitulate the human disease are necessary, especially, since causative mechanistic studies of NAFLD are more difficult or unethical to perform in humans. A large number of studies regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been undertaken in mice to model human NAFLD and NASH. This review discusses the known dietary, genetic, and inflammation-based animal models of NASH described in recent years, with a focus on the major advances made in this field. PMID:26626909

  2. Animal models of anxiety: an ethological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Rodgers

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of anxiety research, animal models are used as screening tools in the search for compounds with therapeutic potential and as simulations for research on mechanisms underlying emotional behaviour. However, a solely pharmacological approach to the validation of such tests has resulted in distinct problems with their applicability to systems other than those involving the benzodiazepine/GABAA receptor complex. In this context, recent developments in our understanding of mammalian defensive behaviour have not only prompted the development of new models but also attempts to refine existing ones. The present review focuses on the application of ethological techniques to one of the most widely used animal models of anxiety, the elevated plus-maze paradigm. This fresh approach to an established test has revealed a hitherto unrecognized multidimensionality to plus-maze behaviour and, as it yields comprehensive behavioural profiles, has many advantages over conventional methodology. This assertion is supported by reference to recent work on the effects of diverse manipulations including psychosocial stress, benzodiazepines, GABA receptor ligands, neurosteroids, 5-HT1A receptor ligands, and panicolytic/panicogenic agents. On the basis of this review, it is suggested that other models of anxiety may well benefit from greater attention to behavioural detail

  3. Animal modelling for inherited central vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Corinne; Arsenijevic, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Disease-causing variants of a large number of genes trigger inherited retinal degeneration leading to photoreceptor loss. Because cones are essential for daylight and central vision such as reading, mobility, and face recognition, this review focuses on a variety of animal models for cone diseases. The pertinence of using these models to reveal genotype/phenotype correlations and to evaluate new therapeutic strategies is discussed. Interestingly, several large animal models recapitulate human diseases and can serve as a strong base from which to study the biology of disease and to assess the scale-up of new therapies. Examples of innovative approaches will be presented such as lentiviral-based transgenesis in pigs and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-gene transfer into the monkey eye to investigate the neural circuitry plasticity of the visual system. The models reported herein permit the exploration of common mechanisms that exist between different species and the identification and highlighting of pathways that may be specific to primates, including humans. PMID:26387748

  4. Experimental establishment of animal model of temporomandibular joint ankylosis secondary to condylar sagittal fracture%髁突矢状骨折继发颞下颌关节强直动物模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霄; 张益; 李江明

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立髁突矢状骨折继发颞下颌关节强直动物模型,为进一步研究创伤性颞下颌关节强直发生机制提供实验载体.方法:小尾寒羊4只,双侧关节互为对照.实验侧通过手术造成髁突矢状骨折,破坏关节窝表面软骨,切除外侧1/2关节盘;对照侧仅造成髁突矢状骨折.术后6个月,通过CT检查和组织学观察评价实验侧颞下颌关节强直的形成.结果:4只小尾寒羊的实验侧关节均发生混合性强直,CT检查发现,关节结构消失,关节间隙变窄,周缘出现不规则增生或吸收,上、下关节面被若干上、下贯通的高密度影像所分隔,呈骨痂样改变.组织学观察可见,实验侧关节窝与髁突之间散在有骨与骨样的基质,部分区域可分辨出强直骨桥的形成.对照侧未出现强直迹象.结论:本研究中的动物实验重现了临床髁突矢状骨折继发颞下颌关节强直的发生过程,实验具有可重复性,可作为动物模型用于对创伤性关节强直的研究载体.%Objective: To experimentally develop an animal model of traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis secondary to condylar fracture in small Tail Han sheep. Methods: Four sheep were used to make sagittal fracture of condyles. The cartilage layer of articular surface was damaged and lateral half of articular disc was removed in the right side and conserved in the left side as a control. All animals were sacrificed at the end of 6 months postoperatively. CT observation and histological examination were carried out to evaluate the formation of ankylosed joints. Results: All of the animals showed a change of mixed ankylosis on the right sides. On the CT image, the joint space became narrow and the articular surfaces became irregular with high-density callus formation. Histological observation validated that the bone-like and the cartilage-like matrix scattered between the condyle and temporal fossa. The ankylosis bone bridge could be figured out in

  5. Experimental models of epileptogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubová, Hana

    Hoboken : John Wiley and Sons, 2011 - (Wang, C.; Slikker, Jr., W.), s. 581-600 ISBN 978-0-470-42672-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) ME08045; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : epileptogenesis * immature brain * models * acquired epilepsy * brain insults Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  6. Cadmium osteotoxicity in experimental animals: Mechanisms and relationship to human exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive epidemiological studies have recently demonstrated increased cadmium exposure correlating significantly with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture incidence in humans at lower exposure levels than ever before evaluated. Studies in experimental animals have addressed whether very low concentrations of dietary cadmium can negatively impact the skeleton. This overview evaluates results in experimental animals regarding mechanisms of action on bone and the application of these results to humans. Results demonstrate that long-term dietary exposures in rats, at levels corresponding to environmental exposures in humans, result in increased skeletal fragility and decreased mineral density. Cadmium-induced demineralization begins soon after exposure, within 24 h of an oral dose to mice. In bone culture systems, cadmium at low concentrations acts directly on bone cells to cause both decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, independent of its effects on kidney, intestine, or circulating hormone concentrations. Results from gene expression microarray and gene knock-out mouse models provide insight into mechanisms by which cadmium may affect bone. Application of the results to humans is considered with respect to cigarette smoke exposure pathways and direct vs. indirect effects of cadmium. Clearly, understanding the mechanism(s) by which cadmium causes bone loss in experimental animals will provide insight into its diverse effects in humans. Preventing bone loss is critical to maintaining an active, independent lifestyle, particularly among elderly persons. Identifying environmental factors such as cadmium that contribute to increased fractures in humans is an important undertaking and a first step to prevention.

  7. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider Erich; Hofmann-Amtenbrinck Margarethe; von Rechenberg Brigitte; Claes Lutz; Price Jill; Pearce Simon; Arnoczky Steven; Goodship Allen; Auer Jorg A; Müller-Terpitz R; Thiele F; Rippe Klaus-Peter; Grainger David W

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation) in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI), and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musc...

  8. Animal Models of Diabetes Mellitus for Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoaki Sakata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to current improvements in techniques for islet isolation and transplantation and protocols for immunosuppressants, islet transplantation has become an effective treatment for severe diabetes patients. Many diabetic animal models have contributed to such improvements. In this paper, we focus on 3 types of models with different mechanisms for inducing diabetes mellitus (DM: models induced by drugs including streptozotocin (STZ, pancreatomized models, and spontaneous models due to autoimmunity. STZ-induced diabetes is one of the most commonly used experimental diabetic models and is employed using many specimens including rodents, pigs or monkeys. The management of STZ models is well established for islet studies. Pancreatomized models reveal different aspects compared to STZ-induced models in terms of loss of function in the increase and decrease of blood glucose and therefore are useful for evaluating the condition in total pancreatomized patients. Spontaneous models are useful for preclinical studies including the assessment of immunosuppressants because such models involve the same mechanisms as type 1 DM in the clinical setting. In conclusion, islet researchers should select suitable diabetic animal models according to the aim of the study.

  9. Surgical animal models of neuropathic pain: Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Siva Reddy

    2015-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges for discovering more efficacious drugs for the control of neuropathic pain has been the diversity of chronic pain states in humans. It is now acceptable that different mechanisms contribute to normal physiologic pain, pain arising from tissue damage and pain arising from injury to the nervous system. To study pain transmission, spot novel pain targets and characterize the potential analgesic profile of new chemical entities, numerous experimental animal pain models have been developed that attempt to simulate the many human pain conditions. Among the neuropathic pain models, surgical models have paramount importance in the induction of pain states. Many surgical animal models exist, like the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), spared nerve injury (SNI), brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), sciatic nerve transaction (SNT) and sciatic nerve trisection. Most of these models induce responses similar to those found in causalgia, a syndrome of sustained burning pain often seen in the distal extremity after partial peripheral nerve injury in humans. Researchers most commonly use these surgical models in both rats and mice during drug discovery to screen new chemical entities for efficacy in the area of neuropathic pain. However, there is scant literature that provides a comparative discussion of all these surgical models. Each surgical model has its own benefits and limitations. It is very difficult for a researcher to choose a suitable surgical animal model to suit their experimental set-up. Therefore, particular attention has been given in this review to comparatively provide the pros and cons of each model of surgically induced neuropathic pain. PMID:24831263

  10. Animal models of henipavirus infection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartl, Hana M; Berhane, Yohannes; Czub, Markus

    2009-09-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) form a separate genus Henipavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae, and are classified as biosafety level four pathogens due to their high case fatality rate following human infection and because of the lack of effective vaccines or therapy. Both viruses emerged from their natural reservoir during the last decade of the 20th century, causing severe disease in humans, horses and swine, and infecting a number of other mammalian species. The current review summarises current published data relating to experimental infection of small and large animals, including the natural reservoir species, the Pteropus bat, with HeV or NiV. Susceptibility to infection and virus distribution in the individual species is discussed, along with the pathogenesis, pathological changes, and potential routes of transmission. PMID:19084436

  11. Prevention of occupational risks in animal experimentation; Prevencion de riesgos laborales en experimentacion animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Palacio, J. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    This work focuses on the main specific risks for those working with laboratory animals in a Research Center such as CIEMAT. First we present the general biological risks, their laws and rules. Next, we development the specific risks associated with the laboratory animals, zoonotic diseases and allergies. then we deal with the risks that can be consequence of working with laboratory animals, ionizing radiations, chemical products, genetically modified organisms, liquid nitrogen management, bio containment and human samples management. As they are subjects of interest, we also include the workers health assesment for those exposed to biological agents, including recommendations about hygiene and disinfections. (Author)

  12. Animal Models of Human Placentation - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2007-01-01

    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however...... is no trophoblast invasion of uterine vessels, and the immunology of pregnancy may be quite different. We conclude that continued research on non-human primates is needed to clarify embryonic-endometrial interactions. The interstitial implantation of human is unusual, but the initial interaction...... and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial, there...

  13. Lattice animal model of chromosome organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Balaji V. S.; Arya, Gaurav

    2012-07-01

    Polymer models tied together by constraints of looping and confinement have been used to explain many of the observed organizational characteristics of interphase chromosomes. Here we introduce a simple lattice animal representation of interphase chromosomes that combines the features of looping and confinement constraints into a single framework. We show through Monte Carlo simulations that this model qualitatively captures both the leveling off in the spatial distance between genomic markers observed in fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments and the inverse decay in the looping probability as a function of genomic separation observed in chromosome conformation capture experiments. The model also suggests that the collapsed state of chromosomes and their segregation into territories with distinct looping activities might be a natural consequence of confinement.

  14. Animal models of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Darryl R; Clark, Abbot F

    2015-12-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is widely used to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases and conditions. While unmatched in their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, GC therapy is often associated with the significant ocular side effect of GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) and iatrogenic open-angle glaucoma. Investigators have generated GC-induced OHT and glaucoma in at least 8 different species besides man. These models mimic many features of this condition in man and provide morphologic and molecular insights into the pathogenesis of GC-OHT. In addition, there are many clinical, morphological, and molecular similarities between GC-induced glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), making animals models of GC-induced OHT and glaucoma attractive models in which to study specific aspects of POAG. PMID:26051991

  15. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...... disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of...

  16. Therapeutic effects of progesterone in animal models of neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Alejandro F; Coronel, Florencia; Garay, Laura I; Gargiulo-Monachelli, Gisella; Gonzalez Deniselle, Maria Claudia; Gonzalez, Susana L; Labombarda, Florencia; Meyer, Maria; Guennoun, Rachida; Schumacher, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Substantial evidence supports that progesterone exerts many functions in the central and peripheral nervous system unrelated to its classical role in reproduction. In this review we first discussed progesterone effects following binding to the classical intracellular progesterone receptors A and B and several forms of membrane progesterone receptors, the modulation of intracellular signalling cascades and the interaction of progesterone reduced metabolites with neurotransmitter receptors. We next described our results involving animal models of human neuropathologies to elucidate the protective roles of progesterone. We described: (a) the protective and promyelinating effects of progesterone in experimental spinal cord injury; (b) the progesterone protective effects exerted upon motoneurons in the degenerating spinal cord of Wobbler mouse model of amyotropic lateral sclerosis; (c) the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis and after lysolecithin demyelination; (d) the progesterone prevention of nociception and neuropathic pain which follow spinal cord injury; and (e) the protective effect of progesterone in experimental ischemic stroke. Whenever available, the molecular mechanisms involved in these progesterone effects were examined. The multiplicity of progesterone beneficial effects has opened new venues of research for neurological disorders. In this way, results obtained in animal models could provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies and pre-clinical studies. PMID:24040821

  17. The History and Evolution of Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlishock, John

    2016-01-01

    This narrative provides a brief history of experimental animal model development for the study of traumatic brain injury. It draws upon a relatively rich history of early animal modeling that employed higher order animals to assess concussive brain injury while exploring the importance of head movement versus stabilization in evaluating the animal's response to injury. These themes are extended to the development of angular/rotational acceleration/deceleration models that also exploited brain movement to generate both the morbidity and pathology typically associated with human traumatic brain injury. Despite the significance of these early model systems, their limitations and overall practicality are discussed. Consideration is given to more contemporary rodent animal models that replicate individual/specific features of human injury, while via various transgenic technologies permitting the evaluation of injury-mediated pathways. The narrative closes on a reconsideration of higher order, porcine animal models of injury and their implication for preclinical/translational research. PMID:27604709

  18. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE: EXPERIMENTAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francesco Corno

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION.Surgically induced, combined volume and pressure overload has been used in rabbits to create a simplified and reproducible model of acute left ventricular (LV failure.MATERIALS AND METHODS.New Zealand white male rabbits (n=24, mean weight 3.1±0.2kg were randomly assigned to either the Control group (n=10 or to the Heart Failure group (HF, n=14. Animals in the Control group underwent sham procedures. Animals in the HF group underwent procedures to induce LV volume overload by inducing severe aortic valve regurgitation with aortic cusp disruption and pressure overload using an occlusive silver clip positioned around the pre-renal abdominal aorta.RESULTS.Following Procedure-1 (volume overload echocardiography confirmed severe aortic regurgitation in all animals in the HF group, with increased mean pulse pressure difference from 18±3mmHg to 38±3mmHg (P

  19. Modeling alcohol's effects on organs in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnappa, B C; Rubin, E

    2000-01-01

    Researchers have developed numerous animal models to investigate the development of various alcohol-related diseases. Such models have provided insights into the mechanism through which alcohol can induce liver damage. Animal models also have helped researchers explore the mechanisms by which both short-term (e.g., binge) and long-term drinking can interfere with the function of the heart, a condition referred to as alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, animal models have provided substantial information on the causes of fetal alcohol syndrome. Such models have demonstrated that exposure to alcohol during gestation can lead to prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, characteristic facial malformations, immune system deficiencies, and alterations in the central nervous system. PMID:11199283

  20. Respirable industrial fibres: deposition, clearance and dissolution in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A D

    1993-04-01

    This paper examines the available experimental and theoretical results describing deposition and clearance of mineral fibres inhaled by animals and humans in order to define the limits which these mechanisms impose on the relevance of animal experiments in the assessment of potential human health risks. Direct experimental data for deposition of spherical particles are extended by examination of the physical processes and by some limited experimental data for fibres. This shows that alveolar deposition efficiency (in rat and in man) is sufficiently similar for particles and fibres with aerodynamic diameters less that 5 microns for rats to be a relevant model for airborne dusts in this size range. Inter-species differences in mechanical clearance are substantial, with clearance being faster in the rat than in man, and this is a factor which should be considered in interpreting animal toxicity studies. The durability of fibres in the biochemical conditions of the lung may be more important over the longer lifespan of humans. PMID:8317856

  1. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  2. Impaired auditory sensorimotor gating: An animal model of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liang; SHAO Feng

    2003-01-01

    Establishment of animal models of schizophrenia is critical for both understanding the mechanisms underlying this severe mental disease and developing new antipsychotics. This paper starts from the theoretical root of sensory gating, the "protection-of-processing" theory, then thoroughly describes the representative studies over the past decade on the mechanism underlying prepulse inhibition and on those underlying modulation of prepulse inhibition, which is the normal startle suppression caused by the weak stimulus preceding the intense startling stimulus. The main methods for inducing prepulse inhibition deficits in experimental animals include: i ) modulations of neuro- transmission that are closely associated with schizophrenia; ii )focal lesions or pharmacological manipulations of brain structures in the cortico-striato-pallido-pontine circuit; and iii) maternal deprivation or social isolation. Six essential topics for studies in modeling schizophrenia are suggested at the last part of this review.

  3. Experimental Models of Renal Disease and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Rebecca C.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death among patients with end stage renal failure. Animal models have played a crucial role in teasing apart the complex pathological processes involved. This review discusses the principles of using animal models, the history of their use in the study of renal hypertension, the controversies arising from experimental models of non-hypertensive uraemic cardiomyopathy and the lessons learned from these models, and highlights important areas of futur...

  4. Standard of reporting animal-based experimental research in Indian Journal of Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Umme Aiman; Syed Ziaur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of present study was to survey and determine the reporting standards of animal studies published during three years from 2012 to 2014 in the Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP). Material and Methods: All issues of IJP published in the year 2012, 2013 and 2014 were reviewed to identify animal studies. Each animal study was searched for 15 parameters specifically designed to review standards of animal experimentation and research methodology. Observation: All pub...

  5. Hollow fiber-optic Raman probes for small experimental animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Takashi; Hattori, Yusuke; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Matsuura, Yuji; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2007-02-01

    Two types of hollow fiber-optic probes are developed to measure the in vivo Raman spectra of small animals. One is the minimized probe which is end-sealed with the micro-ball lens. The measured spectra reflect the information of the sample's sub-surface. This probe is used for the measurement of the esophagus and the stomach via an endoscope. The other probe is a confocal Raman probe which consists of a single fiber and a lens system. It is integrated into the handheld microscope. A simple and small multimodal probe is realized because the hollow optical fiber requires no optical filters. The performance of each probe is examined and the effectiveness of these probes for in vivo Raman spectroscopy is shown by animal tests.

  6. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. PMID:24548737

  7. A review of spinal cord injury decompression in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is major permanent sequelae of trauma with high burden and low frequency. In the setting of SCI is there any correlation between the timing of surgical decompression and sensory-motor improvement.Material and Methods: A literature review was performed using PUBMED from 1966 to 25th January 2010. Cross referencing of discovered articles was also reviewed.Results: The results of animal studies have shown that aside from the kind of procedure and s...

  8. EVALUATION OF NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION SR-105 IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Ladde Shivakumar; Gouda Shivaraj T; N. Venkat Rao; Shalam; Verma Richa

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed work is to evaluate the beneficial effect of SR-105 on CNS mainly for its locomotor and nootropic activities in different experimental animal models like passive paradigm, sodium nitrite induced amnesia, lithium induced head twitches. Also evaluate anticholinesterase activity on rat’s brain. The LD50 of SR-105 was found more than 2000 mg/kg as OECD guidelines no-425. No significant alteration in motor activity was observed with all the doses of formulation t...

  9. Animal Models of Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they do not develop overt disease. In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the ‘vascular-leak’ syndrome seen in severe dengue in humans. Humanized mouse models can sustain DENV replication and show some signs of disease, but further development is needed to validate the immune response. Classically, immunocompetent mice infected with DENV do not manifest disease or else develop paralysis when inoculated intracranially; however, a new model using high doses of DENV has recently been shown to develop hemorrhagic signs after infection. Overall, each model has its advantages and disadvantages and is differentially suited for studies of dengue pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis and/or pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines.

  10. Animal models for Ebola and Marburg virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri eNakayama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers (EHF and MHF are caused by the Filoviridae family, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (ebolavirus and marburgvirus, respectively. These severe diseases have high mortality rates in humans. Although EHF and MHF are endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. A novel filovirus, Lloviu virus, which is genetically distinct from ebolavirus and marburgvirus, was recently discovered in Spain where filoviral hemorrhagic fever had never been reported. The virulence of this virus has not been determined. Ebolavirus and marburgvirus are classified as biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 pathogens and Category A agents, for which the US government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism. Therefore, preventive measures against these viral hemorrhagic fevers should be prepared, not only in disease-endemic regions, but also in disease-free countries. Diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics need to be developed, and therefore the establishment of animal models for EHF and MHF is invaluable. Several animal models have been developed for EHF and MHF using nonhuman primates (NHPs and rodents, which are crucial to understand pathophysiology and to develop diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are representative models of filovirus infection as they exhibit remarkably similar symptoms to those observed in humans. However, the NHP models have practical and ethical problems that limit their experimental use. Furthermore, there are no inbred and genetically manipulated strains of NHP. Rodent models such as mouse, guinea pig, and hamster, have also been developed. However, these rodent models require adaptation of the virus to produce lethal disease and do not mirror all symptoms of human filovirus infection. This review article provides an outline of the clinical features of EHF and MHF in animals, including humans, and discusses how the animal models have been developed to study pathophysiology, vaccines, and therapeutics.

  11. Experimental Models for Neurotrauma Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Johan; Risling, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    Physical trauma in the central nervous system (CNS) is usually the result of a number of forces in different directions and dimensions. A large number of experimental models have been developed to improve the possibilities to understand the outcome of CNS trauma. In this chapter, we will describe the need for a variety of experimental models for research on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Models can serve different needs, such as: to test new treatments for injuries, to reveal thresholds for injuries, to provide a better understanding of injury mechanisms, or to test tools and methods for translation between experiments and clinical data. In this chapter, we will discuss on the validation of models and translation between experimental and clinical studies. PMID:27604724

  12. ANIMAL MODELS: A REVIEW FROM THREE TESTS USED IN ANXIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Eduardo Góngora; Cristina Vargas-Irwin; Lady Andrea Polanco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a review of commonly used animal models tostudy anxiety, looking to make a presentation of three instruments used in thelaboratory. It describes the importance of using animal models for understandinghuman behavior; there are two groups of animal models and the most representativetests for each of these.

  13. 痛风动物模型研究现状及其中医药治疗特点%Overview on Experimental Animal Model of Gout and Therapeutic Characteristics of Gout with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍龑; 苗明三

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨痛风动物模型的制作方法、特点及中医药在痛风病治疗中的优势.方法:通过对痛风动物模型的系统回顾,对模型制作的现状、常用模型的特点及应用进行归纳及评价;对痛风的中西医治疗方法厦常用药物进行分析,分析中医药治疗痛风疗效的优劣.结果:现有痛风动物模型存在一些不足,新的痛风模型应结果多种造模因素;中药治疗痛风具有明显优势.结论:通过复合因素可完善痛风模型,加强中医药临床研究同时提高防治痛风的疗效.%Objective:To explore the established methods and characteristics of gout animal models, and discuss the advantages of Chinese medicine treatment on gout. Methods: By using the method of review of systems, we analyzed the established methods and characteristics of the gout animal models, and summarized the fields of the models used in. Simultaneously, we review the common therapeutic methods and prescription of gout with traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, and listed each advantage and disadvantage. Results: Some deficiencies existed in gout animal models, accordingly multiple etiological factors of gout should be used in establishing the animal models. Traditional Chinese medicine has remarkable superiority on treating gout. Conclusion:The condition of the gout animal models could be improved by using multiple etiological factors, and the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine on prevention and treatment on gout could be improved by emphasis on Chinese herb clinical research.

  14. About a Snail, a Toad, and Rodents: Animal Models for Adaptation Research

    OpenAIRE

    Roubos, Eric W.; Bruce G. Jenks; Lu eXu; Miyuki eKuribara; Wim J. J. M. Scheenen; Tamas eKozicz

    2010-01-01

    Neural adaptation mechanisms have many similarities throughout the animal kingdom, enabling to study fundamentals of human adaptation in selected animal models with experimental approaches that are impossible to apply in man. This will be illustrated by reviewing research on three of such animal models, viz. (1) the egg-laying behavior of a snail, Lymnaea stagnalis: how one neuron type controls behavior, (2) adaptation to the ambient light condition by a toad, Xenopus laevis: how a neuroendoc...

  15. Tobacco experimental model to induce urinary bladder neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    José Alexandre Colli Neto; José Hélio Zen Júnior; André Del Negro; Nelson Adami Andreollo; Marina Rachel Araujo; Alfio José Tincani

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to develop an experimental model of exposure to tobacco burning (cigarette) products to assess the effects of its chronic use in relation to cancers of the bladder. METHODS: the animals were chronically exposed to the burning tobacco products in a semi-open chamber to simulate smoking. Thirty young Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one with 20 animals simulating smoking for six months, and ten not exposed control animals for the same period. After exposure by inhalation o...

  16. Dynamic Observation on In vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Experimental Metastatic Animal Models in Nude Mice%实验性肿瘤细胞转移动物模型的活体成像观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫明霞; 朱淼鑫; 刘蕾; 李静; 林河春; 赵方瑜; 姚明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the tumor metastasis in deep organisms of the nude mice by in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. Methods The SMMC-7721-GFP/Luc cells with different concentrations were intravenously inoculated into the tail vein and spleen of the BALB/c-nu/nu mice, the distribution and expression of luciferase in nude mice were monitored by in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. Results The experimental metastatic animal models had been successfully established. The distribution and expression of luciferase ascended with cell concentration increased and decreased with the passage of time. Conclusion The in vivo bioluminescence imaging system may monitor the in vivo growth and metastasis of tumors and provide for studying the mechanisms of tumor metastasis and development of anticancer drug.%目的 利用小动物活体成像系统观察肿瘤细胞在动物体内的转移情况.方法 分别将不同浓度的绿色荧光蛋白(GPF)和荧光素酶(luciferase,Luc)双标的SMMC-7721细胞接种入裸小鼠尾静脉和脾,建立实验性转移动物模型,采用活体成像技术监测不同浓度的细胞在小鼠体内的转移情况,动态观察同一细胞于不同时间点在小鼠体内的转移情况.结果 成功建立了尾静脉接种肺转移及脾内接种肝转移的实验性转移动物模型,经小动物活体成像系统检测发现,随着接种细胞浓度的增加,荧光素的表达面积和强度逐渐增加,二者呈正比关系;随着接种时间的延长,荧光素的表达面积和强度逐渐减弱,二者呈成反比关系.结论 活体荧光成像系统可较好地观测肿瘤在动物体内深部脏器的转移情况,它将为肿瘤转移机制、抗转移治疗等研究提供有益的帮助.

  17. 人类青光眼和青光眼动物模型中神经胶质细胞的改变%Changes of neuroglia cells in human glaucoma and animal model of experimental glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凤熙; 郭文毅

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the major ocular diseases that lead to blindness.It is characterized by optic disk cupping and visual field loss.Glaucoma is a multifactorial group of diseases with many different causes but one common endpoint, progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells.Hence most studies of glaucoma focused on retinal ganglion cells and their nosogenesis.But recent studies have showed that neuroglia cells,as another major kind of cells of nerve system, also undergo an activation process in glaucoma.Their activation is closely connected with the changes of retinal ganglion cells as well as the development of the disease.Therefore, more and more attention is focused on the changes of these cells.This review is a summary about the recent studies on the pathological changes of these four different kinds of neuroglia cells in human glaucoma and in several animal models of experimental glaucoma.%青光眼是主要的致盲眼病之一,其特征性表现为视乳头的凹陷性萎缩和视野的特征性缩小.青光眼的病因复杂,但却有共同的病理结局即视网膜神经节细胞的进行性凋亡.因此对青光眼的研究多集中在视网膜神经节细胞的改变及其机制上.但近年来的研究结果表明,作为神经系统另一大类细胞即神经胶质细胞在青光眼的病理过程中也发生了活化,并且其活化与视网膜神经节细胞的改变及疾病的发生、发展密切相关.所以对青光眼中神经胶质细胞的研究也越来越深入.笔者就目前对神经胶质细胞在人类青光眼及青光眼动物模型中的改变进行综述,以供同道参考.

  18. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Investigations Using Animal Models of Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kevin; Serban, Karina A; Batra, Chanan; Petrache, Irina

    2016-08-01

    Animal models of disease help accelerate the translation of basic science discoveries to the bedside, because they permit experimental interrogation of mechanisms at relatively high throughput, while accounting for the complexity of an intact organism. From the groundbreaking observation of emphysema-like alveolar destruction after direct instillation of elastase in the lungs to the more clinically relevant model of airspace enlargement induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke, animal models have advanced our understanding of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) function. Experimental in vivo models that, at least in part, replicate clinical human phenotypes facilitate the translation of mechanistic findings into individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and with AAT deficiency. In addition, unexpected findings of alveolar enlargement in various transgenic mice have led to novel hypotheses of emphysema development. Previous challenges in manipulating the AAT genes in mice can now be overcome with new transgenic approaches that will likely advance our understanding of functions of this essential, lung-protective serine protease inhibitor (serpin). PMID:27564666

  19. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greek Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Summary We conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented.

  20. Animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The preterm baboon models

    OpenAIRE

    Yoder, Bradley A.; Coalson, Jacqueline J.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the progress in improved neonatal care, particularly management of underdeveloped preterm lungs, has been aided by investigations of multiple animal models, including the neonatal baboon (Papio species). In this article we highlight how the preterm baboon model at both 140 and 125 days gestation (term equivalent 185 days) has advanced our understanding and management of the immature human infant with neonatal lung disease. Not only is the 125-day baboon model extremely relevant to the...

  1. Effects of different ways of fasting in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zari Naderi Ghalenoie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While fasting has been practiced for centuries, its beneficial effects was unknown until recently. This review tries to analyze the current literature of how fasting and intermittent fasting (IF could affect clinical pathological parameters, learning, mood and brain plasticity. The effects of different ways of fasting on metabolism and stress were also explored. Animal experiments have elucidated fasting and IF could exert positive effects on learning, mood and brain, plus metabolic functions such lowering plasma glucose and insulin level and improvement in lipid metabolism (reduced visceral fat tissue and increased plasma adiponectin level, and an increased resistance to stress. Thus, more clinical studies are necessary to test the effectiveness of fasting and IF in preventing different diseases.

  2. Effects of experimental radiotherapy and hyperthermia on tumors and normal tissues in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on responses of tumors, implanted subcutaneously in the leg, to irradiation alone or combined with heat are reported. The influence of factors modifying the fraction of hypoxic cells (e.g. anesthesia of the animal and tumor volume) is also discussed. The radiosensitivity of developing lung tumors was examined for spontaneous as well as for artificial lung metastases. Both experimental tumor models were compared with regard to their value in experimental radiotherapy. Data obtained on the response of artificial metastases and lung tissue to combined treatment with irradiation and several drugs are presented. Data on damage of the mouse foot, as a result of heat and/or irradiation treatments are presented. In particular the influence of thermotolerance on thermal enhancement of the radiation induced skin reaction was studied. Tolerance of the skin of previously irradiated mice to retreatment with irradiation, to hyperthermia alone and combined with X-rays was assessed. (Auth.)

  3. ‘Wanted—standard guinea pigs’: standardisation and the experimental animal market in Britain ca. 1919–1947

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Robert G. W.

    2008-01-01

    In 1942 a coalition of twenty scientific societies formed the Conference on the Supply of Experimental Animals (CSEA) in an attempt to pressure the Medical Research Council to accept responsibility for the provision of standardised experimental animals in Britain. The practice of animal experimentation was subject to State regulation under the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876, but no provision existed for the provision of animals for experimental use. Consequently, day-to-day laboratory work wa...

  4. [F18]-FDG imaging of experimental animal tumours using a hybrid gamma-camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical studies. This technology permits detection of compounds labelled with positron emitting radionuclides and in particular, [F18]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([F18]-FDG).[F18]-FDG uptake and accumulation is generally related to malignancy; some recent works have suggested the usefulness of PET camera dedicated to small laboratory animals (micro-PET). Our study dealt with the feasibility of [F18]-FDG imaging of malignant tumours in animal models by means of an hybrid camera dedicated for human scintigraphy. We evaluated the ability of coincidence detection emission tomography (CDET) using this hybrid camera to visualize in vivo subcutaneous tumours grafted to mice or rats. P815 murine mastocytoma grafted in syngeneic DBA/2 mice resulted with foci of very high FDG uptake. Tumours with a diameter of only 3 mm were clearly visualized. Medullary thyroid cancer provoked by rMTC 6/23 and CA77 lines in syngeneic Wag/Rij rat was also detected. The differentiated CA77 tumours exhibited avidity for [F18]-FDG and a tumour, which was just palpable (diameter lower than 2 mm), was identified. In conclusion, CDET-FDG is a non-invasive imaging tool which can be used to follow grafted tumours in the small laboratory animal, even when their size is smaller than 1 cm. It has the potential to evaluate experimental anticancer treatments in small series of animals by individual follow-up. It offers the opportunity to develop experimental PET research within a nuclear medicine or biophysics department, the shift to a dedicated micro-PET device being subsequently necessary. It is indeed compulsory to strictly follow the rules for non contamination and disinfection of the hybrid camera. (authors)

  5. Animal Model of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an animal model of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Methods: In part I of the study nine juvenile domestic pigs were used. Each external iliac vein was transluminally occluded with a balloon catheter. Thrombin was infused through a microcatheter in one leg according to one of the following protocols: (1) intraarterial (IA): 1250 U at 25 U/min in the common femoral artery (n= 3); (2) intravenous (IV): 5000 U in the popliteal vein at 500 U/min (n= 3), or at 100 U/min (n= 3). Saline was administered in the opposite leg. After the animals were killed, the mass of thrombus in the iliofemoral veins was measured. The pudendoepiploic (PEV), profunda femoris (PF), and popliteal veins (PV) were examined. Thrombosis in the tributaries of the superficial femoral vein (SFVt) was graded according to a three-point scale (0, +, ++). In part II of the study IV administration was further investigated in nine pigs using the following three regimens with 1000 U at 25 U/min serving as the control: (1) 1000 U at 100 U/min, (2) 250 U at 25 U/min, (3) 250 U at 6.25 U/min. Results: All animals survived. In part I median thrombus mass in the test limbs was 1.40 g as compared with 0.25 g in the controls (p= 0.01). PEV, PFV and PV were thrombosed in all limbs infused with thrombin. IV infusion was more effective in inducing thrombosis in both the parent veins (mass 1.32-1.78 g) and SVFt (++ in 4 of 6 legs), as compared with IA infusion (mass 0.0-1.16 g; SFVt ++ in 1 of 3 legs). In part II thrombus mass in axial veins ranged from 1.23 to 2.86 g, and showed no relationship with the dose of thrombin or the rate of infusion. Tributary thrombosis was less extensive with 250 U at 25 U/min than with the other regimens. Conclusion: Slow distal intravenous thrombin infusion in the hind legs of pigs combined with proximal venous occlusion induces thrombosis in the leg veins that closely resembles clinical DVT in distribution

  6. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2014: A new format, and hopefully a new era of diminishing animal experimentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2016-03-01

    The Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2014 reports a welcome decline in animal experimentation in the UK. However, caution has to be exercised when interpreting these most recent figures, due to the significant changes made to satisfy the requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU as to what information is reported and how it is reported. Comparisons to the figures and trends reported in previous years is difficult, so this paper focuses on the specifics of the current report, providing information on overall animal use and highlighting specific issues associated with genetically-altered animals, fish and primates. There is a detailed discussion of the extent of the changes, commenting on the benefits and disadvantages of the new format, in areas such as severity of procedures, legislation and techniques of special interest. It also considers the consequences of the changes on the effective monitoring of laboratory animal use, the openness and transparency regarding the impacts of animal use, and the implementation of Three Rs initiatives. In addition, suggestions for further improvements to the new format are made to the Home Office. PMID:27031603

  7. RASopathies: unraveling mechanisms with animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granton A. Jindal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in the Ras-MAPK pathway, and are characterized by a broad spectrum of functional and morphological abnormalities. The high incidence of these disorders (∼1/1000 births motivates the development of systematic approaches for their efficient diagnosis and potential treatment. Recent advances in genome sequencing have greatly facilitated the genotyping and discovery of mutations in affected individuals, but establishing the causal relationships between molecules and disease phenotypes is non-trivial and presents both technical and conceptual challenges. Here, we discuss how these challenges could be addressed using genetically modified model organisms that have been instrumental in delineating the Ras-MAPK pathway and its roles during development. Focusing on studies in mice, zebrafish and Drosophila, we provide an up-to-date review of animal models of RASopathies at the molecular and functional level. We also discuss how increasingly sophisticated techniques of genetic engineering can be used to rigorously connect changes in specific components of the Ras-MAPK pathway with observed functional and morphological phenotypes. Establishing these connections is essential for advancing our understanding of RASopathies and for devising rational strategies for their management and treatment.

  8. RASopathies: unraveling mechanisms with animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Granton A; Goyal, Yogesh; Burdine, Rebecca D; Rauen, Katherine A; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y

    2015-08-01

    RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in the Ras-MAPK pathway, and are characterized by a broad spectrum of functional and morphological abnormalities. The high incidence of these disorders (∼1/1000 births) motivates the development of systematic approaches for their efficient diagnosis and potential treatment. Recent advances in genome sequencing have greatly facilitated the genotyping and discovery of mutations in affected individuals, but establishing the causal relationships between molecules and disease phenotypes is non-trivial and presents both technical and conceptual challenges. Here, we discuss how these challenges could be addressed using genetically modified model organisms that have been instrumental in delineating the Ras-MAPK pathway and its roles during development. Focusing on studies in mice, zebrafish and Drosophila, we provide an up-to-date review of animal models of RASopathies at the molecular and functional level. We also discuss how increasingly sophisticated techniques of genetic engineering can be used to rigorously connect changes in specific components of the Ras-MAPK pathway with observed functional and morphological phenotypes. Establishing these connections is essential for advancing our understanding of RASopathies and for devising rational strategies for their management and treatment. PMID:26203125

  9. Tendências em experimentação animal Trends in animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosangela Monteiro; Ricardo Brandau; Walter J. Gomes; Domingo M. Braile

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A busca do entendimento de fatores etiológicos, mecanismos e tratamento das doenças tem levado ao desenvolvimento de vários modelos animais nas últimas décadas. OBJETIVO: Esse artigo tem por objetivo discutir aspectos relacionados a modelos animais de experimentação, escolha do animal e tendências atuais nesse campo em nosso país. Além disso, esse estudo buscou avaliar o espaço ocupado por artigos experimentais em revistas médicas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas cinco revistas brasil...

  10. PEMFC modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, J.V.C. [Federal University of Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br; Ordonez, J.C.; Martins, L.S. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Center for Advanced Power Systems], Emails: ordonez@caps.fsu.edu, martins@caps.fsu.edu

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a simplified and comprehensive PEMFC mathematical model introduced in previous studies is experimentally validated. Numerical results are obtained for an existing set of commercial unit PEM fuel cells. The model accounts for pressure drops in the gas channels, and for temperature gradients with respect to space in the flow direction, that are investigated by direct infrared imaging, showing that even at low current operation such gradients are present in fuel cell operation, and therefore should be considered by a PEMFC model, since large coolant flow rates are limited due to induced high pressure drops in the cooling channels. The computed polarization and power curves are directly compared to the experimentally measured ones with good qualitative and quantitative agreement. The combination of accuracy and low computational time allow for the future utilization of the model as a reliable tool for PEMFC simulation, control, design and optimization purposes. (author)

  11. Information Learned from Animal Models of Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Finet, J. Emanuel; Rosenbaum, David S.; Donahue, J. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Animal models of atrial fibrillation have taught us about mechanisms of this common disease. A variety of animal models exist, including models of lone atrial fibrillation and models of atrial fibrillation in the setting of heart failure, aging or pericardial inflammation. This chapter reviews these various models.

  12. Different strokes for different folks: the rich diversity of animal models of focal cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Howells, David W.; Michelle J Porritt; Rewell, Sarah S J; O'Collins, Victoria; Sena, Emily S.; van der Worp, H. Bart; Traystman, Richard J; Macleod, Malcolm R.

    2010-01-01

    No single animal model is able to encompass all of the variables known to affect human ischemic stroke. This review highlights the major strengths and weaknesses of the most commonly used animal models of acute ischemic stroke in the context of matching model and experimental aim. Particular emphasis is placed on the relationships between outcome and underlying vascular variability, physiologic control, and use of models of comorbidity. The aim is to provide, for novice and expert alike, an o...

  13. A review of spinal cord injury decompression in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI is major permanent sequelae of trauma with high burden and low frequency. In the setting of SCI is there any correlation between the timing of surgical decompression and sensory-motor improvement.Material and Methods: A literature review was performed using PUBMED from 1966 to 25th January 2010. Cross referencing of discovered articles was also reviewed.Results: The results of animal studies have shown that aside from the kind of procedure and species, when compression is less severe and of shorter duration, the neurological and histopathological recovery is significantly good. One meta-analysis, nine prospective studies, and one randomized clinical trial were identified. Conclusion: There are presently no standards regarding the role and timing of decompression in acute SCI. As a practice guideline, early surgery in less than 24 hours can be done safely in patients with acute SCI and urgent decompression is a reasonable practice option. Traction is the most practical method of achieving urgent decompression after cervical SCI. There are class III data to support a recommendation for urgent decompression in any patient with incomplete SCI with or without neurologic deterioration, with or without bilateral irreducible facet dislocations. There is emerging evidence that surgery within 24 hours may reduce both the length of intensive care unit stay and incidence of medical complications

  14. STZ糖尿病大鼠视网膜病变模型的再评价%Revaluation of experimental animal model of diabetic retinopathy induced by STZ rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段惠惠; 黄建梅; 于素云; 李玮; 乔园; 唐民科

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to revaluate the experimental animal model of diabetic retinopathy induced by streptozotocin (STZ) rats systematically.Medthods 75 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups randomly:30 for control and 45 for diabetic.Diabetes was induced by a single injection of 60 mg/kg STZ and monitored for 6 months.Body weight and blood glucose were determined dynamically.Three indexes of hemorheology were assayed.Retinal morphometry were determined by trypsin digest preparations.Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) of retina were analysed by immunohistochemistry.Expression of occludin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) of retina were measured by Western blotting.The activity of aldose reductase of retina was assayed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry.Results Compared with control group,the whole blood viscosity,plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation index of STZ rats reduced,the basement membrane of retinal vessel thickened,numbers of capillaries degenerated with occlusion,retinal venular caliber dilated,the number of pericytes reduced obviously.The expression of retinal VEGF raised(IOD/area 0.66 ± 0.28 vs control 0.25 ± 0.03),the expression of retinal PEDF declined(IOD/area 0.07 ± 0.06 vs control 0.19 ± 0.04),occludin protein decreased to 70%,ICAM-1protein increased by 2.58 times,the activity of aldose reductase increased by 3 times.Conclusion The diabetic retinopathy model in rat with STZ-induced diabetes occurs in multiple sites,and this animal model can be researched for diabetic retinopathy through multiple aspects and levels.%目的 本研究旨在对链脲佐菌素(STZ)诱导的糖尿病大鼠视网膜病变糖尿病进行系统性的再评价.方法 雄性SD大鼠75只,随机分为空白组(30只)和糖尿病组(45只).采用一次性大剂量腹腔注射STZ60mg/kg的方法制备糖尿病模型,监测6个月,动态考察大鼠的体重、血糖变

  15. The use of Alloxan and Streptozotocin in Experimental Diabetes Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Kurçer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which leads to several acute and chronic complications, morbidity and mortality, and decreased lifespan and quality of life. Therefore, in research studies that aim to enlighten the pathogenesis of diabetes and investigate possible treatment strategies, experimental animal models of diabetes provide many advantages to the investigator. Models of diabetes obtained by chemical induction, diet, surgical manipulations or combination thereof and also new genetically modified animal models are some of the experimental models. Alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ, which are toxic glucose analogues that preferentially accumulate in pancreatic beta cells, are widely used toxic agents to induce experimental diabetes in animals. This review gives an overview on the use of alloxan and STZ to induce chemical diabetes models with reference to their mechanisms, utilizable doses, advantages and disadvantages in diabetes research. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 34-40

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis: experimental models for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suman

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is a chronic protozoan infection in humans associated with significant global morbidity and mortality. The causative agent is a haemoflagellate protozoan Leishmania donovani, an obligate intracellular parasite that resides and multiplies within macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system. Most of the existing anti-leishmanial drugs have serious side effects that limit their clinical application. As an alternate strategy, vaccination is also under experimental and clinical trials. The in vitro evaluation designed to facilitate rapid testing of a large number of drugs has been focussed on the promastigotes milt little attention on the clinically relevant parasite stage, amastigotes. Screening designed to closely reflect the situation in vivo is currently time consuming, laborious, and expensive, since it requires intracellular amastigotes and animal model. The ability to select transgenic Leishmania expressing reporter proteins, such as the green fluorescent proteins (GFP) or the luciferase opened up new possibilities for the development of drug screening models. Many experimental animal models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, but none accurately reproduces what happens in humans. Available in vitro and in vivo methodologies for antileishmanial drug screening and their respective advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. PMID:21321417

  17. COMPARED PERFORMANCES OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DIGESTERS OF THE ANIMAL BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to look further into experimentally of the effect of the variation of certain physicochemical parameters of anaerobic digestion on the quantitative gas productivity of four digesters of treating bovine dejections. Moreover, four digesters supplied with the avicolous droppings, in different concentrations of Dry Matter (DM, were followed. The assessments of depollution (Suspended Matter and Biological Demand for Oxygen together with qualitative energy (gas composition and calorific value were also appreciated. We can release particularly that: the quantity of bovine biogas produced is variable according to the parameters of digestion. It is maximum in the presence of high temperature and under mechanical agitation of the substrate introduced; the quantitative productivity is more interesting in the case of the digesters avicolous. It is more important with the increase of the concentration of solids; the digester with 8% DM presents attractive valuations of depollution and energy efficiency.

  18. A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshian, Mardas; Akbarsha, Mohammad A.; Blaauboer, Bas; Caloni, Francesca; Cosson, Pierre; Curren, Rodger; Goldberg, Alan; Gruber, Franz; Ohl, Frauke; Pfaller, Walter; Van der Valk, Jan; Vinardell, Pilar; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Development of improved communication and education strategies is important to make alternatives to the use of animals, and the broad range of applications of the 3Rs concept better known and understood by different audiences. For this purpose, the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing in Europe (CAAT-Europe) together with the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t(4)) hosted a three-day workshop on "Teaching Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation". A compilation of the recomme...

  19. Animal Models of Ischemic Stroke. Part Two: Modeling Cerebral Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Bacigaluppi, Marco; Comi, Giancarlo; Dirk M Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Animal models of stroke provide an essential tool for the understanding of the complex cellular and molecular pathophysiology of stroke and for testing novel recanalyzing, neuroprotective, neuroregenerative or anti- inflammatory drugs in pre- clinical setting. Since the first description of the distal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in rats, different techniques and methods to induce focal and global ischemia of the brains have been developed and optimized. The different models,...

  20. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience. PMID:25023419

  1. [Use of animal models of clinical pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, G

    1990-11-01

    For a better understanding of clinical pain, several groups involved in the study of basic pain mechanisms have proposed the use of various experimental models close to clinical situations. They are based either on neurogenic or inflammatory processes. Data obtained with three of these models will be developed in the paper: rats rendered arthritic by Freund's adjuvant injection into the tail, rats with an intraplantar injection of carrageenin in one hind-paw, rats with a moderate ligature of one common sciatic nerve. The various pharmacological approaches revealed dramatic changes of the analgesic effects of morphine and other opioid substances, and a spectacular modification of the endogenous opioid reactivity. A further enhancement of the initial hyperalgesia was observed with high doses (1-3 mg/kg iv) of naloxone (known as an antagonist of morphine), contrasting with the paradoxical analgesia induced with the low dose (peaking up for 3 micrograms/kg iv). Electrophysiological studies emphasized dramatic changes of neuronal responsiveness in structures involved in the transmission of the nociceptive messages. In each of these models, electrophysiological data provide new insights on the physiopathological mechanisms of the related clinical pain. PMID:2092200

  2. Animal Models of Uveal Melanoma: Methods, Applicability, and Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Stei, Marta M.; Loeffler, Karin U.; Holz, Frank G.; Herwig, Martina C.

    2016-01-01

    Animal models serve as powerful tools for investigating the pathobiology of cancer, identifying relevant pathways, and developing novel therapeutic agents. They have facilitated rapid scientific progress in many tumor entities. However, for establishing a powerful animal model of uveal melanoma fundamental challenges remain. To date, no animal model offers specific genetic attributes as well as histologic, immunologic, and metastatic features of uveal melanoma. Syngeneic models with intraocul...

  3. Clinical Forms and Animal Models of Hypophosphatasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is due to mutations of the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) gene expressed in the liver, kidney, and bone. TNAP substrates include inorganic pyrophosphate cleaved into inorganic phosphate (Pi) in bone, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), the circulating form of vitamin B6, and phosphoethanolamine (PEA). As an autosomal recessive or dominant disease, HPP results in a range of clinical forms. Its hallmarks are low alkaline phosphatase (AP) and elevated PLP and PEA levels. Perinatal HPP may cause early death with respiratory insufficiency and hypomineralization resulting in deformed limbs and sometimes near-absence of bones and skull. Infantile HPP is diagnosed before 6 months of life. Respiratory failure, rib fractures and seizures due to vitamin B6 deficiency in the brain indicate poor prognosis. Craniosynostosis is frequent. Unlike in other forms of rickets, calcium and phosphorus are not decreased, resulting in hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Hypercalcemic crisis may occur. Failure to thrive and growth retardation are concerns. In infantile and adult forms of HPP, non-traumatic fractures may be the prominent manifestation, with otherwise unexplained chronic pain. Progressive myopathy has been described. Dental manifestations with early loss of teeth are usual in HPP and in a specific form, odontohypophosphatasia. HPP has been studied in knock-out mice models which mimic its severe form. Animal models have made a major contribution to the development of an original enzyme therapy for human infantile HPP, which is however essentially targeted at mineralized tissues. Better knowledge of its extraskeletal manifestations, including pain and neurological symptoms, is therefore required. PMID:26219704

  4. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Nalleli Loria-Cervera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106 of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease.

  5. Animal models for the study of leishmaniasis immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers ("low" 1 × 10(2) and "high" 1 × 10(6)) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease. PMID:24553602

  6. Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Kraemer; Christian Wallwiener; Rajab, Taufiek K; Christoph Brochhausen; Markus Wallwiener; Ralf Rothmund

    2014-01-01

    Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1), brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2), sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3), isc...

  7. Systematic Review of Traumatic Brain Injury Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Helen W

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are to provide an introduction into the variety of animal models available for studying traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to provide a concise systematic review of the general materials and methods involved in each model. Materials and methods were obtained from a literature search of relevant peer-reviewed articles. Strengths and weaknesses of each animal choice were presented to include relative cost, anatomical and physiological features, and mechanism of injury desired. Further, a variety of homologous, isomorphic/induced, and predictive animal models were defined, described, and compared with respect to their relative ease of use, characteristics, range, adjustability (e.g., amplitude, duration, mass/size, velocity, and pressure), and rough order of magnitude cost. Just as the primary mechanism of action of TBI is limitless, so are the animal models available to study TBI. With such a wide variety of available animals, types of injury models, along with the research needs, there exists no single "gold standard" model of TBI rendering cross-comparison of data extremely difficult. Therefore, this chapter reflects a representative sampling of the TBI animal models available and is not an exhaustive comparison of every possible model and associated parameters. Throughout this chapter, special considerations for animal choice and TBI animal model classification are discussed. Criteria central to choosing appropriate animal models of TBI include ethics, funding, complexity (ease of use, safety, and controlled access requirements), type of model, model characteristics, and range of control (scope). PMID:27604713

  8. Huntington disease: Experimental models and therapeutic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a degenerative dysfunction of hereditary origin. Up to date there is not, an effective treatment to the disease which having lapsed 15 or 20 years advances inexorably, in a slow form, toward the total inability or death. This paper reviews the clinical and morphological characteristics of Huntington's disease as well as the experimental models more commonly used to study this disease, having as source the articles indexed in Medline data base, published in the last 20 years. Advantages and disadvantages of all experimental models to reproduce the disease as well as the perspectives to therapeutic assay have been also considered. the consent of outline reported about the toxic models, those induced by neurotoxins such as quinolinic acid, appears to be the most appropriate to reproduce the neuropathologic characteristic of the disease, an genetic models contributing with more evidence to the knowledge of the disease etiology. Numerous treatments ameliorate clinical manifestations, but none of them has been able to stop or diminish the affectations derived from neuronal loss. At present time it is possible to reproduce, at least partially, the characteristics of the disease in experimentation animals that allow therapy evaluation in HD. from the treatment view point, the more promissory seems to be transplantation of no neuronal cells, taking into account ethical issues and factibility. On the other hand the new technology of interference RNA emerges as a potential therapeutic tool for treatment in HD, and to respond basic questions on the development of the disease.

  9. Animal models for information processing during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, A M L; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2002-12-01

    Information provided by external stimuli does reach the brain during sleep, although the amount of information is reduced during sleep compared to wakefulness. The process controlling this reduction is called 'sensory' gating and evidence exists that the underlying neurophysiological processes take place in the thalamus. Furthermore, it is clear that stimuli given during sleep can alter the functional state of the brain. Two factors have been shown to play a crucial role in causing changes in the sleeping brain: the intensity and the relevance of the stimulus. Intensive stimuli arouse the brain, as well as stimuli having a high informational impact on the sleeping person. The arousal threshold for important stimuli is quite low compared to neutral stimuli. A central question in sleep research is whether associative learning, or in other words the formation of new associations between stimuli, can take place in a sleeping brain. It has been shown that simple forms of learning are still possible during sleep. In sleeping rats, it is proven that habituation, an active, simple form of learning not to respond to irrelevant stimuli, can occur. Moreover, there is evidence for the view that more complex associations can be modulated and newly formed during sleep. This is shown by two experimental approaches: an extinction paradigm and a latent inhibition (pre-exposure) paradigm. The presentation of non-reinforced stimuli during sleep causes slower extinction compared to the same presentation of these stimuli during wakefulness. Consistently, the suppressive capacity of a stimulus in the latent inhibition paradigm is less when previously pre-exposed during sleep, as compared to pre-exposure during wakefulness. Thus, while associative learning is not completely blocked during sleep, aspects of association formation are clearly altered. However, animal studies also clearly indicate that complex forms of learning are not possible during sleep. It is hypothesised that this

  10. Improving basic and translational science by accounting for litter-to-litter variation in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Lazic, Stanley E.; Essioux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Background Animals from the same litter are often more alike compared with animals from different litters. This litter-to-litter variation, or “litter effects”, can influence the results in addition to the experimental factors of interest. Furthermore, sometimes an experimental treatment can only be applied to whole litters rather than to individual offspring. An example is the valproic acid (VPA) model of autism, where VPA is administered to pregnant females thereby inducing the disease phen...

  11. Pain assessment in animal models: do we need further studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigliuto C

    2014-05-01

    , number, size, distribution and communication of vessels in dermal skin, epidermal–dermal junctions, the immunoreactivity of peptide nerve fibers, distribution of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fiber classes, and changes in axonal excitability, swines seem to provide the most suitable animal model for pain assessment. Locomotor function, clinical signs, and measurements (respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, electromyography, behavior (bright/quiet, alert, responsive, depressed, unresponsive, plasma concentration of substance P and cortisol, vocalization, lameness, and axon reflex vasodilatation by laser Doppler imaging have been used to assess pain, but none of these evaluations have proved entirely satisfactory. It is necessary to identify new methods for evaluating pain in large animals (particularly pigs, because of their similarities to humans. This could lead to improved assessment of pain and improved analgesic treatment for both humans and laboratory animals.Keywords: pain assessment, experimental model, translational research

  12. A Songbird Animal Model for Dissecting the Genetic Bases of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    S. Carmen Panaitof

    2012-01-01

    The neural and genetic bases of human language development and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in which language impairment represents a core deficit, are poorly understood. Given that no single animal model can fully capture the behavioral and genetic complexity of ASD, work in songbird, an experimentally tractable animal model of vocal learning, can complement the valuable tool of rodent genetic models and contribute important insights to o...

  13. Laboratory Animal Models for Brucellosis Research

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Teane M. A.; Erica A Costa; Tatiane A. Paixão; Renée M. Tsolis; Santos, Renato L

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Brucella spp., a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that affects humans and animals, leading to significant impact on public health and animal industry. Human brucellosis is considered the most prevalent bacterial zoonosis in the world and is characterized by fever, weight loss, depression, hepato/splenomegaly, osteoarticular, and genital infections. Relevant aspects of Brucella pathogenesis have been intensively investigated...

  14. Exploring the Validity of Valproic Acid Animal Model of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Darine Froy N. Mabunga; Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Kim, Ji-Woon; Kim, Ki Chan; Shin, Chan Young

    2015-01-01

    The valproic acid (VPA) animal model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most widely used animal model in the field. Like any other disease models, it can't model the totality of the features seen in autism. Then, is it valid to model autism? This model demonstrates many of the structural and behavioral features that can be observed in individuals with autism. These similarities enable the model to define relevant pathways of developmental dysregulation resulting from environmenta...

  15. The research methods and model of protein turnover in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discussed the concept and research methods of protein turnover in animal body. The existing problems and the research results of animal protein turnover in recent years were presented. Meanwhile, the measures to improve the models of animal protein turnover were analyzed

  16. The updated experimental proteinoid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.; Nakashima, T.; Przybylski, A.; Syren, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental proteinoid model includes new results indicating that polymers sufficiently rich in basic amino acid catalyze the synthesis of peptides from ATP and amino acids and of oligonucleotides from ATP. The need for simulation syntheses of amino acids yielding significant proportions of basic amino acids is now in focus. The modeled simultaneous protocellular synthesis of peptides and polynucleotides is part of a more comprehensive proposal for the origin of the coded genetic mechanism. The finding of membrane and action potentials in proteinoid microspheres, with or without added lecithin, is reported. The crucial nature of a nonrandom matrix for protocells is developed.

  17. Animal models of traumatic brain injury : a critical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, William; Smyth, Aoife; Gilchrist, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models are necessary to elucidate changes occurring after brain injury and to establish new therapeutic strategies towards a stage where drug efficacy in brain injured patients (against all classes of symptoms) can be predicted. In this review, six established animal models of head trauma, namely fluid percussion, rigid indentation, inertial acceleration, impact acceleration, weight-drop and dynamic cortical deformation are evaluated. While no single animal model is entirely successful...

  18. Animal Models of Tourette Syndrome—From Proliferation to Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Yael, Dorin; Israelashvili, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and associated with multiple comorbid symptoms. Over the last decade, the accumulation of findings from TS patients and the emergence of new technologies have led to the development of novel animal models with high construct validity. In addition, animal models which were previously associated with other disorders were recently attributed to TS. The proliferation of TS animal models has accelerated TS r...

  19. Pedigree-free animal models: the relatedness matrix reloaded

    OpenAIRE

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Clegg, Sonya M.; Chittock, John; Burke, Terry; Blows, Mark W.; Owens, Ian P. F.

    2008-01-01

    Animal models typically require a known genetic pedigree to estimate quantitative genetic parameters. Here we test whether animal models can alternatively be based on estimates of relatedness derived entirely from molecular marker data. Our case study is the morphology of a wild bird population, for which we report estimates of the genetic variance–covariance matrices (G) of six morphological traits using three methods: the traditional animal model; a molecular marker-based approach to estima...

  20. Animal models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sagvolden Terje; Russell Vivienne A; Johansen Espen

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Although animals cannot be used to study complex human behaviour such as language, they do have similar basic functions. In fact, human disorders that have animal models are better understood than disorders that do not. ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder. The relatively simple nervous systems of rodent models have enabled identification of neurobiological changes that underlie certain aspects of ADHD behaviour. Several animal models of ADHD suggest that the dopaminergic system is funct...

  1. Large Animal Models of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Trobridge, Grant D.; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Large animal models have been instrumental in advancing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy. Here we review the advantages of large animal models, their contributions to the field of HSC gene therapy, and recent progress in this field. Several properties of human HSCs including their purification, their cell-cycle characteristics, their response to cytokines, and the proliferative demands put on them after transplantation are more similar in large animal models than in mice. Progress i...

  2. Models of breast cancer: quo vadis, animal modeling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodent models for breast cancer have for many decades provided unparalleled insights into cellular and molecular aspects of neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis. Despite recent improvements in the fidelity of genetically engineered mice, rodent models are still being criticized by many colleagues for not being 'authentic' enough to the human disease. Motives for this criticism are manifold and range from a very general antipathy against the rodent model system to well-founded arguments that highlight physiological variations between species. Newly proposed differences in genetic pathways that cause cancer in humans and mice invigorated the ongoing discussion about the legitimacy of the murine system to model the human disease. The present commentary intends to stimulate a debate on this subject by providing the background about new developments in animal modeling, by disputing suggested limitations of genetically engineered mice, and by discussing improvements but also ambiguous expectations on the authenticity of xenograft models to faithfully mimic the human disease

  3. Establishment and evaluation of a new experimental animal model of chronic cervical compressive myelopathy%绵羊慢性压迫性颈脊髓病动物模型的建立及评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辰; 张凤山; 姜亮; 刘忠军

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new experimental animal model of chronic cervical compressive myelopathy.Method: Nine small-tailed sheep were divided into three groupscontrol group(A),l-month group(B) and 3-month group (C).The balloon was inserted into the C4/5 intervertebral space by anterior approach,and the syringe valve was fixed subcutaneously.Contrast agent was injected into the valve 0.1ml/week percutaneously.The sheep underent X-ray,CT and MRI under general anesthesia every four weeks.The Tarlov scores were assessed in each group.The spinal cord specimens at test level were examined by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope at the end of experiment.ANOVA was applied to assess the difference of Tarlov scores among three groups, and the correlation of the parameters was analyzed by Pearson method.Result:The final radiological findings showed that the average spinal canal encroachment rate was 54.6% in group B and 67.6% in group C.There were no Tarlov changes after and before pereutaneously injected.The final Tarlov score was 5 (normal)in all the sheep of group A,5 in 2 sheep and 4 in 1 sheep of group B,3 in 2 sheep and 2 in 1 sheep in group C.The gross appearance of spinal cord in test level was normal in group A,flat in group B,and depressed in group C.The pathological examination showed neuronatrophy,increased gap around the neurons,reduction of Nissl body,mild demyelinated and vacuolar degeneration in group B.while more remarkably in group C.The ultrastructural pathology showed mild degeneration of neurons,slight expansion of rough endoplasmic reticulum,mitochondrial swelling,myelin sheath release,demyelination and vacuolar degeneration of some axons in group B,while more remarkably in group C,which presented with neuronal cell membrane breakdown,nuclear pyknosis,ribosomal depigmentation and disappearance of some axons.Conclusion:The postoperative behavior,radiological results and histological examination are in accordance with the character

  4. The complete guide to blender graphics computer modeling and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Blain, John M

    2014-01-01

    Smoothly Leads Users into the Subject of Computer Graphics through the Blender GUIBlender, the free and open source 3D computer modeling and animation program, allows users to create and animate models and figures in scenes, compile feature movies, and interact with the models and create video games. Reflecting the latest version of Blender, The Complete Guide to Blender Graphics: Computer Modeling & Animation, 2nd Edition helps beginners learn the basics of computer animation using this versatile graphics program. This edition incorporates many new features of Blender, including developments

  5. Experimental models used for the study of antihepatotoxic agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feroz Ahmad; Nahida Tabassum

    2012-01-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo liver models have been developed in the past years to study the hepatoprotective agents. These systems measure the ability of the test drug to prevent or cure liver toxicity (induced by various hepatotoxins) in experimental animals. In in vitro models fresh hepatocytes are treated with hepatotoxin and the effect of the test drug on the same is evaluated. In in vivo models, a toxic dose or repeated doses of a known hepatotoxin are administered to induce liver damage in experimental animals. The test substance is administered along with, prior to and/or after the toxin treatment. Various chemical agents normally used to induce hepatotoxicty in experimental animals for the evaluation of hepatoprotective agents include carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol, Acrylamide, adriamycin, alcohol, antitubercular drugs etc. The present article explains the mechanism of action of various hepatotoxic chemical/drugs, their dosage and route of administration.

  6. The rabbit as an experimental model in laryngology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro, Christiano de Giacomo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the research in laryngology we normally use animal models. The animal experimentation may also contribute largely for this evolution, mainly for the easy access compared to human larynxes and for they are more easily controlled. Objective: The objective of this work is to analyze the laryngofissure with vocal cords graft as an experimental surgical technique in male adult rabbits. Method: We studied 46 New Zealand albino rabbits submitted to microsurgery in both vocal cords with autologous unilateral or bilateral graft of fat or fascia. Results: There were 4 losses of 3 animals until the first week of the postoperative period and another after 19 days after surgery. In the subsequent animals there were no infection, hematoma or sutures dehiscence. Conclusion: The study enables the conclusion that the experimental laryngofissure in rabbits is a safe method that may be used for laryngological studies.

  7. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Considerations Regarding the Use of Virus-Induced Carcinogenesis and Oncolytic Viral Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephanie D; Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Bergdall, Valerie K

    2016-03-31

    The use of virus-induced carcinogenesis and oncologic experimental animal models is essential in understanding the mechanisms of cancer development to advance prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is responsible for both the complex philosophical and practical considerations associated with animal models of cancer. Animal models of cancer carry their own unique issues that require special consideration from the IACUC. Many of the considerations to be discussed apply to cancer models in general; specific issues related to viral carcinogenesis or oncolytic viruses will be specifically discussed as they arise. Responsible animal use integrates good science, humane care, and regulatory compliance. To meet those standards, the IACUC, in conjunction with the research investigator and attending veterinarian, must address a wide range of issues, including animal model selection, cancer model selection, humane end point considerations, experimental considerations, postapproval monitoring, reporting requirements, and animal management and personnel safety considerations. PMID:27034398

  8. Experimental models of autoimmune inflammatory ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gasparin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difficulty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of specific photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin. Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases.

  9. An Integrated Approach to Flexible Modelling and Animated Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shuliang; Wu Zhenye

    1994-01-01

    Based on the software support of SIMAN/CINEMA, this paper presents an integrated approach to flexible modelling and simulation with animation. The methodology provides a structured way of integrating mathematical and logical model, statistical experinentation, and statistical analysis with computer animation. Within this methodology, an animated simulation study is separated into six different activities: simulation objectives identification , system model development, simulation experiment specification, animation layout construction, real-time simulation and animation run, and output data analysis. These six activities are objectives driven, relatively independent, and integrate through software organization and simulation files. The key ideas behind this methodology are objectives orientation, modelling flexibility,simulation and animation integration, and application tailorability. Though the methodology is closely related to SIMAN/CINEMA, it can be extended to other software environments.

  10. Animation of 3D Model of Human Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michalcin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new algorithm of animation of 3D model of the human head in combination with its global motion. The designed algorithm is very fast and with low calculation requirements, because it does not need the synthesis of the input videosequence for estimation of the animation parameters as well as the parameters of global motion. The used 3D model Candide generates different expressions using its animation units which are controlled by the animation parameters. These ones are estimated on the basis of optical flow without the need of extracting of the feature points in the frames of the input videosequence because they are given by the selected vertices of the animation units of the calibrated 3D model Candide. The established multiple iterations inside the designed animation algorithm of 3D model of the human head between two successive frames significantly improved its accuracy above all for the large motion.

  11. Lessons Learned from Animal Models of Inherited Bleeding Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in treatment of hemophilia and von Willebrand disease (VWD) depend heavily on the availability of well-characterized animal models. These animals faithfully recapitulate the severe bleeding phenotype that occurs in humans with these inherited bleeding disorders. Research in these animal models represents important early and intermediate steps of translational research aimed at addressing current limitations in treatment such as the development of inhibitory antibodies to coagulation ...

  12. An Intermediate Animal Model of Spinal Cord Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiho, Thomas; Coste, Christine Azevedo; Delleci, Claire; Chenu, Jean-Patrick; Vignes, Jean-Rodolphe; Bauchet, Luc; Guiraud, David

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) result in the loss of movement and sensory feedback as well as organs dysfunctions. For example, nearly all SCI subjects loose their bladder control and are prone to kidney failure if they do not proceed to intermittent (self-) catheterization. Electrical stimulation of the sacral spinal roots with an implantable neuroprosthesis is a promising approach, with commercialized products, to restore continence and control micturition. However, many persons do not ask for this intervention since a surgical deafferentation is needed and the loss of sensory functions and reflexes become serious side effects of this procedure. Recent results renewed interest in spinal cord stimulation. Stimulation of existing pre-cabled neural networks involved in physiological processes regulation is suspected to enable synergic recruitment of spinal fibers. The development of direct spinal stimulation strategies aiming at bladder and bowel functions restoration would therefore appear as a credible alternative to existent solutions. However, a lack of suitable large animal model complicates these kinds of studies. In this article, we propose a new animal model of spinal stimulation -pig- and will briefly introduce results from one first acute experimental validation session. PMID:27478570

  13. An intermediate animal model of spinal cord stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Guiho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injuries (SCI result in the loss of movement and sensory feedback as well as organs dysfunctions. For example, nearly all SCI subjects loose their bladder control and are prone to kidney failure if they do not proceed to intermittent (self- catheterization. Electrical stimulation of the sacral spinal roots with an implantable neuroprosthesis is a promising approach, with commercialized products, to restore continence and control micturition. However, many persons do not ask for this intervention since a surgical deafferentation is needed and the loss of sensory functions and reflexes become serious side effects of this procedure. Recent results renewed interest in spinal cord stimulation. Stimulation of existing pre-cabled neural networks involved in physiological processes regulation is suspected to enable synergic recruitment of spinal fibers. The development of direct spinal stimulation strategies aiming at bladder and bowel functions restoration would therefore appear as a credible alternative to existent solutions. However, a lack of suitable large animal model complicates these kinds of studies. In this article, we propose a new animal model of spinal stimulation -pig- and will briefly introduce results from one first acute experimental validation session.

  14. Selection of an animal model for implant fixation studies: anatomical aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, V. K.; Drinker, H.; Panjabi, M. M.; Strongwater, A.

    1982-01-01

    A number of different animal models have been employed by investigators to study the biology of the bone-cement interface as it relates to the problem of hip implant loosening in humans. This study compares to the human three species (baboon, dog, and sheep) currently under use as experimental animal models from an anatomical point of view. A number of parameters, important for the dimensional design of a femoral prosthesis, loads at the hip joint and its subsequent performance, were used for...

  15. Animals devoid of pulmonary system as infection models in the study of lung bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    López Hernández, Yamilé; Yero, Daniel; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M.; Gibert, Isidre

    2015-01-01

    Biological disease models can be difficult and costly to develop and use on a routine basis. Particularly, in vivo lung infection models performed to study lung pathologies use to be laborious, demand a great time and commonly are associated with ethical issues. When infections in experimental animals are used, they need to be refined, defined, and validated for their intended purpose. Therefore, alternative and easy to handle models of experimental infections are still needed to test the vir...

  16. Overview of Vertebrate Animal Models of Fungal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hohl, Tobias M

    2014-01-01

    Fungi represent emerging infectious threats to human populations worldwide. Mice and other laboratory animals have proved invaluable in modeling clinical syndromes associated with superficial and life-threatening invasive mycoses. This review outlines salient features of common vertebrate animal model systems to study fungal pathogenesis, host antifungal immune responses, and antifungal compounds.

  17. Animal Models of Cardiac Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Lailiang; Li, Wenzhong; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yue(Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125, U.S.A.); Jie, Shen; Kong, Deling; Steinhoff, Gustav; Ma, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Animal models that mimic cardiovascular diseases are indispensable tools for understanding the mechanisms underlying the diseases at the cellular and molecular level. This review focuses on various methods in preclinical research to create small animal models of cardiac diseases, such as myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, heart failure, myocarditis and cardiac hypertrophy, and the related stem cell treatment for these diseases.

  18. Animal Models for HIV Cure Research

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin B Policicchio; Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1/AIDS pandemic continues to spread unabated worldwide, and no vaccine exists within our grasp. Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been developed, but ART cannot clear the virus from the infected patient. A cure for HIV-1 is badly needed to stop both the spread of the virus in human populations and disease progression in infected individuals. A safe and effective cure strategy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection will require multiple tools, and appropriate animal ...

  19. Animal learning models as robot controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Hallam, Bridget

    2000-01-01

    Robots can do a range of wonderful things, but they can also appear really stupid. I would like my autonomous, sensor-rich, robot to be able to: complete its task whenever possible, despite distractions and disabilities; learn the best, most reliable cues for success of the various task components; have sensible default actions whenever the situation is unknown; cope with an unpredictably changing environment; and pay attention whenever I want to contact it. Dreamland? At the moment. Yet anim...

  20. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Di Segni; Enrico Patrono; Loris Patella; Stefano Puglisi-Allegra; Rossella Ventura

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medica...

  1. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical iss...

  2. Welfare and housing in animal production: airquality evaluation and new experimental device in different species

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The research has been divided into two step: the first one concerning the evaluation of ventilation in cattle and broilers houses, the second one concerning the study of a new experimental device for pigs breeding. Ventilation flow in livestock buildings can determine the indoor climate and air quality and so it affects directly the welfare of the reared animals. The realization of the animal houses in many cases, has not allowed the correct activation of the plants caused by the objective...

  3. The relevance of animal experimental results for the assessment of radiation genetic risks in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No suitable data are available from man for the quantitative assessment of genetic radiation risk. Therefore, the results from experiments on animals must be utilized. Two hypotheses are presented here in drawing analogical conclusions from one species to another. Although the extrapolation of results from animal experiments remains an open question, the use of experimental results from mice seems to be justified for an assessment of the genetic radiation risk in man. (orig.)

  4. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  5. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Erich

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI, and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musculoskeletal research. Methods The group narrowed the field to fracture research. The consensus opinion resulting from this workshop can be summarized as follows: Results & Conclusion Anaesthesia and pain management protocols for research animals should follow standard protocols applied in clinical work for the species involved. This will improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. A database should be established to facilitate selection of anaesthesia and pain management protocols for specific experimental surgical procedures and adopted as an International Standard (IS according to animal species selected. A list of 10 golden rules and requirements for conduction of animal experiments in musculoskeletal research was drawn up comprising 1 Intelligent study designs to receive appropriate answers; 2 Minimal complication rates (5 to max. 10%; 3 Defined end-points for both welfare and scientific outputs analogous to quality assessment (QA audit of protocols in GLP studies; 4 Sufficient details for materials and methods applied; 5 Potentially confounding variables (genetic background, seasonal, hormonal, size, histological, and biomechanical differences; 6 Post-operative management with emphasis on analgesia and follow-up examinations; 7 Study protocols to satisfy criteria established for a "justified animal study"; 8 Surgical expertise to conduct surgery on animals; 9 Pilot studies as a critical part of model validation and powering of the definitive study design

  6. 实验动物与生物安全%Experimental Animals and Biosecurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱军; 孙玉成

    2011-01-01

    实验动物是从事科学研究、教学、生产、检定等的重要工具和支撑条件.随着科学技术的飞速发展,科学研究中使用的实验动物和实验用动物的种类、品系越来越多,生物安全问题已经明显地威胁到生物多样性、生态环境和人类健康.本文分析了实验动物的潜在生物安全危害,探讨了实验动物生物安全管理方面存在的问题并就应对实验动物生物安全提出了一些建议.%Experimental animals are an important tool and supporting condition for research , leaching, production, standardization. The species and strain of experimental animals used in research have been increased markedly alone with development al full speed of science and technique. But the biological diversity, ecological environment and human health have been threatened by experimental animals bio-safety issues in our country. This review analyzed the potential bio-safety hidden danger in experimental animals raising and use, investigated problems existed in experimentalanimals bio-safety control,and proposed some measures and advice to laboratory animals bio-safety.

  7. Graves病动物模型诱导方法及持续时间的探讨%An exploration of induction methodology and experimental duration of Graves disease animal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍丽萍; 施秉银; 旬利茹; 郭立英; 杨靖; 徐利

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of Graves disease animal models induced by thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) plasmid DNA (pcDNA3.1-TSHR) and by TSHR A subunit recombinant adenovirus(Ad-TSHR289),and to investigate the influence of duration for preparing animal model induced by Ad-TSHR289 on Graves hyperthyroidism and its related indices.Methods The plasmid group and the adenovirus group were set up respectively.The plasmid group:21 female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into model group (n =12) and control group (n =9).The model group were injected intradermally with pcDNA3.1-TSHR 50 μg,once every 3 weeks,totally 3 times.Then 4 weeks after the last immunization,the mice were euthanized to obtain blood for testing TSHR antibody (TRAb),total T4,and thyroid tissue for histological examination.The controls were injected with the same dose of pcDNA3.1 in the same way.The adenovirus group:52 female BALB/c mice were divided into 10-week model group (n =8),14-week model group (n =10) and 18-week model group (n =8),and the respective controls (n =8,n =10,n =8) were set up.All model groups were injected intramuscularly with Ad-TSHR289,three times at three weekly intervals.Then the mice were euthanized at 4,8 and 12 weeks to test TRAb,total T4 level and to observe the change of thyroid histology.The controls were treated with the same dose of Ad-lacz in the same way.Another 8 mice were scheduled to test the dynamic variation of TRAb before and after the 3 times immunization.Results In the plasmid model group,only two of 12 mice developed weak antibody responses against TSHR,and no elevated total T4 level and no hyperplasia changes of thyroid were observed.In the 10-week model group,all mice had high level TRAb [(807.65 ± 136.33)U/L,Six-eighths mice had hyperthyroidism exhibited hyperplasia changes.In the 14-week model group,the TRAb level [(650.12 ± 192.88) U/L]and the incidence of hyperthyroidism (3/10) were lower than those in 10-week group

  8. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    OpenAIRE

    de Koeijer, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the availability of information and data to build and quantify these models is essential for applying such models in real life. In this thesis, models on the spread of infectious diseases in animals are...

  9. Comparison of animal models for the evaluation of radiolabeled androgens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodistribution of two 18F-labeled androgens and an 124I/125I-labeled androgen were studied in five androgen receptor (prostate) animal models with or lacking sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). As models for androgen-receptor positive ovarian cancer, xenografts of three human ovarian cancer cell lines were tested in SCID mice. SHBG in the prostate model systems significantly affects the metabolism, clearance, and distribution of the radiolabeled androgens in several tissues, but ovarian cancer animal models were disappointing

  10. Experimental Modelling of Debris Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleo Cageao, P.; Turnbull, B.; Bartelt, P.

    2012-04-01

    Debris flows are gravity-driven mass movements typically containing water, sediments, soil and rocks. These elements combine to give a flow complex phenomenology that exhibits characteristics common to diverse geophysical flows from dry granular media (e.g. levee formation) to viscous gravity currents (viscous fingering and surge instabilities). The exceptional speeds and range debris flows can achieve motivate the need for a co-ordinated modelling approach that can provide insight into the key physical processes that dictate the hazard associated with the flows. There has been recent progress in theoretical modelling approaches that capture the details of the multi-component nature of debris flows. The promise of such models is underlined by their qualitatively successful comparison with field-scale experimental data. The aim of the present work is to address the technical difficulties in achieving a controlled and repeatable laboratory-scale experiment for robust testing of these multi-component models. A laboratory experiment has been designed and tested that can provide detailed information of the internal structure of debris flows. This constitutes a narrow Perspex chute that can be tilted to any angle between 0° and ≈ 60°. A mixture of glycerine and glass balls was initially held behind a lock-gate, before being released down the chute. The evolving flow was captured through high speed video, analysed with a Particle Image Velocimetry algorithm to provide the changing velocity field. A wide parameter space has been tested, allowing variations in particle size, dispersity, surface roughness, fluid viscosity, slope angle and solid volume fraction. While matching key similarity criteria, such as Froude number, with a typical field event, these experiments allow close examination of a wide range of physical scenarios for the robust testing of new multi-component flow models. Further diagnostics include force plate and pore pressure measurements, with a view

  11. Experimental adiaspiromycosis in animals with a modified reactivity (Albino mice) after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the pathologic process in experimental adiaspiromycosis, following intraperitoneal inoculation with elements of the mycelium phase of Emmonsia crescens Emmons et Jellison (1960), depends on the reactivity of the experimental animals. Compared with a control group of animals, inoculated albino mice (with a single dose of 250 rad) contracted adiaspiromycosis more readily, there was a higher incidence of positive findings, aleirospore dissemination to distant organs outside the abdominal cavity occurred earlier, the intensity of tissue and organ insemination of the host was much higher. The results of these studies show that individuals with low resistance and increased susceptibility to infection are particularly liable to contract adiaspiromycosis. (author)

  12. Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed

    OpenAIRE

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R.; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). One of the factors currently impeding the production of ‘high-quality’ SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is ra...

  13. Animal Models of Tourette Syndrome—From Proliferation to Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yael, Dorin; Israelashvili, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and associated with multiple comorbid symptoms. Over the last decade, the accumulation of findings from TS patients and the emergence of new technologies have led to the development of novel animal models with high construct validity. In addition, animal models which were previously associated with other disorders were recently attributed to TS. The proliferation of TS animal models has accelerated TS research and provided a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the disorder. This newfound success generates novel challenges, since the conclusions that can be drawn from TS animal model studies are constrained by the considerable variation across models. Typically, each animal model examines a specific subset of deficits and centers on one field of research (physiology/genetics/pharmacology/etc.). Moreover, different studies do not use a standard lexicon to characterize different properties of the model. These factors hinder the evaluation of individual model validity as well as the comparison across models, leading to a formation of a fuzzy, segregated landscape of TS pathophysiology. Here, we call for a standardization process in the study of TS animal models as the next logical step. We believe that a generation of standard examination criteria will improve the utility of these models and enable their consolidation into a general framework. This should lead to a better understanding of these models and their relationship to TS, thereby improving the research of the mechanism underlying this disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. PMID:27065791

  14. Animal Models of Tourette Syndrome-From Proliferation to Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yael, Dorin; Israelashvili, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and associated with multiple comorbid symptoms. Over the last decade, the accumulation of findings from TS patients and the emergence of new technologies have led to the development of novel animal models with high construct validity. In addition, animal models which were previously associated with other disorders were recently attributed to TS. The proliferation of TS animal models has accelerated TS research and provided a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the disorder. This newfound success generates novel challenges, since the conclusions that can be drawn from TS animal model studies are constrained by the considerable variation across models. Typically, each animal model examines a specific subset of deficits and centers on one field of research (physiology/genetics/pharmacology/etc.). Moreover, different studies do not use a standard lexicon to characterize different properties of the model. These factors hinder the evaluation of individual model validity as well as the comparison across models, leading to a formation of a fuzzy, segregated landscape of TS pathophysiology. Here, we call for a standardization process in the study of TS animal models as the next logical step. We believe that a generation of standard examination criteria will improve the utility of these models and enable their consolidation into a general framework. This should lead to a better understanding of these models and their relationship to TS, thereby improving the research of the mechanism underlying this disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. PMID:27065791

  15. A human experimental model of episodic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrini, Laura; Hennings, Kristian; Li, Xi;

    2014-01-01

    (VRS). Physiological (blood flow and axon flare reflex), psychophysical (perception threshold and verbal pain ratings) and electrophysiological (128 channels recorded somatosensory evoked potential (SEP)) measurements were recorded. The stimulation evoked a visible axon flare reflex and caused......An experimental model of daily episodic pain was developed to investigate peripheral sensitization and cortical reorganization in healthy individuals. Two experiments (A and B) were conducted. Experiments A and B consisted of one and five consecutive days, respectively, in which the participants...... were subjected to 45 min of intense painful cutaneous electrical stimulation (episodic pain session), using a stimulus paradigm that in animals has been shown to induce long-term potentiation. These electrical stimulations produced a verbal pain rating of approximately 85 on a 0-100 verbal rating scale...

  16. Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Science, Animal Welfare, and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Wendy J.; Nicholson, Katherine L.; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L.

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial...

  17. Modeling in vivo fluorescence of small animals using TracePro software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas; Rajwa, Bartek; Freniere, Edward R.; Smith, Linda; Hassler, Richard; Robinson, J. Paul

    2007-02-01

    The theoretical modeling of fluorescence excitation, emission, and propagation within living tissue has been a limiting factor in the development and calibration of in vivo small animal fluorescence imagers. To date, no definitive calibration standard, or phantom, has been developed for use with small animal fluorescence imagers. Our work in the theoretical modeling of fluorescence in small animals using solid modeling software is useful in optimizing the design of small animal imaging systems, and in predicting their response to a theoretical model. In this respect, it is also valuable in the design of a fluorescence phantom for use in in vivo small animal imaging. The use of phantoms is a critical step in the testing and calibration of most diagnostic medical imaging systems. Despite this, a realistic, reproducible, and informative phantom has yet to be produced for use in small animal fluorescence imaging. By modeling the theoretical response of various types of phantoms, it is possible to determine which parameters are necessary for accurately modeling fluorescence within inhomogenous scattering media such as tissue. Here, we present the model that has been developed, the challenges and limitations associated with developing such a model, and the applicability of this model to experimental results obtained in a commercial small animal fluorescence imager.

  18. Experimental, statistical, and biological models of radon carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk models developed for underground miners have not been consistently validated in studies of populations exposed to indoor radon. Imprecision in risk estimates results principally from differences between exposures in mines as compared to domestic environments and from uncertainties about the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products. Uncertainties in extrapolating miner data to domestic exposures can be reduced by means of a broad-based health effects research program that addresses the interrelated issues of exposure, respiratory tract dose, carcinogenesis (molecular/cellular and animal studies, plus developing biological and statistical models), and the relationship of radon to smoking and other copollutant exposures. This article reviews experimental animal data on radon carcinogenesis observed primarily in rats at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Recent experimental and mechanistic carcinogenesis models of exposures to radon, uranium ore dust, and cigarette smoke are presented with statistical analyses of animal data. 20 refs., 1 fig

  19. Experimental, statistical and biological models of radon carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk models developed for underground miners have not been consistently validated in studies of populations exposed to indoor radon. Imprecision in risk estimates results principally from differences between exposures in mines as compared with domestic environments and from uncertainties about the interaction between cigarette smoking and exposure to radon decay products. Uncertainties in extrapolating miner data to domestic exposures can be reduced by means of a broad-based health effects research programme that addresses the interrelated issues of exposure, respiratory tract dose, carcinogenesis (molecular/cellular and animal studies, plus developing biological and statistical models) and the relationship of radon to smoking and other co-pollutant exposures. This article reviews experimental animal data on radon carcinogenesis observed primarily in rats at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Recent experimental and mechanistic carcinogenesis models of exposures to radon, uranium ore dust, and cigarette smoke are presented with statistical analyses of animal data. (author)

  20. Animal models for mucopolysaccharidosis disorders and their clinical relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Haskins, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Progress in understanding how a particular genotype produces the phenotype of an inborn error of metabolism, such as a mucopolysaccharidosis, in human patients has been facilitated by the study of animals with mutations in the orthologous genes. These are not just animal models, but true orthologues of the human genetic disease, with defects involving the same evolutionarily conserved genes and the same molecular, biochemical, and anatomic lesions as in human patients. These animals are often...